Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka
Dysregulated emotions have been implied as factors contributing to psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). The present study explored patients with PNES’ inclusion of emotions in their narratives of their seizures. Results revealed that patients focus more on their physical experience than...
O'Sullivan, S S
Diagnosing psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) remains challenging. The majority of \\'PNES status\\' cases are likely to be seen in the emergency department or similar non-specialised units, where patients are initially assessed and managed by physicians of varying expertise in neurology.
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures represent a paroxysmal event followed by a sudden change of behavior, cognition or consciousness, mostly of short duration, which resemble or can be understood as epileptic seizures. They occur in persons without epilepsy and in patients with epilepsy. They are not associated with abnormal EEG discharges because their cause is a psychic disorder. Case report: A 20-year-old patient has been suffering of occasional 'morning short-lasting jerking hand movements, staring and fainting' since the age of 14 years. Beside a symptomatic anamnesis for epilepsy and non-specifically changed standard EEG, antiepileptic therapy (valproate and lamotrigine was introduced. Because of non-response to antiepileptic therapy, the patient was forwarded for further clinical examination involving video EEG telemetry, which indicated that this was a case of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. A successive withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs was initiated, and also, a psychologist and psychiatrist were included into treatment, which resulted in the reduction of seizures and improvement of the patient's general condition. Conclusion: Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures represent a frequent diagnostic problem requiring team's work, while the video EEG telemetry is the method of choice for diagnosis.
Scévola, Laura; Korman, Guido; Oddo, Silvia; Kochen, Silvia; D'Alessio, Luciana
The current term psychogenic non-epileptic seizures were coined by contemporary neurologists and epileptologists, since the implementation of Video electroencephalogram, considered today the gold standard diagnostic tool. Patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures comprise a heterogeneous group from the psychiatric point of view. The diagnosis that describes the psychogenic non-epileptic seizures is "conversion disorder", often associated with dissociative disorder. These disorders are frequently co-morbid with depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, usually coexist with personality disorders, especially borderline personality disorder, although dependence personality disorder has also been described. A history of trauma is very important in the pathogenesis and development of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The symptoms "core" of the psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (conversion and dissociation), some co-morbidities and personality disorders are treated with psychotherapy, while psychotropic drugs are used for co-morbidities such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Nežádal, Tomáš; Hovorka, Jiří; Herman, Erik; Němcová, Iveta; Bajaček, Michal; Stichová, Eva
The aim of our study was to assess the number of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) in our patients with a refractory seizure disorder, to determine the 'typical' PNES semiology using video-EEG monitoring and describe other PNES parameters. We evaluated prospectively 596 patients with pharmacoresistant seizures. All these patients underwent continuous video-EEG monitoring. In consenting patients, we used suggestive seizure provocation. We assessed seizure semiology, interictal EEG, brain MRI, psychiatric co-morbidities, personality profiles, and seizure outcome. In the sample of 596 monitored patients, we detected 111 (19.3%) patients with PNES. Of the 111 patients with PNES, 86.5% had spontaneous and 76.5% had provoked seizures. The five most typical symptoms were: initially closed eyelids (67.6%), rapid tremor (47.7%), asynchronous limb movement (37.8%), preictal pseudosleep (33.3%), and side-to-side head movement (32.4%). Interictal EEG was rated as abnormal in 46.2% and with epileptiform abnormality in 9%. Brain MRI was abnormal in 32 (28.8%) patients. Personality disorders (46.8%), anxiety (39.6%), and depression (12.6%) were the most frequent additional psychiatric co-morbidities. PNES outcome after at least 2 years is reported; 22.5% patients was seizure-free; one-third had markedly reduced seizure frequency. We have not seen any negative impact of the provocative testing on the seizure outcome. Video-EEG monitoring with suggestive seizure provocation supported by clinical psychiatric and psychological evaluation significantly contributes to the correct PNES diagnosis, while interictal EEG and brain MRI are frequently abnormal. Symptoms typical for PNES, as opposed to epileptic seizures, could be distinguished.
Pillai, Jagan A; Haut, Sheryl R
Seizure and EEG characteristics of patients with epilepsy and concomitant psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) were compared to age and sex matched controls with epilepsy alone in a retrospective case control study. 39 patients with clearly documented epileptic and non-epileptic events were compared to 78 age and sex matched controls, sequentially admitted for video-EEG monitoring with documentation of epilepsy alone. Frontal seizures were higher in prevalence in patients with PNES who had concomitant epilepsy (Pseizures were higher in prevalence in patients with epilepsy alone (Pseizure was found to be significantly lower in the epilepsy alone group compared to the epilepsy+PNES group (odds ratio 0.13, 95% CI, 0.033-0.51). This significant association between frontal lobe epilepsy and PNES may be related to misattribution of frontal seizures for PNES events, or may reflect frontal lobe cortical dysfunction in this subgroup. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rawat, Vikram Singh; Dhiman, Vikas; Sinha, Sanjib; Vijay Sagar, Kommu John; Thippeswamy, Harish; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar; Srinath, Shoba; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy
To assess the psychiatric diagnoses and outcome in children with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). This hospital based observational study was performed on 44 children aged children completed the evaluation. Thirty four children were diagnosed as having PNES and the underlying psychiatric diagnosis was conversion disorder (n=34, 77.3%). Co-morbid psychiatric disorders were present in 17 children (50%). The common co-morbidities were intellectual disability (n=8, 23.5%), specific learning disorder (n=5, 14.7%), and depression (n=5, 14.7%). Co-morbid epilepsy was present in 8 (23.5%) children and family history of epilepsy was present in 10 (29.4%) cases. About 17 of 34 (50.0%) patients had a minimum follow-up of 6 months (13.9 ± 4.8 months). Twenty six children (76.5%) remained symptom free at the follow-up of 9.8 ± 7 months. The remaining 10 children (22.7%) had non-epileptic seizures with underlying diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), gratification disorder and other physiological conditions. Conversion disorder is a common diagnosis underlying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Outcome was good in 76.5% children with PNES. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in the diagnosis and management of PNES. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karakis, Ioannis; Montouris, Georgia D; Piperidou, Charitomeni; Luciano, Marta San; Meador, Kimford J; Cole, Andrew J
Little is known about the effect of psychogenic non epileptic seizures (PNES) to caregiver quality of life (QOL), particularly as it compares to epileptic seizures (ES). We sought to characterize this effect and identify its determinants. The study population comprised of 126 ES and 33 PNES patients who underwent video EEG monitoring along with 48 and 18 caregivers respectively who accompanied them to their investigations. Patients completed questionnaires providing demographic, disease-related, cognitive, psychiatric, sleep and QOL information on admission, prior to their diagnosis being clarified. Their caregivers completed questionnaires providing demographic, disease burden and generic QOL information. Paraclinical data were also gathered. Regression analysis was used to identify patient and caregiver related determinants of patient and caregiver QOL. QOL scores were significantly worse for PNES than ES patients and were mainly linked to depression levels. PNES and ES caregivers had comparable demographic characteristics and QOL scores. ES caregiver QOL was better in employed caregivers with lower burden scores for the physical component summary (PCS) and worse in female caregivers of depressed patients with higher burden scores for the mental component summary (MCS). Caregiver burden score was the strongest correlate of PNES caregiver MCS QOL score. Caregiver QOL in PNES does not differ from caregiver QOL in ES, while patient QOL is worse in PNES. Caregiver burden emerges as a consistent correlate of caregiver QOL both in ES and PNES. These findings advocate for consideration of caregiver burden and QOL in PNES in clinical practice and for future research paradigms. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuyk, Jarl; Siffels, Mieke C; Bakvis, Patricia; Swinkels, Wilhelmina A M
It is estimated that up to 25% of patients referred to specialised epilepsy centers suffer from psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). The prognosis is unfavourable and there are no generally accepted treatment protocols. In this study, the effect of an uncontrolled, prospective inpatient treatment program for PNES patients is evaluated. The treatment is multidisciplinary and based on cognitive behavioural principles. Seizure control, general psychopathology, anxiety, depression, coping, dissociation and health related quality of life are evaluated. Twenty-two patients participated in the study of which 16 patients were followed 6 months after treatment. After follow-up, 81% of patients had a seizure reduction of over 50%, and half of them became seizure-free. Measures of anxiety, depression and dissociation tended to normalize, coping was more adequate and health related quality of life was increased slightly. In the period between the end of treatment and follow-up the most positive effects are maintained and even strengthened. Patients who became seizure-free at follow-up improved more on the psychological outcome measures than patients with continuing seizures. The outcome suggests effectiveness of the treatment. PNES patients may profit from a comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment program following cognitive behavioural principles. Seizure cessation appears to be an important factor in the improvement of psychological functioning.
Full Text Available Background: Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES is a disabling disorder which has a negative effect on the quality of life of individuals with PNES. A clear understanding of the disorder is necessary, however, to date, research about PNES in South Africa is limited.Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore the demographic variables of individuals with PNES in South Africa, to review the available body of research on PNES, and to compare it with our results.Method: Twenty-two people with PNES, with confirmed video EEG, were recruited by means of convenience sampling from two hospitals. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic variables of the participants.Results: Internationally comparable results revealed misdiagnoses and low treatment delivery amongst a primarily female population.Conclusion: This study provided greater insight into individuals with PNES in South Africa, highlighting the need for more information, support, effective treatment and accurate diagnosis of PNES.
Cole, Cristie M.; Falcone, Tatiana; Caplan, Rochelle; Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Jares, Kristine; Ford, Paul J.
To date only a very narrow window of ethical dilemmas in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have been explored. Numerous distinct ethical dilemmas arise in diagnosing and treating pediatric and adolescent patients with PNES. Important ethical values at stake include trust, transparency, confidentiality, professionalism, autonomy of all stakeholders and justice. In order to further elucidate the ethical challenges in caring for this population, an ethical analysis of the special challenges faced in four specific domains is undertaken: (1) conducting and communicating a diagnosis of PNES; (2) advising patients about full transparency and disclosure to community including patients’ peers; (3) responding to requests to continue anti-epileptic drugs; and (4) managing challenges arising from school policy and procedure. An analysis of these ethical issues is essential for the advancement of best care practices that promote the overall well-being of patients and their families. PMID:25022823
Carlson, Perri; Nicholson Perry, Kathryn
The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate and synthesize the available evidence from the previous 20 years regarding the utility of psychological interventions in the management of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). Studies were retrieved from MEDLINE via OvidSP and PsychINFO. Selection criteria included controlled and before-after non-controlled studies including case series, using seizure frequency as an outcome measurement. Studies were required to assess one or more types of psychological intervention for the treatment of PNES in adults. Data from 13 eligible studies was pooled to examine the effectiveness of psychological interventions in treating PNES on two primary outcomes: seizure reduction of 50% or more and seizure freedom. A meta-analysis was conducted with data extracted from 228 participants with PNES. Interventions reviewed in the analysis included CBT, psychodynamic therapy, paradoxical intention therapy, mindfulness and psychoeducation and eclectic interventions. Meta-analysis synthesized data from 13 studies with a total of 228 participants with PNES, of varied gender and age. Results showed 47% of people with PNES are seizure free upon completion of a psychological intervention. Additional meta-analysis synthesized data from 10 studies with a total of 137 participants with PNES. This analysis found 82% of people with PNES who complete psychological treatment experience a reduction in seizures of at least 50%. The studies identified for this analysis were diverse in nature and quality. The findings highlight the potential for psychological interventions as a favorable alternative to the current lack of treatment options offered to people with PNES. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeppesen, Jesper; Beniczky, Sándor; Johansen, Peter; Sidenius, Per; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders
The semiology of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) can resemble epileptic seizures, and differentiation between epileptic seizures with no EEG-correlate and PNES can be challenging even for trained experts. Therefore, there has been a search for a quantitative measure, other than EEG and semiology that could distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures. We used ECG to measure heart rate variability (HRV) in order to compare maximum autonomic activity of epileptic seizures and PNES. These comparisons could potentially serve as biomarkers for distinguishing these types of clinical episodes. Forty-nine epileptic seizures from 17 patients and 24 PNES from 7 patients with analyzable ECG were recorded during long-term video-EEG monitoring. Moving windows of 100 R-R intervals throughout each seizure were used to find maximum values of Cardiac Sympathetic Index (CSI) (sympathetic tonus) and minimum values of Cardiac Vagal Index (CVI), Root-Mean-Square-of-Successive-Differences (RMSSD) and HF-power (parasympathetic tonus). In addition, non-seizure recordings of each patient were used to compare HRV-parameters between the groups. The maximum CSI for epilepsy seizures were higher than PNES (P=0.015). The minimum CVI, minimum RMSSD and HF-power did not show significant difference between epileptic seizures and PNES (P=0.762; P=0.152; P=0.818). There were no statistical difference of non-seizure HRV-parameters between the PNES and epilepsy patients. We found the maximum sympathetic activity accompanying the epileptic seizures to be higher, than that during the PNES. However, the great variation of autonomic response within both groups makes it difficult to use these HRV-measures as a sole measurement in distinguishing epileptic seizures from PNES. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Paola Beffa Negrini,1 Cecilia Perin,1,3 Federica Peroni,1,3 Adriana Magaudda,4 Cesare Cerri,1,3 Cesare Maria Cornaggia1,3 1Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, 2Department of Mental Health, “Guido Salvini” Hospital, Garbagnate Milanese, Milan, Italy; 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Istituti Clinici Zucchi, Carate Brianza, Monza and Brianza, Italy; 4Epilepsy Center, Department of Neuroscience, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Abstract: In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES do not have a unique classification as they can be found within different categories: conversion, dissociative, and somatization disorders. The ICD-10, instead, considers PNES within dissociative disorders, merging the dissociative disorders and conversion disorders, although the underlying defense mechanisms are different. The literature data show that PNES are associated with cluster B (mainly borderline personality disorders and/or to people with depressive or anxiety disorders. Defense mechanisms in patients with PNES with a prevalence of anxious/depressive symptoms are of “neurotic” type; their goal is to lead to a “split”, either vertical (dissociation or horizontal (repression. The majority of patients with this type of PNES have alexithymia traits, meaning that they had difficulties in feeling or perceiving emotions. In subjects where PNES are associated with a borderline personality, in which the symbolic function is lost, the defense mechanisms are of a more archaic nature (denial. PNES with different underlying defense mechanisms have different prognoses (despite similar severity of PNES and need usually a different treatment (pharmacological or psychological. Thus, it appears superfluous to talk about psychiatric comorbidity, since PNES are a different symptomatic expression of specific psychiatric disorders
Ristić, Aleksandar J; Drašković, Maja; Bukumirić, Zoran; Sokić, Dragoslav
The diagnosis of epilepsy primarily depends on description of the observed seizure. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of witness' description among groups with different medical education. A group of 44 respondents (15 laymen, 15 medical students, and 14 doctors at neurology residency program) were shown video footages of focal epileptic seizure (ES) with secondary generalization and psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) of the same patient. The ability to describe ES and PNES characteristics, to estimate duration of seizures, and to detect of accurate seizure type was evaluated using a questionnaire. For the analysis of primary data obtained from questionnaires, we used descriptive statistical methods and methods for testing statistical hypotheses. The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) for accurate recognition of ES are different in the examined groups (laymen Sn = 53.3%, Sp = 33.3%; medical students Sn = 100%, Sp = 13.3%; neurology residents Sn = 100%, Sp = 71.4%). Evaluated duration of PNES and ES do not differ between examined groups. The impression that ES and PNES are distinct events is reciprocal for medical students and neurology residents, but not in laymen group. Neurology residents notice the essential characteristics of ES in high percentage. Accurate classification of the attacks is associated with the observers' level of medical knowledge. Witnesses with specific, neurological knowledge with higher probability, compared to the laity and medical students, differentiate ES from PNES.
Turner, Katherine; Piazzini, Ada; Chiesa, Valentina; Barbieri, Valentina; Vignoli, Aglaia; Gardella, Elena; Tisi, Giuseppe; Scarone, Silvio; Canevini, Maria Paola; Gambini, Orsola
The incidence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is 4.9/100,000/year and it is estimated that about 20-30% of patients referred to tertiary care epilepsy centers for refractory seizures have both epilepsy and PNES. The purpose of our study is to evaluate psychiatric disorders and neuropsychological functions among patients with PNES, patients with epilepsy associated with PNES and patients with epilepsy. We evaluated 66 consecutive in-patients with video-EEG recordings: 21 patients with epilepsy, 22 patients with PNES and 10 patients with epilepsy associated with PNES; 13 patients were excluded (8 because of mental retardation and 5 because they did not present seizures or PNES during the recording period). All patients with PNES had a psychiatric diagnosis (100%) vs. 52% of patients with epilepsy. Cluster B personality disorders were more common in patients with PNES. We observed fewer mood and anxiety disorders in patients with PNES compared with those with epilepsy. We did not find statistically significant differences in neuropsychological profiles among the 3 patient groups. This study can help to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of PNES manifestations, in addition to the occurrence of seizures, in order to provide patients with more appropriate clinical, psychological and social care. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Green, Becky; Norman, Paul; Reuber, Markus
Psychopathology levels are elevated in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and those with epilepsy. However, patients with PNES report higher rates of trauma and neglect, poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and an increased prevalence of insecure attachment. We examined to what extent attachment style and relationship quality with their main informal carer impact on levels of HRQoL, depression, and anxiety in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy. Consecutive patients with PNES (N=23) and epilepsy (N=72) completed questionnaires about attachment style, quality of their relationship with their main informal carer, seizure severity, HRQoL, depression, and anxiety. Patients with PNES reported higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower HRQoL than those with epilepsy. PNES: No significant correlations were found with HRQoL but depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict, and negatively with relationship depth and support. Epilepsy: HRQoL correlated negatively with seizure severity, depression, anxiety, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with seizure severity, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Correlations between measures of relationship quality and anxiety were stronger in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy (zs=2.66 to 2.97, psrelationship quality explained larger amounts of variance in depression (45%) and anxiety (60%) in the patients with PNES than those with epilepsy (16% and 13%). Levels of anxiety and depression were higher in patients with PNES than those with epilepsy. Interpersonal problems were much more closely associated with anxiety and depression in patients with PNES than those
Wadwekar, Vaibhav; Nair, Pradeep Pankajakshan; Murgai, Aditya; Thirunavukkarasu, Sibi; Thazhath, Harichandrakumar Kottyen
Different studies have described useful signs to diagnose psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES). A few authors have tried to describe the semiologic groups among PNES patients; each group consisting of combination of features. But there is no uniformity of nomenclature among these studies. Our aim was to find out whether the objective classification system proposed by Hubsch et al. was useful and adequate to classify PNES patient population from South India. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and video EEG monitoring data of patients, recorded during 3 year period from June 2010 to July 2013. We observed the semiologic features of each PNES episode and tried to group them strictly adhering to Hubsch et al. classification. Minor modifications were made to include patients who were left unclassified. A total of 65 patients were diagnosed to have PNES during this period, out of which 11 patients were excluded due to inadequate data. We could classify 42(77.77%) patients without modifying the defining criteria of the Hubsch et al. groups. With minor modification we could classify 94.96% patients. The modified groups with patient distribution are as follows: Class 1--dystonic attacks with primitive gestural activities [3(5.6%)]. Class 2 – paucikinetic attacks with or without preserved responsiveness [5(9.3%)]. Class 3--pseudosyncope with or without hyperventilation [21(38.9%)]. Class 4--hyperkinetic prolonged attacks with hyperventilation, involvement of limbs and/or trunk [14(25.9%)]. Class 5--axial dystonic attacks [8(14.8%)]. Class 6--unclassified type [3(5.6%)]. This study demonstrates that the Hubsch's classification with minor modifications is useful and adequate to classify PNES patients from South India. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Bongiovanni, Luigi Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Trinka, Eugen
Several different terms have been used to describe "psychogenic nonepileptic seizures" (PNES) in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the most common English terms used to describe PNES on Google and in PubMed using multiple search terms (https://www.google.com and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). The information prevalence of the five terms most frequently used to refer to PNES in PubMed were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by pseudo(-)seizure(s), non(-)epileptic seizure(s), psychogenic seizure(s), and non(-)epileptic event(s). The five most frequently adopted terms to describe PNES in Google were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by non(-)epileptic event(s), psychogenic attack(s), non(-)epileptic attack(s), and psychogenic non(-)epileptic attack(s). The broad spectrum of synonyms used to refer to PNES in the medical literature reflects a lack of internationally accepted, uniform terminology for PNES. In addition to "seizure(s)," lay people use the word "attack(s)" to describe PNES. Although considered obsolete, some terms, e.g., pseudoseizure(s), are still used in the recent medical literature. Adopting a uniform terminology to describe PNES could facilitate communication between epileptologists, physicians without specific expertise in epilepsy, and patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.
Yerdelen, Deniz; Altintas, Ebru
To determine the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with epilepsy or psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). This cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2010 and December 2014 in the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Adana, Turkey. Patients who were admitted for video-electroencephalography monitoring and diagnosed of epileptic seizures or PNES were asked to complete a questionnaire from the World Health Organization Quality of Life, and psychiatric comorbidities were diagnosed using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition. Patients with epilepsy and PNES were found to have similar HRQOL in physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains. However, the percentage of comorbid psychiatric disorders were higher in patients with PNES than patients with epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy and PNES have similar HRQOL, and PNES are resistant to the standard medical therapies used for the treatment of epileptic seizures. The direct lifetime cost of undiagnosed PNES may be of equal with intractable epilepsy. A better understanding of the impact of PNES manifestations and epilepsy would help to provide appropriate clinical, psychological and social care.
Myers, Lorna; Vaidya-Mathur, Urmi; Lancman, Marcelo
Although there is general consensus that psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are treated with psychotherapy, the effectiveness of most psychotherapeutic modalities remains understudied. In this treatment series of 16 patients dually diagnosed with PNES and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we evaluated the effect of prolonged exposure therapy (PE) on reduction of PNES. Secondary measures included Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Post-Traumatic Disorder Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Subjects diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed PNES and PTSD confirmed through neuropsychological testing and clinical interview were treated with traditional PE psychotherapy with certain modifications for the PNES. Treatment was conducted over the course of 12-15 weekly sessions. Seizure frequency was noted in each session by examining the patients' seizure logs, and mood and PTSD symptomatology was assessed at baseline and on the final session. Eighteen subjects enrolled, and 16 (88.8%) completed the course of treatment. Thirteen of the 16 (81.25%) therapy completers reported no seizures by their final PE session, and the other three reported a decline in seizure frequency (Z=-3.233, p=0.001). Mean scores on scales of depression (M=-13.56, SD=12.27; t (15)=-4.420, pPTSD symptoms (M=-17.1875, SD=13.01; t (15)=-5.281, pPTSD reduced the number of PNES and improved mood and post traumatic symptomatology. Follow-up revealed that gains made in seizure control on the last day of treatment were maintained over time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Novakova, Barbora; Harris, Peter R; Reuber, Markus
Patients with epilepsy and those with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) experience high levels of stress and stress is one of the most frequently self-identified seizure precipitants. Although stress is a multifaceted phenomenon, few studies have systematically examined its different components in patients with seizures. The aim of this study was therefore to describe diurnal patterns of psychological and physiological measures of stress in patients with epilepsy and patients with PNES, and explore their relationships to each other in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stress and seizure occurrence in these patients. A range of stress markers including self-reported stress, salivary cortisol, and heart rate variability (HRV) were explored in adult patients with refractory epilepsy (N=22) and those with PNES (N=23) undergoing three- to five-day video-telemetry. A diurnal pattern was observed in the physiological measures, characterized by higher levels of physiological arousal in the mornings and lower levels at night in both patients with epilepsy and PNES. The physiological measures (cortisol and HRV) were associated with each other in patients with epilepsy; no close relationship was found with self-reported stress in either of the two patient groups. The findings contribute to and expand on previous studies of the patterns of stress in patients with seizures. The results also indicate a discrepancy between patients' physiological responses and their subjective stress perceptions, suggesting that simple self-reports cannot be used as a proxy of physiological arousal in patients with seizures and stress. Stress in these patient groups should be studied using a combination of complementary measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gordon, Pedro C; Valiengo, Leandro da Costa Lane; Proença, Inah C G F; Kurcgant, Daniela; Jorge, Carmen Lisa; Castro, Luiz H; Marchetti, Renato L
To determine whether patients with comorbid epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) and their caregivers can distinguish between these two events at least one year after initial diagnosis, and to investigate factors associated with correct identification. Adult patients with at least a one year diagnosis of both epilepsy and PNES, confirmed through video-electroencephalography (VEEG), were selected. Patients and a caregiver of their choice were interviewed and shown videos containing the patients' epileptic and PNES events. Variables associated with correct identification of events by patients and their caregivers were evaluated. Twenty-four patients participated in the study. Mean time between VEEG diagnosis and enrollment in the study was 26.8 months (±12.4). Six of patients correctly distinguished between the events shown. Factors associated with correct identification were the absence of intellectual disability, unremitted PNES, and a degree of preserved awareness during the PNES event. Twelve caregivers correctly distinguished between the events shown. Factors associated with correct identification among caregivers were the presentation of only one epileptic seizure type in the patient, and the participation of the caregiver during VEEG monitoring and communication of PNES diagnosis to the patient. A significant proportion of patients with epilepsy and PNES and their caregivers seem to be unable to discriminate between these events a year after diagnosis. These findings have implications for both clinical follow-up and research involving this population. Future research should further investigate methods that would allow patients and their caregivers to better distinguish between these two events. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
del Barrio, A; Jiménez-Huete, A; Toledano, R; García-Morales, I; Gil-Nagel, A
The use of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minnesota 2 (MMPI-2) for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is controversial. This study examines the validity of the clinical scales and, unlike previous works, the content scales. Cross-sectional study of 209 patients treated in the epilepsy unit. We performed a logistic regression analysis, taking video-electroencephalography as the reference test, and as predictor variables age, sex, IQ and clinical (model A) or content scales (model B) of the MMPI-2. The models were selected according to the Aikake index and compared using the DeLong test. We analyzed 37 patients with PNES alone, or combined with seizures, and 172 patients with seizures only. The model consisting of sex, Hs (hypochondriasis) and Pa (paranoia) showed a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 76.8%, a percentage of correct classification of 76.8%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.836 for diagnosing CNEP. Model B, consisting of sex, HEA (health concerns) and FRS (fears), showed a sensitivity of 65.7%, a specificity of 78.0%, a percentage of correct classification of 75.9% and an AUC of 0.840. DeLong's test did not detect significant differences. The MMPI-2 has a moderate validity for the diagnosis of PNES in patients referred to an epilepsy unit. Using content scales does not significantly improve results from the clinical scales. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Del Bene, Victor A; Arce Rentería, Miguel; Maiman, Moshe; Slugh, Mitch; Gazzola, Deana M; Nadkarni, Siddhartha S; Barr, William B
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a self-report instrument, previously shown to differentiate patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). At present, the odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in PNES patients, as well as the diagnostic predictive value of such scale elevations, remain largely unexplored. This can be of clinical utility, particularly when a diagnosis is uncertain. After looking at mean group differences, we applied contingency table derived odds ratios to a sample of ES (n=92) and PNES (n=77) patients from a video EEG (vEEG) monitoring unit. We also looked at the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), as well as the false discovery rate (FDR) and false omission rate (FOR) for scales found to have increased odds of elevation in PNES patients. This was completed for the overall sample, as well as the sample stratified by sex. The odds of elevations related to somatic concerns, negative mood, and suicidal ideation in the PNES sample ranged from 2 to 5 times more likely. Female PNES patients had 3-6 times greater odds of such scale elevations, while male PNES patients had odds of 5-15 times more likely. PPV rates ranged from 53.66% to 84.62%, while NPV rates ranged from 47.52% to 90.91%. FDR across scales ranged from 15.38% to 50%, while the FOR ranged from 9.09% to 52.47%. Consistent with prior research, PNES patients have greater odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations, particularly related to somatic concerns and mood disturbance. Female PNES patients endorsed greater emotional distress, including endorsement of suicide related items. Elevations of these scales could aid in differentiating PNES from ES patients, although caution is warranted due to the possibility of both false positives and the incorrect omissions of PNES cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Say, Gokçe N; Tasdemir, Haydar A; Akbas, Seher; Yüce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray
Children and adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and epilepsy are known to have psychosocial problems. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychosocial difficulties, history of stressful life events/abuse, psychiatric diagnosis, and self-esteem of adolescents with PNES to the ones with epilepsy and healthy controls at a tertiary care center in Turkey. Thirty-four adolescents with PNES diagnosed by video-EEG were compared with 23 adolescents that have epilepsy and 35 healthy volunteers. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses of participants were examined by semi-structured interviews using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Self-esteem of adolescents was evaluated by Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). No differences in sociodemographic features were observed between the groups. The PNES group showed significantly higher rates of parental conflicts, difficulties in relationship with siblings/peers, school under-achievement, and history of stressful events/abuse. The rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders were 64.7% in PNES and 47.8% in epilepsy group. The most common disorders in both groups were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorder. The rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly increased in the PNES group. Additionally, adolescents with PNES displayed significantly lower levels of self-esteem than the other groups. It could be concluded that both disorders involved a high risk for developing psychiatric disorders; additionally, adolescents with PNES have higher rates of stressors and lower levels of self-esteem. Findings from this investigation point to the importance of psychiatric interventions in pediatric PNES and also epilepsy.
Renato Luiz Marchetti
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epilepsy in patients who presented psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES. The evaluation was carried out during intensive VEEG monitoring in a diagnostic center for epilepsy in a university hospital. The difficulties involved in reaching this diagnosis are discussed. Ninety-eight patients underwent intensive and prolonged video-electroencephalographic (VEEG monitoring; out of these, a total of 28 patients presented PNES during monitoring. Epilepsy was defined as present when the patient presented epileptic seizures during VEEG monitoring or when, although not presenting epileptic seizures during monitoring, the patient presented unequivocal interictal epileptiform discharges. The frequency of epilepsy in patients with PNES was 50% (14 patients. Our findings suggest that the frequency of epilepsy in patients with PNES is much higher than that of previous studies, and point out the need, at least in some cases, for prolonging the evaluation of patients with PNES who have clinical histories indicating epilepsy.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de epilepsia em pacientes que apresentaram crises não epilépticas psicogênicas (CNEP. Isto foi realizado durante monitoração intensiva por video-EEG num centro diagnóstico de epilepsia em um hospital universitário. As dificuldades envolvidas para se chegar a este diagnóstico são discutidas. Noventa e oito pacientes foram submetidos a monitoração intensiva por video-EEG; 28 destes pacientes apresentaram CNEP durante a monitoração. Epilepsia foi considerada presente quando o paciente apresentou crises epilépticas durante a avaliação pelo video-EEG ou quando, apesar da não ocorrência de crises epilépticas durante a avaliação, descargas epilépticas interictais inequívocas estavam presentes. A frequência de epilepsia em pacientes com CNEP foi 50% (14 pacientes. Nossos achados sugerem que a frequência de epilepsia em
Myers, Lorna; Fleming, Melissa; Lancman, Martin; Perrine, Kenneth; Lancman, Marcelo
The purpose of the present study was to assess stress coping strategies employed by patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and determine whether these approaches were associated with other psychopathological features. Ineffective stress coping strategies can have a variety of unhealthy consequences fueling psychopathology just as psychopathology can also have an impact on stress coping. Because of this, the study of stress coping has the potential to inform our understanding of the PNES condition and underscore a potential target for psychological treatment. Eighty-two consecutive patients with PNES were studied using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). The CISS is a self-rating coping strategies scale that has three main subscales (Task-Oriented, Emotion-Focused, and Avoidance-Oriented). Other psychological variables that were thought to potentially influence the chosen coping mechanisms including alexithymia, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anger expression and select scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-RF (MMPI 2-RF) were also evaluated. Fifty patients (60.9%) endorsed using at least one coping strategy that was 1.5 standard deviations or more away from the normal adult mean. Over 30% of the participants endorsed using elevated Emotion-Focused coping strategies (T score ≥ 65), and just over 25% endorsed underusing Task-Oriented coping strategies (T score ≤ 35). Elevations in avoidance strategies were endorsed by only 15.9% of the respondents. ANOVA comparing T scores between the coping strategies was significant (F=13.4, p=.0001) with a significantly lower Task-Oriented strategy than Emotion-Focused (p=.001) and Avoidance (p=.005) strategies. Patients with high scores of Emotion-Focused coping strategies also had significantly high scores on diverse psychopathology factors including elevations on depressive mood, intrusive experiences, anger state, and general anger scores. In contrast
Full Text Available Discute o desenvolvimento do conhecimento psiquiátrico sobre a crise não epiléptica psicogênica (CNEP, buscando iluminar os pressupostos epistemológicos do conceito e suas implicações práticas. Em sua definição atual, crises ou ataques recorrentes são manifestações comportamentais semelhantes às da epilepsia, mas que dela diferem por não serem consequentes de descargas elétricas cerebrais anormais, podendo ter origem psicogênica. Em direção inversa da metafísica, investiga-se a emergência histórica do conceito de CNEP nos últimos quarenta anos. Conceitos de comorbidade psiquiátrica, abuso e dissociação foram discutidos devido a sua participação na trajetória conceitual de CNEP.This discussion of the evolution of psychiatric knowledge concerning psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES sheds light on the epistemological assumptions underlying the concept and on its practical implications as well. PNES are defined as repeated seizures or attacks which can be mistaken for epilepsy because of the similar behavioral changes displayed, but which differ in that they are not the result of abnormal electrical activity in the brain and may be psychogenic in origin. The article investigates the historical development of the concept of PNES over the past forty years. The concepts of psychiatric comorbidity, abuse, and dissociation enter the discussion owing to their roles in the checkered development of the concept of PNES.
Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai
with the algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96......Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed......%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....
Nørmark, Mette Borch; Erdal, Jesper; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg
Epilepsy is often misdiagnosed and approximately one in every four patients diagnosed with refractory epilepsy does not have epilepsy, but instead non-epileptic seizures. Video electroencephalography monitoring (VEM) is the gold standard for differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic...... seizures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of VEM as a diagnostic tool....
Full Text Available Non epileptic seizures were diagnosed in 20 (F:15, M:5 school children and adolescents by a positive provocative test consisting of induction and termination of the attack with suggestions and saline injection and normal ictal EEG. Patients were followed up for a period of two years. The major provocating factors were (a family problems, mainly conflict between the parents in 25%, (b problems in schooling in 20%, (c combination of both in 30%, (d sexual and physical abuse in 10% and (e undetectable in 15%. The frequency of the attacks were > 1/day in 55%, 1 - 6 / week in 25%, 1 - 3 / month in 15% and occasional in 5%. During follow up, 55% were free from attacks, 10% had recurrence occasionally for one year and free from it during the second year, 10% continued to get attacks and 25% were lost to follow up. In those free from attacks, multiple somatic complaints were reported by 30% of patients.
Sharpe, Donald; Faye, Cathy
Non-epileptic seizures have received a substantial amount of attention in the psychiatric and medical literature, but comparatively little attention from psychologists. Non-epileptic seizures resemble epileptic seizures but lack the physiological symptoms of genuine epilepsy and are psychological in origin. Many authors have emphasized the role that child sexual abuse may play in the etiology of this disorder. In the present paper, we provide a review of 34 studies examining this relationship, followed by a meta-analysis of 19 effect sizes. While our statistical results support the professed link between child sexual abuse and non-epileptic seizures, we suggest that because of research design limitations, it is premature to draw any definitive conclusions regarding a relationship. Eight of these research design limitations are identified and discussed (e.g., the absence of comparison groups; an explicit and public definition of child sexual abuse). Alternatives to a traditional psychoanalytic perspective that emphasizes the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of NES are presented. Specific recommendations for future research are made and psychologists are strongly encouraged to play a more active role in both researching and treating non-epileptic seizures.
Gröppel, G; Kapitany, T; Baumgartner, C
To develop an objective classification of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (NES) based on cluster analysis of clinical seizure semiology. We studied the clinical seizure semiology in 27 patients with psychogenic NES documented by prolonged video-EEG monitoring. We analyzed the following clinical symptoms: clonic and hypermotor movements as well as trembling of the upper and/or lower extremities, pelvic thrusting, head movements, tonic posturing backward of the head, and falling. We used cluster analysis to identify symptoms occurring together in a systematic way and thus tried to achieve a clinical classification of psychogenic NES. We could identify three symptom clusters. Cluster 1 was characterized by clonic and hypermotor movements of the extremities, pelvic thrusting, head movements, and tonic posturing of the head, and therefore was named "psychogenic motor seizures." Cluster 2 comprised trembling of the upper and lower extremities and was termed "psychogenic minor motor or trembling seizures." Cluster 3 consisted of falling to the floor as the only symptom and was referred to as "psychogenic atonic seizures." Our study represents the first study to analyze the clinical semiology of psychogenic NES by cluster analysis, which should be useful for an objective classification of psychogenic NES. This classification should allow both a better characterization of psychogenic NES and an easier differential diagnosis against specific epileptic seizures.
MONTENEGRO MARIA AUGUSTA
Full Text Available The occurrence of de novo psychogenic seizures after epilepsy surgery is rare, and is estimated in 1.8% to 3.6%. Seizures after epilepsy surgery should be carefully evaluated, and de novo psychogenic seizures should be considered especially when there is a change in the ictal semiology. We report a patient with de novo psychogenic seizures after anterior temporal lobe removal for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Once psychogenic seizures were diagnosed and psychiatric treatment was started, seizures stopped.
Gale, Shawn D; Hill, Stacy W; Pearson, Caleb
Psychopathology has been studied in patients with epileptic or psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in the context of diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, most PNES studies include few males and do not consider possible gender differences, making findings less generalizable to males with PNES. In this study we specifically compare males with PNES to females with PNES and to males with epilepsy. Males with PNES (n=58), males with epilepsy (n=86), females with PNES (n=147), and females with ES (n=142) were evaluated on an inpatient epilepsy monitoring unit. Self-reported objective measures of psychopathology, demographics, and PNES seizure semiology were compared. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles revealed marked differences, particularly in somatic symptoms, between PNES and epilepsy. Females with PNES had higher levels of physiological depressive symptoms but lower antisocial features. Males with PNES who had clinically significant elevations on the somatic complaints scale were much more likely to have motor seizures while females with PNES classified similarly were equally likely to have either motor or non-motor events. Gender difference in PNES seizure semiology was associated with whether or not clinically significant somatic symptoms were present; males with elevated somatic symptoms were much more likely to have motor PNES. However, we did not find evidence of greater psychopathology in males with PNES compared to females with PNES. Gender differences in the behavioral manifestation of PNES in the context of presence or absence of somatization may have implications for diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tatum, William O; Langston, Michael E; Acton, Emily K
The purpose of this case-matched study was to determine how frequently fibromyalgia is associated with different paroxysmal neurological disorders and explore the utility of fibromyalgia as a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The billing diagnosis codes of 1,730 new, non-selected patient encounters were reviewed over a three-year period for an epileptologist in a neurology clinic to identify all patients with historical diagnoses of fibromyalgia. The frequency with which epileptic seizures, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and physiological non-epileptic events were comorbid with fibromyalgia was assessed. Age and gender case-matched controls were used for a between-group comparison. Wilcoxon tests were used to analyse interval data, and Chi-square was used to analyse categorical data (pFibromyalgia was retrospectively identified in 95/1,730 (5.5%) patients in this cohort. Females represented 95% of the fibromyalgia sample (age: 53 years; 95% CI: 57, 51). Forty-three percent of those with fibromyalgia had a non-paroxysmal, neurological primary clinical diagnosis, most commonly chronic pain. Paroxysmal events were present in 57% of fibromyalgia patients and 54% of case-matched controls. Among patients with fibromyalgia and paroxysmal disorders, 11% had epileptic seizures, 74% had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and 15% had physiological non-epileptic events, compared to case-matched controls with 37% epileptic seizures, 51% psychogenic non-epileptic events, and 12% physiological non-epileptic events (p = 0.009). Fibromyalgia was shown to be a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in patients with undifferentiated paroxysmal spells. However, our results suggest that the specificity and sensitivity of fibromyalgia as a marker for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in a mixed general neurological population of patients is less than previously described.
Urbanek, Monika; Harvey, Martin; McGowan, John; Agrawal, Niruj
Despite the long history of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), relatively little is known about the mechanisms that cause and maintain this condition. Emerging research evidence suggests that patients with PNES might have difficulties in regulating their emotions. However, much remains to be learned about the nature of these difficulties and the emotional responses of individuals with PNES. This study aimed to gain a detailed understanding of emotion regulation processes in patients with PNES by examining differences between patients with PNES and a healthy control group with regard to intensity of emotional reactions, understanding of one's emotional experience, beliefs about emotions, and managing emotions by controlling emotional expression. A cross-sectional design was used to compare the group with PNES (n=56) and the healthy control group (n=88) on a range of self-report measures. Participants with a diagnosis of PNES reported significantly poorer understanding of their emotions, more negative beliefs about emotions, and a greater tendency to control emotional expression compared to the control group. While intensity of emotions did not discriminate between the groups, poor understanding and negative beliefs about emotions were found to be significant predictors of PNES, even after controlling for age, education level, and emotional distress. Furthermore, the presence of some emotion regulation difficulties was associated with self-reported seizure severity. The results of this study are largely consistent with previous literature and provide evidence for difficulties in emotion regulation in patients with PNES. However, this research goes further in bringing together different aspects of emotion regulation, including beliefs about emotions, which have not been examined before. As far as it is known, this is the first study to suggest that levels of alexithymia in a population with PNES are positively associated with self-reported seizure severity. The
Seneviratne, Udaya; Minato, Erica; Paul, Eldho
We hypothesized that (1) the occurrence of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) is modulated by the interaction between the 24-hour clock and the sleep-wake cycle and (2) the pattern of modulation in PNES differs from epileptic seizures (ES). We sought to test our hypotheses in a cohort of patients diagnosed with PNES or ES in the setting of an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive video-EEG (VEEG) recordings of patients who underwent monitoring at the EMU of a tertiary hospital. The seizure type (PNES vs ES), onset time, and the state (sleep vs awake) were tabulated. The relationship between the onset time, the state of arousal, and the occurrence of PNES was determined using logistic regression analysis. To determine if the nature of the relationship between the state of arousal and PNES differed according to the onset time, an interaction between the onset time and the state of arousal was also fitted to the model. We studied a total of 754 seizures (ES, 437; PNES, 317) from 135 patients consisting of 71 (52.6%) females and 64 (47.4%) males with the median age of 39years (range, 18-91). We found a significant association between the state of arousal and PNES with the odds of being PNES four times higher when patients were awake (OR: 4.27, 95% CI: 2.44-7.48; p24-hour time cycle in the generation of PNES. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Winterdahl, Michael; Miani, Alessandro; Vercoe, Moana
) and PNES symptoms in women with a history of sexual abuse. NPY has been associated with resilience to stress and we hypothesized that low levels would increase the extent and severity of PNES symptoms in this patient population. Serum levels of NPY, and related hormones were measured in fifteen female PNES...... patients and sixty female controls. PNES patients reported more severe abuse histories, feeling of abandonment, and decreased perception of quality of life than controls. Importantly, they also had lower NPY levels. Our analysis indicates that low levels of NPY in PNES may confer greater vulnerability...
Turner, Katherine; Piazzini, Ada; Chiesa, Valentina
and neuropsychological functions among patients with PNES, patients with epilepsy associated with PNES and patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We evaluated 66 consecutive in-patients with video-EEG recordings: 21 patients with epilepsy, 22 patients with PNES and 10 patients with epilepsy associated with PNES; 13 patients....... We observed fewer mood and anxiety disorders in patients with PNES compared with those with epilepsy. We did not find statistically significant differences in neuropsychological profiles among the 3 patient groups. CONCLUSION: This study can help to contribute to a better understanding of the impact...
Reuber, M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Bauer, J.; Singh, D.D.; Elger, C.E.
PURPOSE: To examine interictal EEG abnormalities in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). METHODS: (a) Retrospective study of EEG reports of 187 consecutive patients with PNES seen at the Department of Epileptology, Bonn, Germany; (b) Blinded, multirater comparison of EEGs of all
Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus
We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…
Martlew, Jayne; Pulman, Jennifer; Marson, Anthony G
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, also known as non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD), have the outward appearance of epilepsy in the absence of physiological or electroencephalographic correlates. Non-epileptic seizures can occur in isolation or in combination with epileptic seizures. The development and maintenance of non-epileptic seizures has been well documented and there is a growing literature on the treatment of non-epileptic seizures which includes non-psychological (including anti-anxiety and antidepressant pharmacological treatment) and psychological therapies (including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), hypnotherapy and paradoxical therapy). Various treatment methodologies have been tried with variable success. The purpose of this Cochrane review was to establish the evidence base for the treatment of non-epileptic seizures with behavioural and psychological therapies only. To assess whether behavioural or psychological treatments for non-epileptic seizures or NEAD result in a reduction in the frequency of seizures or improvement in quality of life, or both, and whether any treatment is significantly more effective than others. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (4 February 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1) (January 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to 4 February 2013), PsycINFO (4 February 2013) and SCOPUS (4 February 2013). No language restrictions were imposed. We checked the reference lists of retrieved studies for additional reports of relevant studies Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and before and after controlled and non-controlled studies were eligible for inclusion. Studies were required to assess one or more types of behavioural or psychological interventions, or both, for the treatment of non-epileptic seizures. Studies of childhood non-epileptic seizures were excluded from our review. Two review authors (JM, JP) independently assessed the trials for
Alessi, Rudá; Vincentiis, Silvia; Rzezak, Patricia; Valente, Kette D
The few studies addressing semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in children showed that this group differs from adults, considering the classical signs described. Our study with systematic assessment provides a direct comparison of the classical signs of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) in children and adults in order to establish the usefulness of the most important signs described for adults in children. Video-EEG recordings of patients with PNESs from 2006 to 2011 were analyzed. Twenty-five signs were selected as the most prevalent in literature, and their presence was evaluated. Events were categorized as either of the following: catatonic, major motor, minor motor, and subjective (Griffith et al., 2007 ). One hundred and fifteen patients were included; 63.5% were adults, 73.2% were females, and 14.4% had epilepsy. Adults presented more ictal eye closure (p=0.006), convulsions lasting >2 min (psemiological categories, major motor activity was the main feature in adults, and minor motor activity was more prevalent among children (52.9% and 38.1%, respectively; p=0.01). Our data showed that research about the distinct ictal features of PNESs, such as minor motor events that are more typical in children, is likely to be useful in promoting earlier recognition of PNESs in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kozlowska, Kasia; Chudleigh, Catherine; Elliott, Bronwen; Landini, Andrea
We present the case of a 10-year-old boy, Evan, where a knock to the head activated memories of past bullying, causing intense distress, activation of the body's stress-regulation systems and recurrent hospital presentations with hyperventilation-induced non-epileptic seizures. We describe the initial assessment session that enabled Evan and his family to understand the context for Evan's non-epileptic seizures, to engage with the therapeutic team and to collaborate in the implementation of a mind-body multimodal family-based intervention. Once the physical symptoms had been addressed therapeutically, we explored possible dangers within the family and school systems and we worked with Evan and his family to increase his ability to access comfort and protection from his parents. Our short hospital intervention highlighted the importance of ongoing therapeutic work with Evan and the family and laid the foundation stones for the next part of the family's therapeutic journey. © The Author(s) 2015.
Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg
Suggestive seizure induction is a widely used method for diagnosing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Despite seven decades of multidisciplinary research, however, there is still no unified protocol, no definitive agreement on the ethical framework and no consensus on diagnostic utility. This systematic review surveys the evidence at hand and addresses clinically relevant aspects of suggestive seizure induction. In addition to its use for facilitating the diagnostic process, its mechanism of action and utility in elucidating the psychopathology of PNES will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Syed, Tanvir U; LaFrance, W Curt; Kahriman, Emine S; Hasan, Saba N; Rajasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Gulati, Deepak; Borad, Samip; Shahid, Asim; Fernandez-Baca, Guadalupe; Garcia, Naiara; Pawlowski, Matthias; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Amina, Shahram; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z
Reducing health and economic burdens from diagnostic delay of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) requires prompt referral for video electroencephalography (VEEG) monitoring, the diagnostic gold standard. Practitioners make VEEG referrals when semiology suggests PNES, although few semiological signs are supported by well-designed studies, and most VEEG studies neglect to concurrently measure how accurately seizure witnesses can ascertain semiology. In this study, we estimate the value of eyewitness-reported and video-documented semiology for predicting PNES, and we measure accuracy of eyewitness reports. We prospectively interviewed eyewitnesses of seizures in patients referred for VEEG monitoring, to inquire about 48 putative PNES and ES signs. Multiple, EEG-blinded, epileptologists independently evaluated seizure videos and documented the presence/absence of signs. We used generalized estimating equations to identify reliable video-documented PNES and ES signs, and we compared eyewitness reports with video findings to assess how accurately signs are reported. We used logistic regression to determine whether eyewitness reports could predict VEEG-ascertained seizure type. We analyzed 120 seizures (36 PNES, 84 ES) from 35 consecutive subjects. Of 45 video-documented signs, only 3 PNES signs ("preserved awareness," "eye flutter," and "bystanders can intensify or alleviate") and 3 ES signs ("abrupt onset," "eye-opening/widening," and postictal "confusion/sleep") were significant and reliable indicators of seizure type. Eyewitness reports of these 6 signs were inaccurate and not statistically different from guessing. Consequentially, eyewitness reports of signs did not predict VEEG-ascertained diagnosis. We validated our findings in a second, prospective cohort of 36 consecutive subjects. We identified 6 semiological signs that reliably distinguish PNES and ES, and found that eyewitness reports of these signs are unreliable. We offer suggestions to improve the
Cole, Cristie M; Falcone, Tatiana; Caplan, Rochelle; Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Jares, Kristine; Ford, Paul J
To date, only a very narrow window of ethical dilemmas in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) has been explored. Numerous distinct ethical dilemmas arise in diagnosing and treating pediatric and adolescent patients with PNESs. Important ethical values at stake include trust, transparency, confidentiality, professionalism, autonomy of all stakeholders, and justice. In order to further elucidate the ethical challenges in caring for this population, an ethical analysis of the special challenges faced in four specific domains is undertaken: (1) conducting and communicating a diagnosis of PNESs, (2) advising patients about full transparency and disclosure to community including patients' peers, (3) responding to requests to continue antiepileptic drugs, and (4) managing challenges arising from school policy and procedure. An analysis of these ethical issues is essential for the advancement of best care practices that promote the overall well-being of patients and their families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An, Dong-mei; Wu, Xin-tong; Yan, Bo; Mu, Jie; Zhou, Dong
This article describes the clinical features of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in people in southwest China. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pure PNES by video/EEG monitoring were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 64 patients with PNES were included, 32 (50%) of whom were male. Twenty (31.3%) patients had previously been misdiagnosed and treated for epilepsy. Psychological trauma and head injuries were considered antecedent traumatic factors. A history of abuse was rare. The PNES cases were divided into three subtypes: psychogenic minor motor seizures, psychogenic major motor seizures, and unresponsive seizures. Age at onset was identified as a predictor of prognosis. The results of this study demonstrated a higher prevalence of PNES in males compared with previous studies. The semiology of PNES in China is similar to that in Western countries. Classification of semiology may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of PNES. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Myers, Lorna; Jones, Jace; Boesten, Nadine; Lancman, Marcelo
The nature of the symptoms associated with PNES require a multidisciplinary health team. There are too few professionals with an adequate understanding of PNES and therefore many are not able to provide patients with necessary information. In the age of the internet, it is not surprising that patients or caregivers might look for answers online. The purpose of this project was to investigate the online representation of PNES and search frequency for PNES and its associated terms. To determine online representation, searches of: Google®, twitter®, YouTube®, and Instagram® for "PNES" and associated terms were conducted. Websites, tweets, and films were classified by host and exclusivity of information. PNES and associated terms search frequency was determined through Google Trends®. Professional and patient sites exclusively about PNES were outnumbered by sites that only mentioned PNES in fewer than three posts. Patients tended to favor less traditional hosting options than did professionals. On twitter®, different keyword preferences were identified for professionals and patients. On YouTube® there was a substantial selection of videos of which 22 were professionally produced. Google Trends®, revealed the terms most commonly used to search for this topic were in order: (1) "PNES;" (2) "NEAD;" and (3) "pseudoseizure." A variety of professional and patient internet content about PNES can be found online. Professional sites offered accurate and empirically-validated information on the disorder and tended to use traditional hosting options. Future professional initiatives might consider novel hosting options and higher-frequency terms to reach their audience more effectively. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ristić Aleksandar J.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES is a sudden change in a person's behavior, perception, thinking, or feeling that is usually time limited and resembles, or is mistaken for, epilepsy but does not have the characteristic electroencephalographic (EEG changes that accompanies a true epileptic seizure . It is considered that PNES is a somatic manifestation of mental distress, in response to a psychological conflict or other Stressors . A wide spectrum of clinical presentation includes syncope, generalized tonic-clonic seizure, simple and complex partial seizure, myoclonic seizure, frontal lobe seizures and status epilepticus . Coexistence of epilepsy and PNES is seen in approximately 9% of cases . Between 25-30% of patients referred to tertiary centers and initially diagnosed as refractory epilepsy were on further examination diagnosed as PNES [6,7]. In DSM-IV  PNES are usually categorized under conversion disorder with seizures or convulsions. However, psychiatric basis of PNES may be anxiousness (panic attack, somatization or factitious disorder, simulation, dissociative disorders and psychosis . AIM The aim of the study was to establish clinical phenomenology and EEG characteristics as well as basic psychiatric disorder in patients with PNES. METHOD In a retrospective study covering the period from January 1st 1999 till April 31 st 2003, 24 patients (22 female, 2 male treated at the Institute of Neurology in Belgrade were analyzed. PNES were defined as sudden change in behavior incoherent with epileptiform activity registered on EEG. Possible PNES were determined on the basis of history data and clinical examination during the attack but definitive confirmation was established only by the finding of no ictal EEG changes during typical seizure of each patient. Patients with coexisting epilepsy were included in the study, too. At least two standard EEG (range 2-6, median 4 were performed at the beginning of
Rosemergy, Ian; Frith, Richard; Herath, Samantha; Walker, Elizabeth
Distinguishing between generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) and convulsive psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) can be difficult at the bedside, and this distinction has important implications for patient care. This study used a fully blinded method to examine postictal breathing parameters to identify features distinguishing between generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) and convulsive psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Three blinded readers examined edited video recordings of the postictal phase of 72 convulsive seizure episodes recorded from 56 patients. There were 59 GTCS episodes and 13 PNES episodes. Postictal breathing after a PNES episode was more rapid than after a GTCS episode and, thereafter, normalized more rapidly. Postictal breathing after a GTCS episode was more likely to be characterized by stertorous respirations. Postictal breathing after a PNES episode was very unlikely to be characterized by stertorous respirations. Postictal respiratory pattern can assist in discriminating between GTCS and convulsive PNES. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Review of literature revealed very limited studies considering a combination of serum prolactin (PRL and serum creatine kinase (CK as markers for differentiating epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the role of serum PRL and serum CK, individually and in combination. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care medical teaching hospital over a period of 18 months. Patients aged over 15 years suspected to have new-onset seizures presenting within 5 h of ictus were included in this study. CK, serum PRL was measured at 0–1, 1–3, and 3–5 h after seizures. Results: Hundred subjects were studied for the role of serum PRL and serum CK in differentiating epileptic and PNES. The mean age was 42.24 years with a male:female ratio of 1.27:1. All patients of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTCS, who presented within 1 h, had elevated PRL, whereas 75% of patients with partial seizures had elevated PRL within 1 h of presentation. Nearly 91.66% of patients with GTCS who presented within 1 h had elevated CPK, whereas 70% of patients with partial seizures had elevated CPK. None of the patients diagnosed with PNES showed rise in either of the markers. Conclusion: In the present study, none of the patients with PNES showed raise in either serum PRL or CK. However, there was no correlation between the types of seizure and PRL or serum CK levels.
Seneviratne, Udaya; Minato, Erica; Paul, Eldho
We sought to investigate (1) differences in ictal duration between psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and epileptic seizures (ES), (2) the odds of being PNES when seizures last ≥5min, and (3) the value of ictal duration as a diagnostic test to differentiate PNES from ES. We retrospectively reviewed video-EEG recordings and tabulated ictal durations of all PNES and ES. We estimated the mean ictal durations of PNES and ES using linear mixed models. The odds of being PNES when seizures last ≥5min were estimated using logistic regression. We used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves to study the overall diagnostic accuracy of ictal duration in differentiating PNES from ES. We studied 441 ES and 341 PNES recorded from 138 patients. The mean ictal duration of PNES (148.7s, 95% CI: 115.2-191.8) was significantly longer (pseizure lasts ≥5min, it is 24 times more likely to be PNES with the potential risk of misdiagnosis as status epilepticus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hughes, John R
Napoleon Bonaparte was a general in the French army at 24 years of age, later conquering most of Europe. He was one of the greatest military geniuses the world has ever known, but also an extremely intelligent individual. Did he have seizures? The evidence shows that he had both psychogenic and epileptic attacks. The psychogenic attacks were likely related to the tremendous stress in his life, and the epileptic seizures were the result of chronic uremia from a severe urethral stricture caused by gonorrhea that was transmitted from his wife, Empress Josephine.
Vaidya-Mathur, Urmi; Myers, Lorna; Laban-Grant, Olgica; Lancman, Marcelo; Lancman, Martin; Jones, Jace
The purpose of this study was to describe social behaviors and preferences in adults with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) including self-reported use of various socialization mediums (face-to-face and indirect communication) as well as perceived social barriers. One hundred forty-one consecutive patients with a diagnosis of PNES that was later confirmed through inpatient video-EEG monitoring were administered a questionnaire on the day of their first outpatient appointment. The questionnaire was designed to assess preferences in socialization practices, frequency of interpersonal contact, use of social media, and perceived barriers to socialization. The survey was developed to gain a better understanding of the socialization behaviors and preferences of our patients for the future development of customized activities in our wellness program. Contrary to prevalent assumptions that patients with PNES tend to be socially isolated, our responders reported that they were in fact quite socially connected (72.2% reported daily communication with friends and family via telephone, 68.54% saw relatives in person weekly, 65.28% saw friends weekly, and 51.2% reported using the computer daily to socialize). Facebook was the preferred online social media. Indoor/solitary activities were most common with 57.44% stating that they watch TV/read/use the computer. The primary barriers to socialization that respondents endorsed were driving prohibition and medication side effects. Respondents expressed the greatest interest in online support groups or educational programs (29.46%), office-based support groups (28.57%), and volunteering (23.21%). Although it has been speculated that social isolation is a significant problem for patients with PNES, considerable participation in social activities was reported. Characteristics of socialization practices may be more nuanced than first believed. When addressing therapeutic interventions with this group of patients in the future, it
Popkirov, Stoyan; Jungilligens, Johannes; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can remain undiagnosed for many years, leading to unnecessary medication and delayed treatment. A recent report by the International League Against Epilepsy Nonepileptic Seizures Task Force recommends a staged approach to the diagnosis of PNES (LaFrance, et al., 2013). We aimed to investigate its practical utility, and to apply the proposed classification to evaluate the role of long-term video-EEG monitoring (VEEG) and suggestive seizure induction (SSI) in PNES workup. Using electronic medical records, 122 inpatients (mean age 36.0±12.9years; 68% women) who received the diagnosis of PNES at our epilepsy center during a 4.3-year time period were included. There was an 82.8% agreement between diagnostic certainty documented at discharge and that assigned retroactively using the Task Force recommendations. In a minority of cases, having used the Task Force criteria could have encouraged the clinicians to give more certain diagnoses, exemplifying the Task Force report's utility. Both VEEG and SSI were effective at supporting high level diagnostic certainty. Interestingly, about one in four patients (26.2%) had a non-diagnostic ("negative") VEEG but a positive SSI. On average, this subgroup did not have significantly shorter mean VEEG recording times than VEEG-positive patients. However, VEEG-negative/SSI-positive patients had a significantly lower habitual seizure frequency than their counterparts. This finding emphasizes the utility of SSI in ascertaining the diagnosis of PNES in patients who do not have a spontaneous habitual event during VEEG due to, for example, low seizure frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ostrowsky-Coste, Karine; Montavont, Alexandra; Keo-Kosal, Pascale; Guenot, Marc; Chatillon, Claude-Edouard; Ryvlin, Philippe
We report two adolescents with refractory seizure disorders in whom both epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) were recorded with intracerebral EEG. The ictal phenomenology of epileptic seizures (ES) and PNES, consisting of hypermotor attacks in the first patient and left-sided painful episodes in the second patient, proved remarkably similar in both cases, highlighting the difficulties which can arise with the distinction of epileptic seizures and PNES based on ictal phenomenology alone. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldstein, Laura H; Mellers, John D C
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) pose clinical challenges in terms of diagnosis and management. Recent studies have thrown further light on the extent to which features of PNES semiology may distinguish PNES patients from those with epilepsy. Management of this patient group will include discussion of the diagnosis, withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs, and psychological intervention when PNES persist. However, the evidence base for these different stages remains limited, although recent studies are beginning to provide guidance for clinicians and future research.
another medical illness. The gold standard for PNES diagnosis is video electroencephalogram (Video-EEG. PNESs are defined by modern psychiatry as conversion and dissociative disorders but these disorders may coexist with many others psychiatric disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. It is well known that epileptic seizures are a frequent and well-studied complication of traumatic head injury (THI. However, THI may also generate psychic symptoms including PNES. In this paper we describe a patient who developed PNES after THI in a bus accident and received a diagnosis of refractory epilepsy for 24 years until she underwent Video-EEG.
O'Sullivan, S S
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this article was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients diagnosed with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with PNES in a 5-year period. RESULTS: Fifty patients with PNES were identified, giving an estimated incidence of 0.91\\/100,000 per annum. Thirty-eight were included for review, 15 of whom were male (39%). Eighteen patients had been diagnosed with epilepsy as well as PNES (47%). We demonstrated a gender difference in our patients, with males having higher seizure frequencies, more antiepileptic drug use, and a longer interval before diagnosis of PNES. Females were diagnosed with other conversion disorders more often than males. Impaired social function was observed in PNES, as was resistance to psychological interventions with a subsequent poor response to treatments. CONCLUSIONS: PNES remains a difficult condition to treat, and may affect males in proportions higher than those described in previous studies.
Dworetzky, Barbara A; Weisholtz, Daniel S; Perez, David L; Baslet, Gaston
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can present emergently and are often mistaken for epileptic seizures. PNES emergencies have not been well studied, and yet there are associated serious morbidities, particularly when patients are seen in an emergency setting and are misdiagnosed. PNES may be prolonged, mimicking status epilepticus, a condition we refer to as nonepileptic psychogenic status (NEPS), and patients may receive aggressive and unnecessary medical treatments that can lead to serious iatrogenic complications, including death. NEPS is also associated with an increased risk of self-harm, including suicide attempts, and may indicate a serious comorbid psychiatric illness. In addition to iatrogenic complications of PNES, accidents and injuries are an underrecognized source of morbidity. PNES may also present during medical procedures, which may not only interfere with their completion, but may alarm practitioners who, fearing liability, may initiate further medical evaluations and treatments. When PNES occur during pregnancy, patients may be misdiagnosed with eclampsia and their offspring delivered prematurely. They also risk being placed on medications that are harmful to the fetus. Increased awareness of PNES is necessary to prevent iatrogenic harm and to identify underlying psychiatric illnesses that carry their own risks. As yet, data available to guide treatment are scant, and further study is needed. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2015.
Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg
The early and definitive diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures is a common challenge in epileptology practice. Suggestive seizure induction is a valuable tool to aid the differentiation between epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, especially when long-term video-EEG monitoring is inconclusive or unavailable. In this retrospective analysis, we compared the diagnostic yield of a classical, placebo-based induction protocol with that of an extended protocol that includes hyperventilation and photic stimulation as means of suggestion while also implementing more open, standardized patient information. We investigated whether the diversification of suggestive seizure induction has an effect on diagnostic yield and whether it preempts the administration of placebo. Data from 52 patients with confirmed psychogenic nonepileptic seizures were analyzed. While suggestive seizure induction using only placebo-based suggestion provoked a typical event in 13 of 20 patients (65%), the extended protocol was positive in 27 of 34 cases (84%); this improvement was not significant (p=0.11). Noninvasive suggestion techniques accounted for 78% of inductions, avoiding placebo administration in a majority of patients. Still, placebo remains an important part of suggestive seizure induction, responsible for 22% (6 out of 27) of successful inductions using our extended protocol. Our study demonstrates that the diversification of suggestive seizure induction is feasible and beneficial for both patients and diagnosticians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wissel, Benjamin D.; Dwivedi, Alok K.; Gaston, Tyler E.; Rodriguez-Porcel, Federico J.; Aljaafari, Danah; Hopp, Jennifer L.; Krumholz, Allan; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Andrade, Danielle M.; Borlot, Felippe; Moseley, Brian D.; Cavitt, Jennifer L.; Williams, Stevie; Stone, Jon; LaFrance, W. Curt; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Espay, Alberto J.
We sought to examine the clinical and electrographic differences between patients with combined epileptic (ES) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and age- and gender-matched patients with ES-only and PNES-only. Data from 138 patients (105 women [77%]), including 46 with PNES/ES
Li, Yi; Matzka, Liesl; Maranda, Louise; Weber, Daniel
Differentiation between psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and generalized convulsive epileptic seizures (ES) is important for appropriate triaging in the emergency department (ED). This can be difficult in the ED, as the event is often not witnessed by a medical professional. In the current study, we investigated whether anion gap (AG), bicarbonate, and the Denver Seizure Score (DSS) could differentiate between PNES and ES. Of a total of 1,354 subjects reviewed from a tertiary care medical center, 27 PNES and 27 ES patients were identified based on clinical description and subsequent electroencephalogram. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine whether there was an association between seizure type and AG, bicarbonate, or DSS (24-bicarbonate + 2 × [AG-12]) when samples were drawn within 24 h of the concerning event. The result showed that sensitivity and negative predictive value dropped markedly for all measures if samples were drawn >2 h after the event; the sensitivity was similar for AG and DSS and higher than for bicarbonate. We propose that AG > 10 (sensitivity of 81.8%, specificity of 100%) in the first 2 h after the event could be used as a potential tool in the ED to help differentiate between PNES and ES. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
Reuber, Markus; Brown, Richard J
Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures (PNES) are one of the commonest differential diagnoses of epilepsy. This paper provides a narrative review of what has been learnt in the last 25 years regarding the visible manifestations, physiological features, subjective experiences and interactional aspects of PNES. We then explore how current insights into PNES semiology and phenomenology map onto the Integrative Cognitive Model (ICM), a new account of these phenomena that unifies previous approaches within a single explanatory framework. We discuss to what extent recent psychological and neurophysiological research is consistent with the ICM and indicate how the more detailed analysis of physiological data, connectivity analyses of EEG and functional or structural MRI data may provide greater insights into the biopsychosocial underpinnings of a disabling and under-researched disorder. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Valente, Kette; Alessi, Ruda; Tinker, Jennifer
We compared the semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between patients from the USA and Brazil. This international cross-cultural comparative study may expand understanding of PNES across the borders. We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNES admitted to one epilepsy center in the USA and one in Brazil. We classified their seizures into four classes: generalized motor, akinetic, focal motor, and subjective symptoms. All patients were interviewed by an epileptologist in both countries and were administered psychological assessment measures, including questions about PNES risk factors. For the statistical analyses, we compared patients from the two nations. Eighty-nine patients (49 from the USA and 40 from Brazil) were studied. Patients from the two countries were not significantly different with regard to sex and age, but patients from Brazil had earlier age at onset (26years vs. 34years; P=0.004) and a significantly greater delay in diagnosis (9.9years vs. 5.6years; P=0.001). Some characteristics of PNES were different between the two groups; patients from the USA had generally more seizure types and more often reported subjective seizures (55% in the USA vs. 10% in Brazil; P=0.0001). Clinical and historical characteristics of the patients were not significantly different. Delay in diagnosis of PNES may represent a major factor in resource-limited countries. Large multicenter cross-cultural studies may reveal subtle but significant cross-cultural differences with respect to the semiological, clinical, and historical aspects of PNES; however, patients with PNES share more similarities than differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarudiansky, Mercedes; Lanzillotti, Alejandra Inés; Areco Pico, María Marta; Tenreyro, Cristina; Scévola, Laura; Kochen, Silvia; D'Alessio, Luciana; Korman, Guido Pablo
To analyse the methods of reasoning with regard to patients' experiences of living with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used to gain an in-depth and contextual understanding of the perspectives of five patients with PNES. Data collection and analysis were followed by an inductive and interpretive approach informed by the principles of thematic analysis. Explanatory models and prototypes were identified from the patients' narratives. Four patients related their suffering regarding psychosocial causes -family conflicts, sexual harassment, and life changes, among others-. Hereditary and organic hypotheses appeared to be unspecific. Folk explanations were common to all participants (magic, witchcraft, energetic causes). Four patients used the term epilepsy as an illness prototype, focusing on seizures and the use of antiepileptic drugs. Three of them also compared their illness to other people's "attacks" (heart attacks, panic attacks, nervous breakdown). Only one of them referred to someone who was suspected of having epilepsy. Patients' psychosocial explanatory models are different from the results of previous studies because these studies indicate that most patients support somatic explanations. Patients also use folk explanations related to traditional medicine, which highlights the interpersonal aspects of the disease. Doctor-patient communication is essential for a correct understanding of PNES, resulting in better outcomes. It could also help to reduce the cultural distance between professionals and patients, leading to narrowing inequalities present in multicultural healthcare services. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Sullivan, S S
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to assess the opinion of general practitioners (GPs) regarding the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and the role they feel they should play in the management of the disorder. METHODS: Patients with PNES were identified from hospital records. Seizure and patient characteristics were recorded. Their GPs were surveyed regarding their understanding of the diagnosis and ongoing management of PNES. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were identified over a 3-year period as having been diagnosed with PNES. Sixty-five percent of GPs agreed with the diagnosis, and when asked to grade their understanding of the diagnosis (poor = 1, excellent = 10), the mean score was 5.7 (+\\/-SD 2.3). Thirty-five percent of GPs felt psychological input was of benefit to their patients. Fifty-two percent of GPs felt comfortable following up these patients, either with or without neurology outpatient services. CONCLUSIONS: PNES remains a difficult disease to manage. There is a high level of uncertainty regarding the optimum management of PNES among primary care physicians, for which further education is needed.
Thompson, Alexander W; Hantke, Nathan; Phatak, Vaishali; Chaytor, Naomi
Using 184 subjects with valid personality assessment interview (PAI) profiles and video-electroencephalography (VEEG)-confirmed diagnoses of epileptic seizures (ES; n = 109) or psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES; n = 75), we present the diagnostic test performance of the PAI PNES Indicator and other PAI scales when used to differentiate PNES from ES. Subjects with PNES reported significantly higher somatic, conversion, depressed, anxious, and suicidal symptoms. As a diagnostic tool, the PNES Indicator does not add additional accuracy beyond the conversion subscale (SOM-C). The somatization (SOM-S) and physiological depression (DEP-P) subscales perform as well as the SOM-C subscale. The SOM-C scale (cut point > or =70) was 58.7% sensitive and 83.5% specific at diagnosing PNES. Assuming a 30% prevalence of PNES, the SOM-C scale has a positive predictive value (PPV) of 60.4% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 82.5%. Overall, the PAI SOM-C subscale does not appear more accurate than other psychometric tests used to differentiate PNES from ES.
Griffith, Nathan M; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Schefft, Bruce K; Isaradisaikul, David; Meckler, Jason M; McNally, Kelly A; Privitera, Michael D
Subtypes of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) have emerged via classification of seizure semiology, psychological variables, or both. PNES subtypes that differ with respect to etiology may be amenable to targeted treatment strategies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between semiology type and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) profile among patients with PNES. We did so by modifying a classification scheme proposed by Selwa et al. Our main hypothesis was that there would be significant associations of semiology-based subtypes with psychological profiles among patients with PNES. We found significant differences in mean scores on MMPI-2 clinical scales 1 (Hypochondriasis) and 3 (Hysteria) and Harris-Lingoes subscales D5 (Brooding) and Sc5 (Lack of Ego Mastery, Defective Inhibition) across PNES subtypes (catatonic, minor motor, major motor). The results of the present study enhance understanding of the nosology of PNES by identifying psychopathological correlates of semiology-based subtypes of PNES. Our study also may inform the methodology of future investigations of psychopathology among patients with PNES by providing support for content-based interpretation of the MMPI.
Wolf, Laurie Dempsey; Hentz, Joseph G; Ziemba, Kristine S; Kirlin, Kristin A; Noe, Katherine H; Hoerth, Matthew T; Crepeau, Amy Z; Sirven, Joseph I; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Locke, Dona E C
It is clear that many individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) often present with poorer quality of life compared with those with epileptic seizures (ESs). However, the mechanisms linking seizure diagnosis to quality-of-life outcomes are much less clear. Alexithymia and somatization are emotional markers of psychological functioning that may explain these differences in quality of life. In the current study, patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with vEEG-confirmed diagnosis of PNESs or ESs were compared on measures of alexithymia, somatization, quality of life, and a variety of demographic and medical variables. Two models using alexithymia and somatization individually as mediators of the relations between diagnosis and quality of life were tested. Results indicated that patients with PNESs had significantly poorer quality of life compared with those with ESs. Alexithymia was associated with poor quality of life in both groups but did not differentiate between diagnostic groups. Further, alexithymia did not mediate the relationship between diagnosis and quality of life. Somatization was associated with poor quality of life, and patients with PNESs reported greater somatization compared with patients with ESs. Somatization also significantly mediated the relationship between diagnosis and quality of life. In conclusion, somatization may be one mechanism affecting poor quality of life among patients with PNESs compared with ESs and should be a target of comprehensive treatments for PNESs. Alexithymia proved to be an important factor impacting quality of life in both groups and should also be targeted in treatment for patients with PNESs and patients with ESs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anderson, James; Hill, Joanne; Alford, Max; Oto, Maria; Russell, Aline; Razvi, Saif
Epilepsy and epilepsy mimics may lead to high healthcare resource utilization (HRU) including diagnostic resources. The William Quarrier Scottish Epilepsy Centre (SEC) provides medium-term residential assessment (MTRA; average length of stay: 28days) and treatment for complex presentations of epilepsy and related conditions (principally psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, PNES). We studied the effect of MTRA on HRU in a defined health board area in Scotland. A retrospective audit of individuals admitted to the SEC from a defined health board area using SEC and health board medical records. Neurological HRU assessed included emergency department visits, hospital admissions, outpatient clinic appointments, and brain imaging prior to and post-MTRA. Healthcare resource utilization was also compared with individuals referred but not admitted to the SEC because of individual circumstances and choice. Seventy-three individuals (51 female, average age: 37.51; 22 men, average age: 43.72) were identified from three years of admissions (1st April 2010 to 31st March 2013). Final diagnosis was epilepsy (ES), 32; ES and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (ES+PNES), 17; and PNES alone, 24. Twenty-two individuals were identified as a comparison group (8 men, 14 women; average age: 37.21 and 43.90, respectively). Total average contacts per patient per year (CPY) was significantly different pre- and post-MTRA (4.16 vs. 1.32; t(72)=6.11, pepilepsy (with or without PNES), HRU use dropped significantly in the year after admission, and these gains remained stable (total first vs. third postdischarge CPY, 1.74 vs. 1.29). The participants in the comparison group, who were not admitted, had no comparable drop across the study period and were using significantly more resources at each follow-up point than those in the admitted group (F (1, 48)=44.45, p<.01, ηp(2)=.49). Medium-term residential assessment is associated with sustained reduction in HRU especially in patients with PNES. Overall
Razvi, Saif; Mulhern, Sharon; Duncan, Roderick
Patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are heavy users of emergency and nonemergency health care. We performed a 1-year prospective audit of use of a group of PNES-related health care items in patients with newly diagnosed (mean duration: 7.3 months) PNES from PNES onset to diagnosis and from diagnosis to 6 months postdiagnosis. Twenty-eight patients (20 women, age: 34±16 years) were responsible for 14 general practitioner home visits, 31 ambulance calls, 34 emergency department visits, 21 hospital admissions (66 inpatient days), 8 MRI scans, 24 CT scans, 2 standard EEGs, 28 short video EEG recordings, and 5 ambulatory EEG recordings. In the 6 months following diagnosis, there were 2 emergency department visits (94.1% reduction), no hospital admissions (100% reduction), 2 ambulance calls, no general practitioner visits, 1 MRI scan, and no CT scans or EEGs. The immediacy of this marked health care demand reduction suggests that the relationship between presentation of diagnosis and health care demand reduction is causal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Rabiei, Amin H; Tinker, Jennifer; Tracy, Joseph
We investigated the utility of a very brief review of system (ROS) questionnaire in differentiating psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) from epilepsy. In this retrospective study, we investigated all patients with PNES admitted to Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from October 2013 through April 2015. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNES or epilepsy based on video-EEG monitoring were included. These were matched with respect to age and sex. All patients had a brief ROS questionnaire in their electronic charts. The questionnaire included 10 general yes/no questions about the presence or absence of any abnormality in body systems. Thirty patients with PNES and 30 patients with epilepsy were investigated. The mean of ROS responses for the presence of any abnormality (±standard deviation) for the PNES group was 2.43 (±1.33) and for the epilepsy group was 1.50 (±0.94) (p=0.01). Cut-off point of three positive ROS was able to differentiate these two conditions from each another (p=0.01; OR: 6, 95% confidence interval: 1.48-24.29). Presence of multiple complaints in the ROS questionnaire argues in favor of PNES compared with epilepsy. This brief and easy to apply ROS questionnaire may be used as a valuable ancillary tool to differentiate PNES from epilepsy during the initial screening visit. This may help prevent the delay in making the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnstone, Benjamin; Velakoulis, Dennis; Yuan, Cheng Yi; Ang, Anthony; Steward, Chris; Desmond, Patricia; O'Brien, Terence J
Exposure to early life childhood trauma has been implicated as resulting in a vulnerability to epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), hippocampal atrophy, and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to explore the relationships between childhood trauma, epilepsy, PNES, and hippocampal volume in patients admitted to a video-electroencephalogram monitoring (VEM) unit. One hundred thirty-one patients were recruited from the Royal Melbourne Hospital VEM unit. The diagnostic breakdown of this group was: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (32), other epilepsy syndromes (35), PNES (47), other nonepileptic syndromes (5), both epilepsy and PNES (6), and uncertain diagnosis (6). All patients completed a questionnaire assessing exposure to childhood trauma, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), as well as questionnaires assessing psychiatric symptomatology (SCL-90-R), Anxiety and Depression (HADS), quality of life (QOLIE-98) and cognition (NUCOG). Volumetric coronal T1 MRI scans were available for 84 patients. Hippocampal volumes were manually traced by a blinded operator. The prevalence of childhood trauma in patients with PNES was higher than in patients with other diagnoses (p=0.005), and the group with PNES overall scored significantly higher on the CTQ (p=0.002). No association was found between CTQ scores and hippocampal volumes; however, patients with a history of sexual abuse were found to have smaller left hippocampal volumes than patients who had not (p=0.043). Patients reporting having experienced childhood trauma scored lower on measures of quality of life and higher on measures of psychiatric symptomatology. Patients with PNES report having experienced significantly more childhood trauma than those with epileptic seizures, and in both groups there was a relationship between a history of having experienced sexual abuse and reduced left hippocampal volume. Patients with PNES and those with epilepsy who have a history of childhood trauma have overall
Dimaro, Lian V; Roberts, Nicole A; Moghaddam, Nima G; Dawson, David L; Brown, Ian; Reuber, Markus
Self-esteem (SE), or one's sense of competence and worth, is reduced in many mental and physical disorders. Low SE is associated with perceived stigma and disability and poor treatment outcomes. The present study examined implicit and explicit SE (automatic and deliberate views about the self) in people with epilepsy and people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE have been found to correlate with psychological distress in disorders often associated with PNESs but are relatively unexplored in PNESs. We hypothesized that, compared with epilepsy, PNESs would be associated with lower self-reported SE and greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE. Thirty adults with PNESs, 25 adults with epilepsy, and 31 controls without a history of seizures were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale as a measure of explicit SE and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a measure of implicit SE. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (a somatic symptom inventory) were also administered. We found significant group differences in explicit (p<0.001) but not implicit SE. Patients with PNESs reported lower SE than the other groups. No group differences were found in implicit SE. Implicit-explicit SE discrepancies were larger in the group with PNESs than in the other groups (p<0.001). Higher frequency of PNESs (but not epileptic seizures) was associated with lower explicit SE (rs=-.83, p<0.01) and greater SE discrepancies (i.e., lower explicit relative to implicit SE; rs=.65, p<0.01). These relationships remained significant when controlling for anxiety and somatization. Patients with PNESs had lower explicit SE than those with epilepsy or healthy controls. In keeping with our expectations, there were greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE among patients with PNESs than in the other groups. Our results, including the strong relationship between
Full Text Available Gaston BasletDepartment of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES can significantly affect an individual’s quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and
Heart rate analysis differentiates dialeptic complex partial temporal lobe seizures from auras and non-epileptic seizures A análise da freqüência cardíaca diferencia crises dialépticas parciais complexas de auras e crises não epilépticas
Gisele R. de Oliveira
Full Text Available The distinction of non-epileptic from epileptic events is difficult even for experienced neurologists. We retrospectively evaluated 59 dialeptic events from 27 patients admitted for video EEG monitoring to check whether heart rate (HR analysis could help in differentiating dialeptic complex partial temporal lobe seizures (TLS from dialeptic simple partial TLS, and non-epileptic dialeptic events. Baseline HR was increased in the simple partial TLS in comparison to complex partial TLS and non-epileptic groups (pA distinção entre eventos não epilépticos de epilépticos é difícil mesmo para neurologistas experientes. Analisamos 59 eventos dialéticos de 27 pacientes internados para monitorização por video-EEG para checar se a análise da frequência cardíaca (FC poderia auxiliar na diferenciação de crises dialépticas parciais complexas de crises dialépticas parciais simples e eventos dialépticos não epilépticos. A freqüência cardíaca basal estava aumentada nos pacientes com crises parciais simples em comparação com o período basal dos grupos parcial complexa e não epiléptico (p<0,05. Houve aumento da freqüência cardíaca em cada crise dialéptica parcial complexa (100% dos eventos, p<0,05, mas a FC retornou aos níveis basais na fase pós-ictal. A FC ictal não foi alterada nos grupos de crises não epiléticas e nos pacientes com crises parciais simples. Nossos achados sugerem que a taquicardia ictal com mediação central é característica de crises parciais complexas dialépticas (tanto taquicardia quanto bradicardia têm sido relatados durante crises temporais parciais complexas. Tal achado poderá ser utilizado como critério para diferenciar crises dialépticas parciais complexas de crises dialépticas parciais simples e eventos dialépticos não epilépticos.
Neiman, Eli S; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Roarke, Michael C
This study was designed to evaluate the utility of subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) in atypical psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Video-EEG monitoring (vEEG) is the gold standard for PNES diagnosis but, like any modality, has limitations. In difficult cases in which the diagnosis is suspected but remains in question after vEEG, a complementary study that could help differentiate epilepsy from PNES would be desirable. Thirteen SISCOM studies performed in patients with a final diagnosis of PNES were retrospectively reviewed. Common indications for SISCOM were semiology consistent with partial epilepsy (9/13), abnormal head MRI (5/13), and reported abnormal routine EEG (5/13). SISCOM was negative in 85% (11/13) of patients and was helpful in increasing the diagnostic certainty of PNES in these exceptional cases.
Kandler, Rosalind; Lawrence, Sarah; Pang, Catherine; Lai, Ming; Whitehead, Kimberley
To produce an evidence base to formulate guidelines for optimal performance of EEG in patients referred with a possible diagnosis of non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD). 51 UK EEG departments participated in the prospective study. A pro-forma was completed for all consecutive patients aged 5 years and over referred for EEG over a six month period. Information obtained included referral diagnosis, occurrence/type of attack during EEG, the use of suggestion, length of recording and who was present during the EEG. 11,298 patients were entered into the study. 376 psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) occurred of which 337 were considered to be of the habitual type. In those patients suspected of having NEAD prior to referral, the use of verbal suggestion increased the yield of habitual attacks by a factor of three in both adults and children. Using suggestive techniques twice, improved the yield further. Non-habitual attacks occurred equally whether or not suggestion was used. At least 90% of habitual PNES occurred within the first 30 min of recording even in those patients having prolonged EEGs. In EEGs where additional professional personnel were present, PNES occurred more frequently. This large multicentre study provides evidence to inform recommendations for EEG to investigate NEAD. We recommend the use of verbal suggestion at least twice and where practical the presence of additional professional staff. A thirty minute recording is sufficient to record a habitual PNES in most instances. Copyright © 2018 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gisele R. de Oliveira
Full Text Available Heart rate changes are common in epileptic and non-epileptic seizures. Previous studies have not adequately assessed the contribution of motor activity on these changes nor have evaluated them during prolonged monitoring. We retrospectively evaluated 143 seizures and auras from 76 patients admitted for video EEG monitoring. The events were classified according to the degree of ictal motor activity (severe, moderate and mild/absent in: severe epileptic (SE, N=17, severe non-epileptic (SNE, N=6, moderate epileptic (ME, N=28, moderate non-epileptic (MNE, N=11, mild epileptic (mE, N=35, mild non-epileptic (mNE, N=33 and mild aura (aura, N=13. Heart rate increased in the ictal period in severe epileptic, severe non-epileptic, moderate epileptic and mild epileptic events (pAlterações da frequência cardíaca são comuns em crises epilépticas e não-epilépticas. Estudos prévios não avaliaram adequadamente a contribuição da atividade motora nas alterações da frequência cardíaca, e as crises não foram estudadas durante monitoração prolongada. No presente estudo avaliamos retrospectivamente 143 crises de 76 pacientes admitidos para monitoração com vídeo-EEG no Hospital da Universidade de Saint Louis. As crises foram classificadas de acordo com o grau de atividade motora (severa, moderada e leve/ausente em: epiléptica grave (EG, N=17, não-epiléptica grave (NEG, N=6, epiléptica moderada (EM, N=28, não epiléptica moderada (NEM, N=11, epiléptica leve (EL, N=35, não-epiléptica leve (NEL, N=33, e aura, N=13. A frequência cardíaca aumentou no período ictal nas crises epilépticas graves, não epilépticas graves, epilépticas moderadas, epilépticas leves (p<0,05. A frequência cardíaca apresentou tendência a retornar aos níveis basais durante o período pós ictal nas crises não epilépticas graves, mas não nas crises epilépticas graves. As auras apresentaram frequência cardíaca basal aumentada. Um limiar de 20% no aumento
Erba, Giuseppe; Giussani, Giorgia; Juersivich, Adam; Magaudda, Adriana; Chiesa, Valentina; Laganà, Angela; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Bianchi, Elisa; Langfitt, John; Beghi, Ettore
To investigate if, when, and to what extent visual information contained in a video-recorded event allows experienced epileptologists to predict the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) without the aid of electroencephalography (EEG). Five neurologists actively practicing in epilepsy centers in Italy and the United States were asked to review 23 videos capturing representative events of 21 unselected consecutive patients admitted for long-term video-EEG monitoring (VEM). Four raters were blind to EEG and clinical information; one rater was not. They were requested to (1) rate the videos for quality and content; (2) choose among four diagnoses: (a) epileptic seizures (ES); (b) PNES; (c) Other nonepileptic seizures (NES; (syncope, movement disorder, migraine, etc.); (d) "Cannot Say"; and (3) explain in their own words the main reasons leading to the diagnosis of choice. All raters predicted the diagnosis correctly in 7 of 23 videos (all ES or PNES) (30.4%), whereas all raters failed in 5 of 23 cases (three Other NES, one PNES, one Cannot Say) (21.7%). The conditions that facilitate, and those that interfere with, a confident diagnosis were predictable. Degree of accuracy among raters was not uniform and was consistently better in three raters. Two among the four blind raters were as accurate as the rater who was not blinded. Interrater agreement was "moderate" (k = 0.52) for the overall group; "moderate" for ES (k = 0.53); "substantial" for PNES (k = 0.63); "fair" for Other NES (k = 0.21)-similar to the results obtained in a previous study evaluating the reliability of combined video-EEG. In about one third of cases, a confident diagnosis of PNES/ES can be established on clinical grounds based on video data alone. Our results benefit all affected patients, particularly those with no access to video-EEG monitoring units. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.
Locke, Dona E C; Thomas, Michael L
Long term video-EEG (electroencephalography) monitoring in an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) will remain the gold standard for differential diagnosis of epilepsy from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. However, neuropsychologists are routinely part of the differential diagnosis team and utilize personality assessment measures to add supportive data for the diagnosis. The most accurate scale on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in terms of differential diagnosis appears to be RC1 (Somatic Complaints) with a classification rate of 68% (Locke et al., 2010). This is not as helpful as neuropsychologists would like. Our aim in the current study was to determine whether another set of MMPI-2-RF items could provide improved classification accuracy. Using a combination of modern psychometric techniques and clinical judgment, we developed two complementary scales based on a physical complaints factor (Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Physical Complaints, PNES-pc) and an attitudes factor (Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Attitudes, PNES-a). The combination of these scales classified 73% of the sample, an improvement over comparable single or combined MMPI-2-RF scales. Cross validation is needed to warrant use in clinical practice. Information on scoring, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios at various levels of endorsement is provided.
Baird, Grayson L; Harlow, Lisa L; Machan, Jason T; Curt LaFrance, W
The present study examined seizure clusters as a primary outcome in patients receiving treatment for PNES. Cluster reduction is examined longitudinally using frequency threshold and statistical definitions of seizure cluster for patients. Possible risk factors for clustering will be examined along with clustering as a risk factor for poorer secondary outcomes. Participants were from a pilot randomized treatment trial for PNES where they received cognitive behavioral therapy-informed psychotherapy (CBT-ip), sertraline, combination therapy, or treatment as usual. Seizure data are from patients' seizure dairies. Cluster reduction was observed for those receiving CBT-ip or combination treatment using all definitions of daily clusters and weekly clusters. No risk factors of clustering were observed. Those who were identified as having clusters during the trial had poorer secondary outcomes on several measures at baseline relative to those who were not identified as having clusters. This is the first study known to the authors to not only examined seizure clusters as a primary outcome for those with PNES, but also the first study to suggest that CBT-ip and combination therapy may be effective in reducing the frequency of clusters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history
Rawlings, G H; Jamnadas-Khoda, J; Broadhurst, M; Grünewald, R A; Howell, S J; Koepp, M; Parry, S W; Sisodiya, S M; Walker, M C; Reuber, M
Previous studies suggest that ictal panic symptoms are common in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). This study investigates the frequency of panic symptoms in PNES and if panic symptoms, just before or during episodes, can help distinguish PNES from the other common causes of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC), syncope and epilepsy. Patients with secure diagnoses of PNES (n=98), epilepsy (n=95) and syncope (n=100) were identified using clinical databases from three United Kingdom hospitals. Patients self-reported the frequency with which they experienced seven symptoms of panic disorder in association with their episodes. A composite panic symptom score was calculated on the basis of the frequency of symptoms. 8.2% of patients with PNES reported "never" experiencing any of the seven panic symptoms in their episodes of TLOC. Patients with PNES reported more frequent panic symptoms in their attacks than those with epilepsy (pepilepsy from syncope. Patients with PNES report TLOC associated panic symptoms more commonly than those with epilepsy or syncope. Although panic symptoms are reported infrequently by most patients with PNES, a composite symptom score may contribute to the differentiation between PNES and the other two common causes of TLOC. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cronje, Gretha; Pretorius, Chrisma
The primary aim of this study was to explore a possible association between the coping styles and the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in the South African context. Twenty-two patients with PNESs with confirmatory video-EEG were matched by age and gender with a healthy control group. Participants had to complete self-reported measures of HRQOL and coping strategies. Data analysis consisted of performing Pearson correlations, analysis of variances, and regression analysis. The results indicated that the HRQOL scores of the group with PNESs were significantly lower than the HRQOL scores of the healthy control group. The participants with PNESs utilized significantly more escape-avoidance and distancing coping strategies in comparison to the healthy control group. The results also indicated that the avoidance coping strategies utilized by participants with PNESs had a significant negative effect on their HRQOL. The findings of this study provided greater insight into the coping strategies utilized by participants with PNESs, which have been identified as risk factors in PNESs. This is the first study of this nature of people with PNESs in South Africa. © 2013.
Doğan, Ebru Apaydın; Ünal, Ali; Ünal, Aslıhan; Erdoğan, Çağla
The differential diagnosis of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), and syncope constitutes a major challenge. Misdiagnosis rates up to 20 to 30% are reported in the literature. To assess the clinical utility of serum lactate levels for differentiation of GTCS, PNES, and syncope based on gender differences. Data from 270 patients were evaluated retrospectively. Only patients ≥18 years old with the final diagnosis of GTCS, PNES, or syncope in their chart were recruited. Serum lactate levels were measured in the first 2h of the index event. Serum lactate levels in patients with GTCS (n=157) were significantly higher than in the patients with PNES (n=25) (p<0.001) and syncope (n=88) (p<0.001). When compared with the females, serum lactate levels in patients with GTCS were significantly higher in the male subgroup (p=0.004). In male patients the ROC analysis yielded a serum lactate value of 2.43mmol/l with a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.88 as the optimal cut-off value to distinguish GTCS from other events. The ROC analysis for the AUC yielded a high estimate of 0.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.98). When a cut-off value of 2.43mmol/l was chosen for the females, which was an optimal value for male patients, the specificity was 0.85, however, the sensitivity was 0.64. We propose that serum lactate level when measured in the first 2h after the index event has a high clinical utility in the differential diagnosis of GTCS, PNES, and syncope. With concomitant clinical signs and physical examination findings besides neuroimaging and EEG, elevated levels of lactate should be taken into account when evaluating a patient with impaired consciousness. On the other hand, the suggested cut-off value 2.43mmol/l might not have a discriminative effect between GTCS, PNES, and syncope in female patients. This finding should be verified in a prospectively designed study with a larger patient population. Copyright © 2017
Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Pressler, Ronit; Wolf, Peter
Muscle activity during seizures is in electroencephalographical (EEG) praxis often considered an irritating artefact. This article discusses ways by surface electromyography (EMG) to turn it into a valuable tool of epileptology. Muscles are in direct synaptic contact with motor neurons. Therefore, EMG signals provide direct information about the electric activity in the motor cortex. Qualitative analysis of EMG has traditionally been a part of the long-term video-EEG recordings. Recent development in quantitative analysis of EMG signals yielded valuable information on the pathomechanisms of convulsive seizures, demonstrating that it was different from maximal voluntary contraction, and different from convulsive psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Furthermore, the tonic phase of the generalised tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) proved to have different quantitative features than tonic seizures. The high temporal resolution of EMG allowed detailed characterisation of temporal dynamics of the GTCS, suggesting that the same inhibitory mechanisms that try to prevent the build-up of the seizure activity, contribute to ending the seizure. These findings have clinical implications: the quantitative EMG features provided the pathophysiologic substrate for developing neurophysiologic biomarkers that accurately identify GTCS. This proved to be efficient both for seizure detection and for objective, automated distinction between convulsive and non-convulsive epileptic seizures. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaufman, Kenneth R; Struck, Peter J
Patients with epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) have an increased prevalence of psychiatric illness and risk for suicidal ideation/suicidal behavior/suicide compared with the general population. Recent literature suggests that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used to treat epilepsy, pain, and psychiatric disorders increase the risk of suicide and that this increased risk may be AED selective. This case analyzes a suicide attempt on a video/EEG telemetry unit. Specific risk factors associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors pertinent to this case are reviewed: epilepsy, multiple psychiatric diagnoses including affective disorder, AEDs, PNES, prior medically serious suicide attempt, and suicide attempt within the past month. Specific psychometric rating scales to screen for both psychiatric illness and suicide risk and psychiatric assessment should be integral components of the evaluation and treatment of patients on video/EEG telemetry units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wiseman, Hannah; Mousa, Saafi; Howlett, Stephanie; Reuber, Markus
The aim of this study was to add to our understanding of the impact of psychoeducation on patients' acceptance of the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs), the frequency of their seizures, and their quality of life. The study also aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of brief manualized psychoeducation interventions for PNESs, delivered by a more diverse range of clinicians and in a wider range of treatment settings. The final sample consisted of 25 patients diagnosed with PNESs by a neurologist specializing in the treatment of seizure disorder and referred to the psychotherapy service. The study included patients from four centers, using a manualized psychoeducation intervention delivered over 4 sessions by specialist epilepsy nurses and assistant psychologists. All patients completed self-measure questionnaires for Seizure Frequency, Impaired Functioning (WSAS), Psychological Distress (CORE-OM), Illness Perception (BIPQ), Health-Related Quality of Life: general (ED-QOL) and epilepsy-specific (NewQOL-6D), Symptom Attribution, and patient's perception of usefulness and relevance of the intervention. All measures were collected at baseline and after the completion of the fourth session. All measures improved from baseline to postintervention, but this improvement was only significant for CORE-OM (ppsychological distress, and have an effect on patients' illness perceptions that should help them engage with a more extended psychotherapy program if that was necessary. The intervention was carried out successfully by staff with relatively little training in delivering psychological interventions. Further controlled studies are required to provide proof of efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pick, S; Mellers, J D C; Goldstein, L H
This study aimed to extend the current understanding of dissociative symptoms experienced by patients with dissociative (psychogenic, non-epileptic) seizures (DS), including psychological and somatoform types of symptomatology. An additional aim was to assess possible relationships between dissociation, traumatic experiences, post-traumatic symptoms and seizure manifestations in this group. A total of 40 patients with DS were compared with a healthy control group (n = 43), matched on relevant demographic characteristics. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI), Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20, Traumatic Experiences Checklist and the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Measures of seizure symptoms and current emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were also administered. The clinical group reported significantly more psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, trauma, perceived impact of trauma, and post-traumatic symptoms than controls. Some dissociative symptoms (i.e. MDI disengagement, MDI depersonalization, MDI derealization, MDI memory disturbance, and somatoform dissociation scores) were elevated even after controlling for emotional distress; MDI depersonalization scores correlated positively with trauma scores while seizure symptoms correlated with MDI depersonalization, derealization and identity dissociation scores. Exploratory analyses indicated that somatoform dissociation specifically mediated the relationship between reported sexual abuse and DS diagnosis, along with depressive symptoms. A range of psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, traumatic experiences and post-traumatic symptoms are elevated in patients with DS relative to healthy controls, and seem related to seizure manifestations. Further studies are needed to explore peri-ictal dissociative experiences in more detail.
Tushar R Sahasrabudhe
Full Text Available Dyspnea is a very common presenting complaint of a patient. Though commonly due to an organic disease, dyspnea can be a manifestation of underlying anxiety disorder. Three typical patterns of psychogenic dyspnea, viz. panic attack, psychogenic hyperventilation, and compulsive sighing, have been reviewed in this article. The article also comments on the diagnostic features and treatment of these patterns. The overlap with organic causes of dyspnea such as bronchial asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has also been discussed. For literature review, a Medline and Pubmed search was conducted using appropriate keywords. Articles were also identified from the authors′ own knowledge of the literature as well as reference lists in articles retrieved.
K. Yu. Mukhin
Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, especially in childhood and adolescence. The incidence varies from 15 to 113 cases per 100 000 population with the maximum among children under 1 year old. The prevalence of epilepsy is high, ranging from 5 to 8 cases (in some regions – 10 cases per 1000 children under 15 years old. Classification of the disease has great importance for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The article presents a novel strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, developed in 2016. It contains a number of brand new concepts, including a very important one, saying that some seizures, previously considered as generalized or focal only, can be, in fact, both focal and generalized. They include tonic, atonic, myoclonic seizures and epileptic spasms. The term “secondarily generalized seizure” is replace by the term “bilateral tonic-clonic seizure” (as soon as it is not a separate type of epileptic seizures, and the term reflects the spread of discharge from any area of cerebral cortex and evolution of any types of focal seizures. International League Against Epilepsy recommends to abandon the term “pseudo-epileptic seizures” and replace it by the term “psychogenic non-epileptic seizures”. If a doctor is not sure that seizures have epileptic nature, the term “paroxysmal event” should be used without specifying the disease. The conception of childhood epileptic encephalopathies, developed within this novel classification project, is one of the most significant achievements, since in this case not only the seizures, but even epileptiform activity can induce severe disorders of higher mental functions. In addition to detailed description of the new strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, the article contains a comprehensive review of the existing principles of epilepsy and epileptic seizures classification.
Psychogenic "purpura" consists in the spontaneous appearance of recurrent bruising, it is a reality which is still unexplained. Most often woman with an underlying emotional disorder are affected. In addition to cutaneous ecchymoses and hematomas they may have menometrorrhagia, hematuria, epistaxis and gastrointestinal bleeding in addition to many other complaints encompassing multiple organ systems. Cutaneous bruising is heralded by a burning or stinging sensation followed after a few hours by local warmth, puffiness and erythema, most often with some itching. The pain subsides when the ecchymoses appear a day later or earlier. Blood coagulation and hemostatic tests remain normal in all patients. A rare but poorly studied variety of psychogenic bleeding are religious or other stigmata with periodic bleeding at hands and feet, under the left breast and at the forehead, occasionally with bloody tears. It would be risky to substitute one poorly understood diagnosis (stigmata) with another (hysterical conversion). It is very difficult to distinguish spontaneous psychogenic from selfinflicted iatrogenic bleeding (purpura factitia) because patients may have the same obsessive-compulsive behavior or hysterical trait. Moreover, patients with self-induced bleeding act in a most clever manner and their continuous observation is difficult. The differential diagnosis with the "battered child" syndrome is rather easy. Other bleeding disorders with normal coagulation tests are an inherited failure of the collagen biosynthesis (f.i. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) or congenital or acquired vascular disorders (purpura senilis of Bateman, vitamin C deficiency, morbus Schamberg, purpura annularis of Majocchi, orthostatic purpura). There is virtually no scientific information on the interaction between the nervous system and hemostasis or blood coagulation. The only therapeutic approach in patients with psychogenic bleeding is psychiatric with particular attention to the sociocultural
Fredsø, N; Toft, Nils; Sabers, A.
Seizures are common in dogs and can be caused by non-epileptic conditions or epilepsy. The clinical course of newly diagnosed epilepsy is sparsely documented. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate causes for seizures (epileptic and non-epileptic) in a cohort of dogs with ne...
