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Sample records for psychoeducation exposure cognitive

  1. Elderly Individuals with Diabetes: Adding Cognitive Training to Psychoeducational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna Paulo, Debora Lee; Sanches Yassuda, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of a cognitive training program combined with psychoeducational intervention for diabetic elderly patients. Specifically, it aimed at assessing the effects of an eight-session cognitive training and educational program in diabetic elderly individuals and investigating changes in their awareness about…

  2. [Psychoeducation and cognitive remediation, which place in rehabilitation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Elie; Franck, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation techniques aim to reduce the functional impact of severe psychological disorders. The recent development of techniques aimed at the manifestations of the pathology, such as psychoeducation and cognitive remediation, raise questions about how they differ from standard therapies. Beyond their functional purpose, the consideration of the individual's current or future action potential, seems to constitute one of the key aspects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  4. Keep Your Brain Fit! A Psychoeducational Training Program for Healthy Cognitive Aging: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Jennifer; van Heugten, Caroline; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A psychoeducational face-to-face training program (Keep Your Brain Fit!) was developed to support the working population in coping with age-related cognitive changes and taking proactive preventive measures to maintain cognitive health. A feasibility study was conducted to test the training program presented in a workshop format. Participants…

  5. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Psychoeducational Group for Chinese People with Chronic Illnesses: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel F. K.; Ip, Priscilla S. Y.; Lee, Kim Man

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study attempted to examine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) psychoeducational group for Chinese people with chronic illness in Hong Kong. It adopted a single group design, and 52 participants joined the group. A questionnaire with three outcome measures, measuring general mental health, quality of life…

  6. The Effects of a Web-Based Interactive Psycho-Educational Program and a Traditional Psycho-Educational Program Based on Cognitive- Behavioral Approach upon Children’s Cognitive Distortions and Psychological Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    BUĞA, Ahmet; HAMAMCI, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the effects of a web-based interactive psycho-educational program and a traditional psycho-educational program based on the cognitive-behavioral approach upon children’s cognitive distortions and psychological symptoms. The study group of the research consisted of a total of 36 8th grade middle school students. Of the participants, 12 students participated in the web-based interactive psycho-educational program, 12 students participated in the tr...

  7. The Effects of a Web-Based Interactive Psycho-Educational Program and a Traditional Psycho-Educational Program Based on Cognitive- Behavioral Approach upon Children’s Cognitive Distortions and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BUĞA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to compare the effects of a web-based interactive psycho-educational program and a traditional psycho-educational program based on the cognitive-behavioral approach upon children’s cognitive distortions and psychological symptoms. The study group of the research consisted of a total of 36 8th grade middle school students. Of the participants, 12 students participated in the web-based interactive psycho-educational program, 12 students participated in the traditional psycho-educational program, and 12 students were in the control group. Children’s Negative Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CNCDQ, which was adapted into Turkish by Aydın (2006, and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI adapted for adolescents by Şahin, Batıgün and Uğurtaş (2002 were used as data collection tools. The students included in the web-based interactive psycho-educational program participated in an online program which covered 10 modules, one module for each week. The students in the traditional psycho-educational program participated in an 8-week program. The control group did not participate in any programs. A post-test was administered one week after the research was completed, and follow-up measurements were done both one month and three months later. The results of the research indicated that cognitive distortions of children who participated in the web-based interactive psycho-educational program and the traditional psycho-educational program decreased after the intervention, and that the decrease continued in the follow-up periods. Psychological symptoms decreased in the children who participated in the web-based interactive program, and this decrease lasted in follow-up periods. However, there was no statistical difference in psychological symptoms of the children who participated in the traditional psycho-educational program and the control group

  8. Utility of the Psychoeducational Profile-3 for Assessing Cognitive and Language Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Fulton, Mandy L.; D'Entremont, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The Psychoeducational Profile-3's (PEP-3) ability to estimate cognitive and language skills of 136 children (20-75 months) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) across a range of functioning, and the association between the PEP-3 and ASD symptomatology was examined using retrospective data. PEP-3 cognitive and language measures were positively…

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy: a psychoeducational treatment approach for the American worker with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskin, L F

    1998-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disorder affecting nearly 2.1 million Americans. This condition often leads to chronic pain, inflammation, joint destruction, feelings of helplessness, maladaptive coping, depression and activity limitations. For those individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic arthritic pain, the role of the worker has become difficult to maintain. Research suggests that cognitive-behavioral intervention reduces chronic arthritic pain, decreases disease activity and improves coping skills in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. To be effective, cognitive-behavioral techniques must be practiced on a regular basis. The literature suggests that the American worker with rheumatoid arthritis would greatly benefit from work-site wellness programs that provide cognitive-behavioral intervention as a 'reasonable accommodation'. Occupational therapy practitioners can help to advance the positive effects of this psychoeducational intervention by providing 'booster treatments' to clients after formal treatment sessions have ceased.

  10. Psychoeducational and Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Programs: Implementation and Evaluation From 1995 to 2015 in Kraepelin's Former Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Annette; Hippius, Hanns; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Falkai, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Programs that view individuals as capable of taking an active role in managing their illness have gained importance in Europe and the United States. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of group psychoeducational and cognitive behavioral treatment programs at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany, over the past 20 years. Implementing psychoeducational programs was the first step to establish cognitive behavioral psychotherapy and dispel the myth of schizophrenia for patients. Programs are also provided for patients with mood disorders, substance use disorders, or both. These groups include topics such as psychoeducation about the illness, establishing rewarding activities, stress management, cognitive therapy, and relapse prevention. More than 1000 patients with schizophrenia or mood disorders (380 schizophrenia, 563 major depression, and 110 bipolar) have participated in illness management groups to learn about their illness and its treatment, and to learn skills to manage their illness. Patients have expressed satisfaction with the programs, and research has supported their effectiveness. Individuals with severe disorders can benefit from psychoeducational and cognitive treatment programs if the programs are adapted to the level of neuropsychological functioning and compensate for cognitive deficits and emotional overload. These findings suggest that providing information about the illness and coping skills for patients and relatives are important for treatment outcome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Psychoeducational and Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Programs: Implementation and Evaluation From 1995 to 2015 in Kraepelin’s Former Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Annette; Hippius, Hanns; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Falkai, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Programs that view individuals as capable of taking an active role in managing their illness have gained importance in Europe and the United States. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of group psychoeducational and cognitive behavioral treatment programs at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany, over the past 20 years. Methods: Implementing psychoeducational programs was the first step to establish cognitive behavioral psychotherapy and dispel the myth of schizophrenia for patients. Programs are also provided for patients with mood disorders, substance use disorders, or both. These groups include topics such as psychoeducation about the illness, establishing rewarding activities, stress management, cognitive therapy, and relapse prevention. Results: More than 1000 patients with schizophrenia or mood disorders (380 schizophrenia, 563 major depression, and 110 bipolar) have participated in illness management groups to learn about their illness and its treatment, and to learn skills to manage their illness. Patients have expressed satisfaction with the programs, and research has supported their effectiveness. Conclusions: Individuals with severe disorders can benefit from psychoeducational and cognitive treatment programs if the programs are adapted to the level of neuropsychological functioning and compensate for cognitive deficits and emotional overload. These findings suggest that providing information about the illness and coping skills for patients and relatives are important for treatment outcome. PMID:27460621

  12. Psychoeducation for hypochondriasis : A comparison of a cognitive-behavioural approach and a problem-solving approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, Femke M.; Bouman, Theo. K.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Van der Duin, M.

    In this study, two 6-week psychoeducational courses for hypochondriasis are compared, one based on the cognitive-behavioural approach, and the other on the problem-solving approach. Effects of both courses on hypochondriacal complaints, depression, trait anxiety, and number of problems encountered

  13. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Psychoeducation Program, Which Aims to Reduce the Submissive Behaviors on the Interpersonal Sensitivity and Hostility

    OpenAIRE

    Anlı, Gazanfer; Şar, Ali Haydar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the cognitive behavioral psychoeducation program, which aims to reduce the submissive behaviors on the interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. The research was carried out with high school students studying at 12th class of Ümraniye Merkez Anadolu high school, located in Istanbul during 2014/2015 academic year. Submissive Acts Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory were used for selecting the experimental objects. 24 students who met the inclu...

  14. Utility of the Psychoeducational Profile-3 for assessing cognitive and language skills of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Mandy L; D'Entremont, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    The Psychoeducational Profile-3's (PEP-3) ability to estimate cognitive and language skills of 136 children (20-75 months) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) across a range of functioning, and the association between the PEP-3 and ASD symptomatology was examined using retrospective data. PEP-3 cognitive and language measures were positively correlated with similar measures on the Child Development Inventory, the Merrill-Palmer Revised, and the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale-2. The PEP-3 sometimes provided higher or lower estimates than other measures. Significant differences were found between diagnostic groups on PEP-3 cognitive and language measures. PEP-3 cognitive scores correlated positively with scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Findings support the use of the PEP-3 to measure cognition and language in children with ASDs.

  15. A Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Psychoeducational Group Manual for Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Abigail; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on problem gambling in adults and includes a detailed mindfulness-based psychoeducational group manual for problem gambling, complete with an extensive group counselling consent form, assessment and screening protocols, 10 user-friendly lesson plans, templates for a…

  16. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy v. group psychoeducation for people with generalised anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Yip, Benjamin Hon Kei; Mak, Winnie Wing Sze; Mercer, Stewart; Cheung, Eliza Yee Lai; Ling, Candy Yuet Man; Lui, Wacy Wai Sze; Tang, Wai Kwong; Lo, Herman Hay Ming; Wu, Justin Che Yuen; Lee, Tatia Mei Chun; Gao, Ting; Griffiths, Sian M; Chan, Peter Hoi Sing; Ma, Helen Shuk Wah

    2016-07-01

    Research suggests that an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) course may be effective for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). To compare changes in anxiety levels among participants with GAD randomly assigned to MBCT, cognitive-behavioural therapy-based psychoeducation and usual care. In total, 182 participants with GAD were recruited (trial registration number: CUHK_CCT00267) and assigned to the three groups and followed for 5 months after baseline assessment with the two intervention groups followed for an additional 6 months. Primary outcomes were anxiety and worry levels. Linear mixed models demonstrated significant group × time interaction (F(4,148) = 5.10, P = 0.001) effects for decreased anxiety for both the intervention groups relative to usual care. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for worry and depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life for the psychoeducation group only. These results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  17. "Keep your brain fit!" Effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention on cognitive functioning in healthy adults: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Jennifer S A M; Geusgens, Chantal A V; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; van Boxtel, Martin P J

    2017-06-01

    A psychoeducational intervention (Keep your brain fit!) was designed for the middle-aged and older working population. The intervention focuses on increasing knowledge and awareness about cognitive ageing and teaching strategies to cope with cognitive changes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the e-health intervention in terms of subjective cognitive functioning. As secondary aims, objective cognitive functioning and psychological well-being were also measured. A randomised controlled trial that included people aged 40 to 65 years was conducted. A maximum of 4 weeks was allowed to complete the intervention. The outcome measures were obtained from an online test battery that was administered at baseline, post-test and at 4-week follow-up. A total of 376 participants completed the whole study. After the intervention, the experimental group reported more feelings of stability concerning memory functioning and perceived greater locus of control over memory compared to the control group. These effects were maintained at the 4-week follow-up. Taking into account the relatively low costs and easy accessibility of this e-health intervention, we consider the programme to be a valuable contribution to public healthcare interventions for middle-aged and older adults.

  18. Family-focused cognitive behaviour therapy versus psycho-education for adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: long-term follow-up of an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Samantha; Chalder, Trudie; Rimes, Katharine A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long term efficacy of family-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) compared with psycho-education in improving school attendance and other secondary outcomes in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). A 24 month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial was carried out. Participants received either 13 one-hour sessions of family-focused CBT or four one-hour sessions of psycho-education. Forty-four participants took part in the follow-up study. The proportion of participants reporting at least 70% school attendance (the primary outcome) at 24 months was 90% in CBT group and 84% in psycho-education group; the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (OR = 1.29, p = 0.80). The proportion of adolescents who had recovered in the family-focused CBT group was 79% compared with 64% in the psycho-education, according to a definition including fatigue and school attendance. This difference was not statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.34). Family-focused CBT was associated with significantly better emotional and behavioural adjustment at 24 month follow-up compared to psycho-education, as reported by both adolescents (F = 6.49, p = 0.02) and parents (F = 4.52, P = 0.04). Impairment significantly decreased in both groups between six and 24 month follow-ups, with no significant group difference in improvement over this period. Gains previously observed for other secondary outcomes at six month follow-up were maintained at 24 month follow-up with no further significant improvement or group differences in improvement. In conclusion, gains achieved by adolescents with CFS who had undertaken family-focused CBT and psycho-education generally continued or were maintained at two-year follow-up. The exception was that family-focused CBT was associated with maintained improvements in emotional and behavioural difficulties whereas psycho-education was associated with

  19. A Comparison of Narrative Exposure Therapy, Supportive Counseling, and Psychoeducation for Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in an African Refugee Settlement

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    Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Margarete; Klaschik, Christine; Karunakara, Unni; Elbert, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the usefulness of psychotherapeutic approaches for traumatized refugees who continue to live in dangerous conditions. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is a short-term approach based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and testimony therapy. The efficacy of narrative exposure therapy was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.…

  20. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy versus psychoeducation control for illness anxiety disorder and somatic symptom disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jill M; Smith, Jessica; Uppal, Shivani; Mason, Elizabeth; Mahoney, Alison E J; Andrews, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of an Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) program for health anxiety compared to an active psychoeducation control group. Individuals (N = 86, mean age: 30 years, 87% female) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) diagnosis of illness anxiety disorder or somatic symptom disorder with health anxiety were randomized to either a 6-lesson clinician-guided iCBT program for health anxiety (n = 45) or an active control group who received anxiety psychoeducation, clinical support, and monitoring (control, n = 41) over a 12-week period. Both groups experienced significant improvements between baseline and posttreatment on self-report measures of health anxiety, depression, general anxiety, and functional impairment. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that the iCBT group experienced greater improvements in health anxiety on the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) compared to controls (between-groups effect size = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [0.87, 1.93]), and a greater proportion of the iCBT group showed clinically reliable change on the SHAI (84% vs. 34% in the control group). Similarly, the iCBT group outperformed the control group on secondary measures of depression, generalized anxiety, functional impairment, maladaptive cognitions, body hypervigilance, safety behaviors and avoidance, and intolerance of uncertainty. Gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up in the iCBT group. iCBT for health anxiety is more effective than psychoeducation, clinical support, and monitoring, and presents an efficacious and accessible treatment option for people with health anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cognitive symptoms and welding fume exposure.

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    Ross, John A S; Macdiarmid, Jennifer I; Semple, Sean; Watt, Stephen J; Moir, Gill; Henderson, George

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of moderate to severe cognitive symptoms is markedly higher in UK professional divers who have also worked as a welder (28%) than in either divers who have not welded (18%) or offshore workers who have worked neither as a diver nor as a welder (6%). To determine whether cognitive symptoms are related to welding fume exposure or diving. Three age-matched groups of male workers were studied using postal questionnaire: professional divers who had worked as a welder (PDW, n = 361), professional welders who had not dived (NDW, n = 352), and offshore oil field workers who had neither dived nor welded (NDNW, n =503). Health-related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form 12 questionnaire (SF12). Cognitive symptomatology was assessed using the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). A single variable for welding fume exposure (mg m(-3) days) was calculated, incorporating welding experience in different environments and using different welding techniques and respiratory protective equipment. The level of fume exposure during hyperbaric welding operations was measured during such work as ambient PM(10) (particles of 10 µm or less). Diving exposure was assessed as the number of dives performed plus the number of days spent working during saturation diving. Questionnaires were returned by 153 PDW, 108 NDW, and 252 NDNW. SF12 scores were the same in all groups and fell within normative values. Mean (95% CI) CFQ scores were higher in PDW [40.3 (37.7-42.9)] than in both NDW [34.6 (31.6-37.7)] and NDNW [32.1 (30.4-33.9)], but the scores in no groups fell outside the normative range. The mean PM(10) exposure during hyperbaric welding operations was 2.58 mg m(-3). The geometric mean mg m(-3) days (95% CI) for welding fume exposure in NDW [33 128 (24 625-44 567) n = 85] was higher than for that in PDW [10 904 (8103-14 673) n = 112]. For PDW the geometric mean (95% CI) diving exposure was 1491 [(1192-1866) n = 94] dives and days in saturation. In the general linear

  2. [Psychoeducation in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Ospina, Juan Pablo; Rangel Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio; García Valencia, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of schizophrenia includes the use of psychotropic drugs, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions that include psychoeducation. This strategy has been defined as the delivery of information about the disorder and its treatment in a systematic and structured way. To review the literature on the efficacy of psychoeducation in schizophrenia. A search in PubMed, SciELO, EMBASE and PsycINFO was made with the terms "psychoeducation", "schizophrenia" and "psychosocial intervention". Articles in Spanish and English language were reviewed. Psychoeducation can be applied to patients, family or both, and individually or in groups. The number of sessions can vary. There have been many studies that seek to determine the efficacy of psychoeducation in the clinical course, family dynamics and stigma, with results that favor its implementation, but so far it has not been possible to determine exactly how best to apply psychoeducation, mainly because of the great variability of designs. The studies on psychoeducation have shown efficacy. However, this might be an overestimation, as there is a high risk of bias. Consequently, there is not enough evidence. At least for now, it is reasonable to complement pharmacotherapy with psycoeducation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. A Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Psycho-Education (B-CBE Program for Managing Stress and Anxiety of Main Family Caregivers of Patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vico Chung Lim Chiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Having a loved one in the intensive care unit (ICU is a stressful event, which may cause a high level of anxiety to the family members. This could threaten their wellbeing and ability to support the patients in, or after discharge from, the ICU. To investigate the outcomes of a brief cognitive-behavioral psycho-education program (B-CBE to manage stress and anxiety of the main family caregivers (MFCs, a pragmatic quasi-experimental study involving 45 participants (treatment group: 24; control group: 21 was conducted in an ICU. The Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale and the Critical Care Family Need Inventory were used to evaluate the primary outcomes on stress and anxiety, and satisfaction with family needs. The treatment group reported significantly better improvement in the information satisfaction score compared to the control group (p < 0.05; η2 = 0.09. Overall main effects were observed on the stress (p < 0.01; η2 = 0.20, anxiety (p < 0.01; η2 = 0.18, depression (p < 0.05; η2 = 0.13, support satisfaction (p < 0.05; η2 = 0.13, and comfort satisfaction (p < 0.05; η2 = 0.11 scores. The experience of this study suggest that MFCs are in great need of additional support like B-CBE to manage their stress and anxiety. Given the brevity of B-CBE, it is practical for critical care nurses to deliver and MFCs to take within the industrious context of an ICU. More studies are needed to investigate these types of brief psychological interventions.

  4. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Merinder, Lars Bertil; Belgamwar, Madhvi R

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia can be a severe and chronic illness characterised by lack of insight and poor compliance with treatment. Psychoeducational approaches have been developed to increase patients’ knowledge of, and insight into, their illness and its treatment. It is supposed that this increased knowledge and insight will enable people with schizophrenia to cope in a more effective way with their illness, thereby improving prognosis. Objectives To assess the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared with standard levels of knowledge provision. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2010). We updated this search November 2012 and added 27 new trials to the awaiting assessment section. Selection criteria All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducation for schizophrenia and/or related serious mental illnesses involving individuals or groups. We excluded quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors extracted data independently from included papers. We contacted authors of trials for additional and missing data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data. We used a fixed-effects model for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Where possible we also calculated the numbers needed to treat (NNT), as well as weighted means for continuous data. Main results This review includes a total of 5142 participants (mostly inpatients) from 44 trials conducted between 1988 and 2009 (median study duration ~ 12 weeks, risk of bias - moderate). We found that incidences of non-compliance were lower in the psychoeducation group in the short term (n = 1400, RR 0.52 CI 0.40 to 0.67, NNT 11 CI 9 to 16). This finding holds for the medium and long term. Relapse appeared to be lower in psychoeducation group (n = 1214, RR 0.70 CI 0.61 to 0.81, NNT 9 CI 7 to 14) and this also applied to readmission (n = 206, RR 0.71 CI 0.56 to 0

  5. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. A single-case experimental design across 13 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Katja; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Edebol-Carlman, Hanna; Schrooten, Martien; Linton, Steven J; Brummer, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder with a significant impact on quality of life. The presence of psychological symptoms in IBS patients such as catastrophic worry and behavioral avoidance suggests the possible efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be a promising approach but has only been investigated in a few studies and mainly via the Internet. Therefore, the aims of this study were to extend and replicate previous findings and to evaluate whether an individual, face-to-face, exposure-based CBT leads to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life in IBS patients. Thirteen patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria participated in a single-case experimental study using a five-week baseline and a subsequent twelve-session intervention phase focusing on psycho-education, mindfulness and in vivo exposure. Standardized measurement of gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life was conducted weekly during baseline as well as intervention phase and at six-month follow-up. Results showed that over 70% of patients improved significantly on gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and quality of life. Effects on avoidance behavior were modest. These results strengthen and extend earlier findings and provide further support for the efficacy of exposure-based strategies for IBS.

  6. Effects of a program of cognitive-behavioural group therapy, vestibular rehabilitation, and psychoeducational explanations on patients with dizziness and no quantified balance deficit, compared to patients with dizziness and a quantified balance deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D A; Allum, J H J; Sleptsova, M; Gross, S; Gaab, J; Welge-Lüssen, A; Schaefert, R; Langewitz, W

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether a program combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), vestibular rehabilitation (VR) and psychoeducation is equally effective in improving psychometric measures in patients with dizziness independent of a balance deficit. Measures of patients with dizziness only (DO) were compared to those of patients also having a quantified balance deficit (QBD). 32 patients (23 female, 9 male) with persistent dizziness were analysed as 2 groups based on stance and gait balance control: those with QBD (pathological balance) or DO (normal balance). Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) questionnaires were used pre- and post-therapy to assess psychometric measures. Patients then received the same combination therapy in a group setting. The QBD group mean age was 60.6, SD 8.3, and DO group mean age 44.8, SD 12.1, years. Pre-therapy, questionnaire scores were pathological but not different between groups. Balance improved significantly for the QBD group (p=0.003) but not for the DO group. DHI and BSI scores improved significantly in the DO group (0.001VR, and psychoeducation improves psychological measures in DO patients but not significantly in QBD patients, despite their balance control improving to near normal. Possibly, greater focus on phobic anxiety during the group therapy program would have improved psychological measures of QBD patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk of impaired cognition after prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Morten; Mathiasen, Rene; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs may affect the trajectories of brain development. In a register study, we investigated whether such exposure is associated with long-term impaired cognitive abilities. METHOD: Individuals born in Denmark in 1995-2008 were included. As proxies...... of a neurological/mental disorder after prenatal exposure to psychoanaleptics (primarily antidepressants) (OR: 1.86[1.24-2.78). CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs affects proxy outcomes of cognitive disabilities at school age. Exposure to psycholeptics carries the largest risk. The role...

  8. Transportation noise exposure and children's health and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, E.E.M.M. van

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effects of transportation noise on children. Children are suspected of being more susceptible to noise exposure. There is a lack of source-specific exposure-response relations describing the association between noise exposure and specific health and cognitive outcomes in

  9. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0

  10. A Psychoeducational School-Based Group Intervention for Socially Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Damer, Diana E.; Mellou, Angeliki; Mitropoulou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational group for social anxiety aimed at elementary children. An 8-week psychoeducational program based on empirically validated risk factors was designed. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, anxiety management techniques, and social skills training. Pre-and posttest data from 3 groups…

  11. The building blocks of treatment in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a set of treatments that focus on altering thoughts, sensations, emotions and behaviors by addressing identified maintenance mechanisms such as distorted thinking or avoidance. The current article describes the history of CBT and provides a description of many of the basic techniques used in CBT. These include: psychoeducation, self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, in vivo exposure, imaginal exposure, and homework assignments.

  12. Balneotherapy Together with a Psychoeducation Program for Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: A Feasibility Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Maricourt, P; Gorwood, P; Hergueta, Th; Galinowski, A; Salamon, R; Diallo, A; Vaugeois, C; Lépine, J. P; Olié, J. P; Dubois, O

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the impact of a program including cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation, and balneotherapy in a spa resort to facilitate long-term...

  13. Predicting the effect of psychoeducational group treatment for hypochondriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.M.; Bouman, T.K.

    2008-01-01

    Both individual cognitive-behavioural therapy and short-term psychoeducational courses have shown to be effective in reducing hypochondriacal complaints. However, it is unknown which patients benefit from treatment. The aim of the present study is to explore which variables predict treatment outcome

  14. Cognitive Behaviors During Three Exposures to an Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini-Campbell, Lisa; Moore, Jeff

    The advertising copy for a product was manipulated along two structural dimensions (inside/outside product attributes, and before/after consequences of using product) to refine the concept of exposure in advertising research and to test a method of observing cognitive behavior while people are attending (exposed) to the media. The 78 participants…

  15. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  16. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, V. E.; Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Lam, C. W.; Young, M.; Satish, U.; Basner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) originates from human metabolism and typically remains about 10-fold higher in concentration on the International Space Station (ISS) than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the ISS that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control CO2 below 3 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached, and there is evidence that CO2 has effects at levels below the threshold for headaches. This concern appears to be substantiated in reports that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. Therefore, we set out to determine if decision-making under volatile, uncertain, confusing and ambiguous circumstances, where feedback is delayed or absent, is correlated with low levels of CO2 during acute exposures (several hours) in crew-like subjects and to determine if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at, or below, current ISS levels by using a test battery that is currently available onboard ISS. We enrolled 22 volunteers (8 females, 14 males) between the ages of 30-55 (38.8 +/- 7.0) years whose training and professional experience reflect that of the astronaut corps. Subjects were divided among 4 study

  17. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Taber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc and cognitive test battery (CTB performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature. Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance.

  18. High altitude exposure impairs sleep patterns, mood, and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-09-01

    This work evaluated the importance of sleep on mood and cognition after 24 h of exposure to hypoxia. Ten males, aged 23-30 years, were placed in a normobaric chamber simulating an altitude of 4,500 m. Sleep assessments were conducted from 22:00-6:00; all mood and cognitive assessments were performed 20 min after awakening. The assessments were conducted in normoxic conditions and after 24 h of hypoxia. Sleep was reevaluated 14 h after the start of exposure to hypoxic conditions, and mood state and cognitive functions were reevaluated 24 h after the start of exposure to hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia reduced total sleep time, sleep efficiency, slow-wave sleep, and rapid eye movement. Depressive mood, anger, and fatigue increased under hypoxic conditions. Vigor, attention, visual and working memory, concentration, executive functions, inhibitory control, and speed of mental processing worsened. Changes in sleep patterns can modulate mood and cognition after 24 h. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Cognitive, psychological and psychiatric effects of ionizing radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, D; Baroni, S; Catena-Dell'Osso, M; Schiavi, E; Ceresoli, D; Conversano, C; Dell'Osso, L; Picano, E

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure leads to an increased risk for cancer and, possibly, additional ill-defined non-cancer risk, including atherosclerotic, cardiovascular, cerebro-vascular and neurodegenerative effects. Studies of brain irradiation in animals and humans provide evidence of apoptosis, neuro-inflammation, loss of oligo-dendrocytes precursors and myelin sheaths, and irreversible damage to the neural stem compartment with long-term impairment of adult neurogenesis. With the present paper we aim to present a comprehensive review on brain effects of radiation exposure, with a special focus on its impact on cognitive processes and psychological functions, as well as on their possible role in the pathophysiology of different psychiatric disorders.

  20. Cognitive Effects of Air Pollution Exposures and Potential Mechanistic Underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J L; Klocke, C; Morris-Schaffer, K; Conrad, K; Sobolewski, M; Cory-Slechta, D A

    2017-06-01

    This review sought to address the potential for air pollutants to impair cognition and mechanisms by which that might occur. Air pollution has been associated with deficits in cognitive functions across a wide range of epidemiological studies, both with developmental and adult exposures. Studies in animal models are significantly more limited in number, with somewhat inconsistent findings to date for measures of learning, but show more consistent impairments for short-term memory. Potential contributory mechanisms include oxidative stress/inflammation, altered levels of dopamine and/or glutamate, and changes in synaptic plasticity/structure. Epidemiological studies are consistent with adverse effects of air pollutants on cognition, but additional studies and better phenotypic characterization are needed for animal models, including more precise delineation of specific components of cognition that are affected, as well as definitions of critical exposure periods for such effects and the components of air pollution responsible. This would permit development of more circumscribed hypotheses as to potential behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms.

  1. Psychoeducation Interventions in Families of Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies in expressed emotions allowed establishing a pattern in educational and psychoeducative interventions within the families of schizophrenic patients. In this paper, the author synthesises his research developed in expressed emotions of the chronic patient's relatives. The author refers the importance of the relative's cognitive variables about mental representation of the patient and his disease. These variables are studied through the attributions made about the patient's personality and causes of disease. Other cognitive variables are analysed, relying to the conceptualisation in family psycho educative intervention, such as, transactional games, family conflicts and parental relationship style. The evaluation of the relatives and families is considered as being part of the process of family psycho-educative intervention.

  2. Family psychoeducation for affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine the evidence of family psychoeducation (FPE) for affective disorders. Evidence indicates that FPE can be an effective supplement to the standard treatment of patients with affective disorders. FPE can effectively reduce the patients' risk of relapse and reduce...

  3. Are exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapies safe during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Dimidjian, Sona; Chessick, Cheryl

    2012-12-01

    Anxiety disorders during pregnancy are highly prevalent and associated with serious and enduring consequences for both mother and child. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral (CBT) and behavioral therapies (BT) represent the most empirically supported psychosocial treatments for anxiety disorders in general adult samples. Pregnant women, however, generally have been excluded from this body of research. Evidence that pregnant women inhabit a unique biological context combined with untested assumptions that exposure would unduly stress or harm the fetus have likely prohibited inquiry. This paper seeks to remedy this gap by integrating findings from obstetric, psychiatric, and psychological research to inform central questions regarding exposure-based treatment of anxiety disorders during pregnancy. Based on available evidence, we consider the potential risks and benefits of CBT/BT for anxiety disorders during pregnancy relative to other currently available treatment options. From a multidisciplinary research perspective, we argue that exposure-based therapies are likely to be safe during pregnancy, particularly relative to the alternatives. However, we also highlight critical questions for future research to directly test the biopsychological impact of exposure-based therapies among pregnant women.

  4. Exposure to Mozart music reduces cognitive impairment in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Yingshou; Qin, Yi; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Wang, Yanran; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    .... Here we evaluated spatial cognition changes at different epileptogenesis stages in rats of this model and explored the effects of long-term Mozart music exposure on the recovery of cognitive ability...

  5. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, ADHD, and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Diana M.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure often meet criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD research has examined subtype differences in symptomology, including sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT). This construct is defined by behavioral symptoms including, hypoactivity and daydreaming, and has been linked to increased internalizing behaviors. The current study examined if similar findings are displayed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods As part of a multisite study, caregivers of 272 children (8–16y) completed the SCT scale and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Four groups were included: alcohol-exposed children with ADHD (ALC+; n=75), alcohol-exposed children without ADHD (ALC−; n=35), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD; n=60), and non-exposed children without ADHD (CON; n=102). SCT and CBCL scores were analyzed using 2 (exposure) × 2 (ADHD) ANOVAs. Pearson correlations measured the relations between SCT, CBCL, and FSIQ. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) examined if SCT items could accurately classify groups. Results Analyses revealed significant main effects of Exposure and ADHD on SCT, internalizing, and externalizing scores, and significant interaction effects on SCT and internalizing scores. SCT significantly correlated with internalizing, externalizing, and attention ratings in all groups and with FSIQ in ALC+. DFA indicated that specific SCT items could distinguish ALC− from CON. Conclusions Alcohol-exposed children exhibited elevated SCT scores. Elevations were related to increased parent ratings of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and attention. These findings occurred in alcohol-exposed children regardless of ADHD symptoms and specific SCT items proved useful in distinguishing exposed children suggesting clinical utility for this measure in further defining the neurobehavioral profile related to prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:22817778

  6. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen; Hilde Gundersen; Erlend Sunde; Valborg Baste; Anette Harris; Magne Bråtveit; Bente E Moen

    2015-01-01

    .... Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse...

  7. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be

  8. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  9. A literature critique using outcomes model and substruction in nursing science - Psychoeducational therapy for schizophrenic patients -

    OpenAIRE

    松田, 光信

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this article are (1) to introduce the outline of the outcomes model and substruction, and (2) to introduce the example of synthesis and critique of literature about psychoeducational therapy for schizophrenic patients. Recently, psychiatrists or psychologists are providing patients with education for medication using cognitive therapy, social skills training and psychoeducational therapy in Japan. Psychiatrists and psychologists are doing evaluation research of these structure...

  10. Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure and Genetic Predisposition to Cognitive Deficit at Age 8 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Smith, George Davey; Golding, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive consequences at school age associated with prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure may need to take into account nutritional and sociodemographic cofactors as well as relevant genetic polymorphisms.......Cognitive consequences at school age associated with prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure may need to take into account nutritional and sociodemographic cofactors as well as relevant genetic polymorphisms....

  11. Long-Term Green Space Exposure and Cognition Across the Life Course: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Carmen; Gascon, Mireia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Dadvand, Payam

    2016-12-01

    An accumulating body of evidence is suggestive for health-promoting effects of exposure to natural environments including green spaces. We aimed to systematically review the available observational evidence on the association between long-term exposure to green space and cognition over the life course. PubMed and Scopus were searched using a combination of green space and cognition keywords. Original research articles of observational studies on the association between green space exposure and cognition were collected. The quality of available studies was assessed using available frameworks. The review identified 13 studies meeting the selection criteria. Considering the limited number of available studies, most of poor or fair quality, the existing evidence on the association between green spaces and cognition can be considered as inadequate; however, it is suggestive for beneficial associations between such an exposure and cognitive development in childhood and cognitive function in adulthood.

  12. Impact of Psychoeducation on Professional Stress Reduction Among Prison Guards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Mehmedbasic, Alma; Salcic, Dubravka; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Fadilpasic, S.; Cakovic, L.; Mehmedika-Suljic, Enra; Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Through psychological support for prison guard’s awareness about professional stress and burn-out, cognitive assessment of stress consequences, insight in coping strategies, as well as prevention of stress consequences is achieved. Aim Evaluation of psychoeducation effects on professional stress consequences within prison guards. Method In the research were included 122 prison guards from three prisons in Bosnia and Herzegovina. All of them have been tested before and after psychoeducation was finished using following instruments: Index of reaction, STAI questionnaire, SAMAČA questionnaire. Results Differences between first and second measuring of subjects included in this study in Sarajevo prison indicated statistically significant reduction of stress reactions, improvement of coping strategies and communication skills. In prisons Zenica and Kula there are differences between first and second measurement in stress reactions reduction, improvement of coping strategies and overcoming of stress and improvement of communication skills as well, which are not statistically significant. In Kula prison, significant differences between two measurements in attitudes of prison guards toward detainees were observed. Conclusions Results of this study show that prison guards within prisons where are detained persons with long period of imprisonment are more exposed to professional stress, comparing to prison guards who are employed in investigation prison. Psychoeducation resulted in positive effects and it should be obligatory included in prison guards training with the aim of decreasing of psychological consequences of prolonged professional stress to which they are exposed to. Psychoeducation should be on continuous basis and led by educated mental health professionals. PMID:24133378

  13. Effects of childhood trauma exposure and cortisol levels on cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Scheiber, Caroline; Janelsins, Michelle; Jo, Booil; Shen, Hanyang; Palesh, Oxana

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive). We examined correlations between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning, then used linear regression to control for factors associated with cognition (age, education, time since chemotherapy, depression, anxiety, and insomnia), and the MacArthur approach to test whether cortisol levels mediated the relationship between trauma and cognitive functioning. 57.1% of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in childhood, with 19.6% of the sample witnessing a serious injury, 17.9% experiencing physical abuse, and 14.3% experiencing sexual abuse. Childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning were moderately associated (r=-0.29). This association remained even when controlling for other factors associated with cognition; the final model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive functioning. The association between childhood trauma and cognitive functioning was mediated by steeper cortisol slope (partial r=0.35, p=0.02). Childhood trauma exposure is associated with self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors and is mediated by cortisol dysregulation. Trauma should be considered, among other factors, in programs aiming to address cognition in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychoeducational treatment and prevention of depression: The coping with depression course thirty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Munoz, R.F.; Clarke, G.N.; Lewinsohn, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The "Coping with Depression" course (CWD) is by the far the best studied psychoeducational intervention for the treatment and prevention of depression, and is used in routine practice in several countries. The CWD is a highly structured cognitive-behavioral intervention, which has been adapted for

  15. Lead exposure and rate of change in cognitive function in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Melinda C; Korrick, Susan; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Nie, Linda H; Grodstein, Francine; Hu, Howard; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher long-term cumulative lead exposure predicts faster cognitive decline in older men, but evidence of an association in women is lacking. Objective To determine if there is an association between lead exposure and cognitive decline in women. Methods This study considers a sample of 584 women from the Nurses’ Health Study who live in or near Boston, Massachusetts. We quantified lead exposure using biomarkers of lead exposure assessed in 1993–2004 and evaluated cognitive decline by repeated performance on a telephone battery of cognitive tests primarily assessing learning, memory, executive function, and attention completed in 1995–2008. All cognitive test scores were z-transformed for use in analyses. We used linear mixed models with random effects to quantify the association between each lead biomarker and change in cognition overall and on each individual test. Results Consideration of individual tests showed greater cognitive decline with increased tibia lead concentrations, a measure of long-term cumulative exposure, for story memory and category fluency. The estimated excess annual decline in overall cognitive test z-score per SD increase in tibia bone lead concentration was suggestive, although the confidence intervals included the null (0.024 standard units, 95% confidence interval: −0.053 , 0.004 – an additional decline in function equivalent to being 0.33 years older). We found little support for associations between cognitive decline and patella or blood lead, which provide integrated measures of exposure over shorter timeframes. Conclusions Long-term cumulative lead exposure may be weakly associated with faster cognitive decline in community-dwelling women, at least in some cognitive domains. PMID:24529005

  16. The efficacy of psychoeducation on recurrent depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Foldager, Leslie; Makki, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of psychoeducation is well documented in the treatment of relapse prevention of schizophrenia, and recently also in bipolar disorder; however, for recurrent depression only few controlled studies focusing on the efficacy of psychoeducation have been conducted. Aims......: This randomized study tests the efficacy of treatment-as-usual supplemented with a psychoeducative programme for patients with recurrent depression, treated at Community Mental Health Centres (CMHC) in Denmark. The primary outcome measurements concern was decline in consumption of psychiatric inpatient services...... and decline in Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). Methods: Eighty patients were randomized, either to the psychoeducative programme (consisting of eight sessions, each of 2 hours duration) and 2-year outpatient follow-up (42 cases), or only to 2-year outpatient follow-up (38 controls). The patients were...

  17. Psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: A discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynere; Crowe, Marie; Scott, Anne; Lacey, Cameron

    2018-02-01

    Psychoeducation has become a common intervention within mental health settings. It aims to increase people's ability to manage a life with a long-term illness. For people with bipolar disorder, psychoeducation is one of a range of psychosocial interventions now considered part of contemporary mental health practice. It has taken on a 'common sense' status that results in little critique of psychoeducation practices. Using a published manual on psychoeducation and bipolar disorder as its data, Foucauldian discourse analysis was used in the present study for a critical perspective on psychoeducation in order to explore the taken-for-granted assumptions on which it is based. It identifies that the text produces three key subject positions for people with bipolar disorder. To practice self-management, a person must: (i) accept and recognize the authority of psychiatry to know them; (ii) come to see that they can moderate themselves; and (iii) see themselves as able to undertake a reflexive process of self-examination and change. These findings highlight the circular and discursive quality to the construct of insight that is central to how psychoeducation is practiced. Using Foucault's construct of pastoral power, it also draws attention to the asymmetrical nature of power relations between the clinician and the person with bipolar disorder. An effect of the use of medical discourse in psychoeducation is to limit its ability to work with ambivalence and contradiction. A critical approach to psychotherapy and education offers an alternate paradigm on which to basis psychoeducation practices. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.

  19. Manganese exposure and cognitive deficits: A growing concern for manganese neurotoxicity⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, H.A.; Bowler, R.M.; Kim, Y.; Henn, B. Claus; Mergler, D.; Hoet, P.; Gocheva, V.V.; Bellinger, D.C.; Wright, R.O.; Harris, M.G.; Chang, Y.; Bouchard, M.F.; Riojas-Rodriguez, H.; Menezes-Filho, J.A.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2013-01-01

    This symposium comprised five oral presentations dealing with recent findings on Mn-related cognitive and motor changes from epidemiological studies across the life span. The first contribution highlighted the usefulness of functional neuroimaging of the central nervous system (CNS) to evaluate cognitive as well as motor deficits in Mn-exposed welders. The second dealt with results of two prospective studies in Mn-exposed workers or welders showing that after decrease of Mn exposure the outcome of reversibility in adverse CNS effects may differ for motor and cognitive function and, in addition the issue of plasma Mn as a reliable biomarker for Mn exposure in welders has been addressed. The third presentation showed a brief overview of the results of an ongoing study assessing the relationship between environmental airborne Mn exposure and neurological or neuropsychological effects in adult Ohio residents living near a Mn point source. The fourth paper focused on the association between blood Mn and neurodevelopment in early childhood which seems to be sensitive to both low and high Mn concentrations. The fifth contribution gave an overview of six studies indicating a negative impact of excess environmental Mn exposure from air and drinking water on children’s cognitive performance, with special attention to hair Mn as a potential biomarker of exposure. These studies highlight a series of questions about Mn neurotoxicity with respect to cognitive processes, forms and routes of exposure, adequate biomarkers of exposure, gender differences, susceptibility and exposure limits with regard to age. PMID:22498092

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephanie M. Engel; James Wetmur; Jia Chen; Chenbo Zhu; Dana Boy Barr; Richard L. Canfield; Mary S. Wolff

    2011-01-01

    ...) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. Objective: We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6—9 years. Methods...

  1. Cognitive mediation of clinical improvement after intensive exposure therapy of agoraphobia and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögele, Claus; Ehlers, Anke; Meyer, Andrea H; Frank, Monika; Hahlweg, Kurt; Margraf, Jürgen

    2010-03-01

    The present study investigated cognitive mediation of clinical improvement in patients with agoraphobia (N=427) or social phobia (N=98) receiving high-density exposure therapy in a naturalistic clinical treatment setting. Patients were assessed before therapy, 6 weeks after the end of therapy, and 1 year thereafter, using a self-report assessment battery. Lower level mediation analyses provided support for the notion that cognitive changes partially mediate clinical improvement after exposure therapy. Changes in cognitions relating to physical catastrophes mediated treatment outcome only for patients with agoraphobia, whereas changes in cognitions about loss of control mediated outcome for both agoraphobia and social phobia patients. Changes in relationship satisfaction did not mediate symptomatic improvement. The results extend previous findings by demonstrating mediation in an unselected clinical sample and by providing evidence for the specificity of mediation effects. They further support the importance of cognitive changes in cognitive-behavior therapy. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Woods, Briana A.

    2011-01-01

    A number of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) approaches are available for treating child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Similar to other CBT treatments, particularly those for anxiety disorders, these treatments all include common elements (e.g., psychoeducation, relaxation and affective modulation skills, exposure). The goals of this review are to: 1) delineate common elements in CBT approaches for treating child and adolescent PTSD; 2) provide a detailed review of tw...

  3. Integrating psychoeducation in a basic computer skills course for people suffering from social anxiety: participants' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löhr HD

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hildegard D Löhr1,2, Jan H Rosenvinge1,3, Rolf Wynn2,41Division of General Psychiatry, University Hospital of North Norway, 2Telemedicine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 4Division of Addiction and Specialized Psychiatry, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, NorwayAbstract: We describe a psychoeducational program integrated in a basic computer skills course for participants suffering from social anxiety. The two main aims of the course were: that the participants learn basic computer skills, and that the participants learn to cope better with social anxiety. Computer skills were taught by a qualified teacher. Psychoeducation and cognitive therapy skills, including topics such as anxiety coping, self-accept, and self-regulation, were taught by a clinical psychologist. Thirteen of 16 participants completed the course, which lasted 11 weeks. A qualitative analysis was performed, drawing on observations during the course and on interviews with the participants. The participants were positive about the integration of psychoeducation sessions in the computer course, and described positive outcomes for both elements, including improved computer skills, improved self-esteem, and reduced social anxiety. Most participants were motivated to undertake further occupational rehabilitation after the course.Keywords: cognitive therapy, information technology, occupational rehabilitation, psychoeducation, self-help, social anxiety

  4. Sex- and histamine-dependent long-term cognitive effects of methamphetamine exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acevedo, S.F.; de Esch, I.J.P.; Raber, J.