Guilherme Nogueira Mendes de Oliveira
Full Text Available Discutir as crises ou os eventos paroxísticos que simulem crises epilépticas, enfatizando as diferenças semiológicas entre elas e as perspectivas terapêuticas. Realizamos uma revisão da literatura, selecionando artigos nas bases de dados Medline e Bireme, a partir dos unitermos: "non-epileptic seizures", "psychogenic seizures". As crises não-epilépticas (CNE podem ser classificadas em fisiológicas (síncope, migrânea, ataque isquêmico transitório e em psicogênicas (voluntárias ou não. O padrão-ouro para a diferenciação entre as crises epilépticas e as CNE é o videoeletroencefalograma, mas vários dados semiológicos podem auxiliar esse processo. O tratamento das CNE baseia-se em psicoterapia e em farmacoterapia direcionadas aos transtornos psiquiátricos comórbidos. Apesar de a alta prevalência das CNE e de sua elevada morbidade, são escassos os estudos na literatura nacional. São muitos os desafios diagnósticos e terapêuticos. Assim, o psiquiatra atentar-se à sua ocorrência, evitando iatrogenia, como o uso desnecessário de drogas antiepilépticas.To discuss paroxysmal events that mimic epileptic seizures with emphasis on their semiologic differences and therapeutic perspectives. We did a narrative review of the literature based on selected papers in Medline and Bireme after searching for the uniterms "non-epileptic seizures" and "psychogenic seizures". Nonepileptic seizures (NES can be classified in physiological (syncope, migraine, transitory ischemic attack and psychogenic (voluntary or involuntary. The gold-standard in the differentiation of epileptic and nonepileptic seizures is the video-electroencefalogram, but many semiologic features can contribute to this process. The treatment of NES is based mainly on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy directed to comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite the high prevalence and elevated morbidity of the NES, there are just few studies on this subject in the Brazilian
Canavese, Carlotta; Canafoglia, Laura; Costa, Caterina; Zibordi, Federica; Zorzi, Giovanna; Binelli, Simona; Franceschetti, Silvana; Nardocci, Nardo
The aim of this article was to describe the phenomenology and polymyographic features of paroxysmal non-epileptic motor events (PNMEs) observed in a series of typically developing and children with neurological impairment. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of 63 individuals (29 females; 34 males) affected by PNMEs at the National Neurological Institute 'C. Besta' between 2006 and 2008. Individuals were included in the study if they had PNMEs documented by a video-electroencephalography-polymyographic study and were aged between 1 month and 18 years (mean age at the time of video-electroencephalography-polymyography: 5y 10mo). In 45 of the 63 participants (71%), PNMEs were associated with other neurological conditions (secondary) including epilepsy, whereas in 18 participants PNME was the only neurological symptom (primary). Clinical features allowed classification of the motor disturbance into usual movement disorder categories in 31 individuals (49%); in the remaining 32 (51%), the movement disorder was characterized on the basis of polymyographic pattern of 'jerks' or 'sustained contraction'. The most frequent PNMEs were paroxysmal dyskinesias, followed by startle, stereotypies, shuddering, sleep myoclonus, psychogenic movement disorders, and benign myoclonus of early infancy; the last syndrome was also observed in children with neurological impairment. In eight participants, PNMEs remained unclassified. PNMEs may occur in both healthy and children with neurological impairment and are caused by a wide range of static and progressive conditions. In the majority of children with neurological impairment with associated epilepsy, the PNMEs do not fit into the usual movement disorders categories. A video-electroencephalography-polymyography is therefore useful for characterizing them. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.
Saleh, Ahmed M; Abotalib, Zeinab M; Al-Ibrahim, Abdullah A; Al-Sultan, Sultan M
To assess maternal and fetal outcomes, in epileptic and non-epileptic pregnant women. A retrospective case-control study was conducted from January 2005 - December 2006 at Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 16508 live birth charts were reviewed. Maternal, obstetrical, and fetal outcomes were compared between women with epilepsy Group 1 (n = 53) and women who did not have epilepsy (controls) Group 2 (n = 60). There were no significant differences between either group in total length of labor, labor induction and oxytocin augmentation, need for labor analgesia, total blood loss and the need for blood transfusion, mode of delivery, and the length of hospital stay. There were no significant differences in all maternal complications between either group (p=0.8, 95% CI: 0.3-2.1). There was an increase in the mean dose of the antiepileptic medications needed during pregnancy. However, 4 women (7.5%) in the epileptic group had major seizures during pregnancy. All of these women needed addition of a second antiepileptic medication. Major congenital malformations occurred in 2 newborns (3.8%) of epileptic women, and none occurred in the control group. Both newborns were from women who received polytherapy. Women with epilepsy are not at increased risk for obstetric and neonatal complications, provided there is a combined team management approach by a neurologist and an obstetrician.
Full Text Available Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs for epileptic seizures (ES is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder.
Catherine M. Robson
Full Text Available Bodily phenomena that are difficult to identify, localize, explain and cure with the aid of modern biomedical knowledge and technology leave ample room for cultural influence. That makes them a perfect case for studying the cultural dimension of medical knowledge and practice. Building on this assumption we qualitatively explore the communication between neurologists and women with seizure disorders of uncertain etiology, often labeled psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES, in a specialist clinic in England. Based on an interpretation of film-recordings of eight naturally-occurring clinical consultations we discuss the following questions: How do neurologists explain the name, the cause and the treatment options to these patients? How do patients and their companions respond to these explanations? And finally, what makes these interactions so difficult? Our interpretation of the data is inspired by critical discourse analysis, and framed within a social constructionist perspective on medical knowledge and practice. We found that the neurologists presented the diagnosis and its cause—inappropriate stress management—through objective language that conveyed a high degree of certainty. Patient-parties often disagreed, and found it hard to believe that these physical symptoms had a psychological origin. Companions often acted as advocates for the patients in negotiations with the doctors. The polarized debate between psychogenic and somatic understandings of the seizures that emerged illuminates how the Cartesian dualism between body and mind complicates clinical encounters—a dualism doctors explicitly reject, but presumably accept. We argue that it is impossible to overcome this polarization without acknowledging the cultural dimension of medical knowledge and practice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160122
Dickson, Jon Mark; Dudhill, Hannah; Shewan, Jane; Mason, Sue; Grünewald, Richard A; Reuber, Markus
To determine the clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of patients taken to hospital by emergency ambulance after a suspected seizure. Quantitative cross-sectional retrospective study of a consecutive series of patients. An acute hospital trust in a large city in England. In 2012-2013, the regions' ambulance service managed 605 481 emergency incidents, 74 141/605 481 originated from Sheffield (a large city in the region), 2121/74 141 (2.9%) were suspected seizures and 178/2121 occurred in May 2012. We undertook detailed analysis of the medical records of the 91/178 patients who were transported to the city's acute hospital. After undertaking a retrospective review of the medical records, the best available aetiological explanation for the seizures was determined. The best available aetiological explanation for 74.7% (68/91) of the incidents was an epileptic seizure, 11.0% (10/91) were psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and 9.9% (9/91) were cardiogenic events. The epileptic seizures fall into the following four categories: first epileptic seizure (13.2%, 12/91), epileptic seizure with a historical diagnosis of epilepsy (30.8%, 28/91), recurrent epileptic seizures without a historical diagnosis of epilepsy (20.9%, 19/91) and acute symptomatic seizures (9.9%, 9/91). Of those with seizures (excluding cardiogenic events), 2.4% (2/82) of patients were seizing on arrival in the Emergency Department (ED), 19.5% (16/82) were postictal and 69.5% (57/82) were alert. 63.4% (52/82) were discharged at the end of their ED attendance and 36.5% (19/52) of these had no referral or follow-up. Most suspected seizures are epileptic seizures but this is a diagnostically heterogeneous group. Only a small minority of patients require emergency medical care but most are transported to hospital. Few patients receive expert review and many are discharged home without referral to a specialist leaving them at risk of further seizures and the associated morbidity, mortality
Mooij, Anne H; Frauscher, Birgit; Amiri, Mina; Otte, Wim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/168455706; Gotman, Jean
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is a difference in the background activity in the ripple band (80-200Hz) between epileptic and non-epileptic channels, and to assess whether this difference is sufficient for their reliable separation. METHODS: We calculated mean and standard deviation of wavelet
Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.
Jul 3, 1971 ... psychiatrists have given the concept of psychogenic infer- tility the attention which it deserves. It is with this topic that this article primarily will be concerned. The term infertility has been preferred to sterility. It is suggested that infertility implies a reversible state, whereas sterility relates to a condition based on ...
Diukova, G M; Zamergrad, M V; Golubev, V L; Adilova, S M; Makarov, S A
Psychogenic (functional) vertigo is in second place by frequency after benign positional paroxysmal vertigo. It is often difficult to make the diagnosis, diagnostic program is expensive and traditional treatment often is not effective. This literature review covers current concepts on the terminology, clinical signs, pathogenesis and treatment approaches with regard to functional vertigo. Special attention is given to cerebral mechanisms of the pathogenesis including cognitive aspects.
Barrett, G V; Franke, R H
Social, economic, and medical variables correlated with "psychogenic" death rates across about 30 countries. However, McClelland's psychological motives of achievement, affiliation, and power, determined for each country by content analysis of children's stories, did not. Status integration correlated positively with homicide and negatively with deaths from suicide and ulcers. Low life expectancy, wealth, economic growth, wine consumption, and zinc (cadmium) consumption correlated with deaths from homicide, suicide, ulcers, cirrhosis and hypertension, respectively.
Soeterik, Timo F W; Veenboer, Paul W; Lock, Tycho M T W
To evaluate the results of treatment with electroejaculation (EEJ), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) in patients with psychogenic anejaculation (PAE). Retrospective clinical study. Academic tertiary referral fertility center. Eleven male patients diagnosed with psychogenic anejaculation (PAE) were included. Median age at the time of first treatment with EEJ was 33.0 (interquartile range, 29.0-36.0) years. Electroejaculation, IUI, and IVF/ICSI. Semen analysis, fertilization rate, implantation rate, pregnancy rate, and delivery rate. A total of 60 EEJs were performed in 11 patients. Mean VCM (volume [mL] × concentration [sperm cells/mL] × percentage progressive motile cells) of the retrieved sperm of all EEJs was 17.5 × 10(6) (SD 16.5 × 10(6)). Yielded semen was used in a total of 26 ICSI procedures in seven couples. The fertilization rate was 65.6% (80 of 122). The ICSI cycles resulted in five pregnancies; of these, one resulted in a spontaneous abortion in the first trimester. Three couples were treated with 34 IUI cycles, which resulted in live births in four pregnancies. Electroejaculation is a suitable and effective treatment that can be used in men with psychogenic anejaculation. The retrieved semen can be used successfully in assisted reproductive technology treatment. In this study EEJ resulted in pregnancies and the birth of eight healthy children. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mooij, Anne H; Frauscher, Birgit; Amiri, Mina; Otte, Willem M; Gotman, Jean
To assess whether there is a difference in the background activity in the ripple band (80-200Hz) between epileptic and non-epileptic channels, and to assess whether this difference is sufficient for their reliable separation. We calculated mean and standard deviation of wavelet entropy in 303 non-epileptic and 334 epileptic channels from 50 patients with intracerebral depth electrodes and used these measures as predictors in a multivariable logistic regression model. We assessed sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) based on a probability threshold corresponding to 90% specificity. The probability of a channel being epileptic increased with higher mean (p=0.004) and particularly with higher standard deviation (pentropy is likely to be epileptic; with a threshold corresponding to 90% specificity our model can reliably select a subset of epileptic channels. Most studies have concentrated on brief ripple events. We showed that background activity in the ripple band also has some ability to discriminate epileptic channels. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marleide da Mota Gomes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the epidemiological importance of the different types of non-epileptic events (NEE in a low-income urban community. METHOD: The patients suspected of having epilepsy, who were detected in the first phase (screening one of this prevalence study, were interviewed by a neurologist in a non-structured neurological interview. These NEE were classified as physiological and psychogenic, subdivided by various types. The psychogenic NEE were classified according to the DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: We compared the cases suspected of having epilepsy (n=176 with those not suspected (n=806 and discovered that those cases suspected of having epilepsy had a greater median age (OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a importância epidemiológica dos diferentes tipos de eventos não epilépticos (ENE em uma comunidade urbana de baixa renda. METODO: Os casos suspeitos de terem epilepsia foram detectados na primeira fase de um estudo de prevalência de epilepsia, de triagem. Na segunda fase, eles foram entrevistados por um neurologista em entrevista não estruturada. Os casos de ENE foram classificados como fisiológicos ou psicogênicos e divididos em vários tipos. Esses últimos foram classificados segundo o DSM-IV. RESULTADOS: Entre os suspeitos de terem epilepsia (176, mais idosos do que os outros casos, <0.01, com predominância feminina, p<0.01 existem diferentes diagnósticos: eventos epilépticos sem causa aguda subjacente conhecida (20 ou com (convulsão febril e eclâmpsia. O diagnóstico mais prevalente é o de síncope (n=63; 35,8%, crises epilépticas, fenômeno tóxico paroxístico (incluso alcoolismo e trauma craniano, nos eventos fisiológicos, e transtornos dissociativos, ansiedade, entre os psicogênicos. O predomínio masculino está relacionado aos fenômenos tóxicos (p=0,02, e o feminino, aos fenômenos dissociativos (p=0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Dentre os ENE, sugere-se a importância populacional (epidemiológica da síncope, como j
Full Text Available Water intoxication is a rare condition characterised by overconsumption of water. It can occur in athletes engaging in endurance sports, users of MDMA (ecstasy, and patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. This case outlines water intoxication in a patient with psychogenic polydipsia. When the kidney’s capacity to compensate for exaggerated water intake is exceeded, hypotonic hyperhydration results. Consequences can involve headaches, behavioural changes, muscular weakness, twitching, vomiting, confusion, irritability, drowsiness, and seizures. Cerebral oedema can lead to brain damage and eventual death. In this case, psychogenic polydipsia led to significant hyponatraemia, cerebral oedema, and tonic-clonic seizures. Differential diagnoses for hyponatraemia are outlined. The aetiology of psychogenic polydipsia is uncertain, but postulated hypotheses are explored. Psychogenic polydipsia occurs in up 20% of psychiatric patients and this case serves to remind us to be cognizant of water overconsumption.
Bauer, H H
The clinical designation of the psychogenic voice disorder is discussed. "Psychogenic" is aetiologically by no means an apposite, or adjective, to organic diseases, for the occurrence of factors that can be defined as psychopathological (either primary or secondary) is always practically and clinically important--especially if these factors are of general psychosocial relevance, or of a latent depressive and neurotic nature. Hence, biographical anamnesis can be obligatory, supplying information that is essential for a therapeutic approach.
Cope, Sarah R; Poole, Norman; Agrawal, Niruj
Patients who experience functional non-epileptic attacks (FNEA) are frequently seen in Neurology clinics. Diagnosis alone can result in cessation of attacks for some patients, but many patients require further treatment. There is evidence that certain psychological therapies, like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy (PIT) can be beneficial. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a type of CBT that has been found to be effective at treating other somatic disorders, like epilepsy and chronic pain. In this paper, we explain what ACT is, the current evidence-base for its use, and the rationale for why it may be a beneficial treatment for patients who experience FNEA. We conclude that ACT is a potential treatment option for FNEA, and further research is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ter Avest, E; Patist, F M; Ter Maaten, J C; Nijsten, M W N
Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with psychogenic hyperventilation. Over a 5-month period, all the patients who visited the ED of a university hospital with presumed psychogenic hyperventilation were evaluated. Psychogenic hyperventilation was presumed to be present when an increased respiratory rate (>20 min) was documented at or before the ED visit and when somatic causes explaining the hyperventilation were absent. Arterial blood gas and lactate levels (reference values 0.5-1.5 mmol/l) were immediately measured by a point-of-care analyser that was managed and calibrated by the central laboratory. During the study period, 46 patients were diagnosed as having psychogenic hyperventilation. The median (range) Pco(2) for this group was 4.3 (2.0-5.5) kPa, the pH was 7.47 (7.40-7.68) and the lactate level was 1.2 (0.5-4.4) mmol/l. 14 participants (30%) had a lactate level above the reference value of 1.5 mmol/l. Pco(2) was the most important predictor of lactate in multivariate analysis. None of the participants underwent any medical treatment other than observation at the ED or had been hospitalised after their ED visit. In patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, lactate levels are frequently elevated. Whereas high lactates are usually associated with acidosis and an increased risk of poor outcome, in patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, high lactates are associated with hypocapnia and alkalosis. In this context, elevated arterial lactate levels should not be regarded as an adverse sign.
Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Aurora, Kanika; Rawal, Pawan; Szaflarski, M; Allendorfer, Jane B; DeWolfe, Jennifer; Pati, Sandipan; Thomas, Ashley; Ver Hoef, Lawrence L; Dworetzky, Barbara A
The purposes of this study were to determine whether personalities of patients with nonepileptic psychogenic status (NEPS) are different from those of patients with typical intermittent psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (iPNES) using the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and to compare their PAI profiles with the population norms. We hypothesized that patients with NEPS have more psychopathology compared with patients with iPNES and that, as a group, patients with PNES (iPNES+NEPS) would have more psychopathology compared with healthy individuals. We first compared the PAI profiles of patients with iPNES and NEPS and then the profiles of patients with NEPS, iPNES, and PNES with population norms in order to assess which PAI specific scales differed between groups in order to better characterize the psychopathology of PNES. All patients admitted for diagnostic evaluation to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) were prospectively approached for participation. All patient/family interviews were conducted by an epileptologist, and the diagnosis of iPNES or NEPS was confirmed in all cases through video/EEG and/or family interview. The population norms for PAI were obtained from the manual. Of the 224 approached patients, 130 completed the PAI, and included 43 iPNES and 11 with NEPS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in regard to demographic or PAI profiles. Comparison with population norms revealed the presence of abnormal personality profiles on all scales in patients with iPNES, NEPS, or PNES. We conclude that while the occurrence of NEPS is relatively common in patients with PNES, the demographic characteristics and personality profiles of patients with NEPS are not different from those of patients with iPNES. We also confirmed the presence of significant psychopathology in the group with PNES when compared with population norms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoerth, Matthew T; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I
Eyewitnesses frequently perceive seizures as life threatening. If an event occurs on the hospital premises, a "code blue" can be called which consumes considerable resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of code blue calls for seizures and seizure mimickers. A retrospective review of a code blue log from 2001 through 2008 identified 50 seizure-like events, representing 5.3% of all codes. Twenty-eight (54%) occurred in inpatients; the other 22 (44%) events involved visitors or employees on the hospital premises. Eighty-six percent of the events were epileptic seizures. Seizure mimickers, particularly psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, were more common in the nonhospitalized group. Only five (17.9%) inpatients had a known diagnosis of epilepsy, compared with 17 (77.3%) of the nonhospitalized patients. This retrospective survey provides insights into how code blues are called on hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients for seizure-like events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sadjadi, Reza; Quigg, Mark
A twenty-eight-year-old woman with an eight-year history of partial hearing loss presented with a two-year history of worsening deafness and new-onset seizures. Evaluations of tympanic membranes, cochlea, and auditory brain stem reflexes demonstrated no physiologic basis for deafness. Video-EEG monitoring demonstrated that the patient responded normally to spontaneous auditory stimuli and that typical spells were nonepileptic in origin. Although pseudohypacusis is reported in audiology literature, and psychogenic nonepileptic spells are well-studied phenomena in neurology literature, the present case is an unusual case of dual psychogenic symptoms, a relationship that indicates poorer prognosis.
Neville, Brian G R; Gindner, Diane
The relationship between febrile seizures and hippocampal sclerosis has been the subject of longstanding discussion. Animal models for prolonged seizures have shown a clear causal relationship with focal limbic features at low dose and hippocampal damage at high dose. Careful history taking of febrile seizure semiology has shown focal early features often with clear temporal lobe elements. This would suggest that many febrile seizures are secondarily generalised hippocampal seizures. There is evidence of varying levels of epileptogenicity in specific infective causes of febrile seizures. Seizure semiology also suggests that a proportion of such seizures may be non-epileptic reflex asystolic attacks. Seizure semiology in febrile seizures deserves closer scrutiny. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between convuls...
Plouin, Perrine; Kaminska, Anna; Eisermann, Monika; Soufflet, Christine
In front of any clinical paroxysmal event in childhood, the first step is to make a positive diagnostic of an epileptic seizure; for this it is necessary to eliminate non epileptic seizures which are different according to age. Then the type of seizures has to be precised, being focal or generalized. EEG will contribute to determine the epileptic syndrome according to interictal and/or ictal findings. The epilepsy syndrome is the main entity to go further in etiology and treatment. According to the type of epilepsy syndrome it will be possible to look for a structural or metabolic cause, or to perform a genetic study. The present classification of seizures and syndromes as proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) allows a common language in the world community as in clinical and therapeutic research.
Tumani, Hayrettin; Jobs, Catherine; Brettschneider, Johannes; Hoppner, Anselm C; Kerling, Frank; Fauser, Susanne
Analyses of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are obligatory when epileptic seizures manifest for the first time in order to exclude life-threatening causes or treatable diseases such as acute infections or autoimmune encephalitis. However, there are only few systematic investigations on the effect of seizures themselves on CSF parameters and the significance of these parameters in differential diagnosis. CSF samples of 309 patients with epileptic and 10 with psychogenic seizures were retrospectively analyzed. CSF samples were collected between 1999 and 2008. Cell counts, the albumin quotient, lactate and Tau-protein levels were determined. Findings were correlated with seizure types, seizure etiology (symptomatic, cryptogenic, occasional seizure), and seizure duration. Pathological findings were only observed in patients with epileptic but not with psychogenic seizures. The lactate concentration was elevated in 14%, the albumin quotient in 34%, and the Tau protein level in 36% of CSF samples. Cell counts were only slightly elevated in 6% of patients. Different seizure types influenced all parameters except for the cell count: In status epilepticus highest, in simple partial seizures lowest values were seen. Symptomatic partial and generalized epileptic seizures had significantly higher Tau-protein levels than cryptogenic partial seizures. In patients with repetitive and occasional epileptic seizures, higher Tau-protein levels were seen than in those with psychogenic seizures. Duration of epileptic seizures was positively correlated with the albumin quotient, lactate and Tau-protein levels. High variability of investigated CSF parameters within each subgroup rendered a clear separation between epileptic and psychogenic seizures impossible. Elevated cell counts are infrequently observed in patients with epileptic seizures and should therefore not uncritically be interpreted as a postictal phenomenon. However, blood-CSF barrier disruption, increased glucose metabolism
Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y; Broughton, R
The concept of psychogenic epilepsy was recently revived by Sartre (L'Idiot de la Famille, 1971-2) in relation to Gustave Flaubert's epilepsy, which he believed was secondary to hysterical neurosis and not due to a cerebral lesion. A detailed clinical description of Gustave Flaubert's personal and medical history from birth to death is provided. The relationships between his epileptic seizures and both his personal life and the response of others to the attacks are discussed, as is the interaction between seizure occurrence and his literary work and productivity. The various diagnoses made by medical and nonmedical persons during and after Flaubert's lifetime are then reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to Sartre's purely psychogenic interpretation of the seizures, to his total disinterest in their medical aspects, and to the fact that he did not obtain any medical opinions. It is shown that a definitive diagnosis can be made for Flaubert's illness--that of epilepsy associated with a quite normal psychosocial response by current standards. Moreover, the clinical nature of the seizures and other clinical details permit the more specific diagnosis of "complex partial epilepsy of occipital-temporal origin, secondary to lesion of the left posterior hemisphere with occasional secondary generalization of seizures." The concept of the existence of "psychogenic epilepsy" is reaffirmed as erroneous, despite the occasional precipitation of seizures in some individuals by psychological factors. Finally, Gustave Flaubert's case, like Dostoevski's, points to the possible coexistence of a serious and poorly controlled form of epilepsy with true literary genius without the latter being dependent in any way on the former.
Steczkowska, Małgorzata; Stolarska-Weryńska, Urszula; Fiederer, Krystyna; Kaciński, Marek
Psychotherapy is being used as the primary treatment in nonepileptic psychogenic seizures and tension headaches in children. Children's intelectual functioning is related to certain endogenous neurophysiological parameters. The goal of this study was to establish whether the endogenous potential P300 is different in children with nonepileptic psychogenic events and with tension headaches, and whether it changes under the influence of the cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy. The study included a group of 47 children: 20 with nonepileptic psychogenic seizures (18 girls and 2 boys), aged 11.09-17.11 years, and 27 children with tension headache (25 girls and 2 boys), aged 10.11-17.11 years. The P300 potential was induced using an auditory stimulus. The reaction time, the amount of mistakes and the percentage of attention focus was measured in all children. All children attended 8-10 psychotherapy sessions. The P300 potential was registered before and after the course of therapy, and additionally in both cycles also after a 3 minutes hyperventilation. Medium P300 parameters were closer to normal in the group of children with tension headaches rather than in the group with nonepileptic seizures. The shorter was the reaction time in the first measurement, the higher the attention score and the shorter the reaction time in the second measurement - this was visible in the results of children with nonepileptic seizures, in contrast to children with tension headaches. The use of hyperventilation caused a noticeable extension of the reaction time in the P300 measurement, with other components unchanged (mistake count and percentage of attention focus). The endogenous potential P300 does vary, although on a statistically insignificant level, in groups of children with tension headaches and nonepileptic seizures.
In deze studie wordt getracht een klinisch onderzoek te verrichten betreffende een type van psychogene psychose, nl. de psychogene desintegratietoestand. De bestudering van dit onderwerp bracht ons echter in aanrakling met algemene problemen uit psychopathologie en kliniek. Zie: Samenvatting
Cakmak, Mirac A; Sahin, Sevki; Cinar, Nilgun; Tiyekli, Utkan; Karsidag, Sibel
Munchausen syndrome presenting with psychogenic dystonia is a rare condition. A psychogenic dystonia case presenting with an acute onset of retrocollis, lower limb dystonia and bizarre gait was diagnosed as Munchausen syndrome. Recognizing psychogenic dystonia avoids unnecessary investigations and provides successful treatment.
Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon
Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fredsø, N; Toft, N; Sabers, A; Berendt, M
Seizures are common in dogs and can be caused by non-epileptic conditions or epilepsy. The clinical course of newly diagnosed epilepsy is sparsely documented. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate causes for seizures (epileptic and non-epileptic) in a cohort of dogs with new-onset untreated seizures, and for those dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy to investigate epilepsy type, seizure type and the course of disease over time, including the risk of seizure recurrence. Untreated client-owned dogs experiencing new-onset seizures were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal observational study including clinical investigations and long-term monitoring at the Copenhagen University Hospital for Companion Animals. A baseline clinical assessment was followed by investigator/owner contact every eight weeks from inclusion to death or end of study. Inclusion of dogs was conducted from November 2010 to September 2012, and the study terminated in June 2014. One hundred and six dogs were included in the study. Seventy-nine dogs (74.5%) were diagnosed with epilepsy: 61 dogs (77.2%) with idiopathic epilepsy, 13 dogs (16.5%) with structural epilepsy and five dogs (6.3%) with suspected structural epilepsy. A non-epileptic cause for seizures was identified in 13 dogs and suspected in 10 dogs. Four dogs in which no cause for seizures was identified experienced only one seizure during the study. In dogs with idiopathic epilepsy 60% had their second epileptic seizure within three months of seizure onset. Twenty-six dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (43%) completed the study without receiving antiepileptic treatment. The natural course of idiopathic epilepsy (uninfluenced by drugs) was illustrated by highly individual and fluctuating seizure patterns, including long periods of remission. Cluster seizures motivated early treatment. In a few dogs with a high seizure frequency owners declined treatment against the investigators advice. Epilepsy is the most likely
Webb, James; Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex
Seizures result in a change in motor, sensory, and behavioral symptoms caused by abnormal neurologic electrical activity. The symptoms share similar presentations of several other conditions, leading to difficulties in diagnosis and frequent improper management. This review evaluates adult patients with suspected seizure, signs and symptoms of seizure, mimics of seizure, and an approach to management of seizure mimics. A seizure is caused by abnormal neurologic electrical activity resulting in altered motor, sensory, and behavioral symptoms. Other conditions may present similarly, causing a challenge in diagnosis. These conditions include syncope, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, stroke or transient ischemic attack, sleep disorders, movement disorders, and migraines. Diagnosis of seizures in the emergency department (ED) is often clinical. Differentiation between seizures and other conditions can be difficult. Laboratories and imaging provide little benefit in definitive diagnosis in the emergency setting. For patients that have an apparent seizure, resuscitation and management is precedent while identifying any provoking factors and treatment of those factors. For adults recovering from suspected seizure, the combination of a focused history, physical examination, and additional studies can provide assistance in diagnosis. Patients with an apparent seizure should be resuscitated with identification of provoking factors. Many conditions can mimic seizures. A focused history, physical examination, and additional studies will assist in differentiating seizures from mimics. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pramod Kumar Pal
Full Text Available Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD are a group of disorders which are in the border zone between neurology and psychiatry. All necessary laboratory investigations should be done to rule out an underlying organic disorder. While clinical acumen of a trained movement disorder specialist may be sufficient to diagnose most PMD, there are clinical situations where electrophysiological tests are required either to rule out an organic movement disorder or even diagnose a PMD. Current electrophysiological test are most useful for tremor, followed by jerks and least for spasms or dystonia. Commonly used electrophysiologic tests include multichannel surface electromyography (EMG, accelerometry, electroencephalography time locked with EMG, premovement potential (Bereitschaftspotential, and somatosensory evoked potentials. Psychogenic tremor is a low frequency tremor with variable frequency and duration of EMG bursts, entrainable, has a high coherence with voluntary movements, and presence of coactivation sign. Patients with psychogenic jerks have well organized triphasic pattern of activation of agonist and antagonist muscles. The jerks are associated with EMG bursts of long duration (usually > 70 ms, long and variable latencies in stimulus induced jerks, absence of craniocaudal pattern of muscle recruitment in apparent startle response, and often a Breitschaftspotential (premovement potential precedes the jerk. Electrophysiological characterization of psychogenic dystonia is difficult and the tests are usually performed to rule out organic dystonia with characteristic findings. Finally, caution should be exerted in interpreting the electrophysiological tests as both false positive and false negative diagnosis of PMD may still occur.
Full Text Available Background: Psychogenic tremor is the most common psychogenic movement disorder. It has characteristic clinical features that can help distinguish it from other tremor disorders. There is no diagnostic gold standard and the diagnosis is based primarily on clinical history and examination. Despite proposed diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor can be challenging. While there are numerous studies evaluating psychogenic tremor in the literature, there are no publications that provide a video/visual guide that demonstrate the clinical characteristics of psychogenic tremor. Educating clinicians about psychogenic tremor will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We selected videos from the database at the Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic at Baylor College of Medicine that illustrate classic findings supporting the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor.Results: We include 10 clinical vignettes with accompanying videos that highlight characteristic clinical signs of psychogenic tremor including distractibility, variability, entrainability, suggestibility, and coherence.Discussion: Psychogenic tremor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with tremor, particularly if it is of abrupt onset, intermittent, variable and not congruous with organic tremor. The diagnosis of psychogenic tremor, however, should not be simply based on exclusion of organic tremor, such as essential, parkinsonian, or cerebellar tremor, but on positive criteria demonstrating characteristic features. Early recognition and management are critical for good long-term outcome.
Behbahani, Soroor; Dabanloo, Nader Jafarnia; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie; Dourado, Antonio
Epileptic onsets often affect the autonomic function of the body during a seizure, whether it is in ictal, interictal or post-ictal periods. The different effects of localization and lateralization of seizures on heart rate variability (HRV) emphasize the importance of autonomic function changes in epileptic patients. On the other hand, the detection of seizures is of primary interests in evaluating the epileptic patients. In the current paper, we analyzed the HRV signal to develop a reliable offline seizure-detection algorithm to focus on the effects of lateralization on HRV. We assessed the HRV during 5-min segments of continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recording with a total number of 170 seizures occurred in 16 patients, composed of 86 left-sided and 84 right-sided focus seizures. Relatively high and low-frequency components of the HRV were computed using spectral analysis. Poincaré parameters of each heart rate time series considered as non-linear features. We fed these features to the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to find a robust classification method to classify epileptic and non-epileptic signals. Leave One Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV) approach was used to demonstrate the consistency of the classification results. Our obtained classification accuracy confirms that the proposed scheme has a potential in classifying HRV signals to epileptic and non-epileptic classes. The accuracy rates for right-sided and left-sided focus seizures were obtained as 86.74% and 79.41%, respectively. The main finding of our study is that the patients with right-sided focus epilepsy showed more reduction in parasympathetic activity and more increase in sympathetic activity. It can be a marker of impaired vagal activity associated with increased cardiovascular risk and arrhythmias. Our results suggest that lateralization of the seizure onset zone could exert different influences on heart rate changes. A right-sided seizure would cause an ictal tachycardia whereas a left
Hendrickson, Rick; Popescu, Alexandra; Dixit, Ronak; Ghearing, Gena; Bagic, Anto
Psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES) are frequently challenging to differentiate from epileptic seizures. The experience of panic attack symptoms during an event may assist in distinguishing PNES from seizures secondary to epilepsy. A retrospective analysis of 354 patients diagnosed with PNES (N=224) or with epilepsy (N=130) investigated the thirteen Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision panic attack criteria endorsed by the two groups. We found a statistically higher mean number of symptoms reported by patients with PNES compared with those with epilepsy. In addition, the majority of the panic attack symptoms including heart palpitations, sweating, shortness of breath, choking feeling, chest discomfort, dizziness/unsteadiness, derealization or depersonalization, fear of dying, paresthesias, and chills or hot flashes were significantly more frequent in those with PNES. As patients with PNES frequently have poor clinical outcomes, treatment addressing the anxiety symptomatology may be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; De Witte, Elke; De Page, Louis; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Mariën, Peter
In the majority of cases published between 1907 and 2014, FAS is due to a neurogenic etiology. Only a few reports about FAS with an assumed psychogenic origin have been published. The present article discusses the findings of a careful database search on psychogenic FAS. This review may be particularly relevant as it is the first to analyze the salient features of psychogenic FAS cases to date. This article hopes to pave the way for the view that psychogenic FAS is a cognate of neurogenic FAS. It is felt that this variant of FAS may have been underreported, as most of the psychogenic cases have been published after the turn of the century. This review may improve the diagnosis of the syndrome in clinical practice and highlights the importance of recognizing psychogenic FAS as an independent taxonomic entity. PMID:27199699
Inatomi, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Makoto; Yonehara, Toshiro; Ando, Yukio
To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with seizure following the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. We retrospectively studied patients with seizure admitted to our hospital for 12weeks following the earthquake. We compared the clinical backgrounds and characteristics of the patients: before (the same period from the previous 3years) and after the earthquake; and the early (first 2weeks) and late (subsequent 10weeks) phases. A total of 60 patients with seizure were admitted to the emergency room after the earthquake, and 175 (58.3/year) patients were admitted before the earthquake. Of them, 35 patients with seizure were hospitalized in the Department of Neurology after the earthquake, and 96 (32/year) patients were hospitalized before the earthquake. In patients after the earthquake, males and non-cerebrovascular diseases as an epileptogenic disease were seen more frequently than before the earthquake. During the early phase after the earthquake, female, first-attack, and non-focal-type patients were seen more frequently than during the late phase after the earthquake. These characteristics of patients with seizure during the early phase after the earthquake suggest that many patients had non-epileptic seizures. To prevent seizures following earthquakes, mental stress and physical status of evacuees must be assessed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Likhachev, S A; Astapenko, A V; Osos, E L; Zmachynskaya, O L; Gvishch, T G
Ecstatic seizures is a rare manifestation of epilepsy. They were described for the first time by F.M. Dostoevsky. Currently, the description of ecstatic seizures is possible to find in the scientific literature. The description of the own observation of a patient with emotional-affective seizures is presented. A role of the anterior insular cortex in the ecstatic seizures origin is discussed. The similarities between the feelings reported during ecstatic seizures and the feelings experienced under the effect of stimulant addictive drugs are described. The possible reasons of the low frequency of emotional-affective seizures are considered.
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf
Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls (PURD) refers to an athlete's inability to urinate during a doping control. This paper reports PURD to occur quite frequently in elite athletes, investigates the relationship to the clinical disorder of paruresis (PAR), and investigates its...... relation to recovery, performance, and self-perception of professionalism and athletic excellence. Furthermore, a scale developed especially for the close description and measurement of PURD is presented. A questionnaire was used for measuring paruresis. The results are based on two online and one paper...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self...
Jin, Bo; Wu, Han; Xu, Jiahui; Yan, Jianwei; Ding, Yao; Wang, Z Irene; Guo, Yi; Wang, Zhongjin; Shen, Chunhong; Chen, Zhong; Ding, Meiping; Wang, Shuang
This study aimed to determine the accuracy of seizure diagnosis by semiological analysis and to assess the factors that affect diagnostic reliability. A total of 150 video clips of seizures from 50 patients (each with three seizures of the same type) were observed by eight epileptologists, 12 neurologists, and 20 physicians (internists). The videos included 37 series of epileptic seizures, eight series of physiologic nonepileptic events (PNEEs), and five series of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). After observing each video, the doctors chose the diagnosis of epileptic seizures or nonepileptic events for the patient; if the latter was chosen, they further chose the diagnosis of PNESs or PNEEs. The overall diagnostic accuracy rate for epileptic seizures and nonepileptic events increased from 0.614 to 0.660 after observations of all three seizures (p semiological diagnosis of seizures is greatly affected by the seizure type as well as the doctor's experience. Although the overall reliability is limited, it can be improved by observing more seizures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Here, we describe the cases of two patients with a prolonged history of laughter attacks mistaken for epilepsy and unresponsive to AED treatment. Brain MRI and interictal EEG were unremarkable. Video-EEG monitoring allowed us to document the spontaneous and suggestion-induced habitual episodes that were then diagnosed as PNES.
Márcio A. Sotero de Menezes
Full Text Available Objetivo: este artigo tem como objetivo discutir um dos principais problemas com os quais um pediatra geral tem que lidar no campo da neurologia infantil, que são os distúrbios paroxísticos não-epilépticos. Estes episódios também são uma causa freqüente de consultas aos neuropediatras e de internação em unidades de monitorização por vídeo-eletrencefalograma. Fontes dos dados: revisão da literatura sobre o assunto na Medline. Vários compêndios de neurologia pediátrica também foram usados, por conterem informações importantes sobre o assunto. Síntese dos dados: muitas das entidades discutidas neste artigo são freqüentes na população pediátrica, como, por exemplo, a síncope, as crises de perda do choro, e os movimentos patológicos associados ao refluxo gastroesofágico. Outras entidades são mais raras, como as distonias paroxísticas e a distonia com flutuação diurna. Conclusões: o conhecimento básico das várias síndromes associadas com distúrbios paroxísticos não-epilépticos é extremamente importante para o pediatra geral, porque pode evitar exames desnecessários e o diagnóstico errôneo de epilepsia, expondo as crianças às medicações que não vão melhorar o quadro clínico, e que podem causar efeitos colaterais.Objective: this publication aims at reviewing one of the most important problems faced by the pediatrician in the field of child neurology. The paroxistic non-epileptic events are also a frequent reason for pediatric neurology consultations and admission for diagnostic video-eletroencephalogram monitoring. Methods: literature review on the subject was perform on Medline, data was also collected from the main Pediatric Neurology Textbooks, which were found to be important and unique source of information on the subject. Results: many of entities discussed in this paper are very common in the pediatric population like syncope, breath-holding spells and the movement disorders associated with
Caplan, Edward; Dey, Indranil; Scammell, Andrea; Burnage, Katy; Paul, Siba Prosad
Seizure is defined as 'a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain, which usually affects how a person appears or acts for a short time'. Children who have experienced seizures commonly present to emergency departments (EDs), and detailed history taking will usually help differentiate between epileptic and non-epileptic events. ED nurses are often the first health professionals to manage children with seizures, and this is best done by following the ABCDE approach. Treatment involves termination of seizures with anticonvulsants, and children may need other symptomatic management. Seizures in children can be an extremely distressing experience for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced ED nurses. Nurses also play a vital role in educating parents on correct administration of anticonvulsants and safety advice. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with seizures, with particular emphasis on epilepsy. It includes two reflective case studies to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals managing children who present with convulsions.
Lacasa Maseri, S; Ramos Fernández, J M; Moreno Pérez, D; Urda Cardona, A; Martínez Antón, J
Benign convulsions associated with gastroenteritis are now increasingly recognized as clinical condition to the extent that it has become an independent entity under the heading of non-epileptic situational seizures. The aim of this study is to determine the annual incidence in the reference population of our hospital and the clinical characterization of seizures associated to gastroenteritis, in the absence or presence of fever for comparison. All seizures associated with gastroenteritis treated in our hospital were prospectively collected over a period of two calendar years. The children included were aged 6 months to 6 years with seizures in the context of gastroenteritis without electrolyte abnormalities, and divided into two groups, with and without fever. There were 14 cases from a reference population of 39,900 with a homogeneous semiological presentation. The annual incidence was estimated at 1/10 000 children for afebrile seizures associated with gastroenteritis. The clinical behaviour and the incidence of seizures associated with fever and gastroenteritis was similar, but with an appearance somewhat earlier from the onset of symptoms, and at a slightly higher age. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
van Beilen, M.; Griffioen, Brecht T.; Leenders, Klaus L.
Inadequate coping strategies may cause some patients to develop psychogenic symptoms in periods of stress. This may be more prominent in patients with lower intelligence levels. Twenty-six patients with psychogenic neurological disorders (PND) were tested for coping abilities and intelligence and
... the seizures continue to occur despite taking anti-seizure medication Contact 911 or emergency services in your area: If you observe prolonged automatic behaviors lasting minutes to hours — activities such as eating or moving ... any seizure lasting more than five minutes Causes Many children ...
Scher, Mark S
Neonatal seizures are markers for time-specific etiologies during antepartum, intrapartum and neonatal time periods. Seizures with or without encephalopathic signs can represent a continuum of maternal, placental, fetal and neonatal risk factors and disease states. A multi-dimensional classification scheme for neonatal seizures is suggested that will help strategize specific therapeutic interventions to optimize neurologic outcome and anticipate later neurological morbidities including epilepsy risk. This scheme combines "epileptic" and "non-epileptic" seizure descriptions which capture time-specific and brain region-specific mechanisms for seizures. Synchronized video electroencephalographic monitoring provides the most accurate start and endpoints for cortically generated seizures. However, subcortical sites of injury may also initiate abnormal clinical signs with or without the subsequent expression of electrographic seizures. Co-registration of digital neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging with computational electroencephalographic datasets will provide more precise structure-function correlates for neonatal seizures that address both cortical and subcortical sites of injury. Finally, more precise definitions of neonatal status epilepticus need to be established because of the long-term harmful effects on brain development by prolonged seizures expressed as epilepsy and cognitive-behavioral deficits. With this expanded classification scheme for neonatal seizures, novel pharmacologic and surgical strategies can be designed for disease-specific rescue, repair, and regeneration strategies of damaged brain tissue that occur during fetal and neonatal periods, and are later expressed during infancy and childhood. Clinical neuroscientists must strive to develop a classification scheme that bridges bench to bedside concepts of developmental neural plasticity research, recognizing both negative and positive consequences of brain remodeling and
Harden, Cynthia L; Jovine, Luydmilla; Burgut, Fadime T; Carey, Bridget T; Nikolov, Blagovest G; Ferrando, Stephen J
We sought to determine the type of personality disorder cluster associated with patients with nonepileptic psychogenic seizures (NES) compared with that of patients with epileptic seizures (ES). Consecutive adult patients admitted for video/EEG monitoring found to have NES were compared with a simultaneously admitted patient with confirmed epilepsy. Personality was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis II Personality Disorders. Personality disorders were then divided into personality clusters described in the DSM-IV-TR: A = paranoid, schizotypal, schizoid; B = borderline, histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic; or C = avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive. Thirteen of 16 patients with NES and 12 of 16 patients with ES met criteria for personality disorders. Patients with NES were more likely to meet criteria for a personality disorder in Cluster A or B, compared with patients with ES, who were more likely to have Cluster C personality disorders (chi(2) test, P=0.007). We propose that the personality traits of patients with NES contribute to the development of nonepileptic psychogenic seizures. However, the large proportion of patients with ES with Cluster C personality disorders was unexpected, and further, for the patients with epilepsy, the direction of the association of their personality traits with the development of epilepsy is unknown.
Parodi, M; Rouillon, I; Rebours, C; Denoyelle, F; Loundon, N
Psychogenic hearing loss, formerly known as functional or non-organic hearing loss, is a classic cause of consultation in infantile audiology. Risk factors include female gender, and age 8 or 12 years. Onset is relatively sudden, without impact on schooling or voice quality. Audiometric signs comprise non-superimposable audiometric thresholds (variable audiometric results), bilaterality, flat mean audiometric curve, and discrepancy between pure-tone and speech audiometry. The child needs reassuring during audiometric examination: attention-diversion techniques may be effective. Objective audiometry allows positive diagnosis, followed by rehabilitation and psychological care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gopalakrishnan, Rajesh; Thangadurai, Packirisamy; Kuruvilla, Anju; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara Sebastian
Anejaculation is an uncommon clinical entity that may result from a variety of causes, both organic and psychological. Psychogenic anejaculation is influenced by relationship, behavioral, and psychological factors. We present a clinical case of situational anejaculation, which was managed with a combination of techniques that addressed these factors including changes in masturbatory technique, improved marital communication and quality, and reduction of anxiety using cognitive behavioral techniques. It is suggested that the standard techniques of sex therapy be modified and tailored to manage the specific problems of the individual patient.
Full Text Available This paper presents the case of a 33-year-old, right-handed, French-speaking Belgian lady who was involved in a car accident as a pedestrian. Six months after the incident she developed a German/Flemish-like accent. The patient’s medical history, the onset of the FAS and the possible psychological causes of the accent change are analyzed. Relevant neuropsychological, neurolinguistic and psychodiagnostic test results are presented and discussed. The psychodiagnostic interview and testing will receive special attention, because these have been underreported in previous FAS case reports. Furthermore, an accent rating experiment was carried out in order to assess the foreign quality of the patient’s speech. Pre- and post-morbid spontaneous speech samples were analyzed phonetically to identify the pronunciation characteristics associated with this type of FAS. Several findings were considered essential in the diagnosis of psychogenic FAS: the psychological assessments as well as the clinical interview confirmed the presence of psychological problems, while neurological damage was excluded by means of repeated neuroimaging and neurological examinations. The type and nature of the speech symptoms and the accent fluctuations associated with the patient's psychological state cannot be explained by a neurological disorder. Moreover, the indifference of the patient towards her condition may also suggest a psychogenic etiology, as the opposite is usually observed in neurogenic FAS patients.
Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; De Page, Louis; Jonkers, Roel; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Mariën, Peter
This paper presents the case of a 33-year-old, right-handed, French-speaking Belgian lady who was involved in a car accident as a pedestrian. Six months after the incident she developed a German/Flemish-like accent. The patient's medical history, the onset of the FAS and the possible psychological causes of the accent change are analyzed. Relevant neuropsychological, neurolinguistic, and psychodiagnostic test results are presented and discussed. The psychodiagnostic interview and testing will receive special attention, because these have been underreported in previous FAS case reports. Furthermore, an accent rating experiment was carried out in order to assess the foreign quality of the patient's speech. Pre- and post-morbid spontaneous speech samples were analyzed phonetically to identify the pronunciation characteristics associated with this type of FAS. Several findings were considered essential in the diagnosis of psychogenic FAS: the psychological assessments as well as the clinical interview confirmed the presence of psychological problems, while neurological damage was excluded by means of repeated neuroimaging and neurological examinations. The type and nature of the speech symptoms and the accent fluctuations associated with the patient's psychological state cannot be explained by a neurological disorder. Moreover, the indifference of the patient toward her condition may also suggest a psychogenic etiology, as the opposite is usually observed in neurogenic FAS patients. PMID:27148003
Carvalho, Lucimar M F de; Nassar, Silvia Modesto; Azevedo, Fernando Mendes de; Carvalho, Hugo José Teixeira de; Monteiro, Lucas Lese; Rech, Ciciliana M Zílio
To investigate different fuzzy arithmetical operations to support in the diagnostic of epileptic events and non epileptic events. A neuro-fuzzy system was developed using the NEFCLASS (NEuro Fuzzy CLASSIfication) architecture and an artificial neural network with backpropagation learning algorithm (ANNB). The study was composed by 244 patients with a bigger frequency of the feminine sex. The number of right decisions at the test phase, obtained by the NEFCLASS and ANNB was 83.60% and 90.16%, respectively. The best sensibility result was attained by NEFCLASS (84.90%); the best specificity result were attained by ANNB with 95.65%. The proposed neuro-fuzzy system combined the artificial neural network capabilities in the pattern classifications together with the fuzzy logic qualitative approach, leading to a bigger rate of system success.
Ulstrup, Anton; Ugleholdt, Randi; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard
We report a case of bilateral anterolateral crural compartment syndrome elicited by hyponatraemia and psychogenic polydipsia. The unusual constellation of clinical findings and diminished pain expression made initial diagnostic procedures challenging. The possible pathogenesis and treatment options...