    2007-01-01

    As prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure results in long-term hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits, the increased MA use in women of childbearing age is of great concern. As mice are most commonly used in genetic models, we started to study the potential effects of neonatal MA exposure in

  5. [Group psychoeducation in the complex treatment of bipolar disorder--Cracow experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maczka, Grzegorz; Grabski, Bartosz; Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof; Dudek, Dominika

    2010-01-01

    To share our experience in introducing an original, structured group psychoeducational programme entitled "Familiarizing bipolar disorder" into the integrated complex treatment of bipolar disorder (BP). The programme is partially based on the Barcelona Bipolar Disorders Program format and represents our proposal of a short, easily applied group psychoeducation. It consists of 8 meetings, conducted by a psychiatrist and a psychologist who are both trained in cognitive-behavioural therapy. Two groups of patients accomplished the programme so far. We would like to present our conclusions and qualitative observations. The patients noticed a change in a philosophical view on the bipolar disorder treatment (access to information, partnership between a doctor and a patient, appreciation of psychological aspects of bipolar illness), which is embodied by the psychoeducational approach. They welcomed our programme with enthusiasm and interest. Many questions were asked about different aspects of bipolar disorder, especially concerning pharmacotherapy, genetic and legal issues. Our participants assessed the number of sessions as optimal, but some of them insisted on devoting one more meeting to interactively discuss pharmacotherapy of BP. The programme revealed many other relevant issues concerning patients' attitudes toward bipolar disorder like: common presence of dysfunctional beliefs patients hold regarding their illness, unawareness of importance of mood stabilizer serum level examination, insufficient knowledge on hypomania or--in some cases--ignorance of a hypomania phenomenon. Moreover, patients appreciated the fact that the psychoeducational programme helped them to diminish the sense of stigma, shame, and the feeling of being different or worse. Finally we are amazingly impressed by the unsatisfied need existing in bipolar patients to share their fears, emotions and to be fully informed. Our observations support the statement, that the psychoeducational approach to

  6. Exposure to Mozart music reduces cognitive impairment in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Qin, Yi; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Wang, Yanran; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-02-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often display cognitive deficits. However, current epilepsy therapeutic interventions mainly aim at how to reduce the frequency and degree of epileptic seizures. Recovery of cognitive impairment is not attended enough, resulting in the lack of effective approaches in this respect. In the pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy rat model, memory impairment has been classically reported. Here we evaluated spatial cognition changes at different epileptogenesis stages in rats of this model and explored the effects of long-term Mozart music exposure on the recovery of cognitive ability. Our results showed that pilocarpine rats suffered persisting cognitive impairment during epileptogenesis. Interestingly, we found that Mozart music exposure can significantly enhance cognitive ability in epileptic rats, and music intervention may be more effective for improving cognitive function during the early stages after Status epilepticus. These findings strongly suggest that Mozart music may help to promote the recovery of cognitive damage due to seizure activities, which provides a novel intervention strategy to diminish cognitive deficits in TLE patients.

  7. Effects of Psychoeducation for Offenders in a Community Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Albert K.; Shively, Randy; Horn, Mary; Landau, Jennifer; Barriga, Alvaro; Gibbs, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The present study provided a randomized outcome evaluation of the psychoeducational component of the EQUIP program. The psychoeducational curriculum was implemented in a community correctional facility for adult felony offenders. The psychoeducational curriculum is designed to remedy offenders' delays in moral judgment maturity, social cognitive…

  8. Environmental exposure to manganese in air: Associations with cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, Rosemarie M.; Kornblith, Erica S.; Gocheva, Vihra V.; Colledge, Michelle A.; Bollweg, George; Kim, Yangho; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Wright, Chris W.; Adams, Shane W.; Lobdell, Danelle T.

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources.

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A ?Mendelian randomization? natural experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J.; Davey Smith, George; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. Methods We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conv...

  10. Cognitive function during acute cold exposure with or without sleep deprivation lasting 53 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Updegraff, John; Pierce, Katie; Walter, Kristen H; Collinsworth, Tiffany; Glickman, Ellen; Gunstad, John

    2009-08-01

    Cold exposure and sleep deprivation are independently associated with transient cognitive impairment, including difficulty in attention, reaction time, and executive function. The possible interactive effects of cold exposure and sleep deprivation on cognition have not previously been examined. Six apparently healthy young adult men participated in a within-subjects design with two counterbalanced 53-h protocols: 2-h cold exposure (10 degrees C) blocks every 24 h with normal sleep (Cold), and the same cold exposure in addition to 53 h of complete sleep deprivation (Cold + Sdep). Computerized cognitive tasks of attention, reaction time, and executive function were completed every 4 h during Cold + Sdep, and every 4 waking hours during Cold. Cold was associated with a decline in attention over time (b = -0.06). Cold + Sdep was associated with greater attentional decline than Cold (b = -0.13), a significantly reduced speeded/reaction time performance (b = 0.02; b = -0.13), and a trend toward reduced cognitive inhibition over time (b = -0.10). Findings suggest an additive effect of sleep deprivation to cold exposure in attention and reaction time, and a trend toward this pattern in aspects of executive functioning. These findings raise concern for errors when careful attention and speeded cognitive flexibility are necessary and optimal sleep and protection from the environment is not possible. Mechanisms are not entirely clear, but may be related to transient cerebrovascular or neurochemical changes, or direct physiological effects. Further work is needed to clarify mechanisms for the additive cognitive decline associated with cold exposure and sleep deprivation.

  11. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Psychoeducational Group Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Ness, Carin M.; Dannison, Linda; Smith, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    Presents results of study exploring use of psychoeducational group sessions on topics such as parenting skills, personal well-being, relationships, managing finances, and legal issues, specifically developed for custodial grandparents. Grandparents consistently met objectives of the content areas, with increased mastery as sessions progressed.…

  12. Caregiver psychoeducation for schizophrenia: is gender important?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    Females care for individuals with chronic illness more commonly than males and have different attitudes to illness. Additionally, they experience greater burden and reduced quality of life, when compared to their male counterparts. Since knowledge has been shown to be related to burden, we sought to determine whether there were gender differences in knowledge acquisition during a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme (CPP).

  13. Positive effets of a psycho-educational group intervention for children with a chronic disease: First results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Last, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention for chronically ill children. Methods: Based on principles from cognitive behavior therapy and information from previous research about children's experiences with coping with a chronic disease we developed an

  14. Positive effects of a psycho-educational group intervention for children with a chronic desease: First results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Last, B.F.; Stam, H.; Onland-van Nieuwenhuizen, A.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention for chronically ill children. Methods: Based on principles from cognitive behavior therapy and information from previous research about children's experiences with coping with a chronic disease we developed an

  15. Balneotherapy Together with a Psychoeducation Program for Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    P. De Maricourt; Gorwood, P.; Th. Hergueta; Galinowski, A.; Salamon, R; Diallo, A.; Vaugeois, C.; Lépine, J P; J. P. Olié; O. Dubois

    2016-01-01

    Benzodiazepines should be prescribed on a short-term basis, but a significant proportion of patients (%) use them for more than 6 months, constituting a serious public health issue. Indeed, few strategies are effective in helping patients to discontinue long-term benzodiazepine treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the impact of a program including cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation, and balneotherapy in a spa resort to facilitate long-term discontinu...

  16. An experimental investigation of a psychoeducational strategy designed to reduce men's endorsement of societal ideals of women's attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamiya, Yuko; Thompson, J Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated whether a psychoeducational manipulation, focused on reducing an unrealistic view of women's attractiveness, might affect men's ratings of the attractiveness of females. The participants were 159 male undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to four conditions: psychoeducational message (beauty ideals; marketing strategies) and photo exposure (attractive females; household products). The results indicated that males pre-exposed to attractive female images subsequently evaluated average females as less attractive than those exposed to household products. However, a psychoeducational information condition designed to challenge "beauty ideals" did not reduce the adverse exposure effect and was comparable in effectiveness to the "marketing strategies" manipulation. The limitations of the findings are discussed and avenues for future research in this area offered.

  17. Lack of reliability in the disruption of cognitive performance following exposure to protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M; Heroux, Nicholas A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Beck, Zachary; Baxter, Chelsea

    2015-08-01

    A series of three replications were run to determine the reliability with which exposure to protons produces a disruption of cognitive performance, using a novel object recognition task and operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio task. For the first two replications, rats were exposed to head-only exposures to 1000 MeV/n protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. For the third replication, subjects were given head-only or whole-body exposures to both 1000 and 150 MeV/n protons. The results were characterized by a lack of consistency in the effects of exposure to protons on the performance of these cognitive tasks, both within and between replications. The factors that might influence the lack of consistency and the implications for exploratory class missions are discussed.

  18. Exposure to Violence, Social Cognitive Processing, and Sleep Problems in Urban Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M...

  19. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings...

  20. Exposure to widespread environmental toxicants and children's cognitive development and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays a special attention is focused on prenatal and childhood exposures to a variety of contaminants in the environment, especially toxicants widely present in the environment and their impact on children's health and neurodevelopment. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to several widespread toxicants including: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and gas cooking on children's cognitive development and behavioral problems by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to widespread toxicants and children's development for the last eleven years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco and Toxnet literature bases. The combination of following key words was used: 1) referring to the exposure: pregnancy, prenatal exposure, postnatal exposure, gas cooking, exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, PAHs and 2) referring to outcome: neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, psychomotor development, behavioral problems, cognitive development, mental health, school achievements, learning abilities. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to insult from low levels of exposure to widespread environmental contaminants such as: phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gas cooking. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiologic data is urgently needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented.

  1. Exposure to widespread environmental toxicants and children’s cognitive development and behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jurewicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a special attention is focused on prenatal and childhood exposures to a variety of contaminants in the environment, especially toxicants widely present in the environment and their impact on children's health and neurodevelopment. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to several widespread toxicants including: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and gas cooking on children's cognitive development and behavioral problems by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to widespread toxicants and children's development for the last eleven years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco and Toxnet literature bases. The combination of following key words was used: 1 referring to the exposure: pregnancy, prenatal exposure, postnatal exposure, gas cooking, exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, PAHs and 2 referring to outcome: neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, psychomotor development, behavioral problems, cognitive development, mental health, school achievements, learning abilities. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to insult from low levels of exposure to widespread environmental contaminants such as: phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gas cooking. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiologic data is urgently needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented.

  2. Therapeutic processes in virtual reality exposure therapy: The role of cognitions and the therapeutic alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the processes involved in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET), including the role of the therapeutic alliance and the patients' cognitions. This study was designed to investigate VRET processes in patients with specific phobias. We analyzed the influence of VRET on

  3. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  4. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  5. Reduction of Endogenous Melatonin Accelerates Cognitive Decline in Mice in a Simulated Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Mei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals afflicted with occupational formaldehyde (FA exposure often suffer from abnormal behaviors such as aggression, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and in particular, cognitive impairments. Coincidentally, clinical patients with melatonin (MT deficiency also complain of cognitive problems associated with the above mental disorders. Whether and how FA affects endogenous MT metabolism and induces cognitive decline need to be elucidated. To mimic occupational FA exposure environment, 16 healthy adult male mice were exposed to gaseous FA (3 mg/m3 for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that FA exposure impaired spatial memory associated with hippocampal neuronal death. Biochemical analysis revealed that FA exposure elicited an intensive oxidative stress by reducing systemic glutathione levels, in particular, decreasing brain MT concentrations. Inversely, intraperitoneal injection of MT markedly attenuated FA-induced hippocampal neuronal death, restored brain MT levels, and reversed memory decline. At tissue levels, injection of FA into the hippocampus distinctly reduced brain MT concentrations. Furthermore, at cellular and molecular levels, we found that FA directly inactivated MT in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that MT supplementation contributes to the rescue of cognitive decline, and may alleviate mental disorders in the occupational FA-exposed human populations.

  6. Methamphetamine Exposure, Iron Deficiency, and Implications for Cognitive-Communicative Function: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Heiss, Cynthia J.; White, Letitia; Kaf, Wafaa A.; Becker, Alan; Schindler, Jessica B.; Dion, Nancy; Oswalt, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) exposure during fetal development has the potential to adversely affect the development of multiple organ systems. An interdisciplinary case study of a 4-year 11-month-old child born to a mother addicted to meth revealed significant cognitive and communicative delays. Possible meth-related consequences for these delays…

  7. The treatment of hypochondriasis : exposure plus response prevention vs cognitive therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.; Bouman, T.K.

    In this study (1) exposure in vivo plus response prevention, (2) cognitive therapy and (3) a waiting-list control condition were compared on their efficacy on the treatment of hypochondriasis. Seventy-eight patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were randomly assigned to one of these

  8. Fluid Cognitive Ability is associated with Greater Exposure and Smaller Emotional Reactions to Daily Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.; Lachman, Margie E.; Tun, Patricia A.; Rosnick, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether fluid cognitive ability predicts exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. A national sample of adults from Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study and the National Study of Daily Experiences (N = 1,202) with a mean age of 57 (SD = 12, 56% female) completed positive and negative mood reports, as well as a stressor diary on 8 consecutive evenings via telephone. Participants also completed a telephone-based battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive ability. Higher levels of fluid cognitive ability were associated with greater exposure to work- and home-related overload stressors. Possessing higher levels of fluid cognitive ability was associated with smaller stressor-related increases in negative mood, primarily for interpersonal tensions and network stressors, and smaller stressor-related decreases in positive mood for interpersonal tensions. Furthermore, fluid cognitive ability was unrelated to subjective severity ratings of the stressors reported. Discussion focuses on the role of fluid cognitive ability in daily stress processes. PMID:20545418

  9. Sudden gains in exposure-focused cognitive-behavioral group therapy for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Santacana, Martí; Montoro, María; Rosado, Silvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Fullana, Miquel A

    2017-11-01

    In the context of psychological treatment, a sudden gain is a large and enduring improvement in symptom severity that occurs between two single therapy sessions. The influence of sudden gains on long-term outcomes and functional impairment in anxiety disorders is not well understood, and little is known with regard to panic disorder in particular. In addition, previous research on patients with anxiety disorders has produced inconsistent results regarding the relationship between sudden gains and cognitive change. We examined the incidence of sudden gains in a large sample (n = 116) of panic disorder patients undergoing exposure-focused cognitive-behavioral group therapy, and compared panic severity, functional impairment, and cognitive change in patients with and without sudden gains at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. Participants who experienced sudden gains displayed lower levels of panic severity and functional impairment at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up than those who did not experience sudden gains. However, we observed no difference in cognitive changes between groups, either at posttreatment or at follow-up. Our results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of sudden gains on therapeutic outcomes not only extend to long-term and functional outcome measures but are also evident in less cognitive (i.e., exposure-focused) forms of psychological treatment. Sudden gains are common in panic disorder patients undergoing exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Sudden gains during exposure-focused therapy are linked to greater improvement in panic disorder severity and functional impairment. The positive impact of sudden gains on panic disorder severity and functional impairment is maintained in the long term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Impact on infants' cognitive development of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency disorder and common mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA and common mental disorders (CMD on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. METHODS: A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb 30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

  11. Effectiveness of Simple Individual Psychoeducation for Bipolar II Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Saito-Tanji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression. Her perception of mood state, particularly mixed state, was dramatically changed, and her quality of life was improved after the simple individual psychoeducation. This case suggests that the simple individual psychoeducation could be effective for bipolar II disorder by improving understanding of the disease and by meeting different individual needs.

  12. Psychoeducational and family therapy in relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M J

    1994-01-01

    Recent shifts to briefer hospitalization and an emphasis on community care have emphasized the significance of patient-family interactions in this phase of treatment. Psychoeducational family programs designed to increase medication compliance and effectiveness in coping with stressors have been successful in reducing the risk of relapse in the first year following hospital discharge. Various models for family intervention are discussed and their strengths and weaknesses evaluated.

  13. Cognitive processes during fear acquisition and extinction in animals and humans: Implications for exposure therapy of anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent. Fear conditioning and extinction learning in animals often serve as simple models of fear acquisition and exposure therapy of anxiety disorders in humans. This article reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on cognitive processes in fear acquisition, extinction, and exposure therapy. It is concluded that exposure therapy is a form of cognitive intervention that specifically changes the expectancy of harm. Implications for therapy research are ...

  14. Biological or psychological? Effects of eating disorder psychoeducation on self-blame and recovery expectations among symptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Lee, Aaron A; Deacon, Brett J

    2015-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed increasing popularity and promotion of biological influences (e.g., genetics) in eating disorder (ED) development. Although research suggests biological models of EDs reduce blame-oriented stigma in the general public, their effect on symptomatic individuals' attitudes toward themselves, treatment, and their prognosis has not been studied. Additionally, little is known about how other credible forms of conceptualizing ED development (e.g., cognitive-behavioral) affect individuals with disordered eating. Accordingly, the present study assessed the effects of three different forms of psychoeducation about ED development (biology-only, malleability of biology, cognitive-behavioral) among a sample high in ED symptoms. Participants (N = 216) viewed an audiovisual presentation describing ED development from one of the three perspectives before completing measures of self-blame for symptoms, prognostic expectations, self-efficacy in recovering, and attitudes toward a description of cognitive-behavioral therapy. There were no significant differences between conditions in self-blame. Relative to biology-only, the psychoeducational messages emphasizing malleable biology and cognitive-behavioral factors produced more prognostic optimism and self-efficacy in recovering. Perceived credibility of cognitive-behavioral therapy and expectations for its efficacy were highest in the cognitive-behavioral psychoeducation condition. Implications for efforts to educate the public and treatment-seeking individuals about the nature of EDs are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A. The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD, and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A and 77.1-85.2 dB(A compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A.

  16. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Gundersen, Hilde; Sunde, Erlend; Baste, Valborg; Harris, Anette; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A).

  17. The Effectiveness of Psychoeducational Interventions Focused on Sexuality in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Yang, Younghee; Hwang, Eun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Although sexual health is a common concern for oncology patients, no practical guidelines to sexual intervention exist, perhaps because of a lack of systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect size for psychoeducational intervention focused on sexuality and to compare effect sizes according to intervention outcomes and characteristic. We explored quantitative evidence for the effects of sexual intervention for cancer patients or partners by using the electronic databases. Among them, we considered 15 eligible articles. The meta-analysis provided 133 effect sizes from 15 primary studies. The analysis revealed significant improvements after intervention, with a random-effects standardized mean difference of 0.75. Psychoeducational interventions focused on sexuality after cancer diagnosis were effective for compliance (2.40), cognitive aspect (1.29), and psychological aspect (0.83). Individual-based interventions (0.85) were more effective in improving outcomes than group approach and group combined with individual intervention. With regard to intervention providers, registered nurse only (2.22) and team approach including the registered nurse (2.38) had the highest effect size. Face-to-face intervention combined with telephone or the Internet (1.04) demonstrated a higher effect size than face-to-face (0.62) and telephone (0.58) independently. We conducted an analysis of data from various subgroups of preexisting studies, obtained an overall estimate of the effectiveness of the intervention, and compared its effectiveness across variables that affect intervention outcomes. These results provide empirical data for evidence-based practice and inform the development of useful intervention programs through a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the results.

  18. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  19. Human predisposition to cognitive impairment and its relation with environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral Pinto, Marina M S; Marinho-Reis, A Paula; Almeida, Agostinho; Ordens, Carlos M; Silva, Maria M V G; Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Moreira, Paula I; Dinis, Pedro A; Diniz, M Luísa; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo A; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa

    2017-03-09

    New lines of evidence suggest that less than 10% of neurodegenerative diseases have a strict genetic aetiology and other factors may be prevalent. Environmental exposures to potentially toxic elements appear to be a risk factor for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and sclerosis diseases. This study proposes a multidisciplinary approach combining neurosciences, psychology and environmental sciences while integrating socio-economic, neuropsychological, environmental and health data. We present the preliminary results of a neuropsychological assessment carried out in elderly residents of the industrial city of Estarreja. A battery of cognitive tests and a personal questionnaire were administered to the participants. Multivariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to identify potential relationships between the cognitive status of the participants and environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements. The results suggest a relationship between urinary PTEs levels and the incidence of cognitive disorders. They also point towards water consumption habits and profession as relevant factors of exposure. Linear regression models show that aluminium (R 2 = 38%), cadmium (R 2 = 11%) and zinc (R 2 = 6%) are good predictors of the scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination cognitive test. Median contents (µg/l) in groundwater are above admissible levels for drinking water for aluminium (371), iron (860), manganese (250), and zinc (305). While the World Health Organization does not provide health-based reference values for aluminium, results obtained from this study suggest that it may have an important role in the cognitive status of the elderly. Urine proved to be a suitable biomarker of exposure both to elements with low and high excretion rates.

  20. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  1. Relationship between lead exposure, cognitive function, and drug addiction: pilot study and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H; Todd, Andrew C; Ricketts, Erin P; Semba, Richard D

    2008-11-01

    Lead toxicity has been associated with behavioral handicaps, reading disability, antisocial and hyperactive behavior, juvenile delinquency, and impaired cognition. In addition, preclinical studies suggest an association with drug addiction; e.g., animals treated with lead either pre- or postnatally self-administer opiates at a much higher rate than untreated animals. Iron deficiency further increases the risk of lead toxicity through enhanced absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. Female injection drug users have a high prevalence of iron deficiency, although the question remains as to whether this relationship is either a partial function of high lead exposure or heroin use. Specific aims were to preliminarily determine whether female injection heroin users have high tibial lead concentrations, a marker for cumulative lead exposure, compared with normal reference populations, and whether cognitive deficits potentiated the relationship between lead exposure and frequency of heroin use. Tibial lead concentrations were measured via 109 Cd-based K-shell X-ray fluorescence. In 26 female injection heroin users, mean (standard deviation (SD)) tibial lead concentration was 14.5 (6.8) microg/(g bone mineral), which was 1.8 times higher than the tibial lead concentration found among age-adjusted normal community-dwelling women. Interaction effects of tibial lead concentration and selected cognitive functions on frequency with which heroin was used were significant. Further research is warranted to determine whether a history of lead exposure is associated with increased proclivity to drug addiction.

  2. Cognitive deficits following exposure to pneumococcal meningitis: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihara Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal meningitis (PM is a severe and life-threatening disease that is associated with cognitive impairment including learning difficulties, cognitive slowness, short-term memory deficits and poor academic performance. There are limited data on cognitive outcomes following exposure to PM from Africa mainly due to lack of culturally appropriate tools. We report cognitive processes of exposed children as measured by auditory and visual event-related potentials. Methods Sixty-five children (32 male, mean 8.4 years, SD 3.0 years aged between 4-15 years with a history of PM and an age-matched control group of 93 children (46 male; mean 8.4 years, SD 2.7 years were recruited from a well-demarcated study area in Kilifi. In the present study, both baseline to peak and peak-to-peak amplitude differences are reported. Results Children with a history of pneumococcal meningitis had significantly longer auditory P1 and P3a latencies and smaller P1 amplitudes compared to unexposed children. In the visual paradigm, children with PM seemingly lacked a novelty P3a component around 350 ms where control children had a maximum, and showed a lack of stimulus differentiation at Nc. Further, children with exposure to PM had smaller peak to peak amplitude (N2-P1 compared to unexposed children. Conclusion The results suggest that children with a history of PM process novelty differently than do unexposed children, with slower latencies and reduced or absent components. This pattern suggests poorer auditory attention and/or cognitive slowness and poorer visual attention orienting, possibly due to disruption in the functions of the lateral prefrontal and superior temporal cortices. ERPs may be useful for assessment of the development of perceptual-cognitive functions in post brain-injury in African children by providing an alternate way of assessing cognitive development in patient groups for whom more typical standardized neuropsychological

  3. A Preliminary Examination of Emotional and Cognitive Mediators in the Relations between Violence Exposure and Violent Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Maureen A.; Bell, Debora J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the possible mediational roles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and acceptance of violence cognitions in the association between violence exposure and youth violent behaviors. This study also examined whether the strength of the relations between exposure and behavior varied across context of exposure and across…

  4. Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: the influence of exposure side and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Eliyahu, Ilan; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the time dependence effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by standard GSM cellular phones on the cognitive functions of humans. A total of 48 healthy right-handed male subjects performed a spatial working memory task (that required either a left-hand or a right-hand response) while being exposed to one of two GSM phones placed at both sides of the head. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was exposed to one of three exposure conditions: left-side of the head, right-side, or sham-exposure. The experiment consisted of 12 blocks of trials. Response times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses were recorded. It was found that the average RT of the right-hand responses under left-side exposure condition was significantly longer than those of the right-side and sham-exposure groups averaged together during the first two time blocks. These results confirmed the existence of an effect of exposure on RT, as well as the fact that exposure duration (together with the responding hand and the side of exposure) may play an important role in producing detectable RFR effects on performance. Differences in these parameters might be the reason for the failure of certain studies to detect or replicate RFR effects. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Cognitive deficits at age 22 years associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to mercury has been associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment. The present study aims to determine the extent to which methylmercury-associated cognitive deficits persist into adult age. In a Faroese birth cohort originally formed in 1986-1987 (N = 1,022), prenatal...... methylmercury exposure was assessed in terms of the mercury concentration in cord blood and maternal hair. Clinical examinations of 847 cohort members at age 22 years were carried out in 2008-2009 using a panel of neuropsychological tests that reflected major functional domains. Subjects with neurological...

  6. Efficacy of exposure versus cognitive therapy in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ougrin Dennis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT for a wide range of psychological disorders. There is a continued controversy about whether challenging maladaptive thoughts rather than use of behavioural interventions alone is associated with the greatest efficacy. However little is known about the relative efficacy of various components of CBT. This review aims to compare the relative efficacy of Cognitive Therapy (CT versus Exposure (E for a range of anxiety disorders using the most clinically relevant outcome measures and estimating the summary relative efficacy by combining the studies in a meta-analysis. Methods Psych INFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the first available year to May 2010. All randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of exposure with cognitive therapy were included. Odds ratios (OR or standardised means' differences (Hedges' g for the most clinically relevant primary outcomes were calculated. Outcomes of the studies were grouped according to specific disorders and were combined in meta-analyses exploring short-term and long-term outcomes. Results 20 Randomised Controlled Trials with (n = 1,308 directly comparing the efficacy of CT and E in anxiety disorders were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference in the relative efficacy of CT and E was revealed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD and in Panic Disorder (PD. There was a statistically significant difference favouring CT versus E in Social Phobia both in the short-term (Z = 3.72, p = 0.0002 and the long-term (Z = 3.28, p = 0.001 outcomes. Conclusions On the basis of extant literature, there appears to be no evidence of differential efficacy between cognitive therapy and exposure in PD, PTSD and OCD and strong evidence of superior efficacy of cognitive therapy in social phobia

  7. Programming social, cognitive, and neuroendocrine development by early exposure to novelty

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Akaysha C.; Akers, Katherine G.; Reeb, Bethany C.; Romeo, Russell D.; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    Mildly stressful early life experiences can potentially impact a broad range of social, cognitive, and physiological functions in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents. Recent rodent studies favor a maternal-mediation hypothesis that considers maternal-care differences induced by neonatal stimulation as the cause of individual differences in offspring development. Using neonatal novelty exposure, a neonatal stimulation paradigm that dissociates maternal individual differences from a direct s...

  8. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Prenatal Drug Exposure Moderates the Association between Stress Reactivity and Cognitive Function in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Bento, Samantha P.; Scaletti, Laura A.; Koenig, James I.; Granger, Douglas A.; Black, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure (PDE) can undermine subsequent health and development. In a prospective longitudinal study we examine whether PDE moderates the link between stress reactivity and cognitive functioning in adolescence. Participants were 76 prenatally drug exposed and 61 non-exposed (NE) community comparison African American youth (50% male, mean age 14.17 years) living in an urban setting. All participants completed neuropsychological and academic achievement tests (Children’s Memory Sca...

  10. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants.

  11. Low level exposure to manganese from drinking water and cognition in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse F; Surette, Céline; Cormier, Pierre; Foucher, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an element found in the environment and certain geographic areas have elevated concentrations in soil and water du to natural conditions or anthropic activities. A growing body of data suggests that exposure to manganese in drinking water could be neurotoxic. Firstly, we aimed to examine the association between exposure to manganese from drinking water and cognition in children consuming well water. Secondly, we also aimed to examine the relation between cognition and manganese concentrations in children's hair, nail, and saliva. A total 259 children from 189 households consuming well water were included in the present study (ages 5.9 to 13.7 years). We assessed children's cognition with the WISC-IV, and we used five indicators of manganese exposure: concentration in tap water, intake from the consumption of water divided by child's weight, manganese concentration in children's hair, toe nail, and saliva. We used General Estimating Equation analysis to assess the relation between manganese exposure indicators and IQ scores, adjusting for potential confounders, and taking into account family clusters. Drinking water manganese concentrations were generally low, with 48% of children consuming water 50μg/L, and 4% >400μg/L. Results differed by sex. In girls, higher manganese concentration in water, hair, and toe nail were associated with poorer Performance IQ scores but this was significant only for toe nail (for a 10-fold increase in manganese, β: -5.65, 95% CIs: -10.97, -0.32). Opposite associations were observed in boys, i.e., better Performance IQ scores with higher manganese concentration hair, toe nail, and water, the latter being significant (β: 2.66, 95% CIs: 0.44, 4.89). Verbal IQ scores did not seem to be associated with manganese exposure indicators. Drinking water manganese levels were considerably lower than in previous studies reporting neurotoxic effects. There was no clear indication of an association between exposure to manganese

  12. Effectiveness of psycho-education on depression, hopelessness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of psycho-education on depression, hopelessness, suicidality, anxiety and substance use among basic diploma students at Kenya Medical ... South African Journal of Psychiatry ... Psycho-education was effective in reducing the severity of symptoms of depression, hopelessness, suicidality, anxiety and risk

  13. A Global Perspective on Psycho-Educational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Islam, Shaheen; Su, Hui; Younesian, Sharifeh

    2015-01-01

    For psychologists in less developed countries, psycho-educational assessment is often challenging due to a lack of specialist training and a scarcity of appropriate, psychometrically robust instruments. This article focuses on school psychology and psycho-educational assessment in three countries: Bangladesh, China and Iran. Despite differences in…

  14. Structuring the Group Experience: A Format for Designing Psychoeducational Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents six-step model for moving from a general statement of purpose to a psychoeducational group design that includes didactic content, experiential activities, and processing. By following this model the group facilitator will be able to develop a psychoeducational group that provides a logical sequence of learning activities fostering…

  15. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  16. Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittby, Henrietta; Grafström, Gustav; Tian, Dong Ping; Malmgren, Lars; Brun, Arne; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G; Eberhardt, Jacob

    2008-04-01

    Considering the frequent use of mobile phones, we have directed attention to possible implications on cognitive functions. In this study we investigated in a rat model the long-term effects of protracted exposure to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed for 2 h each week for 55 weeks to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation at different SAR levels (0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period) emitted by a (GSM-900) test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After this protracted exposure, GSM-900 exposed rats were compared to sham exposed controls. Effects on exploratory behaviour were evaluated in the open-field test, in which no difference was seen. Effects on cognitive functions were evaluated in the episodic-like memory test. In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02). (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Psychological and cognitive effects of laser printer emissions: A controlled exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, B; Jörres, R A; Schierl, R; Simon, M; Langner, J; Seeger, S; Nowak, D; Karrasch, S

    2017-09-28

    The possible impact of ultrafine particles from laser printers on human health is controversially discussed although there are persons reporting substantial symptoms in relation to these emissions. A randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experimental design with two exposure conditions (high-level and low-level exposure) was conducted with 23 healthy subjects, 14 subjects with mild asthma, and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with laser printer emissions. To separate physiological and psychological effects, a secondary physiologically based categorization of susceptibility to particle effects was used. In line with results from physiological and biochemical assessments, we found no coherent, differential, or clinically relevant effects of different exposure conditions on subjective complaints and cognitive performance in terms of attention, short-term memory, and psychomotor performance. However, results regarding the psychological characteristics of participants and their situational perception confirm differences between the participants groups: Subjects reporting symptoms associated with laser printer emissions showed a higher psychological susceptibility for adverse reactions in line with previous results on persons with multiple chemical sensitivity or idiopathic environmental intolerance. In conclusion, acute psychological and cognitive effects of laser printer emissions were small and could be attributed only to different participant groups but not to differences in exposure conditions in terms of particle number concentrations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  19. Balneotherapy Together with a Psychoeducation Program for Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Maricourt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines should be prescribed on a short-term basis, but a significant proportion of patients (% use them for more than 6 months, constituting a serious public health issue. Indeed, few strategies are effective in helping patients to discontinue long-term benzodiazepine treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the impact of a program including cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation, and balneotherapy in a spa resort to facilitate long-term discontinuation of benzodiazepines. We conducted a prospective multicentre cohort study. Patients with long-term benzodiazepine use were recruited with the aim of anxiolytic withdrawal by means of a psychoeducational program and daily balneotherapy during 3 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome measure was benzodiazepine use 6 months after the program, compared to use at baseline. A total of 70 subjects were enrolled. At 6 months, overall benzodiazepine intake had decreased by 75.3%, with 41.4% of patients completely stopping benzodiazepine use. The results also suggest a significantly greater improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms among patients who discontinued benzodiazepines compared to patients who only reduced their use. Our findings suggest that balneotherapy in association with a psychoeducative program is efficient in subjects with benzodiazepine addiction.

  20. Balneotherapy Together with a Psychoeducation Program for Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maricourt, P; Gorwood, P; Hergueta, Th; Galinowski, A; Salamon, R; Diallo, A; Vaugeois, C; Lépine, J P; Olié, J P; Dubois, O

    2016-01-01

    Benzodiazepines should be prescribed on a short-term basis, but a significant proportion of patients (%) use them for more than 6 months, constituting a serious public health issue. Indeed, few strategies are effective in helping patients to discontinue long-term benzodiazepine treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the impact of a program including cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation, and balneotherapy in a spa resort to facilitate long-term discontinuation of benzodiazepines. We conducted a prospective multicentre cohort study. Patients with long-term benzodiazepine use were recruited with the aim of anxiolytic withdrawal by means of a psychoeducational program and daily balneotherapy during 3 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome measure was benzodiazepine use 6 months after the program, compared to use at baseline. A total of 70 subjects were enrolled. At 6 months, overall benzodiazepine intake had decreased by 75.3%, with 41.4% of patients completely stopping benzodiazepine use. The results also suggest a significantly greater improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms among patients who discontinued benzodiazepines compared to patients who only reduced their use. Our findings suggest that balneotherapy in association with a psychoeducative program is efficient in subjects with benzodiazepine addiction.

  1. Psycho-educational interventions designed to prevent deployment-related psychological ill-health in Armed Forces personnel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, K; Fear, N T; Jones, N; Wessely, S; Greenberg, N

    2011-04-01

    Employers such as the Armed Forces (AF) and emergency services, who predictably expose their staff to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), often provide psycho-educational briefings in an attempt to mitigate possible adverse psychological sequelae. Within the military, psycho-educational briefings are widely used, particularly following exposure to PTEs on operations. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions and make appropriate recommendations. A search of Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE was conducted, bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched and experts in the field were consulted. Two surveys and seven intervention studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Only three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Overall, the review found some evidence of benefit of psycho-educational interventions but it was not consistent across studies or outcomes and effects were small. However, there was also little evidence to suggest that they caused harm. There was some evidence that the beneficial effects may be greater for those who have been exposed to a higher number of PTEs. Given the high operational tempo currently faced by coalition forces personnel, there remains a pressing need to identify the most effective way of minimizing the impact of exposure to potentially traumatic deployment incidents. To date, few psycho-educational interventions designed to prevent deployment-related psychological ill-health have been evaluated systematically in methodologically robust studies. The review recommends that future interventions are theoretically based and evaluated in cluster RCTs that examine both process and outcome variables.

  2. Prenatal and Childhood Traffic-Related Pollution Exposure and Childhood Cognition in the Project Viva Cohort (Massachusetts, USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Maria H.; Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C.; White, Roberta F.; Sagiv, Sharon K; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Background: Influences of prenatal and early-life exposures to air pollution on cognition are not well understood. Objectives: We examined associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with childhood cognition. Methods: We studied 1,109 mother–child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort study in eastern Massachusetts (USA). In mid-childhood (mean age, 8.0 years), we measured verbal and nonverbal intelligence, visual motor abilities, and visual mem...

  3. Cognitive deficits associated with combined HIV gp120 expression and chronic methamphetamine exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P.; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is common among individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Neurocognitive outcomes tend to be worse in methamphetamine users with HIV. However, it is unclear whether discrete cognitive domains are susceptible to impairment after combined HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse. The expression of HIV/gp120 protein induces neuropathology in mice similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine exposure and gp120 expression on cognitive function in transgenic (gp120-tg) and control mice. The mice underwent an escalating methamphetamine binge regimen and were tested in novel object/location recognition, object-in-place recognition, and Barnes maze tests. gp120 expression disrupted performance in the object-in-place test (i.e., similar time spent with all objects, regardless of location), indicating deficits in associative recognition memory. gp120 expression also altered reversal learning in the Barnes maze, suggesting impairments in executive function. Methamphetamine exposure impaired spatial strategy in the Barnes maze, indicating deficits in spatial learning. Methamphetamine-exposed gp120-tg mice had the lowest spatial strategy scores in the final acquisition trials in the Barnes maze, suggesting greater deficits in spatial learning than all of the other groups. Although HIV infection involves interactions between multiple proteins and processes, in addition to gp120, our findings in gp120-tg mice suggest that humans with the dual insult of HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse may exhibit a broader spectrum of cognitive deficits than those with either factor alone. Depending on the cognitive domain, the combination of both insults may exacerbate deficits in cognitive performance compared with each individual insult. PMID:25476577

  4. Associations of cumulative Pb exposure and longitudinal changes in Mini-Mental Status Exam scores, global cognition and domains of cognition: The VA Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Zishaan; Bakulski, Kelly M; Power, Melinda C; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S; Nie, Linda H; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with poorer cognitive function cross-sectionally in aging adults, however the association between cumulative Pb exposure and longitudinal changes in cognition is little characterized. In a 1993-2007 subcohort of the VA Normative Aging Study (Mini-mental status exam (MMSE) n=741; global cognition summary score n=715), we used linear mixed effects models to test associations between cumulative Pb exposure (patella or tibia bone Pb) and repeated measures of cognition (MMSE, individual cognitive tests, and global cognition summary). Cox proportional hazard modeling assessed the risk of an MMSE score falling below 25. Among men 51-98 at baseline, higher patella Pb concentration (IQR: 21μg/g) was associated with -0.13 lower baseline MMSE (95% CI: -0.25, -0.004) and faster longitudinal MMSE decline (-0.016 units/year, 95% CI: -0.032, -0.0004) over 15 years. Each IQR increase in patella Pb was associated with increased risk of a MMSE score below 25 (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.49; p=0.07). There were no significant associations between Pb and global cognition (both baseline and longitudinal change). Patella Pb was associated with faster longitudinal decline in Word List Total Recall in the language domain (0.014 units/year, 95% CI: -0.026, -0.001) and Word List Delayed Recall in the memory domain (0.014 units/year, 95% CI: -0.027, -0.002). We found weaker associations with tibia Pb. Cumulative Pb exposure is associated with faster declines in MMSE and Word List Total and Delayed Recall tests. These findings support the hypothesis that Pb exposure accelerates cognitive aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Historical cohort study of in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs and cognitive function in young adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. Design Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service. Subjects 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973...

  6. Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on cognitive abilities in Dutch children at 42 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PGH; Boersma, ER; Sauer, PJJ; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    Objective: To study possible adverse effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dioxins on cognitive functioning in young children. Methods: In a follow-up of the Dutch PCB/Dioxin study, cognitive abilities were assessed with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

  7. Cognitive differences between male and female rats following exposure to 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Luskin, Katharine; Long, Lauren; Joseph, James

    On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (HZE particles) that are not experienced in low earth orbit. While it is likely that the crew will consist of both male and female astronauts, there has been little research on the effects of exposure to HZE particles on cognitive performance in female subjects. While previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance in male rats it remains to be established whether or not similar effects will occur with female subjects because estrogen may act as a neuroprotectant. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were obtained from Taconic Farms. Thirty mm segments of silastic tubing containing either 180 pg l7-estradiol/mL in sesame oil or vehicle alone were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Three days following surgery the rats were exposed to 56Fe particles (1000 MeV/n, 0-200 cGy) at the NSRL. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. The results indicated that the pattern of decrements in cognitive performance differed between male and female rats. In addition, for female rats, there were differences in performance as a function of the presence or absence of estradiol. In the vehicle implanted subjects exposure to 56Fe particles did not affect operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule; whereas irradiation did disrupt responding in OVX animals given estradiol. These results suggest that estrogen may not be protective following exposure to HZE particles. This research was supported by Grant NNX08AM66G from NASA.

  8. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats: Evidence for cognitive deficits in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Samantha M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats would impair the cognitive capacity of a subsequent generation. Male and female rats in the parental F0 generation were given twice-daily i.p. injections of either 1.0mg/kg nicotine or an equivalent volume of saline for 35days during adolescence on postnatal days 25-59 (P25-59). After reaching adulthood, male and female nicotine-exposed rats were paired for breeding as were male and female saline control rats. Only female offspring were used in this experiment. Half of the offspring of F0 nicotine-exposed breeders and half of the offspring of F0 saline control rats received twice-daily i.p. injections of 1.0mg/kg nicotine during adolescence on P25-59. The remainder of the rats received twice-daily saline injections for the same period. To evaluate transgenerational effects of nicotine exposure on complex cognitive learning abilities, F1 generation rats were trained to perform a highly structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Beginning on P95, rats in the F1 generation were given either 4days of massed training (20patterns/day) followed by spaced training (10 patterns/day) or only spaced training. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure were observed as greater difficulty in learning a "violation element" of the pattern, which indicated that rats were impaired in the ability to encode and remember multiple sequential elements as compound or configural cues. The results indicated that for rats that received massed training, F1 generation rats with adolescent nicotine exposure whose F0 generation parents also experienced adolescent nicotine exposure showed poorer learning of the violation element than rats that experienced adolescent nicotine exposure only in the F1 generation. Thus, adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats produced a cognitive impairment in the next generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  10. Cognitive impairments at two years of age after prenatal alcohol exposure or perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, M; Hilakivi-Clarke, L A; Autti-Rämö, I; Fellman, V; Granström, M L

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this follow-up study was to assess and describe early cognitive impairments in two-year-old children exposed to alcohol (1) until the second trimester (n = 20), (2) until the third trimester (n = 20), (3) throughout pregnancy (n = 20), (4) children to mothers with preeclampsia (n = 37), (5) children surviving acute birth asphyxia (n = 14), and (6) a normal control group (n = 48). Alcohol exposure throughout pregnancy was found to be associated with impairments in language (mean SD score = -1.3) and visuo-motor development (mean SD score = -2.0). Preeclampsia was related to impairment in visuo-motor development (mean SD score = -1.2) and attention (mean SD score = -0.7). Alcohol exposure until the third trimester was associated with attention deficit alone (mean SD score = -0.9). Alcohol exposure until the second trimester and acute birth asphyxia were not associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The study also showed that neuropsychological test profiles of language, visuo-motor functions and attention may be obtained with the aid of an adapted version of the Bayley Mental Scale and an evaluation of attention.

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for public-speaking anxiety using virtual reality for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page L; Zimand, Elana; Hodges, Larry F; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2005-01-01

    This study used an open clinical trial to test a cognitive-behavioral treatment for public-speaking anxiety that utilized virtual reality as a tool for exposure therapy. Treatment was completed by participants (n = 10) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for social phobia, or panic disorder with agoraphobia in which public speaking was the predominantly feared stimulus. Treatment was conducted by a licensed psychologist in an outpatient clinic. Treatment consisted of eight individual therapy sessions, including four sessions of anxiety management training and four sessions of exposure therapy using a virtual audience, according to a standardized treatment manual. Participants completed standardized self-report questionnaires assessing public-speaking anxiety at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants were asked to give a speech to an actual audience at pre- and post-treatment. Results showed decreases on all self-report measures of public-speaking anxiety from pre- to post-treatment, which were maintained at follow-up (n = 8; all P = 05). Participants were no more likely to complete a speech post-treatment than at pre-treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that a cognitive-behavioral treatment using virtual reality for exposure to public speaking may reduce public-speaking anxiety and suggests that further research with a controlled design is needed. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Muñoz Q

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit for dimethylphosphate (DMP and dimethyltiophosphate (DMTP. Moreover, 92% of them had the metabolite diethylphosphate (DEP values on this limit. Regarding the WISC-III, the intelligence quotient (IQ values below the average (IQ ˃ 90 correspond to: Total IQ = 60% performance IQ = 64%, verbal IQ = 52%, perceptual organization IQ = 60%, processing speed IQ = 95%, and freedom from distractibility IQ = 64%. An inverse association was found between the processing speed factor and DMTP (rs = -0.44, p = 0.014. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. A relationship was observed between the presence of OP metabolites and the cognitive performance factor of the WISC-III test. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

  13. Prenatal drug exposure moderates the association between stress reactivity and cognitive function in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Bento, Samantha P; Scaletti, Laura A; Koenig, James I; Granger, Douglas A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure (PDE) can undermine subsequent health and development. In a prospective longitudinal study we examine whether PDE moderates the link between stress reactivity and cognitive functioning in adolescence. Participants were 76 prenatally drug-exposed and 61 nonexposed (NE) community comparison African American youth (50% male, mean age 14.17 years) living in an urban setting. All participants completed neuropsychological and academic achievement tests (Children's Memory Scales, the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's version and the Wide Range Achievement Test 4) over the course of 1 day in a laboratory setting. Two mild stressors (Balloon Analog Risk Task - Youth and Behavioral Indicator of Resilience to Distress) were administered, with saliva samples (assayed for cortisol) collected pre- and poststress task. A higher percentage in the NE group, compared to the PDE group (26% vs. 12%, χ(2) = 4.70, d.f. = 1, n = 137, p = 0.03), exhibited task-related increases in salivary cortisol. PDE moderated the association between stress reactivity and 11 of 15 cognitive performance scales. In each case, the NE stress reactive group had better cognitive performance than either the NE lower cortisol reactive group or the PDE group regardless of stress reactivity status. Stress-related reactivity and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adolescence may be disrupted by PDE, and the disruption may be linked to lower cognitive performance. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Exposure-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with Abdominal Pain: A Pilot Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lalouni

    Full Text Available Children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (P-FGIDs have an increased risk for school absenteeism, depression, anxiety and low quality of life. Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT has shown large treatment effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome, but has not been tested for children 8-12 years with P-FGIDs.The aim of this trial was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a newly developed exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs.The children (n = 20 with a P-FGID, were referred by their treating physicians. The participants received 10 weekly sessions of exposure-based CBT and were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up.Children improved significantly on the primary outcome measure pain intensity at post (Cohen's d = 0.40, p = 0.049 and at 6-month follow-up (Cohen's d = 0.85, p = 0.004. Improvements were also seen in pain frequency, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life, depression, anxiety, school absenteeism and somatic symptoms. Improvements were maintained or further increased at 6-month follow-up. The children engaged in the exposures and were satisfied with the treatment.Exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious.

  15. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  16. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, D.; Olff, Miranda

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of

  17. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.; de Schipper, J.C.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!') has

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE CODE EXPOSURE TOWARD PARENTS’ COGNITION ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmiati D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Messages and sign have certain influence toward humans’ cognition, yet different person might perceive them differently. Persuasive message appears to be one type of messages which has the strongest potential in modifying ones’ behavior. Children and anything about them are parents’ biggest proximity. Regarding to the massive exposure of sexual violence cases happened to children, parents demand access to know more information on this issue. This research is intended to see the effect of the exposure on news about sexual violence in children toward cognition route of parents who have daughters, and to see if there is any different cognition route between fathers and mothers in perceiving news related to sexual violence on children. This research employed an experimental method using the one group pre-post test design. This research involved 15 parents who have daughters who were chosen using an accidental sampling method. This reseach was conducted in the computer laboratory of FISIP UB. Sexual violence codes were displayed in some videos which showed some news on sexual violence happened to children. After that, an instrument in the form of central code and peripheral cognition route scale which was developed from the elaboration likegood model (ELM was given to the samples in the form of questionnaires after they watched some persuasive messages. The results of the data were analyzed using t-test of SPSS 22.0 program. The result of this reseach shows that there is an effect of sexual violence news toward parents’ congition route at 0.820 in a level of significance 0.000, while the congiton route of mothers shows higher mean value at 104.66 than fathers at 91.73.

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A ‘Mendelian randomization’ natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Davey Smith, George; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. Methods We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring’s IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N = 4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N = 6268), contributed to the analyses. Results Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers’ genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Conclusions Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes. PMID:24065783

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A 'Mendelian randomization' natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Smith, George Davey; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

    2013-10-01

    There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring's IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N=4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N=6268), contributed to the analyses. Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers' genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes.

  1. In-utero exposure to DDT and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. Methods The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in approximately 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the U.S. from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Although levels of both DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 µg/L; DDE, 24.5 µg/L), neither was related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales or to Full-Scale IQ at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. Conclusions Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years of age in this cohort. PMID:22766752

  2. Cognitive advantages of immersion education after 1year: Effects of amount of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purić, Danka; Vuksanović, Jasmina; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies with bilingual children have shown that the nature of their second-language instruction has an effect on the development of their cognitive abilities. The aim of this study was to determine whether children who acquire a second language in two different immersion programs for a period of 1year show advantages in executive functions and to examine how the amount of daily exposure affects executive functions. A group of Serbian-speaking second-grade children exposed to the second language for about 5h each day (high exposure group, HEG) and a low-exposure group (LEG) exposed to the second language for about 1.5h each day were compared with an age-matched control group (CG) of monolingual peers on working memory, inhibition, and shifting. Significant group differences were found for working memory, with the HEG performing better than the CG and LEG even after controlling for individual differences in terms of age and intelligence. The three groups did not differ in terms of inhibition and overall shifting abilities, although the control group had a marginally significant advantage on one of the two shifting tasks. Our findings extend previous research by demonstrating that the amount of daily exposure is a significant factor affecting executive functions in early immersion programs for second-language acquisition. In addition, they show that early intensive second-language acquisition can be advantageous for performance on tasks that require a higher level of executive control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental ethanol exposure-induced sleep fragmentation predicts adult cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D A; Masiello, K; Lewin, M P; Hui, M; Smiley, J F; Saito, M

    2016-05-13

    Developmental ethanol (EtOH) exposure can lead to long-lasting cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, and emotional dysregulation among other problems. In healthy adults, sleep plays an important role in each of these behavioral manifestations. Here we explored circadian rhythms (activity, temperature) and slow-wave sleep (SWS) in adult mice that had received a single day of EtOH exposure on postnatal day 7 and saline littermate controls. We tested for correlations between slow-wave activity and both contextual fear conditioning and hyperactivity. Developmental EtOH resulted in adult hyperactivity within the home cage compared to controls but did not significantly modify circadian cycles in activity or temperature. It also resulted in reduced and fragmented SWS, including reduced slow-wave bout duration and increased slow-wave/fast-wave transitions over 24-h periods. In the same animals, developmental EtOH exposure also resulted in impaired contextual fear conditioning memory. The impairment in memory was significantly correlated with SWS fragmentation. Furthermore, EtOH-treated animals did not display a post-training modification in SWS which occurred in controls. In contrast to the memory impairment, sleep fragmentation was not correlated with the developmental EtOH-induced hyperactivity. Together these results suggest that disruption of SWS and its plasticity are a secondary contributor to a subset of developmental EtOH exposure's long-lasting consequences. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BEfree: A new psychological program for binge eating that integrates psychoeducation, mindfulness, and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Carvalho, Sérgio A; Palmeira, Lara; Castilho, Paula; Duarte, Cristiana; Ferreira, Cláudia; Duarte, Joana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela; Costa, Joana

    2017-09-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with several psychological and medical problems, such as obesity. Approximately 30% of individuals seeking weight loss treatments present binge eating symptomatology. Moreover, current treatments for BED lack efficacy at follow-up assessments. Developing mindfulness and self-compassion seem to be beneficial in treating BED, although there is still room for improvement, which may include integrating these different but complimentary approaches. BEfree is the first program integrating psychoeducation-, mindfulness-, and compassion-based components for treating women with binge eating and obesity. To test the acceptability and efficacy up to 6-month postintervention of a psychological program based on psychoeducation, mindfulness, and self-compassion for obese or overweight women with BED. A controlled longitudinal design was followed in order to compare results between BEfree (n = 19) and waiting list group (WL; n = 17) from preintervention to postintervention. Results from BEfree were compared from preintervention to 3- and 6-month follow-up. BEfree was effective in eliminating BED; in diminishing eating psychopathology, depression, shame and self-criticism, body-image psychological inflexibility, and body-image cognitive fusion; and in improving obesity-related quality of life and self-compassion when compared to a WL control group. Results were maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Finally, participants rated BEfree helpful for dealing with impulses and negative internal experiences. These results seem to suggest the efficacy of BEfree and the benefit of integrating different components such as psychoeducation, mindfulness, and self-compassion when treating BED in obese or overweight women. The current study provides evidence of the acceptability of a psychoeducation, mindfulness, and compassion program for binge eating in obesity (BEfree); Developing mindfulness and self-compassionate skills is an effective way of

  5. Effect of Mild Cold Exposure on Cognition in Persons with Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrakis, John P; Liu, Shou-An; Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Krajewski, Megan; Spungen, Ann M; Bang, Charlene; Swonger, Kirsten; Bauman, William A

    2015-08-01

    Persons with a cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) have impaired thermoregulatory mechanisms secondary to interrupted of motor, sensory, and sympathetic pathways. In this study, our primary aim was to determine the effect of cool temperature exposure on core body temperature (Tcore) and cognitive performance in persons with tetraplegia. Seven men with chronic tetraplegia (C3-C7, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] A-C) and seven able-bodied controls were exposed to 27°C temperature at baseline (BL) before being exposed to 18°C for ≤120 min (Cool Challenge). Rectal temperature (Tcore), distal skin temperatures (Tskavg), microvascular skin perfusion (LDFavg), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. Cognitive performance was assessed using Delayed Recall, Stroop Interference tests at the end of BL and Cool Challenge. After Cool Challenge, Tcore decreased -1.2±0.12°C (ptetraplegia lack adequate thermoregulatory mechanisms to prevent downward drift in Tcore on exposure to cool temperatures. This decline in Tcore was associated with deterioration of working memory and executive function.

  6. Does in utero exposure of antiepileptic drugs lead to failure to reach full cognitive potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorry, D; Bromley, R

    2015-05-01

    A clinical scenario of a young female on 800 mg of sodium valproate (VPA) who has recently failed lamotrigine (LTG) and levetiracetam (LEV) and who is currently planning a pregnancy is presented. Currently available data pertaining to the longer-term development of children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are reviewed along with considerations around the methodology and interpretation of such research. There is an accumulation of data highlighting significant risks associated with prenatal exposed to VPA, with the level of risk being mediated by dose. The majority of published evidence does not find a significant risk associated with carbamazepine (CBZ) exposure in utero for global cognitive abilities however the evidence for more specific cognitive skills are unclear. Limited data indicate that LTG may be a preferred treatment to VPA in terms of foetal outcome but further evidence is required. Too little data pertaining to LEV exposure is available and a lack of evidence regarding risk of this and other new AEDs should not be interpreted as evidence of safety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Afternoon nap and bright light exposure improve cognitive flexibility post lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Hichem; Deliens, Gaétane; Schmitz, Rémy; Peigneux, Philippe; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15), or bright light versus placebo (n=10). Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions). The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes. In the bright light/placebo condition, participants watched a documentary under either bright blue light or dim orange light (placebo) for 30 minutes. The switch cost estimates cognitive flexibility and measures task-switching efficiency. Increased switch cost scores indicate higher difficulties to switch between tasks. In both control conditions (wake or placebo), accuracy switch-cost score increased post lunch. Both interventions (nap or bright light) elicited a decrease in accuracy switch-cost score post lunch, which was associated with diminished fatigue and decreased variability in vigilance. Additionally, there was a trend for a post-lunch benefit of bright light with a decreased latency switch-cost score. In the nap group, improvements in accuracy switch-cost score were associated with more NREM sleep stage N1. Thus, exposure to bright light during the post-lunch dip, a countermeasure easily applicable in daily life, results in similar beneficial effects as

  8. Afternoon nap and bright light exposure improve cognitive flexibility post lunch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Slama

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15, or bright light versus placebo (n=10. Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions. The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes. In the bright light/placebo condition, participants watched a documentary under either bright blue light or dim orange light (placebo for 30 minutes. The switch cost estimates cognitive flexibility and measures task-switching efficiency. Increased switch cost scores indicate higher difficulties to switch between tasks. In both control conditions (wake or placebo, accuracy switch-cost score increased post lunch. Both interventions (nap or bright light elicited a decrease in accuracy switch-cost score post lunch, which was associated with diminished fatigue and decreased variability in vigilance. Additionally, there was a trend for a post-lunch benefit of bright light with a decreased latency switch-cost score. In the nap group, improvements in accuracy switch-cost score were associated with more NREM sleep stage N1. Thus, exposure to bright light during the post-lunch dip, a countermeasure easily applicable in daily life, results in similar

  9. Virtual reality exposure versus cognitive restructuring for treatment of public speaking anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Helene S; Safir, Marilyn P; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    To determine the utility of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRE) in comparison with Cognitive Therapy (CT ) and with Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT). Subjects suffering from public speaking anxiety (PSA) were randomly allocated to VRE and CT , and received 12 therapy sessions, employing standardized treatment manuals. Outcome (questionnaires, observer and self ratings of a behavioral task) was compared to results of subjects in a previous study CBT and Wait List Controls who were not significantly different on demographic data. CT was not superior to VRE on cognitive measures, but was superior to VRE on one behavioral measure (LSAS fear). VRE was superior to CT on one behavioral measure (fear reduction on a behavioral task). No differences were found between either CT , or VRE, and CBT and all were superior to WL. Subject group was small and homogeneous. It appeared advisable to increase number of therapy sessions. VRE and CT proved to be equally effective to CBT in reducing PSA relative to a control group, with minimal differential effects between them. Therefore, employing either one may be satisfactory and sufficient.

  10. Cognitive Mediation of Symptom Change in Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Jen; Carpenter, Joseph K; Zandberg, Laurie J; Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B

    2016-07-01

    This study examined cognitive mediators of symptom change during exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on cognitive models of OCD, obsessive beliefs were hypothesized as a mediator of symptom change. Participants were 70 patients with primary OCD receiving EX/RP either as part of a randomized controlled trial (n=38) or in open treatment following nonresponse to risperidone or placebo in the same trial (n=32). Blinded evaluations of OCD severity and self-report assessments of three domains of obsessive beliefs (i.e., responsibility/threat of harm, importance/control of thoughts, and perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty) were administered during acute (Weeks 0, 4 and 8) and maintenance treatment (Weeks 12 and 24). Study hypotheses were examined using cross-lagged multilevel modeling. Contrary to predictions, the obsessive beliefs domains investigated did not mediate subsequent OCD symptom reduction. In addition, OCD symptoms did not significantly mediate subsequent change in obsessive beliefs. The present study did not find evidence of cognitive mediation during EX/RP for OCD, highlighting the need to investigate other plausible mediators of symptom improvement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Prenatal and Childhood Traffic-Related Pollution Exposure and Childhood Cognition in the Project Viva Cohort (Massachusetts, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Gold, Diane R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Melly, Steven J; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K; Oken, Emily

    2015-10-01

    Influences of prenatal and early-life exposures to air pollution on cognition are not well understood. We examined associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with childhood cognition. We studied 1,109 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort study in eastern Massachusetts (USA). In mid-childhood (mean age, 8.0 years), we measured verbal and nonverbal intelligence, visual motor abilities, and visual memory. For periods in late pregnancy and childhood, we estimated spatially and temporally resolved black carbon (BC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures, residential proximity to major roadways, and near-residence traffic density. We used linear regression models to examine associations of exposures with cognitive assessment scores, adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with children living ≥ 200 m from a major roadway at birth, those living < 50 m away had lower nonverbal IQ [-7.5 points; 95% confidence interval (CI): -13.1, -1.9], and somewhat lower verbal IQ (-3.8 points; 95% CI: -8.2, 0.6) and visual motor abilities (-5.3 points; 95% CI: -11.0, 0.4). Cross-sectional associations of major roadway proximity and cognition at mid-childhood were weaker. Prenatal and childhood exposure to traffic density and PM2.5 did not appear to be associated with poorer cognitive performance. Third-trimester and childhood BC exposures were associated with lower verbal IQ in minimally adjusted models; but after adjustment for socioeconomic covariates, associations were attenuated or reversed. Residential proximity to major roadways during gestation and early life may affect cognitive development. Influences of pollutants and socioeconomic conditions on cognition may be difficult to disentangle.

  12. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and stres: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, T.; Griffiths, K.M.; Cuijpers, P.; Christensen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published

  13. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and stress: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, T.; Griffiths, K.M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published

  14. Development and Effectiveness of a Psychoeducational Wellness Program for People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic-Radic, Jelena; Strober, Lauren; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D.; DeLuca, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) mostly affects young and middle-aged adults and is known to be associated with a host of factors involved in overall quality of life and well-being. The biopsychosocial model of disease takes into account the multifaceted nature of chronic illness and is commonly applied to MS. The present investigation examined the effectiveness of a 10-week psychoeducational MS wellness program that was developed on the basis of the biopsychosocial model and a wellness approach to treatment. Methods: The program consisted of 90-minute, weekly psychoeducational wellness group sessions aimed at improving quality of life by increasing awareness of the various social, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual factors that can affect the overall well-being of people living with MS. Fifty-four individuals with MS participated in the study (43 individuals who completed the wellness intervention and 11 individuals with MS who did not participate; “controls”). All participants completed a series of self-report questionnaires at baseline and at the 10-week follow-up, assessing depression, anxiety, perceived stress, cognitive complaints, pain, social support, and fatigue. Results: Repeated-measures analysis revealed improvements in depression, anxiety, overall mental health, perceived stress, and pain in the treatment group compared with the control group. No significant differences were observed between the groups on measures assessing social support, cognitive complaints, and fatigue. Conclusions: The findings suggest that a psychoeducational wellness program is effective in improving the overall quality of life and well-being of individuals with MS. PMID:25741221

  15. Effectiveness of a psycho-educational group program for major depression in primary care: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies show the effectiveness of group psychoeducation in reducing symptoms in people with depression. However, few controlled studies that have included aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, sleep) together with cognitive-behavioral techniques in psychoeducation are proven to be effective. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a psychoeducational program, which includes aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle, in patients with mild/moderate depression symptoms in Primary Care (PC). Methods In a randomized, controlled trial, 246 participants over 20 years old with ICD-10 major depression were recruited through nurses/general practitioners at 12 urban Primary Care Centers (PCCs) in Barcelona. The intervention group (IG) (n=119) received a group psychoeducational program (12 weekly, 1.5 h sessions led by two nurses) and the control group (CG) (n=112) received usual care. Patients were assessed at baseline and at, 3, 6 and 9 months. The main outcome measures were the BDI, EQ-5D and remission based upon the BDI. Results 231 randomized patients were included, of whom 85 had mild depression and 146 moderate depression. The analyses showed significant differences between groups in relation to remission of symptoms, especially in the mild depression group with a high rate of 57% (p=0.009) at post-treatment and 65% (p=0.006) at 9 month follow up, and only showed significant differences on the BDI at post-treatment (p=0.016; effect size Cohen’s d’=.51) and at 6 and 9 month follow-up (p= 0.048; d’=.44). In the overall and moderate sample, the analyses only showed significant differences between groups on the BDI at post-treatment, p=0.02 (d’=.29) and p=0.010 (d’=.47), respectively. The psychoeducation group improved significantly on the EQ-5D at short and long-term. Conclusions This psychoeducational intervention is a short and long-term effective treatment for patients with mild

  16. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and stress: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Donker, T.; Griffiths, K.M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in Septemb...

  17. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and stres: a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Donker, T.; Griffiths, K.M.; Cuijpers, P.; Christensen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in Septemb...

  18. Psycho-education for substance use and antisocial personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Schrøder, Sidsel; Hesse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antisocial personality disorder often co-exists with drug and alcohol use disorders. Methods: This trial examined the effectiveness of offering psycho-education for antisocial personality disorder in community substance use disorder treatment centers in Denmark. A total of 176 patients...... in substance use were associated with randomization to Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling. The findings support the usefulness of providing psycho-education to outpatients with antisocial personality disorder. Trial registration: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN67266318, 17/7/2012...

  19. Psychoeducational programs for reducing prison violence: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Auty, Katherine Mary; Cope, A; Liebling, A

    2017-01-01

    Institutional violence presents significant challenges to the accomplishment of legitimate social order in prison. This systematic review examines the effect of psychoeducational programs on violent behaviour in prison. Comprehensive searches of the empirical research literature were conducted to identify randomized and non-randomized studies carried out in the last two decades (1996–2016) that compared psychoeducational programs with treatment as usual (TAU). The content of programs was anal...

  20. APOE ε4 allele modifies the association of lead exposure with age-related cognitive decline in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Diddier; Colicino, Elena; Power, Melinda C; Weisskopf, Marc G; Zhong, Jia; Hou, Lifang; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel; Brenan, Kasey; Herrera, Luis A; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-11-01

    Continuing chronic and sporadic high-level of lead exposure in some regions in the U.S. has directed public attention to the effects of lead on human health. Long-term lead exposure has been associated with faster cognitive decline in older individuals; however, genetic susceptibility to lead-related cognitive decline during aging has been poorly studied. We determined the interaction of APOE-epsilon variants and environmental lead exposure in relation to age-related cognitive decline. We measured tibia bone lead by K-shell-x-ray fluorescence, APOE-epsilon variants by multiplex PCR and global cognitive z-scores in 489 men from the VA-Normative Aging Study. To determine global cognitive z-scores we incorporated multiple cognitive assessments, including word list memory task, digit span backwards, verbal fluency test, sum of drawings, and pattern comparison task, which were assessed at multiple visits. We used linear mixed-effect models with random intercepts for individual and for cognitive test. An interquartile range (IQR:14.23μg/g) increase in tibia lead concentration was associated with a 0.06 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: -0.11 to -0.01) lower global cognition z-score. In the presence of both ε4 alleles, one IQR increase in tibia lead was associated with 0.57 (95%CI: -0.97 to -0.16; p-value for interaction: 0.03) lower total cognition z-score. A borderline association was observed in presence of one ε4 allele (Estimate-effect per 1-IQR increase: -0.11, 95%CI: -0.22, 0.01) as well as lack of association in individuals without APOE ε4 allele. Our findings suggest that individuals carrying both ε4 alleles are more susceptible to lead impact on global cognitive decline during aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Prenatal alcohol exposure, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Diana M; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Roesch, Scott C; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2013-01-01

    Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure often meet criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD research has examined subtype differences in symptomatology, including sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT). This construct is defined by behavioral symptoms including hypoactivity and daydreaming and has been linked to increased internalizing behaviors. The current study examined whether similar findings are displayed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. As part of a multisite study, caregivers of 272 children (8 to 16 years) completed the SCT Scale and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Four groups were included: alcohol-exposed children with ADHD (ALC+; n = 75), alcohol-exposed children without ADHD (ALC-; n = 35), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD; n = 60), and nonexposed children without ADHD (CON; n = 102). SCT and CBCL scores were analyzed using 2 (exposure) × 2 (ADHD) analyses of variance. Pearson's correlations measured the relationships between SCT, CBCL, and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ). Discriminant function analysis examined whether SCT items could accurately classify groups. Analyses revealed significant main effects of exposure and ADHD on SCT and internalizing and externalizing scores and significant interaction effects on SCT and internalizing scores. SCT significantly correlated with internalizing, externalizing, and attention ratings in all groups and with FSIQ in ALC+. Discriminant function analysis indicated that specific SCT items could distinguish ALC- from CON. Alcohol-exposed children exhibited elevated SCT scores. Elevations were related to increased parent ratings of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and attention. These findings are observed in alcohol-exposed children regardless of ADHD symptoms and specific SCT items proved useful in distinguishing exposed children, suggesting clinical utility for this measure in further defining the neurobehavioral profile related to prenatal alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2012

  2. Embodied simulation in exposure-based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder-a possible integration of cognitive behavioral theories, neuroscience, and psychoanalysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peri, Tuvia; Gofman, Mordechai; Tal, Shahar; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka

    2015-01-01

    ...). Although exposure-based therapies aim to change associative learning networks and negative cognitions related to the trauma memory, emotional interactions between patient and therapist have not been...

  3. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Pham, Tai The; Ozawa, Kyoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Tuong Quy; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Phan, Vu Huy Anh; Nakai, Akio; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    .... Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children...

  4. Effect of prenatal marijuana exposure on the cognitive development of offspring at age three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, N L; Richardson, G A; Goldschmidt, L; Robles, N; Taylor, P M; Stoffer, D S; Cornelius, M D; Geva, D

    1994-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance among pregnant women. Although there has been substantial concern about the effects of substance use during pregnancy, few studies have assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana and even fewer have provided longitudinal data on the developmental outcome of offspring. This is a report from a longitudinal study of substance use during pregnancy. The women in the cohort were of lower socioeconomic status, most were single, half were white and half were African-American. Women were interviewed at the fourth and seventh prenatal months, and women and children were assessed at delivery, 8, 18, and 36 months. Pediatric assessment included physical and cognitive development. At each study phase, mothers were interviewed about life style, living situation, current substance use, sociodemographic, and psychological status. Findings are reported on 655 women and children who were assessed at the third year. There were significant negative effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on the performance of 3-year-old children on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. The effects were associated with exposure during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Among the offspring of white women, these effects were moderated by the child's attendance at preschool/day-care at age three.

  5. Perinatal exposure to methoxychlor enhances adult cognitive responses and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela eMartini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During perinatal life, sex steroids, such as estradiol, have marked effects on the development and function of the nervous system. Environmental estrogens or xenoestrogens are man-made chemicals, which animal and human population encounter in the environment and which are able to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. Scientific interest in the effects of exposure to xenoestrogens has focused more on fertility and reproductive behaviors, while the effects on cognitive behaviors have received less attention. Therefore, the present study explored whether the organochlorine insecticide Methoxychlor (MXC, with known xenoestrogens properties, administered during the perinatal period (from gestational day 11 to postnatal day 8 to pregnant-lactating females, at an environmentally relevant dose (20µg/kg (body weight/day, would also affect learning and memory functions depending on the hippocampus of male and female offspring mice in adulthood. When tested in adulthood, MXC perinatal exposure led to an increase in anxiety-like behavior and in short-term spatial working memory in both sexes. Emotional learning was also assessed using a contextual fear paradigm and MXC treated male and female mice showed an enhanced freezing behavior compared to controls. These results were correlated with an increased survival of adult generated cells in the adult hippocampus. In conclusion, our results show that perinatal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of MXC has an organizational effect on hippocampus-dependent memory and emotional behaviors.

  6. Long-Term Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Consequences of Repetitive Concussion and Head-Impact Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Thomas; McCrea, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Initially, interest in sport-related concussion arose from the premise that the study of athletes engaged in sports associated with high rates of concussion could provide insight into the mechanisms, phenomenology, and recovery from mild traumatic brain injury. Over the last decade, concerns have focused on the possibility that, for some athletes, repetitive concussions may raise the long-term risk for cognitive decline, neurobehavioral changes, and neurodegenerative disease. First conceptualized as a discrete event with variable recovery trajectories, concussion is now viewed by some as a trigger of neurobiological events that may influence neurobehavioral function over the course of the life span. Furthermore, advances in technology now permit us to gain a detailed understanding of the frequency and intensity of repetitive head impacts associated with contact sports (eg, football, ice hockey). Helmet-based sensors can be used to characterize the kinematic features of concussive impacts, as well as the profiles of typical head-impact exposures experienced by athletes in routine sport participation. Many large-magnitude impacts are not associated with diagnosed concussions, whereas many diagnosed concussions are associated with more modest impacts. Therefore, a full understanding of this topic requires attention to not only the effects of repetitive concussions but also overall exposure to repetitive head impacts. This article is a review of the current state of the science on the long-term neurocognitive and neurobehavioral effects of repetitive concussion and head-impact exposure in contact sports.

  7. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure and cognitive outcomes at age 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Bromley, Rebecca L; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many women of childbearing potential take antiepileptic drugs, but the cognitive effects of fetal exposure are uncertain. We aimed to assess effects of commonly used antiepileptic drugs on cognitive outcomes in children up to 6 years of age. Methods: In this prospective, observational, assessor-masked, multicentre study, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug monotherapy (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) between October, 1999, and Februa...

  8. RELATIONSHIP OF EXPOSURE TO PUBLIC AFFAIRS NEWS WITH COGNITIVE, ATTITUDINAL AND BEHAVIOURAL DIMENSIONS OF ETHNIC TOLERANCE AMONG MALAYSIAN YOUTHS

    OpenAIRE

    Fazilah Idris; Wendy Yee Mei Tien; Ezhar Tamam; Azimi Hamzah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship and contribution of exposure to public affairs news vis-à-vis the cognitive, and attitudinal components and the behavioural component of ethnic tolerance among Malaysian youths aged between 15 to 25 years. The survey data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. A total of 2,906 youths voluntarily participated in a survey. The results of regression analyses showed that when exposed to public affairs news, the cognitive and attitudinal compone...

  9. Is exposure to secondhand smoke associated with cognitive parameters of children and adolescents?--a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoling; Clifford, Angela; Lang, Linda; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Despite the known association of second hand smoke (SHS) with increased risk of ill health and mortality, the effects of SHS exposure on cognitive functioning in children and adolescents are unclear. Through a critical review of the literature we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between these variables. The authors systematically reviewed articles (dated 1989-2012) that investigated the association between SHS exposure (including in utero due to SHS exposure by pregnant women) and performance on neurocognitive and academic tests. Eligible studies were identified from searches of Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Zetoc, and Clinicaltrials.gov. Fifteen articles were identified, of which 12 showed inverse relationships between SHS and cognitive parameters. Prenatal SHS exposure was inversely associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in young children, whereas postnatal SHS exposure was associated with poor academic achievement and neurocognitive performance in older children and adolescents. Furthermore, SHS exposure was associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Recommendations should be made to the public to avoid sources of SHS and future research should investigate interactions between SHS exposure and other risk factors for delayed neurodevelopment and poor cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning to live with a loved one with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Effectiveness of a waiting-list controlled trial of a group intervention on significant others' sense of competence and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vullings, M.; Prins, J.B.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This controlled study examines the efficacy of a comprehensive group program aimed at care partners of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which comprises elements of psychoeducation, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Pre- and posttreatment quantitative and

  11. Learning to live with a loved one with mild cognitive impairment: effectiveness of a waiting list controlled trial of a group intervention on significant others' sense of competence and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banningh, L.W.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vullings, M.; Prins, J.B.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This controlled study examines the efficacy of a comprehensive group program aimed at care partners of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which comprises elements of psychoeducation, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Pre- and posttreatment quantitative and

  12. A New Comprehensive Educational Group Program for Older Adults with Cognitive Complaints: Background, Content, and Process Evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenhout, E. M.; de Groot, R. H. M.; Jolles, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive group intervention for older adults with cognitive complaints. It offers psychoeducation about cognitive aging and contextual factors, focuses on skills and compensatory behavior, and incorporates group discussion. The intervention reduced negative emotional

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric comorbidity following the 2010 flood in Pakistan: exposure characteristics, cognitive distortions, and emotional suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Jalal, Sabeena; Khan, Najib Ullah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric comorbidity among the 2010 flood victims in Pakistan and its relationship with disaster exposure characteristics, cognitive distortions, and emotional suppression. One hundred and thirty-one (F = 89, M = 42) flood victims were assessed using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Cognitive Distortion Scales, and the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. The results showed that all victims met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD and scored above the cut-off for psychiatric caseness. Partial least squares modelling showed that disaster exposure characteristics were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity. Disaster exposure characteristics were also significantly associated with cognitive distortions which in turn were also significantly associated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity. Cognitive distortions were also correlated with emotional suppression which, however, was not associated with PTSD or psychiatric comorbidity. To conclude, the flood victims reported PTSD and psychiatric comorbid symptoms which were related to their subjective exposure to the flood. Such exposure led to the development of dysfunctional thinking patterns which in turn influenced distress symptoms.

  14. The hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure: Different cognitive deficits in different first-responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eLevy-Gigi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on first responders who are repeatedly exposed to traumatic events report low levels of PTSD symptoms and diagnosis. However, neuroimaging and behavioral studies show that traumatic exposure is associated with brain and cognitive dysfunctions. Taking together it may suggest that traumatic exposure have a price, which is not sufficiently defined by the standard PTSD measures. In a recent study we revealed that similar to individuals with PTSD, non-PTSD highly exposed firefighters display a selective impairment in hippocampal related functions. In the current study we aimed to test whether different first responders display a similar impairment. We concentrated on unique populations of active duty firefighters and criminal scene-investigators (CSI police, who are frequently exposed to similar levels and types of traumatic events, and compared them to civilian matched-controls with no history of trauma-exposure. We used a hippocampal dependent cue-context reversal paradigm, which separately evaluates reversal of negative and positive outcomes of cue and context related information. We predicted and found that all participants were equally able to acquire and retain stimulus-outcome associations. However, there were significant differences in reversal learning between the groups. Performance among firefighters replicated our prior findings; they struggled to learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome. CSI police on the other hand showed a selective impairment in reversing the outcome of a negative cue. Hence after learning that a specific cue is associated with a negative outcome, they could not learn that later it is associated with a positive outcome. Performance in both groups did not correlate with levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression or behavioral inhibition symptoms. The results provide further evidence of the hidden price of traumatic exposure, suggesting that this price may differ as a

  15. Exposure to violence, social cognitive processing, and sleep problems in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 years, SD = 0.59; range 11-14 years; 48.9% male; 51% Latino/a; 34% black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children's age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes.

  16. Exposure to Violence, Social Cognitive Processing, and Sleep Problems in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 yrs, SD = 0.59; Range 11 to 14 yrs; 48.9% male; 51% Latino/a; 34% black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children’s age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes. PMID:25218396

  17. Cognitive test performance following exposure to noise in an open-office simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren Peter; Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger

    participated completed two counter balanced experimental sessions, one with exposure to simulation of office noise (Leq=55 dB(A)) and one without noise (Leq=50 dB(A)). To simulate a workday, each session lasted about 7 hours, where the participants engaged in different computerised work tasks. Before and after......Objective: Noise in open-plan offices may increase mental fatigue of the employees at the end of the day. Measurements: 225 employees completed a screening questionnaire. Of these, 50 persons (33 females) who normally worked in open-plan offices agreed to participate in the experiment. All who...... each simulated workday, the participants performed different tests, including Choice Reaction Time (CRT) test, Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) test, and a Two-Back Task (TBT) test. Results: Working in noise did not affect the number of correct trials in the cognitive test after work. Yet...

  18. Impaired cognitive performance in subjects with methamphetamine dependence during exposure to neutral versus methamphetamine-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Chapman, Elizabeth; Garrett, Margaret; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse is associated with cognitive deficits that may impede treatment in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues can elicit intense craving in chronic users of the drug, but the effects of exposure to drug cues on cognitive performance in these individuals are unknown. This study assessed whether exposure to methamphetamine-related visual cues can elicit craving and/or alter dual task cognitive performance in 30 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 30 control subjects in the laboratory. Reaction time, response errors, and inhibition errors were assessed on an auditory Go-No Go task performed by adult participants (total N = 60) while watching neutral versus methamphetamine-related video cues. Craving was assessed with the Within-Session Rating Scale modified for methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues elicited craving only in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Even in the absence of methamphetamine cues, methamphetamine-dependent subjects exhibited slower reaction times and higher rates of both inhibition and response errors than control subjects did. Upon exposure to methamphetamine cues, rates of both response errors and inhibition errors increased significantly in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Control subjects exhibited no increase in inhibition errors and only slightly increased rates of response errors upon exposure to methamphetamine cues. Response error rates, but not inhibition error rates or reaction times, during methamphetamine cue exposure were significantly associated with craving scores in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methamphetamine-dependent individuals exhibit cognitive performance deficits that are more pronounced during exposure to methamphetamine-related cues. Interventions that reduce cue reactivity may have utility in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.J.A.; Sauer, Pieter J.J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...

  20. Addiction-Related Gene Regulation: Risks of Exposure to Cognitive Enhancers vs. Other Psychostimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Heinz; Van Waes, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The psychostimulants methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), amphetamine (Adderall), and modafinil (Provigil) are widely used in the treatment of medical conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy and, increasingly, as “cognitive enhancers” by healthy people. The long-term neuronal effects of these drugs, however, are poorly understood. A substantial amount of research over the past 2 decades has investigated the effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines on gene regulation in the brain because these molecular changes are considered critical for psychostimulant addiction. This work has determined in some detail the neurochemical and cellular mechanisms that mediate psychostimulant-induced gene regulation and has also identified the neuronal systems altered by these drugs. Among the most affected brain systems are corticostriatal circuits, which are part of cortico-basal ganglia-cortical loops that mediate motivated behavior. The neurotransmitters critical for such gene regulation are dopamine in interaction with glutamate, while other neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin) play modulatory roles. This review presents (1) an overview of the main findings on cocaine- and amphetamine-induced gene regulation in corticostriatal circuits in an effort to provide a cellular framework for (2) an assessment of the molecular changes produced by methylphenidate, medical amphetamine (Adderall), and modafinil. The findings lead to the conclusion that protracted exposure to these cognitive enhancers can induce gene regulation effects in corticostriatal circuits that are qualitatively similar to those of cocaine and other amphetamines. These neuronal changes may contribute to the addiction liability of the psychostimulant cognitive enhancers. PMID:23085425

  1. Fear of flying treatment methods: virtual reality exposure vs. cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijn, Merel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Bouwman, Manon; van Gerwen, Lucas J; Spinhoven, Philip; Schuemie, Martijn J; van der Mast, Charles A P G

    2007-02-01

    Fear of flying (FOF) can be a serious problem for individuals who develop this condition and for military and civilian organizations that operate aircraft. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three treatments: bibliotherapy (BIB) without therapist contact; individualized virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE); and cognitive behavior therapy (CB). In addition, we evaluated the effect of following up VRE and CB with 2 d of group cognitive-behavioral training (GrCB). There were 86 subjects suffering from FOF who entered the study; 19 BIB, 29 VRE, and 16 CB subjects completed the treatment protocols. The BIB subjects were then treated with VRE (n = 7) or CB (n = 12). There were 59 subjects who were then trained with GrCB. Treatment with VRE or CB was more effective than BIB. Both VRE and CB showed a decline in FOF on the two main outcome measures. There was no statistically significant difference between those two therapies. However, effect sizes were lower for VRE (small to moderate) than for CB (moderate) and the addition of GrCB had less effect for VRE than for CB. VRE holds promise as treatment for FOF, but in this trial CB followed by GrCB showed the largest decrease in subjective anxiety. The results suggest that future research should focus on comparing the effectiveness of VRE vs. VRE plus cognitive techniques or measure the effectiveness of each component of treatment. Moreover, the effectiveness of the GrCB as stand-alone treatment should be investigated, which might even be superior in cost-effectiveness.

  2. Prenatal Paraquat exposure induces neurobehavioral and cognitive changes in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Bali, Yassine; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we investigated developmental toxicity of Paraquat (PQ), from the 1st or 6th day of mating and throughout the gestation period. We have examined several parameters, including toxicity indices, reproductive performance, sensorimotor development, as well as anxiety and cognitive performance of the offspring. Our results showed that exposure to 20mg/kg of Paraquat during the first days of pregnancy completely prevents pregnancy in treated mice, but from the 6th day of pregnancy, an alteration in fertility and reproductive parameters was observed. In offspring, the PQ was responsible for an overall delay of innate reflexes and a deficit in motor development. All exposed animals showed a decrease in the level of locomotor activity, increased levels of anxiety-like behavior and pronounced cognitive impairment in adulthood. These results demonstrated that Paraquat led to the onset of many behavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes in prenatally exposed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in sleep symptoms across Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutner, Cassidy A; Casement, Melynda D; Stavitsky Gilbert, Karina; Resick, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is a core component in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although cognitive-behavioral treatments for PTSD reduce the severity of sleep symptoms, they do not lead to complete remission. The present study examines the impact of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) on subjective measures of sleep disturbance from treatment randomization through long-term follow-up (LTFU). Participants were 171 female rape victims with PTSD who were randomly assigned to CPT, PE, or Minimal Attention (MA). After 6-weeks, the MA group was randomized to CPT or PE. Sleep symptoms were assessed at baseline, post-MA, post-treatment, 3-months, 9-months and LTFU using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and nightmare and insomnia items from the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Change in sleep during MA, from pre- to post-treatment for CPT and PE, and from post-treatment through LTFU was assessed using piecewise hierarchical linear modeling with the intent-to-treat sample. Controlling for medication, sleep improved during CPT and PE compared to MA, and treatment gains were maintained through LTFU. CPT and PE were equally efficacious and improvements persist over LTFU, yet, neither produced remission of sleep disturbance. Overall, sleep symptoms do not remit and may warrant sleep-specific treatments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Can Pain-Related Fear Be Reduced? The Application of Cognitive-Behavioural Exposure in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan WS Vlaeyen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive-behavioural treatments of patients with chronic pain generally are reported to be effective, customization might increase their effectiveness. One possible way to customize treatment is to focus the intervention on the supposed mechanism underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain disability. Evidence is accumulating in support of the conjecture that pain-related fear and associated avoidance behaviours are crucial in the development and maintenance of chronic pain disability. It seems timely to apply this knowledge to the cognitive-behavioural management of chronic pain. Two studies are presented here. Study 1 concerns a secondary analysis of data gathered in a clinical trial that was aimed at the examination of the supplementary value of coping skills training when added to an operant-behavioural treatment in patients with chronic back pain. The results show that, compared with a waiting list control, an operant-behavioural treatment with or without pain-coping skills training produced very modest and clinically negligible decreases in pain-related fear. Study 2 presents the effects of more systematic exposure in vivo treatment with behavioural experiments in two single patients reporting substantial pain-related fear. Randomization tests for AB designs revealed dramatic changes in pain-related fear and pain catastrophizing. In both cases, pain intensity also decreased significantly, but at a slower pace. Differences before and after treatment revealed clinically significant improvements in pain vigilance and pain disability.

  5. Prenatal exposure to testosterone interacts with lifetime physical abuse to predict anger rumination and cognitive flexibility among incarcerated methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschl, Laura C; Highland, Krista B; McChargue, Dennis E

    2012-01-01

    The present pilot study hypothesized that degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with a history of lifetime physical abuse (LPA) to predict the cognitive (anger rumination) and behavioral (intimate partner and interpersonal violence) components of aggression within incarcerated methamphetamine (MA) users. In addition, we hypothesized that the degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with LPA to predict cognitive flexibility (Stroop Color-Word performance). Male inmate MA users (N = 60) completed neuropsychological and paper/pencil tests. Hand photocopies were also obtained to index prenatal testosterone exposure. Five covariate-adjusted moderation models were tested using anger rumination, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, interpersonal violence perpetration (before and while incarcerated), and Stroop Color-Word T-score as the criteria, prenatal testosterone exposure as the predictor, and LPA as the moderator. Results indicated that, in individuals with a history of LPA, exposure to higher levels of prenatal testosterone exposure predicted greater anger rumination, lower Stroop Color-Word test T-scores, and lower frequencies of IPV perpetration. Findings were not significant in individuals without a history of LPA. This research suggests that biochemical and psychosocial vulnerabilities influence anger rumination and cognitive flexibility, which may render incarcerated MA users at greater risk to relapse or recidivate upon release from prison. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrin, Maite; Moreno-Granados, J M; Salcedo-Marin, M D; Ruiz-Veguilla, M; Perez-Ayala, V; Taylor, E

    2014-08-01

    Recent guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have claimed the possible benefits of psychoeducational techniques in the comprehensive management of ADHD. To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD in a clinical setting using a blind randomized trial. 81 children/adolescents with ADHD were randomly assigned for their families to receive either a well-structured psychoeducation programme (intervention group, n = 44), or a parent counselling and support intervention (control group, n = 37). Measures of child ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, quality of life and family stress were taken before and after intervention and after a year follow-up. Parents and evaluators were unaware of the condition received. Compared to the support control group, the psychoeducation group showed ADHD Index and cognitive/inattention levels significantly reduced after the intervention ended (Mann-Whitney U = 3.34; p = 0.001; Mann-Whitney U = 3.47; p = 0.001). An improvement in the pro-social domain was also observed after 1 year follow-up (Mann-Whitney U = -2.37; p = 0.018), and clinical global impression found a statistically significant effect for severity over the time. Differences were initially found for the impact of the disorder in the family in different domains, including emotional and social functioning; these differences were no longer significant after alpha correction. No significant differences in quality of life or family stress were found in comparison with the control group. This psychoeducation programme is a valuable treatment for parents/carers of children/adolescents with ADHD, which needs to be considered when evaluating different non-pharmacological treatment options. Psychoeducation and other kind of non-pharmacological approaches need to be regarded not as a substitute, but as a complementary treatment to medications; these approaches might help other

  7. Historical cohort study of in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs and cognitive function in young adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    1999-01-01

    to the central nervous system.1 Several studies have reported an association between oxytocic drugs and neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia,2 which might influence long term cognitive function.3 Little is known, however, of the long term consequences of exposure to uterotonic drugs. We investigated whether in utero...

  8. Association between Air Pollution Exposure, Cognitive and Adaptive Function, and ASD Severity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, Tara; Volk, Heather; Li, Weiyan; Lurmann, Fred; Eckel, Sandrah; McConnell, Rob; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk but no study has examined associations with ASD severity or functioning. Cognitive ability, adaptive functioning, and ASD severity were assessed in 327 children with ASD from the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study using the…

  9. Benefits of consumer psychoeducation: a pilot program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Soraya; Haskis, Anne; Stein, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that patient adherence to antidepressant treatment is unsatisfactory. There is, however, little published data on adherence in the South African context. In this pilot study we explore the possible benefits of a consumer psychoeducation program. First, drop-out rates during the first four months of paroxetine treatment were surveyed in patients participating in a psychoeducational program focused on depression and its treatment. Practitioners were also surveyed about their perceptions of the program. Second, drop-out rates during the first four months of paroxetine treatment were estimated from a pharmacy database of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescriptions in South Africa. Patients who participated in a psychoeducational program demonstrated comparatively lower drop-out rates during treatment compared with drop-out rates in patients on paroxetine (and other SSRIs) obtained from a national pharmacy database. Improved adherence on the psychoeducational program was attributed to an increased understanding of depression and the need to take medication, a realization that patients are not alone (i.e., depression is a widespread problem) and a better understanding and acceptance of the possible side-effects of medication. Both practitioners and patients were positive about their experience of the program and 80% of doctors judged the program to be very useful. Drop-out rates during SSRI treatment in South Africa appear to be unacceptably high, whether or not patients receive concomitant benzodiazepines. Psychoeducational programs may prove valuable in increasing adherence to treatment regimes.

  10. Temporal patterns of change in panic disorder during cognitive behaviour therapy: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, M; Prasadarao, P S D V; Kumaraiah, V; Raguram, R

    2014-09-01

    CBT has been proven to be effective in the treatment of panic disorder; however, attempts to study the process of change are limited. The study evaluated the temporal patterns of change in the panic symptoms, cognitions, behaviours, and anxiety sensitivity in subjects with panic disorder being treated with CBT. Thirty subjects with panic disorder were allocated to two groups: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT, n = 15) and Behaviour Therapy (BT, n = 15). Assessments were carried out weekly for five consecutive weeks using the Semi-Structured Interview Schedule, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, and the Texas Panic Attack Record Form. The CBT group received comprehensive CBT and the BT group received psycho-education and Applied Relaxation. Following intervention the change was continuous and gradual on all the variables in the CBT group and the scores reduced to a functional range after 4-5 weeks of therapy. Such a change was not evident in the BT group. Significant change was evident in cognitive domains following the introduction of the exposure and cognitive restructuring within the CBT group. Both cognitive and behavioural techniques contributed to the overall change. CBT had an impact on the cognitive domains and significant changes were evident corresponding to the addition of cognitive restructuring and exposure techniques in the 3rd to 5th week. Both cognitive and behavioural components are therefore crucial for overall improvement to occur.