Wilner, Asher; Keezer, Mark R; Andermann, Frederick
A woman known to have never fully controlled idiopathic generalized epilepsy presented at 47 years of age with a new onset of drop attacks. After clinical investigations, including prolonged video/EEG telemetry, tilt-table testing, and multiple sleep latency tests, the etiology of her drop attacks remained elusive. Subsequently we were able to demonstrate that her drop attacks may be provoked by her voluntary recollection of memories of past sexual abuse. This case study highlights the need to consider psychological factors when evaluating otherwise unexplained drop attacks. In addition, we propose a seizure-provoking technique that may be used both effectively and ethically in the diagnosis of psychogenic drop attacks as well as nonepileptic seizures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harrison, Neil A; Johnston, Kate; Corno, Federica; Casey, Sarah J; Friedner, Kimberley; Humphreys, Kate; Jaldow, Eli J; Pitkanen, Mervi; Kopelman, Michael D
There are very few case series of patients with acute psychogenic memory loss (also known as dissociative/functional amnesia), and still fewer studies of outcome, or comparisons with neurological memory-disordered patients. Consequently, the literature on psychogenic amnesia is somewhat fragmented and offers little prognostic value for individual patients. In the present study, we reviewed the case records and neuropsychological findings in 53 psychogenic amnesia cases (ratio of 3:1, males:females), in comparison with 21 consecutively recruited neurological memory-disordered patients and 14 healthy control subjects. In particular, we examined the pattern of retrograde amnesia on an assessment of autobiographical memory (the Autobiographical Memory Interview). We found that our patients with psychogenic memory loss fell into four distinct groups, which we categorized as: (i) fugue state; (ii) fugue-to-focal retrograde amnesia; (iii) psychogenic focal retrograde amnesia following a minor neurological episode; and (iv) patients with gaps in their memories. While neurological cases were characterized by relevant neurological symptoms, a history of a past head injury was actually more common in our psychogenic cases (P = 0.012), perhaps reflecting a 'learning episode' predisposing to later psychological amnesia. As anticipated, loss of the sense of personal identity was confined to the psychogenic group. However, clinical depression, family/relationship problems, financial/employment problems, and failure to recognize the family were also statistically more common in that group. The pattern of autobiographical memory loss differed between the psychogenic groups: fugue cases showed a severe and uniform loss of memories for both facts and events across all time periods, whereas the two focal retrograde amnesia groups showed a 'reversed' temporal gradient with relative sparing of recent memories. After 3-6 months, the fugue patients had improved to normal scores for facts
Hill, Chloe E; Schwartz, Hannah; Dahodwala, Nabila; Litt, Brian; Davis, Kathryn A
This study investigated continuity of neurological care for patients discharged from the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) with a diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES). Because PNES are seizure-like episodes that cannot be explained by abnormal electrical brain activity, they are challenging for patients to understand and accept. Consequently, after diagnosis, patients commonly fail to start recommended psychotherapy and instead pursue redundant medical care. As consistent relationships with healthcare providers may help, we instituted standard follow-up for patients diagnosed with PNES. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of adults diagnosed with PNES in our EMU. In November 2013, we began routine scheduling of postdischarge follow-up neurology appointments. We compared preintervention (November 2010-October 2013) and postintervention (November 2013-May 2016) cohorts with regard to clinic attendance, understanding the diagnosis, compliance with recommendations, and event frequency. We identified 55 patients in the preintervention cohort and 123 patients in the postintervention cohort. We successfully implemented the intended practice changes; more patients had follow-up scheduled by discharge (preintervention 2% vs. postintervention 36%, p<0.001), time to follow-up decreased (46days vs. 29, p=0.001), and providers more consistently queried understanding of diagnosis (38% vs. 67%, p=0.03). Explicit planning for continued care did not produce the anticipated patient-provider relationships, as follow-up in clinic was low (38% vs. 37%). For patients who attended clinic, the intervention did not improve establishment of psychiatric care, compliance with medication recommendations, understanding of diagnosis, or event frequency. The odds of reduced event frequency were nonsignificantly increased with understanding the diagnosis (OR 3.75, p=0.14). Recommending antiepileptic drug (AED) discontinuation was associated with increased odds of
Estey, Chelsie M; Dewey, Curtis W; Rishniw, Mark; Lin, David M; Bouma, Jennifer; Sackman, Joseph; Burkland, Erica
MRI-acquired volumetric measurements from 100 dogs with presumptive idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and 41 non-epileptic (non-IE) dogs were used to determine if hippocampal asymmetry exists in the IE as compared to the non-IE dogs. MRI databases from three institutions were searched for dogs that underwent MRI of the brain and were determined to have IE and those that were considered non-IE dogs. Volumes of the right and left hippocampi were measured using Mimics® software. Median hippocampal volumes of IE and non-IE dogs were 0.47 and 0.53 cm3, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall hippocampal volume between IE and non-IE dogs; however, IE dogs had greater hippocampal asymmetry than non-IE dogs (P dogs had a hippocampal ratio >1.16. Asymmetry was not associated with any particular hemisphere (P = 0.67). Our study indicates that hippocampal asymmetry occurs in a subset of dogs with presumptive idiopathic/genetic epilepsy, suggesting a structural etiology to some cases of IE.
Chelsie M. Estey
Full Text Available MRI-acquired volumetric measurements from 100 dogs with presumptive idiopathic epilepsy (IE and 41 non-epileptic (non-IE dogs were used to determine if hippocampal asymmetry exists in the IE as compared to the non-IE dogs. MRI databases from three institutions were searched for dogs that underwent MRI of the brain and were determined to have IE and those that were considered non-IE dogs. Volumes of the right and left hippocampi were measured using Mimics® software. Median hippocampal volumes of IE and non-IE dogs were 0.47 and 0.53 cm3, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall hippocampal volume between IE and non-IE dogs; however, IE dogs had greater hippocampal asymmetry than non-IE dogs (P < 0.012. A threshold value of 1.16 from the hippocampal ratio had an 85% specificity for identifying IE-associated asymmetry. Thirty five percent of IE dogs had a hippocampal ratio >1.16. Asymmetry was not associated with any particular hemisphere (P = 0.67. Our study indicates that hippocampal asymmetry occurs in a subset of dogs with presumptive idiopathic/genetic epilepsy, suggesting a structural etiology to some cases of IE.
Wood, D P; Wiesner, M G; Reiter, R C
By the time that the pelvalgia patient seeks treatment, her chronic tension, anxiety, stress, and related somatic symptoms, which usually have moderated her fear of repeat assault or punishment by the aggressor-parent, has begun to disintegrate. The patient usually has little or no insight into the fact that her feelings of being trapped, helpless, and victimized in her marriage, job, or other interpersonal relationships can be symbols of the original sexual trauma. The depressed patient may be unaware that suicidal thoughts and actions, if present, are a reflection of her sense of helplessness, hopelessness, and victimization. Hence, CPP may be a symptom of a wide spectrum of disorders, both organic and psychological. While the patient is undergoing evaluation of pelvic pain, it is essential that clinicians remain aware that the patient's psychogenic symptoms are an attempt to reinforce a faltering ego. Additionally, it is important that they recognize that previous attempts at diagnosis and therapy of CPP and other somatic complaints usually have reinforced the belief that the symptoms are physically based and unrelated to any psychological factors. A number of prospective studies currently are underway to characterize further the relationships between complaints of chronic pelvic pain, personality functioning, and history of sexual trauma. Without data on very long-term follow-up, our understanding of the precise psychodevelopmental pathophysiology and long-term prognosis of CPP currently remains incomplete.
Edwards, Mark J; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Pareés, Isabel
This review explores recent developments in understanding the neurobiological mechanism of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs). This is particularly relevant given the resurgence of academic and clinical interest in patients with functional neurological symptoms and the clear shift in diagnostic and treatment approaches away from a pure psychological model of functional symptoms. Recent research findings implicate three key processes in the neurobiology of FMD (and by extension other functional neurological symptoms): abnormal attentional focus, abnormal beliefs and expectations, and abnormalities in sense of agency. These three processes have been combined in recent neurobiological models of FMD in which abnormal predictions related to movement are triggered by self-focused attention, and the resulting movement is generated without the normal sense of agency that accompanies voluntary movement. New understanding of the neurobiology of FMD forms an important part of reappraising the way that patients with FMD (and other functional disorders) are characterized and treated. It also provides a testable framework for further exploring the pathophysiology of these common causes of ill health.
Ali Reza Jazayeri
Full Text Available Pain is the sensory and emotional experience of discomfort whiehis usually associated with actual or threatened physical damsge or irritation . Virtvally all people experience pain at all ages. Children also experience pain from the moment of birth through childhood years. Underestaning pain in children is very important , because of treatment implication and its influence in child physical and psychological development . Experienced researchers have found that pain is a concequence of emotional disorder which is observed in some patients . in many cases we have seen that a patient says to his / her clinician that she has no pain because there is no evidence of somatic disease. Dicomfont involved in psychogenic pain seems to resort primerly from psychological process. Many of physicion are familiar with unpleasant and avoidant concequences of these distortions . In these cases , it s better for us to agree with patients , experience of pain and not to prob somatic risk factors and their mechanism all the time. The researches hove recognized that psychological factors cam cause pain which is named psychogenic pain. It means that the cause of pain has psychological roots , versus organic pain which is related to discomfort is caused by tissue damage . In this study , theorical , psychological , psychoanalytical and psycho social approaches and personality characteristics description related to pain and the relations among these approaches in this area have been studied . Also, the perception of pain among children with different gender have been probed
Full Text Available Psychogenic urinary retention occurs relatively infrequently in children and is less common than in adults. The influence of psychogenic factors on voiding generally results in an irritative syndrome, but rarely in urinary retention. A definitive diagnosis is established by excluding other pathological conditions. Evaluation includes urine culture, renal echography, spine magnetic resonance imaging, voiding cysto-urethrography, intravenous pyelography, and uroflowmetry. Here, we report on a 6-year-old girl with a 1-month history of voiding difficulty. Urology studies, including urine culture, revealed Escherichia coli, which was not present in preadmission urine cultures. Renal ultrasound and radiological images showed no gross abnormalities or vesicoureteral reflux, but uroflowmetry showed a low flow rate with residual urine. The results of imaging studies and pediatric psychiatric consultation led to a diagnosis of psychogenic urinary retention combined with urinary tract infection. Urinary rehabilitation included intermittent catheterization, bladder training, and supportive psychotherapy, after which the patient recovered and was discharged.
Pavlova, Milena; Abdennadher, Myriam; Singh, Kanwaljit; Katz, Eliot; Llewellyn, Nichelle; Zarowsly, Marcin; White, David P.; Dworetzky, Barbara A.; Kothare, Sanjeev V.
Distinction between epileptic (ES) and seizure-like events of non-epileptic nature(SLNE) is often difficult using descriptions of seizure semiology. Cardiopulmonary dysfunction is frequent in ES but has not been objectively examined in relationship to SLNE. Our purpose was to compare cardiopulmonary dysfunction between ES and SLNE. We prospectively recorded cardio-pulmonary function using pulse-oximetry, EKG and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) in 52 ES and 22 SLNE. Comparison of cardiopulmonary complications between ES and SLNE was done using two-sample t-tests and logistic regression. Ictal bradypnea and pre-ictal bradycardia were more frequent in ES than SLNE (p1.0). Cardio-respiratory dysfunction, specifically bradypnea, apnea, pre-ictal bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation, is more frequently seen in ES than in SLNE. Tachycardia was not discriminant between ES and SLNE. PMID:24561659
Yang, Jong Chul; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Lee, Moo Suk; Kang, Heoung Keun; Eun, Sung Jong; Lee, Yo Han [Chonnam National Univeristy Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Ku [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)
We present here a case in which functional MR imaging (fMRI) was done for a patient who developed retrograde psychogenic amnesia for a four year period of her life history after a severe stressful event. We performed the fMRI study for a face recognition task using stimulation with three kinds of face photographs: recognizable familiar faces, unrecognizable friends' faces due to the psychogenic amnesia, and unfamiliar control faces. Different activation patterns between the recognizable faces and unrecognizable faces were found in the limbic area, and especially in the amygdala and hippocampus.
Full Text Available Aim To explore psychic and psychological characteristics of patientssuffering from non- epileptic seizures and compare them with the patients suffering from epilepsy. Methods Using medical documentation 40 patients with non epileptic seizures were compared with 40 randomly selected epilepsy patients according to psychiatric and psychological report, and using psychotropic medications. Results Both psychiatric and psychological reports have shown that pathologic changes were more frequently found within the epilepsy group (n = 20 and n=7, respectively than in non-epileptic fits group (n= 18 and n=4, respectively. Six patients had neurotic disorders within the epilepsy group, versus 3 within the non-epileptic fits group. Conversion disorders were more frequently foundwithin the non-epileptic group (n=6 as compared to epilepsy group (n=2. Disorders due to acute reaction to stress occurred in six patients in the non-epileptic fits group versus three patients in theepilepsy group. Cognitive disorders were found more frequently within the epilepsy group (n=6 as compared to the non-epilepticfits group (n=1. Vulnerable character, adolescence crisis, deficitof social abilities and indifference were more frequently foundwithin the non-epileptic fits group (n=3 in comparison with theepilepsy group (n=1. Conclusion Psychiatric and psychological reports are most important elements in the diagnostic of psychogenic non-epilepticseizures.
Moeller, Andrew D; Moeller, Jeremy J; Rahey, Susan R; Sadler, R Mark
The objective of this study was to investigate whether medical television dramas portray proper seizure first aid. Episodes of the four highest-rated US medical dramas ("Grey's Anatomy," "House M.D.", "Private Practice," and "ER") were screened for the presence of seizures. "Patient" age, sex, semiology, and etiology were recorded. The appropriateness of seizure first aid management was determined by comparison to the Epilepsy Foundation of America (EFA) guidelines. Among 364 television programs, 65 seizures (in 59 individuals) were identified (30 males; 29 females). Seizures were primary or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic in 53 (81.5%) cases. Other seizure types included complex partial (5, 7.7%), simple partial (1, 1.5%), myoclonic (1, 1.5%), absence (1, 1.5%), and psychogenic (1, 1.5%). On 63 occasions (96.9%), first aid was performed by a health care professional. First aid management was judged appropriate in 21 (32.3%) seizures, inappropriate in 28 (43.1%), and indeterminate in 16 (24.6%). Inappropriate practices included holding the person down (17, 26.2%), trying to stop the involuntary movements (10, 15.4%) and putting something in the person's mouth (11, 16.9%). The first aid management of seizures performed by actors portraying health care professionals was inappropriate in nearly half of all cases. Inaccurate depiction of seizure first aid management may contribute to misinformation of the general public. The television industry could easily incorporate the simple first aid EFA seizure guidelines as a public service without sacrificing dramatic impact.
Full Text Available Hiccups can be due to organic diseases or psychogenic causes. Psychogenic hiccup in children is an understudied area. We report a series of four cases presenting with psychogenic hiccups to the Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic of a tertiary care hospital in North India. The cases were aged 11 to 13 years; three of them were males and one female. Three of the patients belonged to a rural background and all of them were from Hindu nuclear families. The duration of hiccups for which treatment was sought ranged from three to fourteen months. The most common gains seen in two of the patients were, lesser scolding from the parents and getting eatables of their choice. The patients were managed by counseling and psychoeducation about the problem and cutting down the secondary gain. Techniques of suggestion and double bind were tried. Two of the patients had improved on the day detailed assessments were done, and all of the patients had improved on follow up. Psychogenic hiccups in children and in the adolescent age group can be effectively managed by using non-pharmacological methods and appropriate education of the parents.
Nuenen, B.F.L. van; Wohlgemuth, M.; Wong-Chung, R.E.; Abdo, W.; Bloem, B.R.
Psychogenic movement disorders are common in everyday neurological practice, comprising up to 25% of the patient population in movement disorders clinics. The diagnosis is often difficult, as is illustrated by the high proportion of patients with an organic neurological disease whose movement
Sudhir, Paulomi M.; Chandra, Prabha S.; Shivashankar, N.; Yamini, B. K.
Psychogenic dysphonia refers to the loss of voice, in the absence of apparent structural or neurological pathology. It is a disorder seen more often in women and is usually associated with significant life events and emotional difficulties that may lead to conflict over speaking. Therapeutic interventions in voice disorders recommend the adoption…
Perez, David L.; LaFrance, W. Curt
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are a Functional Neurological Disorder/ Conversion Disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of Neurology and Psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions and outcome studies. Epidemiology and health care utilization studies highlight a continued unmet medical need in the comprehensive care of PNES. Consensus guidelines for diagnostic certainty are based on clinical history, semiology of witnessed typical event(s), and EEG findings. While certain semiologic features may aid the diagnosis of PNES, the gold standard remains capturing a typical event on video electroencephalography (EEG) showing the absence of epileptiform activity with history and semiology consistent with PNES. Medical-neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in PNES and should be assessed in diagnostic evaluations, and integrated into treatment interventions and prognostic considerations. Several studies, including a pilot multicenter, randomized clinical trial, have now demonstrated that a cognitive behavioral therapy informed psychotherapy is an efficacious treatment for PNES, and additional efforts are necessary to evaluate the utility of pharmacologic and other psychotherapy treatments. Neuroimaging studies, while requiring replication, suggest that PNES may occur in the context of alterations within and across sensorimotor, emotion regulation/processing, cognitive control and multimodal integration brain systems. Future research could investigate similarities and differences between PNES and other somatic symptom disorders. PMID:26996600
Broderick, Joan E; Kaplan-Liss, Evonne; Bass, Elizabeth
Mass psychogenic illness can be a significant problem for triage and hospital surge in disasters; however, research has been largely limited to posthoc observational reports. Reports on the impact of public media during a disaster have suggested both salutary as well as iatrogenic psychological effects. This study was designed to determine if psychogenic illness can be evoked and if media will exacerbate it in a plausible, controlled experiment among healthy community adults. A randomized controlled experiment used a simulated biological threat and elements of social contagion--essential precipitants of mass psychogenic illness. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: no-intervention control group, psychogenic illness induction group, or psychogenic illness induction plus media group. Measures included three assessments of symptom intensity, heart rate, blood pressure, as well as questionnaires to measure potential psychogenic illness risk factors. The two psychogenic induction groups experienced 11 times more symptoms than the control group. Psychogenic illness was observed in both men and women at rates that were not significantly different. Higher rates of lifetime history of traumatic events and depression were associated with greater induction of illness. Media was not found to exacerbate symptom onset. Psychogenic illness relevant to public health disasters can be evoked in an experimental setting. This sets the stage for further research on psychogenic illness and strategies for mitigation.
Full Text Available Primary and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCs together constitute up to 50% of adolescent and adult patients with epilepsy as diagnosed by history and EEG. Syncope and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are major differential diagnoses and must be carefully excluded in therapy-resistant cases. Individual episodes can have up to seven phases in secondarily generalized GTCs. The distinction between primary and secondary GTCs depends mainly on history and EEG, and yield can be improved with sleep deprivation or overnight recording. Epilepsies with primary or unclassified GTCs can respond to any one of the five broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: valproate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, topiramate and zonisamide. Unless a focal onset is clearly confirmed, a sodium-channel blocking AED should not be used in the initial treatment of these conditions.
Shafer, Patricia Osborne
Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…
Dixit, Ronak; Popescu, Alexandra; Bagić, Anto; Ghearing, Gena; Hendrickson, Rick
Differentiating between psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES) and epileptic seizures without video-EEG monitoring is difficult. The presence of specific medical comorbidities may discriminate the two, helping physicians suspect PNES over epilepsy earlier. A retrospective analysis comparing the medical comorbidities of patients with PNES with those of patients with epilepsy was performed in 280 patients diagnosed with either PNES (N = 158, 74.7% females) or epilepsy (N = 122, 46.7% females) in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center over a two-year period. Patients with PNES, compared to those with epilepsy, were mostly female, significantly more likely to have a history of abuse, had more functional somatic syndromes (fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic pain syndrome, tension headaches, and irritable bowel syndrome), and had more medical illnesses that are chronic with intermittent attacks (migraines, asthma, and GERD). The presence of at least of one these disorders may lead physicians to suspect PNES over epilepsy and expedite appropriate referral for video-EEG monitoring for diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thyrotoxicos is 10 Arthritis 43 Hypertensi on 70 Colitis 2 Ulcers 10 Asthma 13 Cancer 173 Hemorrho ids 14 4 - -- ,.. Exemplary Clinical and Pastoral Education...of hypnosis in aiding patients with psychogenic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, not only in recalling the crisis that precipitated the...only in recalling the crisis that precipitated the disease, but also in receiving instructions on the control of the Jisease. Lamont also reports on
Full Text Available After ruling out of organic causes, movement disorders are named as psychogenic movement disorders, it can mimic perfectly Organic movement disorders, but with a good history, clinical observations and detailed examination is very helpful in the diagnosis of this disease. In here we will present a 15 years old male patient, he was complaining of urinary incontinence at night, emerging dystonic posture especially in crowded environments, eating, and during activities that require attention, for 5 years. Self and family history was unremarkable. His physical and neurological examination was normal except for dystonic posture esipecially writing and when doing skilled jobs. All the tests were normal for the differential diagnosis. Taking into account the patient\\s clinical findings and cilinical test, the patient was diagnosed as psychogenic dystonia. He gave a very good response to treatment with antidepressants and psychotherapy. As a result, in clinical practice both the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges the psychogenic movement disorders is an important problem, and to get rid of the negative effects of unnecessary diagnostic test and side efects of treatment, you need to keep in mind this diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(1.000: 29-31
Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph
Psychogenic speech and voice disorders (PSVDs) may occur in isolation but more typically are encountered in the setting of other psychogenic disorders. We aimed to characterize the phenomenology, frequency, and correlates of PSVDs in a cohort of patients with psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs). We studied 182 consecutive patients with PMDs, 30 of whom (16.5 %) also exhibited PSVD. Stuttering was the most common speech abnormality (n = 16, 53.3 %), followed by speech arrests (n = 4, 13.3 %), foreign accent syndrome (n = 2, 6.6 %), hypophonia (n = 2, 6.6 %), and dysphonia (n = 2, 6.6 %). Four patients (13.2 %) had more complex presentations with different combinations of these patterns. No differences in gender, age at onset, and distribution of PMDs were observed between patients with and without PSVD. PSVDs are relatively frequent in patients with PMDs and are manifested by a wide variety of abnormal speech and voice phenomena, with stuttering being the most common presentation. Speech therapy and insight-oriented counseling may be helpful to some patients.
Hovav, Y; Shotland, Y; Yaffe, H; Almagor, M
To evaluate sperm characteristics and fertility potential in ejaculates obtained after electroejaculation in men with psychogenic anejaculation. Retrospective clinical study. In Vitro Fertilization Unit, Bikur Cholim Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. Twenty men with psychogenic anejaculation who underwent 55 sessions of electroejaculation and their spouses. Electroejaculation, assisted reproduction technologies. Semen analysis, IVF, intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI), fertilization rates, and pregnancy rates. In all patients, sperm density and motility rates were unsatisfactory (98 +/- 127 x 10(6) with 14.6% +/- 15% motility in the antegrade portions and 42 +/- 42 x 10(6) with 9.7% +/- 15.6% motility in the retrograde samples). Intrauterine inseminations performed in eight couples did not result in a pregnancy. Four couples underwent IVF-ET treatments. Two pregnancies were achieved with overall success rates of 22% per cycle. Five couples were treated using the ICSI procedure. Although good quality embryos were transferred, none of the treatments resulted in a pregnancy. Psychogenic failure to ejaculate may be treated by electroejaculation. However, the average motility of the sperm obtained is diminished. The combination of electroejaculation with IVF, including the ICSI procedure, should improve chances of fertilization and pregnancy in these cases.
Tabatabaei, Sayed Shahaboddin; Delbari, Ahmad; Salman-Roghani, Reza; Shahgholi, Leili; Fadayevatan, Reza; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Lokk, Johan
The incidences of seizures and epilepsy in the population show a peak after 60 years of age. Due to the lack of reported clinical aspects of seizure and epilepsy in the older patients in our region in Iran, this study was conducted to describe the clinical manifestation, etiology, differential diagnosis, and epilepsy subtypes of epilepsy and seizure. A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed on all consecutively elderly seizure and epilepsy patients, referred to the Epilepsy Association in the city of Qom, Iran over a 10-year period. A total of 466 patients aged >60 years were admitted. 31 % of the patients had epilepsy or seizure and 69 % of them had non-epileptic events. The most prevalent differential diagnoses in the beginning were syncope and cardiovascular disorders. The most frequent clinical symptom of epilepsy was generalized tonic-clonic seizures (75 %). The most common cause of seizure was systemic metabolic disorder (27 %). In epileptic elderly patients, no cause was ascertained for 38 % and the most frequently observed pathological factors were cerebrovascular diseases, which accounted for 24 %. The most common type of epileptic seizure was generalized epileptic seizures (75 %). 10 % of elderly epileptic patients suffered from status epilepticus, which was primarily caused by anoxia. Despite the rising rate and potentially profound physical and psychosocial effects of seizures and epilepsy, these disorders have received surprisingly little research focus and attention in Iran. Referring older patients to a specialist or a specialist epilepsy center allows speedy assessment, appropriate investigation and treatment, and less likely to miss the diagnosis.
Full Text Available Absence seizures are caused by brief periods of abnormal synchronized oscillations in the thalamocortical loops, resulting in widespread spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs in the electroencephalogram (EEG. SWDs are concomitant with a complete or partial impairment of consciousness, notably expressed by an interruption of ongoing behaviour together with a lack of conscious perception of external stimuli. It is largely considered that the paroxysmal synchronizations during the epileptic episode transiently render the thalamocortical system incapable of transmitting primary sensory information to the cortex. Here, we examined in young patients and in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS, a well-established genetic model of absence epilepsy, how sensory inputs are processed in the related cortical areas during SWDs. In epileptic patients, visual event-related potentials (ERPs were still present in the occipital EEG when the stimuli were delivered during seizures, with a significant increase in amplitude compared to interictal periods and a decrease in latency compared to that measured from non-epileptic subjects. Using simultaneous in vivo EEG and intracellular recordings from the primary somatosensory cortex of GAERS and non-epileptic rats, we found that ERPs and firing responses of related pyramidal neurons to whisker deflection were not significantly modified during SWDs. However, the intracellular subthreshold synaptic responses in somatosensory cortical neurons during seizures had larger amplitude compared to quiescent situations. These convergent findings from human patients and a rodent genetic model show the persistence of cortical responses to sensory stimulations during SWDs, indicating that the brain can still process external stimuli during absence seizures. They also demonstrate that the disruption of conscious perception during absences is not due to an obliteration of information transfer in the thalamocortical system
Rassner, Michael P; Moser, Andreas; Follo, Marie; Joseph, Kevin; van Velthoven-Wurster, Vera; Feuerstein, Thomas J
In epilepsy, the GABA and glutamate balance may be disrupted and a transient decrease in extracellular calcium occurs before and during a seizure. Flow Cytometry based fluorescence activated particle sorting experiments quantified synaptosomes from human neocortical tissue, from both epileptic and non-epileptic patients (27.7% vs. 36.9% GABAergic synaptosomes, respectively). Transporter-mediated release of GABA in human and rat neocortical synaptosomes was measured using the superfusion technique for the measurement of endogenous GABA. GABA release was evoked by either a sodium channel activator or a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor when exocytosis was possible or prevented, and when the sodium/calcium exchanger was active or inhibited. The transporter-mediated release of GABA is because of elevated intracellular sodium. A reduction in the extracellular calcium increased this release (in both non-epileptic and epileptic, except Rasmussen encephalitis, synaptosomes). The inverse was seen during calcium doubling. In humans, GABA release was not affected by exocytosis inhibition, that is, it was solely transporter-mediated. However, in rat synaptosomes, an increase in GABA release at zero calcium was only exhibited when the exocytosis was prevented. The absence of calcium amplified the sodium/calcium exchanger activity, leading to elevated intracellular sodium, which, together with the stimulation-evoked intracellular sodium increment, enhanced GABA transporter reversal. Sodium/calcium exchange inhibitors diminished GABA release. Thus, an important seizure-induced extracellular calcium reduction might trigger a transporter- and sodium/calcium exchanger-related anti-seizure mechanism by augmenting transporter-mediated GABA release, a mechanism absent in rats. Uniquely, the additional increase in GABA release because of calcium-withdrawal dwindled during the course of illness in Rasmussen encephalitis. Seizures cause high Na(+) influx through action potentials. A
Full Text Available The correlation between small spikes in Rolandic area and epileptic seizures was investigated. In this thesis, small spikes in Rolandic area were found in 118 cases recorded by video electroencephalogram (VEEG monitoring. And the 118 patients were chose to be studied in our research. Among the 118 cases, 62 were male and 56 were female. The youngest was only 3-month-old, and the eldest was 4 years and 5 months old. Eighty-five cases were between 3 months and 2 years old which accounted for 72.03%. There were 101 patients (85.59% having seizures: 42 cases (35.59% of febrile convulsion, 35 (29.66% of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BICG and 24 (20.34% of epilepsy; 17 cases (14.41% of non-epileptic seizures. Hence, there is high correlation between infantile small spikes in Rolandic area and epileptic seizures. But it does not indicate any specificity. Whether small spikes in Rolandic area can be used as certain evidence to diagnose epilepsy and locate the onset of lesions requires further study to confirm.
Full Text Available Audience: This simulation session is appropriate for medical students, community physicians, or residents in emergency medicine, neurology, pediatrics, or family medicine. Introduction: Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures in childhood; they are thought to occur in 2-5% of all children.1-3 Febrile seizures are defined as a seizure in association with a febrile illness in children without a central nervous system infection, previous afebrile seizure, known brain disorder, or electrolyte abnormalities. 1,2 They typically occur between 6 months and 18 months of age though they can occur up to 5 years of age.3 Febrile seizures are categorized as: simple (generalized seizure lasting less than 15 minutes in a child aged 6 months to 5 years, and less than 1 in a 24 hour period or complex (a focal seizure or generalized seizure lasting greater than 15 minutes, or multiple seizures in a 24 hour period. 1,3 Treatment for febrile seizures is based on treating the underlying cause of the fever and giving reassurance and education to the parents.2 Mortality is extremely rare, and there is no difference in the patient’s cognitive abilities after a febrile seizure, even when the seizure is prolonged.1 Objectives: At the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 discuss the management of febrile seizures 2 discuss when placement of an advanced airway is indicated in the management of a febrile seizure 3 list the risk factors for febrile seizures 4 prepare a differential diagnosis for the causes of febrile seizures 5 educate family members on febrile seizures. Methods: This educational session is a high-fidelity simulation.
Seizures are uncontrolled hypersynchronous electrical discharges of neurons in the brain that interfere with normal function. They are a symptom of an underlying disorder. Epilepsy is a condition of recurring seizures that do not have a reversible metabolic cause. Seizures can be confused with a variety of other conditions, so an understanding of seizure manifestations is crucial in making an accurate diagnosis. Drug therapy is the mainstay of epilepsy treatment, but surgery and vagal nerve stimulation are options for selected refractory cases. Psychosocial consequences of recurring seizures are often more significant to patients than the seizures themselves.
Lanska, Douglas J
The dancing mania erupted in the 14th century in the wake of the Black Death, and recurred for centuries in central Europe - particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium - finally abating in the early 17th century. The term "dancing mania" was derived from "choreomania," a concatenation of choros (dance) and mania (madness). A variant, tarantism, was prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and was attributed at the time to bites from the tarantula spider. Affected individuals participated in continuous, prolonged, erratic, often frenzied and sometimes erotic, dancing. In the 14th century, the dancing mania was linked to a corruption of the festival of St. John's Day by ancient pagan customs, but by the 16th century it was commonly considered an ordeal sent by a saint, or a punishment from God for people's sins. Consequently, during outbreaks in the 14th and 15th centuries, the dancing mania was considered an issue for magistrates and priests, not physicians, even though the disorder proved intractable to decrees and exorcisms. However, in the 16th century Paracelsus discounted the idea that the saints caused or interceded in the cure of the dancing mania; he instead suggested a psychogenic or malingered etiology, and this reformulation brought the dancing mania within the purview of physicians. Paracelsus advocated various mystical, psychological, and pharmacological approaches, depending on the presumptive etiologic factors with individual patients. Only music provided any relief for tarantism. Later authors suggested that the dancing mania was a mass stress-induced psychosis, a mass psychogenic illness, a culturally determined form of ritualized behavior, a manifestation of religious ecstasy, or even the result of food poisoning caused by the toxic and psychoactive chemical products of ergot fungi. In reality, dancing manias did not have a single cause, but component causes likely included psychogenic illness, malingering, and
Rubin, John S; Greenberg, Maurice
Psychogenic voice disorders are not infrequently encountered in the busy voice clinic. A clinician-friendly psychodynamic model and a multidisciplinary management approach are presented which have proven helpful for our voice team and our patients. In essence the formulation revolves around an "event" occurring, which may be either organic or psychological in nature. The ensuing dysphonia then leads to emotional consequences which in turn have physical consequences on the vocal tract. The situation can become reinforcing and illness behaviors develop. Elucidating this event/process to the patient improves the likelihood of a successful long-term outcome. The diagnostic and management roles of the various team members are discussed.
Lee, Kyung Jae; Jeong, Seong-Hae; Baek, In Chul; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon
A 28-year-old patient presented with frequent episodes of clockwise whirling vertigo, with no ear symptoms or anxiety. He had a previous history of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis from Moyamoya disease 3 years ago. We assumed that the ictus was a manifestation of vestibular epilepsy. Although the patient was monitored continuously with video and computerized electroencephalography equipment for 24 hours, his vertigo was not accompanied by electroencephalographic discharges. And thorough vestibular evaluation was normal. His symptom was alleviated by psychological support. Psychogenic dizziness may also manifest as recurrent whirling vertigo with unilateral directionality. PMID:24649463
Martindale, Jennifer L; Goldstein, Joshua N; Pallin, Daniel J
Although only 3% of people in the United States are diagnosed with epilepsy, 11% will have at least one seizure during their lifetime. Seizures account for about 1% of all emergency department (ED) visits, and about 2% of visits to children's hospital EDs. Seizure accounts for about 3% of prehospital transports. In adult ED patients, common causes of seizure are alcoholism, stroke, tumor, trauma, and central nervous system infection. In children, febrile seizures are most common. In infants younger than 6 months, hyponatremia and infection are important considerations. Epilepsy is an uncommon cause of seizures in the ED, accounting for a minority of seizure-related visits. Of ED patients with seizure, about 7% have status epilepticus, which has an age-dependent mortality averaging 22%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... abnormal. A seizure can cause a change in mood, emotions, consciousness, or movement. What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is ... lead to seizures, which are temporary changes in mood, emotions, consciousness, or movement. Epilepsy is diagnosed if a ...
Hughes, John R
This article deals with the seizures of Tsar Peter the Great, Father of Modern Russia. At the age of 10 in 1682, he witnessed the very brutal deaths of two men who were close to his family and the hacking of these men to pieces, directly in front of him. This savagery could have left scars, explaining possible psychogenic seizures. Also, such great quantities of alcohol were consistently consumed by this giant of a man at 6 ft 8 in. that alcohol withdrawal seizures would also seem possible. However, evidence of the latter two types of seizures is lacking. At the age of 21, he likely had severe encephalitis and, within that year, developed simple partial seizures with jerking movements of his left face that spread to his arm, and occasionally to his leg, finally evolving into a complex partial attack with loss of consciousness later. It is entirely possible that the seizures of Peter the Great are an example of a new entity called acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures, associated at times with epilepsia partialis continua and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges.
... you're having signs or symptoms of a seizure. Call 911 or call for emergency medical help if you observe someone having a ... which seizure activity lasts much longer than usual. Seizures that last longer than ... emergency. Injury. The motions that occur during frontal lobe ...
Poukas, Valeriya S; Pollard, John R; Anderson, Christopher Todd
Most medical therapies for epilepsy consist of daily (or multiple-daily) dose, fixed-schedule, pharmacologic oral agents. Despite adherence, many patients continue to experience seizures. Various products have been discovered, designed, and marketed to serve as seizure-abortant therapies. These agents can be administered rapidly, as a "rescue" therapy, once a clinical seizure or cluster of seizures starts. Rescue medications are given as needed in an attempt to disrupt progression of a given seizure, and forestall what would otherwise be a more prolonged or more severe clinical event. Seizure-abortants also serve to aid in the management of seizure emergencies, such as prolonged, repetitive seizures, or status epilepticus. These compounds are not appropriate for all patients. Nevertheless, they do provide therapeutic benefit to several groups of patients: 1) those who perceive the onset of their seizures and have time to perform a self-intervention, 2) patients' caregivers who administer the therapy when they witness the onset of an ictal event, and 3) patients who are in the midst of an out-of-the-hospital seizure emergency (a seizure cluster or status epilepticus). In this article we will review currently available and future rescue therapies for seizures: US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and FDA nonapproved drugs, nonpharmacologic behavioral treatments, the vagus nerve stimulator and the NeuroPace RNS® System (Mountain View, CA).
Binoy Krishna Tarafder
Full Text Available Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls’ high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls’ high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%, headache (73%, chest pain (69%, body ache (63%, nausea (69%, and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%. Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes.
Jung Ho Ryu
Full Text Available Background and Purpose Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD after war or mass vaccination was reported and well known disease entity already. However, we have seldom been met those patients because we don’t have any chance to experience of those events. Recently, influenza A (H1N1 spreads around world, and many countries have a program of mass vaccination of H1N1. Although PMD in adult is well characterized, childhood-onset PMD has not been extensively studied. Case Reports We present four children of psychogenic gait disorders (PGDs after mass school vaccination of H1N1. They had fluctuating weakness and their prognosis was good. We confirmed all patients as PGD by placebo. Conclusions Our four cases have two common characteristics. One is that all were young and their prognosis was good. And the other is that all were induced their abnormal gait symptoms after mass school vaccination. We observed that mass PMD has a different characteristics comparing to personal PMD, and PMD in children is differ from adult onset PMD.
Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Kirkham, Fenella; Barker, Simon; Gray, William P; Allen, David
Ictal autonomic pupillary dilation is common; however, miosis is rare. We describe a case of focal seizures secondary to cortical dysplasia presenting with bilateral pupillary miosis, rendered seizure free by resective surgery. The seizure-onset zone was localized within the left middle parietal gyrus by intracranial electrographic recording. Seizure onset was coincident with focal left centroparietal fast spike activity on electroencephalography (EEG). A large region of the left frontocentral cortical dysplasia was demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Complete resection of the area of cortical dysplasia and additional cortical regions of ictal activity, identified using intracranial EEG, rendered the patient seizure free. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.
Serra, Laura; Fadda, Lucia; Buccione, Ivana; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.
Psychogenic amnesia is a complex disorder characterised by a wide variety of symptoms. Consequently, in a number of cases it is difficult distinguish it from organic memory impairment. The present study reports a new case of global psychogenic amnesia compared with two patients with amnesia underlain by organic brain damage. Our aim was to identify features useful for distinguishing between psychogenic and organic forms of memory impairment. The findings show the usefulness of a multidimensional evaluation of clinical, neuroradiological, neuropsychological and psychopathological aspects, to provide convergent findings useful for differentiating the two forms of memory disorder. PMID:17297220
Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni
Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by...
Salih, Farid; Breuer, Eva; Harnack, Daniel; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Ploner, Christoph J
To date, cerebellar involvement in control of non-motor functions like cognition and emotion is increasingly well established. Current models suggest that motor and non-motor networks connecting the cerebellum with cortical areas operate independently in closed and segregated loops. Here, we report a 59-year-old female patient with a small cerebellar lesion that shows that cognitive activation can significantly influence cerebellar motor control. Surprisingly, this led to a clinical picture mimicking a psychogenic disorder. Similar to non-human primates, this case suggests that the human dentate nucleus consists of distinct cognitive and motor domains with additional somatotopical arrangement of the latter. Extending current models of cerebro-cerebellar interaction, this case further illustrates that there can be significant functional cross-talk between motor and cognitive cerebellar networks.
Tannemaat, Martijn R; van Niekerk, Julius; Reijntjes, Robert H; Thijs, Roland D; Sutton, Richard; van Dijk, J Gert
To provide a detailed semiology to aid the clinical recognition of psychogenic pseudosyncope (PPS), which concerns episodes of apparent transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) that mimic syncope. We analyzed all consecutive tilt-table tests from 2006 to 2012 showing proven PPS, i.e., apparent TLOC had occurred without EEG changes or a decrease in heart rate (HR) or blood pressure (BP). We analyzed baseline characteristics, video data, EEG, ECG, and continuous BP measurements on a 1-second time scale. Data were compared with those of 69 cases of tilt-induced vasovagal syncope (VVS). Of 800 tilt-table tests, 43 (5.4%) resulted in PPS. The majority (74%) were women. The median duration of apparent TLOC was longer in PPS (44 seconds) than in VVS (20 seconds, p semiology of PPS as a clinical entity is vital to ensure accurate diagnosis.
Ogunyemi, A O; Breen, H
Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures.
Silveira, Diosely C; Jehi, Lara; Chapin, Jessica; Krishnaiengar, Suparna; Novak, Eric; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Najm, Imad
The incidence of epilepsy is high in older individuals. However, epilepsy in the elderly may be underdiagnosed and undertreated because of diagnostic difficulties. The main goal of this study was to determine whether seizure semiology differs between older and younger adults with epilepsy in the outpatient setting. Fifty patients with focal epilepsy aged 55 years and older and 50 patients aged between 18 and 45 years were included. Review of medical records contained detailed seizure description. There were no differences in seizure semiology between groups, except that subtle perceptions of transient confusion were seen in older patients but not in younger patients (P=0.0028). Older patients had less generalized motor seizures, but the differences between groups did not reach significance (P=0.01). Older patients may present with subtle symptoms of seizures characterized by brief periods of confusion, which may contribute to greater difficulty diagnosing seizures in the elderly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
So, Elson L
Seizure semiology has been the foundation of clinical diagnosis of seizure disorders. This article discusses the value and the limitations of behavioral features of seizure episodes in localizing seizure onset. Studies have shown that some semiologic features of seizures are highly accurate in the hemispheric lateralization and lobar localization of seizures. There is good agreement between blinded reviewers in lateralizing video-recorded seizures in temporal lobe and extratemporal lobe epilepsies. However, seizure semiology alone should not be used to determine the site of seizure onset. Each semiologic feature may falsely localize seizure onset. Seizure semiology in some patients may signify the site of seizure propagation rather than origination. Moreover, seizure semiology may not be as reliable in multifocal epilepsies as it is in unifocal epilepsies. Many semiologic features of seizures of adults are often missing in seizures of children. Seizure semiology should be analyzed and integrated with EEG and neuroimaging data to localize the seizure focus. A sample of the recorded seizures should be shown to the patient's relatives or friends to verify that it is representative of habitual seizures.
Lin, Ji-Ho; Kwan, Shang-Yeong; Wu, Dean; Su, Min-Shin; Yiu, Chun-Hing
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) introduced in 1981 a seizure classification based on clinical semiology, interictal EEG findings, and ictal EEG patterns. Such classification depends heavily on detailed electroclinical correlation. After 20 years' progress in epileptology, many clinicians have found it difficult to make a "definite" seizure diagnosis clinically without a series of electrophysiological examinations, particularly in the infants, and further advancement in epileptology has findings have made the previous classification inefficient. Lüders and colleagues have proposed a classification, Semiological Seizure Classification (SSC), based exclusively on ictal semiology, which was published in the official journal of ILAE-EPILEPSIA in 1998. The EEG, neuroimaging and other laboratory results should be analyzed separately and then integrated to define the epileptic syndromes. The seizure diagnosis is thus made through a "what-you-see-is-what-you-get" way. It has also provoked an extensive discussion about the necessity of this new classification. In this review, we present the original guideline, which has been used at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation for years, to introduce another method of epileptic seizure classification.
JUCELEI F. VISIOLI-MELO
Full Text Available Dificuldade de aprendizagem é situação comum em crianças com epilepsia. Distúrbios da inteligência têm sido associados com epilepsia. O potencial cognitivo (P300 é um adjunto clínico para mensurar neurofisiologicamente o processo cognitivo. Foram estudadas 99 crianças com 10 anos a 11 anos e 11 meses. Do Grupo I, sem epilepsia, faziam parte 64 crianças, das quais 32 com bom rendimento e outras 32 com mau rendimento escolar. Do Grupo II, com epilepsia, faziam parte 35 crianças, sendo 21 com bom rendimento escolar e 15 com mau rendimento escolar. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa na latência do P300 entre os dois grupos. Quando foram estratificados segundo o desempenho escolar, as crianças do Grupo I, com bom rendimento escolar, apresentaram latência do P300 de 336 ms e as com mau rendimento escolar, latência de 382 ms; as crianças do Grupo II, com bom rendimento escolar, apresentaram latência do P300 de 363 ms e as com mau rendimento escolar, latência de 400 ms, com diferença significativa. Essa diferença estava localizada entre as crianças não epilépticas com bom desempenho escolar e as com mau desempenho escolar, epilépticas ou não.Learning disability is common in epileptic children. Epilepsy has been associated with disorders of intelligence. Cognitive potential (P300 is considered to be a clinical aid in the neurophysiological measurement of the cognitive process. Ninety-nine children between the ages of 10 years and 11 years and 11 months formed our sample, with good and poor school performance. Group I, non-epileptic, had 64 children of whom 32 had good and 32 poor school performance. Group II, epileptic, had 35 children, of whom 21 had good and 15 poor school performance. No significant difference in P300 latency was found between Groups I and II. When groups were stratified based on school performance, Group I children with good school performance had P300 latency of 336 ms, while the ones with poor
Full Text Available A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure. This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED, that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST, AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week.
Goldman, Alica M.
The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…
Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee
A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis) or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure). This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED), that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT) may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week.
... Withdrawal syndromes Using or withdrawing from drugs, including alcohol Risk factors Risk factors for grand mal seizures include: ... that affect electrolyte balance Illicit drug use Heavy alcohol use ... or others. You might be at risk of: Falling. If you fall during a seizure, ...
Hess, Christopher P; Barkovich, A James
The various findings observed on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations in patients with seizures reflect the variety of different causes that give rise to this common neurologic symptom. In the emergency setting, CT is most valuable in its ability to accurately identify acute abnormalities that require emergent medical or surgical treatment. MR imaging, by contrast, is usually reserved for patients with recurrent or refractory seizures. The accurate interpretation of either modality requires familiarity with how seizures are classified clinically, the most common presenting features of different causes for seizures, the relevant neuroanatomy, and the imaging manifestations of both common and uncommon causes of seizures and epilepsy. Of particular practical importance to the radiologist is the ability to recognize (1) the most common findings in patients with recurrent seizures and (2) potentially reversible causes for seizures that require prompt intervention to avoid or minimize permanent brain injury. This article surveys a variety of different causes for seizures and epilepsy, focusing on specific clinical features that can help to refine differential diagnosis, and on imaging findings characteristic of different disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koch, Marcus; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Polman, Susan; De Keyser, Jacques
Seizures have long been recognized to be part of the disease spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS). While they occur in only a minority of patients with MS, epileptic seizures can have serious consequences. The treatment of MS can be epileptogenic, and antiepileptic treatment can conversely worsen the
Rathke, Kevin M; Schäuble, Barbara; Fessler, A James; So, Elson L
To determine whether seizure semiology is reliable in localizing and distinguishing seizures at 2 independent brain foci in the same patient. Two masked reviewers localized seizures from 2 foci by their clinical semiology and intracranial electroencephalograms (EEGs). Epilepsy monitoring unit of referral comprehensive epilepsy program. Seventeen consecutive patients (51 seizures) with sufficient video and intracranial EEG data were identified by reviewing medical records of 366 patients older than 10 years. The primary outcome measures were interobserver agreement between the 2 masked reviewers; the proportion of seizures localized by semiology; the proportion of localized seizures concordant with intracranial EEG localization; and comparison between concordant and nonconcordant seizures in latency of intracranial EEG seizure spread. Interobserver agreement was 41% (κ score, 0.16). Only 30 of 51 seizures (59%) were localized by seizure semiology. The focus localized by semiology was concordant with the location of intracranial EEG seizure onset in 16 of 30 seizures (53%). No significant difference was observed between concordant and nonconcordant seizures in relation to the speed with which the EEG discharge spread from the location of seizure onset to another lobar region (P = .09, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Clinical seizure semiology is not as useful as intracranial EEG in localizing seizure onset in patients with dual seizure foci.
Seinfeld, S. A.; Pellock, J M; Kjeldsen, Lone Marianne Juel
Background A history of complex febrile seizures can increase the risk of epilepsy, but the role of genetic factors is unclear. This analysis evaluated the relationship between febrile seizures and epilepsy. Methods Information on the history of seizures was obtained by a questionnaire from twin...... epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. Conclusion A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures...... and emotional burden. It is currently not possible to accurately identify which children will develop recurrent febrile seizures, epilepsy, or neuropsychological comorbidities. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....
Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai; Jennum, Poul; Fabricius, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina; Andersen, Noémi; Hjalgrim, Helle; Wolf, Peter
To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between convulsive epileptic seizures and convulsive PNES. In this case-control study, surface EMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in 25 patients and in 21 healthy controls. A total of 46 clinical episodes were recorded: 28 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) from 14 patients with epilepsy, and 18 convulsive PNES from 12 patients (one patient had both GTCS and PNES). The healthy controls were simulating GTCS. To quantitatively characterize the signals we calculated the following parameters: root mean square (RMS) of the amplitude, median frequency (MF), coherence, and duration of the seizures, of the clonic EMG discharges, and of the silent periods between the cloni. Based on wavelet analysis, we distinguished between a low-frequency component (LF 2-8 Hz) and a high-frequency component (HF 64-256 Hz). Duration of the seizure, and separation between the tonic and the clonic phases distinguished at group-level but not at individual level between convulsive PNES and GTCS. RMS, temporal dynamics of the HF/LF ratio, and the evolution of the silent periods differentiated between epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures at the individual level. A combination between HF/LF ratio and RMS separated all PNES from the GTCS. A blinded review of the EMG features distinguished correctly between GTCS and convulsive PNES in all cases. The HF/LF ratio and the RMS of the PNES were smaller compared to the simulated seizures. In addition to providing insight into the mechanism of muscle activation during convulsive PNES, these results have diagnostic significance, at the individual level. Surface EMG features can accurately distinguish
Sato, Kenichiro; Arai, Noritoshi; Omori, Aki; Hida, Ayumi; Kimura, Akio; Takeuchi, Sousuke
Hyperammonaemia is frequently observed in patients who have experienced convulsive seizures. Although excessive muscle contraction is presumed to be responsible for the elevated levels of ammonia, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to identify the independent factors associated with ammonia elevation using large-scale multivariate analysis. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 379 adult patients who had been transported to our emergency department and treated for unprovoked convulsive seizures between August 2010 and September 2015. Elevation of venous plasma ammonia levels was set as the primary endpoint, and patients' clinical and laboratory data were obtained. Those with severe liver dysfunction, known hepatic encephalopathy, or convulsions due to cardiovascular or psychogenic causes, and those taking valproate were excluded. Using a cut-off value of 50μg/dL, 183 patients (48.3%) were found to have elevated levels of plasma ammonia. Four factors were identified as independent variables associated with hyperammonaemia following seizures: elevated venous lactate, lowered venous pH, sex (male), and longer duration of convulsion. The results of the present study revealed independent factors associated with hyperammonaemia following unprovoked convulsive seizures in a larger scale and with more plausible statistical analysis. The authors further suggest that the excessive skeletal muscle contraction and/or respiratory failure during/after convulsive seizure may be the primary mechanism of hyperammonaemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sanabria-Castro, A; Henríquez-Varela, F; Monge-Bonilla, C; Lara-Maier, S; Sittenfeld-Appel, M
Given that epileptic seizures and non-epileptic paroxysmal events have similar clinical manifestations, using specific diagnostic methods is crucial, especially in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Prolonged video electroencephalography monitoring during epileptic seizures reveals epileptiform discharges and has become an essential procedure for epilepsy diagnosis. The main purpose of this study is to characterise paroxysmal events and compare patterns in patients with refractory epilepsy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records from 91 patients diagnosed with refractory epilepsy who underwent prolonged video electroencephalography monitoring during hospitalisation. During prolonged video electroencephalography monitoring, 76.9% of the patients (n=70) had paroxysmal events. The mean number of events was 3.4±2.7; the duration of these events was highly variable. Most patients (80%) experienced seizures during wakefulness. The most common events were focal seizures with altered levels of consciousness, progressive bilateral generalized seizures and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Regarding all paroxysmal events, no differences were observed in the number or type of events by sex, in duration by sex or age at onset, or in the number of events by type of event. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures were predominantly registered during wakefulness, lasted longer, started at older ages, and were more frequent in women. Paroxysmal events recorded during prolonged video electroencephalography monitoring in patients with refractory epilepsy show similar patterns and characteristics to those reported in other latitudes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Ranalli, Paula Ferreira; Branco, Anete; Pessin, Adriana Bueno Benito
Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. 28 patients (26 women and 2 men) were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n=17), teacher (n=4), salesclerk (n=4), nurse (n=1), retired (n=1), and psychologist (n=1). Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Regina Helena Garcia Martins
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. Objective: To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. Methods: The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. Results: 28 patients (26 women and 2 men were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n = 17, teacher (n = 4, salesclerk (n = 4, nurse (n = 1, retired (n = 1, and psychologist (n = 1. Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. Conclusions: In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed.
Heintz, Carolien E. J.; van Tricht, Mirjam J.; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; van Rootselaar, A. F.; Cath, Danielle; Schmand, Ben; Tijssen, Marina A. J.