  11. RELATIONSHIP OF EXPOSURE TO PUBLIC AFFAIRS NEWS WITH COGNITIVE, ATTITUDINAL AND BEHAVIOURAL DIMENSIONS OF ETHNIC TOLERANCE AMONG MALAYSIAN YOUTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilah Idris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship and contribution of exposure to public affairs news vis-à-vis the cognitive, and attitudinal components and the behavioural component of ethnic tolerance among Malaysian youths aged between 15 to 25 years. The survey data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. A total of 2,906 youths voluntarily participated in a survey. The results of regression analyses showed that when exposed to public affairs news, the cognitive and attitudinal components of ethnic tolerance were significant predictors and accounted for 16.5% of the variance in the behavioural component of ethnic tolerance. The cognitive component of ethnic tolerance was a better predictor, followed by the attitudinal component and exposure to public affairs news.

  12. The Effects of Psychoeducational Methods on College Students' Attitudes Toward Ptsd

    OpenAIRE

    Amna, Zaujatul; Lin, Hsiu Chen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of psycho-education methods on college students' attitudes toward post traumatic stress disorder. Analysis of results indicated that lecturing was the most effective psycho-educational method to obtain attitudinal changes. The effects of psycho-education methods of a short-duration intervention for college students' positive attitudes toward PTSD. Findings from the study led to the results that a short-duration of psycho-education intervention on PTSD...

  13. The effect of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on spatial memory in adolescent rats: the dissociation of metabolic and cognitive tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Skike, Candice E; Novier, Adelle; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2012-05-09

    Using a rapid chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure paradigm, we demonstrate the dissociability of metabolic tolerance from cognitive tolerance in adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were trained to spatially navigate in the Morris Water Maze and then exposed to CIE vapor or air 16 h a day for 4 days. After a final 28 h withdrawal, all rats received a saline or ethanol challenge, followed by a test of spatial memory 30 min after administration. Results indicate that CIE vapor exposure did not significantly impair adolescent spatial memory. Although CIE-exposed rats developed metabolic tolerance to a subsequent ethanol administration, CIE exposure did not alter dose-dependent ethanol-induced spatial memory impairments. These data indicate that metabolic ethanol tolerance can be distinguished from cognitive ethanol tolerance during adolescence and suggest that blood alcohol levels alone do not fully explain ethanol-induced spatial memory impairments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Focal Conflict Theory to Psychoeducational Groups: Implications for Process, Content, and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champe, Julia; Rubel, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Group psychoeducation is a common group type used for a range of purposes. The literature presents balancing content and process as a challenge for psychoeducational group leaders. While the significance of group psychoeducation is supported, practitioners are given little direction for addressing process in these groups. Focal Conflict Theory…

  15. Methods of psychoeducational program evaluation in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J

    1992-04-01

    Psychoeducational programs for families of the mentally ill became widespread during the 1980s as a means of providing a forum for the relevant education and mutual support of participants. While these programs are thought to be extremely useful as interventions, very little emphasis has been placed on evaluation as a means of demonstrating their effectiveness in achieving goals. There is a possibility, then, that psychoeducation will continue to flourish with little direct evidence of positive outcomes for its family participants. This article consists of a literature review of existing methods of psychoeducational program evaluation, both quantitative and qualitative, all of which may be applicable in certain circumstances. The process by which an evaluation instrument was developed for a program with families of the mentally ill is then presented in some detail.

  16. Family psychoeducation and schizophrenia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, William R; Dixon, Lisa; Lukens, Ellen; Lucksted, Alicia

    2003-04-01

    Family psychoeducation has emerged as a treatment of choice for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and other disorders. More than 30 randomized clinical trials have demonstrated reduced relapse rates, improved recovery of patients, and improved family well-being among participants. Interventions common to effective family psychoeducation programs have been developed, including empathic engagement, education, ongoing support, clinical resources during periods of crisis, social network enhancement, and problem-solving and communication skills. Application of family psychoeducation in routine settings where patients having these disorders are usually treated has been limited, reflecting attitudinal, knowledge, practical, and systemic implementation obstacles. Through consensus among patient and family advocacy organizations, clinician training, and ongoing technical consultation and supervision, this approach has been implemented in routine clinical settings.

  17. Exposure to air pollution as a potential contributor to cognitive function, cognitive decline, brain imaging, and dementia: a systematic review of epidemiologic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Melinda C.; Adar, Sara D.; Yanosky, Jeff D.; Weuve, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia is a devastating condition typically preceded by a long prodromal phase characterized by accumulation of neuropathology and accelerated cognitive decline. A growing number of epidemiologic studies have explored the relation between air pollution exposure and dementia-related outcomes. Methods We undertook a systematic review, including quality assessment, to interpret the collective findings and describe methodological challenges that may limit study validity. Articles, which were identified according to a registered protocol, had to quantify the association of an air pollution exposure with cognitive function, cognitive decline, a dementia-related neuroimaging feature, or dementia. Results We identified 18 eligible published articles. The quality of most studies was adequate to exemplary. Almost all reported an adverse association between at least one pollutant and one dementia-related outcome. However, relatively few studies considered outcomes that provide the strongest evidence for a causal effect, such as within-person cognitive or pathologic changes. Reassuringly, differential selection would likely bias toward a protective association in most studies, making it unlikely to account for observed adverse associations. Likewise, using a formal sensitivity analysis, we found that unmeasured confounding is also unlikely to explain reported adverse associations. Discussion We also identified several common challenges. First, most studies of incident dementia identified cases from health system records. As dementia in the community is underdiagnosed, this could generate either non-differential or differential misclassification bias. Second, almost all studies used recent air pollution exposures as surrogate measures of long-term exposure. Although this approach may be reasonable if the measured and etiologic exposure windows are separated by a few years, its validity is unknown over longer intervals. Third, comparing the magnitude of associations

  18. A psycho-educational intervention for depressed women: a qualitative analysis of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Ma Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Acevedo, Maricarmen; Berenzon, Shoshana; Mondragón, Liliana; Rubí, Norma Angélica

    2004-12-01

    Yalom (1995) has stated that psycho-educational interventions could be made more effective by incorporating a focus on the interpersonal process. A qualitative analysis is proposed to investigate the degree of fidelity with which a psycho-educational intervention for women with depressive symptoms was delivered and to identify Yalom's significant therapeutic mechanisms operating in group therapy. The intervention consisted of six 2 two-hour weekly sessions organized around educational material. Eight groups were conducted with 5-19 participants each. A qualitative analysis was undertaken based on Kvale's (1996) technique of 'categorization of meanings' for the transcribed registers of audiotaped recordings. The analysis led to the definition of five major group process categories: establishment of rules, educational exchange, experiential exchange, reflexive work designed to achieve cognitive and behavioural change, and limitations on the exchange process. It showed that the facilitators largely adhered to the goals of the intervention, its strategies and model, and that the main limitations concerned facilitators' and participants'speaking for over-long periods of time and facilitators' failure to cover all the material due to lack of time. The subsequent analysis identified four of Yalom's categories: installation of hope, didactic instruction, catharsis, and universality. In support of Yalom's assertion, we concluded that this exercise was useful in that it highlighted important therapeutic factors that could be more purposefully manipulated in the future.

  19. Cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation, shiftwork, and heat exposure for underground miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Glenn; Clement, Alexandra; Kenny, Glen P; Hardcastle, Stephen; Keller, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation, abnormal sleep patterns arising from working rotating shifts, and exposure to high ambient temperatures contribute to physical and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the effects of these on 19 (41.5 ± 5.1 years) male underground miners. Data were collected for 28 to 30 consecutive days such that the participants experienced their full rotating shift schedule, including days off. Objective measures of sleep quality (actigraphy), attentional capacity (psychomotor vigilance task), core body temperature (visceral pill), executive function (BRIEF-A) and subjective measures of fatigue (Karolinska and Epworth Sleepiness scales) were obtained over the 28-30 day period. Non-parametric analyses (χ(2), Wilcoxen Signed ranks) were used to determine differences between shift types and days off. Z-tests were used to compare sample data to population norms. These revealed that the participants experienced poor quality of sleep relative to age-matched norms irrespective of the shift being worked or if the participant was on a scheduled day off [30-39 year olds: z = -14.62, p sleep prior to beginning work compared to their days off or night shift; however, no differences in total sleep time between when participants worked day or night shifts were observed [χ(2) (2, n = 18) = 13.44, p sleep deprived. The cognitive consequences of this poor sleep were most pronounced during night shift when their attentional capacity declined rapidly over the course of the night shift. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Cognitive Distortions on the Link Between Dating Violence Exposure and Substance Problems in Clinically Hospitalized Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Williams, Caitlin; Day, Catherine; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether cognitive distortions (e.g., cognitive errors; negative views of self, world, and future) influence the association between dating violence and problematic substance use behaviors in a sample of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Participants included 155 adolescents, aged 13-17 years, who had initiated dating. Adolescents completed measures of dating violence, substance-related problems (alcohol and marijuana), and cognitive distortions. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the direct and interactive effects of dating violence exposure and cognitive distortions on likelihood of recent problematic substance use. Results suggested a main effect of dating violence on problematic alcohol and other drug use as well as an interactive effect of dating violence and cognitive distortions. Specifically, the relationship between dating violence and odds of substance-related problems was higher among those with greater (vs. fewer) cognitive distortions. Study results suggest the need for careful screening of cognitive distortions among adolescent dating violence victims, particularly those in mental health treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans beyond combat exposure, PTSD, and mild TBI history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Rowland, Jared A; Dolan, Sara L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, combat experiences and mTBI history were not directly associated with sleep quality. PTSD was directly associated with sleep quality, which contributed to deficits in neuropsychological functioning independently of and in addition to combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Combat experiences and PTSD were differentially associated with motor speed. Sleep affected cognitive function independently of combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Sleep quality also contributed to cognitive deficits beyond effects of PTSD. An evaluation of sleep quality may be a useful point of clinical intervention in combat veterans with cognitive complaints. Improving sleep quality could alleviate cognitive complaints, improving veterans' ability to engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. [The effect of "cognitive" and "noncognitive" exposures on the sensitivity to stressor hormones and the choice of adaptation strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Kolesnikov, O L; Tseĭlikman, V E

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data have shown that repeated exposure to both "cognitive" (recognized by the nervous system) and "noncognitive" (recognized by the immune system) stimuli induces so-called "tolerant (resource-preserving adaptation strategy". This strategy is characterized by enhanced hypoxia tolerance, reduced sensitivity to stress (catabolic) hormones, such as glucocorticoids and adrenomimetics, and increased sensitivity to insulin (central anabolic hormone). Such shifts appear more pronounced in case of "noncognitive" stimulation, which is also capable of inducing a hypocatabolic state. Nonspecific immunostimulation associated with repeated stress is considered as an appreciable stress-limiting process despite initial "cognitivity" of stressogenic stimulation.

  3. Impact of commuting exposure to traffic-related air pollution on cognitive development in children walking to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Cirach, Marta; de Castro, Montserrat; Esnaola, Mikel; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    A few studies have found associations between the exposure to traffic-related air pollution at school and/or home and cognitive development. The impact on cognitive development of the exposure to air pollutants during commuting has not been explored. We aimed to assess the role of the exposure to traffic-related air pollutants during walking commute to school on cognitive development of children. We performed a longitudinal study of children (n = 1,234, aged 7-10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) who commuted by foot to school. Children were tested four times during a 12-month follow-up to characterize their developmental trajectories of working memory (d' of the three-back numbers test) and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error of the Attention Network Test). Average particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), Black Carbon (BC) and NO2 concentrations were estimated using Land Use Regression for the shortest walking route to school. Differences in cognitive growth were evaluated by linear mixed effects models with age-by-pollutant interaction terms. Exposure to PM2.5 and BC from the commutes by foot was associated with a reduction in the growth of working memory (an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and BC concentrations decreased the annual growth of working memory by 5.4 (95% CI [-10.2, -0.6]) and 4.6 (95% CI [-9.0, -0.1]) points, respectively). The findings for NO2 were not conclusive and none of the pollutants were associated with inattentiveness. Efforts should be made to implement pedestrian school pathways through low traffic streets in order to increase security and minimize children's exposure to air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A psychometric evaluation of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory with Veterans seeking treatment following military trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Minden B; Davis, Margaret T; Bennett, Diana C; Morris, David H; Rauch, Sheila A M

    2018-01-15

    Trauma-related beliefs have salient relationships to the development and maintenance of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following stress exposure. The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) has the potential to be a standard assessment of this critical construct. However, some critical aspects of validity and reliability appear to vary by population. To date, the PTCI has not been psychometrically evaluated for use with military-specific traumas such as combat and military sexual trauma (MST). Based on exploratory and confirmatory analyses with 949 Veterans seeking trauma-focused treatment for military traumas, we found a four factor model (negative view of the self, negative view of the world, self-blame, and negative beliefs about coping competence) provided the best fit. In contrast, the original three factor model was not confirmed. Both models demonstrated convergent and discriminative validity. Although gender was associated with PTCI total and factor scores, differences did not persist after controlling for trauma type. MST was associated with higher PTCI scores even when controlling for gender, though the clinical magnitude of these differences is likely negligible. Internal reliability validity was demonstrated with PTCI total and subscale scores. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Correcting and interpreting the effect of cognitive therapy versus exposure in anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shanil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dr. Ougrin’s evaluation of cognitive therapy versus exposure in anxiety disorders reported a standardised mean difference [SMD] (95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.52 (0.37, 0.74 for short-term outcomes and 0.46 (0.29, 0.73 for long-term outcomes in social phobia, and 0.88 (0.69, 1.11 for short-term outcomes and 1.05 (0.80, 1.37 for long-term outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. These were incorrectly meta-analysed. Upon re-analysis, we found that the correct SMD (95% CI was −0.66 (−1.19, -0.14 for short-term outcomes and mean difference (95% CI of −29.66 (−46.13, -13.19 on the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory for long-term outcomes in Social Phobia. For PTSD, the SMD (95% CI for short-term outcomes was −0.13 (−0.36, 0.11 and 0.05 (−0.22, 0.32 for long-term outcomes. However, correcting the errors did not change the interpretation of the findings considerably.

  6. Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Written Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisco, Blair E; Sloan, Denise M; Marx, Brian P

    2013-10-01

    We examined the extent to which cognitive emotion-regulation (ER) strategies moderated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome among 40 motor vehicle accident survivors. Participants were randomly assigned to either a brief written exposure therapy (WET) condition or a waitlist condition and were assessed pre- and posttreatment and at a 3-month follow-up. Positive-reappraisal and putting-into-perspective strategies at baseline interacted with condition to predict symptom change over time. Both strategies predicted greater reductions in PTSD in the waitlist group, suggesting facilitation of natural recovery. However, positive reappraisal was associated with smaller reductions in PTSD in the WET group, suggesting that this strategy may interfere with treatment. Treatment also reduced use of the maladaptive ER strategy of rumination. These results provide evidence that putting-into-perspective and positive-reappraisal strategies are beneficial in the absence of treatment and that certain types of ER strategies may reduce response to WET, highlighting the importance of future research examining ER during treatment.

  7. Chronic low-level exposure to the common seafood toxin domoic acid causes cognitive deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Kendrick, Preston S; Ladiges, Warren; Hiolski, Emma M; Ferriss, Bridget E; Smith, Donald R; Marcinek, David J

    2017-04-01

    The consumption of one meal of seafood containing domoic acid (DA) at levels high enough to induce seizures can cause gross histopathological lesions in hippocampal regions of the brain and permanent memory loss in humans and marine mammals. Seafood regulatory limits have been set at 20mgDA/kg shellfish to protect human consumers from symptomatic acute exposure, but the effects of repetitive low-level asymptomatic exposure remain a critical knowledge gap. Recreational and Tribal-subsistence shellfish harvesters are known to regularly consume low levels of DA. The aim of this study was to determine if chronic low-level DA exposure, at doses below those that cause overt signs of neurotoxicity, has quantifiable impacts on cognitive function. To this end, female C57BL/6NJ mice were exposed to asymptomatic doses of DA (≈0.75mg/kg) or vehicle once a week for several months. Spatial learning and memory were tested in a radial water maze paradigm at one, six and 25 weeks of exposure, after a nine-week recovery period following cessation of exposure, and at three old age time points (18, 24 and 28 months old). Mice from select time points were also tested for activity levels in a novel cage environment using a photobeam activity system. Chronic low-level DA exposure caused significant spatial learning impairment and hyperactivity after 25 weeks of exposure in the absence of visible histopathological lesions in hippocampal regions of the brain. These cognitive effects were reversible after a nine-week recovery period with no toxin exposure and recovery was sustained into old age. These findings identify a new potential health risk of chronic low-level exposure in a mammalian model. Unlike the permanent cognitive impacts of acute exposure, the chronic low-level effects observed in this study were reversible suggesting that these deficits could potentially be managed through cessation of exposure if they also occur in human seafood consumers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Efficacy of Exposure-Based Cognitive Therapy with Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Yun Hui

    Recent research has revealed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions with sexual abuse survivors. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) interventions require trauma survivors to confront their painful memories directly. This allows for assessment of cognitive distortions that need to be challenged and reframed. The extent and amount of…

  9. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and stres: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, T.; Griffiths, K.M.; Cuijpers, P.; Christensen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of

  10. Effectiveness of psycho-education on depression, hopelessness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effectiveness of psycho-education on symptom severity in depression, hopelessness, suicidality, anxiety and risk of substance abuse .... anger-management techniques, relaxation exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, general ...... and syndromes in Kenyan children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc ...

  11. Stress Reduction through Psychoeducation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions in reducing stress and to gain more insight in determining features moderating the magnitude of effects. Relevant studies were selected from 1990 to 2010 and were included according to predetermined criteria. For each study, the standardized mean…

  12. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  13. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Education on the Psychological Well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effectiveness of psycho-education training in the enhancement of the psychological well-being of spouse of incarcerated males in Ibadan, Nigeria. Using the pre-test and post-test quasi experimental research design, a total of 16 spouses of male inmates in Ibadan participated in the study. The ages ...

  14. Testing the effectiveness of existing psycho-educational material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen Setswana speaking participants, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were exposed to the programme. Semi-structured and screening ... films over formal lectures. Conclusion: Psycho-education material given to people suffering from schizophrenia and their caregivers has to be adapted to their context to be effective.

  15. The psychoeducational aspects of the psychiatric rehabilitation aproach

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Marianne; Anthony, William; Cohen, Mikal

    1991-01-01

    Psychiatric Rehabilitation is an approach which utilizes the principles of physical rehabilitation with psychotherapeutic techniques. It incorporates both psychoeducational techniques (skill development) and environmental modification (resource development). It includes a complex variety of didactic, modeling, experimental, follow-up activities in the context of a strong interpersonal relationship that permits a systematic intervention to be delivered in a flexible, hi...

  16. Home-Based Psychoeducational Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengün İnan, Figen; Üstün, Besti

    2017-03-15

    It is important to manage psychological distress and improve the quality of life (QOL) in patients after breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a home-based, psychoeducational program on distress, anxiety, depression, and QOL in breast cancer survivors. The study was a single-group pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. The data were collected using the Distress Thermometer, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Turkish version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, short form. The home-based, individual, face-to-face psychoeducational program was structured according to breast cancer survivors' needs and the Neuman Systems Model. A total of 32 Turkish breast cancer survivors participated in this study. There were statistically significant differences in the mean scores for distress, anxiety, and depression in the breast cancer survivors over 4 measurements. The mean scores for all subscales of the QOL at 6 months postintervention were significantly higher than the mean scores at baseline. The results indicated that the psychoeducational program may be effective in reducing distress, anxiety, and depression and in improving the QOL in breast cancer survivors. Psychoeducational programs may be effective and should be considered as part of the survivorship care for breast cancer survivors.

  17. Outcome in psychoeducational day school programs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Randall S; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Glenwick, David S

    1986-04-01

    Psychoeducational day schools provide clinical and special education services to children with severe behavior disorders. Outcome studies indicate that treated children tend to improve in behavioral, academic, and family functioning but warrant continued intervention. Family therapy, development of academic skills, and coordination of aftercare services appear critical to long-term program success.

  18. Evaluation of a Psychoeducational Program to Help Adolescents Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Claire; Morgan, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Over 20% of a sample of 706 young adolescents identified themselves as experiencing difficulties and being in need of specific help in coping. A psychoeducational Program "Helping Adolescents Cope" was offered to 112 of those. This was adapted, with permission, from the "Coping with Stress Course," devised by Albano et al. (1997). Participants'…

  19. A Critical Analysis of Time Allocation in Psychoeducational Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Gordon E.; Valentine, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study provides results form a national survey examining school psychologists' allocation of time in psychoeducational evaluations. A total of 177 participants with an average of 13.45 years professional experience in school psychology, representing 39 states, participated in the survey. The results indicate that school psychologists spend the…

  20. Use of Clustering Techniques in Deriving Psychoeducational Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Esther; Kheifets, Leeka

    1982-01-01

    This study examined whether a synthesis of clinical and statistical data taken from psychoeducational reports completed on 42 boys referred to a child psychiatric outpatient department for school-learning problems would yield discrete clinical categories or clusters of children. Cluster membership and educational placement recommendations were…

  1. Qualitative analysis of experiences of members of a psychoeducational assertiveness group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrakouli, Effi; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2007-04-01

    This study describes qualitatively a psychoeducational assertiveness intervention for 20 women's perceptions of positive and negative experiences, undertaken to identify whether therapeutic mechanisms operating in group therapy as described by Yalom might be inferred. There were 14 90-min. weekly sessions organized around educational material. Two groups were conducted with 10 university women each (M= 20.9 yr., SD= 1.9). Qualitative analysis of the 20 interviews identified five of Yalom's therapeutic mechanisms, namely, self-understanding, universality, acceptance, catharsis, and self-disclosure. The positive experiences were group cohesiveness, self-understanding, self-disclosure, positive views about the self and learning, and cognitive benefits. Self-disclosing at the early stages of group development was the most frequently reported negative experience or difficulty in the group. Although participants stated they improved interpersonal communication skills, analysis suggested the cultural context was an important mediator of assertive behavior.

  2. Patterns of Enrollment and Engagement of Custodial Grandmothers in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Psychoeducational Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory C.; Strieder, Frederick; Greenberg, Patty; Hayslip, Bert; Montoro-Rodriguez, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The authors used Andersen’s (2008) behavior model to investigate patterns of enrollment and treatment engagement among 343 custodial grandmothers who participated in a randomized clinical trial of three psychosocial interventions:(a) a behavioral parenting program, (b) a cognitive behavioral coping program, or (c) an information-only condition. Treatment completion was superior to that typically found with birth parents, even though the grandmothers and their target grandchildren both had high levels of mental and physical health challenges. Compliance did not differ significantly by condition but was higher among grandmothers who self-reported less positive affect, were older, and were using mental health professionals. Treatment satisfaction was highest in grandmothers who attended more treatment sessions, reported lower annual family income, had a health problem, and were using mental health professionals. The practice and policy implications of these findings are discussed, especially in terms of strategies for enhancing the engagement of custodial grandfamilies in future psychoeducational interventions. PMID:27667888

  3. The efficacy of a compact psychoeducational group training program for married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Hahlweg, K; Fehm-Wolfsdorf, G; Groth, T

    1998-10-01

    There is a lack of psychoeducational programs for married couples who, although subjectively concerned about their marriages, do not seek marital therapy. In this study, the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral program delivered on a weekend by 2 trainers for groups of 4 couples was investigated. Couples (n = 67) were recruited by newspaper announcements, then randomly assigned to the intervention program or a waiting-list control group. The program consisted of communication and problem-solving training, couples' discussions to clarify their relationship expectations, and exercises to enhance their sensual or sexual relationship. At postassessment, intervention couples emitted more positive verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors during a conflict discussion task than did control couples, who reported significantly more relationship problem areas and displayed more negative communication behaviors. At the 1-year follow-up, intervention couples reported fewer problem areas in comparison with preassessment.

  4. Impact of prenatal exposure to cadmium on cognitive development at preschool age and the importance of selenium and iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippler, Maria; Bottai, Matteo; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Koutra, Katerina; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vafeiadi, Marina; Fthenou, Eleni; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vahter, Marie; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-11-01

    The evidence regarding a potential link of low-to-moderate iodine deficiency, selenium status, and cadmium exposure during pregnancy with neurodevelopment is either contradicting or limited. We aimed to assess the prenatal impact of cadmium, selenium, and iodine on children's neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. The study included 575 mother-child pairs from the prospective "Rhea" cohort on Crete, Greece. Exposure to cadmium, selenium and iodine was assessed by concentrations in the mother's urine during pregnancy (median 13 weeks), measured by ICPMS. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities was used to assess children's general cognitive score and seven different sub-scales. In multivariable-adjusted regression analysis, elevated urinary cadmium concentrations (≥0.8 µg/L) were inversely associated with children's general cognitive score [mean change: -6.1 points (95 % CI -12; -0.33) per doubling of urinary cadmium; corresponding to ~0.4 SD]. Stratifying by smoking status (p for interaction 0.014), the association was restricted to smokers. Urinary selenium was positively associated with children's general cognitive score [mean change: 2.2 points (95 % CI -0.38; 4.8) per doubling of urinary selenium; ~0.1 SD], although the association was not statistically significant. Urinary iodine (median 172 µg/L) was not associated with children's general cognitive score. In conclusion, elevated cadmium exposure in pregnancy of smoking women was inversely associated with the children's cognitive function at pre-school age. The results indicate that cadmium may adversely affect neurodevelopment at doses commonly found in smokers, or that there is an interaction with other toxicants in tobacco smoke. Additionally, possible residual confounding cannot be ruled out.

  5. Relations between prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M.; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory), and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample included 105 (55 female, 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families; 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not p...

  6. Child-to-parent violence: The role of exposure to violence and its relationship to social-cognitive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Lourdes; Cano, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that child-to-parent violence (CPV) is related to a previous history of violence within the family setting. The current study was aimed to explore the exposure to violence in different settings (school, community, home, and TV) and its relationship to some variables of the social-cognitive processing (hostile social perception, impulsivity, ability to anticipate the consequences of social behaviors and to select the appropriate means to achieve the goals of social behaviors)...

  7. Gestational exposure to variable stressors produces decrements in cognitive and neural development of juvenile male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Frye, Cheryl A

    2011-01-01

    Gestational stress may have lasting deleterious effects on neuro-cognitive development of offspring. Progesterone (P), and its 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP), maintain pregnancy, and can have effects on cognitive performance and/or neuronal integrity. However, whether some of the deleterious effects of gestational stress on cognitive and neural processes may be related to progestogen formation is not known. Pregnant rat dams were exposed to a regimen of variable stressors (including forced swim, restraint, fasting, social stress, and exposure to cold and light) on gestational days 17-21 or were minimally-handled controls. Male and female offspring were cross-fostered to non-manipulated dams and assessed for motor and cognitive performance between post-natal days 28 and 30. Although the motor behavior of gestationally-stressed offspring did not differ significantly from control offspring, their cognitive performance in an object recognition task was poorer. Irrespective of sex, dendritic spine density was reduced in dorsal hippocampus of stress-exposed offspring compared to control offspring. Formation of DHP was reduced in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and increased in hippocampus of stressed, compared to control offspring. Notably, there were sex differences wherein estradiol in mPFC, as well as P and DHP in diencephalon, were increased with stress among females but decreased with stress among males. These data suggest that exposure to variable stress during gestation can perturb cognitive performance, concomitant with dendrite development in hippocampus, and P's 5α-reduction in hippocampus and mPFC. Some sex differences in stress effects on progestogen formation may occur in diencephalon.

  8. The impact of children's exposure to greenspace on physical activity, cognitive development, emotional wellbeing, and ability to appraise risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan S; Duncan, J Scott; Jarden, Aaron; Stewart, Tom

    2016-07-01

    The current study utilised objective techniques to investigate the relationship between children's time spent in greenspace (open land covered in grass or other vegetation) with various physical and psychological variables. Potential relationships between physical activity and greenspace with body composition, emotional wellbeing, sensation seeking tendencies, ability to appraise risk, and cognitive development are investigated. 108 participants aged 11-14 years from three intermediate schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were assessed. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and geolocational data were recorded using accelerometers and portable global positioning system (GPS) receivers (respectively) over a 7-day period in September-December 2014. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated from height, weight, and waist circumference. Participants also completed online cognitive testing, a computerised risk appraisal tool, and a questionnaire for assessing emotional wellbeing and sensation seeking characteristics. Data analysis took place during February to May 2015. Generalised linear mixed models were used to quantify the associations between MVPA, greenspace exposure, and secondary outcome variables. Findings confirmed that greenspace exposure is positively associated with MVPA in children (B=0.94; p<0.05). Furthermore, both greenspace exposure and MVPA were related to greater emotional wellbeing, with the former exhibiting a stronger relationship than the latter. Risk-taking and sensation seeking scores were positively associated with MVPA, but not with greenspace exposure. No associations were detected between BMI, WHtR, cognitive domains, and either MVPA or greenspace exposure. Findings support the theory that for children, greenspaces are an important environmental influence on physical activity and emotional wellbeing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beyond Emotional and Spatial Processes: Cognitive Dysfunction in a Depressive Phenotype Produced by Long Photoperiod Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail K Barnes

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction in depression has recently been given more attention and legitimacy as a core symptom of the disorder. However, animal investigations of depression-related cognitive deficits have generally focused on emotional or spatial memory processing. Additionally, the relationship between the cognitive and affective disturbances that are present in depression remains obscure. Interestingly, sleep disruption is one aspect of depression that can be related both to cognition and affect, and may serve as a link between the two. Previous studies have correlated sleep disruption with negative mood and impaired cognition. The present study investigated whether a long photoperiod-induced depressive phenotype showed cognitive deficits, as measured by novel object recognition, and displayed a cognitive vulnerability to an acute period of total sleep deprivation. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to a long photoperiod (21L:3D or a normal photoperiod (12L:12D condition. Our results indicate that our long photoperiod exposed animals showed behaviors in the forced swim test consistent with a depressive phenotype, and showed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Three hours of total sleep deprivation, however, did not significantly change novel object recognition in either group, but the trends suggest that the long photoperiod and normal photoperiod groups had different cognitive responses to total sleep deprivation. Collectively, these results underline the extent of cognitive dysfunction present in depression, and suggest that altered sleep plays a role in generating both the affective and cognitive symptoms of depression.

  10. Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylyn Waddell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood. Male and female offspring of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ET; 3% v/v or control dams given a non-ethanol liquid diet (CT were injected with choline (Cho; 100 mg/kg or saline (Sal once per day from postnatal day (P 16–P30. Animals were trained/tested on a working memory test in adolescence and then underwent attentional set shifting and reversal learning in young adulthood. In adolescence, ET rats required more training to reach criterion than CT-Sal. Choline improved working memory performance for both CT and ET animals. In young adulthood, ET animals also performed poorly on the set shifting and reversal tasks. Deficits were more robust in ET male rats than female ET rats, but Cho improved performance in both sexes. ET male rats given a combination of Cho and working memory training in adolescence required significantly fewer trials to achieve criterion than any other ET group, suggesting that early interventions can cause a persistent improvement.

  11. Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Mooney, Sandra M

    2017-09-29

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood. Male and female offspring of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ET; 3% v / v ) or control dams given a non-ethanol liquid diet (CT) were injected with choline (Cho; 100 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) once per day from postnatal day (P) 16-P30. Animals were trained/tested on a working memory test in adolescence and then underwent attentional set shifting and reversal learning in young adulthood. In adolescence, ET rats required more training to reach criterion than CT-Sal. Choline improved working memory performance for both CT and ET animals. In young adulthood, ET animals also performed poorly on the set shifting and reversal tasks. Deficits were more robust in ET male rats than female ET rats, but Cho improved performance in both sexes. ET male rats given a combination of Cho and working memory training in adolescence required significantly fewer trials to achieve criterion than any other ET group, suggesting that early interventions can cause a persistent improvement.

  12. "Melanoma: Questions and Answers." Development and evaluation of a psycho-educational resource for people with a history of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Nadine A; Mireskandari, Shab; Butow, Phyllis N; Dieng, Mbathio; Cust, Anne E; Meiser, Bettina; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Menzies, Scott; Mann, Graham J

    2016-12-01

    People with melanoma often report pervasive fears about cancer recurrence, unmet information needs, and difficulties accessing psychological care. Interventions addressing the supportive care needs of people with melanoma are rare, and needs are often overlooked. The study evaluated a newly developed, evidence-based, psycho-educational resource for people with melanoma. The evaluation study comprised three groups: adults at high risk of new primary disease due to multiple previous melanomas or one melanoma and dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS), adults at moderate risk due to one previous melanoma and no DNS, and health professionals involved in melanoma care. Participants evaluated a 68-page psycho-educational booklet, Melanoma: Questions and Answers, developed by a multidisciplinary team in accordance with published evidence, clinical guidelines, and intervention development frameworks. The booklet comprised seven modules featuring information on melanoma diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and ongoing clinical management; risk factors and the role of genetic counseling services for melanoma; psycho-education on emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to melanoma, including psycho-education on fear of cancer recurrence; description of healthy coping responses; a suite of tailored tools to support skin self-examination, doctor-patient communication, and identification of the signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression; a list of community-based services and resources; and tools to support melanoma-related record keeping and monitoring. Resource acceptability, relevance, quality, dissemination preferences, emotional responses, unmet information needs, and demographic characteristics were assessed. Nineteen melanoma survivors (response rate 50 %) and 10 health professionals (response rate 83 %) evaluated the resource. Responses were overwhelmingly positive; the booklet was thoroughly read and highly rated in terms of quality and quantity of information, utility

  13. Exposure to Mozart music reduces cognitive impairment in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Yingshou; Qin, Yi; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Wang, Yanran; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often display cognitive deficits. However, current epilepsy therapeutic interventions mainly aim at how to reduce the frequency and degree of epileptic seizures. Recovery of cognitive impairment is not attended enough, resulting in the lack of effective approaches in this respect. In the pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy rat model, memory impairment has been classically reported. Here we evaluated spatial cognition changes at different epile...

  14. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!') has been developed. This program includes specific therapeutic factors focused on emotion awareness and expression, increasing feelings of emotional security, teaching specific coping strategies, developing a trauma narrative, improving parent-child interaction and psycho-education. The main study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific therapeutic factors in the program. A secondary objective is to study mediating and moderating factors. Methods/design This study is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial across cities in the Netherlands. Participants (N = 140) are referred to the secondary preventive intervention program by police, social work, women shelters and youth (mental health) care. Children, aged 6-12 years, and their parents, who experienced interparental violence are randomly assigned to either the intervention program or the control program. The control program is comparable on nonspecific factors by offering positive attention, positive expectations, recreation, distraction, warmth and empathy of the therapist, and social support among group participants, in ways that are similar to the intervention program. Primary outcome measures are posttraumatic stress symptoms and emotional and behavioral problems of the child. Mediators tested are the ability to differentiate and express emotions, emotional security, coping strategies, feelings of guilt and parent-child interaction. Mental health of the parent, parenting stress, disturbances in parent-child attachment, duration and severity of the domestic violence and demographics are examined for their moderating effect. Data are collected one week before the program starts (T1), and one week

  15. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Mathilde M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!' has been developed. This program includes specific therapeutic factors focused on emotion awareness and expression, increasing feelings of emotional security, teaching specific coping strategies, developing a trauma narrative, improving parent-child interaction and psycho-education. The main study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific therapeutic factors in the program. A secondary objective is to study mediating and moderating factors. Methods/design This study is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial across cities in the Netherlands. Participants (N = 140 are referred to the secondary preventive intervention program by police, social work, women shelters and youth (mental health care. Children, aged 6-12 years, and their parents, who experienced interparental violence are randomly assigned to either the intervention program or the control program. The control program is comparable on nonspecific factors by offering positive attention, positive expectations, recreation, distraction, warmth and empathy of the therapist, and social support among group participants, in ways that are similar to the intervention program. Primary outcome measures are posttraumatic stress symptoms and emotional and behavioral problems of the child. Mediators tested are the ability to differentiate and express emotions, emotional security, coping strategies, feelings of guilt and parent-child interaction. Mental health of the parent, parenting stress, disturbances in parent-child attachment, duration and severity of the domestic violence and demographics are examined for their moderating effect. Data are collected one week before the program

  16. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇİGİL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.

  17. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and non-verbal cognitive functioning in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marroun, H. El; White, T.J.; Fernandez, G.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Verhulst, F.C.; Stricker, B.H.; Tiemeier, H.

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used during pregnancy. Evidence about the long-term consequences of prenatal SSRI exposure on child neurodevelopment is controversial. We prospectively investigated whether prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with childhood non-verbal

  18. Infant and Early Childhood Exposure to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at Age Four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel; Lauricella, Alexis; Zach, Elizabeth; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television exposure at ages 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at age 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of age. At age 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents…

  19. Cognitive therapy and exposure in-vivo in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppen, P. van; Dehaan, E.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Spinhoven, P.; Hoogduin, K.; Dyck, R. van

    1995-01-01

    The present study is the first controlled study that evaluates the effects of cognitive therapy along the lines of Beck (1976) [Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorder. New York: International University Press] and Salkovskis (1985) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571-583] in obsessive

  20. Psychoeducation for siblings of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Jordan, Cheryl D; Barley, Elizabeth A; Henderson, Claire; Norman, Ian

    2015-05-08

    Many people with severe mental illness (SMI) have siblings. Siblings are often both natural agents to promote service users' recovery and vulnerable to mental ill health due to the negative impact of psychosis within the family. Despite a wealth of research evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychoeducation for service users with SMI and their family members, in reducing relapse and promoting compliance with treatment, siblings remain relatively invisible in clinical service settings as well as in research studies. If psychoeducational interventions target siblings and improve siblings' knowledge, coping with caring and overall wellbeing, they could potentially provide a cost-effective option for supporting siblings with resulting benefits for service users' outcomes. To assess the effectiveness of psychoeducation compared with usual care or any other intervention in promoting wellbeing and reducing distress of siblings of people affected by SMI.The secondary objective was, if possible, to determine which type of psychoeducation is most effective. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register and screened the reference lists of relevant reports and reviews (12th November 2013). We contacted trial authors for unpublished and specific data on siblings' outcomes. All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducational interventions targeting siblings of all ages (on their own or amongst other family members including service users) of individuals with SMI, using any means and formats of delivery, i.e. individual (family), groups, computer-based. Two review authors independently screened the abstracts and extracted data and two other authors independently checked the screening and extraction process. We contacted authors of trials to ascertain siblings' participation in the trials and seek sibling-specific data in those studies where siblings' data were grouped together with other participants' (most commonly other family members

  1. Sensory coding and cognitive processing of sound in Veterans with blast exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Scott; Goldberg, Hannah; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Recent anecdotal reports from VA audiology clinics as well as a few published studies have identified a sub-population of Service Members seeking treatment for problems communicating in everyday, noisy listening environments despite having normal to near-normal hearing thresholds. Because of their increased risk of exposure to dangerous levels of prolonged noise and transient explosive blast events, communication problems in these soldiers could be due to either hearing loss (traditional or "hidden") in the auditory sensory periphery or from blast-induced injury to cortical networks associated with attention. We found that out of the 14 blast-exposed Service Members recruited for this study, 12 had hearing thresholds in the normal to near-normal range. A majority of these participants reported having problems specifically related to failures with selective attention. Envelope following responses (EFRs) measuring neural coding fidelity of the auditory brainstem to suprathreshold sounds were similar between blast-exposed and non-blast controls. Blast-exposed subjects performed substantially worse than non-blast controls in an auditory selective attention task in which listeners classified the melodic contour (rising, falling, or "zig-zagging") of one of three simultaneous, competing tone sequences. Salient pitch and spatial differences made for easy segregation of the three concurrent melodies. Poor performance in the blast-exposed subjects was associated with weaker evoked response potentials (ERPs) in frontal EEG channels, as well as a failure of attention to enhance the neural responses evoked by a sequence when it was the target compared to when it was a distractor. These results suggest that communication problems in these listeners cannot be explained by compromised sensory representations in the auditory periphery, but rather point to lingering blast-induced damage to cortical networks implicated in the control of attention. Because all study participants also

  2. Dealing with fear of blushing: a psychoeducational group intervention for fear of blushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, Corine; Buwalda, Femke M; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The clinical impression is that people who fear blushing do not easily seek psychological help for their complaints. Therefore, we designed a low-threshold psychoeducational group intervention to reduce fear of blushing. The intervention followed a cognitive-behavioural approach, but in a course setting, e.g., with 'participants' and 'teachers' instead of 'patients' and 'therapists'. The effectiveness of the course in reducing fear of blushing and social anxiety was tested in a group of blushing-fearful individuals (n = 47) by using an uncontrolled study design. The course consisted of six weekly sessions and one booster session 3 months after the last regular session. Assessments took place upon application, immediately before the intervention, after the sixth session, before the booster session, and at 1-year follow-up. Results showed that the course was effective in reducing fear of blushing as well as symptoms of social anxiety. The positive effect of the course on anxiety measures suggests that it might be a promising approach for treating fear of blushing. The course 'dealing with fear of blushing' is a cognitive-behavioural group intervention in a course setting, e.g., with 'participants' and 'teachers' instead of 'patients' and 'therapists'. The course was effective in reducing anxiety complaints. An effect size of 1.4 and a reduction of approximately 30 points on this Blushing, Trembling and Sweating Questionnaire are comparable with what was reported for individual cognitive-behavioural treatments. Participants evaluated the course positively. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Self-Compassion: Evaluation of a Psychoeducational Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, France; Thériault, Judith; French, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    Low levels of self-compassion are associated with a number of mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that self-compassion can be significantly increased through traditional therapist led interventions such as Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC). The goal of this study was to assess the impact of a psychoeducational website modeled on MSC on measured levels of self-compassion and two related constructs: shame and rumination. Participants (N = 9) were recruited from a pool of university students and employees. Single case AB protocols were used. Analyses using the Critical Difference statistic revealed significant improvement in self-compassion and shame for the majority of participants, but limited changes in rumination. These preliminary findings suggest that self-compassion may be enhanced through the use of a psychoeducational website. It may be worthwhile to develop a structured internet-based treatment course for individuals who would not otherwise access traditional psychological services.

  4. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide : symptoms, sensory function, and cognitive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, N.; Kipen, H.; Lioy, P.; Zhang, J.; Weisel, C. [Rutgers Univ., NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.

    2003-07-01

    Petroleum refineries, kraft paper mills, and coke ovens are some of the sources of hydrogen sulfide exposure. In 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended an ambient exposure standard of .003 ppm for odor and .01 ppm for eye irritation. In communities with high exposure levels, health effects have been documented as being headaches, eye and nasal symptoms, coughs, breathlessness and decreased psychomotor performance. Refinery workers in some jurisdictions around the world have been subjected to higher exposure levels. This report presents results of clinical studies on the neurobehavioral effects in rats. The tasks of memory and learning in rats parallels those in humans. A pilot exposure study examined the health effects of controlled exposures to 3 concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (.05, .50, and 5 ppm). It was concluded that changes in neurobehavioral measurements can be directly associated with exposure and dose-response. 25 figs.

  5. The Bipolar Interactive Psychoeducation (BIPED study: trial design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorders affect between 3–5% of the population and are associated with considerable lifelong impairment. Since much of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is caused by recurrent depressive symptoms, which are often only poorly responsive to antidepressants, there is a need to develop alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. Psychoeducational interventions have emerged as promising long-term therapeutic options for bipolar disorder. Methods/design The study is an exploratory, individually randomised controlled trial. The intervention known as 'Beating Bipolar' is a psychoeducational programme which is delivered via a novel web-based system. We will recruit 100 patients with a diagnosis of DSM-IV bipolar disorder (including type I and type II currently in clinical remission. The primary outcome is quality of life. This will be compared for those patients who have participated in the psychoeducational programme with those who received treatment as usual. Quality of life will be assessed immediately following the intervention as well as 10 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include current depressive and manic symptoms, number of episodes of depression and mania/hypomania experienced during the follow-up period, global functioning, functional impairment and insight. An assessment of costs and a process evaluation will also be conducted which will explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention as well as potential barriers to effectiveness. Discussion Bipolar disorder is common, under-recognised and often poorly managed. It is a chronic, life-long, relapsing condition which has an enormous impact on the individual and the economy. This trial will be the first to explore the effectiveness of a novel web-based psychoeducational intervention for patients with bipolar disorder which has potential to be easily rolled out to patients. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  6. Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Irene; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Núñez, María-Isabel; Ramos, Rosa; Guxens, Mònica; Villalba, Juan; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children. A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9-11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S(RMS) and maximum power density (S(MAX)) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of childreńs dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders. All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S(RMS) and S(MAX) values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m(2), respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median S(RMS) levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when S(MAX) values were considered. Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Lactational and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls induces sex-specific anxiolytic behavior and cognitive deficit in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu-Hua; Hwan Kim, Seung; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2011-10-01

    The central nervous system is affected by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Previous studies have indicated that developmental exposure to PCBs impairs behavioral performance and alters cognitive abilities. This study assessed the effects of lactational and postnatal exposure to a commercial PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), on mice performing several neurobehavioral tasks including the open field test, novel object test, elevated plus maze test, Y-maze test, and tail suspension test. In the open field test, PCBs treatment (6 and 18 mg/kg/day) was associated with increased movement, time duration, and frequency in the central zone in female but not male mice. PCBs-treated female mice (6 and 18 mg/kg/day) also showed decreased novel object recognition, indicating impairment in recognition memory. Finally, we performed autoradiographic receptor binding assays for dopamine (DA) D₁ and D₂ receptors, dopamine transporter (DAT), and the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor after behavioral tests to examine whether alterations occurred in the dopaminergic and NMDAergic systems of the brain. Our results showed that PCBs treatment did not change D₁ and D₂ receptors or DAT binding in the dorsal striatum of female mice. However, PCBs treatment significantly decreased NMDA receptor binding in the dorsal striatum, frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and motor cortex, and CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in female mice. Collectively, our results suggest that long-term PCBs exposure can induce anxiolytic behavior, cognitive deficits, and changes of NMDA receptors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. St8sia2 deficiency plus juvenile cannabis exposure in mice synergistically affect higher cognition in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Martesa; Kröcher, Tim; Papiol, Sergi; Winkler, Daniela; Röckle, Iris; Jatho, Jasmin; Burkhardt, Hannelore; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2014-12-15

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its functionally linked polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Variations in encoding genes have been associated with mental illness. Since cannabinoids can alter NCAM polysialylation, we hypothesized that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) might act as environmental 'second hit' regarding cognition of St8sia2(-/-) mice. These mice show per se minor behavioral abnormalities, consisting of reduced anxiety and mild cognitive deficits. Chronic Δ9-THC treatment of juvenile male wildtype mice (St8sia2(+/+)) (7mg/kg every other day over 3 weeks) did not appreciably affect cognition. St8sia2(-/-) mice, however, displayed a synergistic negative consequence of Δ9-THC on learning/memory, accompanied by polysialic acid-free NCAM-180 reduction in hippocampus and polysialic acid increase in dentate outer molecular layer. These synergistic effects became obvious only months after the last Δ9-THC. We conclude that juvenile cannabis exposure may cause delayed but lasting damage on cognition in subjects genetically predisposed to altered NCAM polysialylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Music exposure improves spatial cognition by enhancing the BDNF level of dorsal hippocampal subregions in the developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Chen, Wenxi; Wang, Yanran; Jing, Wei; Gao, Shan; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has shown that dorsal hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory process. Music exposure can enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level in dorsal hippocampus (DH) and thus enhance spatial cognition ability. But whether music experience may affect different subregions of DH in the same degree remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of exposure to Mozart K.448 on learning behavior in developing rats using the classical Morris water maze task. The results showed that early music exposure could enhance significantly learning performance of the rats in the water maze test. Meanwhile, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA3 (dCA3) and dentate gyrus (dDG) was significantly enhanced in rats exposed to Mozart music as compared to those without music exposure. In contrast, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA1 (dCA1) was not affected. The results suggest that the spatial memory improvement by music exposure in rats may be associated with the enhanced BDNF/TrkB level of dCA3 and dDG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Children's Cognitive Ability from 4 to 9 Years Old as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at ages 4,…

  11. Perinatal and Childhood Exposure to Cadmium, Manganese, and Metal Mixtures and Effects on Cognition and Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Claus Henn, Birgit; Wright, Robert O

    2015-09-01

    Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) neurotoxicity is well established. In recent years, a growing body of evidence suggests that environmental exposure to other metals including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) and their mixtures also poses public health threats. In this paper, we summarize the recent literature examining the relationship of prenatal and childhood environmental metal exposures with cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. We conducted a literature search to identify epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship of Cd, Mn, and metal mixtures with children's neurodevelopmental/cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We restricted the search to peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2009 and March 2015. We identified a total of 31 articles of which 16, 17, and 16 studies examined the effects of Cd, Mn, or metal mixtures, respectively. Based on our review, there is suggestive evidence that prenatal/childhood Cd exposure may be associated with poorer cognition, but additional research is clearly needed. We found little evidence of behavioral effects of early life Cd exposure, and no studies found a significant relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies of early life Mn exposure consistently reported negative impacts on both cognition and behavior. There is also growing evidence that co-exposure to multiple metals can result in increased neurotoxicity compared to single-metal exposure, in particular during early life. Few studies have evaluated behavioral effects related to metal co-exposure.

  12. Effects of Dehydration or Cold Exposure and Restricted Fluid Intake upon Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-22

    for extreme cold. Both dehydration and cold impaired cognitive performances. INTRODUCTION Dehydration can profoundly affect behaviors especially when... aggression (6)9 cognitive performance (18)9 Jet fighter crew performance (4)1 video target acquisition- (10), and hand steadiness - dexterity, and...Water Deficit on Body Tremperature During Rugby . South African Medical Journal. 60(1):11-14; 1981. 7. Dix:on, W.J., M.B. Br.:un, L. Engelman, J.W. Frane

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive, Exposure, and Skills Group Manualized Treatments in OIF/OEF Female Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    other variables such as cohesion and stigma , which could identify the relative value of group versus individual therapy for PTSD. Finally, the small 3...M. (2005). An evaluation of cognitive processing therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse...Cloitre, M. (2005). A Clinician’s Guide to STAIR/MPE: Treatment for PTSD Related to Childhood Abuse. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 12, 40-52

  14. Social-Cognitive Mediators of the Association between Community Violence Exposure and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Ghandour, Lilian A.; Garbarino, James

    2009-01-01

    There is increased awareness that exposure to violence in the community can influence students' aggressive behavior at school; however, less is known about the mechanisms that mediate this process. Having an enhanced understanding of how community violence exposure relates to students' aggressive behavior at school may inform the use of preventive…

  15. Social Cognitive and Emotional Mediators Link Violence Exposure and Parental Nurturance to Adolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents (M age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8) participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three…

  16. Cognitive consequences of novelty and familiarity: how mere exposure influences level of construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examine whether frequency of exposure influences level of construal. Using subliminal presentation, participants were exposed to neutral, unknown letters 0, 5, 15, or 40 times, and a typical mere exposure effect was found on evaluation. However, we hypothesized and showed in

  17. Child-to-parent violence: The role of exposure to violence and its relationship to social-cognitive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Contreras

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that child-to-parent violence (CPV is related to a previous history of violence within the family setting. The current study was aimed to explore the exposure to violence in different settings (school, community, home, and TV and its relationship to some variables of the social-cognitive processing (hostile social perception, impulsivity, ability to anticipate the consequences of social behaviors and to select the appropriate means to achieve the goals of social behaviors in a group of juveniles who assaulted their parents. It is also examined how they differ from other young offenders and non offender adolescents. The sample included 90 adolescents fromJaén (Spain. Thirty ofthemwere juveniles who had been reported by their parents for being violent towards them and 30 were juveniles who had committed other types of offences. The third group was made up of 30 adolescents without any criminal charge. Adolescents answered measures of exposure to violence, perception of criticism/rejection from parents, hostile social perception, and social problem- solving skills. Results revealed that juveniles who abused their parents reported higher levels of exposure to violence at home when comparing to the other groups. In addition, exposure to violence at home was significantly correlated to the hostile social perception of adolescents in CPV cases. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  18. Chronic Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Decreased Neurogenesis, Aberrant Integration of Newborn Neurons, and Cognitive Dysfunction in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Haleigh M; Zhou, Qi-Gang; Zucker, Hannah; McMullen, Megan R; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga Nicole; Ro, Eun Jeoung; Nagy, Laura E; Suh, Hoonkyo

    2015-10-01

    Neurological deficits of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have been attributed to dysfunctions of specific brain structures. Studies of alcoholic patients and chronic alcohol exposure animal models consistently identify reduced hippocampal mass and cogntive dysfunctions as a key alcohol-induced brain adaptation. However, the precise substrate of chronic alcohol exposure that leads to structural and functional impairments of the hippocampus is largely unknown. Using a calorie-matched alcohol feeding method, we tested whether chronic alcohol exposure targets neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. The effect of alcohol on proliferation of neural stem cells as well as cell fate determination and survival of newborn cells was evaluated via bromodeoxyuridine pulse and chase methods. A retrovirus-mediated single-cell labeling method was used to determine the effect of alcohol on the morphological development and circuitry incorporation of individual hippocampal newborn neurons. Finally, novel object recognition (NOR) and Y-maze tests were performed to examine whether disrupted neurogenesis is associated with hippocampus-dependent functional deficits in alcohol-fed mice. Chronic alcohol exposure reduced proliferation of neural stem cells and survival rate of newborn neurons; however, the fate determination of newborn cells remained unaltered. Moreover, the dendritic spine density of newborn neurons significantly decreased in alcohol-fed mice. Impaired spine formation indicates that alcohol interfered the synaptic connectivity of newborn neurons with excitatory neurons originating from various areas of the brain. In the NOR test, alcohol-fed mice displayed deficits in the ability to discriminate the novel object. Our study revealed that chronic alcohol exposure disrupted multiple steps of neurogenesis, including the production and development of newborn neurons. In addition, chronic alcohol exposure altered connectivity of newborn neurons with other input

  19. Comparison of the effects of partial- or whole-body exposures to ¹⁶O particles on cognitive performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Gomes, Stacey M

    2014-03-01

    Studies using a ground-based system (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory) to examine the effects of exposure to high-energy charged particles or HZE particles on cognitive performance have interchangeably used whole-body exposures or exposures restricted to the head of the subject. For this study, we hypothesized that different types of exposure such as whole body vs. head only vs. body only might modulate the impact of irradiation on cognitive performance in different ways with the resulting cognitive performance outcomes being either independent of exposure type or strongly dependent on exposure type with each producing performance outcomes. To test these possibilities, three groups of rats were exposed to ¹⁶O particles (1,000 MeV/n): (1) head only; (2) body only; (3) whole body. Cognitive performance was measured using the elevated plus-maze, novel object recognition, spatial location memory and operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule. The results indicated that the performance of the rats on the spatial location memory task was markedly different when they received head-only irradiation compared to whole-body exposure. For the operant responding task, irradiation of the whole body resulted in a more severe performance decrement than exposures restricted to the head. The results are discussed in terms of nontargeted effects of HZE particles and the findings suggest that studies that utilize different patterns of exposure may not be directly comparable and that astronauts may be at a greater risk for HZE particle-induced cognitive deficits than previously thought.

  20. Prenatal exposure to anti-tubercular drugs and postnatal effect on growth, development and cognitive ability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, K N; Natesh, T S; Ashwitha Reddy, A

    2012-04-27

    The effect of prenatal exposure to antitubercular drugs in therapeutic and double therapeutic doses on postnatal developments was studied in albino rats of Wistar strain. Seven groups with six female rats each were taken for the study and were allowed to mate with male in the ratio of (2:1). The drugs isoniazid 27 and 54mg/kg b.w. p.o., ethambutol 144 and 288mg/kg b.w. p.o., rifampin 54 and 108mg/kg b.w. p.o. were administered to each group from the day of pregnancy till parturition. Control group was administered with distilled water (1ml/kg). Litters of the respective groups were studied for litter size; body weight; physical development i.e. eye opening, pinna detachment, incisor eruption; behavioral development i.e. righting reflex, negative geotaxis, ascending wire mesh; motor development i.e. rotarod and cognitive function i.e. elevated plus maze, Hebb-William maze and step-down (passive avoidance). The results obtained indicate that the prenatal exposure to therapeutic dose of rifampin and double therapeutic dose of rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol affect the postnatal growth, development and cognitive ability. Hence, the study suggests that potential benefit risk ratios to be considered for their use in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relations among prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-11-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory) and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample consisted of 105 (55 female and 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age=15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families. Approximately 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but the adolescents were similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relations between prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M.; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory), and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample included 105 (55 female, 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families; 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. PMID:24630759

  3. Association of lifetime exposure to fluoride and cognitive functions in Chinese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Guifan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on developmental fluoride neurotoxicity support the hypothesis that exposure to elevated concentrations of fluoride in water is neurotoxic during development. METHODS: We carried out a pilot study of 51 first-grade children...... in southern Sichuan, China, using the fluoride concentration in morning urine after an exposure-free night; fluoride in well-water source; and dental fluorosis status as indices of past fluoride exposure. We administered a battery of age-appropriate, relatively culture-independent tests that reflect different...... of -4.28 (95% CI -8.22, -0.33) and backward score with -2.13 (95% CI -4.24, -0.02). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study in a community with stable lifetime fluoride exposures supports the notion that fluoride in drinking water may produce developmental neurotoxicity, and that the dose-dependence underlying...

  4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  5. A controlled study into the (cognitive) effects of exposure treatment on trauma therapists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Several researchers have reported on therapists' symptoms as a result of trauma treatment, such as disruptions in cognitive schemata and symptoms resembling PTSD-symptoms. Thus far, however, no studies compared the symptoms of trauma therapists and non-trauma therapists. In the present study, both

  6. LATE NEUROLOGICAL, COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL SEQUELAE OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO COUMARINS - A PILOT-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLTHOF, E; DEVRIES, TW; TOUWEN, BCL; SMRKOVSKY, M; GEVENBOERE, LM; HEIJMANS, HSA; VANDERVEER, E

    Neurological, cognitive and behavioural development were assessed in a group of 21, 8- to 10-year old children whose mothers took coumarins during pregnancy. Findings were compared with those in a group of 17 control children. The study was performed to test whether it is feasible to carry out a

  7. Family-Based Psychoeducation for Children and Adolescents with Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Caron, Annalise

    2008-01-01

    Psychoeducation is often used for family members of adult patients with mood disorders. An increase in family's knowledge of the patient's illness course and outcome is thought to improve treatment compliance and may reduce relapse rates through identification of early symptoms and risks. While studies on family-based psychoeducation of adult…

  8. Stress Prevention and Mindfulness: A Psychoeducational and Support Group for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…

  9. The effectiveness of psychoeducation programs following first episode psychosis: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Kei; Kajiwara, Tomomi; Endo, Yoshimi; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this review is to establish whether psychoeducational programs can lead to improved outcomes (reduced relapse or readmission) in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared with usual care. Specifically, the review question is: Are psychoeducational programs for patients with first-episode psychosis effective in improving outcomes compared with those receiving usual care?

  10. Psychoeducation and compliance in the treatment of schizophrenia: results of the Munich Psychosis Information Project Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschel-Walz, Gabriele; Bäuml, Josef; Bender, Wolfram; Engel, Rolf R; Wagner, Michael; Kissling, Werner

    2006-03-01

    The present study examined whether psychoeducational groups for patients with schizophrenic disorders and for their families can reduce rehospitalization rates and improve compliance. 236 inpatients who met DSM-III-R criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and who had regular contact with at least 1 relative or other key person were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions. In the intervention condition, patients and their relatives were encouraged to attend psychoeducational groups over a period of 4 to 5 months. The patients' and relatives' psychoeducational programs were separate, and each consisted of 8 sessions. Patients in the other treatment condition received routine care. Outcomes were compared over 12-month and 24-month follow-up periods. The study was conducted from 1990 to 1994. It was possible to significantly reduce the rehospitalization rate after 12 and 24 months in patients who attended psychoeducational groups compared with those receiving routine care (p psychoeducational groups showed better compliance than patients under routine care without psycho-education. The results suggest that a relatively brief intervention of 8 psychoeducational sessions with systematic family involvement in simultaneous groups can considerably improve the treatment of schizophrenia. Psychoeducation should be routinely offered to all patients with schizophrenia and their families.

  11. Development of the internet based psychoeducation for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Jelenova, Daniela; Ociskova, Marie; Sedlackova, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Despite pharmacological treatment of bipolar affective disorder has many advantages; only drug treatment remains insufficiently beneficial to many patients. The combination of pharmacotherapy and internet psychoeducation seems to be the effective way how to improve remission. Internet-based therapy programs offer an exclusive chance for large underserved parts of the population to make evidence-based treatment without the need of full-time therapist. Our goal was to create a psychoeducational program for patients suffering from bipolar disorder that can be used in Czech Republic. There were identified studies through Web of Science, PUBMED, and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews were used in development of comprehensive internet psychoeducational program for patients with bipolar disorder. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "psychoeducation", and "internet psychoeducation". The search was performed with no language or time restrictions. The internet psychoeducational program was developed in accordance to the data from the literature review. The aim of the Internet psychoeducational program of the Department of Psychiatry University Hospital in Olomouc is to familiarize patients with the fundamental nature of bipolar affective disorder, the character and principles of pharmacotherapy, the recognition of the warning signs of relapse, inappropriate and stressful stereotypes in communication within families, and finally the practice of social skills. Information from studies can help to prepare comprehensive psychoeducational program for bipolar patients.

  12. Accessing Early Behavioral Intervention for Autism: The Development and Testing of a Psychoeducational Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steever, Michele Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the utility of psychoeducation within a stepped care model as applied to the problem of autism treatment. The current study developed and pilot tested a psychoeducational website for parents who recently had a child diagnosed with autism. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the…

  13. The role of psycho-education in improving outcome at a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: While psychoeducation has been shown to positively affect outcomes in psychiatric disorders, its utility has been little studied in developing countries. The current study sought to examine the role of psychoeducation at a general psychiatric outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda in improving clinic attendance, ...

  14. A randomised controlled trial of carer-focussed multi-family group psychoeducation in bipolar disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madigan, K

    2012-05-01

    In a RCT of family psychoeducation, 47 carers of 34 patients were allocated to one of three groups; Multifamily Group Psychoeducation, Solution Focussed Group Therapy or Treatment as Usual. Carers in both the MFGP intervention and the SFGP arm demonstrated greater knowledge and reduction in burden than those in the TAU arm.

  15. Early-Life Exposure to Lead Induces Cognitive Impairment in Elder Mice Targeting SIRT1 Phosphorylation and Oxidative Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pb is a potential risk factor for cognition, mainly mediated by enhanced oxidative stress. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with crucial anti-oxidative property, is recently implicated in preventing cognitive deficits in normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Its beneficial effects have been linked to sirtuin 1(SIRT1 activation. The aim of this work is to investigate the possible linkage between alterations in Pb-induced oxidative damage and cognitive impairment by prolonged treatment of resveratrol. Male C57BL/6 mice were given Pb(Ac2 treatment or deionized H2O for 12 weeks, and subjected to resveratrol gavage at the dose of 50 mg/kgBw•d or vehicle after Pb exposure. Results from biochemical analysis and immunohistofluorescence showed that Pb induced oxidative DNA damage and decreased cortical antioxidant biomarker. As expected, these abnormalities were improved by resveratrol treatment. Morris water maze test, Western blotting, immunohistofluorescence staining and RT-qPCR indicated that resveratrol ameliorated spatial learning and memory deficits with alterations in hippocampal BDNF-TrkB signaling, promoted nuclear localization and phosphorylation of hippocampal SIRT1, partly increased protein levels of AMPK and PGC-1α involving in modulation of antioxidant response in Pb-exposed mice. Our results support the hypothesis that resveratrol could attenuate Pb-induced cognitive impairment which was associated with activating SIRT1 via modulation of oxidative stress. Additionally, resveratrol also repressed the Pb-induce amyloidogenic processing with resultant decline in cortical Aβ1−−40. Noteworthy, such effects were not mediated by resveratrol treatment alone. These findings emphasize the potential of SIRT1 activator as an efficacious dietary intervention to downgrade the Pb-induced neurotoxic lesion.

  16. Neuroprotective role of Ginkgo biloba against cognitive deficits associated with Bisphenol A exposure: An animal model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tabaa, Manar Mohammed; Sokkar, Samia Salem; Ramadan, Ehab Sayed; Abd El Salam, Inas Zakria; Zaid, Anis

    2017-09-01

    Our study aimed to elucidate to what extent Ginkgo biloba (Gb) can protect rats from cognitive deficits induced by exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) at high dose. Therefore, sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 15 animals in each group: Vehicle group, Gb-control group, BPA-exposed group and Gb pre-treated group. All administrations were given daily by an oral gavage once a day for eight weeks. Cognitive function was assessed using Morris water maze; Y-maze and Novel object recognition tasks. Additionally, hippocampal levels of DA, NE and 5-HT were measured. BPA-induced oxidative stress was evaluated by determining SOD activity, NO and MDA levels in rat hippocampus as well as level of circulating adiponectin. Moreover, histopathological changes in CA3 region of rat hippocampus and immunohistochemical expression of NF-κB and Caspase-3 were investigated. We found that Gb pretreatment significantly improved cognitive performance; may be via increasing hippocampal levels of estrogen-dependent biogenic amines. At the same time, Gb could strictly control BPA-induced oxidative stress by improving SOD activity and adiponectin level with decrease in NO and MDA levels. Lastly, Gb alleviated the histopathological injuries induced by BPA and inhibited NF-κB and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, our results suggested that Gb has potential to ameliorate BPA-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and subsequent cognitive deficits through mechanisms involving its ability to enhance the release of biogenic amines as well as its antioxidant and adiponectin pro-secretory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The mediating effect of mindful non-reactivity in exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Hesser, Hugo; Andersson, Erik; Axelsson, Erland; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2017-08-01

    Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety, but little is known about mediators of treatment effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate mindful non-reactivity as a putative mediator of health anxiety outcome using data from a large scale randomized controlled trial. We assessed mindful non-reactivity using the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Non-Reactivity scale (FFMQ-NR) and health anxiety with the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI). Participants with severe health anxiety (N=158) were randomized to internet-delivered exposure-based CBT or behavioral stress management (BSM) and throughout the treatment, both the mediator and outcome were measured weekly. As previously reported, exposure-based CBT was more effective than BSM in reducing health anxiety. In the present study, latent process growth modeling showed that treatment condition had a significant effect on the FFMQ-NR growth trajectory (α-path), estimate=0.18, 95% CI [0.04, 0.32], p=.015, indicating a larger increase in mindful non-reactivity among participants receiving exposure-based CBT compared to the BSM group. The FFMQ-NR growth trajectory was significantly correlated with the SHAI trajectory (β-path estimate=-1.82, 95% CI [-2.15, -1.48], pmindful non-reactivity may be of importance for achieving successful treatment outcomes in exposure-based CBT for severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lifelong exposure to multilingualism: new evidence to support cognitive reserve hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Perquin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigate the protective effect of multilingualism on cognition in seniors. METHODS: As part of the MemoVie study conducted on 232 non-demented volunteers aged 65 and more, neurogeriatric and neuropsychological evaluations were performed. Participants were classified as presenting either cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND or being free of any cognitive impairment (CIND-free. Language practices, socio-demographic data and lifestyle habits were recorded. In this retrospective nested case-control design, we used as proxies of multilingualism: number of languages practiced, age of acquisition and duration of practice, emphasizing the temporal pattern of acquisition, and the resulting practice of several languages sequentially or concomitantly during various periods of life. This special angle on the matter offered to our work a dimension particularly original and innovative. RESULTS: 44 subjects (19% had CIND, the others were cognitively normal. All practiced from 2 to 7 languages. When compared with bilinguals, participants who practiced more than 2 languages presented a lower risk of CIND, after adjustment for education and age (odds ratio (OR = 0.30, 95% confidence limits (95%CL = [0.10-0.92]. Progressing from 2 to 3 languages, instead of staying bilingual, was associated with a 7-fold protection against CIND (OR = 0.14, 95%CL = [0.04-0.45], p = 0.0010. A one year delay to reach multilingualism (3 languages practiced being the threshold multiplied the risk of CIND by 1.022 (OR = 1.022, 95%CL = [1.01-1.04], p = 0.0044. Also noteworthy, just as for multilingualism, an impact of cognitively stimulating activities on the occurrence of CIND was found as well (OR = 0.979, 95%CL = [0.961-0.998], p = 0.033. CONCLUSION: The study did not show independence of multilingualism and CIND. Rather it seems to show a strong association toward a protection against CIND. Practicing multilingualism

  19. Taking charge of epilepsy: the development of a structured psychoeducational group intervention for adolescents with epilepsy and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Kara; Ackerson, Joseph; Bailey, Kirstin; Schmitt, Margaret M; Madan-Swain, Avi; Martin, Roy C

    2004-08-01

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy frequently experience poor psychosocial outcomes due to numerous factors such as perceived stigma, behavior problems, academic difficulties, and depression. Health psychology research has documented the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions aimed at improving psychosocial outcomes for individuals with a variety of health conditions. With increasing numbers of adolescents living with epilepsy, interest in improving the quality of life for this particular population has grown. There remains, however, a paucity of research concerning psychosocial interventions for adolescents with epilepsy. The present study outlines the development and initial implementation of a 6-week structured psychoeducational group intervention for adolescents with epilepsy and their parents. Preintervention, the QOLIE-AD-48, Childhood Depression Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were administered. Educational topics included medical aspects of epilepsy, healthy lifestyle behaviors, family and peer relationships, understanding self-image and self-esteem, and stress management techniques. Participants were introduced to a variety of cognitive-behavioral strategies, and were encouraged to share their own experiences with epilepsy. Feedback from adolescent and parent participants indicated that the intervention was relevant to their needs, helped them better understand their epilepsy, and allowed an opportunity for positive peer support. Also, postintervention outcome measurement indicated an overall positive trend for quality of life improvement in the adolescents.

  20. Effects of psychoeducational interventions on sexual functioning, quality of life and psychological outcomes in patients with gynaecological cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka Ming; H Chan, Carmen W; Chan, Joanne C Y

    2012-01-01

    comparable to perform meta-analysis. On the basis of two studies examining the outcome of depression, there was a significant improvement in depressive symptoms (SMD: -0.80; 95% CI: -1.05 to -0.54) among participants in the intervention group in which information provision, cognitive-behavioral therapy and counseling were combined together. On the basis of another two studies examining the outcome of quality of life, there was no significant benefit in physical aspect of quality of life (SMD: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.45 to 0.20; p = 0.46) for the intervention group. Conversely, the control group of information-only therapy demonstrated significant effects on mental aspect of quality of life (SMD: -0.41; 95% CI: -0.74 to -0.08; p = 0.01) compared to those receiving psychoeducational interventions. There were no conclusive findings regarding the effects of psychoeducational interventions on the outcomes of sexual functioning, anxiety, distress, adjustment to illness, mood, self-esteem, uncertainty and coping among the gynaecological cancer patients. The review demonstrated evidence of positive effects of psychoeducational interventions on gynaecological cancer patients.The review suggested that psychoeducational interventions incorporate all four components, i.e. information provision, cognitive-behavioral therapy, social support and counseling. The format could be individual or group, with or without couple participation. A nurse was preferred to be the ideal provider. Provision time frame should be before the start of the treatment and continued after discharge, and the number of sessions could be four. Each session should be between 30 minutes to one hour long.More well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to further examine the effects of psychoeducational interventions on psychological outcomes in this group of patients. Due to the diversity of these interventions, the optimal format of each also requires investigation.

  1. Multimedia Field Test Thinking About Exposures? There's an App for That!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Matthew M

    2017-02-01

    Anxiety Coach is a smartphone application ("app") for iOS devices that is billed as a self-help program for anxiety in youth and adults. The app is currently available in the iTunes store for a one-time fee of $4.99. Anxiety Coach is organized around three related content areas: (a) self-monitoring of anxiety symptoms, (b) learning about anxiety and its treatment, and (c) guiding users through the development of a fear hierarchy and completion of exposure tasks. Although the app includes psychoeducation about anxiety as well as information regarding specific skills individuals can use to cope with anxiety (e.g., cognitive restructuring), the primary focus of the app is on exposure tasks. As such, the app includes a large library of potential exposure tasks that are relevant to treating common fears and worries, making Anxiety Coach useful to clients and clinicians alike. Additionally, Anxiety Coach prompts users to provide fear ratings while they are carrying out an exposure task and displays a message instructing users to stop the exposure once fear ratings drop by half. These features work together to create an app that has the potential to greatly increase the reach of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety.

  2. Effect of training, education, professional experience, and need for cognition on accuracy of exposure assessment decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadali, Monika; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-04-01

    Results are presented from a study that investigated the effect of characteristics of occupational hygienists relating to educational and professional experience and task-specific experience on the accuracy of occupational exposure judgments. A total of 49 occupational hygienists from six companies participated in the study and 22 tasks were evaluated. Participating companies provided monitoring data on specific tasks. Information on nine educational and professional experience determinants (e.g. educational background, years of occupational hygiene and exposure assessment experience, professional certifications, statistical training and experience, and the 'need for cognition (NFC)', which is a measure of an individual's motivation for thinking) and four task-specific determinants was also collected from each occupational hygienist. Hygienists had a wide range of educational and professional backgrounds for tasks across a range of industries with different workplace and task characteristics. The American Industrial Hygiene Association exposure assessment strategy was used to make exposure judgments on the probability of the 95th percentile of the underlying exposure distribution being located in one of four exposure categories relative to the occupational exposure limit. After reviewing all available job/task/chemical information, hygienists were asked to provide their judgment in probabilistic terms. Both qualitative (judgments without monitoring data) and quantitative judgments (judgments with monitoring data) were recorded. Ninety-three qualitative judgments and 2142 quantitative judgments were obtained. Data interpretation training, with simple rules of thumb for estimating the 95th percentiles of lognormal distributions, was provided to all hygienists. A data interpretation test (DIT) was also administered and judgments were elicited before and after training. General linear models and cumulative logit models were used to analyze the relationship between

  3. Long-term air pollution and traffic noise exposures and cognitive function:A cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna; Sugiri, Dorothee; Schikowski, Tamara; Jakobs, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weimar, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of adverse effects of air pollution (AP) and ambient noise on cognitive functions are apparently scarce, and findings seem to be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with cognitive performance. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (2006-2008), cognitive performance was evaluated in 4086 participants. Long-term residential exposure to size-specific particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with land use regression, to and traffic noise (weighted 24-h (L DEN ) and nighttime (L NIGHT ) means), was assessed according to the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/EC. Multiple regression models were calculated for the relationship of environmental exposures with a global cognitive score (GCS) and in five cognitive subtests, using single- and two-exposure models. In fully adjusted models, several AP metrics were negatively associated with four of five subtests and with GCS. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 was correlated with verbal fluency, labyrinth test, and immediate and delayed verbal recall. A 10 dB(A) elevation in L DEN and L NIGHT was associated with GCS. Similar but not significant associations were found for the cognitive subtests. In two-exposure models including noise and air pollution simultaneously, the associations did not change markedly for air pollution, but attenuated numerically for noise. Long-term exposures to AP and traffic noise are negatively correlated with subtests related to memory and executive functions. There appears to be little evidence for mutual confounding.

  4. Effect of Short-Term Mobile Phone Base Station Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Body Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure of Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, F; Rani, K A; Rahim, H A; Omar, M H

    2015-08-19

    Individuals who report their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often undergo cognitive impairments that they believe are due to the exposure of mobile phone technology. The aim of this study is to clarify whether short-term exposure at 1 V/m to the typical Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) affects cognitive performance and physiological parameters (body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate). This study applies counterbalanced randomizing single blind tests to determine if sensitive individuals experience more negative health effects when they are exposed to base station signals compared with sham (control) individuals. The sample size is 200 subjects with 50.0% Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) also known as sensitive and 50.0% (non-IEI-EMF). The computer-administered Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB eclipse(TM)) is used to examine cognitive performance. Four tests are chosen to evaluate Cognitive performance in CANTAB: Reaction Time (RTI), Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Span (SSP). Paired sample t-test on the other hand, is used to examine the physiological parameters. Generally, in both groups, there is no statistical significant difference between the exposure and sham exposure towards cognitive performance and physiological effects (P's > 0.05).

  5. Selective Cognitive Deficits in Adult Rats after Prenatal Exposure to Inhaled Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of ethanol blends in gasoline suggests a need to assess the potential public health risks of exposure to these fuels. Ethanol consumed during pregnancy is a teratogen. However, little is known about the potential developmental neurotoxicity of ethanol delivered by i...

  6. Cognition in children does not suffer from very low lead exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minder, B.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Orlebeke, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the relationship between exposure to lead and memory' and attention in children. Participants were 313 boys aged 9 to 12 years who attended special education schools in the Netherlands. Children whose possible attentional or memory problerns were obviously due to causes other than lead

  7. Family and schizophrenia - psychoeducational group in a pilot programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Wojciech; Kokodyńska, Katarzyna; Kurtyka, Agnieszka; Sikorska, Iwona; Walczewski, Krzysztof; Bogacz, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present the programme, the outcomes and the conclusions of a psychoeducational training series for families with schizophrenia carried out by the Babiński Specialist Hospital in Kraków, Poland. The paper sets out to describe an explorative project based on qualitative study methods. The programme described in the paper adheres to the systemic and narrative approach to therapy. The project involved 23 people from 16 families, who attended 14 psychoeducational meetings for 4 months. A variety of methods was applied: lectures, case studies, discussion, interactive workshops, psycho-drawing, multimediapresentations, simulations of crisis situations, training in subgroups. Upon the completion of the programme, no significant increase in the participants'theoretical knowledge on schizophrenia was observed, which in turn concurred with a decrease in the subjective sense of strain in the family. Even though only 11% of the participants initially expected emotional support from the group, 60% of them identified support as the most important benefit from the programme. The systemic narrative approach used in the programme has been accepted and assessed well by families of patients with schizophrenia. It seems to provide an effective alternative to traditional psychotherapy. The combination of effective training tools with activities to create a space for participants to exchange their thoughts and experiences has proved to be an effective form of support to families in adversity.

  8. Toxicant Exposure and Bioaccumulation: A Common and Potentially Reversible Cause of Cognitive Dysfunction and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juxtaposed alongside the ongoing rise in the incidence and prevalence of dementia, is the surge of recent research confirming widespread exposure and bioaccumulation of chemical toxicants. Evidence from sources such as the Centers for Disease Control reveals that most people have accrued varying degrees of assorted toxic pollutants including heavy metals, flame retardants, and pesticide residues within their bodies. It has been well established that many of these toxicants have neurodegenerative as well as neurodevelopmental impact as a result of various pathophysiologic mechanisms including neuronal mitochondrial toxicity and disruption of neurotransmitter regulation. Elimination of stockpiled toxicants from the body may diminish adverse toxicant impact on human biology and allow restoration of normal physiological function. Incorporating a review of medical literature on toxicant exposure and dementia with a case history of a lead-exposed individual diagnosed with dementia, this paper will discuss a much overlooked and potentially widespread cause of declining brain function and dementia.

  9. Associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with cognitive function-An analysis of effect measure modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Jokisch, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weimar, Christian; Hennig, Frauke; Sugiri, Dorothea; Soppa, Vanessa J; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution (AP) and noise on cognitive functions have been proposed, but little is known about their interactions and the combined effect of co-exposure. Cognitive assessment was completed by 4086 participants of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study using five neuropsychological subtests and an additively calculated global cognitive score (GCS). We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression. Road traffic noise (weighted 24-h (L DEN ) and night-time (L NIGHT ) means) was assessed according to the EU directive 2002/49/EC. Linear regression models adjusted for individual-level characteristics were calculated to estimate effect modification of associations between AP and noise with cognitive function. We used multiplicative interaction terms and categories of single or double high exposure, dichotomizing the potential effect modifier at the median (AP) or at an a priori defined threshold (road traffic noise). In fully adjusted models, high noise exposure increased the association of AP with cognitive function. For example, for an interquartile range increase of PM 2.5 (IQR 1.43), association s with GCS were: estimate (β)=-0.16 [95% confidence interval: -0.33; 0.01] and β=-0.48 [-0.72; -0.23] for low and high L DEN , respectively. The association of noise with GCS was restricted to highly AP-exposed participants. We observed stronger negative associations in those participants with double exposure compared to the addition of effect estimates of each single exposure. Our study suggests that AP and road traffic noise might act synergistically on cognitive function in adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  11. The role of treatment delivery factors in exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Kordt, Anne; Hamm, Alfons O; Gerlach, Alexander L; Alpers, Georg W; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Pauli, Paul; Rief, Winfried; Lang, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Treatment delivery factors (i.e., therapist adherence, therapist competence, and therapeutic alliance) are considered to be important for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). In the current study, four independent raters conducted process evaluations based on 168 two-hour videotapes of 84 patients with PD/AG treated with exposure-based CBT. Two raters evaluated patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1. Two raters evaluated treatment delivery factors in Session 6, in which therapists provided the rationale for conducting exposure exercises. At the 6-month follow-up, therapists' adherence (r=0.54) and therapeutic alliance (r=0.31) were significant predictors of changes in agoraphobic avoidance behavior; therapist competence was not associated with treatment outcomes. Patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1 was a significant predictor of the therapeutic alliance in Session 6 (r=0.17). The findings demonstrate that treatment delivery factors, particularly therapist adherence, are relevant to the long-term success of CBT for PD/AG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Exposure to Carbon Dioxide and Human Bioeffluents on Cognitive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    including proof-reading, addition, subtraction, text typing, neurobehavioral tests, Tsai-Partington task, and d2 attention task. Subjective ratings of comfort and experienced acute health symptoms were collected, physiological responses of subjects were monitored and the saliva samples were collected...... to analyze stress biomarkers. The results show that during exposure to bioeffluents with CO2 reaching 3,000 ppm speed of addition was significantly reduced, subjects responded significantly quicker in redirection task and completed significantly less correct links in Tsai-partington test, which may imply...

  13. The Influence of Chronic Exposure to Low Level Pulsed Microwave Radiation on Performance and Cognitive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-15

    press levers) and a food reinforcement receptacle were located at one end of each exposure chamber. The arrangement of these operant components was such...that when actively engaged in bar-press, food retrieval and consumption the animal would be oriented 2 ° ° . . .° .° ° ° ° - N00014-79-C-0575 FINAL...behavioral components. At levels of irradiation that are significantly thermogenic (e.g., SAR of 6.8 mW/g) there ,- . . . . , N00014-79-C-0575 FINAL REPORT

  14. Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cognitive Function among Elderly in the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2001-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Best

    Full Text Available Recent studies report a link between common environmental exposures, such as particulate matter air pollution and tobacco smoke, and decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a selected group of chemicals present in particulate matter and tobacco smoke, and measures of cognitive performance among elderly in the general population. This cross-sectional analysis involved data from 454 individuals aged 60 years and older from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The association between PAH exposures (as measured by urinary biomarkers and cognitive function (digit symbol substitution test (DSST was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses. After adjusting for age, socio-economic status and diabetes we observed a negative association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the gold standard of PAH exposure biomarkers, and DSST score. A one percent increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene resulted in approximately a 1.8 percent poorer performance on the digit symbol substitution test. Our findings are consistent with previous publications and further suggest that PAHs, at least in part may be responsible for the adverse cognitive effects linked to tobacco smoke and particulate matter air pollution.

  15. Exposure to elemental composition of outdoor PM2.5 at birth and cognitive and psychomotor function in childhood in four European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubczyńska, Małgorzata J; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiemeier, Henning; Porta, Daniela; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Forastiere, Francesco; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Barbara; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; de Hoogh, Kees; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Guxens, Mònica

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about developmental neurotoxicity of particulate matter composition. We aimed to investigate associations between exposure to elemental composition of outdoor PM2.5 at birth and cognitive and psychomotor functions in childhood. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4 European

  16. D-cycloserine augmentation of exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mataix-Cols, D.; Fernández de la Cruz, L.; Monzani, B.; Rosenfield, D.; Andersson, E.; Pérez-Vigil, A.; Frumento, P.; Kleine, R.A. de; Difede, J.; Dunlop, B.W.; Farrell, L.J.; Geller, D.; Gerardi, M.; Guastella, A.J.; Hofmann, S.G.; Hendriks, G.J.; Kushner, M.G.; Lee, F.S.; Lenze, E.J.; Levinson, C.A.; McConnell, H.; Otto, M.W.; Plag, J.; Pollack, M.H.; Ressler, K.J.; Rodebaugh, T.L.; Rothbaum, B.O.; Scheeringa, M.S.; Siewert-Siegmund, A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Storch, E.A.; Ströhle, A.; Tart, C.D.; Tolin, D.F.; Minnen, A. van; Waters, A.M.; Weems, C.F.; Wilhelm, S.; Wyka, K.; Davis, M.; Rück, C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Whether and under which conditions D-cycloserine (DCS) augments the effects of exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders is unclear. Objective: To clarify whether DCS is superior to placebo in augmenting the effects

  17. Cognitive appraisal vs. exposure-based stress measures: links to perceived mental and physical health in low-income black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Lenwood W; Lucas, Todd; Porcerelli, John H

    2014-11-01

    Although stress is linked to mental and physical health, self-reports of stress may be operationalized using measures that emphasize cognitive appraisals of stressors or that simply record stressor exposure. Theory and research suggest that appraisal-based measures may be superior in measuring self-reports of stress. However, use of exposure-based measures persists, especially in ethnic disparities research. This study examined the utility of appraisal-based versus exposure-based stress measures in linking stress to mental and physical health in low-income black women. Measures emphasizing cognitive appraisals were superior in predicting mental and physical health because global stress rating best predicted physical health whereas mental health was best predicted by perceived stress. A checklist of exposure to stressful events was not substantially predictive of either mental or physical health, suggesting that cognitive appraisals of stressors are important in linking stress to health perceptions in blacks. The results also suggest that stress impacts mental health first, which then, in turn, influences physical health. Overall, these results illuminate the importance of cognitive appraisals in linking stress to perceptions of mental and physical health in black women.

  18. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Exposure to Low-LET Helium Particles ((4)He) and Gamma Rays ((137)Cs) on the Disruption of Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the effects of radiation exposure on cognitive performance were evaluated. Rats were exposed to either helium ((4)He) particles (1,000 MeV/n; 0.1-10 cGy; head only) or cesium (137)Cs gamma rays (50-400 cGy; whole body), after which their cognitive performance was evaluated. The results indicated that exposure to doses of (4)He particles as low as 0.1 cGy disrupted performance in a variety of cognitive tasks, including plus-maze performance (baseline anxiety), novel location recognition (spatial performance) and operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule (motivation and responsiveness to changes in environmental contingencies) but not on novel object recognition performance (learning and memory). In contrast, after exposure to (137)Cs gamma rays only plus-maze performance was affected. There were no significant effects on any other task. Because exposure to both types of radiation produce oxidative stress, these results indicate that radiation-produced oxidative stress may be a necessary condition for the radiation-induced disruption of cognitive performance, but it is not a sufficient condition.

  19. Update on treatment of craving in patients with addiction using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.

  20. Mental health consumer parents' recommendations for designing psychoeducation interventions for their minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebschleger, Joanne; Onaga, Esther; Tableman, Betty; Bybee, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    This research explores consumer parents' recommendations for developing psychoeducation programs for their minor children. Data were drawn from a purposive sample of 3 focus groups of parent consumers of a community mental health agency. The research question was: "What do consumer parents recommend for developing psychoeducation programs for their minor children?" Parents recommended content foci of mental illness, recovery, heritability, stigma, and coping. The next step is youth psychoeducation intervention development and evaluation. Parents, youth, and professionals should be included in the program planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

  2. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moya-Albiol

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  3. Assessing the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development in rural Costa Rican children living in organic and conventional coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chensheng; Essig, Christa; Root, Christa; Rohlman, Diane S; McDonald, Tom; Sulzbacher, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development among rural Costa Rican children in a cross-sectional study. Study participants aged 4-10 years included 17 children whose parents worked in La Amistad organic coffee plantation and 18 Las Mellizas children whose parents worked in their own small conventional coffee farms. Two spot-urine samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticide metabolites. We administered the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS), a figure-drawing task, and a long-term memory test to evaluate study participant's cognitive development. Although urinary pesticide metabolite levels did not vary considerably between these two groups of children, we found that Las Mellizas children performed better in BARS and the figure drawing tests than did La Amistad. The results from the linear mixed-effects models suggested that family socioeconomic status (SES) might be a significant contributor to the variation of the outcomes of the neurobehavioral tests. The effect of pesticide exposure, however, as measured in a snapshot fashion, did not play a significant role to the performance of the cognitive development evaluation. Regardless of the study limitations, needed effort should be devoted to the improvement of the SES on the La Amistad families so that their children's cognitive development would not be compromised further. Additionally, future studies should focus on addressing the limitations imposed on the snapshot assessment of pesticide exposure and on conducting cognitive development evaluation so the link between childhood pesticide exposure and their cognitive development can be thoroughly investigated.

  4. Embodied simulation in exposure-based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder-a possible integration of cognitive behavioral theories, neuroscience, and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Tuvia; Gofman, Mordechai; Tal, Shahar; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the trauma memory is the common denominator of most evidence-based interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although exposure-based therapies aim to change associative learning networks and negative cognitions related to the trauma memory, emotional interactions between patient and therapist have not been thoroughly considered in past evaluations of exposure-based therapy. This work focuses on recent discoveries of the mirror-neuron system and the theory of embodied simulation (ES). These conceptualizations may add a new perspective to our understanding of change processes in exposure-based treatments for PTSD patients. It is proposed that during exposure to trauma memories, emotional responses of the patient are transferred to the therapist through ES and then mirrored back to the patient in a modulated way. This process helps to alleviate the patient's sense of loneliness and enhances his or her ability to exert control over painful, trauma-related emotional responses. ES processes may enhance the integration of clinical insights originating in psychoanalytic theories-such as holding, containment, projective identification, and emotional attunement-with cognitive behavioral theories of learning processes in the alleviation of painful emotional responses aroused by trauma memories. These processes are demonstrated through a clinical vignette from an exposure-based therapy with a trauma survivor. Possible clinical implications for the importance of face-to-face relationships during exposure-based therapy are discussed.

  5. Embodied simulation in exposure-based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder—a possible integration of cognitive behavioral theories, neuroscience, and psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Tuvia; Gofman, Mordechai; Tal, Shahar; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the trauma memory is the common denominator of most evidence-based interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although exposure-based therapies aim to change associative learning networks and negative cognitions related to the trauma memory, emotional interactions between patient and therapist have not been thoroughly considered in past evaluations of exposure-based therapy. This work focuses on recent discoveries of the mirror-neuron system and the theory of embodied simulation (ES). These conceptualizations may add a new perspective to our understanding of change processes in exposure-based treatments for PTSD patients. It is proposed that during exposure to trauma memories, emotional responses of the patient are transferred to the therapist through ES and then mirrored back to the patient in a modulated way. This process helps to alleviate the patient's sense of loneliness and enhances his or her ability to exert control over painful, trauma-related emotional responses. ES processes may enhance the integration of clinical insights originating in psychoanalytic theories—such as holding, containment, projective identification, and emotional attunement—with cognitive behavioral theories of learning processes in the alleviation of painful emotional responses aroused by trauma memories. These processes are demonstrated through a clinical vignette from an exposure-based therapy with a trauma survivor. Possible clinical implications for the importance of face-to-face relationships during exposure-based therapy are discussed. PMID:26593097

  6. Embodied simulation in exposure-based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder—a possible integration of cognitive behavioral theories, neuroscience, and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvia Peri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the trauma memory is the common denominator of most evidence-based interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Although exposure-based therapies aim to change associative learning networks and negative cognitions related to the trauma memory, emotional interactions between patient and therapist have not been thoroughly considered in past evaluations of exposure-based therapy. This work focuses on recent discoveries of the mirror-neuron system and the theory of embodied simulation (ES. These conceptualizations may add a new perspective to our understanding of change processes in exposure-based treatments for PTSD patients. It is proposed that during exposure to trauma memories, emotional responses of the patient are transferred to the therapist through ES and then mirrored back to the patient in a modulated way. This process helps to alleviate the patient's sense of loneliness and enhances his or her ability to exert control over painful, trauma-related emotional responses. ES processes may enhance the integration of clinical insights originating in psychoanalytic theories—such as holding, containment, projective identification, and emotional attunement—with cognitive behavioral theories of learning processes in the alleviation of painful emotional responses aroused by trauma memories. These processes are demonstrated through a clinical vignette from an exposure-based therapy with a trauma survivor. Possible clinical implications for the importance of face-to-face relationships during exposure-based therapy are discussed.