Background Psychogenic movement disorders are disorders of movements that cannot be explained by a known neurological disorder and are assumed to be associated with psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Objective To examine the neuropsychological profile of patients with psychogenic
A. I. Baidauletova
Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of psychogenic movement disorder appearing as fixed dystonia without pain. Over 5 years, a patient has had the right fingers being permanently clenched into a fist position at rest, which increased when fulfilling any motor task; carpal pain was absent. When he was 18 years old, the patient sustained a blast injury with concussion. A leather glove was used to reduce clenching and a makeshift device was applied to move the fingers apart. Motor function of the hand persisted; its atrophy was absent; muscle tone in the hand was sufficient; reflexes were symmetrical; sensitivity was not impaired. His gait, voice, speech were not changed. When writing, there was increased pencil grasp (not writer's cramp; his handwriting was smooth and legible. The patient uses the voluntary compensatory movements of the right hand (holding a thing with one hand in a supine position and fingers (crossing the third finger over the fourth and conversely, which reduce the manifestations of movement disorder. He refused psychiatric examination and to take any medications.
The author begins by pointing out that myths have always been powerful vehicles for the projection of ubiquitous unconscious fantasies. Having noted the importance of certain male protagonists of the Greek myths in Freud's theories, she observes that their female counterparts exert an equal fascination and suggests that the Medea myth as recounted by Euripides can be invoked to elucidate a central unconscious fantasy found to underlie the psychogenic frigidity and sterility of several of her female patients. The manifestation of this 'Medea fantasy' is illustrated by a clinical account in which a dream is analysed. The author next summarises the Medea story as told by Euripides and attempts a psychoanalytic interpretation of it. She draws attention to features of the 'unconscious truth' inherent in the myth that were shared by all the members of her group of patients. A case history then shows how the progressive understanding and working through of the Medea fantasy led to a change in the analysand's experience of femininity and enabled her to have children. It is postulated that both early infantile sexual fantasies and repressed memories of early object-relations traumas such as maternal depression combine with ubiquitous bodily fantasies to produce the unconscious Medea fantasy.
... tumors, stroke, infection or traumatic injuries — in the brain's frontal lobes. Frontal lobe seizures are also associated with a rare inherited disorder called autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. If one of your ...
... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...
... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. During a temporal lobe seizure, you ... include: A sudden sense of unprovoked fear A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...
Deeba, Farah; Sanz-Leon, Paula; Robinson, Peter
A neural field model of the corticothalamic system is used to investigate the dynamics of absence seizures in the presence of temporally varying connection strength between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Variation of connection strength from cortex to thalamus drives the system into seizure once a threshold is passed and a supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs. The dynamics and spectral characteristics of the resulting seizures are explored as functions of maximum connection strength, time above threshold, and ramp rate. The results enable spectral and temporal characteristics of seizures to be related to underlying physiological variations via nonlinear dynamics and neural field theory. Notably, this analysis adds to neural field modeling of a wide variety of brain activity phenomena and measurements in recent years. Australian Research Council Grants FL1401000225 and CE140100007.
Elena Mikhailovna Illarionova
Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical and psychoemotional characteristics in patients with systematic and nonsystematic vertigo and to optimize therapy. Patients and methods. The clinical features were analyzed in 25 patients with systematic vertigo and 25 patients with psychogenic vertigo. Their psychoemotional sphere was studied using the Beck depression inventory, the Spielberger-hanin personality- and situation-related anxiety inventory, and the vestibular inventory. Results. There were statistically significant clinical differences and a higher degree of anxiety-depressive disorders in the patients with psychogenic vertigo. Drug therapy in combination with stabilometric platform exercises based on the biological feedback principle was stated to be effective in patients with different types of vertigo, in those with psychogenic dizziness in particular.
Cassel, Anneli; Humphreys, Kate
Psychogenic amnesia is widely understood to be a memory impairment of psychological origin that occurs as a response to severe stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapy approaches in the treatment of this disorder. The current article describes a single case, "Ben", who was treated with formulation-driven psychological therapy using techniques drawn from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for psychogenic amnesia. Before treatment, Ben exhibited isolated retrograde and anterograde memory impairments. He received 12 therapy sessions that targeted experiential avoidance followed by two review sessions, six weeks and five months later. Ben's retrograde and anterograde memory impairments improved following therapy to return to within the "average" to "superior" ranges, which were maintained at follow-up. Further experimental single case study designs and larger group studies are required to advance the understanding of the effectiveness and efficacy of psychological therapy for psychogenic amnesia.
Lyudyno, V I; Tsikunov, S G; Abdurasulova, I N; Kusov, A G; Klimenko, V M
Effects of blockage of central galanin receptors on anxiety manifestations were studied in rats with psychogenic trauma. Psychogenic trauma was modeled by exposure of a group of rats to the situation when the partner was killed by a predator. Antagonist of galanin receptors was intranasally administered before stress exposure. Animal behavior was evaluated using the elevated-plus maze test, free exploratory paradigm, and open-field test. Psychogenic trauma was followed by an increase in anxiety level and appearance of agitated behavior. Blockage of galanin receptors aggravated behavioral impairment, which manifested in the pathological anxious reactions - manifestations of hypervigilance and hyperawareness. The results suggest that endogenous pool of galanin is involved into prevention of excessive CNS response to stressful stimuli typical of posttraumatic stress disorder.
A. O. Ogunyemi
Full Text Available Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures.
Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni
Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology. PMID:24223338
Hill, Renee J; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni
Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology.
Rathbone, Clare J; Ellis, Judi A; Baker, Ian; Butler, Chris R
We report a case of psychogenic amnesia and examine the relationships between autobiographical memory impairment, the self, and ability to imagine the future. Case study JH, a 60-year-old male, experienced a 6-year period of pervasive psychogenic amnesia covering all life events from childhood to the age of 53. JH was tested during his amnesic period and again following hypnotherapy and the recovery of his memories. JH's amnesia corresponded with deficits in self-knowledge and imagining the future. Results are discussed with reference to models of self and memory and processes involving remembering and imagining.
Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Trinka, Eugen
Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopaedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. Our aim was to evaluate information-seeking behaviour of English-speaking internet users searching Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and epileptic seizures. Using Wiki Trends, which provides quantitative information on daily viewing of articles, data on global search queries for Wikipedia articles related to epilepsy and seizures were analysed. The daily Wikipedia article views on syncope, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, migraine, and multiple sclerosis served as comparative data. The period of analysis covered was from January 2008 to December 2014. Overall, the Wikipedia article "epilepsy and driving" was found to be more frequently visited than the articles "epilepsy and employment" or "epilepsy in children". Since January 2008, the Wikipedia article "multiple sclerosis" was more often visited compared to the articles "epilepsy", "syncope", "psychogenic non-epileptic seizures" or "migraine"; the article "epilepsy" ranked 3,779 and was less frequently visited than "multiple sclerosis", ranked at 571, in traffic on Wikipedia. The highest peak in search volume for the article "epilepsy" coincided with the news of a celebrity having seizures. Fears and worries about epileptic seizures, their impact on driving and employment, and news about celebrities with epilepsy might be major determinants in searching Wikipedia for information.
A. A. Pribytkov
Full Text Available Objective: to reveal clinical and immunological criteria for psychogenic urticaria (PU and to determine the therapeutic efficacy of alimemazine in this abnormality.Patients and methods. Ninety-three patients with PU, 46 apparently healthy individuals, and 90 patients with chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU were examined. The methods included clinical examination; use of the Goldberg anxiety rating scale; enzyme immunoassay of serum substance P levels. The efficacy of alimemazine was evaluated in an open-label comparative randomized trial for 4 weeks.Results and discussion. Patients with PU significantly more frequently showed a predominance of manifestations of itching over skin rashes and higher levels of anxiety disorders than those with CAU. The mean serum concentration of substance P was 0.006±0.005 ng/ml in the patients with CAU, 0.026±0.02 ng/ml in healthy individuals, and 8.46±0.95 ng/ml in the patients with PU (p<0.0001. Addition of standard therapy (second-generation antihistamines, disintoxication with alimemazine 15–30 mg/day ensured statistically significant advantages over the control (standard therapy in the following indicators: reductions in the severity of the disease, the degree of anxiety disorders, and the serum levels of substance P. Alimemazine was noted to be satisfactorily tolerated. Thus, the authors established the following diagnostic criteria for PU: a psychotraumatic situation; dermal manifestations after psychogeny; high anxiety; a predominance of the manifestations of itching over the dermal symptoms of urticaria; and elevated serum substance P concentrations. Standard therapy added by alimemazine versus that without the drug was found to be effective. There were reductions in the symptoms of urticaria, the degree of anxiety disorders, and the levels of substance P.
Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…
This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…
Full Text Available Background: The psychological pressure on soldiers during World War I (WWI and other military conflicts has resulted in many reported cases of psychogenic gait as well as other movement disorders. In this paper, psychogenic movement disorders captured in the WWI film footage "War Neuroses" is reanalyzed. Methods: Two movement disorders specialists re-examined film images of 21 WWI patients with various and presumed psychogenic manifestations, pre- and post treatment. The film was recorded by Arthur Hurst, a general physician with an interest in neurology. Results: All 21 subjects were males, and all presented with symptoms relating to war trauma or a psychological stressor (e.g., being buried, shrapnel wounds, concussion, or trench fever. The most common presenting feature was a gait disorder, either pure or mixed with another movement disorder (15, followed by retrograde amnesia (2, abnormal postures (pure dystonia (1, facial spasm (1, head tremor (1, "hyperthyroidism-hyperadrenalism" (1. Nineteen patients received treatment, and the treatment was identified in nine cases. In most cases, treatment was short and patients improved almost immediately. Occupational therapy was the most common treatment. Other effective methods were hypnosis (1, relaxation (1, passive movements (2, and probable "persuasion and re-education" (6. Discussion: The high success rate in treating psychogenic disorders in Hurst's film would be considered impressive by modern standards, and has raised doubt in recent years as to whether parts of the film were staged and/or acted.
Scientific bases for the mechanism of action of acupuncture in the treatment of pain and the pathogenic mechanism of acupuncture points are briefly summarized. The efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy is discussed based on the results of German clinical trials. A conclusion on the role for acupuncture in the treatment of psychogenic disorders could not be reached. PMID:24444292
van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Henneke, Samantha; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur
Propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) is a rare disorder with repetitive flexor, arrhythmic jerks of the trunk, hips and knees. Its generation is presumed to relay in the spinal cord. We report a case series of 35 consecutive patients with jerks of the trunk referred as possible PSM to a tertiary referral center for movement disorders. We review classical PSM features as well as psychogenic and tic characteristics. In our case series, secondary PSM was diagnosed in one patient only. 34 patients showed features suggestive of a psychogenic origin of axial jerks. Diagnosis of psychogenic axial jerks was based on clinical clues without additional investigations (n = 8), inconsistent findings at polymyography (n = 15), regular eye blinking preceding jerks (n = 2), or the presence of a Bereitschaftspotential (BP) (n = 9). In addition, several tic characteristics were noted. Almost all patients referred with possible PSM in our tertiary referral clinic had characteristics suggesting a psychogenic origin even in the presence of a classic polymyography pattern or in the absence of a BP. Clinical overlap with adult-onset tics seems to exist. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00415-010-5531-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20352254
Ozyildirim, Ilker; Yücel, Başak; Aktan, Melih
Psychogenic purpura (Gardner-Diamond syndrome) is the occurrence and spontaneous recurrence of painful ecchymosis following emotional stress and minor trauma. Although the exact mechanism of this syndrome remains unknown, apart from skin lesions, different types of hemorrhaging have been reported, such as epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and bleeding from the ear canals and eyes. We report a psychogenic purpura case that presented with hematuria in addition to skin lesions. Based on the psychiatric evaluation she was diagnosed with major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Additionally, sexual pain disorder accompanied these disorders. With the help of antidepressant and supportive psychotherapy, the patient's ecchymosis and bleeding disappeared. During 8 months of follow-up the symptoms did not return. Vaginismus has not been reported in patients with psychogenic purpura. The presence of vaginismus, which is seen more frequently in eastern cultures and is thought to be related to sociocultural determinants, suggests that some cultural factors may be common to both psychogenic purpura and vaginismus. The aim of this case report was to call attention to a syndrome that is rarely seen and diagnosed, and to discuss its relationship to psychosocial factors. This syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of not only ecchymotic lesions, but also various types of bleeding, including hematuria. Despite the fact that its etiology and treatment are not clearly understood, it should be noted that psychological factors play a role in this disease and therefore, psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches can be effective.
R. James Salway
Full Text Available Seizures in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients can be caused by a wide variety of opportunistic infections, and, especially in developing countries, tuberculosis (TB should be high on the differential. In India, TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV and it can have several different central nervous system manifestations, including intracranial tuberculomas. In this case, an HIV patient presenting with new-onset seizure and fever was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis and multiple intracranial tuberculomas. The patient received standard TB medications, steroids, and anticonvulsants in the emergency department and was admitted for further care.
Gavvala, Jay R; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Macken, Mícheál; Schuele, Stephan U
Signs indicating the end of a focal seizure with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness but without progression to focal or generalized motor symptoms are poorly defined and can be difficult to determine. Not recognizing the transition from ictal to postictal behaviour can affect seizure reporting accuracy by family members and may lead to delayed or a lack of examination during EEG monitoring, erroneous seizure localization and inadequate medical intervention for prolonged seizure duration. Our epilepsy monitoring unit database was searched for focal seizures without secondary generalization for the period from 2007 to 2011. The first focal seizure in a patient with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness and/or behavioural arrest, with or without automatisms, was included. Seizures without objective symptoms or inadequate video-EEG quality were excluded. A total of 67 patients were included, with an average age of 41.7 years. Thirty-six of the patients had seizures from the left hemisphere and 29 from the right. All patients showed an abrupt change in motor activity and resumed contact with the environment as a sign of clinical seizure ending. Specific ending signs (nose wiping, coughing, sighing, throat clearing, or laughter) were seen in 23 of 47 of temporal lobe seizures and 7 of 20 extra-temporal seizures. Seizure ending signs are often subtle and the most common finding is a sudden change in motor activity and resumption of contact with the environment. More distinct signs, such as nose wiping, coughing or throat clearing, are not specific to temporal lobe onset. A higher proportion of seizures during sleep went unexamined, compared to those during wakefulness. This demonstrates that seizure semiology can be very subtle and arousals from sleep during monitoring should alert staff. Patient accounts of seizure frequency appear to be unreliable and witness reports need to be taken into account. [Published with video sequences].
Jun 15, 2011 ... seizures or myoclonus, as well as frontal lobe abnormalities such as cortical atrophy.. Absence status epilepticus absence seizure (AS) is a prolonged, generalized, and nonconvulsive seizure characterized by more or less severe impairment of consciousness, at times associated with other.
Kluger, Gerhard; Kudernatsch, Verena
From the 15th century to the present day, Christian art has portrayed people who suffer from epilepsy as attributes in illustrations of Saint Valentine (SV). The objective of our study was to interpret the works of art from a modern epileptological perspective on the basis of a collection of portrayals of SV in Europe that was as comprehensive as possible. The people depicted as attributes were analyzed with respect to their age, gender, social status, and possible seizure semiology. Three hundred forty-one illustrations of SV from Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Scotland, Slovakia, and Switzerland were systematically analyzed. Irrespective of the age of the work of art, among the 143 pictures of people with possible epilepsy characteristics, there were more males than females from various levels of society. As far as could be interpreted, there were 17 infants, 35 children, 7 adolescents, and 84 adults. With respect to possible seizure semiology, infantile spasms (n=10), atonic seizures (n=13), tonic seizures (n=53), absences (n=2), psychogenic seizures (n=4), and postictal or undefinable states (n=61) were differentiated in a subjective assessment. Despite the fact that from a modern perspective, the 15th to 20th centuries in Europe seemed to be dominated by a rather superstitious attitude toward epilepsy, there is striking accuracy in the detail of the semiology in many of the historic portrayals, and a well-founded knowledge of epilepsy is apparent.
Carvajal, P; Almárcegui, C; Pablo, M J; Peralta, P; Bernal, M; Valdizán, J R
Post traumatic epilepsy represents 4% of the prevalence of the disorder and is one of the sequelas which is most difficult to prevent. Risk factors have been described to predict the appearance of seizures. A seven year old boy with a severe head injury was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. On neuroimaging studies there were multiple foci of contusion, mainly in the left hemisphere, and blood in the III and IV ventricles and frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle. The patient had severe sequelae of head injury with a right spastic hemiplegia and hemiparesia with hypertony of the left side, together with complete blindness of both eyes due to bilateral atrophy of the optic nerve. Serial EEG were done, in which a recording showed alternating periods of hypervoltage grapho elements superimposed on a trace of very low voltage, with continuous activity of low voltage and low frequency. There were no grapho elements with acute morphology. However, the patient had a first partial seizure a year and a half after his head injury. On the EEG an epileptogenic focus was identified in the left hemisphere. Within two years of his head injury he had seven seizures. He had not received prophylactic antiepileptic treatment after the head injury. We report a case of epilepsy secondary to a head injury, in which the first seizure occurred one and a half years after injury. In view of the risk factors, we discuss whether prophylactic anti epileptic treatment might have been beneficial.
Since the first report of benzodiazepine withdrawal seizure in 1961, many case reports have followed. Withdrawal seizures have occurred with short, medium, and long halflife benzodiazepine, if discontinued abruptly. Withdrawal seizures usually occur in patients who have been taking these medications for long periods of time and at high doses. Seizures have also been reported with less than 15 days of use and at therapeutic dosage. Almost all the withdrawal seizures reported were grand mal seizures. The severity of seizures range from a single episode to coma and death. Benzodiazepine dose tapering can be done faster in a hospital setting in high-dose abusers, but must be done more slowly in the outpatient setting in therapeutic dosage users.
Zanello, Marc; Pagès, Mélanie; Roux, Alexandre; Peeters, Sophie; Dezamis, Edouard; Puget, Stéphanie; Devaux, Bertrand; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Zerah, Michel; Louvel, Guillaume; Dumont, Sarah N; Meder, Jean-François; Grill, Jacques; Huberfeld, Gilles; Chrétien, Fabrice; Parraga, Eduardo; Sauvageon, Xavier; Varlet, Pascale; Pallud, Johan
Prevalence and predictors of epileptic seizures are unknown in the malignant variant of ganglioglioma. In a retrospective exploratory dataset of 18 supratentorial anaplastic World Health Organization grade III gangliogliomas, we studied: (i) the prevalence and predictors of epileptic seizures at diagnosis; (ii) the evolution of seizures during tumor evolution; (iii) seizure control rates and predictors of epilepsy control after oncological treatments. Epileptic seizures prevalence progresses throughout the natural course of anaplastic gangliogliomas: 44% at imaging discovery, 67% at histopathological diagnosis, 69% following oncological treatment, 86% at tumor progression, and 100% at the end-of-life phase. The medical control of seizures and their refractory status worsened during the tumor's natural course: 25% of uncontrolled seizures at histopathological diagnosis, 40% following oncological treatment, 45.5% at tumor progression, and 45.5% at the end-of-life phase. Predictors of seizures at diagnosis appeared related to the tumor location (i.e. temporal and/or cortical involvement). Prognostic parameters of seizure control after first-line oncological treatment were temporal tumor location, eosinophilic granular bodies, TP53 mutation, and extent of resection. Prognostic parameters of seizure control at tumor progression were a history of epileptic seizures at diagnosis, seizure control after first-line oncological treatment, eosinophilic granular bodies, and TP53 mutation. Epileptic seizures are frequently observed in anaplastic gangliogliomas and both prevalence and medically refractory status worsen during the tumor's natural course. Both oncological and antiepileptic treatments should be employed to improve the control of epileptic seizures and the quality of life of patients harboring an anaplastic ganglioglioma.
Joseph Valentino Raimondo
Full Text Available Changes in membrane voltage brought about by ion fluxes through voltage and transmitter-gated channels represent the basis of neural activity. As such, electrochemical gradients across the membrane determine the direction and driving force for the flow of ions and are therefore crucial in setting the properties of synaptic transmission and signal propagation. Ion concentration gradients are established by a variety of mechanisms, including specialised transporter proteins. However, transmembrane gradients can be affected by ionic fluxes through channels during periods of elevated neural activity, which in turn are predicted to influence the properties of on-going synaptic transmission. Such activity-induced changes to ion concentration gradients are a feature of both physiological and pathological neural processes. An epileptic seizure is an example of severely perturbed neural activity, which is accompanied by pronounced changes in intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations. Appreciating the factors that contribute to these ion dynamics is critical if we are to understand how a seizure event evolves and is sustained and terminated by neural tissue. Indeed, this issue is of significant clinical importance as status epilepticus – a type of seizure that does not stop of its own accord – is a life-threatening medical emergency. In this review we explore how the transmembrane concentration gradient of the six major ions (K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, H+ and HCO3- is altered during an epileptic seizure. We will first examine each ion individually, before describing how multiple interacting mechanisms between ions might contribute to concentration changes and whether these act to prolong or terminate epileptic activity. In doing so, we will consider how the availability of experimental techniques has both advanced and restricted our ability to study these phenomena.
Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorders, including psychogenic tremor (PT, is only emerging. Case Report: This is a single case report of a patient who met diagnostic criteria for PT. He underwent positron emission tomography (PET of brain with 18F-deoxyglucose at resting state. His PET study showed symmetrically increased 18F-deoxyglucose uptake in both posterior medial parietal lobes. There was no corresponding abnormality on structural imaging. Discussion: Hypermetabolism of the medial aspects of posterior parietal lobes bilaterally may reflect abnormal activity of sensory integration that is important in the pathogenesis of PT. This further supports the idea that non-organic movement disorders may be associated with detectable functional brain abnormalities.
Binzer, Michael; Almay, Béla; Eisemann, Martin
Fifty-one consecutive non-depressed patients with chronic pain referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic were assessed. In 32 patients, pain was judged to be associated with psychogenic factors only, while pain in 19 patients could be attributed solely to a general medical condition. The methods of investigation comprised visual analogue scales (VAS) and pain drawings, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), locus of control (LOC) and EMBU (for assessing perceived parental rearing practices). Mean age, gender distribution, analgesic consumption, pain duration, percentage of body area pain as well as body localization of pain were comparable in both groups. Patients with psychogenic pain reported higher levels of general bodily discomfort but less concentration difficulties and memory disturbances compared with the somatic pain patients. There were no significant intergroup differences on any of the LOC, DAS, KSP or EMBU items. LOC turned out to be extremely external, whereas DAS, KSP and EMBU scores were comparable to normal controls in earlier work. The paucity of differences between the two patient groups and the unremarkable personality structure of patients led to somewhat conflicting conclusions, and the results of the study pose one more piece of evidence for the futility of the dichotomous organic vs. psychogenic distinction of chronic pain disorders.
Mamidi, Prasad; Thakar, A B
Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defined as the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. By 2025, men with ED will be approximately 322 million, an increase of nearly 170 million men from 1995. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction. In this study, a total of 95 patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction satisfying the DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria were selected, out of them 86 patients completed the course of treatment. In Trial Group, Ashwagandha root powder and in Control group, Placebo (Wheat powder) were given for 60 days. Treatment selection and its allocation were done by following computerized randomization plan. Criterion of assessment was based on the scoring of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Scale. Paired and Unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. In Trial group (n=41), 12.6% and in Control group (n=45), 19.11% of improvement was observed with the significance of (P0.05) found in between the two groups. Both Ashwagandha and Placebo provided no relief (<25% improvement on IIEF) in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.
Gat, Itai; Maman, Ettie; Yerushalmi, Gil; Baum, Micha; Dor, Jehoshua; Raviv, Gil; Madjar, Igal; Hourvitz, Ariel
To evaluate sperm quality and fertility potential of men with psychogenic anejaculation treated by electroejaculation (EEJ) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Treatment results were compared to spinal cord injured (SCI) patients treated similarly. Retrospective clinical study. Academic tertiary referral fertility center. Couples with isolated psychogenic anejaculation or SCI. Electroejaculation and ICSI. Semen analysis, fertilization rate, implantation rate, pregnancy rate, delivery rate and safety of the procedure. Fifteen patients diagnosed with psychogenic anejaculation underwent 40 EEJ/ICSI cycles. The semen retrieved was characterized by low motility (mean 10.7% ± 12.3%), normal volume (2.2 ± 1.9 mL) and normal count (25.1 ± 29.9 × 10(6)/mL), according to World Health Organization criteria. Results of EEJ/ICSI were compared with 22 SCI patients treated by 66 EEJ/ICSI cycles during the same period. Mean female age and the number of oocytes retrieved per cycle were similar between the groups. Similar semen parameters after EEJ were found between psychogenic and SCI patients. Fertilization rate was significantly lower in the psychogenic patients compared to SCI (47.0% and 57.0%, respectively). No significant differences were found regarding pregnancy rates (20% and 22.7%, respectively), implantation rate (10.2% and 11.6%, respectively) or delivery rates (15% and 18.2%, respectively). Sperm retrieved by EEJ is characterized by asthenospermia and normal count. In spite of the lower fertilization rate in psychogenic patients, combination of EEJ and ICSI gives adequate results to couples with psychogenic anejaculation similar to the results obtained for SCI patients. Current results give these couples a reasonable chance of pregnancy achievement. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iasemidis, Leon D.
Epilepsy is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, hypersynchronous electrical activity, that may remain localized and/or spread and severely disrupt the brain’s normal multi-task and multi-processing function. Epileptic seizures are the hallmarks of such activity and had been considered unpredictable. It is only recently that research on the dynamics of seizure generation by analysis of the brain’s electrographic activity (EEG) has shed ample light on the predictability of seizures, and illuminated the way to automatic, prospective, long-term prediction of seizures. The ability to issue warnings in real time of impending seizures (e.g., tens of minutes prior to seizure occurrence in the case of focal epilepsy), may lead to novel diagnostic tools and treatments for epilepsy. Applications may range from a simple warning to the patient, in order to avert seizure-associated injuries, to intervention by automatic timely administration of an appropriate stimulus, for example of a chemical nature like an anti-epileptic drug (AED), electromagnetic nature like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial direct current (TDC) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and/or of another nature (e.g., ultrasonic, cryogenic, biofeedback operant conditioning). It is thus expected that seizure prediction could readily become an integral part of the treatment of epilepsy through neuromodulation, especially in the new generation of closed-loop seizure control systems. PMID:21939848
monitoring of their brain waves. More specifically, three issues were investigated: The feasibility of automatic seizure prediction, optimization of automatic seizure detection algorithms, and the link between intra- and extracranial EEG. Regarding feasibility of automatic seizure prediction, neither...
Chen-Block, Stephanie; Abou-Khalil, Bassel W; Arain, Amir; Haas, Kevin F; Lagrange, Andre H; Gallagher, Martin J; Azar, Nabil J; Singh, Pradumna; Sonmezturk, Hasan H
Epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES) can coexist, often posing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We sought to identify clinical and historical characteristics of two groups of patients, those with coexisting epilepsy and PNES and those with PNES alone, and determine the prevalence of coexisting epilepsy/PNES with strict diagnostic criteria in a large group of epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) patients. We reviewed the medical records of all consecutive patients admitted to the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Adult EMU between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2012. We identified patients with recorded PNES and classified them as having coexisting epilepsy/PNES or PNES alone and then systematically compared the clinical characteristics of these two groups. A total of 1567 patient medical records were reviewed. The prevalence rate of coexisting epilepsy/PNES was 5.2% among all EMU admissions (12.3% of all patients with epilepsy and 14.8% of all patients with PNES). These rates were lower when patients with interictal epileptiform activity (IEA) alone and no recorded ictal discharges were not included in the group with epilepsy (2.6%, 6.2%, and 7.4%, respectively). The accuracy of pre-EMU clinical suspicion was significantly higher in the group with PNES-only. Patients with epilepsy/PNES were significantly more likely to require more than one EMU admission for definitive diagnosis. The first PNES event preceded an epileptic seizure (ES) in 94.4% of patients with epilepsy/PNES. The group with PNES-only had significantly higher suggestibility, and the group with epilepsy/PNES had a significantly higher presence of epilepsy risk factors. Abnormal neurological examination and abnormal brain MRI were also significantly more common in the group with epilepsy/PNES. Our study defined the prevalence of coexisting epilepsy/PNES in a large cohort with strict diagnostic criteria and outlined specific clinical and historical characteristics differentiating the two
Hughes, John R
The topic of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), including delirium tremens and especially seizures, is reviewed. From mice and rat studies, it is known that both N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are involved in AWS. During alcohol intoxication chronic adaptations of NMDA and GABA receptors occur, and during alcohol withdrawal a hyperexcitable state develops. In studies on humans, during intoxication the NMDA receptors are activated and mediate tonic inhibition. In withdrawal, a rebound activation of these receptors occurs. Both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, especially the alpha2 subunit of GABA-A receptors, are also likely involved. Homocysteine increases with active drinking, and in withdrawal, excitotoxicity likely is induced by a further increase in homocysteine, viewed as a risk factor for AWS and also as a screening tool. The dopamine transporter gene is also associated with AWS. Characteristics involves changes in the ECG, especially an increase in QT interval, and EEG changes, including abnormal quantified EEG, at times periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges, and especially seizures, usually occurring 6-48h after the cessation of drinking. Therapy has emphasized benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam and lorazepam, but more standard antiepileptic drugs, like carbamazepine and topiramate, are also effective and safe.
Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard
CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outco...
Suchard, Jeffrey R.
A 37-year-old woman experienced a witnessed generalized seizure in the Emergency Department three hours after ingesting approximately 1400 mg of fluoxetine in a suicide attempt. Although the majority of fluoxetine ingestions are benign, seizures may occur after large intentional overdoses. [WestJEM. 2008;9:154-156
Vendrame, Martina; Zarowski, Marcin; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Wyllie, Elaine; Kothare, Sanjeev V; Loddenkemper, Tobias
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between semiology of seizures in children and adolescents to the corresponding EEG localization. Charts of 225 consecutive pediatric epilepsy patients undergoing Video-EEG monitoring (VEM) over 2 years were reviewed. Seizure semiology recorded during VEM was classified according to ILAE seizure semiology terminology and EEG localization, and analyzed based on onset as defined by the EEG data (generalized, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital or multilobar). A total of 1008 seizures were analyzed in 225 children (mean age 8.5 years, range 0-20), with 50% boys. Auras and seizures with automatisms arose predominantly from the temporal lobes (psemiologies relate to specific brain regions, with overlap between focal and generalized semiological seizure types, as identified electrographically. Semiology of seizures can provide important information for epilepsy localization, and should not be overlooked, especially in patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation. Separation of clinical seizure description and EEG findings may be useful, in particular when only incomplete information is available. i.e. during the first office visit. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.
Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent
Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687
Full Text Available Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6-0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling, is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance.
Naylor, David E
Several clinical trials have shown improved seizure control and outcome by early initiation of treatment with benzodiazepines, before arrival in the emergency department and before intravenous access can be established. Here, evidence is provided and reviewed for rapid treatment of acute seizures in order to avoid the development of benzodiazepine pharmacoresistance and the emergence of self-sustaining status epilepticus. Alterations in the physiology, pharmacology, and postsynaptic level of GABA-A receptors can develop within minutes to an hour and hinder the ability of synaptic inhibition to stop seizures while also impairing the efficacy of GABAergic agents, such as benzodiazepines, to boost impaired inhibition. In addition, heightened excitatory transmission further exacerbates the inhibitory/excitatory balance and makes seizure control even more resistant to treatment. The acute increase in the surface expression of NMDA receptors during prolonged seizures also may cause excitotoxic injury, cell death, and other pathological expressions and re-arrangements of receptor subunits that all contribute to long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairment and chronic epilepsy. In conclusion, a short window of opportunity exists when seizures are maximally controlled by first-line benzodiazepine treatment. After that, multiple pathological mechanisms quickly become engaged that make seizures increasingly more difficult to control with high risk for long-term harm.
Jessica P. Hekman
Full Text Available Evidence to support the existence of health consequences of psychogenic stress has been documented across a range of domestic species. A general understanding of methods of recognition and means of mitigation of psychogenic stress in hospitalized animals is arguably an important feature of the continuing efforts of clinicians to improve the well-being and health of dogs and other veterinary patients. The intent of this review is to describe, in a variety of species: the physiology of the stress syndrome, with particular attention to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; causes and characteristics of psychogenic stress; mechanisms and sequelae of stress-induced immune dysfunction; and other adverse effects of stress on health outcomes. Following that, we describe general aspects of the measurement of stress and the role of physiological measures and behavioral signals that may predict stress in hospitalized animals, specifically focusing on dogs.
Full Text Available Non-psychogenic polydipsia with hyponatremia is a rare clinical presentation. Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium, phosphate, and bone metabolism caused by increased level of parathyroid hormone (PTH. It is estimated the incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism are 21.6 per 100,000 person a year. This case report describe a 45-year-old man presented with non-psychogenic polydipsia. This patient drank a lot of water out of the fear of recurrent kidney stones. He had history of recurrent nephrolithiasis with hypercalcemia. We investigate further the cause of hypercalcemia and we diagnosed primary hyperparathryoidism as the cause. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:230-4Keywords: Hyponatremia, non-psychogenic polydipsia, primary hyperparathyroidism
Sands, Tristan T; McDonough, Tiffani L
This article strives to review and summarize selected recent literature and topics contributing to a greater understanding of the diagnosis and treatments of neonatal seizures that have emerged in the past several years. Continuous EEG is recommended as the gold standard for neonatal seizure monitoring as it can provide additional information that may stratify patients by etiology, as well as identify at-risk groups of newborns for neuromonitoring. Investigations are moving beyond traditional antiepileptic agents in search of treatments with better efficacy and with less concern for developmental effects. Targeted therapies for seizures resulting from particular genetic conditions are increasing, highlighting the importance of early genetic diagnosis. Better understanding of the risk of post-neonatal epilepsy based on etiology is emerging with new epidemiological studies. Evidence is growing for deleterious effects of seizures on outcomes, elevating the importance of seizure detection and effective treatment. Advances in utilization of continuous EEG monitoring have improved the accuracy of seizure detection and have identified at-risk groups of newborns for neuromonitoring. Ultimately, the goal in management of neonatal seizures is not only clinical stabilization in the acute period but also to influence neurodevelopmental outcome and modify the risk of future epilepsy.
Alqadi, Khalid; Sankaraneni, Ram; Thome, Ursula; Kotagal, Prakash
Hypermotor seizures (HMSs) consist of complex movements involving proximal segments of the limbs and trunk that appear violent and inappropriate for the situation. We analyzed hypermotor seizure videos in seizure-free patients (Engel class I) following resective epilepsy surgery. After completion of video analysis, we reviewed EEG and neuroimaging data. Search of our epilepsy surgery database yielded 116 patients classified as having hypermotor seizures between 1996 and 2013. From this subset, 17/31 (55%) patients had been seizure-free for >6months (mean follow-up: 3.3years). Mean seizure duration was 35s (range: 6-91s), of which the HM phase lasted a mean of 22s (range: 3-53s). In 16 patients (95%), hypermotor activity was seen at or within 10s of clinical seizure onset. Type I semiology occurred in 6 patients, type II semiology in 10 patients, and 1 patient exhibited features of both. Type I and type II semiologies were noted in patients who had frontal lobe as well as extrafrontal resections. Nonversive head and body turning occurred in 10 patients (ranging from 90° to 270°) which was ipsilateral to the side of resection in all patients and seen both in frontal and extrafrontal resections. Six out of eleven patients with abnormal MRI and 4/6 patients with nonlesional MRI underwent invasive EEG evaluation. Eight patients (47%) had frontal lobe resection, 4/17 (23%) patients had temporal lobe resection, and one patient each had parietal lobe, insular, temporoparietooccipital, or motor sparing resection; 1 patient had functional hemispherectomy. Hypermotor semiology typically occurs at or within 10s after seizure onset. Ipsilateral head/body turning appears to be of lateralizing value whereas asymmetry of limb movement was not lateralizing. Hypermotor semiology is most often seen in frontal lobe epilepsy but may occur in seizures arising from other locations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hovav, Y; Kafka, I; Dan-Goor, M; Yaffe, H; Almagor, M
To evaluate the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with sperm obtained by electroejaculation in men with psychogenic anejaculation. Retrospective clinical study. In Vitro Fertilization Unit, Bikur Cholim Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. Seven men with psychogenic anejaculation who underwent 16 sessions of electroejaculation in combination with ICSI. Electroejaculation, ICSI. Semen analysis, ICSI, fertilization rates. All patients had poor sperm motility. One hundred forty-seven oocytes were injected, with a fertilization rate of 27% (39/142). One ongoing pregnancy was achieved. Sperm obtained by electroejaculation have low motility and reduced fertilization potential. Nevertheless, ICSI should be offered to improve the possibility of successful pregnancy.
Kane, Nick; Grocott, Lesley; Kandler, Ros; Lawrence, Sarah; Pang, Catherine
To determine safety and efficacy of hyperventilation (HV) during electroencephalography (EEG). We report the findings of a prospective multicentre National Service Evaluation of the occurrence of adverse events, seizures and interictal epileptiform discharges seen in association with HV during EEG, in a relatively unselected, largely out patient population of 3475 being investigated predominantly for possible epileptic seizures. Adverse events occurred rarely, and there were no reported significant cerebrovascular, cardiovascular or respiratory events. Of the 3170 patients suspected of 'epilepsy or possible epilepsy' 69 patients (2.2%) had seizures provoked by HV, but only one (0.03%) had a generalised tonic clonic seizure. The elicitation or increase of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) was seen in 387 (12.2%) of the total 3170 patients with suspected epilepsy who hyperventilated. Furthermore 31 patients (0.9%) had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. HV is rarely associated with adverse events, but contributes to the diagnosis and classification of seizure disorders in an appreciable proportion of patients with epilepsy and non-epileptic attacks. These findings confirm that HV in selected patients is a valid activation technique in diagnostic EEG, where the potential benefits out weigh the risks, and also provide information that may assist the informed consent process. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitehead, Kimberley; Sherratt, Michael; Kandler, Ros; Lawrence, Sarah; Pang, Catherine
To determine efficacy and safety of photic stimulation (PS) during electroencephalography (EEG) in a large group of adult and paediatric patients. A prospective multicentre National Service Evaluation was performed organised by the joint audit committee of the two UK professional organisations (Association of Neurophysiological Scientists and British Society for Clinical Neurophysiology). Questionnaires about every EEG performed in the two-month study period were completed contemporaneously by physiologists at the time of the recording-reporting. The occurrence during PS of photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs), seizures and psychogenic non-epileptic attacks was noted from the EEG trace and contemporary clinical observation backed up by the video that was synchronised with the EEG. 5383 patients investigated with EEG and PS, mostly for possible epilepsy, were included in the study. Seventy nine patients (1.5%) had a generalised PPR elicited by PS having had no generalised epileptiform discharges previously in the EEG. Thirty nine patients (0.7%) had seizures provoked by PS including two (0.04%) who had a generalised tonic clonic seizure (GTCS). Forty nine patients (0.9%) had non-epileptic attacks provoked by PS. Thus PS yielded potentially useful information (PPRs, seizures or non-epileptic attacks) in 167/5383 (3.1%) of patients. In a subset of 122/5383 (2.3%), PS provided the only useful information captured within the EEG. PS contributes to the diagnosis of epilepsy and non-epileptic attack disorder in 3.1% of patients. It is a safe technique which produces GTCSs in only 0.04% patients. We conclude that PS is a moderately useful activation technique in diagnostic EEG, where the potential benefits out-weigh the risks; this information may assist the informed consent process. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Investigators at the Roald Dahl EEG Unit, Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation, Liverpool, UK, review the definition, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of reflex anoxic seizures (RAS in children.
Kadiyala, Sridhar B; Ferland, Russell J
C57BL/6J mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized clonic seizures exhibit a change in seizure phenotype following a 28-day incubation period and subsequent flurothyl rechallenge. Mice now develop a complex seizure semiology originating in the forebrain and propagating into the brainstem seizure network (a forebrain→brainstem seizure). In contrast, this phenotype change does not occur in seizure-sensitive DBA/2J mice. The underlying mechanism(s) was the focus of these studies. DBA2/J mice were exposed to eight flurothyl-induced seizures (1/day) followed by 24-hour video-electroencephalographic recordings for 28-days. Forebrain and brainstem seizure thresholds were determined in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice following one or eight flurothyl-induced seizures, or after eight flurothyl-induced seizures, a 28-day incubation period, and final flurothyl rechallenge. Similar to C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice expressed spontaneous seizures. However, unlike C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice continued to have spontaneous seizures without remission. Because DBA2/J mice do not express forebrain→brainstem seizures following flurothyl rechallenge after a 28-day incubation period, this indicated that spontaneous seizures were not sufficient for the evolution of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Therefore, we determined whether brainstem seizure thresholds were changing during this repeated-flurothyl model and whether this could account for the expression of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Brainstem seizure thresholds were not different between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice on day one or on the last induction seizure trial (day eight). However, brainstem seizure thresholds did differ significantly on flurothyl rechallenge (day 28) with DBA/2J mice showing no lowering of their brainstem seizure thresholds. These results demonstrated that DBA/2J mice exposed to the repeated-flurothyl model develop spontaneous seizures without evidence of seizure remission and provide a new model of
Full Text Available The incidence of seizures in relation to stroke is 8.9%, with a frequency of 10.6 and 8.6% in haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, respectively. In subarachnoid haemorrhage the incidence is 8.5%. Due to the fact that infarcts are significantly more frequent than haemorrhages, seizures are mainly related to occlusive vascular disease of the brain. The general view is to consider stroke-related seizures as harmless complications in the course of a prolonged vascular disease involving the heart and brain. Seizures can be classified as those of early and those of late onset in a paradigm comparable to post-traumatic epilepsy, with an arbitrary dividing point of two weeks after the event. Most early-onset seizures occur during the first day after the stroke. Late-onset seizures occur three times more often than early-onset ones. A first late-onset epileptic event is most likely to take place between six months and two years after the stroke. However, up to 28% of patients develop their first seizure several years later. Simple partial seizures, with or without secondary generalisation, account for about 50% of total seizures, while complex partial spells, with or without secondary generalisation, and primary generalised tonic–clonic insults account for approximately 25% each. Status epilepticus occurs in 12% of stroke patients, but the recurrence rate after an initial status epilepticus is not higher than after a single seizure. Inhibitory seizures, mimicking transient ischaemic attacks, are observed in 7.1% of cases. The only clinical predictor of late-onset seizures is the initial presentation of partial anterior circulation syndrome due to a territorial infarct. Patients with total anterior circulation syndrome have less chance of developing epileptic spells, not only due to their shorter life expectancy but also due to the fact that the large infarcts are sharply demarcated in these patients. The optimal timing and type of antiepileptic drug
Full Text Available Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state-the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics.
Lanska, Douglas J
In the late 19th century, a man with a psychogenic movement disorder was evaluated by many of the Philadelphia neurologists associated with Silas Weir Mitchell. In 1885, prior to the development of movie cameras or projectors, the patient was photographed by pioneering photographer Eadweard Muybridge, in collaboration with neurologist Francis Dercum, using arrays of sequentially triggered single-image cameras. The photographic sequences are among the first motion picture sequences of patients with neurologic disorders. Examination of extant primary source documents concerning this patient, including published writings and photographic sequences by Muybridge and Dercum, the original clinical descriptions, Mitchell's documentation of the patient's later clinical course, and results of the autopsy. Mitchell and his colleagues concluded that this was a "case of undoubted hysteria" in a man. Support for this contention includes the following: protracted course, spanning decades with temporary remissions; inconsistent character of the movement and features incongruous with typical "organic" tremors; complex, bizarre movements that are difficult to classify; increase in movements with attention; alteration in frequency of the movements with movement of the opposite arm; ability to trigger or temporarily stop the movements with unusual or nonphysiologic interventions; involvement of the opposite arm in a synchronous abnormal movement later in the course; remission with hypnotic suggestion; absence of other neurologic signs; and normal brain autopsy. The clinical history, serial examinations, photographic documentation, and autopsy results support Mitchell's contention that this was a case of male hysteria, or, in modern terminology, a psychogenic movement disorder. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Ulate-Campos, A; Coughlin, F; Gaínza-Lein, M; Fernández, I Sánchez; Pearl, P L; Loddenkemper, T
...% of patients with refractory epilepsy have one or more seizures per month. Seizure detection devices allow an objective assessment of seizure frequency and a treatment tailored to the individual patient...
Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Allendorfer, Jane B; Nenert, Rodolphe; LaFrance, W Curt; Barkan, Helen I; DeWolfe, Jennifer; Pati, Sandipan; Thomas, Ashley E; Ver Hoef, Lawrence
Studies of emotion processing are needed to better understand the pathophysiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). We examined the differences in facial emotion processing between 12 patients with PNES, 12 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and 24 matched healthy controls (HCs) using fMRI with emotional faces task (EFT) (happy/sad/fearful/neutral) and resting state connectivity. Compared with TLE, patients with PNES exhibited increased fMRI response to happy, neutral, and fearful faces in visual, temporal, and/or parietal regions and decreased fMRI response to sad faces in the putamen bilaterally. Regions showing significant differences between PNES and TLE were used as functional seed regions of interest (ROIs), in addition to amygdala structural seed ROIs for resting state functional connectivity analyses. Whole brain analyses showed that compared with TLE and HCs, patients with PNES exhibited increased functional connectivity of the functional seed ROIs to several brain regions, particularly to cerebellar, visual, motor, and frontotemporal regions. Connectograms showed increased functional connections between left parahippocampal gyrus/uncus ROIs and right temporal ROIs in PNES compared with both the TLE and HC groups. Resting state functional connectivity of the left and right amygdala to various brain regions including emotion regulation and motor control circuits was increased in PNES when compared with those with TLE. This study provides preliminary evidence that patients with PNES exhibit altered facial emotion processing compared with patients with TLE and HCs and increased amygdala functional connectivity compared with TLE. These findings identify potential key differences in facial emotion processing reflective of neurophysiologic markers of neural circuitry alterations that can be used to generate further hypotheses for developing studies that examine the contributions of emotion processing to the development and maintenance of PNES
Most seizure emergencies occur outside of the hospital, and there is a need for treatment interventions that can be administered quickly and safely by nonclinical caregivers. Intranasal benzodiazepine administration does not require intravenous access and offers rapid seizure cessation. Intranasal midazolam is faster at aborting seizure activity than rectal diazepam and quicker to administer than intravenous diazepam. Although time to seizure cessation varies from study to study, intranasal midazolam is efficacious when administered not only by emergency department personnel but also by paramedics and caregivers in out-of-hospital and home settings. Absorption of midazolam intranasal formulations appears to be relatively rapid compared to diazepam formulations. Its shorter elimination half-life may also be beneficial in that patients may more quickly return to normal function because of rapid offset of effect. On the other hand, the faster rate of elimination of midazolam may expose patients to a higher rate of seizure recurrence compared with diazepam. Two diazepam formulations and one midazolam formulation are being currently developed for intranasal use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ulate-Campos, A; Coughlin, F; Gaínza-Lein, M; Fernández, I Sánchez; Pearl, P L; Loddenkemper, T
Epilepsy affects almost 1% of the population and most of the approximately 20-30% of patients with refractory epilepsy have one or more seizures per month. Seizure detection devices allow an objective assessment of seizure frequency and a treatment tailored to the individual patient. A rapid recognition and treatment of seizures through closed-loop systems could potentially decrease morbidity and mortality in epilepsy. However, no single detection device can detect all seizure types. Therefore, the choice of a seizure detection device should consider the patient-specific seizure semiologies. This review of the literature evaluates seizure detection devices and their effectiveness for different seizure types. Our aim is to summarize current evidence, offer suggestions on how to select the most suitable seizure detection device for each patient and provide guidance to physicians, families and researchers when choosing or designing seizure detection devices. Further, this review will guide future prospective validation studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Alan, Serdar; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Turanlı, Güzide; Karlı-Oğuz, Kader; Lay-Ergun, Eser; Söylemezoğlu, Figen; Akalan, Nejat; Topçu, Meral
We aimed to determine seizure characteristics of pediatric patients with epilepsy, and evaluate if Semiological Seizure Classification (SSC) system is applicable in this cohort. We retrospectively studied 183 patients, aged between 3 months-18 years, admitted to the video-EEG monitoring unit (VEMU). Most patients suffered from intractable epilepsy with comorbidities, and had structural lesions. Seizures were classified based on ictal video-EEG recordings by using SSC system; 157 patients had only one seizure type, 26 had more than one seizure types. Overall 211 seizures and 373 semiologies were analyzed; 114 seizures (54%) had more than one semiological subtype. The most frequent semiology was motor seizures (78%), followed by dialeptic seizures (12%). The most common subtypes were simple motor seizures (49%); tonic seizures constituted (28.4%) of all semiologies. We conclude that SSC system is applicable for children with epilepsy admitted to VEMU; complementary EEG and imaging data are required for evaluation of patients with epilepsy.
Nordli, Douglas R
The clinical manifestations of seizures change in a predictable fashion with advancing age. For focal seizures these changes can be summarized into domains similar to those used in developmental models. These include fine motor, communication, and gross motor manifestations. Instead of socialization the fourth domain for seizure semiology concerns synchronization. Focal seizures in the very young tend to be simpler with fewer fine motor manifestations. Auras are uncommon, even in young children with some linguistic skill and it is often difficult to discern alteration of consciousness. Infantile focal seizures can present with spasms or even diffuse tonic seizures. In terms of synchronization, orderly secondary generalization is rarely seen so that primary generalized clonic seizures are rarely recorded in infants. Amongst so-called "generalized" seizures spasms are most often seen in the first year of life. Absence seizures, myoclonic-astatic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures are all usually not seen until after age 2 years. A full description of the clinical details of seizures is probably the most important part of the epilepsy history. A detailed knowledge of seizure semiology can make the history more effective and also in the identification of the correct seizure classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
S. Krisztian eKovacs
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.
ABSTRACT. Introduction. Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in children. ... Adequate provision of information seemed to reduce this anxiety (2, 16). .... Effects of educational intervention on changing parental practices for.
M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: Prediction of a recurrent febrile seizure during subsequent episodes of fever. DESIGN: Study of the data of the temperatures, seizure recurrences, and baseline patient characteristics that were collected at a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen
Hendrickson, Rick; Popescu, Alexandra; Ghearing, Gena; Bagic, Anto
Psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNESs) are often very difficult to treat, which may be, in part, related to the limited information known about what a person experiences while having PNESs. For this retrospective study, thoughts, emotions, and dissociative features during a spell were evaluated in 351 patients diagnosed with PNESs (N=223) or epilepsy (N=128). We found that a statistically higher number of thoughts, emotions, and dissociative symptoms were endorsed by patients with PNESs versus patients with epilepsy. Patients with PNESs reported significantly more anxiety and frustration, but not depression, compared with those with epilepsy. Emotions and dissociations, but not thoughts, and a history of any type of abuse were endorsed significantly more often by patients with PNESs. Patients with PNESs are prone to having poor outcomes, and interventions focusing on their actual experiences may be helpful for treatment planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Psychogenic excoriation is a condition where the patient picks the skin repetitively to produce excoriations. Treating this clinical entity is challenging as these patients often have an associated psychological abnormality. The five cases in this case series include two children and three adults. They presented with skin lesions ranging from excoriations and ulcers to scars and pigmentation. Detailed evaluation was done by clinical psychologist. Two cases had anxiety traits, one had alcohol dependence, one had difficult temperament and one had depressive symptoms. Habit reversal was introduced. Psychiatry referral was given for three cases and started on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. On follow-up, the urge to scratch reduced substantially and skin lesions were also improving. It is important to identify the underlying psychological disorder accounting for skin picking behavior. Incorporating psychotherapeutic techniques into clinical practice will improve the quality of life of many of these patients.