  7. Timing matters: change depends on the stage of treatment in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Andrew T; Klotsche, Jens; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hamm, Alfons; Ströhle, Andreas; Gauggel, Siegfried; Kircher, Tilo; Alpers, Georg W; Deckert, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms of action underlying treatment are inadequately understood. This study examined 5 variables implicated in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG): catastrophic agoraphobic cognitions, anxiety about bodily sensations, agoraphobic avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and psychological flexibility. The relative importance of these process variables was examined across treatment phases: (a) psychoeducation/interoceptive exposure, (b) in situ exposure, and (c) generalization/follow-up. Data came from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for PD/AG (n = 301). Outcomes were the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (Bandelow, 1995) and functioning as measured in the Clinical Global Impression scale (Guy, 1976). The effect of process variables on subsequent change in outcome variables was calculated using bivariate latent difference score modeling. Change in panic symptomatology was preceded by catastrophic appraisal and agoraphobic avoidance across all phases of treatment, by anxiety sensitivity during generalization/follow-up, and by psychological flexibility during exposure in situ. Change in functioning was preceded by agoraphobic avoidance and psychological flexibility across all phases of treatment, by fear of bodily symptoms during generalization/follow-up, and by anxiety sensitivity during exposure. The effects of process variables on outcomes differ across treatment phases and outcomes (i.e., symptomatology vs. functioning). Agoraphobic avoidance and psychological flexibility should be investigated and therapeutically targeted in addition to cognitive variables. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal PBDE and PCB Exposures and Reading, Cognition, and Externalizing Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Dietrich, Kim N; Xu, Yingying; Xie, Changchun; Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposures may influence children's neurodevelopment. We examined the association of prenatal PBDE and PCB exposures with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8 years, Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), and externalizing behavior problems at age 8 years. From 239 mother-child pairs recruited (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, Ohio, we measured maternal serum PBDE and PCB concentrations, assessed child's reading skills using the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III (WJ-III) at age 5 years and the Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4) at age 8 years, tested FSIQ using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV), and externalizing behavior problems using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) at age 8 years. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association of prenatal PBDE and PCB concentrations and reading, FSIQ, and externalizing behavior problems after adjusting for covariates. An increase of Sum4PBDEs (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) by 10 times was not significantly associated with reading scores at age 5 years at the p = 0.05 level but was inversely associated with Reading Composite scores (β: -6.2, 95% CI: -11.7, -0.6) and FSIQ (β: -5.3, 95% CI: -10.6, -0.02) at age 8 years; it was positively associated with the score for externalizing behavior problems (β: 3.5, 95% CI: -0.1, 7.2) at age 8 years. Prenatal Sum4PCBs (PCB-118, -153, -138-158, and -180) was not significantly associated with a child's reading skills, FSIQ, and externalizing behavior problems. Prenatal PBDE concentration was inversely associated with reading skills and FSIQ and positively associated with externalizing behavior problems at age 8 years. No significant associations were found in prenatal PCB concentration.

  9. Exploring the Role of YouTube in Disseminating Psychoeducation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nikki Hei Tong; Tsiang, John Ta-Hsiang; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2017-12-01

    Social media can bridge the gap between health care and ethnic minorities over cultural barriers. This study explores the role of YouTube in delivering schizophrenia education to individuals in the USA who are also fluent in Chinese. Three psychoeducational YouTube videos related to schizophrenia were uploaded. Data were collected for a 12-month period, and results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The videos recorded 4935 views with a total viewing time of 35,614 min. The first-episode psychosis video had the most number of views and shares, and the longest total watch time and average view duration. The targeted age group (YouTube is a useful tool that delivers schizophrenia education to Chinese-speaking individuals in the USA. It may also help alleviate the negative stigma regarding schizophrenia and other mental health issues.

  10. The Family Series Workshop: A Community-Based Psychoeducational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanque, Sarah M.; Enriquez, Maithe; Cheng, An-Lin; Doty, Leilani; Brotto, Marco A.; Kelly, Patricia J.; Niedens, Michelle; Caserta, Michael S.; Savage, Lynette M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an evaluation of a community-based psychoeducational intervention, called The Family Series Workshop, for caregivers of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias (ADRD). In a one-group pretest–posttest design, participants (n = 35) attended six weekly sessions. Caregiver stress, coping, and caregiving competence were evaluated along with demographic characteristics of participants. There was a significant improvement found for caregiving competence, and a marginally significant increase in coping with humor. Using regression analysis we also found that coping with humor, along with stress, were significant predictors of caregiving competence. These findings indicate that it is possible to increase caregiving competence utilizing a “grassroots” approach and that it is feasible to hold educational, group discussions on a plethora of challenging caregiving topics. PMID:25609602

  11. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  12. A qualitative evaluation of DAFNE-HART: A psychoeducational programme to restore hypoglycaemia awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttlewood, Emma; De Zoysa, Nicole; Rankin, David; Amiel, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) in people with type 1 diabetes is a dangerous condition that is associated with a six-fold greater risk of severe hypoglycaemia than for people with awareness. A new psychoeducational programme, DAFNE-HART, has been specifically designed to address persistent IAH. The initial pilot showed promising outcomes including fewer hypoglycaemic episodes and improved hypoglycaemia awareness. This aim of this paper is to report the development and qualitative evaluation of DAFNE-HART from participant interviews. DAFNE-HART incorporates diabetes education with two psychological approaches that have demonstrated efficacy in long-term health conditions: motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy. The course, delivered across two UK locations included both group and individual support over a 6-week period facilitated by DAFNE educators, trained and supervised by a clinical psychologist. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 participants immediately after their courses and the interviews were analysed using grounded theory. Five main themes emerged which describe the behavioural changes people made to their diabetes management, the development of new attitudes and beliefs, their experiences of regaining hypoglycaemia cues, reactions to the course format and the significance of the relationship with their care provider. Participants provide insights into how the course changed their view of IAH and led to practical changes in minimising hypoglycaemia. Integration of psychological techniques into diabetes education can address the cognitive and motivational barriers to restoring awareness and optimal diabetes management. It is suggested that further research is needed to evaluate this programme in a larger sample, over a longer time frame. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Disruption of columnar and laminar cognitive processing in primate prefrontal cortex following cocaine exposure

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    Ioan eOpris

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortical activity in primate brain plays a critical role in cognitive processes involving working memory and the executive control of behavior. Groups of prefrontal cortical neurons within specified cortical layers along cortical minicolumns differentially generate inter- and intra-laminar firing to process relevant information for goal oriented behavior. However, it is not yet understood how cocaine modulates such differential firing in prefrontal cortical layers. Rhesus macaque nonhuman primates (NHPs were trained in a visual delayed match-to-sample (DMS task while the activity of prefrontal cortical neurons (areas 46, 8 and 6 was recorded simultaneously with a custom multielectrode array in cell layers 2/3 and 5. Animals were reinforced with juice for correct responses. The first half of the recording session (control was conducted following saline injection and in the second half of the same session cocaine was administered. Prefrontal neuron activity with respect to inter- and intra-laminar firing in layers 2/3 and 5 was assessed in the DMS task before and after the injection of cocaine. Results showed that firing rates of both pyramidal cells and interneurons increased on Match phase presentation and the Match response in both control and cocaine halves of the session. Differential firing under cocaine vs. control in the Match phase was increased for interneurons but decreased for pyramidal cells. In addition, functional` interactions between prefrontal pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 and 5 decreased while intra-laminar cross-correlations in both layers increased. These neural recordings demonstrate that prefrontal neurons differentially encode and process information within and between cortical cell layers via cortical columns which is disrupted in a differential manner by cocaine administration.

  14. Pharmacology of cognitive enhancers for exposure-based therapy of fear, anxiety and trauma-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singewald, N.; Schmuckermair, C.; Whittle, N.; Holmes, A.; Ressler, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Pathological fear and anxiety are highly debilitating and, despite considerable advances in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy they remain insufficiently treated in many patients with PTSD, phobias, panic and other anxiety disorders. Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that pharmacological treatments including cognitive enhancers, when given as adjuncts to psychotherapeutic approaches [cognitive behavioral therapy including extinction-based exposure therapy] enhance treatment efficacy, while using anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines as adjuncts can undermine long-term treatment success. The purpose of this review is to outline the literature showing how pharmacological interventions targeting neurotransmitter systems including serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine, glutamate, GABA, cannabinoids, neuropeptides (oxytocin, neuropeptides Y and S, opioids) and other targets (neurotrophins BDNF and FGF2, glucocorticoids, L-type-calcium channels, epigenetic modifications) as well as their downstream signaling pathways, can augment fear extinction and strengthen extinction memory persistently in preclinical models. Particularly promising approaches are discussed in regard to their effects on specific aspects of fear extinction namely, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, including long-term protection from return of fear (relapse) phenomena like spontaneous recovery, reinstatement and renewal of fear. We also highlight the promising translational value of the preclinial research and the clinical potential of targeting certain neurochemical systems with, for example d-cycloserine, yohimbine, cortisol, and L-DOPA. The current body of research reveals important new insights into the neurobiology and neurochemistry of fear extinction and holds significant promise for pharmacologically-augmented psychotherapy as an improved approach to treat trauma and anxiety-related disorders in a more efficient and persistent way promoting enhanced symptom

  15. Impaired auditory selective attention ameliorated by cognitive training with graded exposure to noise in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Neil M; Dockree, Suvi P; Buckley, Vanessa; Merriman, Niamh; Carton, Mary; Clarke, Sarah; Roche, Richard A P; Lalor, Edmund C; Robertson, Ian H; Dockree, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Patients who suffer traumatic brain injury frequently report difficulty concentrating on tasks and completing routine activities in noisy and distracting environments. Such impairments can have long-term negative psychosocial consequences. A cognitive control function that may underlie this impairment is the capacity to select a goal-relevant signal for further processing while safeguarding it from irrelevant noise. A paradigmatic investigation of this problem was undertaken using a dichotic listening task (study 1) in which comprehension of a stream of speech to one ear was measured in the context of increasing interference from a second stream of irrelevant speech to the other ear. Controls showed an initial decline in performance in the presence of competing speech but thereafter showed adaptation to increasing audibility of irrelevant speech, even at the highest levels of noise. By contrast, patients showed linear decline in performance with increasing noise. Subsequently attempts were made to ameliorate this deficit (study 2) using a cognitive training procedure based on attention process training (APT) that included graded exposure to irrelevant noise over the course of training. Patients were assigned to adaptive and non-adaptive training schedules or to a no-training control group. Results showed that both types of training drove improvements in the dichotic listening and in naturalistic tasks of performance in noise. Improvements were also seen on measures of selective attention in the visual domain suggesting transfer of training. We also observed augmentation of event-related potentials (ERPs) linked to target processing (P3b) but no change in ERPs evoked by distractor stimuli (P3a) suggesting that training heightened tuning of target signals, as opposed to gating irrelevant noise. No changes in any of the above measures were observed in a no-training control group. Together these findings present an ecologically valid approach to measure selective

  16. Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajochen, Christian; Frey, Sylvia; Anders, Doreen; Späti, Jakub; Bues, Matthias; Pross, Achim; Mager, Ralph; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Stefani, Oliver

    2011-05-01

    Many people spend an increasing amount of time in front of computer screens equipped with light-emitting diodes (LED) with a short wavelength (blue range). Thus we investigated the repercussions on melatonin (a marker of the circadian clock), alertness, and cognitive performance levels in 13 young male volunteers under controlled laboratory conditions in a balanced crossover design. A 5-h evening exposure to a white LED-backlit screen with more than twice as much 464 nm light emission {irradiance of 0,241 Watt/(steradian × m(2)) [W/(sr × m(2))], 2.1 × 10(13) photons/(cm(2) × s), in the wavelength range of 454 and 474 nm} than a white non-LED-backlit screen [irradiance of 0,099 W/(sr × m(2)), 0.7 × 10(13) photons/(cm(2) × s), in the wavelength range of 454 and 474 nm] elicited a significant suppression of the evening rise in endogenous melatonin and subjective as well as objective sleepiness, as indexed by a reduced incidence of slow eye movements and EEG low-frequency activity (1-7 Hz) in frontal brain regions. Concomitantly, sustained attention, as determined by the GO/NOGO task; working memory/attention, as assessed by "explicit timing"; and declarative memory performance in a word-learning paradigm were significantly enhanced in the LED-backlit screen compared with the non-LED condition. Screen quality and visual comfort were rated the same in both screen conditions, whereas the non-LED screen tended to be considered brighter. Our data indicate that the spectral profile of light emitted by computer screens impacts on circadian physiology, alertness, and cognitive performance levels. The challenge will be to design a computer screen with a spectral profile that can be individually programmed to add timed, essential light information to the circadian system in humans.

  17. Sustained Benefit of a Psycho-educational Training Program for Dementia Caregivers in Taiwan

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    Chien-Chi Hsu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The caregivers for dementia patients may have sustained benefit of reducing burden, decreasing psychological morbidity and enhancing psychological wellbeing after the intensive psycho-educational training programs' intervention.

  18. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis

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    Cuijpers Pim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. Results In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9. Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22. Conclusions Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be

  19. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cuijpers Pim; Griffiths Kathleen M; Donker Tara; Christensen Helen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in Septemb...

  20. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, Tara; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Cuijpers, Pim; Christensen, Helen

    2009-12-16

    Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons) for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9). Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22). Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be important.

  1. The conjoint influence of home enriched environment and lead exposure on children's cognition and behaviour in a Mexican lead smelter community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Sue; Ialongo, Nick; López, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Ronquillo, Dolores; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    A range of studies has been conducted on the detrimental effects of lead in mining and smelting communities. The neurocognitive and behavioural health effects of lead on children are well known. This research characterized the conjoint influence of lead exposure and home enriched environment on neurocognitive function and behaviour for first-grade children living in a Mexican lead smelter community. Structural equation models were used for this analysis with latent outcome variables, Cognition and Behaviour, constructed based on a battery of assessments administered to the first-grade children, their parents, and teachers. Structural equation modelling was used to describe complex relationships of exposure and health outcomes in a manner that permitted partition of both direct and indirect effects of the factors being measured. Home Environment (a latent variable constructed from information on mother's education and support of school work and extracurricular activities), and child blood lead concentration each had a main significant effect on cognition and behaviour. However, there were no statistically significant moderation relationships between lead and Home Environment on these latent outcomes. Home Environment had a significant indirect mediation effect between lead and both Cognition and Behaviour (p-valueeducation. Further research may be able to develop approaches to support families to make changes within their home and child rearing practices, or advocate for different approaches to support their child's behaviour to reduce the impact of lead exposure on children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, Ali; Haghani, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Although exposure to electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range has caused a great deal of concern globally, radiofrequency radiation has many critical applications in both telecommunication and non-communication fields. The induction of adaptive response phenomena by exposure to radiofrequency radiation as either increased resistance to a subsequent dose of ionizing radiation or resistance to a bacterial infection has been reported recently. Interestingly, the potential beneficial effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation are not only limited to the induction of adaptive phenomena. It has previously been indicated that the visual reaction time of university students significantly decreased after a 10 min exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by a mobile phone. Furthermore, it has been revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. Based on these findings, it can be hypothesized that in special circumstances, these exposures might lead to a better response of humans to different hazards. Other investigators have also provided evidence that confirms the induction of RF-induced cognitive benefits. Furthermore, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may play a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. In this light, a challenging issue will arise if there are other RF-induced stimulating effects. It is also challenging to explore the potential applications of these effects. Further research may shed light on dark areas of the health effects of short and long-term human exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

  3. Self-reported symptoms and their effects on cognitive functioning in workers with past exposure to solvent-based glues: an 18-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordling Nilson, L; Barregård, L; Sällsten, G; Hagberg, S

    2007-10-01

    To examine to what extent exposure to organic solvents during the working life affects general well-being in the long term, and to explore the relationship between self-reported symptoms and cognitive functioning in previously solvent-exposed floor layers. The study included 41 solvent-exposed floor layers and 40 unexposed referents participating in a longitudinal follow-up study 18 years after the baseline assessment. Symptom prevalence and level of spare time activities were studied using the same methods as in the initial study. These include a general health examination, the Q16 symptom questionnaire, and a questionnaire for spare time activities. Relationships between symptoms and cognitive functioning were analysed based on recently published data on cognitive functioning of the participants at follow-up. At follow-up neuropsychiatric symptoms such as need to check things, depressive mood, and abnormal fatigue, were more prevalent among floor layers, particularly the most exposed individuals, than among referents. In addition, the most highly exposed floor layers reported more concentration difficulties and irritability. Fatigue and depressive mood increased over the follow-up time in the most exposed floor layers but not in the referents. Memory difficulties, although more frequent among floor layers than among referents, had decreased in floor layers while increased in referents. Floor layers also reported some negative effects on intimate relations and activity level. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were related to poorer performance chiefly in memory tasks and tests of complex attention and perceptual speed, more seldom in visuospatial tasks. Findings of exposure-related, long-lasting, partly deteriorating neuropsychiatric complaints indicate that general well-being later in life has been affected in floor layers with past heavy solvent exposure. We also found frequent associations between symptom prevalence and the cognitive functioning. Together with previous

  4. A psychoeducational intervention reduces the need for anesthesia during radiotherapy for young childhood cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsenmeier Claudia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy (RT has become an important treatment modality in pediatric oncology, but its delivery to young children with cancer is challenging and general anesthesia is often needed. Methods To evaluate whether a psychoeducational intervention might reduce the need for anesthesia, 223 consecutive pediatric cancer patients receiving 4141 RT fractions during 244 RT courses between February 1989 and January 2006 were studied. Whereas in 154 RT courses corresponding with 2580 RT fractions patients received no psychoeducational intervention (group A, 90 RT courses respectively 1561 RT fractions were accomplished by using psychoeducational intervention (group B. This tailored psychoeducational intervention in group B included a play program and interactive support by a trained nurse according to age to get familiar with staff, equipment and procedure of radiotherapy. Results Group A did not differ significantly from group B in age at RT, gender, diagnosis, localization of RT and positioning during RT. Whereas 33 (21.4% patients in group A got anesthesia, only 8 (8.9% patients in group B needed anesthesia. The median age of cooperating patients without anesthesia decreased from 3.2 to 2.7 years. In both uni- and multivariate analyses the psychoeducational intervention significantly and independently reduced the need for anesthesia. Conclusion We conclude that a specifically tailored psychoeducational intervention is able to reduce the need for anesthesia in children undergoing RT for cancer. This results in lower costs and increased cooperation during RT.

  5. Reducing the stigma of depression through neurobiology-based psychoeducation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Der-Yan; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2014-09-01

    Attribution theory claims that people who are stigmatized experience more negative emotional and behavioral reactions from others when they are thought to be responsible for their problems. Accordingly, this study proposed a neurobiology-based psychoeducational intervention, which attempted to reduce people's blameworthy attitudes toward and social distance from depressed individuals. One hundred and thirty-two college students were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group. Participants in the experimental group received a 30-min lecture on neurobiology-based psychoeducation for depressive disorders, and were asked to fill out questionnaires before and 2 weeks after the intervention. The control group, with no intervention, also filled out the same questionnaires before and 2 weeks after the experiment. The main contents of the neurobiology-based psychoeducation concerned the neurotransmission processes and biological mechanisms of depression, in order to emphasize the biological attribution of depression. An ancova indicated that the neurobiology-based psychoeducational intervention significantly elevated the biological attribution of depression and reduced the social distance from depressed individuals. Psychological blameworthy attitudes toward depression, however, did not significantly change. Through a brief psychoeducation program about depression, knowledge of neuroscience could lead to positive benefits. Public awareness that depression can be effectively prevented and treated may be a way in which people can accept depressed individuals. Further studies are needed to certify the mechanisms of the effect of neurobiology-based psychoeducation. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Cognitive reserve and self-efficacy as moderators of the relationship between stress exposure and executive functioning among spousal dementia caregivers.

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    Pertl, M M; Hannigan, C; Brennan, S; Robertson, I H; Lawlor, B A

    2017-04-01

    A substantial literature has reported that stress negatively impacts on cognitive processes. As dementia caregiving can be stressful, it has been hypothesized that the challenges of dementia care may increase caregivers' own vulnerability to cognitive decline. Prefrontal processes are thought to be most vulnerable to stress; however, few studies have examined whether greater caregiver stress predicts poorer executive dysfunction, and no previous research has considered potential moderators of this relationship. We examined (1) whether greater psychological stress mediated a relationship between caregiver stress exposure and executive functioning and (2) whether greater self-efficacy and cognitive reserve (CR) moderated this relationship. Spousal dementia caregivers (n = 253) completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (stress exposure), the Perceived Stress Scale, the National Adult Reading Test (CR), the Fortinsky dementia-specific caregiver self-efficacy scale, and the Color Trails Test (executive functioning). Moderated mediation was tested using the PROCESS macro. Age, gender, and dementia risk factors were included as covariates. Greater stress exposure indirectly predicted executive functioning through psychological stress. Stronger relationships between greater psychological stress and poorer executive functioning were observed among caregivers with lower CR; there was no evidence that self-efficacy moderated the relationship between stress exposure and psychological stress. Our findings are in line with the idea that greater psychological stress in response to challenges associated with dementia care predicts poorer caregiver executive functioning, particularly among caregivers with low CR. However, these findings are cross sectional; it is also possible that poorer executive functioning contributes to greater caregiver stress.

  7. Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Jacobson, Joseph L; Carter, R Colin; Kaplan-Estrin, Melissa; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), methylmercury (MeHg), and lead (Pb) are environmental contaminants known for their adverse effects on cognitive development. In this study we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, MeHg, and Pb on cognitive development in a sample of Inuit infants from Arctic Québec. Mothers were recruited at local prenatal clinics. PCBs, mercury (Hg), Pb, and two seafood nutrients-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and selenium (Se)-were measured in umbilical cord blood. Infants (n = 94) were assessed at 6.5 and 11 months of age on the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), A-not-B test, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd Edition (BSID-II). Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with decreased FTII novelty preference, indicating impaired visual recognition memory. Prenatal Hg was associated with poorer performance on A-not-B, which depends on working memory and is believed to be a precursor of executive function. Prenatal Pb was related to longer FTII fixation durations, indicating slower speed of information processing. PCBs, MeHg, and Pb each showed specific and distinct patterns of adverse associations with the outcomes measured during infancy. By contrast, none of these exposures was associated with performance on the BSID-II, a global developmental measure. The more focused, narrow band measures of cognitive function that appeared to be sensitive to these exposures also provide early indications of long-term impairment in specific domains that would otherwise not likely be evident until school age. Boucher O, Muckle G, Jacobson JL, Carter RC, Kaplan-Estrin M, Ayotte P, Dewailly É, Jacobson SW. 2014. Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik. Environ Health Perspect 122:310-316; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206323.

  8. The effects of music exposure and own genre preference on conscious and unconscious cognitive processes: a pilot ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, George N; Riby, Leigh M

    2007-12-01

    Did Beethoven and Mozart have more in common with each other than Clapton and Hendrix? The current research demonstrated the widely reported Mozart Effect as only partly significant. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 16 professional classical and rock musicians during a standard 2 stimulus visual oddball task, while listening to classical and rock music. During the oddball task participants were required to discriminate between an infrequent target stimulus randomly embedded in a train of repetitive background or standard stimuli. Consistent with previous research, the P3 and N2 ERPs were elicited in response to the infrequent target stimuli. Own genre preference resulted in a reduction in amplitude of the P3 for classical musicians exposed to classical music and rock musicians exposed to rock music. Notably, at the pre-attentive stage of processing (N2) beneficial effects of exposure to classical music were observed for both groups of musicians. These data are discussed in terms of short and long-term music benefits on both conscious and unconscious cognitive processes.

  9. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes the intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Adverse effects of air pollution (AP) on cognitive functions have been proposed, but investigations of simultaneous exposure to noise are scarce. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with overall MCI and amnestic (aMCI) and nonamnestic (naMCI) MCI. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, cognitive assessment was completed in 4,086 participants who were 50-80 years old. Of these, 592 participants were diagnosed as having MCI (aMCI, n = 309; naMCI, n = 283) according to previously published criteria using five neuropsychological subtests. We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression, and for traffic noise [weighted 24-hr (LDEN) and night-time (LNIGHT) means]. Logistic regression models adjusted for individual risk factors were calculated to estimate the association of environmental exposures with MCI in single- and two-exposure models. Most air pollutants and traffic noise were associated with overall MCI and aMCI. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and a 10 A-weighted decibel [dB(A)] increase in LDEN were associated with overall MCI as follows [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: 1.16 (1.05, 1.27) and 1.40 (1.03, 1.91), respectively, and with aMCI as follows: 1.22 (1.08, 1.38) and 1.53 (1.05, 2.24), respectively. In two-exposure models, AP and noise associations were attenuated [e.g., for aMCI, PM2.5 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) and LDEN 1.46 (1.11, 1.92)]. Long-term exposures to air pollution and traffic noise were positively associated with MCI, mainly with the amnestic subtype. Tzivian L, Dlugaj M, Winkler A, Weinmayr G, Hennig F, Fuks KB, Vossoughi M, Schikowski T, Weimar C, Erbel R, Jöckel KH, Moebus S, Hoffmann B, on behalf of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study

  10. Non-Smoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke II: Effect of Room Ventilation on the Physiological, Subjective, and Behavioral/Cognitive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Evan S.; Cone, Edward J; Mitchell, John M.; Bigelow, George E.; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Many individuals are incidentally exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke, but little is known about the effects of this exposure. This report examines the physiological, subjective, and behavioral/cognitive effects of secondhand cannabis exposure, and the influence of room ventilation on these effects. Methods Non-cannabis-using individuals were exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke from six individuals smoking cannabis (11.3% THC) ad libitum in a specially constructed chamber for one hour. Chamber ventilation was experimentally manipulated so that participants were exposed under unventilated conditions or with ventilation at a rate of 11 air exchanges/hour. Physiological, subjective and behavioral/cognitive measures of cannabis exposure assessed after exposure sessions were compared to baseline measures. Results Exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke under unventilated conditions produced detectable cannabinoid levels in blood and urine, minor increases in heart rate, mild to moderate self-reported sedative drug effects, and impaired performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST). One urine specimen tested positive at using a 50 ng/mL cut-off and several specimens were positive at 20 ng/mL. Exposure under ventilated conditions resulted in much lower blood cannabinoid levels, and did not produce sedative drug effects, impairments in performance, or positive urine screen results. Conclusions Room ventilation has a pronounced effect on exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. Under extreme, unventilated conditions, secondhand cannabis smoke exposure can produce detectable levels of THC in blood and urine, minor physiological and subjective drug effects, and minor impairment on a task requiring psychomotor ability and working memory. PMID:25957157

  11. Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke II: Effect of room ventilation on the physiological, subjective, and behavioral/cognitive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Evan S; Cone, Edward J; Mitchell, John M; Bigelow, George E; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Many individuals are incidentally exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke, but little is known about the effects of this exposure. This report examines the physiological, subjective, and behavioral/cognitive effects of secondhand cannabis exposure, and the influence of room ventilation on these effects. Non-cannabis-using individuals were exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke from six individuals smoking cannabis (11.3% THC) ad libitum in a specially constructed chamber for 1h. Chamber ventilation was experimentally manipulated so that participants were exposed under unventilated conditions or with ventilation at a rate of 11 air exchanges/h. Physiological, subjective and behavioral/cognitive measures of cannabis exposure assessed after exposure sessions were compared to baseline measures. Exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke under unventilated conditions produced detectable cannabinoid levels in blood and urine, minor increases in heart rate, mild to moderate self-reported sedative drug effects, and impaired performance on the digit symbol substitution task (DSST). One urine specimen tested positive at using a 50 ng/ml cut-off and several specimens were positive at 20 ng/ml. Exposure under ventilated conditions resulted in much lower blood cannabinoid levels, and did not produce sedative drug effects, impairments in performance, or positive urine screen results. Room ventilation has a pronounced effect on exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. Under extreme, unventilated conditions, secondhand cannabis smoke exposure can produce detectable levels of THC in blood and urine, minor physiological and subjective drug effects, and minor impairment on a task requiring psychomotor ability and working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghi Ngoc Tran

    Full Text Available Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2. Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II. In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor

  13. Comparison of the effectiveness of exposure to low LET helium particles (4He) and gamma rays (137Cs) on the disruption of cognitive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rats were exposed to either Helium (4He) particles (1000 MeV/n; 0.1 – 10 cGy; head-only) or Cesium 137Cs gamma rays (50 – 400 cGy; whole body) and the effects of irradiation on cognitive performance evaluated. The results indicated that exposure to doses of 4He particles as low as 0.1 cGy disrupted...

  14. Feasibility of brief intensive exposure therapy for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse: a brief clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Hendriks

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]. Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.

  15. A randomized-controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with integrated techniques from emotion-focused and exposure therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Krieger, Tobias; Zimmermann, Johannes; Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Dörig, Nadja; Meisch, Laurence; Hayes, Adele M

    2017-11-12

    Emotional processing (EP) is hypothesized to be a key mechanism of change in psychotherapy that may enhance its long-term efficacy. To study the effects of fostering EP in psychotherapy for depression, this randomized-controlled clinical trial compares the efficacy and pattern of change of a cognitive-behavioral therapy that integrates emotion-focused techniques within an exposure framework (Exposure-Based Cognitive Therapy for depression; EBCT-R) to a standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). One hundred and forty-nine depressed outpatients were randomized to a maximum of 22 sessions of manualized EBCT-R (N = 77) or CBT (N = 72). Primary outcomes were self-reported and clinician-rated depressive symptoms at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were self-esteem, interpersonal problems, and avoidance thoughts and behaviors. Depressive symptoms improved significantly over therapy in both treatments, with large within-group effect sizes for CBT (d = -1.95) and EBCT-R (d = -1.77). The pattern of depression change during treatment did not differ between treatments. Symptom relief lasted over 12 months and did not differ between EBCT-R and CBT. Results suggest that both treatments produced significant short- and long-term improvement in depression symptoms, but the integration of emotion-focused techniques within an exposure framework did not have added benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01012856.

  16. Mindfulness vs psychoeducation in adult ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxhaj, E; Sadohara, C; Borel, P; D'Amelio, R; Sobanski, E; Müller, H; Feige, B; Matthies, S; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2018-01-22

    Mindfulness training is a promising treatment approach in adult ADHD. However, there has not yet been a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness to an active control condition. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a mindfulness training program (MAP) compared to structured psychoeducation (PE). After randomization 81 medication-free adult ADHD patients participated either in an 8-week MAP or PE group program. At baseline (T1), after 8 weeks (T2) and after 8 months (T3), severity of ADHD and associated symptoms (depression, general psychopathology, quality of life) were measured with the Conner's ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the SF-36 by self and blind observer ratings. Both groups showed significant pre-post improvements in observer-rated Inattention scale (p load in adult ADHD. Furthermore in exploratory post hoc tests the study provides evidence for a potential gender-specific treatment response in adult ADHD.

  17. Psychoeducational intervention for patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Ross, Lone; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: In 1993, a randomized intervention study among patients with malignant melanoma showed a significant decrease in psychological distress and increased coping capacity 6 months after the intervention and enhanced survival 6 years later. We applied a similar intervention with a few modifica......PURPOSE: In 1993, a randomized intervention study among patients with malignant melanoma showed a significant decrease in psychological distress and increased coping capacity 6 months after the intervention and enhanced survival 6 years later. We applied a similar intervention with a few...... modifications in a randomized controlled trial among Danish patients with malignant melanoma and evaluated results on immediate and long-term effects on psychological distress and coping capacity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 262 patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma were randomly assigned...... to the control or intervention group. Patients in the intervention group were offered six weekly sessions of 2 hours of psychoeducation, consisting of health education, enhancement of problem-solving skills, stress management, and psychological support. The participants were assessed at baseline before random...

  18. Psychoeducational outcome at school age of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P H; O'Callaghan, M J; Rogers, Y M

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the cognitive performance and educational attainment at school-age of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), compared with a preterm control group of children. Seventy preterm infants with BPD and 61 birth weight matched controls were prospectively followed-up to school-age. The Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC), the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) and the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) were administered. The results were compared between the two groups and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of confounding variables. The children in the BPD group performed less well on the Full Scale IQ (mean 86.7 vs 93.5; 95% CI, 1.9-11.7), Verbal IQ (mean 87.1 vs 94.1; 95% CI, 2.0-12.0) and the Performance IQ (mean 88.6 vs 95.2; 95% CI, 2.0-11.2) of the WISC, the reading component of the WRAT (mean 93.8 vs 98.9; 95% CI, 0.3-9.8) and the VMI (mean 88.9 vs 93.3; 95%, CI 1.1-7.8). Despite controlling for social and biological variables, statistical differences persisted for Full Scale and Verbal IQ and reading. A Verbal IQ >1 SD below the mean was found in 41% of BPD children compared to 21% of controls, while on the reading component of the WRAT a greater proportion of BPD children also had scores>1 SD below the mean. Impaired psychoeducational performance was found in preterm children with BPD compared to controls, especially in the areas of language abilities and reading skills. This supports a greater need for special educational services and counseling for parents for these children.

  19. Developmental exposure to paraquat and maneb can impair cognition, learning and memory in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; He, Xi; Sun, Yan; Li, Baixiang

    2016-10-20

    Paraquat and maneb are identified environmental pollutants. Combined exposure to paraquat and maneb is a latent risk factor for many diseases, particularly those of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampus is the key structure in memory formation and babies are more sensitive to environmental stimuli than adults, so we investigated the neurotoxicity of paraquat and maneb on the hippocampi of rat pups. Female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were mated (female : male = 2 : 1) every night for a week. The gravid rats were randomly divided into three groups (one control and two experimental groups). A mixed solution of paraquat-maneb was administered twice a week by lavage at a dose of 10 or 15 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (containing 30 or 45 mg kg(-1) bodyweight maneb, respectively) from day 6 after pregnancy till ablactation. Maternal weight gain and offspring bodyweights were not affected by the drugs. However, behavioral tests showed that reaction latency and mistake frequency increased after treatment. Intuitively, we found significant changes in the hippocampal neurons in the morphological observation. Taking into account the interaction of the related genes in the cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway, we used a variety of methods to detect the gene and protein levels. Reduced expression of cAMP and related genes and proteins in the hippocampus and serum was also observed. These results indicate that PQ-MB stimulates cAMP to reduce the production of PKA, thus reducing the phosphorylation of CREB and inhibiting the activation of other elements (BDNF, C-JUN, and C-FOS). These changes lead to hippocampal damage and impaired abilities (learning, cognition, and memory). Our results demonstrate that PQ-MB induces hippocampal toxicity in the early life of rats, and they thus provide a theoretical foundation for further investigation of the bathypelagic mechanism involved and measures that can be taken to avoid PQ-MB neurotoxicity.

  20. A small-scale study comparing the impact of psycho-education and exploratory psychotherapy groups on newcomers to a group for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheston, Richard; Jones, Roy

    2009-05-01

    The importance of providing emotional support to people newly diagnosed as having dementia is now widely recognised. However, the evidence base for this work is limited, so that it is difficult to draw conclusions either about whether this form of work is effective or which form of intervention might be most suitable for people with dementia. This study compared the effectiveness of exploratory psychotherapy and psycho-educational group interventions for new group members. Participants had received a diagnosis of Dementia of the Alzheimer's type or a similar form of dementia and had a mild level of cognitive impairment. Interventions occurred in ten, weekly sessions with participants attending either a psychotherapy or a psycho-educational group, each of which were facilitated by the same team of clinicians, and had the same amount of therapist contact. Data relating to levels of mood was collected at the start and at the end of the group intervention from eight participants in each arm of the study. Data collection occurred independently from the intervention by a researcher who was blind to the form of intervention. There was a significant interaction between mode of therapy and levels of depression and a borderline significant interaction between therapy type and levels of anxiety. However, once the low affect level of participants in the psycho-educational groups was controlled for, differences between the interventions were non-significant. Although the results that can be drawn from this study are limited, nevertheless it supports previous research indicating that a 10-week group psychotherapy intervention can be effective in reducing levels of depression for people with a mild level of dementia.

  1. The effectiveness of a psycho-educational group after early-stage breast cancer treatment: results of a randomized French study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbeault, S; Cayrou, S; Brédart, A; Viala, A L; Desclaux, B; Saltel, P; Gauvain-Piquard, A; Hardy, P; Dickes, P

    2009-06-01

    Many women with breast cancer need psychological help to cope more effectively after treatment. Cognitive and behavioural techniques are not yet well established in France. A multi-site randomized study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a psycho-educational group intervention in this population. Two hundred and three patients, recruited after primary treatment, were randomly assigned either to a treatment group (psycho-educational intervention) or to a waiting-list control group. The 8-week programme of 2 h sessions comprised of thematic discussions, information and training in stress management techniques. Evaluation at baseline, after 8 sessions, and 1 month after programme completion, included evaluations using the STAI, POMS, MAC, EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 breast module scales. We observed a significant reduction in anxiety (STAI, POMS) among group participants, a reduction in anger, depression and fatigue (POMS), a significant improvement in vigor and interpersonal relationships (POMS), in emotional and role functioning, in health status and fatigue level (EORTC QLQ-C30). In contrast, coping strategies (MAC) were not significantly different between groups. No group-related negative effects were observed and the global satisfaction levels were very high. This study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention, which can accelerate the reduction of those negative affects which are present at the end of treatment. It represents an excellent complement or an alternative to individual psycho-oncologic therapeutic support, widely proposed in France, and should now be tested in groups with other types of cancer and at other disease phases.

  2. Early postnatal exposure to isoflurane causes cognitive deficits and disrupts development of newborn hippocampal neurons via activation of the mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunchai; Jiang, Danye; Ryu, Yun Kyoung; Lim, Sanghee; Kwak, Minhye; Gray, Christy D; Xu, Michael; Choi, Jun H; Junn, Sue; Kim, Jieun; Xu, Jing; Schaefer, Michele; Johns, Roger A; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Mintz, C David

    2017-07-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure. Using an in vivo mouse model we demonstrate abnormal development of dendrite arbors and dendritic spines in newly generated dentate gyrus granule cell neurons of the hippocampus after a clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia exposure conducted at an early postnatal age. Furthermore, we find that isoflurane causes a sustained increase in activity in the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway, and that inhibition of this pathway with rapamycin not only reverses the observed changes in neuronal development, but also substantially improves performance on behavioral tasks of spatial learning and memory that are impaired by isoflurane exposure. We conclude that isoflurane disrupts the development of hippocampal neurons generated in the early postnatal period by activating a well-defined neurodevelopmental disease pathway and that this phenotype can be reversed by pharmacologic inhibition.

  3. Effects of a psychoeducational intervention in family caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Costa Ponce

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychoeducational activities are a way of promoting help for caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease, representing a forum for knowledge sharing, and in which the primary focus is on psychological themes aimed at carers developing coping skills and strategies. Objective: The main objective of this study was to gauge perceptions about care and its impact among family caregivers of patients with AD participating in a psychoeducational group intervention, as well as the possible positive and negative aspects associated with this role. The subjective impact of AD on the lives of these caregivers was assessed on each of the dimensions of the Caregiver Burden Scale using a semi-directed interview on perceptions about care. Methods: This was a prospective study, in which information was collected twice, before and after, psychoeducational intervention. Through the application of the scale, benefits were evident for all dimensions assessed in the instrument (general strain, isolation, disappointment, emotional involvement and environment. Results: The results showed that after the psychoeducational intervention, caregivers felt less burdened by care compared to pre-intervention. Conclusion: These findings confirm that expanded implementation of psychoeducational interventions for caregivers of patients with AD can be beneficial for both caregivers and patients.

  4. Socio-cognitive exposure and risk assessment: The case of mobile phones; Exposition sociocognitive et evaluation des risques: le cas de la telephonie mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M. [Institut Symlog, Gouvernance des risques, 262 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris (France); Perrin, A. [Institut de recherches biomedicales des armees, CRSSA Grenoble, Departement de radiobiologie, 24 avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France)

    2011-01-15

    Mobile telephone technology is characterized by spectacular global expansion. In a corollary manner, radio frequencies have become omnipresent in the public and private environment, as the physical basis for mobile communications, and as something that has entered the awareness of a vast number of persons. This dual nature of radio frequencies means that population concerns have been taken into account in the risk assessment process. Against this background, we first examine the principle of separation between assessment, evaluation and management of risk. We then consider several categories of exposure. The concept of socio-cognitive exposure is proposed, to address the possible effects of chronic exposure of populations to alarming information when various health effects of radio frequencies are discussed. This approach specifies the role of information as an intermediary between environment and health. Applied to the case of radio frequencies, such a conceptual approach could result in redefining such terms as vulnerable populations, extreme situations and protective measures. (authors)

  5. Socio-cognitive habilitation using the math interactive learning experience program for alcohol-affected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D; Taddeo, Elles

    2007-08-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) has been recognized as a disabling condition with a significant impact on the neurobehavioral functioning of affected individuals, including cognition, behavior, and academic functioning, but little research has been performed on targeted interventions for these children. A socio-cognitive habilitative program focused on improving behavior and math functioning in children 3 to 10 years of age (n=61) was developed and evaluated. The intervention provided parental instruction on FAS, advocacy, and behavioral regulation via workshops and interactive math tutoring with children. All families received parental instruction and were then randomly assigned to either the math instruction or standard psychoeducational care groups. Satisfaction with workshops was very high, with over 90% agreeing that trainers were knowledgeable and materials easy to understand and helpful. Significant gains in knowledge were found for information provided in the instructional groups. At posttesting, caregivers reported fewer problem behaviors on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, Internalizing Problem Behavior, Externalizing Problem Behavior, and Total Problem Behavior summary scales. After 5 months, both groups of children demonstrated gains in math knowledge but significantly higher gains were found in the group receiving direct math instruction. The math treatment group was also more likely to demonstrate a gain of over 1 standard deviation on any of the 4 math outcome measures used. These findings suggest that parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FAS(D)) benefit from instruction in understanding their child's alcohol-related neurological damage and strategies to provide positive behavioral supports and that targeted psychoeducational programs may be able to remediate some of the math deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.

  6. Effects of Longitudinal Glucose Exposure on Cognitive and Physical Function: Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Leng, Iris; Rapp, Stephen R; Miller, Michael E; Houston, Denise K; Marsh, Anthony P; Hire, Don G; Baker, Laura D; Bray, George A; Blackburn, George L; Hergenroeder, Andrea L; Jakicic, John M; Johnson, Karen C; Korytkowski, Mary T; Dorsten, Brent Van; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    To test whether average long-term glucose exposure is associated with cognitive and physical function in middle-aged and younger-old adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prospective cohort study. Data obtained as part of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial (NCT00017953) and Look AHEAD Movement and Memory ancillary study (NCT01410097). Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 45 to 76 at baseline (N = 879). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured at regular intervals over 7 years, and objective measures of cognitive function (Trail-Making Test, Modified Stroop Color-Word Test, Digit Symbol-Coding, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, expanded Physical Performance Battery, 400-m and 20-m gait speed) and strength (grip and knee extensor strength) were assessed at the Year 8 or 9 follow-up examination. Average HbA1c exposure was 7.0 ± 1.1% (53 ± 11.6 mmol/mol), with 57% of participants classified as having HbA1c levels of less than 7% (64 mmol/mol). After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, smoking status, alcohol intake, knee pain, physical fitness, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication and statin use, ancillary year visit, and study arm and site, higher HbA1c was associated with worse physical but not cognitive function. Further adjustment for prevalent diabetes mellitus-related comorbidities made all associations nonsignificant. Results did not differ when stratified according to participant baseline age (diabetes mellitus-related complications, longitudinal glucose exposure is not associated with future cognitive and physical function. Optimal management of diabetes mellitus-related comorbidities may prevent or reduce the burden of disability associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Skills for life of rural teenagers: cognitive and social skills

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Morales Rodríguez; Marisol Benitez Hernandez; Diana Agustín Santos

    2013-01-01

    A life skills-based approach allows to develop psychosocial skills in adolescents; specifically, cognitive and social skills play a fundamental role. Thus arises the objective of the present study, strengthen self-efficacy and coping, cognitive skills and social skills in high school adolescents in rural area, through the implementation of two programs of psycho-educational intervention. It is based on a quantitative methodology, pre-experimental design of descriptivo-correlacional scope; par...

  8. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  9. Factors Influencing Service Utilization and Mood Symptom Severity in Children with Mood Disorders: Effects of Multifamily Psychoeducation Groups (MFPGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Amy N.; Fristad, Mary A.; Early, Theresa J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of psychoeducation on service utilization and mood symptom severity in children with mood disorders. Parents' knowledge of mood disorders, beliefs about treatment, and perceptions of children's need for treatment were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between psychoeducation and service utilization and…

  10. The relation of depression and anxiety to measures of attention in young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B D; Smitherman, Todd A; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, Wm Drew

    2008-01-01

    The relation between mood and attentional functioning in young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation has not been previously reported. This study examined the relation of self-reported depression and anxiety on attentional abilities among 161 young adults referred for psychoeducational evaluation. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Attentional functioning was assessed using the Trail Making Test, the d2 Test of Attention, the Conners' Continuous Performance Test, and the WAIS-III Working Memory and Processing Speed Indices. The unique variance accounted for by depression or anxiety was minimal (typically attention within samples of young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation is minimally related to self-reported depression and anxiety.

  11. The effect of psycho-educational strategies on marital conflict among dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghamari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of psycho--educational strategies on decreasing the components of marital conflict among dual-career couples. The method of research was experimental design. 11 couples were selected using random sampling and then were assigned into the groups of experimental and control. The experimental group participated in psycho-educational sessions. Data were collected using Barati and Sanai’s marital conflict questionnaire and analyzed using repeated measure test. Results showed that psycho-educational strategies are effective in decreasing all components of marital conflict among dual-career couples (p<0/01 except for two components of seeking child support and separating financial events.

  12. A psychoeducational program for families of affectively ill children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, D A; Poling, K; McKain, B; Baugher, M

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of a family psychoeducational program for the parents of affectively ill adolescents. Sixty-two parents of 34 affectively ill adolescents received one 2-hour psychoeducational session that covered information about the diagnosis, course, and treatment of affective illness. Methods of coping with an affectively ill family member also were discussed. The view of depression as a chronic and recurrent illness was strongly emphasized. Participants showed improvement in knowledge about depression and in modification of dysfunctional beliefs about depression and its treatment. Almost all participants found the program both useful and interesting. These findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and to a modest degree, the efficacy of a family psychoeducational program for parents of affectively ill adolescents. Additional studies should address the impact of such programs on compliance with treatment, clinical outcome, and family life.

  13. Prenatal melamine exposure impairs spatial cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity by presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition of glutamatergic transmission in adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lei; Sun, Wei

    2017-03-05

    Our previous studies showed that prenatal melamine exposure (PME) could impair spatial cognition and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). More importantly, the synaptic dysfunction induced by PME was associated with the probability of presynaptic glutamate release. Considering the crucial role of the other form of synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD), in some types of learning and memory process, the aim of present study was to investigate if the hippocampal LTD and cognitive flexibility were affected. And then we attempted to explore the underlying mechanism. The animal model was produced by melamine exposure throughout gestational period with 400mg/kg bodyweight, the male offspring rats were used in the study. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed, and then LTD was recorded from Schaffer collaterals to CA1 region in the hippocampus. Behavioral test showed that learning, reference memory and re-acquisition learning abilities were impaired significantly by PME. The field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) slopes of LTD were significantly higher after PME. Furthermore, the data of whole-cell patch-clamp experiments showed that PME markedly diminished the frequencies of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) and simultaneously reduced the amplitude of sEPSCs. In conclusion, PME inhibited glutamate transmission presynaptically and postsynaptically which could contribute importantly to the depressed hippocampal synaptic plasticity and further induced cognitive deficits in MWM tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Social-Cognitive-Ecological Framework for Understanding the Impact of Exposure to Persistent Ethnic-Political Violence on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a theoretical framework for understanding how persistent and extreme exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence interacts with cognitive, emotional, and self processes to influence children’s psychosocial adjustment. Three recent strands of theorizing guide our approach. First, we focus on how observational and social learning processes combine to influence the development of social-cognitive structures and processes that affect behavior. Second, we focus on the role of developing self and identity processes in shaping the child’s interactions with the world and the consequences of those interactions. Third, we build on the complex systems perspective on development and assume that human development can only be understood accurately by examining how the multiple contexts affecting children and the adults in their lives interact to moderate biosocial factors which predispose individuals to develop in certain directions. We review the recent empirical literature on children’s exposure to ethnic-political violence and we apply the social-cognitive-ecological framework to the empirical findings in this literature. Finally, we propose future directions for research and clinical implications derived from this framework. PMID:19430904

  15. Isoflurane Exposure Induces Cell Death, Microglial Activation and Modifies the Expression of Genes Supporting Neurodevelopment and Cognitive Function in the Male Newborn Piglet Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Kevin D; Hassell, Jane; Fleiss, Bobbi; Kawano, Go; Ezzati, Mojgan; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya; Bennett, Kate; Fierens, Igor; Burnett, Ryan; Chaban, Badr; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Oliver-Taylor, Aaron; Tachsidis, Ilias; Rostami, Jamshid; Gressens, Pierre; Sanders, Robert D; Robertson, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to general anesthesia during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex, incompletely understood and may be sexually dimorphic, but include developmentally inappropriate apoptosis, inflammation and a disruption to cognitively salient gene expression. We investigated the effects of a 6h isoflurane exposure on cell death, microglial activation and gene expression in the male neonatal piglet brain. Piglets (n = 6) were randomised to: (i) naive controls or (ii) 6h isoflurane. Cell death (TUNEL and caspase-3) and microglial activation were recorded in 7 brain regions. Changes in gene expression (microarray and qPCR) were assessed in the cingulate cortex. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. Isoflurane anesthesia induced significant increases in cell death in the cingulate and insular cortices, caudate nucleus, thalamus, putamen, internal capsule, periventricular white matter and hippocampus. Dying cells included both neurons and oligodendrocytes. Significantly, microglial activation was observed in the insula, pyriform, hippocampus, internal capsule, caudate and thalamus. Isoflurane induced significant disruption to the expression of 79 gene transcripts, of these 26 are important for the control of transcription and 23 are important for the mediation of neural plasticity, memory formation and recall. Our observations confirm that isoflurane increases apoptosis and inflammatory responses in the neonatal piglet brain but also suggests novel additional mechanisms by which isoflurane may induce adverse neural and cognitive development by disrupting the expression of genes mediating activity dependent development of neural circuits, the predictive adaptive responses of the brain, memory formation and recall.

  16. Home-based psychoeducational and mailed information programs for stroke-caregiving dyads post-discharge: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Sharon K; Godwin, Kyler M; Cron, Stanley G; Kelley, Carolyn P; Hersch, Gayle; Davis, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This randomized trial compared 6- and 12-month outcomes of a home-based psychoeducational program to mailed information provided to 159 survivors of stroke (SS) and their spousal caregivers (CG). SS (age 50+) and CG were recruited as dyads post-discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. All dyads received mailed information for 12 months. Dyads randomized to the home-based group received an average of 36.7 h of psychoeducation over 6 months. Health status, depression, stress, burden, coping, support, mutuality and function were obtained on all dyads. Repeated measures analysis with linear mixed models was used to compare the groups for change over time in the outcome variables. Both groups demonstrated less depression and stress over time. Compared to the mailed information group, SS in the home-based group demonstrated significantly improved self-reported health and cognitive function; CG demonstrated significantly improved self-reported health and coping strategies. Mutuality and social support decreased in both groups. The home-based intervention was effective in improving self-reported health, coping skills in CG and cognitive functioning in SS. However, the finding that dyads in both groups demonstrated decreased depression and stress suggests that providing repeated doses of relevant, personalized information by mail may result in positive changes. A stroke affects both the stroke survivor and the spousal caregiver, so nurses and therapists should use multicomponent strategies to provide education, support, counseling and linkages to community resources to ease the transition from hospital to home. Stroke may have a negative impact on the dyad's relationship with each other and also on the availability of support people in their lives during the 12 months after hospital discharge. Comprehensive stroke programs should encourage dyads to attend support groups and to seek individual and group counseling, as needed. Establishing an ongoing relationship with

  17. Psychoeducation Program on Strategies for Coping with Stress in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Biegańska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of educational projects in the available literature was an inspiration to develop a psychoeducational program. The objective was to provide patients with basic information on the contribution of stressors in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction and educate on methods for coping with stress most commonly used in psychology. In the course of three meetings, patients are familiarised with the issue of experienced stress as a potential source of psychosomatic illnesses (in particular, temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Preliminary patients’ opinions, expressed through self-report methods, indicate significant usefulness of the developed psychoeducational program for the process of treatment and the quality of patients’ lives.

  18. Psychoeducation program on strategies for coping with stress in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegańska, Joanna; Pihut, M

    2014-01-01

    Lack of educational projects in the available literature was an inspiration to develop a psychoeducational program. The objective was to provide patients with basic information on the contribution of stressors in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction and educate on methods for coping with stress most commonly used in psychology. In the course of three meetings, patients are familiarised with the issue of experienced stress as a potential source of psychosomatic illnesses (in particular, temporomandibular joint dysfunction). Preliminary patients' opinions, expressed through self-report methods, indicate significant usefulness of the developed psychoeducational program for the process of treatment and the quality of patients' lives.

  19. Psycho-educational support to family and formal caregivers of older people with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Figueiredo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of dementia poses several challenges to the social support networks of people with dementia. Managing the symptoms of the disease is highly demanding and affects the well-being of the caregivers. Psycho-educational approaches have the potential to reduce the stress and burnout related to dementia caregiving demands. This paper describes the experience of two psycho-educational programs for family and formal caregivers. Main results are reported and recommendations for further intervention developments are identified. 

  20. The COMTval158met polymorphism is associated with symptom relief during exposure-based cognitive-behavioral treatment in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Jan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT represents a learning process leading to symptom relief and resulting in long-term changes in behavior. CBT for panic disorder is based on exposure and exposure-based processes can be studied in the laboratory as extinction of experimentally acquired fear responses. We have recently demonstrated that the ability to extinguish learned fear responses is associated with a functional genetic polymorphism (COMTval158met in the COMT gene and this study was aimed at transferring the experimental results on the COMTval158met polymorphism on extinction into a clinical setting. Methods We tested a possible effect of the COMTval158met polymorphism on the efficacy of CBT, in particular exposure-based treatment modules, in a sample of 69 panic disorder patients. Results We present evidence that panic patients with the COMTval158met met/met genotype may profit less from (exposure-based CBT treatment methods as compared to patients carrying at least one val-allele. No association was found with the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotypes which is presented as additional material. Conclusions We were thus able to transfer findings on the effect of the COMTval158met polymorphism from an experimental extinction study obtained using healthy subjects to a clinical setting. Furthermore patients carrying a COMT val-allele tend to report more anxiety and more depression symptoms as compared to those with the met/met genotype. Limitations of the study as well as possible clinical implications are discussed. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registry name: Internet-Versus Group-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Panic Disorder (IP2. Registration Identification number: NCT00845260, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00845260

  1. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM 900 and WCDMA mobile phones on cognitive function in young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Cornelia; Dorn, Hans; Bahr, Achim; Hansen, Marie-Luise; Peter, Anita; Bajbouj, Malek; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2011-04-01

    Results of studies on the possible effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on cognitive functions are contradictory, therefore, possible effects of long-term (7 h 15 min) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to handset-like signals of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 and Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) on attention and working memory were studied. The sample comprised 30 healthy male subjects (mean ± SD: 25.3 ± 2.6 years), who were tested on nine study days in which they were exposed to three exposure conditions (sham, GSM 900 and WCDMA) in a randomly assigned and balanced order. All tests were presented twice (morning and afternoon) on each study day within a fixed timeframe. Univariate comparisons revealed significant changes when subjects were exposed to GSM 900 compared to sham, only in the vigilance test. In the WCDMA exposure condition, one parameter in the vigilance and one in the test on divided attention were altered compared to sham. Performance in the selective attention test and the n-back task was not affected by GSM 900 or WCDMA exposure. Time-of-day effects were evident for the tests on divided and selective attention, as well as for working memory. After correction for multiple testing, only time-of-day effects remained significant in two tests, resulting in faster reactions in the afternoon trials. The results of the present study do not provide any evidence of an EMF effect on human cognition, but they underline the necessity to control for time of day. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A Review of Psychoeducational Interventions to Improve Sexual Functioning, Quality of Life, and Psychological Outcomes in Gynecological Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka Ming; Chan, Joanne C Y; Choi, Kai K C; Chan, Carmen W H

    2016-01-01

    Psychoeducational interventions are recommended for use with clinical gynecological cancer patients to improve their patient care outcomes. However, the evidence of their effectiveness is far from conclusive. The objective of this study was to identify the best available research evidence related to the effects of psychoeducational interventions on sexual functioning, quality of life, and psychological outcomes in gynecological cancer patients. A systematic search was conducted to identify English and Chinese articles from the inception of the databases to April 2012 and included 13 English databases and 7 Chinese databases. Gray literature or unpublished studies were also searched. A total of 11 studies involving 975 gynecological cancer patients were included in the review. Meta-analysis results for 4 comparable studies indicated that psychoeducational interventions were effective in treating depressive symptoms among gynecological cancer patients (standardized mean difference = -0.80; 95% confidence interval, -1.05 to -0.54), whereas information provision significantly improved the mental aspect of quality of life (standardized mean difference = -0.41; 95% confidence interval, -0.74 to -0.08). With regard to sexual functioning, psychoeducational interventions appeared to have benefits in improving the sexual life of patients. Findings confirm the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions on depressive symptoms and mental aspect of the quality of life in gynecological cancer patients. The authors discuss the implications of review findings for the effective design of psychoeducational interventions including components, provider, provision time frame, and duration for clinical practice, as well as psychoeducational intervention research.

  3. Transitioning Together: A Multi-Family Group Psychoeducation Program for Adolescents with ASD and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaWalt, Leann Smith; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2018-01-01

    Currently there are few evidence-based programs available for families of individuals with ASD during the transition to adulthood. The present study provided a preliminary evaluation of a multi-family group psychoeducation intervention using a randomized waitlist control design (n = 41). Families in the intervention condition participated in…

  4. Anger and Depression Management: Psychoeducational Skill Training Interventions for Women Caregivers of a Relative with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, David W.; Thompson, Larry; Steffen, Ann; Sorocco, Kristen; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the short-term impact of two theoretically based psychoeducational small group interventions with distressed caregivers, and it also examines the role of specific moderator and mediator variables on caregiver outcomes. Design and Methods: Female participants (N = 169) aged 50 and older who were caring for a…

  5. An Analysis of Adolescent and Parental Views on the Psychoeducation Program for Coping with Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçarslan, Suat; Atici, Meral

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the views of parents and adolescents who participated in psychoeducation programs for coping with adolescent aggressive behaviors. Parents who participated in the study were provided with a program known as the "Non-Violent Resistance Parent Program," and adolescents participated in the…

  6. Recent Developments in Family Psychoeducation as an Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucksted, Alicia; McFarlane, William; Downing, Donna; Dixon, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Among potential resources for people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) and their families, professionally delivered family psychoeducation (FPE) is designed to engage, inform, and educate family members, so that they can assist the person with SMI in managing their illness. In this article, we review research regarding FPE outcomes and…

  7. The effects of group psychoeducational programme on family burden in caregivers of Iranian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi Khoshknab, M; Sheikhona, M; Rahgouy, A; Rahgozar, M; Sodagari, F

    2014-06-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the impact of group psychoeducation therapy on family burden in caregivers of Iranian patients with schizophrenia during the acute phase of the disease. Using a randomized-controlled trial design, 71 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either a 4-week group psychoeducational programme (n = 36) or the control group (n = 35). Family burden was assessed by Family Burden Index Schedule (FBIS) at the beginning, and after a month of psychoeducation therapy as a follow-up. FBIS assesses family burden in six different dimensions with score ranging from 0 to 48, higher scores indicating higher burdens. At baseline mean, FBIS score was not significantly different between the cases and the controls. After the intervention, the mean total FBIS score was significantly lower in the case group compared with the control group (P family burden has been achieved by implementing group psychoeducational programmes for inpatients with acute phase schizophrenia in Iranian population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Psycho-educational interventions for children and young people with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, H. R.; Rayman, G.; Skinner, T. C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: A systematic review of the literature in 2000 revealed numerous methodological shortcomings in education research, but in recent years progress has been made in the quantity and quality of psycho-educational intervention studies. Summary of contents: This review focuses on diabetes ed...

  9. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  10. Psychoeducational interventions targeting core symptoms to achieve remission and prevent relapses and recurrence in depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2008-01-01

    Depressive disorders have a high prevalence and incidence, and are associated with a huge burden of disease and economic costs. Most respond satisfactorily to drug therapy and/or psychological intervention, in particular to psychoeducation. By far the best-studied example of this approach is the

  11. Brief Psychoeducational Group Treatment with Re-Traumatized Refugees and Asylum Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a psychoeducational group treatment with students with a history of refugee trauma, war, and human rights abuses who were further traumatized by the 9/11 attacks in New York City. The rationale for group intervention and specific techniques utilized to promote emotional and behavioral stabilization and…

  12. Evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children treated for cancer: A descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, H.; Silberbusch, L.M.; Last, B.F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present paper reports about the content and evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children growing up with a history of cancer, Op Koers Oncologie (OK Onco). OK Onco is aimed at empowerment of survivors of childhood cancer by teaching disease-related skills. The

  13. Improving Empathy and Communication Skills of Visually Impaired Early Adolescents through a Psycho-Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Duy, Baki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interpersonal communication skills psycho-education program to improve empathy and communication skills of visually impaired adolescents. Participants of the study were sixteen early adolescents schooling in an elementary school for visually impaired youth in Diyarbakir. The…

  14. Dealing with Fear of Blushing : A Psychoeducational Group Intervention for Fear of Blushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Corine; Buwalda, Femke M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical impression is that people who fear blushing do not easily seek psychological help for their complaints. Therefore, we designed a low-threshold psychoeducational group intervention to reduce fear of blushing. The intervention followed a cognitivebehavioural approach, but in a course

  15. Outcome of Comprehensive Psycho-Educational Interventions for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeseth, Svein

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates comprehensive psycho-educational research on early intervention for children with autism. Twenty-five outcome studies were identified. Twenty studies evaluated behavioral treatment, 3 studies evaluated TEACCH and 2 studies evaluated the Colorado Health Sciences Project. Outcome studies are graded according to their scientific…

  16. Effect of a family psychoeducational program on relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sota, Satoko; Shimodera, Shinji; Kii, Masaru; Okamura, Kayoko; Suto, Koichirou; Suwaki, Mitsuru; Fujita, Hirokazu; Fujito, Ryosuke; Inoue, Shimpei

    2008-08-01

    Family psychoeducational programs have been shown to be effective in terms of knowledge acquirement and relapse prevention, but few studies have looked at whether one mode of educational method is more effective than another. The aim of the present study was to compare several modes of educational approaches and to elucidate which mode of education is more effective. A total of 110 relatives of 95 patients with schizophrenia received three types of family psychoeducational programs between January 1995 and September 2003: a small group with two sessions (P1), a large group with nine sessions (P2), and a large group with five sessions (P3). In addition to the demographic data, acquired knowledge was measured using the modified Knowledge About Schizophrenia Interview (KASI), family expressed emotion (EE), and relapse episodes. Overall there were significant increases in many KASI subcategory scores after the three programs, in mothers in particular. The change in KASI scores indicated that the low EE group was able to be highly educated and that the relatives of non-relapsers were more effectively educated. As for the mode of the family psychoeducational program, the P1 and P2 groups surpassed the P3 in terms of knowledge acquired. Effects of family psychoeducation may depend not on the number of members or sessions but on the time spent on the program per member.

  17. Preventing Boys' Problems in Schools through Psychoeducational Programming: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, James M.; Lujan, Melissa L.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy currently exists on whether boys are in crises and, if so, what to do about it. Research is reviewed that indicates that boys have problems that affect their emotional and interpersonal functioning. Psychoeducational and preventive programs for boys are recommended as a call to action in schools. Thematic areas for boys' programming…

  18. Project IMPPACT: A Psycho-Educational Problem-Solving Intervention for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Micah L.; Young, Jessica J.; Jones, Monica Y.; Pasquariello, Cassandra D.; Fife, John E.; Grosz, Erin; Stewart, Nina; Desmangles, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The current article presents a model of a summer and after-school psychoeducational intervention for children ages 4 to 11 and parents offered at an African American church. The IMPPACT program may be best described as a community-based program that applies salient dimensions of African American religiosity and cultural values to the cultivation…

  19. Development and Implementation of a Psychoeducational Group for Ghanaian Adolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkyi, Anthony K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents development and informal assessment of a 10-week psychoeducational program designed for 8 adolescent group members experiencing parental divorce in a rural community in Ghana. Group design, cultural considerations, program implementation, and impacts are described. The literature review pertaining to group work as an…

  20. Responsiveness of the Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chiang, Fu-Mei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Fu, Chung-Pei; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We investigated the responsiveness in terms of three types of scores (i.e., raw scores, developmental ages, and percentile ranks) of the subtests and composites of the PEP-3 and three…

  1. The Impact of a Psychoeducational Prevention Program for Behaviorally At-Risk Students: EQUIP for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a multicomponent psychoeducational prevention program ("EQUIP for Educators") Two aspects were examined: (1) if there was a significant relationship among the three psychometric measures: Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), Children's Inventory of Anger (ChIA), Sociomoral Reflection and…

  2. Parenting Young Children: Comparison of a Psychoeducational Program in Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Camara, Pedro R.; Fox, Robert A.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2000-01-01

    Compared the cross-cultural effectiveness of a 10-hour psychoeducational program with 82 Mexican and 63 American mothers of very young children. Found that both groups significantly increased their expectations and use of nurturing strategies and reduced their use of verbal and corporal punishment following the program. Reported child behavior…

  3. Psycho-educational Therapy among Nigerian Adult Patients with Epilepsy: A Controlled Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, B. O.; Osinowo, H. O.; Brieger, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates the efficacy of a two-day psychoeducational program among patients with epilepsy in Nigeria. Results reveal that participants showed a substantial significant decrease in level of depression; a significant increase in the knowledge about epilepsy; and significant decrease in all measures of neurotic disorders except for hysterical…

  4. Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Practices in Psychoeducational Reports for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bryn; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Past researchers suggested there are a number of shortcomings in the psychoeducational evaluation process and practices used with English language learners (ELLs). In the present exploratory study, the authors descriptively examined the assessment practices used in the special education eligibility determination process for ELLs as documented in…

  5. Psycho-Educational Factors in the Prediction of Academic Buoyancy in Second Life®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Cheril C.

    2013-01-01

    Academic resilience has been widely researched in traditional and online educational settings, but it has not been sufficiently studied in three-dimensional (3D) virtual learning environments (VLEs). This inferential research used multiple regression to quantitatively investigate the extent to which psycho-educational factors including academic…

  6. The role of psycho-education in improving outcome at a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: While psychoeducation has been shown to positively affect outcomes in psychiatric disorders, its utility has been little studied in ... mental health intervention in a developing country that may increase compliance with medication and result in greater knowledge of mental .... common attitudes including stigma.

  7. Effectiveness of a Psycho-Education Program on Learned Helplessness and Irrational Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Yagmur; Duy, Baki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a psycho-education program aimed at reducing learned helplessness and irrational beliefs of eight-grade elementary students. The study was an experimental study based on the pre-test-post-test model with control and placebo group. A total of 27 participants, 9 group members in each group,…

  8. A chronic longitudinal characterization of neurobehavioral and neuropathological cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Gulf War agent exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchra eZakirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gulf War Illness (GWI is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990-1991 exposure to Gulf War (GW agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB and permethrin (PER, were key contributors to the etiology of GWI.For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test, Elevated Plus Maze, Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze and Barnes Maze Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to cover the lifespan

  9. Common Variance Among Three Measures of Nonverbal Cognitive Ability: WISC-R Performance Scale, WJPB-TCA Reasoning Cluster, and Halstead Category Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Harr, Gale A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationships among two psychometric measures of nonverbal cognitive ability - The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJPB-TCA) and a neuropsychological test of abstract reasoning and concept formation (Halstead Category Test) in 25…

  10. Family psychoeducation for major depressive disorder - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen F; Ussing, Kristian; Bech, Per; Csillag, Claudio

    2016-08-30

    Major depressive disorder has been shown to affect many domains of family life including family functioning. Conversely, the influence of the family on the course of the depression, including the risk of relapse, is one reason for targeting the family in interventions. The few studies conducted within this area indicate that family psychoeducation as a supplement to traditional treatment can effectively reduce the risk of relapse in patients with major depression as well as being beneficial for the relatives involved. However, the evidence is currently limited. This study will investigate the effect of family psychoeducation compared to social support on the course of the illness in patients with major depressive disorder. The study is designed as a dual center, two-armed, observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Relatives are randomized to participate in one of two conditions: either four sessions of manualized family psychoeducation or four sessions in a social support group led by a health care professional. Patients will not participate in the groups and will continue their treatment as usual. A total of 100 patients, each accompanied by one relative, will be recruited primarily from two outpatient clinics in the Capital Region of Denmark. The primary outcome is the occurrence of depressive relapse at 9-month follow-up defined as a score ≥7 on the Hamilton six-item subscale. Secondary outcomes will include time to relapse. It is hoped that the results from this study will help to clarify the mechanisms behind any beneficial changes due to family psychoeducation and provide information on the long-term effect of this intervention for both patient and relatives. If the results are positive, the family psychoeducation program may be suitable for implementation within a clinical setting. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02348827 , registered 5 January 2015.

  11. Effect of a Childbirth Psychoeducation Program on the Level of Fear of Childbirth in Primigravid Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kordi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe fear of childbirth (FOC is the most important cause of elective and emergency cesarean section and results in an unpleasant experience among women. Implementing a psychoeducational program can promote mothers’ knowledge and reduce the FOC. Aim: the aim of this study was to determine the effect of childbirth psychoeducational program on the FOC intensity in primigravid women. Method: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 122 primigravid women with a gestational age of 14 to 28 weeks referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2015-2016. The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ, versions A and B, was used for the data collection. The subjects had the FOC scores of 66 or higher based on the W-DEQ, version A. The women in the intervention group received the psychoeducational program for three weeks (one 90-minute session per week by a clinical psychologist; however, the control group underwent the routine prenatal care. The FOC intensity was reassessed using W-DEQ, version B, six weeks postpartum in both groups. Data analysis was performed in SPSS, version 20, using Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 23.2±3.6 and 24.2±4.4 years in the intervention and control groups, respectively. After the intervention, the Mann-Whitney U test demonstrated a significant difference between the intervention (83.5±21.7 and control (92.6±18.4 groups regarding the mean FOC score (P=0.001. Implications for Practice: The childbirth psychoeducational program could diminish the FOC in primigravid women with severe FOC. We recommend midwives and expert psychologists to incorporate psychoeducational programs in childbirth classes.

  12. Psychoeducational rehabilitation for health behavior change in coronary artery disease: a systematic review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldcroft, Sheryl A; Taylor, Nicholas F; Blackstock, Felicity C; O'Halloran, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Psychoeducation is a recommended component of cardiac rehabilitation, but to date, evidence from high quality trials examining behavior change has not been synthesized. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of psychoeducation on behavior change in adults with coronary artery disease participating in cardiac rehabilitation; and to identify if changes in health behavior had an effect on modifiable physiological risk factors. A search of electronic databases was conducted for randomized controlled trials involving adults with a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, stable angina, or coronary artery disease defined by angiography. Trials comparing psychoeducational programs to exercise only, standard cardiac rehabilitation or medical care were included. Primary outcomes were smoking status, physical activity, dietary habits, supplemental oxygen, or medication use. Included trials were assessed for quality with the PEDro scale, and data synthesized descriptively or with meta-analysis. Six randomized controlled trials and 1 quasiexperimental trial were included, a total of 536 participants. A meta-analysis from 213 participants showed psychoeducational interventions produced a significant positive effect on physical activity levels over the medium term (6-12 months) when compared with exercise and risk factor education, (δ = .62, 95% CI 0.3-0.94). However, there was limited positive evidence for change in smoking and dietary behavior. No effect was found on physiological risk factors. Psychoeducational interventions produce a significant positive effect on physical activity levels and potentially on dietary habits and smoking. Strategies such as goal setting, problem solving, self-monitoring, and role modeling appear to be influential in this change.

  13. Patient and family psychoeducation: Service development and implementation in a center in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsepassi, Zahra; Tabatabaee, Maryam; Sharifi, Vandad; Mottaghipour, Yasaman

    2018-02-01

    Family and patient psychoeducation have demonstrated significant improvement in clinical and social outcomes for patients suffering from severe mental disorders and their families. However, these evidence-based practices are not widely implemented at service delivery level and into routine clinical practice, especially in less developed countries. The aim of this article is to report the processes of development and implementation of a psychoeducational service for patients with severe mental illnesses and their families in Iran. The program was developed at Roozbeh Hospital in Tehran, Iran. A group of clinicians worked on the development phase of the program and drafting the manuals. Then, a series of workshops and supervision sessions were held to train group leaders for implementation of the group psychoeducation for patients and families. In the pilot phase, the services were delivered to two groups of patients and families, and then the manual was revised based on the feedback from group leaders and participants. The program consisted of eight 90-minute weekly patient group sessions and 6 weekly multiple family group sessions. Two manuals for patient education (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) were developed. Several information sheets were developed and distributed during different sessions of family and patient psychoeducation related to the content of each session. Despite providing the hospital clinicians with the information regarding these new services, less than 10% of the admitted patients were referred by their clinicians. Feasibility and sustainability of the program are affected by a number of factors. Low referral rate of clinicians, limited resources of the hospital, issues related to stigma and logistic issues are barriers in implementation of these services. Administrators' and clinicians' understanding of the importance of patient and family psychoeducation seems to be crucial in sustainability of such programs in routine service delivery.

  14. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-06-06

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Effects of formaldehyde exposure on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior, cognition, central levels of glucocorticoid receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yani; Song, Zhuoyi; Ding, Yujuan; Xin, Ye; Wu, Tong; Su, Tao; He, Rongqiao; Tai, Fadao; Lian, Zhenmin

    2016-02-01

    Formaldehyde exposure is toxic to the brains of mammals, but the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of inhaled formaldehyde on anxiety, depression, cognitive capacity and central levels of glucocorticoid receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase in mice. After exposure to 0, 1 or 2 ppm gaseous formaldehyde for one week, we measured anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus-maze tests, depression-like behavior using a forced swimming test, learning and memory using novel object recognition tests, levels of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase in the Arc, MPOA, ZI and VTA using immuhistochemistry. We found that inhalation of 1 ppm formaldehyde reduced levels of anxiety-like behavior. Inhalation of 2 ppm formaldehyde reduced body weight, but increased levels of depression-like behavior, impaired novel object recognition, and lowered the numbers of glucocorticoid receptor immonureactive neurons in the hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase immonureactive neurons in the ventral tegmental area and the zona incerta, medial preoptic area. Different concentrations of gaseous formaldehyde result in different effects on anxiety, depression-like behavior and cognition ability which may be associated with alterations in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and brain tyrosine hydroxylase levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experiences and Perceptions of Problem Gamblers on Cognitive and Exposure Therapies When Taking Part in a Randomised Controlled Trial: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Pols, Rene; Lavis, Tiffany; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In South Australia (SA) problem gambling is mainly a result of the widespread availability of electronic gaming machines. A key treatment provider in SA offers free cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) to help-seeking problem gamblers. The CBT program focuses on the treatment of clients' urge to gamble using exposure therapy (ET) and cognitive therapy (CT) to restructure erroneous gambling beliefs. The aim of this study was to explore treatment specific and non-specific effects for CT alone and ET alone using qualitative interviews. Interviewees were a sub-sample of participants from a randomised trial that investigated the relative efficacy of CT versus ET. Findings revealed that all interviewees gained benefit from their respective therapies and their comments did not appear to favour one therapy over another. Both treatment specific and treatment non-specific effects were well supported as playing a therapeutic role to recovery. Participants' comments in both therapy groups suggested that symptom reduction was experienced on a gambling related urge-cognition continuum. In addition to symptom improvement from therapy-specific mechanisms, ET participants described a general acquisition of "rational thought" from their program of therapy and CT participants had "taken-over" their gambling urges. The findings also highlighted areas for further improvement including therapy drop-out.

  17. Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

  18. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  19. No effects of short-term exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic fields on human cognitive performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Alfred; Ponocny, Ivo; Gnambs, Timo; Winker, Robert

    2012-02-01

    During recent years, a large number of studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular mobile phones on human cognitive performance have been carried out. However, the results have been ambiguous. We carried out the current meta-analysis in order to investigate the impact of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on human cognition. Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis as they fulfill several requirements such as single- or double-blind experimental study design, and documentation of means and standard deviations of dependent variables. The meta-analysis was carried out as a group comparison between exposed and non-exposed subjects. No significant effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile phones were found. Cognitive abilities seem to be neither impaired nor facilitated. Results of the meta-analysis suggest that a substantial short-term impact of high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on cognitive performance can essentially be ruled out. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Association between exposure to HSV1 and cognitive functioning in a general population of adolescents. The TRAILS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Jonker

    Full Text Available Infections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general adolescent population.This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective general population cohort (N = 1084, 54% female, mean age 16.2 years (SD 0.6. At age 16, immunoglobulin G antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured next to high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP. Two years later, immediate memory and executive functioning were assessed using the 15 words task and the self ordered pointing task. Multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping was performed to study the association between viral infections and cognitive function, adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cannabis use.Presence of HSV1 antibodies was associated with memory function ((B = -0.272, 95% CI = -0.556 to -0.016, p = 0.047, while the association with executive functioning did not reach statistical significance (B = 0.560, 95% CI is -0.053 to 1.184, p = 0.075. The level of HSV1 antibodies was associated with both memory function (B = -0.160, 95% CI = -0.280 to -0.039, p = 0.014 and executive functioning (B = 0.296, 95% CI = 0.011 to 0.578, p = 0.046. Other herpes viruses and hsCRP were not associated with cognitive functioning.Both presence and level of HSV1 antibodies are prospectively associated with reduced cognitive performance in a large cohort of adolescents.

  1. Prenatal exposure to lead and cognitive deficit in 7- and 14-year-old children in the presence of concomitant exposure to similar molar concentration of methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal

    2011-01-01

    1986-1987 from whom lead was measured in cord-blood. A total of 896 cohort subjects participated in a clinical examination at age 7 and 808 subjects in a second examination at age 14. We evaluated the association between cord-blood lead concentrations and cognitive deficits (attention/working memory...... observed. In particular, higher cord-blood lead was associated with a lower digit span forward score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) [beta=-1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.12 to -0.28] at age 7 and a lower digit span backward score on the WISC-R (beta=-2.73, 95%CI...

  2. A psychoeducational approach to hypochondriasis : background, content, and practice guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Theo K.; Buwalda, Femke M.

    Patients suffering from health anxiety are difficult to engage in a psychological treatment, although it has now been empirically established that cognitive behavioral treatments are beneficial for many of these patients. A first important step is to change their orientation from a biomedical to a

  3. A Psychoeducational Approach to Hypochondriasis: Background, Content, and Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Theo K.; Buwalda, Femke M.

    2008-01-01

    Patients suffering from health anxiety are difficult to engage in a psychological treatment, although it has now been empirically established that cognitive behavioral treatments are beneficial for many of these patients. A first important step is to change their orientation from a biomedical to a biopsychosocial perspective. One way of promoting…

  4. A community-based psychoeducational group approach to hypochondriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, TK

    2002-01-01

    Background. This open trial investigates the feasibility and effectiveness of a cognitive-educational approach to hypochondriasis in a self-referred community sample. Method: Twenty-seven of 43 interested applicants fulfilled DSM-criteria for hypochondriasis and resembled a hypochondriacal reference

  5. Effects of early life stress and adolescent ethanol exposure on adult cognitive performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in Wistar male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2017-05-01

    Early life stress combined with heavy adolescent alcohol use predicts impaired neuropsychological functioning in adulthood. We investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure combined with neonatal maternal separation in rats altered attentional processes and impulsivity in adulthood. Male Wistar rat pups were exposed to maternal separation (postnatal days (PNDs) 1-14) and moderate AIE exposure (PNDs 28-57). Adult rats were tested in the five-choice serial reaction time task, which provides separate measures of attention, motor impulsivity, and compulsivity. Rats were tested under baseline conditions and in response to task manipulations that increased attentional load and impulsive behaviors, and after acute ethanol administration. Short stimulus and short intertrial interval (ITI) durations disrupted attention while long ITI durations impaired impulsivity in all rats. Moderate- and high-dose ethanol challenges impaired attention in all rats. Rats exposed to maternal separation and/or AIE exposure had significantly decreased omissions than non-handled water-exposed rats at baseline and tended to retain this effect in response to task challenges (i.e., the shorter stimulus and ITI durations, longer test session) and ethanol challenges, indicating moderate improvement of attentional performance. Maternal separation significantly increased perseverative responses at baseline and in response to decreased stimulus duration challenge, suggesting increased compulsivity. Separate or combined exposure to early life stress and AIE exposure moderately disrupts some aspects of adult executive control functions (e.g., increased compulsivity) but improves others (e.g., increased attention). The relative intensity of either manipulation during neonatal and adolescent periods may influence the direction in which cognitive behaviors are affected in adulthood.

  6. Effectiveness of a psycho-educational group program for major depression in primary care: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casañas, Rocío; Catalán, Rosa; del Val, Jose Luis; Real, Jordi; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    ... to be effective.The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a psychoeducational program, which includes aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle, in patients with mild/moderate depression...

  7. Schizophrenia: a five-year follow-up of patient outcome following psycho-education for caregivers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that psycho-education courses for caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia improve the short-term outcome of the condition. However, most of the outcome studies are limited to two-year follow-up.

  8. Family-Based Psychoeducation Programs for Prevention of Depression in Adolescents with Depressed Parents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the effects of family-based psychoeducation programs to the prevention depression for children of depressed parents and investigates participant, intervention, provider, and research designs. Family-based psychoeducation programs described by articles in several national and international databases were reviewed. Five studies were identified using this approach and are included in this review. The adolescents who participated in Family-Based Psychoeducation programs reported a significant decrease in symptoms of depression, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and increase in secondary control coping. Moreover, it was noted that there was an increase in positive parental skills and a moderate effect for episodes of depression of the parents who participated in the programs. Studies evaluating effects of family-based psychoeducation programs have indicated positive results to the prevention depression for children of depressed parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 265-279

  9. Antipsychotic treatment, psychoeducation & regular follow up as a public health strategy for schizophrenia: Results from a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Treatment with antipsychotics and psychoeducation can favourably influence the course of schizophrenia and reduce disability in a substantial proportion of patients. Structured psychosocial interventions may be indicated in the significant minority who show suboptimal outcome with this strategy.

  10. The influence of occupational heat exposure on cognitive performance and blood level of stress hormones: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlomi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Mahmoud Khani, Somayeh; Ansari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress on cognitive performance and the blood concentration of stress hormones among workers of a foundry plant. Seventy workers within the exposed (35 people) and unexposed (35 people) groups were studied. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index was measured for heat stress assessment. The cognitive performance tests were conducted using the Stroop color word test (SCWT) before and during working hours. For the assessment of the serum level of cortisol and the plasma level of adrenaline and noradrenaline, blood samples were taken during working hours from both groups. Only for SCWT III was there a significant relationship between heat stress and test duration, error rate and reaction time. The laboratory test results revealed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed group. There existed a positive correlation between cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and WBGT index and also test duration and reaction time of SCWT III, and number of errors of SCWT I, SCWT II and SCWT III during work. Heat stress can lead to an increase in the blood level of stress hormones, resulting in cognitive performance impairment.

  11. Maternal lead exposure decreases the levels of brain development and cognition-related proteins with concomitant upsurges of oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis in the offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Shahdat; Bhowmick, Sujan; Jahan, Sabrin; Rozario, Liza; Sarkar, Marzan; Islam, Saiful; Basunia, Mafroz Ahmed; Rahman, Azizur; Choudhury, Bazlul Karim; Shahjalal, Hussain

    2016-09-01

    The presence of lead (Pb) in fetal brain may affect brain development-related proteins. We studied whether gestational/lactational Pb-exposure affects oxidative stress, proinflammatory response, apoptosis and levels of brain development/cognition-related proteins, including presynaptic synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25), postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), tyrosine receptor-kinase protein B (TrkB) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the offspring. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and Pb-exposed mother groups. The Pb-exposed rats received 0.1% (w/v) Pb acetate via drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. Milk and mammary glands were collected from lactating mothers to measure milk/mammary gland levels of lipid peroxide (LPO), as indicator of oxidative stress and proinflammatory TNF-α. Afterwards, the pups were sacrificed to determine brain levels of Pb, LPO, TNF-α, cytochrome C, SNAP-25, PSD-95, BDNF, TrkB and VAChT. The levels of LPO and TNF-α increased in the milk/mammary glands of the Pb-exposed mothers, concurrently with increases in the levels of Pb, LPO, TNF-α and cytochrome C and decreases in the levels of SNAP-25, PSD-95, BDNF, TrkB and VAChT in the brains of their offspring. Our results demonstrate that Pb-exposure during development reduces the brain levels of PSD-95 and SNAP-25 (synaptogenesis-markers), with concomitant upsurges of oxidative stress, TNF-α and apoptosis in the offspring. Furthermore, BDNF-TrkB proteins that comprehend memory-related brain cognitions and/or VAChT that comprises cholinergic-neuromotor activities might be impaired by Pb-exposure. These findings provide evidence of toxic effects of Pb on brain development, at least, partially by decreasing the levels of PSD-95, SNAP-25 and other cognition-related proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychoeducational Characteristics of Children with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Rolanda A.; Zinner, Samuel H.; Matsuo, Hisako; Prosser, Theresa M.; Fete, Mary; Leet, Terry L.; Fete, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is an X-linked hereditary disorder characterized by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and anomalous dentition. Estimates of up to 50% of affected children having intellectual disability are controversial. Method. In a cross-sectional study, 45 youth with HED (77% males, mean age 9.75 years) and 59 matched unaffected controls (70% males, mean age 9.79 years) were administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, and their parents completed standardized neurodevelopmental and behavioral measures, educational, and health-related information regarding their child, as well as standardized and nonstandardized data regarding socioeconomic information for their family. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in intelligence quotient composite and educational achievement scores, suggesting absence of learning disability in either group. No gender differences within or between groups were found on any performance measures. Among affected youth, parental education level correlated positively with (1) cognitive vocabulary scores and cognitive composite scores; (2) educational achievement for mathematics, reading, and composite scores. Conclusion. Youth affected with HED and unaffected matched peers have similar profiles on standardized measures of cognition, educational achievement, and adaptive functioning although children with HED may be at increased risk for ADHD. PMID:22536143

  13. Psychoeducational Characteristics of Children with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda A. Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is an X-linked hereditary disorder characterized by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and anomalous dentition. Estimates of up to 50% of affected children having intellectual disability are controversial. Method. In a cross-sectional study, 45 youth with HED (77% males, mean age 9.75 years and 59 matched unaffected controls (70% males, mean age 9.79 years were administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, and their parents completed standardized neurodevelopmental and behavioral measures, educational, and health-related information regarding their child, as well as standardized and nonstandardized data regarding socioeconomic information for their family. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in intelligence quotient composite and educational achievement scores, suggesting absence of learning disability in either group. No gender differences within or between groups were found on any performance measures. Among affected youth, parental education level correlated positively with (1 cognitive vocabulary scores and cognitive composite scores; (2 educational achievement for mathematics, reading, and composite scores. Conclusion. Youth affected with HED and unaffected matched peers have similar profiles on standardized measures of cognition, educational achievement, and adaptive functioning although children with HED may be at increased risk for ADHD.

  14. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnostic Features and Psychoeducational Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Grabowski, Jo-Anne

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), accepted as leading known cause of mental retardation. Relates chronicity, timing, and severity of alcohol exposure to age-specific developmental and behavioral consequences. Delineates specific interventions with infants, preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents. Advocates for accurate diagnosis…

  16. Early physical training and psycho-educational intervention for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højskov, Ida Elisabeth; Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels V

    2016-01-01

    , no randomized clinical trials have tested a comprehensive rehabilitation programme consisting of both physical exercise and psycho-education in the early rehabilitation phase. AIMS: The aims of the present SheppHeart pilot randomized clinical trial were to evaluate the feasibility of patient recruitment......BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of problems and symptoms such as immobility, pain and insufficient sleep. Results from trials investigating testing in-hospital physical exercise or psychological intervention have been promising. However......, patient acceptance of the intervention, safety and tolerability of the intervention. METHODS AND DESIGN: Sixty patients admitted for coronary artery bypass graft were randomized 1:1:1:1 to: 1) physical exercise plus usual care, or 2) psycho-educational intervention plus usual care, or 3) physical exercise...

  17. Psychoeducational Services for Children and Youth in the Orient: Current Status, Problems, and some Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, T; Hu, S

    1989-01-01

    Utilizing information obtained through an international survey and existing literature, patterns in the practices, research, and preparation of professionals who deliver psychoeducational services to children and youth in six Oriental countries (i.e., China, Hong Kong(1), Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand) are described. Services are provided by many professional groups. While few formal programs exist for the preparation of psychologists to work in schools, those providing such services have at least a bachelor's degree. Services commonly provided include assessment, vocational and educational guidance, counseling, parent education, and teaching. School psychological services generally are not governed by legislation or professional standards. Research tends to be applied and directed toward the construction and translations of tests and toward the needs of the mentally retarded, learning disabled, and behaviorally disordered. Ten major problems creating barriers for the delivery of psychoeducational services are identified. Three suggestions to help resolve these problems are offered.

  18. Bipolar disorder and family communication: effects of a psychoeducational treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, T L; Miklowitz, D J; Richards, J A; Saleem, R; George, E L

    1999-11-01

    Family psychoeducational programs are efficacious adjuncts to pharmacotherapy for patients with schizophrenic and bipolar disorders, but little is known about what these programs change about families. The authors assessed changes in face-to-face interactional behavior over 1 year among families of bipolar patients who received a 9-month family-focused psychoeducational therapy (FFT; n = 22) or crisis management with naturalistic follow-up (CMNF; n = 22), both administered with maintenance pharmacotherapy. Members of families who received FFT showed more positive nonverbal interactional behavior during a 1-year posttreatment problem-solving assessment than families who received CMNF, although no corresponding decreases were seen in negative interactional behaviors. The positive effect of family treatment on patients' symptom trajectories over 1 year was partially mediated by increases in patients' positive nonverbal interactional behaviors during this same interval.