Niesen, Adam D; Jacob, Adam K; Aho, Lucyna E; Botten, Emily J; Nase, Karen E; Nelson, Julia M; Kopp, Sandra L
The occurrence of perioperative seizures in patients with a preexisting seizure disorder is unclear. There are several factors unique to the perioperative period that may increase a patient's risk of perioperative seizures, including medications administered, timing of medication administration, missed doses of antiepileptic medications, and sleep deprivation. We designed this retrospective chart review to evaluate the frequency of perioperative seizures in patients with a preexisting seizure disorder. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with a documented history of a seizure disorder who received an anesthetic between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007. Patients excluded from this study include those who had an outpatient procedure or intracranial procedure, ASA classification of V, pregnant women, and patients younger than 2 years of age. The first hospital admission of at least 24 hours during which an anesthetic was provided was identified for each patient. Patient demographics, character of the seizure disorder, details of the surgical procedure, and clinically apparent seizure activity in the perioperative period (within 3 days after the anesthetic) were recorded. During the 6-year study period, 641 patients with a documented seizure disorder were admitted for at least 24 hours after an anesthetic. Twenty-two patients experienced perioperative seizure activity for an overall frequency of 3.4%(95% confidence interval, 2.2%-5.2%). The frequency of preoperative seizures (P seizure (P seizure. As the number of antiepileptic medications increased, so did the frequency of perioperative seizures (P seizures in this patient population. We conclude that the majority of perioperative seizures in patients with a preexisting seizure disorder are likely related to the patient's underlying condition. The frequency of seizures is not influenced by the type of anesthesia or procedure. Because patients with frequent seizures at baseline are
Billstedt, Eva; Waern, Margda; Falk, Hanna; Duberstein, Paul; Östling, Svante; Hällström, Tore; Skoog, Ingmar
While time trends in personality traits have been suggested in younger cohorts, little is known regarding this issue in older adults. To test for birth cohort changes in psychogenic needs according to Murray's theory of personality in two birth cohorts of 75-year-olds born 1901-1902 and 1930. Two population-based birth cohorts were examined at the age of 75 years in 1976-1977 and in 2005-2006. Psychogenic needs according to Murray were measured with the Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS), a Swedish version of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Scores on the CMPS subscales (achievement, affiliation, aggression, defence of status, guilt feelings, dominance, exhibition, autonomy, nurturance, order, succorance, and acquiescence) were compared between cohorts. Achievement, exhibition, dominance, aggression, affiliation, and succorance scores were higher, and order and acquiescence scores lower, in the more recent birth cohort of 75-year-olds. Women scored lower than men on exhibition and dominance, and higher on defence of status, guilt feelings, affiliation, nurturance, and succorance. Interaction effects between cohort and sex were found for achievement (women scored lower than men in 1976-1977 but not in 2005-2006), order (the lower scores in 2005-2006 were more accentuated among men), and acquiescence (increased in men and decreased in women). The later-born birth cohort scored higher on self-centred traits, such as more dominant, competitive, and exhibitive traits as well as the need to be taken care of and have friends around, but it scored lower on the need for order. The gap between men and women regarding achievement decreased, possibly reflecting women's more prominent role in society. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Background. Seizures after an asphyxial insult may result in brain damage in neonates. Prophylactic phenobarbital may reduce seizures. Objective. To determine the e€ect of prophylactic phenobarbital on seizures, death and neurological outcome at hospital discharge. Methods. Neonates with base de.cit >16 mmol/l and ...
Koch, Marcus W.; Polman, Susanne K. L.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques
Background Epileptic seizures occur in only a minority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but can have serious consequences. The available literature suggests an association of seizures in MS with cortical and subcortical demyelinating lesions, which suggest that seizures in MS are probably
J Gordon Millichap
Researchers at the Institute of Child Health, London; Epilepsy Center, University of Edinburgh; and Dartmouth Medical School, New Hampshire, US studied memory abilities in 26 children (mean age 23 months, SD 12.6 months) after prolonged febrile seizures (median, 37.5 days), and compared to 37 normal controls.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The incidence of febrile seizures (FS in a cohort of children, ages 3 months to 5 years, living in a Netherlands province was compared with the incidence of common viral infections reported to a national registry and the results reported from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Public Health Laboratory Friesland, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry were performed on 84 consecutive patients (adolescents and adults with partial epilepsy submitted to antiepileptic drug (AED withdrawal after at least 2 years of seizure control, in a study at State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Brazil.
Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A
To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Müller, Margrit; Jaggi, Sabina; Kouriaichi, Carina; Eggenschwiler, Prisca; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy
Epilepsy is, after stroke, the second most prevalent neurological disease. The disease has a manifold etiology and symptoms and hence treatment options. From the patients who seek treatment in epilepsy centres, some suffer from psychogenic, non-epileptic seizures. Patient with epileptic seizures have to integrate a medication regimen into their lives, accept symptoms and change their life style to seizure preventing habits. Patients with non-epileptic seizures need psychotherapeutic treatment. Care has to be offered over long periods of time and needs to be tailored to very diverse patients' and family situations. Nurses in this field need broad knowledge about the diseases and treatments as well as enhanced skills in counselling and caring for these patients. Therefore the Swiss Epilepsy Centre in Zurich hired an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) to increase patients' satisfaction with care and enhance nurses' skills and knowledge. This article analyses the work content of the advanced practice nurse and describes first experiences one year after the implementation of an APN-role. The APN worked half of her time in direct patient and family care. The rest of her work load concerned practice development in coaching and educating the nursing staff, being involved in projects and collaborating with the head nurse on specific topics. In conclusion, implementation of an advanced practice nurse has been shown to be beneficial since patients' feedback were very positive and the increase in nurses' skills and competencies has been assessed as noticeable.
Yang, Yong; Zhu, Binglin; Zheng, Fangshuo; Li, Yun; Zhang, Yanke; Hu, Yida; Wang, Xuefeng
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy sensor. Its activator metformin could suppress epileptogenesis in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model. However, the effect of metformin on the acute and chronic seizures has not been studied. We first detected the expression of AMPK in the brain tissue of human and mice with chronic seizures, as well as in mice with acute seizures. Second, using behavioral assay and local filed potentials (LFPs) recording, we investigated the effect of chronic metformin treatment on seizures in a acute seizure model and a chronic seizure model. Our results showed that AMPK was expressed in neurons in the epileptic brain. The expression level was decreased in the brain tissue that experienced chronic and acute seizures. In PTZ-induced acute seizures model, behavioral assay showed that chronic metformin treatment decreased the mortality, and LFPs recording showed that chronic metformin treatment shortened the duration of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and prolonged the duration of postictal depression. Moreover, in kainic acid-induced chronic seizures model, LFPs recording showed that chronic metformin treatment shortened the duration of epileptic activity. Our study suggests that chronic metformin treatment could facilitate seizure termination. Copyright Â© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, St. Mary`s Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)
We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.
Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh
Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.
Riesgo, Rudimar; Winckler, Maria Isabel; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Ranzan, Josiane; Becker, Michele; Salvador, Socrates; Magalhaes, Luiza; Ribeiro, Ricardo
The objective of this study is to describe the usefulness of topiramate in refractory neonatal seizures. We reported the clinical off-label use of topiramate in three cases of refractory neonatal seizures of unclear origin with no response to conventional antiepileptic drugs. In all cases, the seizures were completely controlled with adding topiramate. All patients became seizure free during hospitalization and were followed by approximately 1 year after hospital discharge, with monotherapy with topiramate. The clinical off-label use of topiramate in neonatal seizures is still incipient. When searching publications in this matter, only one report was identified. Because of its efficacy for both seizures and neuroprotection, topiramate could be a useful choice in refractory neonatal seizures. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
K. Yu. Мukhin
Full Text Available The article is devoted to rare and unique type of epileptic seizures – inhibitory motor seizures, characterized by the inability to execute a voluntary movement with preserved consciousness. The exact prevalence of this type of seizures is not known, but many cases are unrecognized or non-correctly diagnosed as Todd's paralysis. Therefore practical doctors should know the clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of this type of seizures andtake them into account in the differential diagnoses . The authors presented a detailed review of the literature, including the historical data, etiology, pathogenesis and proposed mechanisms of formation of inhibitory motor seizures, clinical and EEG characteristics, therapeutic approaches. Antiepileptic drugs of choice used in the treatment of inhibitory motor seizures are valproic acid (preferably depakine chronosphere – original prolonged form of valproate. The authors also presented their observations of patients with inhibitory motor seizures.
appeared along this diagonal. The surrogates were generated using the amplitude adjusted Fourier transform algorithm (Theiler et al., 1992). This shuffles ...and (E), respectively. The y-axis represents the fraction of surrogate ( shuffled , see ‘‘Materials and methods’’ section) sequences with a maximal...Wilkinson, S.B., 2001. An introduction to contingent (closed-loop) brain electrical stimulation for seizure blockage, ultra -short-term clinical trials
Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the factors predictive for seizure control in non-ketotic hyperglycemic induced seizures (NKHS. Methods We studied 21 patients who were clinically diagnosed as NKHS at Khon Kaen University hospital, Thailand. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the factors predictive for seizure control. Results Most patients had no previous history of diabetes and presented with repetitive partial seizures. The mean number of seizure attacks was 45 times prior to admission. The average duration to terminate seizure was 36 hours and significantly predicted by frequency of seizures (estimate 0.9, p value 0.013. Conclusion Frequency of seizures is the only predictive factor for the success of seizure control in NKHS.
Ito, Yuji; Natsume, Jun; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Naoko; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Tsuji, Takeshi; Okumura, Akihisa; Kubota, Tetsuo; Ando, Naoki; Saitoh, Shinji; Miura, Kiyokuni; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kojima, Seiji
The aim of this study was to clarify characteristics of post-encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE) in children after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), paying particular attention to precise diagnosis of seizure types. Among 262 children with acute encephalopathy/encephalitis registered in a database of the Tokai Pediatric Neurology Society between 2005 and 2012, 44 were diagnosed with AESD according to the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to investigate clinical data, MRI findings, neurologic outcomes, and presence or absence of PEE. Seizure types of PEE were determined by both clinical observation by pediatric neurologists and ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Of the 44 patients after AESD, 10 (23%) had PEE. The period between the onset of encephalopathy and PEE ranged from 2 to 39 months (median 8.5 months). Cognitive impairment was more severe in patients with PEE than in those without. Biphasic seizures and status epilepticus during the acute phase of encephalopathy did not influence the risk of PEE. The most common seizure type of PEE on clinical observation was focal seizures (n = 5), followed by epileptic spasms (n = 4), myoclonic seizures (n = 3), and tonic seizures (n = 2). In six patients with PEE, seizures were induced by sudden unexpected sounds. Seizure types confirmed by ictal video-EEG recordings were epileptic spasms and focal seizures with frontal onset, and all focal seizures were startle seizures induced by sudden acoustic stimulation. Intractable daily seizures remain in six patients with PEE. We demonstrate seizure characteristics of PEE in children after AESD. Epileptic spasms and startle focal seizures are common seizure types. The specific seizure types may be determined by the pattern of diffuse subcortical white matter injury in AESD and age-dependent reorganization of the brain
ANTONIO PEDRO VARGAS
Full Text Available Desordens de movimento raramente podem ser devidas a distúrbios psiquiátricos. A distonia psicogênica caracteriza-se pela inconsistência dos achados, presença de fatores precipitantes, manifestar-se inicialmente nos membros inferiores, associar-se a dor, a outros movimentos anormais incaracterísticos e a somatizações múltiplas. Descrevemos duas pacientes com diagnóstico de distonia psicogênica clinicamente estabelecida. Paciente 1, feminina, apresentou episódio súbito de perda de força dos quatro membros, evoluiu com distonia nos pés, laterocolo alternante, tremor generalizado, irregular, e hipertonia dos membros inferiores que desapareciam a distração; a avaliação psicológica evidenciou depressão, hipocondria, transtorno obsessivo. Paciente 2, feminina, há nove anos começou a ter tremor irregular nos membros inferiores, que desaparecia com a distração, e distonia no pé esquerdo associada a dor; progressivamente perdeu a marcha; a avaliação psicológica revelou comportamento infantilizado, com baixa tolerância a frustração, impulsividade e auto-agressão. Os exames complementares de ambas não mostraram alterações e a resposta ao tratamento farmacológico foi nula. Distonia raramente é de origem psicogênica. A inconstância e a incongruência com o quadro clássico, associadas a outras somatizações ou a distúrbios psiquiátricos, sugerem o diagnóstico.Movement disorders have rarely been the result of psychiatric disturbances. Psychogenic dystonia is caracterized by inconsistent findings, a known precipitant factor, onset in legs, pain , multiple somatizations and incongruent association with other movement disorders. We report two patients with clinically established psychogenic dystonia. Patient 1: a female that presented sudden loss of strength in her four limbs; she developed feet dystonia, alternant laterocollis, generalized and irregular tremor, and limb hypertonia that disappeared with distraction
Strobel, Ashley M; Gill, Vikramjit S; Witting, Michael D; Teshome, Getachew
Guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology recommend laboratory studies or computed tomography (CT) for children who experience a nonfebrile seizure if anything in their history suggests a clinically significant abnormality. To ascertain if any patient or seizure characteristics are associated with a greater likelihood that laboratory studies or CT scan will yield clinically significant results. This retrospective case series reviewed 93 children with nonfebrile seizure, who were evaluated in an urban pediatric emergency department (ED) between July 2007 and June 2011. Laboratory studies were performed in 87% of the study group; 7% of those tests gave clinically significant results. Computed tomographic scans were obtained in 35% of our patients; 9% showed clinically significant findings. Presence of an active seizure in the ED or a first nonfebrile seizure had an 8% and 11% difference, respectively, for clinically significant laboratory abnormality. Children younger than 2 years showed a 7% difference of clinically significant laboratory abnormality. This study did not identify statistically significant predictors of laboratory or CT abnormalities for children with nonfebrile seizure presenting to the ED. Age less than 2years, having an active seizure in the ED, and experiencing a first-time seizure showed a trend toward an increased yield of laboratory testing. In accordance with the American Academy of Neurology guidelines, we conclude that the history of a child's present illness preceding the nonfebrile seizure, not characteristics of the seizure, should be used to determine the need for further testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the types of seziures, etiological factors, effectiveness and adverse effects of antiepileptic treatment in the elderly. METHODS: We evaluated the medical data of the 138 patients, who had their first seizure above the age of 65, and admitted to our clinic between years 2011-2013. We determined the type of seizure, etiological factors, seizure reccurence, antiepileptic treatment, adverse effects of the treatment and the rate of patients who were seizure free at the last visit RESULTS: In the 138 patients, whose mean age was 75,62±7.2 years at the time of first seizure, we found the most common seizure type was generalized seizure and the most common etiologic factor was cerebrovascular diseases. Levetirasetam was the most used antiepileptic drug, and for the overall group the rate of adverse effect of the antiepileptic drugs were 20.3%. At the last visit, 89.9% of the patients were seizure free with a mean time of 17.8±22.7 months. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In conclusion, symptomatic seizures were common in elderly with better response to antiepileptic drugs and usually monotheraphy was sufficent for maintanence of the seizure free period. The side effects and drug interactionsmust be taken into account while choosing the antiepileptic treatment, since the comorbid diseases and multiple drug usage is common in elderly
Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur
Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chen, Chun-Yu; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Han-Ping
Seizures account for 1% of all pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical spectrum and prevalence rates of various etiologies in children with a first attack of acute seizure disorder in the ED. We evaluated 319 children who presented to the ED at the Changhua Children's Hospital with a first attack of seizure disorder from 2005 to 2007. Variables including demographics, clinical presentations, laboratory tests, brain imaging studies, electroencephalography, diagnoses and hospital course were compared between patients with seizures and fever, and patients with seizures without fever. These variables were also compared between patients with simple and complex febrile seizures and among different age groups. Among these 319 patients, 218 (68%) presented with seizures and fever and 299 (94%) children were younger than 6 years of age. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were the most common type (71.2%). Febrile seizures (62.1%) were the main etiology of the first seizure (p Seizures caused by severe electrolyte imbalance or hypoglycemia were noted in three patients. Abnormal brain images were noted in 16 (26%) of 61 patients, most (12/16, 75%) of whom had abnormal histories and physical or neurologic examinations. Primary care pediatricians should evaluate children presenting to the ED with a first seizure for age, coexistence of fever, seizure type, associated symptoms and history of head injury. We suggest that electrolytes, blood sugar and emergent brain imaging studies should be arranged based on detailed history-taking and thorough physical examinations, but should not be performed routinely. Copyright 2010 Taiwan Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vertigan, Anne E; Murad, Mohammad H; Pringsheim, Tamara; Feinstein, Anthony; Chang, Anne B; Newcombe, Peter A; Rubin, Bruce K; McGarvey, Lorcan P; Weir, Kelly; Altman, Kenneth W; Weinberger, Miles; Irwin, Richard S; Adams, Todd M; Altman, Kenneth W; Barker, Alan F; Birring, Surinder S; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald C; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan J; Chang, Anne B; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Gould, Michael K; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T; Irwin, Richard S; Kahrilas, Peter J; Keogh, Karina A; Lane, Andrew P; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; McCrory, Douglas C; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M; Vertigan, Anne E; Wang, Gang; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly; Wiener, Renda Soylemez
We conducted a systematic review on the management of psychogenic cough, habit cough, and tic cough to update the recommendations and suggestions of the 2006 guideline on this topic. We followed the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the systematic review, patients' values and preferences, and the clinical context. Final grading was reached by consensus according to Delphi methodology. The results of the systematic review revealed only low-quality evidence to support how to define or diagnose psychogenic or habit cough with no validated diagnostic criteria. With respect to treatment, low-quality evidence allowed the committee to only suggest therapy for children believed to have psychogenic cough. Such therapy might consist of nonpharmacologic trials of hypnosis or suggestion therapy, or combinations of reassurance, counseling, and referral to a psychologist, psychotherapy, and appropriate psychotropic medications. Based on multiple resources and contemporary psychologic, psychiatric, and neurologic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and tic disorder guidelines), the committee suggests that the terms psychogenic and habit cough are out of date and inaccurate. Compared with the 2006 CHEST Cough Guidelines, the major change in suggestions is that the terms psychogenic and habit cough be abandoned in favor of somatic cough syndrome and tic cough, respectively, even though the evidence to do so at this time is of low quality.
Heyer, Geoffrey L
Little is known about somatic and psychiatric symptoms and perceived peer relationships of patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse. This study aimed to compare somatic and psychiatric symptoms and other elements potentially related to functional neurological symptom disorders between youth with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse and those with neurally mediated syncope. Before testing, patients completed a structured interview and questionnaire addressing current symptoms, previous psychiatric diagnoses, referrals, diagnostic testing, prescribed medications, and patient self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and perceived peer relationships. Compared with patients with syncope (n = 60), patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse (n = 60) had higher ratings for lightheadedness and vertigo, more abdominal pain, more chronic headaches, more fatigue, more sleep disturbances, more prescriptions for antidepressant medicines, more encephalograms performed, more referrals to psychiatry, and more psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, previous nonfainting conversion disorders, and eating disorders (all p peer relationships (37 ± 12.3 versus 47.6 ± 7.9, p Peer relationships remained significantly lower (p = 0.001) when analyzed with anxiety and depression. Patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse have more symptom complaints and perceptions of poorer peer social interactions than patients with syncope. These results broaden our understanding of the biopsychosocial profile that increases an individual's vulnerability to psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse specifically and to functional neurological symptom disorders in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Christensen, Jakob
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all childre...... among persons with a history of febrile seizures. The association may be due to a damaging effect of prolonged febrile seizures on the developing brain, shared etiological factors, or confounding by unmeasured factors......BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children...
Pellock, John M
Seizure emergencies are potentially life-threatening events that are under-recognized. Status epilepticus is associated with considerable rates of morbidity and mortality. Experts currently believe that any episode of seizure activity lasting 5 minutes or longer should be considered status epilepticus. Treatment should be initiated as early as possible; evidence has shown that once seizures persist for 5 to 10 minutes, they are unlikely to stop on their own in the subsequent few minutes. Prehospital treatment with benzodiazepines has been shown to reduce seizure activity significantly compared with seizures that remain untreated until the patient reaches the emergency department. The consequences of delayed treatment of status epilepticus include a serious risk of subsequent prolonged seizure activity or epileptogenesis, memory deficits, and learning difficulties. The importance of timely intervention in generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus must be emphasized. Recent research has found that emergency department personnel fail to recognize the condition in children in 34% of cases.
Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels Wesenberg; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg
Objective: To investigate the performance of epileptic seizure detection using only a few of the recorded EEG channels and the ability of software to select these channels compared with a neurophysiologist. Methods: Fifty-nine seizures and 1419 h of interictal EEG are used for training and testing...... of an automatic channel selection method. The characteristics of the seizures are extracted by the use of a wavelet analysis and classified by a support vector machine. The best channel selection method is based upon maximum variance during the seizure. Results: Using only three channels, a seizure detection...... sensitivity of 96% and a false detection rate of 0.14/h were obtained. This corresponds to the performance obtained when channels are selected through visual inspection by a clinical neurophysiologist, and constitutes a 4% improvement in sensitivity compared to seizure detection using channels recorded...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of conveyances. 162.22 Section 162.22... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.22 Seizure of conveyances. (a) General applicability. If it shall appear to any officer authorized to board conveyances and make seizures that there...
Epilepsy Foundation of America, Landover, MD.
Intended for allied health professionals, this guide provides information on seizure recognition and classification to help them assist the patient, the family, and the treating physician in obtaining control of epileptic seizures. A section on seizure recognition describes epilepsy and seizures, covering seizure classification and the causes of…
O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen
Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to…
Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Mariën, Peter; Jonkers, Roel; Mavroudakis, Nicolas; Paquier, Philippe
A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, and L3: English) woman with a 12-year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved toward a mostly fluent output, despite a stutter-like behavior and a marked grammatical output disorder. The psychogenic etiology of the accent foreignness was construed based on the patient's complex medical history and psychodiagnostic, neuropsychological, and neurolinguistic assessments. The presence of a foreign accent was affirmed by a perceptual accent rating and attribution experiment. It is argued that this patient provides additional evidence demonstrating the outdatedness of Whitaker's (1982) definition of foreign accent syndrome, as only one of the four operational criteria was unequivocally applicable to our patient: her accent foreignness was not only recognized by her relatives and the medical staff but also by a group of native French-speaking laymen. However, our patient defied the three remaining criteria, as central nervous system damage could not conclusively be demonstrated, psychodiagnostic assessment raised the hypothesis of a conversion disorder, and the patient was a polyglot whose newly gained accent was associated with a range of foreign languages, which exceeded the ones she spoke.
Tezcaner, Zahide Çiler; Gökmen, Muhammed Fatih; Yıldırım, Sibel; Dursun, Gürsel
The aim of this study was to define the clinical features of psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) and explore the treatment efficiency of voice therapy and psychological evaluation. Fifty-eight patients who received treatment following the PVD diagnosis and had no organic or other functional voice disorders were assessed retrospectively based on laryngoscopic examinations and subjective and objective assessments. Epidemiological characteristics, accompanying organic and psychological disorders, preferred methods of treatment, and previous treatment outcomes were examined for each patient. A comparison was made based on voice disorders and responses to treatment between patients who received psychotherapy and patients who did not. Participants in this study comprised 58 patients, 10 male and 48 female. Voice therapy was applied in all patients, 54 (93.1%) of whom had improvement in their voice. Although all patients were advised to undergo psychological assessment, only 60.3% (35/58) of them underwent psychological assessment. No statistically significant difference was found between patients who did receive psychological support concerning their treatment responses and patients who did not. Relapse occurred in 14.7% (5/34) of the patients who applied for psychological assessment and in 50% (10/20) of those who did not. There was a statistically significant difference in relapse rates, which was higher among patients who did not receive psychological support (P psychological assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kramer, Joshua A; Mansfield, Keith G; Simmons, Joe H; Bernstein, Joseph A
Focally extensive alopecia affecting the distal limbs is a common clinical finding in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) colonies and is both a regulatory and colony-health concern. We performed diagnostic examinations including physical exams, bloodwork, skin scrapes, surface cytology, and surface bacterial–fungal cultures on 17 rhesus macaques with this presentation of alopecia. Skin biopsies from alopecic skin obtained from each macaque were compared with those of normal skin from the same animal. Immunohistochemistry and metachromatic staining for inflammatory cells were performed to compare alopecic and normal skin. In addition, we compared these biopsies with those previously obtained from macaques with generalized alopecia and dermal inflammatory infiltrates consistent with cutaneous hypersensitivity disorders and with those from animals with normal haircoats. Bacterial and fungal cultures, skin scrapes, surface cytology, and bloodwork were unremarkable. Affected skin showed only mild histologic alteration, with rare evidence of trichomalacia and follicular loss. Numbers of mast cells and CD3+ lymphocytes did not differ between alopecic and normally haired skin from the same animal. The number of mast cells in alopecic skin from animals in the current cohort was significantly lower than that in skin of animals previously diagnosed with a cutaneous hypersensitivity disorder. Numbers of both mast cells and CD3+ lymphocytes in alopecic skin from the current cohort were similar to those from biopsies of animals with normal haircoats. Together, the clinical findings and pathology are consistent with a psychogenic origin for this pattern of alopecia in rhesus macaques. PMID:21819697
Realfsen, Martha Seim; Bø, Siri M Hylleraas; Lossius, Morten I; Nakken, Karl O
First onset of a generalized tonic-clonic seizure is a frequent reason for hospital admissions. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the epidemiology, etiology, investigation and treatment of a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The review is based on a discretionary sample of English-language articles found through a search in PubMed, and the authors' own clinical experience. A first generalized tonic-clonic seizure is traditionally divided into either a provoked or an unprovoked seizure. Provoked seizures occur in close temporal relationship to a systemic disorder or to a brain insult, for example a stroke or a head trauma. Unprovoked seizures occur in the absence of such factors. The incidence of provoked and unprovoked seizures is 35/100.000 person years and 50/100,000 person years, respectively. The occurrence is influenced by genetic and lifestyle factors. The hospital assessment includes a thorough case history, a somatic and neurological examination, ECG, standard EEG, and cerebral MRI. An immediate cerebral CT is often carried out. In case of provoked seizures, both treatment and estimation of the recurrence risk depends on the underlying cause. Antiepileptic drug treatment initiated after a first unprovoked seizure may reduce the risk of seizure recurrence. However, no long term risk reduction has been shown compared to delaying treatment until after a second seizure. Patients who experience a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure are a heterogenous group, and a thorough diagnostic assessment is necessary in order to provide tailored treatment and a reliable prognosis.
Chaukimath, SP; Patil, PS
A variety of stimuli can cause reflex seizures, Some triggers include light, music and cognitive phenomenon. There are case reports however where the phenomenon of sexual activity has been a trigger for epileptic seizures. Most of these cases reported are in women so far, and were found to be localized to right cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of a 36-year-old male with orgasm-induced seizures, with other atypical features compared to majority of previous reports. PMID:27057393
2006;47:2193‑7. 6. Janszky J, Ebner A, Szupera Z, Schulz R, Hollo A,. Szücs A, et al. Orgasmic aura – A report of seven cases. Seizure. 2004;13:441‑4. 7. Sengupta A, Mahmoud A, Tun SZ, Goulding P. Orgasm‑induced seizures: Male studied with ictal electroencephalography. Seizure 2010;19:306‑9. 8. Bancaud J, Favel P, ...
Wichaidit, Bianca Taaning; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ostergaard, John R
Functional seizures (FS) is a condition where the child experiences seizure-like events, without abnormal electrical discharge as measured by EEG, and with high risk of misdiagnosis. Diagnosing FS contains: 1) video-EEG, 2) anamnestic evaluation, focusing on the presence of psychosocial stressors......, psychiatric co-morbidity and functional symptoms other than FS, and 3) evaluation of seizure characteristics such as long duration, seizure initiation during wakefulness and in the presence of witnesses asynchronous movements, and no incontinence, tongue bite and injury related to the event....
Myers, Kenneth A; Scheffer, Ingrid E
Dravet syndrome is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy that occurs as a result of SCN1A mutations in more than 80% of affected individuals. The core clinical features of Dravet syndrome include febrile and afebrile seizures beginning before 12 months; multiple seizure types, usually medically refractory, including hemiclonic, generalized tonic-clonic, focal impaired awareness, myoclonic, and absence seizures; status epilepticus; and normal early development with plateau or regression by age two years. Myoclonic absence seizures have not previously been described. This 20-year-old man had infantile-onset epilepsy with the classical clinical features of Dravet syndrome and a de novo A1326P SCN1A mutation. By five years of age, photosensitive myoclonic absence seizures had become his dominant seizure type, occurring up to 20 times per day. The seizures were refractory to multiple antiepileptic medications and a vagus nerve stimulator. Although photosensitivity is well recognized in Dravet syndrome, myoclonic absence seizures have not been previously reported. This rare seizure type may be underreported in Dravet syndrome, as the myoclonic features may be subtle and can be missed if thorough history taking and video recordings are not available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spivey, W H
Flumazenil is a new drug indicated for the reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines mediated at the benzodiazepine-receptor site. Worldwide sources to date have disclosed 43 cases of seizures related, at least temporally, to the intravenous administration of flumazenil. There was no apparent relationship between the dose of flumazenil and the development of seizures, which occurred at doses ranging from 0.2 to 10.0 mg. The seizures were not considered to be a toxic effect of flumazenil, but many of them probably were due to an unmasking of the anticonvulsant effect of the previously used benzodiazepine or to a severe benzodiazepine-withdrawal syndrome. Eighteen (42%) of the patients had ingested overdoses of cyclic antidepressants, which were considered responsible for the seizures. In addition to patients with concurrent cyclic antidepressant poisoning, high-risk populations include patients who have been treated with benzodiazepines for a seizure disorder or an acute convulsive episode, patients with concurrent major sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal, patients who have recently been treated with repeated doses of parenteral benzodiazepines, and overdose patients with myoclonic jerking or seizure activity before flumazenil administration. To minimize the likelihood of a seizure, it is recommended that flumazenil not be administered to patients who have used benzodiazepines for the treatment of seizure disorders or to patients who have ingested drugs (eg, cyclic antidepressants, cocaine, lithium, methylxanthines, isoniazid, propoxyphene, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, buproprion HCl, and cyclosporine) that place them at risk for the development of seizures.
A neuro-fuzzy system to support in the diagnostic of epileptic events and non-epileptic events using different fuzzy arithmetical operations Um sistema neuro-difuso para auxiliar no diagnóstico de eventos epilépticos e eventos não epilépticos utilizando diferentes operações aritméticas difusas
Lucimar M.F. de Carvalho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate different fuzzy arithmetical operations to support in the diagnostic of epileptic events and non epileptic events. METHOD: A neuro-fuzzy system was developed using the NEFCLASS (NEuro Fuzzy CLASSIfication architecture and an artificial neural network with backpropagation learning algorithm (ANNB. RESULTS: The study was composed by 244 patients with a bigger frequency of the feminine sex. The number of right decisions at the test phase, obtained by the NEFCLASS and ANNB was 83.60% and 90.16%, respectively. The best sensibility result was attained by NEFCLASS (84.90%; the best specificity result were attained by ANNB with 95.65%. CONCLUSION: The proposed neuro-fuzzy system combined the artificial neural network capabilities in the pattern classifications together with the fuzzy logic qualitative approach, leading to a bigger rate of system success.OBJETIVO: Investigar diferentes operações aritméticas difusas para auxíliar no diagnóstico de eventos epilépticos e eventos não-epilépticos. MÉTODO: Um sistema neuro-difuso foi desenvolvido utilizando a arquitetura NEFCLASS (NEuro Fuzzy CLASSIfication e uma rede neural artificial com o algoritmo de aprendizagem backpropagation (RNAB. RESULTADOS: A amostra estudada foi de 244 pacientes com maior freqüência no sexo feminino. O número de decisões corretas na fase de teste, obtidas através do NEFCLASS e RNAB foi de 83,60% e 90,16%, respectivamente. O melhor resultado de sensibilidade foi obtido com o NEFCLASS (84,90%; o melhor resultado de especificidade foi obtido com a RNAB (95,65%. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema neuro-difuso proposto combinou a capacidade das redes neurais artificiais na classificação de padrões juntamente com a abordagem qualitativa da logica difusa, levando a maior taxa de acertos do sistema.
Marks, W J; Laxer, K D
To determine the lateralizing value of the clinical manifestations of seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we made a retrospective videotape analysis of complex partial seizures (CPS) in 55 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy and were seizure-free postoperatively for >2 years. Blinded to clinical details, we reviewed videotapes from video-EEG telemetry monitoring with attention paid to seizure semiology. Useful lateralizing features included unilateral clonic activity (with the seizure focus contralateral in all patients), unilateral dystonic or tonic posturing (with the seizure focus contralateral in 90 and 86%, respectively), unilateral automatisms (with the seizure focus ipsilateral in 80%), and ictal speech preservation (with the seizure focus contralateral to the language-dominant hemisphere in 80%). Versive head rotation occurring head movements occurring at times other than immediately before seizures secondarily generalized. In TLE, several clinical seizure manifestations are useful in lateralizing the seizure focus, although some provide no reliable information. Therefore, ictal semiology can assist in the evaluation of patients for seizure surgery, providing additional information in the lateralization of TLE.
Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.
... collapse, shake uncontrollably, or even just stare into space. All of these are brief disturbances in brain ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com
Theodore, W.H.; Fishbein, D.; Deitz, M.; Baldwin, P.
We used positron emission tomography (PET) with (/sup 18/F)2-deoxyglucose to study cerebellar glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) and the effect of phenytoin (PHT) in 42 patients with complex partial seizures (CPS), and 12 normal controls. Mean +/- SD patient LCMRglu was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mg glucose/100 g/min (left = right), significantly lower than control values of 8.5 +/- 1.8 (left, p less than 0.006), and 8.3 +/- 1.6 (right, p less than 0.02). Only four patients had cerebellar atrophy on CT/MRI; cerebellar LCMRglu in these was 5.5 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.054 vs. total patient sample). Patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism or EEG foci did not have lateralized cerebellar hypometabolism. Patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) at the time of scan and patients with less than 5 years total PHT exposure had lower LCMRglu, but the differences were not significant. There were weak inverse correlations between PHT level and cerebellar LCMRglu in patients receiving PHT (r = -0.36; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1), as well as between length of illness and LCMRglu (r = -0.22; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Patients with complex partial seizures have cerebellar hypometabolism that is bilateral and due only in part to the effect of PHT.
Dussaule, Claire; Masnou, Pascal; Nasser, Ghaïdaa; Archambaud, Frédérique; Cauquil-Michon, Cécile; Gagnepain, Jean-Paul; Bouilleret, Viviane; Denier, Christian
Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are congenital anatomical variants of normal venous drainage of normal brain. Although DVAs are often discovered on the occasion of a seizure, their involvement in epilepsy is poorly studied. Our objective was to determine whether DVA can cause seizures, in the cases where there is no associated lesion, including no cavernoma or dysplasia. Based on clinical history, cerebral MRI, EEG recording, and 18 F-FDG PET, we report 4 patients with DVA revealed by seizures. The first patient had a convulsive seizure caused by a hemorrhagic infarction due to thrombosis of her DVA. The second patient had a left temporo-parietal DVA next to a nonspecific lesion, possibly a sequelae of a venous infarction. The last two patients disclosed an isolated and uncomplicated DVA with a concordant epileptic focus confirmed on ictal video EEG recording. We reviewed literature and identified 21 other published cases of seizures caused by complications of a DVA and 9 patients that may have a direct link between epilepsy and an isolated and uncomplicated DVA. Seizures are linked to a DVA in two main situations: presence of an associated epileptogenic lesion, such as cavernoma or dysplasia, and occurrence of a complication of the DVA. Before concluding that a seizure is caused by a DVA, it is essential to perform full MRI protocols to search them. It remains rare and uncertain that isolated and uncomplicated DVA can cause seizures. In this last situation, physiopathological processes are probably different in each patient.
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States, without...
Review of psychiatric hospital discharge summaries for 247 individuals with mental retardation and psychiatric disorders found that 39 had a seizure diagnosis. The only difference between the groups with and without seizures was level of mental retardation. No differences existed concerning length of stay, transfer to state hospital, psychiatric…
Introduction. Reflex seizures are well known entities developing in response to a discrete or specific stimulus. Reflex seizures are the ones that “Objectively and consistently are demonstrated to be evoked by a specific afferent stimulus or by the activity of the patient. Afferent stimuli can be: Elementary, that is, unstructured ( ...
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Families of all children (1 to 18 years old followed at the Refractory Epilepsy Clinic, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Canada, were surveyed and those who had a dog for at least one year while having at least 1 seizure/month were selected and questioned regarding seizure-related behaviors.
J Gordon Millichap
Families of all children (1 to 18 years old) followed at the Refractory Epilepsy Clinic, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Canada, were surveyed and those who had a dog for at least one year while having at least 1 seizure/month were selected and questioned regarding seizure-related behaviors.
We describe a case of seizure occurring immediately after completion of interscalene brachial plexus block, using 20mls mixture of 10mls of 0.5% bupivacaine and 10mls of 2% lidocaine with adrenaline for post operative analgesia. Seizure occurred despite negative test aspiration and non response to the use of 0.5mls of ...
Conclusion: Primary care pediatricians should evaluate children presenting to the ED with a first seizure for age, coexistence of fever, seizure type, associated symptoms and history of head injury. We suggest that electrolytes, blood sugar and emergent brain imaging studies should be arranged based on detailed history-taking and thorough physical examinations, but should not be performed routinely.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available A prospective, long-term population-based study was performed to determine whether seizure clustering (3 or more afebrile seizures during a 24 hour period is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, in a study at University of Turku, Finland, and the Epilepsy Research Group, Berlin, Germany.
... provide protection against generalized absence and partial seizures, which further justifies its use in the management of epilepsies and convulsions in traditional African medicine. Keywords: Dalbergia saxatilis, generalized seizure, pentylenetetrazole, kindling, electro- foot shock. West African Joural of Pharmacology and ...
Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama
This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.
John C. Mulley
Full Text Available Sixty cases of febrile seizures from a Chinese cohort had previously been reported with a strong association between variants in the seizure-related (SEZ 6 gene and febrile seizures. They found a striking lack of genetic variation in their controls. We found genetic variation in SEZ6 at similar levels at the same DNA sequence positions in our 94 febrile seizure cases as in our 96 unaffected controls. Two of our febrile seizure cases carried rare variants predicted to have damaging consequences. Combined with some of the variants from the Chinese cohort, these data are compatible with a role for SEZ6 as a susceptibility gene for febrile seizures. However, the polygenic determinants underlying most cases of febrile seizures with complex inheritance remain to be determined.
Friedman, David E; Chiang, Sharon; Tobias, Ronnie S
Seizure-related head injuries (SRHIs) are among the most commonly encountered injuries in people with epilepsy (PWE). Whether head injury has an effect on preexisting epilepsy is not known. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess for any possible effects of SRHIs on seizure frequency and seizure semiology over a 2-year period. We identified 204 patients who have been followed at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 to 2010. SRHI occurred in 18.1% of the cohort. Most injuries (91%) were classified as mild. Though seizure frequency varied following head injury, overall seizure frequency was not significantly impacted by presence or absence of SRHI over the 2-year study period. Changes in seizure semiology were not observed in those with SRHIs. Although mild SRHI is common among PWE, it does not appear to have an effect on seizure characteristics over a relatively short period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Friedman, David E.; Chiang, Sharon; Tobias, Ronnie S.
Seizure-related head injuries (SRHIs) are among the most commonly encountered injuries in people with epilepsy (PWE). Whether head injury has an effect on preexisting epilepsy is not known. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess for any possible effects of SRHIs on seizure frequency and seizure semiology over a 2-year period. We identified 204 patients who have been followed at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 to 2010. SRHI occurred in 18.1% of the cohort. Most injuries (91%) were classified as mild. Though seizure frequency varied following head injury, overall seizure frequency was not significantly impacted by presence or absence of SRHI over the 2-year study period. Changes in seizure semiology were not observed in those with SRHIs. Although mild SRHI is common among PWE, it does not appear to have an effect on seizure characteristics over a relatively short period. PMID:22227592
Satia, Imran; Goodwin, Lynsey; Madi, Salem; Hamdalla, Hisham
A 37-year-old female presented following a witnessed generalised tonic clonic seizure while washing her car. Witnesses reported the patient hit her head on the car bumper upon falling. She was investigated for a cause of a second seizure with blood tests, CT and MR brain which were normal. On day 3 of her admission she was still unable to walk since the seizure and a neurological examination was performed which revealed signs consistent with a cervical myelopathy. A cervical MRI scan revealed a disc prolapse with cord compression at C5/6. This was successfully operated and the patient made a good recovery. Given that many of our medical assessment units and emergency department frequently assess patient with seizures, there was an important lesson for us to be more aware of the consequences as well as the cause of seizures.
Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective......: to show whether medical signal processing of EMG data is feasible for detection of epileptic seizures. Methods: EMG signals during generalised seizures were recorded from 3 patients (with 20 seizures in total). Two possible medical signal processing algorithms were tested. The first algorithm was based...... the frequency-based algorithm was efficient for detecting the seizures in the third patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EMG signals could be used to develop an automatic seizuredetection system. However, different patients might require different types of algorithms /approaches....
Noel, Jean-Paul; Kurela, LeAnne; Baum, Sarah H; Yu, Hong; Neimat, Joseph S; Gallagher, Martin J; Wallace, Mark
Cognitive and perceptual comorbidities frequently accompany epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic events (PNEE). However, and despite the fact that perceptual function is built upon a multisensory foundation, little knowledge exists concerning multisensory function in these populations. Here, we characterized facets of multisensory processing abilities in patients with epilepsy and PNEE, and probed the relationship between individual resting-state EEG complexity and these psychophysical measures in each patient. We prospectively studied a cohort of patients with epilepsy (N=18) and PNEE (N=20) patients who were admitted to Vanderbilt's Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) and weaned off of anticonvulsant drugs. Unaffected age-matched persons staying with the patients in the EMU (N=15) were also recruited as controls. All participants performed two tests of multisensory function: an audio-visual simultaneity judgment and an audio-visual redundant target task. Further, in the cohort of patients with epilepsy and PNEE we quantified resting state EEG gamma power and complexity. Compared with both patients with epilepsy and control subjects, patients with PNEE exhibited significantly poorer acuity in audiovisual temporal function as evidenced in significantly larger temporal binding windows (i.e., they perceived larger stimulus asynchronies as being presented simultaneously). These differences appeared to be specific for temporal function, as there was no difference among the three groups in a non-temporally based measure of multisensory function - the redundant target task. Further, patients with PNEE exhibited more complex resting state EEG patterns as compared to their patients with epilepsy, and EEG complexity correlated with multisensory temporal performance on a subject-by-subject manner. Taken together, findings seem to indicate that patients with PNEE bind information from audition and vision over larger temporal intervals when compared with control subjects as well
Espay, Alberto J; Maloney, Thomas; Vannest, Jennifer; Norris, Matthew M; Eliassen, James C; Neefus, Erin; Allendorfer, Jane B; Lang, Anthony E; Szaflarski, Jerzy P
Despite its high prevalence and associated disability, the neural correlates of emotion processing in patients with functional (psychogenic) tremor (FT), the most common functional movement disorder, remain poorly understood. In this cross sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 4T, 27 subjects with FT, 16 with essential tremor (ET), and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a finger-tapping motor task, a basic-emotion task, and an intense-emotion task to probe motor and emotion circuitries. Anatomical and functional MRI data were processed with FSL (FMRIB Software Library) and AFNI (Analysis of Functional Neuroimages), followed by seed-to-seed connectivity analyses using anatomical regions defined from the Harvard-Oxford subcortical atlas; all analyses were corrected for multiple comparisons. After controlling for depression scores and correcting for multiple comparisons, the FT group showed increased activation in the right cerebellum compared to ET during the motor task; and increased activation in the paracingulate gyrus and left Heschl's gyrus compared with HC with decreased activation in the right precentral gyrus compared with ET during the basic-emotion task. No significant differences were found after adjusting for multiple comparisons during the intense-emotion task but increase in connectivity between the left amygdala and left middle frontal gyrus survived corrections in the FT subjects during this task, compared to HC. In response to emotional stimuli, functional tremor is associated with alterations in activation and functional connectivity in networks involved in emotion processing and theory of mind. These findings may be relevant to the pathophysiology of functional movement disorders.
O'Toole, Kate K; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie
Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)
textabstractOBJECTIVES: Febrile seizures recur frequently. Factors increasing the risk of febrile seizure recurrence include young age at onset, family history of febrile seizures, previous recurrent febrile seizures, time lapse since previous seizure <6 months,
Bonelli, Silvia Beatrice; Lurger, Stefanie; Zimprich, Fritz; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Assem-Hilger, Eva; Baumgartner, Christoph
We systematically analyzed the lateralizing value of clinical seizure semiology in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). We studied the incidence, positive predictive value (PPV), and the lateralizing significance of various clinical symptoms in 228 seizures (s) of 31 patients (p) with medically refractory FLE (17 with left-sided and 14 with right-sided seizure onset). Seizures recorded during prolonged video-EEG monitoring were assessed by two independent reviewers blinded for the patient's clinical data. Analysis was performed both for patients and seizures. Version [16 p (52%); PPV, 94%; p=0.001; 47 s (21%); PPV, 75%; p=0.001], unilateral clonic movements [16 p (52%); PPV, 81%; p=0.021; 32 s (14%); PPV, 81%; p=0.001], unilateral dystonic posturing [eight p (26%); PPV, 75%; p=0.289; 46 s (20%); PPV, 80%; p=0.001], unilateral tonic posturing [10 p (32%); PPV, 80%; p=0.109; 19 s (7.4%); PPV, 79%; p=0.019], and unilateral grimacing [10 p (32%); PPV, 100%; p=0.002; 19 s (8%); PPV, 100%; p=0.001] were of lateralizing significance, indicating a contralateral seizure onset. Asymmetric ending [five p (16%); PPV, 80%; p=0.375; nine s (4%); PPV, 89%; p=0.039] after secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures was significantly associated with an ipsilateral seizure onset. Pure ictal vocalizations occurred significantly more frequently in seizures of right hemispheric onset [13 p (42%); PPV, 62%; p=0.581; 63 s (28%); PPV, 73%; p=0. 001], whereas in individual patients, this symptom showed no lateralizing significance. The remaining clinical symptoms (figure 4 sign, unilateral hand automatisms, early head turning, postictal nose wiping, and unilateral eye blinking) were not of lateralizing significance in our patients. The results of clinical seizure lateralization corresponded with the final lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in 81% of our patients. Clinical seizure semiology can provide correct information on the lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in >80
Hauser, W Allen; Beghi, Ettore
While all patients with epilepsy experience seizures, not all individuals with seizures have epilepsy. Seizures may be acute symptomatic or unprovoked. Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring at the time of a systemic insult or in close temporal association with a documented brain insult. Unprovoked seizures are seizures occurring in the absence of precipitating factors and may be caused by a static injury (remote symptomatic seizures) or a progressing injury (progressive symptomatic seizures). Unprovoked seizures may be single or recurrent (epilepsy). The incidence of acute symptomatic seizures is 29-39 per 100,000 per year. These predominate in men, in the youngest age class, and in the elderly. Traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular disease, drug withdrawal, infarction, and metabolic insults are the commonest causes. The incidence of single unprovoked seizures is 23-61 per 100,000 person-years. As with epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures predominate in men and in patients less than 12 months and older than 65 years. Studies on the mortality of acute symptomatic seizures are lacking. A standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 2.3 has been reported in patients experiencing a single unprovoked seizure. The SMR in patients with a newly diagnosed unprovoked seizure ranges from 2.5 to 4.1 according to the study population and design. The SMR is highest in the youngest patients and in those with symptomatic seizures.
Nagarajan, Lakshmi; Palumbo, Linda; Ghosh, Soumya
The clinical semiology of 61 neonatal seizures with EEG correlates, in 24 babies was analysed. Most seizures (89%) had multiple features during the EEG discharge. The seizures were classified using the prominent clinical feature at onset, and all features seen during the seizure, using an extended classification scheme. Orolingual features occurred most frequently at onset (30%), whereas ocular phenomena occurred most often during the seizure (70%). Orolingual, ocular and autonomic features were seen at onset in 55% of the seizures. Seizure onsets with clonic, tonic and hypomotor features were seen in 20%, 8% and 18% respectively. Clinico-electrical correlations were as follows. The EEG discharge involved both hemispheres in 54% of all seizures, in clonic seizures this was 93%. Focal clonic seizures were associated with EEG seizure onset from the contralateral hemisphere. Majority of the clonic and hypomotor seizures had a left hemisphere ictal EEG onset. Orolingual seizures frequently started from the right hemisphere, whereas ocular and autonomic seizures arose from either hemisphere. There was no significant difference in mortality, morbidity, abnormal neuroimaging and EEG background abnormalities in babies with or without clonic seizures. This study provides insights into neuronal networks that underpin electroclinical seizures, by analysing and classifying the obvious initial clinical features and those during the seizure. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kayser, Sarah; Bewernick, Bettina H; Soehle, Martin; Switala, Christina; Gippert, Sabrina M; Dreimueller, Nadine; Schlaepfer, Thomas E
Anesthesia is required for both magnetic seizure therapy (MST) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), although it has anticonvulsant properties. In this case, bispectral index (BIS) monitoring, a specific electroencephalogram-derived monitoring, can be used to find the optimal seizure induction time during anesthesia to elicit adequate seizures. A measurement of seizure adequacy in electroencephalogram is the postictal suppression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of seizure induction time on the degree of postictal suppression by comparing BIS versus no-BIS monitoring in MST and ECT. Twenty patients with treatment-resistant depression were randomly assigned to either MST or ECT. Each patient underwent 3 treatments with the determination of seizure induction time by defined prestimulation BIS (BIS condition) and 3 treatments with determination of seizure induction time by controlled clinical trial protocol (no-BIS condition). Statistical analysis was calculated by repeated-measures analysis of variance. The degree of postictal suppression was more pronounced in both MST and ECT, with BIS monitoring. In this connection, no differences between MST and ECT were found. Seizure induction time was significantly later in the BIS condition (181.3 ± 6 seconds) compared with the no-BIS condition (114.3 ± 12 seconds) (P < 0.001). Adequacy of seizures, in the form of the degree of postictal suppression, was superior by determining the seizure induction time with BIS in both MST and ECT. Further research is needed to investigate the correlation between the degree of postictal suppression and treatment response.
Modi, Mala; Mochan, Andre; Modi, Girish
Thirty-seven HIV-positive patients with new-onset seizures (NOS) were prospectively identified during a 1-year study period. The patients were categorized according to the different mechanisms causing NOS in HIV, namely focal brain lesion (FBL) in 21 patients (57%), meningitis in 6 patients (16%), metabolic derangement (no patient), and no identified cause (NIC) other than HIV itself (10 patients, 27%). Seizure semiology, CD4 counts, and blood and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) viral loads were studied to identify any special characteristics of the different categories. With respect to seizure semiology, all NIC patients had generalized seizures. Two-thirds of the meningitis patients had generalized seizures with one-third having focal seizures. Half of the patients with FBL had generalized seizures and one-third had focal seizures. Status epilepticus was strongly associated with FBL. No significant difference could be detected between the subgroups with respect to CD4 counts and serum and CSF viral loads. The median CD4 count in all patients was 108 cells/ml, indicating advanced immunosuppression. In the FBL group this was 104 cells/ml. In the meningitis group the median CD4 count was 298 cells/ml, and in the NIC group this was 213 cells/ml. Similarly, no differences were noted in the NOS categories with respect to serum and CSF viral loads. Seizures in HIV are a nonspecific manifestation of the seizure mechanism.
Mayer, D C; Thorp, J; Baucom, D; Spielman, F J
Untreated hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity. Some features of this disease simulate preeclampsia, which may encourage delivery of the fetus. We report a case of poorly controlled hyperthyroidism associated with generalized seizures, where patient management was directed at a diagnosis of preeclampsia-eclampsia. Although the presence of eclampsia and marked hyperthyroidism is very rare, this case illustrates the importance of aggressive medical management of hyperthyroidism. A 17-year-old gravida was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism at 15 weeks' gestation. At 26 weeks' gestation, she was admitted to the hospital after noting edema of the upper and lower extremities, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, and a cough. At admission, she was hypertensive, tachycardic, and dyspneic. The patient was believed to have preeclampsia with pulmonary edema complicated by hyperthyroidism. We initiated magnesium sulfate therapy and administered several bolus doses of hydralazine, with little effect on blood pressure. Oliguria was noted, and a pulmonary artery catheter was inserted. Hours later, generalized seizure activity occurred, and a decision was made for abdominal delivery. Postoperatively, cardiovascular function stabilized. On postoperative day 3, we received the results of the thyroid function tests obtained at admission, which suggested a markedly hyperthyroid condition. Untreated or poorly treated hyperthyroidism may present a clinical picture similar to preeclampsia. In our case, both disease processes coexisted in their severest forms. It is possible, although completely unproven, that a relationship exists between poorly controlled hyperthyroidism and preeclampsia-eclampsia. More importantly, accurate diagnosis of hyperthyroidism should lead to prompt medical or surgical management, thereby decreasing maternal and perinatal morbidity.
Daoud, A S; Ajloni, S; El-Salem, K; Horani, K; Otoom, S; Daradkeh, T
There is wide variation in the reported recurrence rate after a first unprovoked seizure in children. We investigated the risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure in Jordanian children and the risk factors associated with increased recurrence rate. All consecutive patients aged 3 months-14 years who presented with their first unprovoked seizures between January 1997 and 2000, were included in a prospective study and followed up for 3 years for possible recurrence. Of the patients studied, there was slight male predominance (56.6%) and 55% of them were 2-9 years of age. Generalised seizures were reported in 75% and the remaining 25% had partial seizures. The duration of seizure was 1-4 minutes in 59%. Family history of epilepsy was positive in 31% and parental consanguinity in 32%. The role of these factors in increasing the risk of recurrence was also investigated. Two hundred sixty-five patients were included in the study and continued follow up for 3 years. Ninety-eight (37%) of them experienced seizure recurrence. Among the predictor factors for recurrence, partial seizure (P = 0.003) and positive family history (P = 0.000) were associated with a statistically significant increased risk. Sex, age, duration of seizure and consanguinity were not associated with increased risk of recurrence. Thirty-seven percent of the children studied experienced a second attack after a first unprovoked seizure over the 3 years follows up period. The risk of recurrence was significantly higher in children with a partial seizure (55%) and among those with a positive family history of epilepsy (59%). Age at first seizure, sex, duration of seizure and consanguinity were not significantly related to the risk of recurrence.
Reddy, Doodipala Samba
Hormonal contraceptives are used by over 100 million people worldwide. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in studying the potential impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on certain neurological conditions. It has been suspected for some time that hormonal birth control increases seizure activity in women with epilepsy, but there is little supportive data. Areas covered: Literature from PubMed and online sources was analyzed with respect to hormonal contraception and epilepsy or seizures. New evidence indicates that OCs can cause an increase in seizures in women with epilepsy. The epilepsy birth control registry, which surveyed women with epilepsy, found that those using hormonal contraceptives self-reported 4.5 times more seizures than those that did not use such contraceptives. A preclinical study confirmed these outcomes wherein epileptic animals given ethinyl estradiol, the primary component of OCs, had more frequent seizures that are more likely to be resistant. Expert commentary: OC pills may increase seizures in women with epilepsy and such refractory seizures are more likely to cause neuronal damage in the brain. Thus, women of child bearing age with epilepsy should consider using non-hormonal forms of birth control to avoid risks from OC pills. Additional research into the mechanisms and prospective clinical investigation are needed.
Ahmad K. Rahal
Full Text Available Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES. A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX. During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI. After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES.
Rahal, Ahmad K; Truong, Phu V; Kallail, K James
Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI). After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES.
Ansari, A H; Cherian, P J; Caicedo, A; De Vos, M; Naulaers, G; Van Huffel, S
In neonatal intensive care units performing continuous EEG monitoring, there is an unmet need for around-the-clock interpretation of EEG, especially for recognizing seizures. In recent years, a few automated seizure detection algorithms have been proposed. However, these are suboptimal in detecting brief-duration seizures (<; 30s), which frequently occur in neonates with severe neurological problems. Recently, a multi-stage neonatal seizure detector, composed of a heuristic and a data-driven classifier was proposed by our group and showed improved detection of brief seizures. In the present work, we propose to add a third stage to the detector in order to use feedback of the Clinical Neurophysiologist and adaptively retune a threshold of the second stage to improve the performance of detection of brief seizures. As a result, the false alarm rate (FAR) of the brief seizure detections decreased by 50% and the positive predictive value (PPV) increased by 18%. At the same time, for all detections, the FAR decreased by 35% and PPV increased by 5% while the good detection rate remained unchanged.
Lam, Erek M; Worrell, Gregory A; Laughlin, Ruple S
To report piloerection and vasomotor instability as a sole manifestation of partial seizures. Case report. Inpatient tertiary care center. A 72-year-old man with acute onset of repetitive autonomic events. Extensive cardiovascular evaluation, electroencephalographic testing, radiology, laboratory assessment, and frequency of clinical events (seizures). We characterize an uncommon manifestation of right temporal lobe partial seizures, initially thought to be cardiovascular in origin, as pilomotor seizures accompanied by other autonomic phenomena. The ictal electroencephalogram recordings established the diagnosis of right temporal lobe seizures, and head magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated right mesial temporal T2 signal change, enhancement, and subsequent atrophy. The underlying etiology was not uncovered despite an extensive laboratory and radiological evaluation. However, given the history and imaging findings, an infectious or secondary immunological etiology was suspected. Pilomotor events with other transient autonomic features, such as tachycardia and blood pressure fluctuations, may represent localization-related epilepsy. The acute onset of these events accompanied by other autonomic phenomena in the setting of focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities within the hippocampal region raises questions concerning pilomotor seizures as well as the differential diagnosis of acute seizure activity in the setting of neuroimaging findings characteristic for limbic encephalitis.
Full Text Available Pedro Giavina-Bianchi1,2, Mara Giavina-Bianchi1, Luciana Kase Tanno1, Luis Felipe Chiaverini Ensina1, Antôno Abílio Motta1, Jorge Kalil1,21Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Institute of Science, Hospital Alemao Oswaldo CruzBackground: Adverse drug reactions are important determinants of inpatient and outpatient morbidity. Thiocolchicoside is a semisynthetic derivate of naturally occurring colchicoside, which is largely used in humans as a centrally acting muscle relaxant. Epileptic seizures after thiocolchicoside intake have been reported in individuals with a history of epilepsy, acute brain injury or possible blood–brain barrier disruption.Case report: We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient presenting a sudden epileptic seizure temporally related to the intake of thiocolchicoside for muscle contracture and pain. The probably causes of the seizures were thiocolchicoside intake and cerebral microhemorrhages attributed to cerebral amyloid angiopathy.Discussion: Drugs only rarely cause focal seizures. Our case indicates that thiocolchicoside can precipitate seizures in predisposed patients, and that its use should be avoided in patients with brain diseases (and therefore lower seizure thresholds or blood–brain barrier disruption. This information should be provided in the drug package insert.Keywords: adverse drug reaction, thiocolchicoside, coltrax, epileptic seizure, muscle relaxant, cerebral amyloid angiopathy
Stacey, William C.; Quilichini, Pascale P.; Ivanov, Anton I.
Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between ‘normal’ and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical
Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.
The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.
Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo
It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient.
Gellner, A-K; Fritsch, B
The evaluation of episodic seizure-like symptoms is a common challenge in the neurologist's daily routine. The clinical signs (semiology) are the most important puzzle pieces to distinguish epileptic seizures from other episodic entities. Due to the often far-reaching health and social consequences of the diagnosis of epilepsy, the early and rigorous assessment of episodic symptoms by means of the patient history is important. This assessment is based on knowledge of the association of certain semiologies with epileptic syndromes and brain regions; however, certain limitations and pitfalls have to be considered. Typical propagation pathways of seizure activity determine the serial occurrence of semiological features and provide supplementary information.
Satia, Imran; Goodwin, Lynsey; Madi, Salem; Hamdalla, Hisham
A 37-year-old female presented following a witnessed generalised tonic clonic seizure while washing her car. Witnesses reported the patient hit her head on the car bumper upon falling. She was investigated for a cause of a second seizure with blood tests, CT and MR brain which were normal. On day 3 of her admission she was still unable to walk since the seizure and a neurological examination was performed which revealed signs consistent with a cervical myelopathy. A cervical MRI scan revealed...
Zhang, Ting; Ma, Jiannan; Gan, Xiaoming; Xiao, Nong
To explore if afebrile seizures associated with minor infections are a single category of seizure, or a set of different kinds of seizures. We conducted this prospective cohort study on three kinds of first afebrile seizure: first afebrile seizure associated with gastrointestinal infection (AS-GI), first afebrile seizure associated with nongastrointestinal infection (AS-nGI), and first unprovoked seizure (US). The Kaplan-Meier estimate risks of recurrent seizures were analyzed and compared pairwise. The characteristics of recurrent seizures were also compared pairwise. The Kaplan-Meier estimate risks of recurrent seizure at 2 years of the AS-GI, AS-nGI, and US groups were 6.9%, 23.7%, and 37.8%, respectively. The pairwise differences were significant between the AS-GI and US groups (p seizures in patients with recurrence, the pairwise differences were significant between the AS-GI and US groups (p seizures associated with minor infections are indeed of two distinguishable kinds: AS-GI, if free of risk factors such as a family history of epilepsy, had a better prognosis and should be categorized as an acute symptomatic seizure, whereas patients with first AS-nGI, like patients with first US, may have recurrent unprovoked seizures, which suggests this category's essential difference from AS-GI. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.
Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C
Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or consignee is personally notified or seizure is made pursuant to a search warrant, the...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section 12... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any authorized... the laws listed in § 12.2 will, if so requested, deliver such seizure to the appropriate Special Agent...
There are scanty reports on the contributions of seizure variables like seizure types, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, age at onset and anti-epileptic drugs to cognitive disturbances in Nigerian Africans. This study assessed the effects of seizure variables on the cognitive performances of patients with epilepsy.
Loesch, Anna Mira; Feddersen, Berend; Tezer, F Irsel; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl
Laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy is usually defined by EEG and imaging results. We investigated whether the analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena identifies bilateral independent temporal lobe seizure onset. We investigated the seizure semiology in 17 patients in whom invasive EEG-video-monitoring documented bilateral temporal seizure onset. The results were compared to 20 left and 20 right consecutive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who were seizure free after anterior temporal lobe resection. The seizure semiology was analyzed using the semiological seizure classification with particular emphasis on the sequence of seizure phenomena over time and lateralizing seizure phenomena. Statistical analysis included chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Bitemporal lobe epilepsy patients had more frequently different seizure semiology (100% vs. 40%; psemiology for the identification of bilateral TLE was high (100%) with a specificity of 60%. Lateralizing seizure phenomena had a low sensitivity (59%) but a high specificity (89%). The combination of lateralizing seizure phenomena and different seizure semiology showed a high specificity (94%) but a low sensitivity (59%). The analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena adds important clinical information to identify patients with bilateral TLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fox, CK; Glass, HC; Sidney, S; Smith, SE; Fullerton, HJ
© 2016 American Academy of Neurology. To determine incidence rates and risk factors of remote seizure after perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. Methods: We retrospectively identified a population-based cohort of children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (presenting acutely or in a delayed fashion) from a large Northern Californian integrated health care system. We determined incidence and predictors of a remote seizure (unprovoked seizure after neonatal period, defined as 28 days of li...
Cogan, D; Heydarzadeh, M; Nourani, M
Seizures affect each patient differently, so personalization is a vital part of developing a reliable nonEEG based seizure detection system. This personalization must be done while the patient is undergoing video EEG monitoring in an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) because seizure detection by EEG is considered to be the ground truth. We propose the use of confidence interval analysis for determining how many seizures must be captured from a patient before we can reliably personalize such a seizure detection system for him/her. Our analysis indicates that 6 to 8 seizures are required. In addition, we create seizure likelihood tables for future use by said system by comparing the number of times a prespecified biosignal activity level is induced by seizure to the total number of occurrences of that level of activity. We focus on complex partial seizures in this paper because they are more difficult to detect than are generalized seizures.
Beniczky, S.; Conradsen, Isa; Wolf, P.
Tonic seizures and the tonic phase of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures are defined as a “sustained tonic” muscle contraction. Visual inspection of the surface electromyograms (sEMG) during seizures significantly contributed to a better understanding and diagnosis of several seizure types. However......, quantitative analysis of the sEMG during the epileptic seizures has received surprisingly little attention. The aim of our study was to elucidate the pathophysiology of the tonic muscle activation during seizures. SEMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles, during 58 seizures from 18 patients (9...... with generalised tonic and 9 with tonic-clonic seizures). 18 age and gender matched normal controls simulated 90 generalised tonic seizures. We calculated the root mean square (RMS) of the amplitudes, the median frequency (MF), the relative power (RP) and the coherence. During the epileptic seizures (especially...
Soaham Dilip Desai
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the diagnostic yield and utility of STVEEG with verbal suggestion in diagnosis of patients presenting with transient unresponsiveness and suspected psychogenic nonepileptiform seizures. Methods. A retrospective analysis of STVEEG records of patients with transient unresponsiveness and suspected PNES between 1 Jan 2009 and 28 Feb 2014 was done. Results. Amongst 155 patients [38 males, 117 females], with mean age 32 [8–67], PNES were identified in 109 [70.3%], focal epilepsy was identified in 24 [15.4%], and actual seizure was recorded in 7 [4.5%]. Nine [5.8%] patients were found to have both epilepsy and PNES. Primary generalized epilepsy was diagnosed in 2 [1.2%]. A diagnosis of other paroxysmal nonepileptiform events [tachyarrhythmia and heart block] was done in 3 [1.9%]. A normal EEG and no inducible episode and hence an uncertain diagnosis at the end of STVEEG were seen in only 17 [10.9%] patients. A STVEEG of approximately one hour duration was able to establish the diagnosis in 138 [89.1%] patients with transient unresponsiveness. Conclusion. STVEEG with verbal suggestion is a useful and cost effective diagnostic test for diagnosis of PNES. It can be a good modality for diagnosis in patients with transient abnormalities in sensorium in the outpatient settings in developing countries.
... it cause seizures? Is there any connection between multiple sclerosis and epilepsy? Answers from B Mark Keegan, M. ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-sclerosis/expert-answers/multiple-sclerosis/FAQ-20058138 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions ...
J Gordon Millichap
Clinical and polysomnographic risk factors as early predictors for the development of postnatal epilepsy were determined in 158 infants presenting with two or more seizures, in a study at Hospital Sao Lucas, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The prevalence, morbidity and mortality, diagnosis and management of cases of fabricated seizures and child abuse (Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbp are assessed by pediatricians at the University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.
Kapadia, Saher; Shah, Hemang; McNair, Nancy; Pruitt, J. Ned; Murro, Anthony; Park, Yong
Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a structured questionnaire for improving a medical students? ability to identify, describe and interpret a witnessed seizure. Methods Ninety two 3rd year medical students, blinded to seizure diagnosis, viewed videos of a primary generalized seizure and a complex partial seizure.? Students next completed an unstructured questionnaire that asked the students to describe the seizure video recordings. The students then completed a structured qu...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904... Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of the seizure, NOAA will serve the Notice of Seizure as provided in § 904.3 to the owner or consignee, if known or...
Nwani, Paul Osemeke; Nwosu, Maduaburochukwu Cosmas; Nwosu, Monica Nonyelum
Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring in close temporal relationship with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of presentation and etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures among adult medical admissions. It was a two-year retrospective study of the medical files of adults patients admitted with acute symptomatic seizures as the first presenting event. There were 94 cases of acute symptomatic seizures ...
Holtschmidt-Täschner, Bettina; Soyka, Michael
We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who was admitted for benzodiazepine withdrawal. After 6 weeks of carbamazepine treatment (600, then 200 mg) the patient suddenly suffered from a grand mal seizure. Laboratory findings revealed a clinical significant hyponatremia of Na 125 mmol/l (baseline: 143 mmol/l). CCT and ECG were normal. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a seizure related to hyponatremia in an adult carbamazepine-treated patient.
Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie
The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.
Hanly, John G.; Urowitz, Murray B.; Su, Li; Gordon, Caroline; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Romero-Diaz, Juanita; Wallace, Daniel J; Clarke, Ann E.; Ginzler, E.M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Isenberg, David A.; Rahman, Anisur; Petri, M.; Fortin, Paul R.; Gladman, D. D.; Bruce, Ian N.; Steinsson, Kristjan; Dooley, M.A.; Khamashta, Munther A.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Fessler, Barri J.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Manzi, Susan; Zoma, Asad A.; Sturfelt, Gunnar K.; Nived, Ola; Aranow, Cynthia; Mackay, Meggan; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; van Vollenhoven, R.F.; Kalunian, Kenneth C.; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Lim, Sam; Kamen, Diane L.; Peschken, Christine A.; Inanc, Murat; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Farewell, Vernon
Objective To describe the frequency, attribution, outcome and predictors of seizures in SLE Methods The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) performed a prospective inception cohort study. Demographic variables, global SLE disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), cumulative organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI)) and neuropsychiatric events were recorded at enrollment and annually. Lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, anti-β2 glycoprotein-I, anti-ribosomal P and anti-NR2 glutamate receptor antibodies were measured at enrollment. Physician outcomes of seizures were recorded. Patient outcomes were derived from the SF-36 mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores. Statistical analyses included Cox and linear regressions. Results The cohort was 89.4% female with a mean follow up of 3.5±2.9 years. 75/1631 (4.6%) had ≥1 seizure, the majority around the time of SLE diagnosis. Multivariate analysis indicated a higher risk of seizures with African race/ethnicity (HR(CI):1.97 (1.07–3.63); p=0.03) and lower education status (1.97 (1.21–3.19); pattributed to SLE frequently resolved (59/78(76%)) in the absence of anti-seizure drugs. There was no significant impact on the MCS or PCS scores. Anti-malarial drugs in absence of immunosuppressive agents were associated with reduced seizure risk (0.07(0.01–0.66); p=0.03). Conclusion Seizures occurred close to SLE diagnosis, in patients with African race/ethnicity, lower educational status and cumulative organ damage. Most seizures resolved without a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Anti-malarial drugs were associated with a protective effect. PMID:22492779
Li, Han-Tao; Lee, Ching-Yi; Lim, Siew-Na; Chang, Chun-Wei; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Tony
Surgical interventions are often used for freedom from seizure in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A patient with seizure foci in the left mesiotemporal region underwent limited-size stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC) over the left hippocampus. A 37-year-old woman with febrile convulsion in her childhood was admitted to our neurologic department with complex partial seizure with secondary generalization. Electroencephalography showed epileptogenic focus mainly from the left mesiotemporal region, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a left hippocampal atrophy. Because of failure to control seizure after use of several antiepileptic drugs, drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy was diagnosed. RF-TC was done in the left hippocampus. Unique features of our technique include intraoperative electroencephalography recordings directly from electrodes on the left hippocampus, an aura sensation provoked during the low-temperature test thermocoagulation, and therapeutic thermocoagulation performed via a Radionics radiofrequency lead. In the 16-week period following the surgery, the patient experienced no seizure attacks and no significant postoperative adverse effects or memory impairments. Compared with other reports using RF-TC, our case demonstrates a 1-step minimally invasive surgery that reduces hippocampal volume loss, shortens the length of hospital stay, decreases the occurrence of postoperative infection, and achieves good outcomes for epilepsy control. Favorable seizure control was achieved with minimally invasive RF-TC. Further use of this technique is warranted in cases of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
benign febrile seizures seen in 7% of infants before 6 months play a role in the terminal pathway in a subset of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Supporting evidence: (1) lack of 5-hydroxitryptamine, one consistent finding in sudden infant death syndrome that Kinney et al coined a developmental serotonopathy, is consistent with risk for seizures. (2) Non-rapid eye movement sleep increasing during the age of highest risk for sudden infant death syndrome facilitates some seizures (seizure gate). (3) Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is associated with severe hypoxemia and hypercapnia during postictal generalized electroencephalographic (EEG) suppression. In toddlers, sudden unexplained deaths are associated with hippocampal abnormalities and some seizures. (4) The sudden nature of both deaths warrants an exploration of similarities in the terminal pathway. Moreover, sudden infant death syndrome, febrile seizures, sudden unexplained death in childhood, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy share some of the following risk factors: prone sleeping, infections, hyperthermia, preterm birth, male gender, maternal smoking, and mutations in genes that regulate sodium channels. State-of-the-art molecular studies can be exploited to test this hypothesis. © The Author(s) 2014.
Vickery, P Brittany; Tillery, Erika E; DeFalco, Alicia Potter
To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, potential drug-drug interactions, and place in therapy of the intravenous (IV) formulation of carbamazepine (Carnexiv) for the treatment of seizures in adult patients. A comprehensive PubMed and EBSCOhost search (1945 to August 2017) was performed utilizing the keywords carbamazepine, Carnexiv, carbamazepine intravenous, IV carbamazepine, seizures, epilepsy, and seizure disorder. Additional data were obtained from literature review citations, manufacturer's product labeling, and Lundbeck website as well as Clinicaltrials.gov and governmental sources. All English-language trials evaluating IV carbamazepine were analyzed for this review. IV carbamazepine is FDA approved as temporary replacement therapy for treatment of adult seizures. Based on a phase I trial and pooled data from 2 open-label bioavailability studies comparing oral with IV dosing, there was no noted indication of loss of seizure control in patients switched to short-term replacement antiepileptic drug therapy with IV carbamazepine. The recommended dose of IV carbamazepine is 70% of the patient's oral dose, given every 6 hours via 30-minute infusions. The adverse effect profile of IV carbamazepine is similar to that of the oral formulation, with the exception of added infusion-site reactions. IV carbamazepine is a reasonable option for adults with generalized tonic-clonic or focal seizures, previously stabilized on oral carbamazepine, who are unable to tolerate oral medications for up to 7 days. Unknown acquisition cost and lack of availability in the United States limit its use currently.
Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen
In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage.
Stephenson, J B
This review focuses on anoxic seizures induced by self terminating syncopes in the young. Anoxic seizures are nonepileptic events consequent upon abrupt interruption of the energy supply to metabolically active cerebral neurones. Anoxic seizures are the most common paroxysmal events misdiagnosed as epilepsy. Neurally mediated syncopes have numerous appellations, especially in the young. This proliferation of terminology likely results from uncertainty regarding pathophysiology. The most important type of self-limiting syncope from the point of view of diagnostic difficulty has been called neurocardiogenic or vasovagal syncope and reflex anoxic seizure, amongst other names: this review includes a video clip of such a child with prolonged asystole. It also includes a detailed case history emphasising the feelings of a patient with this type of syncope who was misdiagnosed as having epilepsy for many years. The second class of self-terminating syncope discussed and illustrated on video is the so-called breath-holding spell of young children. The third example illustrated is the compulsive Valsalva manoeuvre of individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, in which anoxic seizures - as shown on the video clips - are easily misdiagnosed as epileptic seizures, with unfortunate consequences.
Full Text Available Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dysfunction and extracellular ionic species (dysregulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures. In the present review, we summarize the clinical and preclinical observations showing metabolic dysregulation during epileptogenesis, seizure initiation, and termination, and in the inter-ictal period. Recent preclinical studies have shown that 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG, a glycolysis blocker is a novel therapeutic approach to reduce seizures. Furthermore, we present initial evidence for the effectiveness of 2-DG in arresting 4-Aminopyridine induced neocortical seizures in vivo in the mouse.
The prevalence and the type of seizures associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and 2 (NF2) are not adequately characterized. NF1 has a birth incidence of one in 2500, and NF2 one in 25000. Seizures are an occasional complication in NF1 patients and there is no data for NF2 patients. Central nervous system tumors are always suspected, since NF1 and NF2 are caused by mutations in tumor suppressor gene controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this article is to provide a synthetic overview about epilepsy associated with NF1 and NF2 based on published studies. In NF1, the type of seizures and their response to therapy are reported, the heterogeneity of etiology is also discussed. For NF2 patients, no specific data are available; the current knowledge comes from series of NF2 patients for which seizures has revealed the disease or from isolated case reports of tumors associated with seizures. Cryptogenic epilepsy without anatomic defect is likely to be related to NF1, while seizures seem to be secondary to leptomeningeal tumors (meningioma, meningioangiomatosis) in NF2 patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Singh, Kanwaljit; Katz, Eliot S.; Zarowski, Marcin; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Llewellyn, Nichelle; Manganaro, Sheryl; Gregas, Matt; Pavlova, Milena; Kothare, Sanjeev V.
Summary Purpose Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is an important, unexplained cause of death in epilepsy. Role of cardiopulmonary abnormalities in the pathophysiology of SUDEP is unclear in the pediatric population. Our objective was to assess cardiopulmonary abnormalities during epileptic seizures in children, with the long-term goal of identifying potential mechanisms of SUDEP. Methods We prospectively recorded cardiopulmonary functions using pulse-oximetry, electrocardiography (ECG), and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP). Logistic regression was used to evaluate association of cardiorespiratory findings with seizure characteristics and demographics. Key Findings We recorded 101 seizures in 26 children (average age 3.9 years). RIP provided analyzable data in 78% and pulse-oximetry in 63% seizures. Ictal central apnea was more prevalent in patients with younger age (p = 0.01), temporal lobe (p seizures (p seizures (p seizures (p seizures (p seizures (p seizures (p seizures (p = 0.01). Ictal and postictal bradycardia were directly associated (p seizures (p epileptic seizures are associated with predictable patient and seizure characteristics, including seizure subtype and duration. PMID:23731396
Feng, E-S; Sui, C-B; Wang, T-X; Sun, G-L
Stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) is a potential option for some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the pooled seizure-free rate and the time interval to seizure cessation in patients with lesions in the mesial temporal lobe, and who were eligible for either stereotactic or gamma knife RS. We searched the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following terms: RS, stereotactic radiosurgery, gamma knife, and TLE. We screened 103 articles and selected 13 for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Significant study heterogeneity was detected; however, the included studies displayed an acceptable level of quality. We show that approximately half of the patients were seizure free over a follow-up period that ranged from 6 months to 9 years [pooled estimate: 50.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.381-0.636)], with an average of 14 months to seizure cessation [pooled estimate: 14.08 months (95% confidence interval: 11.95-12.22 months)]. Nine of 13 included studies reported data for adverse events (AEs), which included visual field deficits and headache (the two most common AEs), verbal memory impairment, psychosis, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and dysphasia. Patients in the individual studies experienced AEs at rates that ranged from 8%, for non-epileptic seizures, to 85%, for headache. Our findings indicate that RS may have similar or slightly less efficacy in some patients compared with invasive surgery. Randomized controlled trials of both treatment regimens should be undertaken to generate an evidence base for patient decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zahra Yekta; Nader Pashapoor; Ali Aghayar Macooie; Mohammad Karamyar
Background: Serum prolactin level has been used as analternative determinant to help differentiate epileptic fromnon-epileptic seizures. We aimed to analyze the associationbetween serum prolactin concentration and epileptic seizureversus febrile seizure as well as seizure duration, single versusmultiple seizure attacks and time lapse between seizure onsetand blood sampling.Methods: Seventy patients aged 6 months to 5 years withseizure who admitted to the emergency department betweenMarch 2004...
Camfield, Carol S; Camfield, Peter R
Most intellectually normal children with focal epilepsy have partial complex or focal with secondary generalization seizures without a precise epilepsy syndrome. Their long-term outcome is largely unknown. Cases were identified from the population-based Nova Scotia Childhood Epilepsy cohort. Those eligible had seizure onset at 1 month to 16 years between 1977 and 1985, normal intelligence, ≥10 years of follow-up, only focal seizures and no benign epilepsy syndromes. There were 108 patients with partial complex with or without secondary generalization as the only seizure type(s) throughout (partial complex group) and 80 with secondary generalization as the only seizure type (secondary generalization group). Average age ± standard deviation at onset was 7.3 ± 4.5 years and follow-up was 27.9 ± 5.4 years. At follow-up, 57% of the partial complex group were in remission versus 81% of the secondary generalization group (P = 0.001). The partial complex group was more likely to be intractable or have undergone epilepsy surgery (36% versus 5%, P = 0.000). In the partial complex group, 28% had seizure free versus 5% in the secondary generalized group (P = 0.000). More patients in the partial complex group had undergone mental health assessments (59% versus 32%, P = 0.000), and 33% had a psychiatric diagnosis versus 15% in the secondary generalized group (P = 0.004). More patients with partial complex seizures had specific learning disorders (63% versus 45%, P = 0.03). Seven markers of poor social outcome were more common in patients with partial complex seizures (>2 markers: 34% versus 10%, P = 0.000). During 25-30 years of follow-up, >50% of intellectually normal patients with childhood-onset partial complex seizures had difficult-to-control seizures and learning and psychiatric/social problems. Most with secondary generalized seizures only had remission and better academic and psychiatric/social outcomes.
Kutlu, Gulnihal; Semercioglu, Sencer; Ucler, Serap; Erdal, Abidin; Inan, Levent E
Behcet disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder. Neuro BD (NBD) is seen in approximately 5% of all patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency, type and prognosis of epileptic seizures in different forms of NBD. All files of 42 patients with NBD were evaluated between 2006 and 2012, retrospectively. The demographic data, the presentation of NBD, clinical findings including seizures, EEG and neuroimaging findings were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 35.02±8.43 years. Thirty (71.4%) patients were male; the remaining 12 of them were female. Twenty-four patients had brainstem lesions; 16 patients had cerebral venous thrombosis. Spinal cord involvement was seen in two patients. Seven patients had epileptic seizures (six partial onset seizures with or without secondary generalization). Six of them had cerebral sinus thrombosis (CVT). Four patients had a seizure as the first symptom of the thrombosis. One patient had late onset seizure due to chronic venous infarct. The other patient with seizure had brainstem involvement. The remaining was diagnosed as epilepsy before the determination of NBD. CVT seen in BD seems to be the main risk factor for epileptic seizures in patients with NBD. The prognosis is usually good especially in patients with CVT. Epileptic seizures in patients with brainstem involvement may be an indicator for poor prognosis. Superior sagittal thrombosis or cortical infarct would be predictor of seizures occurrence because of the high ratio in patients with seizures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walser, Gerald; Unterberger, Iris; Dobesberger, Judith; Embacher, Norbert; Falkenstetter, Tina; Larch, Julia; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Gotwald, Thaddaeus; Ortler, Martin; Bauer, Gerhard; Trinka, Eugen
In temporal lobe epilepsies an asymmetric termination (AST) of the clonic phase of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) reliably lateralizes the side of seizure onset. The last clonic activity occurs ipsilateral to the side of the seizure onset zone. We compared the prevalence and lateralizing value of AST in sGTCS of frontal and temporal lobe origin as well as in primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (pGTCS). We analyzed 177 seizures in 84 consecutive patients. Forty-one patients had temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), 24 frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), and 19 had nonfocal (primary) generalized epilepsies (GE). All patients underwent intensive video-EEG (electroencephalography) monitoring, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neuropsychological testing, and single photon emission computed tomography/positron emission tomography (SPECT/PET) when feasible. Two investigators blinded for diagnosis, EEG, and imaging data assessed frequency and side of the last clonic jerk. AST occurred in 63% of patients with TLE (47% of seizures), in 71% with FLE (60% of seizures), and in 42% with GE (21% of seizures). These results were not significant for patients, but significant for seizures in TLE versus GE and in FLE versus GE (p seizure onset was 74% (p = 0.003) in TLE and 75% (p = 0.008) in FLE. AST in sGTCS lateralizes the side of seizure onset in TLE and in FLE to the ipsilateral hemisphere with a high PPV. However, AST was also observed in GE. Therefore, asymmetric clinical signs should not inevitably lead to the assumption of focal epilepsy syndromes.
Koppert, M.M.J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Viergever, M.A.
In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This
Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia
Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…
Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.
Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical…
Goldberg-Stern, H; Strawsburg, R H; Patterson, B; Hickey, F; Bare, M; Gadoth, N; Degrauw, T J
Seizures have not historically been considered a major component of Down syndrome. We examined the prevalence of epileptic seizures in 350 children and adolescents with Down syndrome evaluated at a regional center between 1985 and 1997. Results showed that 28 patients (8%) had epileptic seizures: 13 (47%) partial seizures; 9 (32%) infantile spasms, and 6 (21%) generalized tonic-clonic seizures. In the infantile spasm group, there was no relationship between the initial electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern and response to treatment or long-term seizure control, or between type of pharmacologic treatment (valproic acid, adrenocorticotropic hormone or both) and clinical remission, EEG normalization or long-term seizure control. Neurodevelopmental outcome was poor despite good seizure control in the infantile spasm group. This regional study reinforces the relative association of seizures and Down syndrome. A prospective study including a national/international registry with emphasis on developmental assessment and long-term follow up is warranted.
Shah, Pankaj B; James, Saji; Elayaraja, S
This is an updated version of original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2014.Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. To assess the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children younger than five years of age. For the latest update of this review, we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (6 July 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2005, Issue 6), MEDLINE (6 July 2015) and ClinicalTrials.gov (6 July 2015). We applied no language restrictions. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the utility of an EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children. Review authors selected and retrieved the articles and independently assessed which articles should be included. We resolved disagreements by discussion and by consultation with the Cochrane Epilepsy Group. We applied standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Of 37 potentially eligible studies, no RCTs met the inclusion criteria. We found no RCTs as evidence to support or refute the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. An RCT can be planned in such a way that participants are randomly assigned to the EEG group and to the non-EEG group with sufficient sample size. Since the last version of this review, we found no new studies.
Rogers, Jennifer K; Hutton, Jane; Marson, Anthony G; Chadwick, David W
Patients who present with only simple or complex partial seizures have a poorly documented prognosis. Treatment may be advocated to prevent future secondary generalised seizures, reduce the frequency of further simple or complex partial seizures or a combination of both. A full statistical analysis on 1334 patients was carried out. The outcomes measured were post-randomisation times to first seizure of any type and first tonic-clonic seizure. Methodology was adopted that accounted for individuals' underlying pre-randomisation seizure counts and allowed for the possibility that there may be a proportion of the sample that will not experience post-randomisation seizure recurrence. 103 subjects randomised to the MESS (Multicentre Study of Early Epilepsy and Single Seizures) study had only partial seizures at randomisation. Only 17 of these had a tonic-clonic seizure during follow-up. The presence of an abnormal EEG at randomisation influenced this risk: an estimated 23% of those with EEG abnormality were at risk of tonic-clonic seizures during follow-up compared with 16% of those with a normal EEG. The group did, however, continue to have partial seizures during follow-up, and modelling showed that the impact of treatment on these seizures was significantly less than the effects of treatment on the frequency of tonic-clonic seizures in those patients with such pre-randomisation seizures. Patients presenting with a history of only partial seizures are at low risk of subsequent tonic-clonic seizures in the period of time to which therapeutic decisions are relevant. The effects of the antiepileptic drugs used in the MESS study are greater for tonic-clonic seizures than they are for partial seizures.
Klein Laura C
Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step in determining whether psychogenic stressors might be incorporated into periadolescent mouse models of stress, we evaluated whether a commonly used psychogenic stressor, exposure to red fox urine, alters serum corticosterone levels in periadolescent C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Findings In a 1-day experiment, forty-eight 38-day-old C57BL/6J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females and DBA/2J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females mice were exposed to 10-min of red fox urine via cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice or to a non-saturated cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice. All mice were sacrificed 15-min after cotton ball exposure and serum was collected for corticosterone assessment. Overall, there was a main effect for strain such that C57BL/6J male and female mice displayed higher corticosterone levels than did male and female DBA/2J mice. There were no main effects for sex or odor exposure. However, there was a significant strain by odor exposure interaction, whereby, within odor-exposed mice, DBA/2J mice displayed lower corticosterone levels (ng/mL compared to C57BL/6J mice, regardless of sex. Further, among DBA/2J mice, predator odor exposure reduced corticosterone levels compared to no odor exposure. Conclusions Findings indicate that mouse strain, but not sex, may play an important role in the efficacy of a predator odor among periadolescent mice.
Ueda, Hitoshi; Tajiri, Hitoshi; Kimura, Sadami; Etani, Yuri; Hosoi, Gaku; Maruyama, Tomoko; Noma, Haruyoshi; Kusumoto, Yoshio; Takano, Tomoko; Baba, Yoshiko; Nagai, Toshizaburo
We analyzed the clinical features of seizures during gastroenteritis in children by comparing the norovirus and rotavirus pathogen, and the impact of fever, if present, during the seizure episodes. Retrospective analysis was performed on 293 consecutive pediatric patients admitted with viral gastroenteritis to Osaka General Hospital between November 2007 and May 2009. Eighteen patients developed seizures, 12 of whom were positive for norovirus and six for rotavirus, as revealed by antigen detection. Of these 18 seizure patients, eight presented without fever (the aFS group) and 10 presented with febrile episodes (FS group). Seizure patients in the rotavirus group (83%) were more likely to be febrile than those in the norovirus group (58%). Compared with the aFS group, 90% of patients in the FS group presented seizures at an early stage of gastroenteritis. The frequency of clustered seizures in the FS group was considerably higher than that of febrile seizures in general and was also as high as that of "convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG)". All seizure patients, whether febrile or afebrile, presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS), complex partial seizures (CPS), or both. Diazepam (DZP) was less effective and carbamazepine (CBZ) was completely effective for the cessation of seizures in the FS group, similar to the drug response observed in CwG. The causative pathogen (norovirus or rotavirus) affected the frequency of febrile episodes during gastroenteritis, but fever had little effect on the clinical features of seizures. However, seizures occurred earlier during gastroenteritis in the FS group. On the whole, the clinical features of febrile seizures during viral gastroenteritis may closely resemble those of "convulsions with mild gastroenteritis" (CwG) than those of febrile seizures in general with respect to the frequency of clustered seizures and the antiepileptic drug responses and may have a pathogenic mechanism distinct from those of
Tubbs, R Shane; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Rollins, Dennis L; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Oakes, W Jerry
Vagus nerve stimulation is known to decrease the frequency, duration, and intensity of some types of intracranial seizures in both humans and animals. Although many theories abound concerning the mechanism for this action, the true cause remains speculative. To potentially elucidate a pathway in which vagus nerve stimulation aborts seizure activity, seizures were initiated not in the cerebral cortex but in the spinal cord and then vagus nerve stimulation was performed. Ten pigs were anesthetized and placed in the lateral position, and a small laminectomy was performed in the lumbar region. Topical penicillin, a known epileptogenic drug to the cerebral cortex and spinal cord, was applied to the dorsal surface of the exposed cord. With the exception of two animals that were used as controls, once seizure activity was discernible via motor convulsion or increased electrical activity the left vagus nerve, which had been previously isolated in the neck, was stimulated. Following multiple stimulations of the vagus nerve and with seizure activity confirmed, the cord was transected in the midthoracic region and vagus nerve stimulation was performed. Vagus nerve stimulation resulted in cessation of spinal cord seizure activity in all (87.5%) but one experimented animal. Transection of the spinal cord superior to the site of seizure induction resulted in the ineffectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation to cause cessation of seizure activity in all study animals. The effects of vagus nerve stimulation on induced spinal cord seizures involve descending spinal pathways. The authors believe that this experiment is the first to demonstrate that spinal cord neuronal hyperactivity can be suppressed by stimulation of a cranial nerve. These data may aid in the development of alternative mechanisms for electrical stimulation in patients with medically intractable seizures. Further studies are now necessary to isolate which specific tracts, nuclei, and neurotransmitters are involved in
Moseley, Brian D; Dewar, Sandra; Haneef, Zulfi; Eliashiv, Dawn; Stern, John M
Epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) admissions are essential for the classification/localization of epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). However, the duration of admissions is highly variable. Accordingly, we evaluated the duration of 596 EMU admissions and reasons for prolonged (>7 days) lengths of stay (LOS). The average LOS was longer for patients diagnosed with ES (8.0 days, SD 4.1 days) than all others (6.0 days, SD 3.9 days, pstay was need to record additional seizures (33%). Other contributors included complications such as seizure clusters (6.9%), status epilepticus (1.6%), test complications (3.7%), psychiatric concerns (4.3%), and medication side effects (1.6%). Our results suggest multiple factors produce prolonged LOS with no factor accounting for the majority. Recording an insufficient number of all habitual seizures was the leading cause, which was over twice the percentage of reported complications (17.6%). However, being able to prolong admissions when necessary resulted in only 14.9% of admissions being inconclusive, potentially justifying the extra expense. Efforts to shorten LOS may be best directed at faster recording of seizures, but this may increase LOS due to complications. Our results may be helpful when assessing whether efforts to shorten LOS are useful in improving the quality and cost of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yamamoto, J; Ikeda, A; Matsuhashi, M; Satow, T; Takayama, M; Ohara, S; Matsumoto, R; Mikuni, N; Takahashi, J; Miyamoto, S; Taki, W; Hashimoto, N; Shibasaki, H
A 52-year-old right handed man presented with medically intractable partial seizures consisting of numbness on the left upper back spreading to the left upper as well as lower limbs. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a round calcified lesion in the depth of the superior ramus of the right sylvian fissure. Ictal electrocorticographic recording with chronically implanted subdural electrodes showed low voltage fast activities starting exclusively from an electrode located on the right inferior parietal lobule. No apparent ictal activities were observed from the depth electrodes inserted in the parietal operculum. Somatosensory evoked potentials of 75 ms to 145 ms latency were recorded from the ictal onset zone, which was 2 cm caudal to the perisylvian area corresponding to the second somatosensory area. Seizures arising from the inferior parietal lobule including the angular and supuramarginal gyri can produce partial seizures whose ictal semiology and scalp electroencephalography are indistinguishable from the ones originating from the second somatosensory area.
Carlson, Chad; Dugan, Patricia; Kirsch, Heidi E; Friedman, Daniel
Background Despite the increasing interest in sex differences in disease manifestations and responses to treatment, very few data are available on sex differences in seizure types and semiology. The Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP) is a large-scale, multi-institutional, collaborative study that aims to create a comprehensive repository of detailed clinical information and DNA samples from a large cohort of people with epilepsy. We used this well-characterized cohort to explore differences in seizure types as well as focal seizure symptoms between males and females. Methods We reviewed the EPGP database and identified individuals with generalized epilepsy of unknown etiology (GE) (n=760; female 446, male 314), non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) (n=476; female 245, male 231), or both (n=64; female 33, male 31). Demographic data along with characterization of seizure type and focal seizure semiologies were examined. Results In GE, males reported atonic seizures more frequently than females (6.5% vs. 1.7%; p<0.001). No differences were observed in other generalized seizure types. In NAFE, no sex differences were seen for seizure types with or without alteration of consciousness or progression to secondary generalization. Autonomic (16.4% vs. 26.6%; p=0.005), psychic (26.7% vs. 40.3%; p=0.001), and visual symptoms (10.3% vs. 19.9%; p=0.002) were more frequently reported in females than males. Specifically, of psychic symptoms, more females than males endorsed déjà vu (p=0.001), but not forced thoughts, derealization/depersonalization, jamais vu, or fear. With corrections for multiple comparisons, there were no significant differences in aphasic, motor, somatosensory, gustatory, olfactory, auditory, vertiginous, or ictal headache symptoms between sexes. Conclusions Significant differences between the sexes were observed in the reporting of atonic seizures, which was more common in males with GE, and for autonomic, visual, and psychic symptoms associated with NAFE
Perry, M Scott; Bailey, Laurie J; Kotecha, Amy C; Malik, Saleem I; Hernandez, Angel W
Amantadine has demonstrated efficacy in small series for absence and myoclonic type seizures. We examined the efficacy of amantadine for treating refractory absence seizures in a cohort of pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed medical records for patients with absence seizures treated with amantadine at Cook Children's Medical Center after January 2007. Abstracted data included sex, age at initiation, concomitant antiepileptic drugs, amantadine dosing, and seizure frequency. Outcomes at 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation were categorized as >90%, ≥50%, or 90% reduction in seizure frequency. Amantadine may constitute an efficacious alternative treatment for refractory absence seizures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.
The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.
Kotwas, Iliana; McGonigal, Aileen; Trebuchon, Agnès; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille; Nagai, Yoko; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur
Despite the unpredictability of epileptic seizures, many patients report that they can anticipate seizure occurrence. Using certain alert symptoms (i.e., auras, prodromes, precipitant factors), patients can adopt behaviors to avoid injury during and after the seizure or may implement spontaneous cognitive and emotional strategies to try to control the seizure itself. From the patient's view point, potential means of enhancing seizure prediction and developing seizure control supports are seen as very important issues, especially when the epilepsy is drug-resistant. In this review, we first describe how some patients anticipate their seizures and whether this is effective in terms of seizure prediction. Secondly, we examine how these anticipatory elements might help patients to prevent or control their seizures and how the patient's neuropsychological profile, specifically parameters of perceived self-control (PSC) and locus of control (LOC), might impact these strategies and quality of life (QOL). Thirdly, we review the external supports that can help patients to better predict seizures. Finally, we look at nonpharmacological means of increasing perceived self-control and achieving potential reduction of seizure frequency (i.e., stress-based and arousal-based strategies). In the past few years, various approaches for detection and control of seizures have gained greater interest, but more research is needed to confirm a positive effect on seizure frequency as well as on QOL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lawn, Nicholas; Lieblich, Sam; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John
It is generally accepted that sleep deprivation contributes to seizures. However, it is unclear whether a seizure occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should be considered as provoked or not and whether this is influenced by seizure type and etiology. This information may have an important impact on epilepsy diagnosis and management. We prospectively analyzed the influence of sleep deprivation on the risk of seizure recurrence in patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures and compared the findings with patients with first-ever provoked seizures. Of 1026 patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures, 204 (20%) were associated with sleep deprivation. While the overall likelihood of seizure recurrence was slightly lower in sleep-deprived patients with first-ever seizures (log-rank p=0.03), sleep deprivation was not an independent predictor of seizure recurrence on multivariate analysis. Seizure recurrence following a first-ever unprovoked seizure associated with sleep deprivation was far more likely than for 174 patients with a provoked first-ever seizure (log-rank psleep deprivation should not be regarded as provoked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J
A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Nolan, Sarah J; Marson, Anthony G; Pulman, Jennifer; Tudur Smith, Catrin
This is an updated version of the previously published Cochrane review (Issue 4, 2009)Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types. To review the best evidence comparing phenytoin and valproate when used as monotherapy in individuals with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 February 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, January 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to 18 February 2013), SCOPUS (19 February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (19 February 2013), and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP (19 February 2013). We handsearched relevant journals, contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with a comparison of valproate monotherapy versus phenytoin monotherapy. This was an individual patient data review. Outcomes were time to (a) treatment withdrawal (b) 12-month remission (c) six-month remission and (d) first seizure post randomisation. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain study-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the generic inverse variance method used to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. Individual patient data were available for 669 individuals out of 1119 eligible individuals from five out of 11 trials, 60% of the potential data. Results apply to generalised tonic-clonic seizures, but not absence or myoclonus seizure types. For remission outcomes, HR > 1 indicates an
Dai, Yun-Jian; Xu, Zheng-Hao; Feng, Bo; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Zhao, Hua-Wei; Wu, Deng-Chang; Hu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Zhong
Gender differences are involved in many neurological disorders including epilepsy. However, little is known about the effect of gender difference on the risk of epilepsy in adults with a specific early pathological state such as complex febrile seizures (FSs) in infancy. Here we used a well-established complex FS model in rats and showed that: (1) the susceptibility to seizures induced by hyperthermia, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and maximal electroshock (MES) was similar in male and female rat pups, while males were more susceptible to PTZ- and MES-induced seizures than age-matched females in normal adult rats; (2) adult rats with complex FSs in infancy acquired higher seizure susceptibility than normal rats; importantly, female FS rats were more susceptible to PTZ and MES than male FS rats; and (3) the protein expression of interleukin-1β, an inflammatory factor associated with seizure susceptibility, was higher in adult FS females than in males, which may reflect a gender-difference phenomenon of seizure susceptibility. Our results provide direct evidence that the acquired seizure susceptibility after complex FSs is gender-dependent.
Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Elmagrabi, Dalal
Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219
Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.
Perucca, Piero; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean
The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal), and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline). Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma) and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples). At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development), but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures. PMID:24260523
What defines the spatial and temporal boundaries of seizure activity in brain networks? To fully answer this question a precise and quantitative definition of seizures is needed, which unfortunately remains elusive. Nevertheless, it is possible to ask under conditions where clearly divergent patterns of activity occur in large-scale brain networks whether certain activity patterns are part of the seizure while others are not. Here we examine brain network activity during focal limbic seizures, including diverse regions such as the hippocampus, subcortical arousal systems and fronto-parietal association cortex. Based on work from patients and from animal models we describe a characteristic pattern of intense increases in neuronal firing, cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) signals and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption in the hippocampus during focal limbic seizures. Similar increases are seen in certain closely linked subcortical structures such as the lateral septal nuclei and anterior hypothalamus, which contain inhibitory neurons. In marked contrast, decreases in all of these parameters are seen in the subcortical arousal systems of the upper brainstem and intralaminar thalamus, as well as in the fronto-parietal association cortex. We propose that the seizure proper can be defined as regions showing intense increases, while those areas showing opposite changes are inhibited by the seizure network and constitute long-range network consequences beyond the seizure itself. Importantly, the fronto-parietal cortex shows sleep-like slow wave activity and depressed metabolism under these conditions, associated with impaired consciousness. Understanding which brain networks are directly involved in seizures versus which sustain secondary consequences can provide new insights into the mechanisms of brain dysfunction in epilepsy, hopefully leading to innovative treatment
Jaime R. Torres R.
Full Text Available A 27 year Old male developed seizures after receiving a single 20 mg/kg dose of praziquantel for the treatment of an intestinal Hymenolepis nana infection. On further clinical and laboratorial evaluations, he was found to suffer from an until then asymptomatic parenchymal brain cysticercosis. Praziquantel must be used with caution in those areas where cysticercosis represents a mayor public health problem. The occurrence of unexpected seizures in an individual being treated with the compound, must prompt clinicians to rule out cysticercosis of the CNS.
Full Text Available Thrombin is a serine protease playing an essential role in the blood coagulation cascade. Recent work, however, has identified a novel role for thrombin-mediated signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Binding of thrombin to protease-activated receptors (PARs in the brain appears to have multiple actions affecting both health and disease. Specifically, thrombin has been shown to lead to the onset of seizures via PAR-1 activation. In this perspective article, we review the putative mechanisms by which thrombin causes seizures and epilepsy. We propose a potential role of PAR-1 antagonists and novel thrombin inhibitors as new, possible antiepileptic drugs.
Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen
Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in
Lalit Kumar Raiger
Full Text Available A 35-year-old, 50-kg female with a history of epilepsy was scheduled for elective breast surgery (fibroadenoma under general anaesthesia. She was given glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, ondansetron 4 mg and tramadol 100 mg i.v. as premedication. Within 5 min, she had an acute episode of generalised tonic-clonic seizure that was successfully treated with 75 mg thiopentone i.v. and after 30 min, she was given general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Surgery, intra-operative period, extubation and post-operative period were uneventful. We conclude that tramadol may provoke seizures in patients with epilepsy even within the recommended dose range.
Friedman, David E.; Chiang, Sharon; Tobias, Ronnie S.
Seizure-related head injuries (SRHIs) are among the most commonly encountered injuries in people with epilepsy (PWE). Whether head injury has an effect on preexisting epilepsy is not known. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess for any possible effects of SRHIs on seizure frequency and seizure semiology over a 2-year period. We identified 204 patients who have been followed at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 to 2010. SRHI occurred in 18.1% of the cohort. Mo...
Vaugier, Lisa; McGonigal, Aileen; Lagarde, Stanislas; Trébuchon, Agnes; Szurhaj, William; Derambure, Philippe; Bartolomei, Fabrice
We report a 37-year-old, right-handed patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy whose seizures were characterized by explosive hyperkinetic behaviour. Video-SEEG revealed bifocal organization of epilepsy with two distinct cortical origins of seizures: the right temporal pole and left temporal lateral and perisylvian cortex. Irrespective of the cortical pattern of seizure onset, the hyperkinetic semiology was extremely similar. This supports a major role for "final common pathway" subcortical circuits in the genesis of the hyperkinetic semiology in this patient.
... Health Conditions Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus Printable PDF Open ... 9):1426-9. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins January is National Birth Defects ...
Donovan, Maria D.; Griffin, Brendan T; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Cryan, John F.; Boylan, Geraldine B.
Seizures are the most common neurological emergencies in the neonatal period and are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seizures affect up to five per 1000 term births and population-based studies suggest that they occur even more frequently in premature infants. Seizures are a sign of an underlying cerebral pathology, the most common of which is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants. Due to a growing body of evidence that seizures exacerbate cerebral injury, effecti...
Onorati, Francesco; Regalia, Giulia; Caborni, Chiara; Migliorini, Matteo; Bender, Daniel; Poh, Ming-Zher; Frazier, Cherise; Kovitch Thropp, Eliana; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Bidwell, Jonathan; Mai, Roberto; LaFrance, W Curt; Blum, Andrew S; Friedman, Daniel; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Mohammadpour-Touserkani, Fatemeh; Reinsberger, Claus; Tognetti, Simone; Picard, Rosalind W
New devices are needed for monitoring seizures, especially those associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). They must be unobtrusive and automated, and provide false alarm rates (FARs) bearable in everyday life. This study quantifies the performance of new multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors. Hand-annotated video-electroencephalographic seizure events were collected from 69 patients at six clinical sites. Three different wristbands were used to record electrodermal activity (EDA) and accelerometer (ACM) signals, obtaining 5,928 h of data, including 55 convulsive epileptic seizures (six focal tonic-clonic seizures and 49 focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures) from 22 patients. Recordings were analyzed offline to train and test two new machine learning classifiers and a published classifier based on EDA and ACM. Moreover, wristband data were analyzed to estimate seizure-motion duration and autonomic responses. The two novel classifiers consistently outperformed the previous detector. The most efficient (Classifier III) yielded sensitivity of 94.55%, and an FAR of 0.2 events/day. No nocturnal seizures were missed. Most patients had seizure frequency. When increasing the sensitivity to 100% (no missed seizures), the FAR is up to 13 times lower than with the previous detector. Furthermore, all detections occurred before the seizure ended, providing reasonable latency (median = 29.3 s, range = 14.8-151 s). Automatically estimated seizure durations were correlated with true durations, enabling reliable annotations. Finally, EDA measurements confirmed the presence of postictal autonomic dysfunction, exhibiting a significant rise in 73% of the convulsive seizures. The proposed multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors provide seizure counts that are more accurate than previous automated detectors and typical patient self-reports, while maintaining a tolerable FAR for ambulatory monitoring. Furthermore, the multimodal system
Kim, Hyungdong; Kim, Sae Young
We report a case of a 42-year-old male who developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure with sudden, brief decrease in bispectral index (BIS) value while undergoing emergency kidney transplantation. Few reports have been made on intraoperative pitfall of BIS value associated with seizure. This case report suggests seizure should be taken into account as a reason for such brief fall of BIS, especially while under general anesthesia or in other specific cases in which clinical signs of seizure ar...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555... Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent in violation of 18 U.S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions of 19 U.S.C. 1595a...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited... accordance with § 12.100(a) shall be seized under 19 U.S.C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25... AND ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be seized by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 447.63 Section 447.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.63 Seizure and forfeiture. Whoever knowingly...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure and condemnation. 118.4... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.4 Seizure and condemnation. Any biological product which is prepared, sold, bartered...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Unlawful Acts, Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 555.166 Seizure or forfeiture. Any explosive materials involved or used or intended to be used...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject... director or assistant regional commissioner (alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by...
Background: Complex partial seizure is an epileptic seizure which results in impairment of responsiveness or awareness such as altered level of consciousness. Complex partial seizures are often preceded by an aura such as depersonalization, feelings of de javu, jamais vu and fear. The ictal phase of complex partial ...
Full Text Available Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG. However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here we describe an algorithm we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determine whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures vs. non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy.
Webb, M. D.
Fentanyl induced seizures have been described previously in the literature. Clinical observations has labeled the movements seen in fentanyl anesthesia as seizure activity but electroencephalographic studies have not supported this. A case of seizure-like activity after the administration of fentanyl in a 20-year-old female is reported.
Palmio, Johanna; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Lehtimäki, Kai; Nieminen, Riina; Peltola, Jukka; Moilanen, Eeva
... neurological disorder  . Recent studies suggest a role for adipokines in the genesis of seizures and neuroprotection related to seizures [2,5] . Adiponectin has shown neuroprotective effects in hippocampal neurons after kainic-acid induced seizures  . To the best of our knowledge, adipokines have not been studied in humans shortly after epileptic sei...
Background and Purpose Epilepsy is highly prevalent in developing African countries with significant morbidity, social stigmatization, poor quality of life and preventable mortality. There are scanty reports on the contributions of seizure variables like seizure types, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, age at onset and ...
Full Text Available Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. 55% of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients’ reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time.
Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B.; Derr, Lori L.; Broshek, Donna K.
Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228
Dobesberger, J; Walser, G; Embacher, N; Unterberger, I; Luef, G; Bauer, G; Benke, T; Bartha, L; Ortler, M; Trinka, E
Gyratory seizures (GSs) have been rarely described in generalized as well as in focal epilepsies. They were defined as a rotation around the body axis during a seizure for at least 180 degrees. The mechanisms of generation are unknown and have been discussed controversially. The aim of this investigation was to further delineate seizure semiology and assess a possible lateralizing and localizing value of GSs. The authors screened 277 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsies referred to a University Hospital for presurgical evaluation between 1998 and 2004 for GSs: 169 had temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), 47 frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), 38 generalized epilepsies (GE), and 23 had extratemporal or multifocal epilepsy. Twelve patients showed gyratory movements in 17 seizures. Eight had FLE and four TLE (p head followed by a rotation toward the contralateral side of seizure onset. In 42% (5/12), the gyratory movement was not preceded by a forced head version. In these seizures, the direction of the rotation was toward the side of seizure onset. The direction of rotation lateralizes seizure onset zone in focal epilepsy depending on the seizure evolution: 1) gyratory seizures (GSs) starting with a forced version of the head ensuing into a body rotation lateralize seizure onset zone contralateral to the direction of rotation. 2) In GSs without a preceding gyratory forced head version, the direction of rotation is toward the side of seizure onset. GSs occur more frequently in frontal lobe epilepsy than temporal lobe epilepsy, while none of our patients with GSs had generalized epilepsies.
Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael
Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient's electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy.
This report highlights psychosis and seizures presenting at two distinct periods of time in the course of Meningioma, in a 43 year old Nigerian medical doctor and buttresses the fact that the risk for post operative seizures and other symptoms include a history of pre-operative seizures and the site of the tumor. The subject ...
Kelley, Brendan J.; Rodriguez, Moses
Seizures have been recognized to occur in multiple sclerosis since early descriptions of the disease. Various studies have attempted to determine the incidence and prevalence of seizures in multiple sclerosis; although they differ in the reported prevalence, seizures do appear to be more common in multiple sclerosis cohorts than in the general population.
Background Epilepsy is characterized by episodic and unpredictable seizure recurrences which are often amenable to medical treatment. Simple and readily available medications can be used to control seizures in epilepsy. However, in many communities in developing countries seizure control among people living with ...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or oral...
Feltane, Amal; Faye Boudreaux-Bartels, G; Besio, Walter
Automated detection of seizures is still a challenging problem. This study presents an approach to detect seizure segments in Laplacian electroencephalography (tEEG) recorded from rats using the tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) configuration. Three features, namely, median absolute deviation, approximate entropy, and maximum singular value were calculated and used as inputs into two different classifiers: support vector machines and adaptive boosting. The relative performance of the extracted features on TCRE tEEG was examined. Results are obtained with an overall accuracy between 84.81 and 96.51%. In addition to using TCRE tEEG data, the seizure detection algorithm was also applied to the recorded EEG signals from Andrzejak et al. database to show the efficiency of the proposed method for seizure detection.
Full Text Available Epileptic seizure is the emergence of various transient signs and symptoms resulting from abnormal excessive electrical discharges and synchronous activity. Pseudoseizure can be defined as clinical events that resemble epileptic attacks which are not associated with central nervous system dysfunction. It is difficult to differentiate between pseudoseizures and epileptic seizures. Treatment of pseudoseizures like epileptic seizures causes the use of unnecessary and inappropriate antiepileptic medications. Patients refer to emergency polyclinics again and again, and examinations are repeated needlessly. Therefore, their life quality deteriorates and this situation causes economic burden at the same time. In this article, we investigate the clinical features, EEG findings, biological parameters and autonomic neural system tests that should be looked out for in order to differentiate between epileptic seizures and pseudoseizures in conjunction with the latest literature studies. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 330-334.
As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…
Gameleira, Fernando Tenório; Ataíde, Luiz; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão
To describe headaches in patients with epilepsy and try to identify relations between epileptic seizures and headaches. Cross-sectional study, with 304 patients from the epilepsy out-patient section of University Hospital of Federal University of Alagoas (Brazil) between February 2007 and February 2008. The presence of headaches and their relationships with the epileptic seizures were analyzed. Frequent seizures were associated with a greater tendency of occurrence of headaches (odds ratio=1.6 times, p=0.077). Headaches occurred in 66.1% of the cases. The highest occurrence was of migraine (32.9% of the patients), followed by tension-type headaches (9.2%). Two syndromes with a continuum epilepsy-migraine in the same seizure are worth mentioning: migralepsy in 6.6% and epilepgraine in 10.2% of the patients with epilepsy. A high prevalence of headaches in patients with epilepsy was observed, with emphasis on hybrid crises of epilepsy and migraine. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
C.A. van Donselaar (Cees)
textabstractThis thesis is based on a prospective investigation of 226 patients aged 15 years and older, who were referred to one of the participating hospitals due to a possible idiopathic first seizure. Only those patients were admitted to the study in whom an obvious cause on clinical grounds
Rheims, Sylvain; Ryvlin, Philippe
Occurrence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) is one of the most important risk factors of seizure-related complications and comorbidities in patients with epilepsy. Their prevention is therefore an important aspect of therapeutic management both in idiopathic generalized epilepsies and in focal epilepsies. It has been shown that the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) varies across epilepsy syndromes, with some AEDs efficacious against focal seizures with secondary GTCS (sGTCS) but aggravating primary GTCS (pGTCS). In patients with pGTCS, evidence-based data support the preferential use of valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam and topiramate. In patients with sGTCS, all AEDs approved in the treatment of focal epilepsies might be used. Both in pGTCS and sGTCS, additional data are required, specifically to inform about the relative efficacy of AEDs in relation to each other. Although valproic acid might be the most efficacious drug in idiopathic generalized epilepsies, it should be avoided in women of childbearing age due to its safety profile. In patients with sGTCS, AEDs for which the impact on this seizure type has been formally evaluated and which have demonstrated greater efficacy than placebo might preferentially be used, such as lacosamide, perampanel and topiramate.
Mikkonen, Kirsi; Pekkala, Niina; Pokka, Tytti
at the hospital after FS and S100B concentration in serum (r=-0.130, P=0.28) or in cerebrospinal fluid samples (r=-0.091, P=0.52). Our findings indicate that FS does not cause significant blood-brain barrier openings, and increase the evidence that these seizures are relatively harmless for the developing brain....
Full Text Available The increasing life expectancy over the preceding decades and trend towards further increase means that the elderly is now a growing section of the population. Seizures are a particularly common disorder in the age group. Considering that above the age of 50 years, one is prone to suffer from atleast one chromic illness, the interplay between associated medical and neurologic diseases and seizures need to be understood. These comorbidities like hypertension, cerebrovascular accidents, diabetes, renal failure and others not only contribute to seizures, they may also interfere with their appropriate treatment. Seizures, on the other hand, may be the cause of added morbidity like fractures, head injury and poor self esteem which may lead to poor quality of life. In addition, the unique pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and side effect profile of the various antieplileptic drugs in the elderly and the multiple drug interactions, require judicious use along with regular monitoring. However, an ideal antiepileptic drug for the elderly is yet to be found.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics consensus statement recommendations regarding lumbar puncture for infants 6-18 months of age with a first simple febrile seizure was investigated by a retrospective review of 704 infants evaluated in the pediatric emergency medicine division at Children’s Hospital Boston, MA, Oct 1995-Oct 2006.
Thornton, Matthew D; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L
Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia and present the case of a 6-day-old male infant who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis.
Full Text Available Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS is a rare life-threatening complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA and carotid artery stenting (CAS for carotid artery stenosis. The incidence varies between 0 and 3%, depending on the severity of the stenosis, perioperative hypertension, and contralateral carotid stenosis. This case report reports a 53-year-old female patient presenting with decreased alertness and multiple tonic-clonic seizures, in the background of bilateral CEA. She was found to have bilateral carotid stenosis. Her left CEA was performed three months prior and right CEA was four days prior to her current presentation with seizures. After bilateral CEA, the imaging showed extensive pathologic process involving primarily the subcortical white matter and overlying cortex, more on the right cerebral hemisphere. On follow-up six weeks later, she reported no recurrent seizures and imaging showed decrease in abnormal signal intensity of the grey and white matter. This was indicative of near complete resolution of hyperperfusion damage. CHS is a rare complication due to the loss of autoregulation of the cerebrovascular system and increased blood flow status after bilateral CEA. This case is reported because of a rare and unique presentation of seizures in the background of bilateral CEA.
Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Truong, Ahn; Pirsaharkhiz, Naghemeh
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a rare life-threatening complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) for carotid artery stenosis. The incidence varies between 0 and 3%, depending on the severity of the stenosis, perioperative hypertension, and contralateral carotid stenosis. This case report reports a 53-year-old female patient presenting with decreased alertness and multiple tonic-clonic seizures, in the background of bilateral CEA. She was found to have bilateral carotid stenosis. Her left CEA was performed three months prior and right CEA was four days prior to her current presentation with seizures. After bilateral CEA, the imaging showed extensive pathologic process involving primarily the subcortical white matter and overlying cortex, more on the right cerebral hemisphere. On follow-up six weeks later, she reported no recurrent seizures and imaging showed decrease in abnormal signal intensity of the grey and white matter. This was indicative of near complete resolution of hyperperfusion damage. CHS is a rare complication due to the loss of autoregulation of the cerebrovascular system and increased blood flow status after bilateral CEA. This case is reported because of a rare and unique presentation of seizures in the background of bilateral CEA.
Patel, Nilesh; Majeed, Faisal; Sule, Anupam Ashutosh
Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is a dysfunction of sinoatrial node resulting in symptomatic bradycardia or sinus pauses causing decreased cardiac output with cerebral hypoperfusion and usually presents as syncope, presyncope or fatigue. The occurrence of a seizure is very rare. A 69-year-old man suffered two episodes of generalised tonic-clonic seizures. MRI and electroencephalogram failed to reveal the cause of seizures. In the emergency room, he experienced presyncope simultaneous to bradycardia and sinus pauses. He was stabilised with atropine and dopamine infusion and underwent definitive therapy with a permanent dual-chamber pacemaker with complete symptom resolution. Diagnostic confounders include convulsive syncope and ictal bradycardia. Syncope may be accompanied by myoclonic jerks (convulsive syncope), but postictal confusion is absent. Bradycardia may be seen during the postictal period (ictal bradycardia syndrome), but protracted sinus dysfunction is not present. Hypoperfusion due to significant SSS triggered seizures in this patient who may have an underlying predisposition. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sachdeo, R C; Reife, R A; Lim, P; Pledger, G
.... A total of 48 patients were evaluated in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. During a 56-day baseline period, patients had at least eight partial onset seizures while being treated with one or two standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs...
Gasparini, Sara; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Beghi, Ettore; Tripepi, Giovanni; Labate, Angelo; Mumoli, Laura; Leonardi, Cinzia G; Cianci, Vittoria; Latella, Maria Adele; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto
Cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE) is a heterogeneous clinical disorder including patients with severe refractory forms and patients with a fairly good prognosis. Predictors of prognosis in CFE are poorly understood. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify long-term (5-year) prognostic predictors in patients with newly diagnosed CFE. Subjects with cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE) seen from April 1987 to September 2011 in two twin Epilepsy Centres located in Reggio Calabria and Catanzaro, Calabria, Southern Italy, were screened. Patients were excluded if they had psychogenic seizures, major psychiatric disorders presence of brain lesions except for non-specific white matter T2-hyperintensities, short follow-up (less than five years) or for having received the diagnosis of CFE elsewhere. One hundred and eighty-six patients, firstly diagnosed in our Centres, constituted the study sample. Survival curves were generated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. The endpoint was the cumulative time-dependent chance of 5-year remission after treatment start. Independent predictors of remission were tested by multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards function models. The accuracy of the resulting model was tested with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. The cumulative incidence of remission was 23%. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, the only factor predicting remission was family history of epilepsy or febrile seizures (FS; p=0.02). At Cox regression, family history and frontal lobe epilepsy showed to be independent predictors of outcome (p=0.02 and 0.03, respectively). The accuracy of these predictors was good (area under ROC curve 0.648, 95% CI 0.575-0.716). Interestingly, we also found a considerable (7 years) diagnostic delay that did not result in a worse prognosis. About one quarter of subjects with newly diagnosed CFE attains 5-year seizure remission during follow-up. Family history of epilepsy or FS
Kim, Si Eun; Lee, Byung In; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Hyung Chan; Lee, Joonwon; Bae, Soo-Young; Lee, Dongah; Kim, Sung Eun
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors and identify the characteristics of the seizure-induced signal changes on MRI (SCM) in patients with first seizures. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with first seizures from March 2010 to August 2014. The inclusion criteria for this study were patients with 1) first seizures, and 2) MRI and EEG performed within 24h of the first seizures. The definition of SCM was hyper-intensities in the brain not applying to cerebral arterial territories. Multivariate logistic regression was performed with or without SCM as a dependent variable. Of 431 patients with seizures visiting the ER, 69 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of 69 patients, 11 patients (15.9%) had SCM. Epileptiform discharge on EEG (OR 29.7, 95% CI 1.79-493.37, p=0.018) was an independently significant variable predicting the presence of SCM in patients with first seizures. In addition, the topography of SCM was as follows; i) ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex (5/11), ii) unilateral cortex (4/11), iii) ipsilateral thalamus and cerebral cortex (1/11), iv) bilateral hippocampus (1/11). Moreover, 6 out of 7 patients who underwent both perfusion CT and MRI exhibited unilateral cortical hyperperfusion with ipsilateral thalamic involvement reflecting unrestricted vascular territories. There is an association between epileptiform discharges and SCM. Additionally, the involvement of the unilateral cortex and ipsilateral thalamus in SCM and its hyperperfusion state could be helpful in differentiating the consequences of epileptic seizures from other pathologies. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Divino, Victoria; Petrilla, Allison A; Bollu, Vamsi; Velez, Fulton; Ettinger, Alan; Makin, Charles
The purpose of this study was to measure health-care resource utilization and costs in treatment-adherent, previously seizure-free patients with epilepsy who were treated in the inpatient/emergency room (ER) setting for new-onset seizures, compared with matched controls. The study used a retrospective case/control study design using administrative claims from the IMS PharMetrics™ database. We identified adult patients with epilepsy with 1+ ER visit/hospitalization with primary diagnosis of epilepsy between 1/1/2006 and 3/31/2011, preceded by 6months of seizure-free activity and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment adherence (≥80% of days covered by any AED); the first observed seizure defined the "breakthrough" seizure/index event. Treatment-adherent patients with epilepsy without any ER/hospital admission for seizures served as controls: an outpatient epilepsy-related medical claim within the selection window was chosen at random as the index date. The following were continuous enrollment requirements for all patients: ≥12-month pre- and ≥6-month postindex. Each case matched 1:1 to a control using propensity score matching. All-cause and epilepsy-related (epilepsy/convulsion diagnosis, AED pharmacy) resource utilization and unadjusted and adjusted direct health-care costs (per person, 2012 US dollars (USD)) were assessed in a 6-month follow-up period. There were 5729 cases and 14,437 controls eligible. The final sample comprised 5279 matched case/control pairs. In unadjusted analyses, matched cases had significantly higher rates of all-cause hospitalization and ER visits compared to controls and significantly higher total all-cause direct health-care costs (median $12,714 vs. $5095, pseizure (driven by inpatient costs). Cases had 2.3 times higher adjusted all-cause costs and 8.1 times higher adjusted epilepsy-related costs than controls (both pseizures occurred among 28.4% of our treatment-adherent study sample and were associated with significant
Zheng, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Fu, Weiming; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Jian; Zhang, Jianmin
We identified factors associated with early and late postoperative seizure control in patients with supratentorial meningioma plus preoperative seizures. In this retrospective study, univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis compared 24 clinical variables according to the occurrence of early (≤1 week) or late (>1 week) postoperative seizures. Sixty-two of 97 patients (63.9 %) were seizure free for the entire postoperative follow-up period (29.5 ± 11.8 months), while 13 patients (13.4 %) still had frequent seizures at the end of follow-up. Fourteen of 97 patients (14.4 %) experienced early postoperative seizures, and emergence of new postoperative neurological deficits was the only significant risk factor (odds ratio = 7.377). Thirty-three patients (34.0 %) experienced late postoperative seizures at some time during follow-up, including 12 of 14 patients with early postoperative seizures. Associated risk factors for late postoperative seizures included tumor progression (odds ratio = 7.012) and new permanent postoperative neurological deficits (odds ratio = 4.327). Occurrence of postoperative seizures in patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizure was associated with new postoperative neurological deficits. Reduced cerebral or vascular injury during surgery may lead to fewer postoperative neurological deficits and better seizure outcome.
Wassenaar, Merel; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; de Haan, Gerrit-Jan; Carpay, Johannes A; Leijten, Frans S S
Epileptic seizures can be provoked by several factors. Better understanding of these factors may improve a patient's sense of control and could reduce seizures. In daily practice, the recognition of seizure precipitants relies heavily on clinical or video-EEG evidence, which can be difficult to obtain. Studies of seizure provocation are largely based on selected hospital-based patient populations, which may lead to biased occurrence estimates. Self-reported seizure precipitants are rarely studied, yet are necessary to understand the experiences of patients and improve epilepsy management. We performed a cross-sectional community-based study of 248 epilepsy patients, selected by pharmacy records of anti-epileptic drug use. Self-reported seizure precipitants and potential associated characteristics were assessed using questionnaires. Almost half of all patients (47 %) reported one or more seizure precipitants, of which stress, sleep deprivation, and flickering lights were the most common. In this community-based setting, light-provoked seizures were especially frequent compared to the literature. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), a lower age at seizure onset, and having auras or prodromes were found to be important independent prognostic factors associated with provoked seizures. IGE and a younger age at seizure onset have been linked to provoked seizures in earlier reports. The finding of auras or prodromes as a prognostic factor was unexpected, though case reports have described provoked seizures in patients having auras. Assessment of these factors may facilitate the early recognition of seizure precipitants in daily clinical practice. This is important for the optimization of epilepsy management for a large group of patients, as provoked seizures are expected to occur frequently.
Capal, Jamie K; Bernardino-Cuesta, Beatriz; Horn, Paul S; Murray, Donna; Byars, Anna Weber; Bing, Nicole M; Kent, Bridget; Pearson, Deborah A; Sahin, Mustafa; Krueger, Darcy A
Epilepsy is commonly seen in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The relationship between seizures and developmental outcomes has been reported, but few studies have examined this relationship in a prospective, longitudinal manner. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between seizures and early development in TSC. Analysis of 130 patients ages 0-36months with TSC participating in the TSC Autism Center of Excellence Network, a large multicenter, prospective observational study evaluating biomarkers predictive of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), was performed. Infants were evaluated longitudinally with standardized evaluations, including cognitive, adaptive, and autism-specific measures. Seizure history was collected continuously throughout, including seizure type and frequency. Data were analyzed at 6, 12, 18, and 24months of age. Patients without a history of seizures performed better on all developmental assessments at all time points compared to patients with a history of seizures and exhibited normal development at 24months. Patients with a history of seizures not only performed worse, but developmental progress lagged behind the group without seizures. All patients with a history of infantile spasms performed worse on all developmental assessments at 12, 18, and 24months. Higher seizure frequency correlated with poorer outcomes on developmental testing at all time points, but particularly at 12months and beyond. Patients with higher seizure frequency during infancy continued to perform worse developmentally through 24months. A logistic model looking at the individual impact of infantile spasms, seizure frequency, and age of seizure onset as predictors of developmental delay revealed that age of seizure onset was the most important factor in determining developmental outcome. Results of this study further define the relationship between seizures and developmental outcomes in young children with TSC. Early seizure onset in infants with TSC
Full Text Available Background: The most common reason for seizure in elderly duration is the stroke. This study was conducted aiming to assess the frequency of seizure attack occurrence in those patients. Materials and Methods: This investigation was carried out through a cross-sectional method for one year on 330 patients admitted to the neurology ward as diagnosed with stroke. The required data was collected through the researcher-made questionnaire from the patients suffering from stoke which was diagnosed based on clinical findings, CT-Scan and MRI as required. Results: Among 330 patient suffering from stroke (162 men and 168 women, 48 cases (14.5% were suffering from seizure. Six percent of the patients had early seizure and another 8.5% had late seizure. Among 162 men suffering from the stroke, 32 ones were without seizures and 30 men were suffering the seizure. A number of 150 women out of total 168 ones suffering from the stroke, had no seizure and 18 others had seizures; frequency of seizure occurrence was more in male samples (p=0.044. In the people under 60 year, there were mostly early types of seizure (45% and in the age range above 60 year, it was mostly late type (89.3%. A 68.5% of the patients suffering from the seizure had experienced ischemic stroke. However, the frequency of seizure occurrence in the patients with hemorrhagic stroke was statistically greater (p=0.003. Conclusion: This examination showed that occurrence of seizure attacks in the people with stroke is 14.5% and it is seen more in the hemorrhagic strokes than ischemic ones. The frontoparietal area is the most common location involved and tonic clonic was the most common seizure in the patients suffering from it who have experienced the stroke
French, Jaqueline A.; Fureman, Brandy E.
Abstract The Epilepsy Innovation Institute (Ei2) is a new research program of the Epilepsy Foundation designed to be an innovation incubator for epilepsy. Ei2 research areas are selected based on community surveys that ask people impacted by epilepsy what they would like researchers to focus on. In their 2016 survey, unpredictability was selected as a top issue regardless of seizure frequency or severity. In response to this need, Ei2 launched the My Seizure Gauge challenge, with the end goal of creating a personalized seizure advisory system device. Prior to moving forward, Ei2 convened a diverse group of stakeholders from people impacted by epilepsy and clinicians, to device developers and data scientists, to basic science researchers and regulators, for a state of the science assessment on seizure forecasting. From the discussions, it was clear that we are at an exciting crossroads. With the advances in bioengineering, we can utilize digital markers, wearables, and biosensors as parameters for a seizure-forecasting algorithm. There are also over a thousand individuals who have been implanted with ambulatory intracranial EEG recording devices. Pairing up peripheral measurements to brain states could identify new relationships and insights. Another key component is the heterogeneity of the relationships indicating that pooling findings across groups is suboptimal, and that data collection will need to be done on longer time scales to allow for individualization of potential seizure-forecasting algorithms.
Dumanis, Sonya B; French, Jaqueline A; Bernard, Christophe; Worrell, Gregory A; Fureman, Brandy E
The Epilepsy Innovation Institute (Ei2) is a new research program of the Epilepsy Foundation designed to be an innovation incubator for epilepsy. Ei2 research areas are selected based on community surveys that ask people impacted by epilepsy what they would like researchers to focus on. In their 2016 survey, unpredictability was selected as a top issue regardless of seizure frequency or severity. In response to this need, Ei2 launched the My Seizure Gauge challenge, with the end goal of creating a personalized seizure advisory system device. Prior to moving forward, Ei2 convened a diverse group of stakeholders from people impacted by epilepsy and clinicians, to device developers and data scientists, to basic science researchers and regulators, for a state of the science assessment on seizure forecasting. From the discussions, it was clear that we are at an exciting crossroads. With the advances in bioengineering, we can utilize digital markers, wearables, and biosensors as parameters for a seizure-forecasting algorithm. There are also over a thousand individuals who have been implanted with ambulatory intracranial EEG recording devices. Pairing up peripheral measurements to brain states could identify new relationships and insights. Another key component is the heterogeneity of the relationships indicating that pooling findings across groups is suboptimal, and that data collection will need to be done on longer time scales to allow for individualization of potential seizure-forecasting algorithms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Foreign accent syndrome (FAS is a rare speech disorder characterized by the appearance of a new accent, different from the speaker's native language and perceived as foreign by the speaker and the listener. In most of the reported cases, FAS follows stroke but has also been found following traumatic brain injury, cerebral haemorrhage and multiple sclerosis. In very few cases, FAS was reported in patients presenting with psychiatric disorders but the link between this condition and FAS was confirmed in only one case. Case presentation In this report, we present the case of FG, a bipolar patient presenting with language disorders characterized by a foreign accent and agrammatism, initially categorized as being of psychogenic origin. The patient had an extensive neuropsychological and language evaluation as well as brain imaging exams. In addition to FAS and agrammatism, FG also showed a working memory deficit and executive dysfunction. Moreover, these clinical signs were related to altered cerebral activity on an FDG-PET scan that showed diffuse hypometabolism in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes bilaterally as well as a focal deficit in the area of the anterior left temporal lobe. When compared to the MRI, these deficits were related to asymmetric atrophy, which was retrospectively seen in the left temporal and frontal opercular/insular region without a focal lesion. Discussion To our knowledge, FG is the first case of FAS imaged with an 18F-FDG-PET scan. The nature and type of neuropsychological and linguistic deficits, supported by neuroimaging data, exclude a neurotoxic or neurodegenerative origin for this patient's clinical manifestations. For similar reasons, a psychogenic etiology is also highly improbable. Conclusion To account for the FAS and agrammatism in FG, various explanations have been ruled out. Because of the focal deficit seen on the brain imaging, involving the left insular and anterior temporal cortex
Wu, Adela; Weingart, Jon D; Gallia, Gary L; Lim, Michael; Brem, Henry; Bettegowda, Chetan; Chaichana, Kaisorn L
Metastatic brain tumors are the most common brain tumors in adults. Patients with metastatic brain tumors have poor prognoses with median survival of 6-12 months. Seizures are a major presenting symptom and cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, risk factors for the onset of preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control are examined. Adult patients who underwent resection of one or more brain metastases at a single institution between 1998 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Of 565 patients, 114 (20.2%) patients presented with seizures. Factors independently associated with preoperative seizures were preoperative headaches (P = 0.044), cognitive deficits (P = 0.031), more than 2 intracranial metastatic tumors (P = 0.013), temporal lobe location (P = 0.031), occipital lobe location (P = 0.010), and bone involvement by tumor (P = 0.029). Factors independently associated with loss of seizure control after surgical resection were preoperative seizures (P = 0.001), temporal lobe location (P = 0.037), lack of postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.010), subtotal resection of tumor (P = 0.022), and local recurrence (P = 0.027). At last follow-up, the majority of patients (93.8%) were seizure-free. Thirty patients (5.30%) in total had loss of seizure control, and only 8 patients (1.41%) who did not have preoperative seizures presented with new-onset seizures after surgical resection of their metastases. The brain is a common site for metastases from numerous primary cancers, such as breast and lung. The identification of factors associated with onset of preoperative seizures as well as seizure control postoperatively could aid management strategies for patients with metastatic brain tumors. Patients with preoperative seizures who underwent resection tended to have good seizure control after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liang, Sheng-Fu; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Chang, Da-Wei; Young, Chung-Ping; Chiueh, Herming
In this paper numerous alternative treatments in addition to pharmacological therapy are proposed for their use in epileptic patients. Epileptic animal models can play a crucial role in the performance evaluation of new therapeutic techniques. The objective of this research is to first develop various epileptic rat models; second, develop a portable wireless closed-loop seizure controller including on-line seizure detection and real-time electrical stimulation for seizure elimination; and third, apply the developed seizure controller to the animal models to perform on-line seizure elimination. The closed-loop seizure controller was applied to three Long-Evans rats with spontaneous spike-wave discharges (non-convulsive) and three Long-Evans rats with epileptiform activities induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection (convulsive) for evaluation. The seizure detection accuracy is greater than 92% (up to 99%), and averaged seizure detection latency is less than 0.6 s for both spontaneous non-convulsive and PTZ-induced convulsive seizures. The average false stimulation rate is 3.1%. Near 30% of PTZ-induced convulsive seizures need more than two times of 0.5 s electrical stimulation for suppression and 90% of the non-convulsive seizures can be suppressed by only one 0.5 s electrical stimulation.
Osorio, Ivan; Manly, B F J
Heart rate-based seizure detection is a viable complement or alternative to ECoG/EEG. This study investigates the role of various biological factors on the probability of clinical seizure detection using heart rate. Regression models were applied to 266 clinical seizures recorded from 72 subjects to investigate if factors such as age, gender, years with epilepsy, etiology, seizure site origin, seizure class, and data collection centers, among others, shape the probability of EKG-based seizure detection. Clinical seizure detection probability based on heart rate changes, is significantly (pprobability of detecting clinical seizures (>0.8 in the majority of subjects) using heart rate is highest for complex partial seizures, increases with a patient's years with epilepsy, is lower for females than for males and is unrelated to the side of hemisphere origin. Clinical seizure detection probability using heart rate is multi-factorially dependent and sufficiently high (>0.8) in most cases to be clinically useful. Knowledge of the role that these factors play in shaping said probability will enhance its applicability and usefulness. Heart rate is a reliable and practical signal for extra-cerebral detection of clinical seizures originating from or spreading to central autonomic network structures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Battaglia, D; Lettori, D; Contaldo, I; Veredice, C; Sacco, A; Vasco, J; Martinelli, D; Chieffo, D; Tartaglione, T; Colosimo, C; Di Rocco, C; Guzzetta, F
The aim of the study was to analyse the semiology of seizures in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and to compare them with other paediatric cohorts described in the literature as well as with adult counterparts. We analysed 174 registered seizures of 18 cases under 12 years with lesional epilepsy whose frontal origin was defined by the concordance of neuroimaging and ictal electrographic findings, and confirmed by surgery in the six cases operated on. Seizures were generally short, with a high daily frequency and usually related to sleep. The most characteristic semiological pattern consisted of complex motor seizures, particularly hypermotor. Often seizures corresponded to a mixture of different semiological patterns (tonic, gelastic, automotor, hypermotor, versive) presenting in the same seizure, often as a unique type in the same patient. With regard to several aspects the semiology of FLE in our cohort looks like that reported in adult series, in particular as to the frequency of complex motor seizures. However, our cohort was also characterised by a more protean array of seizure semiology, stressing the occurrence of seizures typically present in adults (versive and complex motor) and of some seizure patterns more characteristic in children such as epileptic spasms; moreover, the rare occurrence of secondarily generalised tonic clonic seizures (SGTCS) was confirmed.
El Nekidy, Wasim; Dziamarski, Nicole; Soong, Derrick; Donaldson, Christine; Ibrahim, Muhieldean; Kadri, Albert
We are reporting a cloxacillin-induced seizure in a patient with stage 5 chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of seizures induced by parenteral cloxacillin in hemodialysis patients. A young hemodialysis female was admitted to the hospital with decreased level of consciousness. Blood cultures revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus where cloxacillin 2 g intravenously every 4 hours was initiated. Head computed tomography (CT) was not significant. After 14 hours of cloxacillin therapy (4 doses), the patient demonstrated tonic/clonic seizure activity, where phenytoin and lorazepam were initiated. The anti-seizure medications partially reduced seizure activity. Once the cloxacillin was discontinued, the seizures stopped. Two weeks later, all anti-seizure medications were stopped with no further seizure activity. Cloxacillin elimination in hemodialysis patients is similar to patients with normal kidney function. Although cloxacillin does not significantly cross the blood-brain barrier, the correlation between the start of seizures and cloxacillin initiation was confirmed by the negative CT and blood chemistry laboratory results. Moreover, seizure activity was terminated upon discontinuation of cloxacillin. Although further investigation for the cause of such seizures is warranted, clinicians should use caution when giving high doses of cloxacillin in hemodialysis patients. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.
Johanson, Mirja; Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Wedlund, Jan-Eric
A new content analysis method for systematically describing the phenomenology of subjective experiences in connection with partial epileptic seizures is described. Forty patients provided 262 descriptions of subjective experience relative to their partial epileptic seizures. The results revealed that subjective experiences during seizures consist mostly of sensory and bodily sensations, hallucinatory experiences, and thinking. The majority of subjective experiences during seizures are bizarre and distorted; nevertheless, the patients are able to engage in adequate behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for which detailed subjective seizure descriptions were collected immediately after each seizure and the first study in which the content of verbal reports of subjective experiences during seizures, including both the ictal and postictal experiences, has been analyzed in detail.
A. K. Sen
Full Text Available Using wavelet analysis we have detected the presence of chirps in seizure EEG signals recorded from kindled epileptic rats. Seizures were induced by electrical stimulation of the amygdala and the EEG signals recorded from the amygdala were analyzed using a continuous wavelet transform. A time–frequency representation of the wavelet power spectrum revealed that during seizure the EEG signal is characterized by a chirp-like waveform whose frequency changes with time from the onset of seizure to its completion. Similar chirp-like time–frequency profiles have been observed in newborn and adult patients undergoing epileptic seizures. The global wavelet spectrum depicting the variation of power with frequency showed two dominant frequencies with the largest amounts of power during seizure. Our results indicate that a kindling paradigm in rats can be used as an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy to detect seizures by identifying chirp-like time–frequency variations in the EEG signal.
Full Text Available Introduction: Seizure occurs in up to 10% of the population, whereas epilepsy is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent seizures that may affect up to 2% of the population. Modern neuroimaging is useful in diagnosis of abnormalities underlying the epilepsies, but the information provided by imaging techniques can also contribute to proper classification of certain epileptic disorders and can delineate the genetics of some underlying syndromes. Neuroimaging is even more important for those patients who have medically intractable seizures. This study was carried out to establish different etiologies of seizures, to correlate the clinical data and radiological findings in cases of seizure, and to identify the common etiologies in different types of seizures. Methods: This was a retrospective hospital-based study conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis of Lumbini Medical College Teaching Hospital. Records of patients of past two years, admitted in any department of the hospital with history of seizure disorder and underwent a Computed Tomography (CT of brain were included. The CT patterns were assessed and the data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: There were a total of 480 cases out of which 263 (55% were male and 217 (45% were female with M:F ratio of 1.2:1. Generalized seizure was more frequent than partial seizure in both gender. In 274 cases of generalized seizures, CT scan findings were abnormal in 151 cases and normal finding observed in 123 cases. In 206 cases of partial seizures, 125 cases were abnormal and 81 having normal CT scan findings. Age wise distribution showed highest number (n=218 of cases in young group (60 yr. The most common cause of seizure was calcified granuloma (n=79, 16.5% followed by neurocysticercosis (NCC, n=64, 13%. Diffuse cerebral edema, sub-arachnoid hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus was seen only in lower age group particularly among 1-20 years. Infarct and diffuse cortical
Full Text Available A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, L3: English woman with a 12 year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved towards a mostly fluent output, despite a stutter-like behavior and a marked grammatical output disorder. The psychogenic etiology of the accent foreignness was construed based upon the patient’s complex medical history, and psychodiagnostic, neuropsychological, and neurolinguistic assessments. The presence of a foreign accent was affirmed by a perceptual accent rating and attribution experiment. It is argued that this patient provides additional evidence demonstrating the outdatedness of Whitaker’s (1982 definition of Foreign Accent Syndrome, as only one of the four operational criteria was unequivocally applicable to our patient: her accent foreignness was not only recognized by her relatives and the medical staff, but also by a group of native French-speaking laymen. However, our patient defied the three remaining criteria, as central nervous system damage could not conclusively be demonstrated, psychodiagnostic assessment raised the hypothesis of a conversion disorder, and the patient was a polyglot whose newly gained accent was associated with a range of foreign languages, which exceeded the ones she spoke.
Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Mariën, Peter; Jonkers, Roel; Mavroudakis, Nicolas; Paquier, Philippe
A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, and L3: English) woman with a 12-year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved toward a mostly fluent output, despite a stutter-like behavior and a marked grammatical output disorder. The psychogenic etiology of the accent foreignness was construed based on the patient’s complex medical history and psychodiagnostic, neuropsychological, and neurolinguistic assessments. The presence of a foreign accent was affirmed by a perceptual accent rating and attribution experiment. It is argued that this patient provides additional evidence demonstrating the outdatedness of Whitaker’s (1982) definition of foreign accent syndrome, as only one of the four operational criteria was unequivocally applicable to our patient: her accent foreignness was not only recognized by her relatives and the medical staff but also by a group of native French-speaking laymen. However, our patient defied the three remaining criteria, as central nervous system damage could not conclusively be demonstrated, psychodiagnostic assessment raised the hypothesis of a conversion disorder, and the patient was a polyglot whose newly gained accent was associated with a range of foreign languages, which exceeded the ones she spoke. PMID:26973488
Chen, David K; Izadyar, Shahram; Collins, Robert L; Benge, Jared F; Lemaire, Ashley W; Hrachovy, Richard A
To evaluate whether certain preinduction clinical characteristics may influence the success rate of induction. We prospectively enrolled and attempted inductions on 51 patients who were suspected to have psychogenic nonepileptic events based on clinical grounds. In addition to careful examination of the reported ictal semiology, we administered a battery of four psychological instruments to our enrolled patients. We found that among 42 cases of successful induction, 92.9% (n=39) of these cases were successfully induced on the first attempt (i.e., without prior induction exposure). We observed that induction showed significantly higher rate of success in cases that demonstrate: (1) hypermotor ictal semiology (p=0.029); (2) more prevalent self-reporting of uncommon cognitive and affective symptoms (p=0.035); or (3) higher tendency to rely on coping strategies of "instrumental support" (p=0.013) and "active coping" (p=0.027), when compared to noninducible cases. Singular administration of placebo induction on preselected patients with these clinical characteristics may reduce costs by shortening video electroencephalography-(EEG) monitoring sessions and improve the diagnostic yield of video-EEG even for patients with very infrequent events. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.
Choquet, Christophe; Depret-Vassal, Jaqueline; Doumenc, Benoit; Sarnel, Sophie; Casalino, Enrique
To determine the frequency of early seizure recurrence (ESR) and to evaluate predictors of ESR among patients attending the Emergency Department (ED) for seizure. Prospective observational 12-month study in two Paris metropolitan area EDs including all consecutive adult patients presenting after one or more convulsive seizure episodes. Patients were classified into four groups: alcoholism (A), nonalcoholism (nA), new-onset seizure (NO), and past history of seizures (PS). ESR was defined as a seizure recurrence during the first 24 h after admission. A total of 1025 patients were enrolled. The groups were as follows: A-NO 176 patients (17.2%); A-PS 263 patients (25.6%); nA-NO 170 patients (16.6%); and nA-PS 416 patients (40.6%). Alcohol-related episodes involved 439 patients (42.8) with 346 NO seizures (33.7%). ESR rates were 16.3 and 18.6% at 6 and 24 h. Alcoholism, diagnostic group, age >or=40 years, glucose >or=5 and >or=8.5 mmol/l, and Glasgow Coma Scale 5 mmol/l, OR: 1.68 (95% CI: 1.37-2.1), >or=8.5 mmol/l, 2.83 (95% CI: 2.3-3.47), P=0.000001], and Glasgow Coma Scale [<15 OR: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.29-2.78); P=0.001] remained significantly associated on multivariate analysis. We constructed a predictive model from these data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 89.1, 27.4, 60.4, and 91.7%, respectively. ESR is common in the ED setting. Alcohol consumption, capillary glucose, and abnormal neurological examination on arrival at the ED are associated with increased risk of ESR.
Zwanenburg, Alex; Andriessen, Peter; Jellema, Reint K; Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Delhaas, Tammo
Seizures below one minute in duration are difficult to assess correctly using seizure detection algorithms. We aimed to improve neonatal detection algorithm performance for short seizures through the use of trend templates for seizure onset and end. Bipolar EEG were recorded within a transiently asphyxiated ovine model at 0.7 gestational age, a common experimental model for studying brain development in humans of 30-34 weeks of gestation. Transient asphyxia led to electrographic seizures within 6-8 h. A total of 3159 seizures, 2386 shorter than one minute, were annotated in 1976 h-long EEG recordings from 17 foetal lambs. To capture EEG characteristics, five features, sensitive to seizures, were calculated and used to derive trend information. Feature values and trend information were used as input for support vector machine classification and subsequently post-processed. Performance metrics, calculated after post-processing, were compared between analyses with and without employing trend information. Detector performance was assessed after five-fold cross-validation conducted ten times with random splits. The use of trend templates for seizure onset and end in a neonatal seizure detection algorithm significantly improves the correct detection of short seizures using two-channel EEG recordings from 54.3% (52.6-56.1) to 59.5% (58.5-59.9) at FDR 2.0 (median (range); p trend templates might therefore aid in detection of short seizures by EEG monitoring at the NICU.
Taran, Sachin; Bajaj, Varun; Siuly, Siuly
Epileptic seizure is the common neurological disorder, which is generally identified by electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this paper, a new feature extraction methodology based on optimum allocation sampling (OAS) and Teager energy operator (TEO) is proposed for detection of seizure EEG signals. The OAS scheme selects the finite length homogeneous sequence from non-homogeneous recorded EEG signal. The trend of selected sequence by OAS is still non-linear, which is analyzed by non-linear operator TEO. The TEO convert non-linear but homogenous EEG sequence into amplitude-frequency modulated (AM-FM) components. The statistical measures of AM-FM components used as input features to least squares support vector machine classifier for classification of seizure and seizure-free EEG signals. The proposed methodology is evaluated on a benchmark epileptic seizure EEG database. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme has capability to effectively distinguish seizure and seizure-free EEG signals.
Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G.; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng
A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures (“focal” in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the system’s dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems.
Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.
Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.
Taylor, Stephen; Smith, Catrin Tudur; Williamson, Paula R; Marson, Anthony G
Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2001. Worldwide, phenytoin and phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. They are more likely to be used in the developing world than the developed world, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarize data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone. Objectives To review the effects of phenobarbitone compared to phenytoin when used as monotherapy in patients with partial onset seizures or generalized tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalized seizure types. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group trials register (20 October 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2009) and MEDLINE (1950 to October week 2, 2009). In addition, we handsearched relevant journals, and contacted pharmaceutical companies and researchers in the field to seek any ongoing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Trials must have included a comparison of phenobarbitone monotherapy with phenytoin monotherapy. Data collection and analysis This was an individual patient data review. Outcomes were time to (a) withdrawal of allocated treatment, (b) 12-month remission and (c) first seizure post randomization. Data were analyzed using a stratified logrank analysis with results expressed as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), where a HR > 1 indicates an event is more likely to occur earlier on phenobarbitone than phenytoin. Main results To date, data have been obtained for four of ten studies meeting the inclusion criteria, amounting to 599 individuals, or approximately 65% of the potential data. The main overall results (HR) were (a) time to treatment withdrawal 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.14); (b) time to 12-month
Badawy, Mohamed K; Dayan, Peter S; Tunik, Michael G; Nadel, Frances M; Lillis, Kathleen A; Miskin, Michelle; Borgialli, Dominic A; Bachman, Michael C; Atabaki, Shireen M; Hoyle, John D; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan
Computed tomography (CT) is often used in the emergency department (ED) evaluation of children with posttraumatic seizures (PTS); however, the frequency of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and short-term seizure recurrence is lacking. Our main objective was to evaluate the frequency of TBIs on CT and short-term seizure recurrence in children with PTS. We also aimed to determine the associations between the likelihood of TBI on CT with the timing of onset of PTS after the traumatic event and duration of PTS. Finally, we aimed to determine whether patients with normal CT scans and normal neurological examinations are safe for discharge from the ED. This was a planned secondary analysis from a prospective observational cohort study to derive and validate a neuroimaging decision rule for children after blunt head trauma at 25 EDs in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. We evaluated children seizures within 1 week. Patients discharged from the ED were contacted by telephone 1 week to 3 months later. Of 42,424 children enrolled, 536 (1.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2%-1.4%) had PTS. A total of 466 of 536 (86.9%, 95% CI = 83.8%-89.7%) underwent CT in the ED. TBIs on CT were identified in 72 (15.5%, 95% CI = 12.3%-19.1%), of whom 20 (27.8%, 95% CI = 17.9%-39.6%) underwent neurosurgical intervention and 15 (20.8%, 95% CI = 12.2%-32.0%) had recurrent seizures. Of the 464 without TBIs on CT (or no CTs performed), 457 had recurrent seizure status known, and five (1.1%, 95 CI = 0.4%-2.5%) had recurrent seizures; four of five presented with Glasgow Coma Scale scores seizures. Those without TBIs on CT, however, are at low risk of short-term recurrent seizures, and none required neurosurgical interventions. Therefore, if CT-negative and neurologically normal, patients with PTS may be safely considered for discharge from the ED. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D
Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: 'cardiac arrhythmias' and 'epilepsy'. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Development of short-lived, self-limiting major epileptic seizures following an improper application of gammabenzene hexachloride (GBHC lotion in a 15 month old boy suffering from scabies with secondary bacterial infection is reported here due to its rarity in clinical practice and, more particularly, to stress the need of correct instructions on the use of GBHC application for the prevention of iatrogenic neurotoxicity.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review biological markers, their importance and usefulness in the diagnosis of epileptic seizure or epilepsy. Assessed are also their prognostic value, their use in the evaluation of antiepileptic therapy effect and some other useful properties. The article reviews prolactin, neuron specific enolase, S–100 protein, creatin kinase, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase, nesfatin–1, ghrelin, obestatin and chromogranin A. The authors stress the need for further research studies in this area.