  19. Family psychoeducation for major depressive disorder - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen F; Ussing, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    conducted within this area indicate that family psychoeducation as a supplement to traditional treatment can effectively reduce the risk of relapse in patients with major depression as well as being beneficial for the relatives involved. However, the evidence is currently limited. This study......BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder has been shown to affect many domains of family life including family functioning. Conversely, the influence of the family on the course of the depression, including the risk of relapse, is one reason for targeting the family in interventions. The few studies...... will investigate the effect of family psychoeducation compared to social support on the course of the illness in patients with major depressive disorder. METHOD/DESIGN: The study is designed as a dual center, two-armed, observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Relatives are randomized to participate in one...

  20. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. Method An open trial where patients (N = 23 received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. Results All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56. At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. Conclusions ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348529

  1. Psychoeducation Program on Strategies for Coping with Stress in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Biegańska; Pihut, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lack of educational projects in the available literature was an inspiration to develop a psychoeducational program. The objective was to provide patients with basic information on the contribution of stressors in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction and educate on methods for coping with stress most commonly used in psychology. In the course of three meetings, patients are familiarised with the issue of experienced stress as a potential source of psychosomatic illnesses (in p...

  2. Survival after a psychoeducational intervention for patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma: a replication study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Boesen, Sidsel H; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The results of a randomized, intervention study done in 1993 of psychoeducation for patients with early-stage malignant melanoma showed a beneficial effect on recurrence and survival 6 years after the intervention. In the present study, we replicated the study with 258 Danish patients with malign...... with malignant melanoma. We also compared recurrence and survival among the participants in the randomized study with 137 patients who refused to participate....

  3. Impact of psychoeducation intervention module on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Suravi Patra; Priti Arun; Bir Singh Chavan

    2015-01-01

    Context: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in India face a host of challenges, while seeking care which ranges from unavailability of information to difficulty in availing services. Aims: To develop a psycho-education intervention module for parents of children with ASD and to study its impact on parent stress and knowledge. Settings and Design: Child Guidance Clinic Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Interventional study. Met...

  4. Psycho-education for substance use and antisocial personality disorder: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Schrøder, Sidsel; Hesse, Morten

    2015-11-14

    Antisocial personality disorder often co-exists with drug and alcohol use disorders. This trial examined the effectiveness of offering psycho-education for antisocial personality disorder in community substance use disorder treatment centers in Denmark. A total of 176 patients were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (TAU, n = 80) or TAU plus a psycho-educative program, Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling (ILC, n = 96) delivered by site clinicians (n = 39). Using follow-up interviews 3 and 9 months after randomization, we examined changes in drug and alcohol use (Addiction Severity Index Composite Scores), percent days abstinent (PDA) within last month, and aggression as measured with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form and the Self-Report of Aggression and Social Behavior Measure. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was modest: 71 (76 %) of participants randomized to psycho-education attended at least one counselling session, and 21 (23 %) attended all six sessions. The Median number of sessions was 2. All patients reduced drug and alcohol problems at 9 months with small within-group effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated significant differences between ILC and TAU in mean drugs composite score (p = .018) and in PDA (p = .041) at 3 months. Aggression declined in both groups, but no differences between ILC and TAU were observed in terms of alcohol problems or aggression at any follow-up. Moderate short-term improvements in substance use were associated with randomization to Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling. The findings support the usefulness of providing psycho-education to outpatients with antisocial personality disorder. ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN67266318 , 17/7/2012.

  5. Effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Horng, Fen-Fang; Sung, Su-Ching

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour. The prevalence of alcohol abuse has increased over the past 10 years, and the age of initial alcohol use has decreased gradually in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence is one of the leading causes of disability and has led to increases in the incidence of crime and violence, with alcohol abuse identified as a problem in society. A quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent pre/post-testing was used. Alcohol-dependent inpatients undergoing alcohol treatment were selected from the psychiatric ward of a teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. The effectiveness of the psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour was evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire and the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. In total, 24 and 51 participants were recruited to the experimental and control groups, respectively, for the baseline survey, and 14 and 17 were in the final survey, respectively. After adjustment for baseline survey scores, the experimental group showed significantly greater increases in recognition and ambivalence relative to those observed in the control group. The results not only showed that the psychoeducational programme was effective in reinforcing addicted inpatients' motivation for changing their drinking behaviour but also provided clinical nurses with practical methods via which to enhance patient motivation. The psychoeducational programme could assist clinical nurses in helping alcohol-dependent patients to recognise the nature of their problematic drinking; increase participants' ambivalence towards their drinking behaviour, leading to the contemplation of change; and strengthen the possibility that they will change their addictive behaviour. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Psychoeducation and the family burden in schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kausar Rukhsana; Nasr Tanveer

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The majority of patients with schizophrenia live with their relatives in Pakistan, thereby families experience a considerable burden. We aimed to study the impact of psychoeducation on the burden of schizophrenia on the family in a randomised controlled trial. Methods A total of 108 patients with schizophrenia and their family members from the outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Lahore, Pakistan were randomised. Both groups received psychotropic drugs but one g...

  7. [Effects of Psychoeducational Intervention for Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Bae, Sun Hyoung

    2017-04-01

    This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis designed to investigate effects of psychoeducational intervention for cancer survivors. Ten databases were searched. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies, data extraction and assessment. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. To estimate the effect size, meta-analysis of the studies was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis and RevMan programs. Of 18,781 publications identified, 35 met inclusion criteria, and 25 studies were used to estimate effect size of psychoeducational intervention. Effect sizes (standardized mean difference [SMD]) were heterogeneous and random effects models were used in the analyses. Psychoeducational intervention was effective for quality of life (n=2,410, ES=0.23; 95% CI: 0.09~0.37), coping and self-efficacy (n=179, ES=0.68; 95% CI: 0.26~1.11), anxiety (n=1,786, ES=-0.26; 95% CI: -0.37~-0.15), depression (n=1,910, ES=-0.28; 95% CI: -0.37~-0.18), and psychological distress (n=2,242, ES=-0.31; 95% CI: -0.46~-0.17). Subgroup analysis showed that counseling was the most effective intervention for quality of life, and behavioral therapy was an effective intervention for all positive and negative outcomes. Publication bias was not detected except for psychological distress. Psychoeducational intervention appears to be effective in improving quality of life and coping and self-efficacy, and it is effective in reducing psychological symptoms in cancer survivors. Behavioral therapy, especially, is commonly effective in improving psychosocial outcomes. However, low-quality evidence, variability in the designs of existing studies, and publication bias suggest that additional high-quality trials should be conducted in the future.

  8. A Psychoeducational Group Intervention for Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouzos, Andreas; Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Tassi, Christina

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an 8-week psychoeducational group program for siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample consisted of 38 siblings aged 6-15 years (M = 10.75), allocated to the experimental (n = 22) or control group (n = 16). Self-report questionnaires were administered before and after the…

  9. Adults with Autism: Outcomes, Family Effects, and the Multi-Family Group Psychoeducation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2012-01-01

    Although an increasing number of individuals with autism spectrum disorders are entering adulthood, currently there are few evidence-based programs for individuals later in the life course. In this paper we present an overview of recent research on outcomes for adolescents and adults with ASD and highlight the role of the family for individuals with ASD during the transition to adulthood. We also discuss multi-family group psychoeducation as a promising model for use with individuals with ASD...

  10. Effects of a cognitive-behavioral exposure-based body image therapy for overweight females with binge eating disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Kosfelder, Joachim; Michalak, Johannes; Schroeder, Dorothea; Nasrawi, Nadia; Vocks, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Although not part of the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5, body image disturbance seems to be a relevant feature of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) as well as of other eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Hence, the aim of the present pilot study was to assess the changeability of body image disturbance in a sample of overweight females with BED by a cognitive-behavioral treatment, directly addressing body image disturbance. Overweight females (N = 34) with BED were randomized to a manualized body image therapy or a waiting-list control group. The final sample consisted of n = 15 participants in the intervention group and n = 19 in the control group due to two drop-outs in the control condition. Before and after the intervention or the waiting period, respectively, participants filled out a questionnaire battery assessing several body image and eating disorder related features. To quantify the perceptual component of body image disturbance, a digital photo distortion technique based on a picture of each participant taken in a standardized suit was applied. In a two-way ANOVA, significant Time × Group interactions were found for eating and shape concerns, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, depressiveness and low self-esteem. Follow-up t-tests indicated a significant symptom reduction of a generally high magnitude in the intervention group. No significant changes concerning body checking and the estimations of one's own "real", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions were found. The strong symptom reduction in the cognitive-affective component of body image disturbance indicates that an exposure-based cognitive-behavioral body image intervention is a promising treatment module for overweight females with BED, but future research with a larger sample size is needed to quantify possible changes in all components of body image.

  11. Supporting direct care workers in dementia care: effects of a psychoeducational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana; Nolan, Mike; Sousa, Liliana; Figueiredo, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study using a pre-posttest control group design was conducted to assess the effects of a person-centered care-based psychoeducational intervention on direct care workers' stress, burnout, and job satisfaction. The intervention aimed to develop person-centered care competences and tools for stress management. Four aged care facilities were randomly assigned to a psychoeducational or an education-only intervention (control). Data were collected from 56 direct care workers (female, mean age 44.72 ± 9.02) through measurements of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), job satisfaction (Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire-short form), and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and focus-group interviews. Results showed significant positive effects in emotional exhaustion (P = .029) and positive but no significant effects in stress and job satisfaction. According to qualitative data, the experimental group perceived enhanced group cohesion, emotional management, and self-care awareness. Psychoeducational interventions may contribute to reduce direct care workers' burnout. Further work is needed to determine the extent of its benefits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Impact of psychoeducation intervention module on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Suravi; Arun, Priti; Chavan, Bir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in India face a host of challenges, while seeking care which ranges from unavailability of information to difficulty in availing services. Aims: To develop a psycho-education intervention module for parents of children with ASD and to study its impact on parent stress and knowledge. Settings and Design: Child Guidance Clinic Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Interventional study. Methodology: Parents of children diagnosed with ASD as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria, recruited through consecutive sampling. Total number of 18 participants participated in the two phase study. Phase I included preparation of a parent training module through a four stage process and Phase II was evaluation of impact of the final version of the module on parental stress and knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test using SPSS version 17.0. Results: There was an improvement in all the domains of parenting stress and knowledge. Social stress score and total stress score showed significant improvement. Conclusions: Parent psycho-education intervention module on ASD decreases parenting stress, and improves knowledge about ASD. Psycho-education intervention module is a feasible and acceptable way of parent empowerment. PMID:26752898

  13. Impact of psychoeducation intervention module on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravi Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD in India face a host of challenges, while seeking care which ranges from unavailability of information to difficulty in availing services. Aims: To develop a psycho-education intervention module for parents of children with ASD and to study its impact on parent stress and knowledge. Settings and Design: Child Guidance Clinic Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Interventional study. Methodology: Parents of children diagnosed with ASD as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria, recruited through consecutive sampling. Total number of 18 participants participated in the two phase study. Phase I included preparation of a parent training module through a four stage process and Phase II was evaluation of impact of the final version of the module on parental stress and knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test using SPSS version 17.0. Results: There was an improvement in all the domains of parenting stress and knowledge. Social stress score and total stress score showed significant improvement. Conclusions: Parent psycho-education intervention module on ASD decreases parenting stress, and improves knowledge about ASD. Psycho-education intervention module is a feasible and acceptable way of parent empowerment.

  14. The effects of suicide prevention measures reported through a psychoeducational video: a practice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Eriko; Kameyama, Akiko; Takizawa, Tohru; Takizawa, Shiho; Fujishima, Satoko; Nara, Mieko; Sakashita, Tomoe; Oyama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    As the suicide rate in Japan has remained high since 1998, various suicide prevention measures have been implemented in Japanese local communities. To report our findings on the effect of a psychoeducational video as a suicide prevention measure in a Japanese rural town. Questionnaires were randomly mailed to 2,000 residents aged between 30 and 79 years. Within 4 weeks, volunteers in the town visited the residents individually and collected the questionnaires. The variables reported in this study are demographics, awareness of suicide prevention measures available in the town, whether the residents watched the video, help-seeking from advisers regarding suicidal ideation and financial problems and attitudes towards suicide. We analysed data collected from 1,118 people who reported their demographics (i.e. sex, age, and job) and whether they had watched the video. By conducting a series of logistic regression and multiple regression analyses and controlling for demographic variables, we found that watching the video had substantial psychoeducational effects. Despite conducting a cross-sectional study, our new suicide prevention measures were considered effective for psychoeducation. However, further studies using a longitudinal design are needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with a Six-Year-Old Boy with Separation Anxiety Disorder: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a six-year-old boy who was having at least one panic attack a day. It uses a four-phased program that includes a psychoeducational approach. The outcome studies demonstrated how CBT shows promise as a treatment modality with…

  16. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  17. D-cycloserine augmentation of exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mataix-Cols, D.; Fernández de la Cruz, L.; Monzani, B.; Rosenfield, D.; Andersson, E.; Pérez-Vigil, A.; Frumento, P.; Kleine, R.A. de; Difede, J.; Dunlop, B.W.; Farrell, L.J.; Geller, D.; Gerardi, M.; Guastella, A.J.; Hofmann, S.G.; Hendriks, G.J.; Kushner, M.G.; Lee, F.S.; Lenze, E.J.; Levinson, C.A.; McConnell, H.; Otto, M.W.; Plag, J.; Pollack, M.H.; Ressler, K.J.; Rodebaugh, T.L.; Rothbaum, B.O.; Scheeringa, M.S.; Siewert-Siegmund, A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Storch, E.A.; Ströhle, A.; Tart, C.D.; Tolin, D.F.; Minnen, A. van; Waters, A.M.; Weems, C.F.; Wilhelm, S.; Wyka, K.; Davis, M.; Rück, C.; Altemus, M.; Anderson, P.; Cukor, J.; Finck, C.; Geffken, G.R.; Golfels, F.; Goodman, W.K.; Gutner, C.; Heyman, I.; Jovanovic, T.; Lewin, A.B.; McNamara, J.P.; Murphy, T.K.; Norrholm, S.; Thuras, P.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Whether and under which conditions D-cycloserine (DCS) augments the effects of exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders is unclear. Objective: To clarify whether DCS is superior to placebo in augmenting the effects of

  18. Physiological responses to social and cognitive challenges in 8-year olds with a history of prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Platzman, Kathy

    2008-04-01

    Cocaine-exposed infants have been found to have altered arousal responses but little is known about such responses in later childhood. Physiological responses to stressors were used to assess the arousal modulation of school-aged, cocaine-exposed children (n = 73) and two contrast groups, socioeconomically-matched controls (n = 58) and children with behavioral disturbance (n = 35). The behaviorally disturbed group had the highest heart rate across conditions but demonstrated a pattern of hyporesponsiveness to the stressors. They had the smallest decrement in skin conductance response at baseline and the least recovery of skin conductance response following exposure to stressors. Cocaine-exposed children demonstrated greater acceleratory responses to the stressors as indexed by their skin conductance level and were intermediate between the socioeconomically-matched controls and children with behavioral disturbance in recovery of skin conductance response following stressors. Altered arousal responses associated with prenatal cocaine exposure persisted into middle childhood but were different from those found in behaviorally disturbed children.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Trauma-Informed Support, Skills, and Psychoeducation Intervention for Survivors of Torture and Related Trauma in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judith; Murray, Sarah McIvor; Mohammed, Thikra Ahmed; Bunn, Mary; Gorman, William; Ahmed, Ahmed Mohammed Amin; Murray, Laura; Bolton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Supportive counseling type interventions are frequently provided to meet the mental health needs of populations in emergency and post-conflicts contexts, but it has seldom been rigorously evaluated. Existing evaluations from low- and middle-income countries provide mixed evidence of effectiveness. While Iraqi Kurdistan experienced relative stability following the fall of Saddam Hussein’s government, the population in the northern Dohuk region has continued to experience periodic violence due to conflicts with neighboring Turkey as well as more recent ISIS-associated violence. We evaluated the impact of a trauma-informed support, skills, and psychoeducation intervention provided by community mental health workers (CMHWs) on depressive symptoms and dysfunction (primary outcomes) as well as post-traumatic stress, traumatic grief, and anxiety symptoms (secondary outcomes). Between June 2009 and June 2010, 295 adults were screened; 209 (71%) met eligibility criteria (trauma exposure and a symptom severity score indicating significant distress and functional impairment, among others) and consented to participate. Of these, 159 were randomized to supportive counseling while 50 were randomized to a waitlist control condition. Comparing average symptom severity scores post-treatment among those in the intervention group with those in the waitlist control group, the supportive counseling program had statistically and clinically significant impacts on the primary outcomes of depression (Cohen’s d, 0.57; P = .02) and dysfunction (Cohen’s d, 0.53; P = .03) and significant but smaller impacts on anxiety. Although studies by the same research team of psychotherapeutic interventions in other parts of Kurdistan and in southern Iraq found larger effects, this study adds to the global research literature on mental health and psychosocial support and shows that a well-trained and supervised program of trauma-informed support, skills, and psychoeducation that emphasizes

  20. A failure to confirm the effectiveness of a brief group psychoeducational program for mothers of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Masako Suzuki,1 Atsurou Yamada,1 Norio Watanabe,1 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Fujika Katsuki,2 Takeshi Nishiyama,3 Masayuki Imaeda,4 Taishi Miyachi,4 Kazuo Otaki,5 Yumiko Mitsuda,6 Akino Ota,6 Toshi A Furukawa7 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Nagoya City University School of Nursing, Nagoya, Japan; 3Clinical Trial Management Center, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Neonatology and Pediatrics, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 5Kazuo Mental Clinic, Toyohashi, Japan; 6Toyokawa Sakura Hospital, Toyokawa Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group psychoeducation to relieve the psychological distress of mothers of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD and to improve the behaviors of the children. Methods: Seventy-two mothers of preschool outpatients with HFPDD were randomly assigned to a four-session brief group psychoeducational program (GP. The sessions were held every second week in addition to the usual treatment (GP + treatment as usual [TAU] group, or to a TAU-alone group. The primary outcome was self-reported symptoms of maternal mental health as assessed using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 at 21 weeks post-randomization (week 21. The GHQ-28 at the end of the intervention (week 7, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC for the behavior of the children, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 were carried out at weeks 7 and 21. We tested the group effects with the interaction between the intervention and the evaluation points. Results: The GHQ-28

  1. The Effects of Social Skills Training vs. Psychoeducation on Negative Attitudes of Mothers of Persons with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chulkwon; Mueser, Kim T

    2011-06-01

    We compared the effects of two brief psychoeducation programs and social skills training on the negative attitudes of mothers with a son who has schizophrenia. 15 mothers with strong negative feelings towards a sons with schizophrenia were assigned by convenience to participate in one of three brief (5 session) group programs at an outpatient clinic: lecture-based psychoeducation, video-based psychoeducation, or social skills training. Assessments using the Patient Rejection Scale were conducted with the mothers at post-treatment, and 3-, 6-, and 9-months later. Mothers in the three groups demonstrated significantly different patterns of changes in their negative attitudes following treatment. Whereas the mothers who received the two psychoeducation interventions showed reductions in rejecting attitudes immediately following the program, their scores gradually increased at the subsequent follow-up assessments. In contrast, the mothers in the social skills training group showed reductions in negative attitudes that were sustained across all of the follow-up assessments. Brief social skills training may be more effective than psychoeducation in reducing negative attitudes of parents who have an offspring with schizophrenia.

  2. [Acceptance and mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngô, Thanh-Lan

    2013-01-01

    achieve specific goals. They focus on the present moment rather than on historical causes. However, they also present significant differences: control vs acceptance of thoughts, focus on cognition vs behavior, focus on the relationship between the individual and his thoughts vs cognitive content, goal of modifying dysfunctional beliefs vs metacognitive processes, use of experiential vs didactic methods, focus on symptoms vs quality of life, strategies used before vs after the unfolding of full emotional response. The main interventions based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance are: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Functional Analytic Therapy, the expanded model of Behavioral Activation, Metacognitive Therapy, Mindfulness based Cognitive Therapy, Dialectic Behavior Therapy, Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy and Compassionate Mind Training. These are described in this article. They offer concepts and techniques which might enhance therapeutic efficacy. They teach a new way to deploy attention and to enter into a relationship with current experience (for example, defusion) in order to diminish cognitive reactivity, a maintenance factor for psychopathology, and to enhance psychological flexibility. The focus on cognitive process, metacognition as well as cognitive content might yield additional benefits in therapy. It is possible to combine traditional CBT with third wave approaches by using psychoeducation and cognitive restructuring in the beginning phases of therapy in order to establish thought bias and to then encourage acceptance of internal experiences as well as exposure to feared stimuli rather than to continue to use cognitive restructuring techniques. Traditional CBT and third wave approaches seem to impact different processes: the former enhance the capacity to observe and describe experiences and the latter diminish experiential avoidance and increase conscious action as well as acceptance. The identification of personal values helps to motivate the

  3. A Web-Based Psychoeducational Intervention for Adolescent Depression: Design and Development of MoodHwb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan Jones, Rhys; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances; Beeching, Harriet; Cichosz, Rachel; Mars, Becky; Smith, Daniel J; Merry, Sally; Stallard, Paul; Jones, Ian; Thapar, Ajay K; Simpson, Sharon A

    2018-02-15

    Depression is common in adolescence and leads to distress and impairment in individuals, families and carers. Treatment and prevention guidelines highlight the key role of information and evidence-based psychosocial interventions not only for individuals but also for their families and carers. Engaging young people in prevention and early intervention programs is a challenge, and early treatment and prevention of adolescent depression is a major public health concern. There has been growing interest in psychoeducational interventions to provide accurate information about health issues and to enhance and develop self-management skills. However, for adolescents with, or at high risk of depression, there is a lack of engaging Web-based psychoeducation programs that have been developed with user input and in line with research guidelines and targeted at both the individual and their family or carer. There are also few studies published on the process of development of Web-based psychoeducational interventions. The aim of this study was to describe the process underlying the design and development of MoodHwb (HwbHwyliau in Welsh): a Web-based psychoeducation multimedia program for young people with, or at high risk of, depression and their families, carers, friends, and professionals. The initial prototype was informed by (1) a systematic review of psychoeducational interventions for adolescent depression; (2) findings from semistructured interviews and focus groups conducted with adolescents (with depressive symptoms or at high risk), parents or carers, and professionals working with young people; and (3) workshops and discussions with a multimedia company and experts (in clinical, research, and multimedia work). Twelve interviews were completed (four each with young people, parents or carers, and professionals) and six focus groups (three with young people, one with parents and carers, one with professionals, and one with academics). Key themes from the interviews and

  4. The Efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil in Cognitive Disorders against Manganese Chronic Exposure in Rats during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djallal Eddine Houari ADLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study aims at testing, in vivo, the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, of the Syzygium aromaticum essential oil against chronic manganese chloride (4.79 mg/l intoxication during the gestation and lactation period, in Wistar rat pups. Wistar rat pups were exposed to manganese via their dams’ drinking water from postnatal day (PND 1 to (PND 21. After their weaning, the rats exposed to manganese received injections of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (0.1 ml/kg for 18 days. The level of anxiety, depression and locomotor activity were studied. Locomotor activity (open field test, anxiety (elevated plus maze tests, and depression (forced swimming test were evaluated. The results of the present study indicate that Manganese exposure induces, on the one hand, impairments of body (p<0.001 and of brain weight (p<0.05. On the other hand, it increases level of anxiety (p<0.05, depression (p<0.001 and locomotor hyporactivity (p<0.001, when compared to control rats. Administration of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum leads to a reduction in the level of anxiety (p<0.05, of depression (p<0.001 and corrects locomotor hyporactivity (p<0.05 in rats exposed to manganese beforehand. These results suggest that essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum can employ as a natural, protective agent against neuro-toxicity induced by manganese chloride during the gestation and lactation periods.

  5. Effect of a Nurse-Led Psychoeducational Intervention on Healthcare Service Utilization Among Adults With Advanced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kathryn A; Friese, Christopher; Kershaw, Trace; Given, Charles W; Fendrick, A Mark; Northouse, Laurel

    2015-07-01

    To examine differences in healthcare service utilization among patients with advanced cancer participating in a nurse-led psychoeducational intervention. Secondary analysis of trial data. Four Michigan cancer centers. 484 patients with advanced cancer. Patients were randomized to three groups. Study arm (brief, extensive, or control), ED visitation (one or more times versus none), inpatient hospitalizations (one or more times versus none), and covariates. No significant differences in ED visits or inpatient hospitalizations were observed among study arms. ED visits were more frequent for patients with lung or colorectal cancer, more comorbidities, and lower baseline QOL. Baseline QOL was associated with inpatient hospitalizations in the adjusted analysis. The psychoeducational intervention, either in brief or extensive format, is unlikely to increase healthcare service utilization. Efficacious nurse-led psychoeducational interventions to improve QOL do not place undue burdens on the healthcare system and may improve care.

  6. Adapting evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety for use with adults in integrated primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Robyn L; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Weisberg, Risa B

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based treatments for adult patients with anxiety are greatly needed within primary care settings. Psychotherapy protocols, including those for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), are often disorder-specific and were developed for specialty mental health settings, rendering them infeasible in primary care. Behavioral health consultants (BHCs) integrated into primary care settings are uniquely positioned to provide anxiety treatment. However, due to the dearth of empirically supported brief treatments for anxiety, BHCs are tasked with adapting existing treatments for use in primary care, which is quite challenging due to the abbreviated format and population-based approach to care. CBT protocols are highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and fit well with the self-management emphasis of integrated primary care. We review the rationale and procedure for 6 evidence-based CBT intervention techniques (psycho-education, mindfulness and acceptance-based behavioral techniques, relaxation training, exposure, cognitive restructuring, and behavioral activation) that can be adapted for use in the brief format typical of integrated primary care. We offer tips based on our clinical experience, highlight resources (e.g., handouts, websites, apps), and discuss 2 case examples to aid BHCs in their everyday practice. Our goal is to provide BHCs with practical knowledge that will facilitate the use of evidence-based interventions to improve the treatment of anxiety in primary care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ivarsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects of guided internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Sixty-two participants with chronic PTSD, as assessed by the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale, were recruited via nationwide advertising and randomized to either treatment (n = 31 or delayed treatment attention control (n = 31. The ICBT treatment consisted of 8 weekly text-based modules containing psychoeducation, breathing retraining, imaginal and in vivo exposure, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Therapist support and feedback on homework assignment were given weekly via an online contact handling system. Assessments were made at baseline, post-treatment, and at 1-year follow-up. Main outcome measures were the Impact of Events Scale — Revised (IES-R and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS. Results showed significant reductions of PTSD symptoms (between group effect on the IES-R Cohen's d = 1.25, and d = 1.24 for the PDS compared to the control group. There were also effects on depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and quality of life. The results at one-year follow-up showed that treatment gains were maintained. In sum, these results suggest that ICBT with therapist support can reduce PTSD symptoms significantly.

  8. Pilot study of a culturally adapted psychoeducation (CaPE) intervention for bipolar disorder in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Ishrat; Chaudhry, Imran B; Rahman, Raza R; Hamirani, Munir M; Mehmood, Nasir; Haddad, Peter M; Hodsoll, John; Young, Allan H; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2017-12-01

    Despite the use of maintenance medication, recurrence rates in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) are high. To date, there are no clinical trials that have investigated the use of psychological interventions in bipolar disorder in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally adapted bipolar psychoeducation programme (CaPE) in Pakistan. Thirty-four euthymic bipolar I and II outpatients were randomized to either 12 weekly sessions of individual psychoeducation plus Treatment As Usual (Intervention) or Treatment As Usual (TAU) (Control). Outcomes were assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), Bipolar Knowledge and Attitudes and Questionnaire (BKAQ), and a self-reported measure of medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 items, MMAS-4). Effect sizes were derived from baseline adjusted standardized regression coefficients. Retention in the study was good, 80% of patients in the TAU follow-up assessment and 100% of patients in the CaPE group attended all 12 sessions. Patient satisfaction was higher in the CaPE group relative to control (ES = 1.41). Further, there were large effect sizes shown for CaPE versus TAU for medication adherence (MMAS-4: ES = 0.81), knowledge and attitudes towards bipolar (BKAQ: ES = 0.68), mania (YMRS: ES = 1.18), depression (BDI: ES = 1.17) and quality of life measures (EQ-5D: ES ⇒ 0.88). Culturally adapted psychoeducation intervention is acceptable and feasible, and can be effective in improving mood symptoms and knowledge and attitudes to BPAD when compared with TAU. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02210390.

  9. How Patients Contribute to an Online Psychoeducation Forum for Bipolar Disorder: A Virtual Participant Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Ria; Smith, Daniel; Simpson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    In a recent exploratory randomized controlled trial, an online psychoeducation intervention for bipolar disorder has been found to be feasible and acceptable to patients and may positively impact on their self-management behaviors and quality of life. The objective of the study was to investigate how these patients contribute to an online forum for bipolar disorder and the issues relevant for them. Participants in the intervention arm of the Bipolar Interactive PsychoEDucation ("BIPED") trial were invited to contribute to the Beating Bipolar forum alongside receiving interactive online psychoeducation modules. Within this virtual participant observation study, forum posts were analyzed using thematic analysis, incorporating aspects of discourse analysis. The key themes which arose from the forum posts included: medication, employment, stigma, social support, coping strategies, insight and acceptance, the life chart, and negative experiences of health care. Participants frequently provided personal narratives relating to their history of bipolar disorder, life experiences, and backgrounds, which often contained emotive language and humor. They regularly sought and offered advice, and expressed encouragement and empathy. The forum would have benefitted from more users to offer a greater support network with more diverse views and experiences. Online forums are inexpensive to provide and may offer peer support and the opportunity for patients to share their experiences and explore issues related to their illness anonymously. Future research should focus on how to enhance patient engagement with online health care forums. ISRCTN81375447; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN81375447 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YzWtHUqu).

  10. A web-based psychoeducational program for informal caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho-Lacroix, Victoria; Wrobel, Jérémy; Cantegreil-Kallen, Inge; Dub, Timothée; Rouquette, Alexandra; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-05-12

    Although several face-to-face programs are dedicated to informal caregivers of persons with dementia, they are not always accessible to overburdened or isolated caregivers. Based on a face-to-face intervention program, we adapted and designed a Web-based fully automated psychoeducational program (called Diapason) inspired by a cognitive approach. This study aimed to evaluate through a pilot unblinded randomized controlled trial the efficacy and acceptability of a Web-based psychoeducational program for informal caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease (PWAD) based on a mixed methods research design. We recruited and randomized offline 49 informal caregivers of a PWAD in a day care center in Paris, France. They either received the Web-based intervention and usual care for 3 months (experimental group, n=25) or only usual care (control group, n=24). Caregivers' perceived stress (PSS-14, primary outcome), self-efficacy, burden, perceived health status, and depression (secondary outcomes) were measured during 3 face-to-face on-site visits: at baseline, at the end of the program (month 3), and after follow-up (month 6). Additionally, semistructured interviews were conducted with experimental group caregivers at month 6 and examined with thematic analysis. Intention-to-treat analysis did not show significant differences in self-perceived stress between the experimental and control groups (P=.98). The experimental group significantly improved their knowledge of the illness (d=.79, P=.008) from baseline to month 3. Of the 25 participants allocated to the experimental group, 17 (71%) finished the protocol and entirely viewed at least 10 of 12 online sessions. On average, participants used the website 19.72 times (SD 12.88) and were connected for 262.20 minutes (SD 270.74). The results of the satisfaction questionnaire showed that most participants considered the program to be useful (95%, 19/20), clear (100%, 20/20), and comprehensive (85%, 17/20). Significant

  11. Efficacy of a minimal home-based psychoeducative intervention in patients with advanced COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, D. G.; Lomborg, K.; Jensen, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    -based psychoeducative intervention versus usual care for reducing symptoms of anxiety in patients with advanced COPD. METHODS: The trial included 66 participants with advanced COPD and symptoms of anxiety. The primary outcome was anxiety assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) subscale for anxiety......BACKGROUND: Anxiety is a common comorbidity in patients with advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with major impact on quality of life and associated with increased risk of death. The objective of this randomised controlled trial was to test the efficacy of a minimal home...

  12. Predictors of early change in bulimia nervosa after a brief psychoeducational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Aranda, Fernando; Alvarez-Moya, Eva M; Martínez-Viana, Cristina; Sànchez, Isabel; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Forcano, Laura; Peñas-Lledó, Eva

    2009-06-01

    We aimed to examine baseline predictors of treatment response in bulimic patients. 241 seeking-treatment females with bulimia nervosa completed an exhaustive assessment and were referred to a six-session psychoeducational group. Regression analyses of treatment response were performed. Childhood obesity, lower frequency of eating symptomatology, lower body mass index, older age, and lower family's and patient's concern about the disorder were predictors of poor abstinence. Suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, higher maximum BMI, higher novelty seeking and lower baseline purging frequency predicted dropouts. Predictors of early symptom changes and dropouts were similar to those identified in longer CBT interventions.

  13. Moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of outcome after cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions in a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tornås, Sveinung; Stubberud, Jan; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Evans, Jonathan; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Løvstad, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of treatment after cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions in a randomised controlled trial\\ud \\ud Objective: To explore moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of executive functioning after cognitive rehabilitation in a randomised controlled trial, comparing Goal Management Training (GMT) with an active psycho-educative control-intervention, in patients with chronic acquired brain injury.\\ud \\ud Methods: Seventy patients with...

  14. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Liming; Chen, Qianwei; Tan, Liang; Zuo, Shilun; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang

    2015-03-19

    With the rapid increase in the number of mobile phone users, the potential adverse effects of the electromagnetic field radiation emitted by a mobile phone has become a serious concern. This study demonstrated, for the first time, the blood-brain barrier and cognitive changes in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) and aims to elucidate the potential molecular pathway underlying these changes. A total of 108 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a 900 MHz, 1 mW/cm(2) EMF or sham (unexposed) for 14 or 28 days (3h per day). The specific energy absorption rate (SAR) varied between 0.016 (whole body) and 2 W/kg (locally in the head). In addition, the Morris water maze test was used to examine spatial memory performance determination. Morphological changes were investigated by examining ultrastructural changes in the hippocampus and cortex, and the Evans Blue assay was used to assess blood brain barrier (BBB) damage. Immunostaining was performed to identify heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-positive neurons and albumin extravasation detection. Western blot was used to determine HO-1 expression, phosphorylated ERK expression and the upstream mediator, mkp-1 expression. We found that the frequency of crossing platforms and the percentage of time spent in the target quadrant were lower in rats exposed to EMF for 28 days than in rats exposed to EMF for 14 days and unexposed rats. Moreover, 28 days of EMF exposure induced cellular edema and neuronal cell organelle degeneration in the rat. In addition, damaged BBB permeability, which resulted in albumin and HO-1 extravasation were observed in the hippocampus and cortex. Thus, for the first time, we found that EMF exposure for 28 days induced the expression of mkp-1, resulting in ERK dephosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that exposure to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 28 days can significantly impair spatial memory and damage BBB permeability in rat by activating the mkp-1/ERK pathway. Copyright

  15. Long-term cognitive and cardiac outcomes after prenatal exposure to chemotherapy in children aged 18 months or older: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amant, Frédéric; Van Calsteren, Kristel; Halaska, Michael J; Gziri, Mina Mhallem; Hui, Wei; Lagae, Lieven; Willemsen, Michèl A; Kapusta, Livia; Van Calster, Ben; Wouters, Heidi; Heyns, Liesbeth; Han, Sileny N; Tomek, Viktor; Mertens, Luc; Ottevanger, Petronella B

    2012-03-01

    Chemotherapy for the treatment of maternal cancers during pregnancy has become more acceptable in the past decade; however, the effect of prenatal exposure to chemotherapy on cardiac and neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring is still uncertain. We aimed to record the general health, cardiac function, and neurodevelopmental outcomes of children who were prenatally exposed to chemotherapy. We did an interim analysis of a multicentre observational cohort study assessing children who were prenatally exposed to maternal cancer staging and treatment, including chemotherapy. We assessed children at birth, at age 18 months, and at age 5-6, 8-9, 11-12, 14-15, or 18 years. We did clinical neurological examinations, tests of the general level of cognitive functioning (Bayley or intelligence quotient [IQ] test), electrocardiography and echocardiography, and administered a questionnaire on general health and development. From age 5 years, we also did audiometry, the Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and subtasks of the Children's Memory Scale, and the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, and we also completed the Child Behavior Checklist. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00330447. 236 cycles of chemotherapy were administered in 68 pregnancies. We assessed 70 children, born at a median gestational age of 35·7 weeks (range 28·3-41·0; IQR 3·3; 47 women at <37 weeks), with a median follow-up period of 22·3 months (range 16·8-211·6; IQR 54·9). Although neurocognitive outcomes were within normal ranges, cognitive development scores were lower for children who were born preterm than for those born at full term. When controlling for age, sex, and country, the score for IQ increased by an average 11·6 points (95% CI 6·0-17·1) for each additional month of gestation (p<0·0001). Our measurements of the children's behaviour, general health, hearing, and growth corresponded with those of the general population. Cardiac dimensions and functions

  16. The Dialectical Psychoeducational Workshop (DPEW): the conceptual framework and curriculum for a preventative intervention for males at risk for IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Mary M; Solomon, Phyllis; Gelles, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Current programs aimed at reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) have demonstrated little effect on at-risk males, who may potentially engage in acts of IPV. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) provides the conceptual and empirical foundation for the dialectical psychoeducational workshop (DPEW). The DPEW offers a targeted preventative intervention for individuals potentially at risk for IPV. This article offers the rationale and theoretical basis for a specialized preventative approach to IPV and delineates a brief psychoeducational program that may stimulate further research and provide an alternate preventative intervention strategy in an area in need of innovative programs.

  17. Can PEP-3 Provide a Cognitive Profile in Children with ASD? A Comparison between the Developmental Ages of PEP-3 and IQ of Leiter-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Cristella, Arcangelo; Terenzio, Vanessa; Buttiglione, Maura; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment of the intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important to plan a detailed therapeutic-educative programme. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) to estimate the general cognitive development of children with ASD.…

  18. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocess­ing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triscari MT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Teresa Triscari,1 Palmira Faraci,2 Dario Catalisano,3 Valerio D’Angelo,1 Viviana Urso1 1Laboratory for Psychosomatic Disorders, Local Health Trust, Palermo, Italy; 2Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Enna “Kore”, Enna, Italy; 3Italian Flight Safety Committee, Aeroporto di Fiumicino, Fiumicino (RM, Italy Abstract: The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. Keywords: flight anxiety, fear of flying, aerophobia, cognitive behavioral therapy, EMDR, VRET 

  19. Effectiveness of a psychoeducative intervention in a summer camp for children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Lidia; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Del Mar Trujillo-Martín, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducative intervention implemented in a summer camp for children with type 1 diabetes. A prospective cohort study was conducted comparing 2 groups of children with type 1 diabetes. The intervention group (n = 34) received interventions that addressed knowledge, behaviors, skills, and psychological factors during a summer camp. The control group (n = 23) received the usual education and care. Evaluated measurements were glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), diabetes knowledge, anxiety, psychological adaptation, and use of health care services. No significant changes in A1C annual average, body mass index (BMI), diabetes knowledge, anxiety, medical visits, or hospital admissions were observed after the intervention in comparison with before intervention. Only the adaptation to the school environment improved significantly. The control group significantly increased BMI and A1C. No relevant variations in diabetes knowledge, anxiety, psychological adaptation, or use of health care services were found after the psychoeducative intervention implemented in the summer camp. Future studies with random allocation of subjects are necessary to confirm the intervention's effectiveness.

  20. Internet-based psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: a qualitative analysis of feasibility, acceptability and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poole Ria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent exploratory randomised trial we found that a novel, internet-based psychoeducation programme for bipolar disorder (Beating Bipolar was relatively easy to deliver and had a modest effect on psychological quality of life. We sought to explore the experiences of participants with respect to feasibility, acceptability and impact of Beating Bipolar. Methods Participants were invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. Thematic analysis techniques were employed; to explore and describe participants’ experiences, the data were analysed for emerging themes which were identified and coded. Results The programme was feasible to deliver and acceptable to participants where they felt comfortable using a computer. It was found to impact upon insight into illness, health behaviour, personal routines and positive attitudes towards medication. Many participants regarded the programme as likely to be most beneficial for those recently diagnosed. Conclusions An online psychoeducation package for bipolar disorder, such as Beating Bipolar, is feasible and acceptable to patients, has a positive impact on self-management behaviours and may be particularly suited to early intervention. Alternative (non-internet formats should also be made available to patients.

  1. Effects of Early-Stage Group Psychoeducation Programme for Patients with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachie; Ishikawa, Eri; Mochida, Ayumi; Kawano, Koujiro; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a psychoeducational group programme on inpatients with depression. We compared the attributes and Inventory Scale for Mood and Sense of Fatigue (SMSF) scores of 45 people who participated in the programme (participation group) with those of 37 people who did not participate (control group). Further, we investigated the rate of readmission 6 months after discharge and the number of patients in the participation group who had consulted a psychiatric social worker. Statistically, there were no significant differences in the SMSF score between the two groups on admission and at the time of discharge. The programme had no effect on the readmission rate. However, the SMSF score of the participation group significantly improved from the start of the programme to patient discharge. Furthermore, improvement of depressive symptoms, feeling of recovery and adherence were found in the participation group. The programme seemed to provide a psychotherapeutic effect for the patients and promoted cooperation with occupational therapist and other specialists in the hospital. The efficacy of psychoeducation in preventing recurrence of depression remains to be demonstrated, and methods of investigating effective approaches for this purpose need to be considered in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Multimedia psychoeducational interventions to support patient self-care in degenerative conditions: A realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Peter; Scott, David; Reid, Joanne; Porter, Sam

    2015-10-01

    Multimedia interventions are increasingly used to deliver information in order to promote self-care among patients with degenerative conditions. We carried out a realist review of the literature to investigate how the characteristics of multimedia psychoeducational interventions combine with the contexts in which they are introduced to help or hinder their effectiveness in supporting self-care for patients with degenerative conditions. Electronic databases (Medline, Science Direct, PSYCHinfo, EBSCO, and Embase) were searched in order to identify papers containing information on multimedia psychoeducational interventions. Using a realist review approach, we reviewed all relevant studies to identify theories that explained how the interventions work. Ten papers were included in the review. All interventions sought to promote self-care behaviors among participants. We examined the development and content of the multimedia interventions and the impact of patient motivation and of the organizational context of implementation. We judged seven studies to be methodologically weak. All completed studies showed small effects in favor of the intervention. Multimedia interventions may provide high-quality information in an accessible format, with the potential to promote self-care among patients with degenerative conditions, if the patient perceives the information as important and develops confidence about self-care. The evidence base is weak, so that research is needed to investigate effective modes of delivery at different resource levels. We recommend that developers consider how an intervention will reduce uncertainty and increase confidence in self-care, as well as the impact of the context in which it will be employed.

  3. An Effective Psychoeducational Intervention for Early Childhood Caries Prevention: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308

  4. Psycho-educational preparation of children for anaesthesia: A review of intervention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Michele; Ragni, Benedetta

    2016-02-01

    To systematically review the different methods available for the psycho-educational preparation of children for anaesthesia induction. Articles were searched in Academic Search Premier, OvidSP, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Inclusion criteria were psychological and educational preparation of children for anaesthesia and anxiety reduction. The titles of papers and abstracts were reviewed and full copies of selected papers were scrutinized. Forty-four empirical studies were identified. Twenty-one articles described preoperative preparation programmes, twelve examined the effects of distractive techniques and eleven reported the effect of parental presence during anaesthesia's induction. Some general characteristics of the different interventions are discussed together with some key psychological and educational factors mediating anxiety in children undergoing anaesthesia. The effectiveness of interventions were linked to several factors. Psychological and contextual aspects are discussed. Psycho-educational activities should be better described when reporting their effectiveness in children's preparation for an anaesthesia. Patient and family characteristics together with organizational and systemic aspects are described in order to guide the choice of the most appropriate preparation method for diverse health care setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychoeducative groups help control type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Cuesta, Miguel Ángel; García-Talavera Espín, Noelia Victoria; Brotons Román, Josefa; Núñez Sánchez, M Ángeles; Brocal Ibáñez, Pedro; Villalba Martín, Pilar; Saura García, Carmen; Sánchez Esteban, Tomasa; Romero López-Reinoso, Helena; Delgado Aroca, Ma José; Sánchez Gil, Dolores; Meoro Avilés, Amparo; Soriano Palao, José

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of a psychoeducational group intervention in diabetes using glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), the body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) compared with conventional educational measures provided individually. A quasi-experimental study (pre/post-intervention) with a non-equivalent control group was conducted, including 72 type 2 individuals with diabetes (mean data: age 63.08 years, HbA1C 6.98%, BMI 30.48 kg/m2).The beneficial effect of psychoeducational group therapy in the study group (PGT) was compared with conventional diabetes education in the control group (CG). The PGT had a higher mean HbA1c reduction (-0.51 ± 1.7 vs. -0.06 ± 0.53%, p 0.003), met the objectives of optimal control of HbA1c to a higher degree (80% vs. 48%, p 0.005) and greater mean weight reduction (-1.93 ± 3.57 vs. 0.52 ± 1.73 kg, p 0002) than the CG.A significant improvement in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was achieved in PGT (all p programs should be considered to introduce these more efficient therapies for diabetes education in primary care. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. [Psycho-educational coping-oriented group therapy for schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Christina; Andres, Karl; Hofer, Alex; Hummer, Martina; Gutweniger, Sarah; Kemmler, Georg; Pfammatter, Mario; Meise, Ullrich

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psycho-educational, coping-oriented therapy programme for patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. Controlled, prospective study design. In the experimental group the Therapy Manual for Psycho-education and Coping with Illness (PKB) was used, providing targeted information on the illness, medical treatment, prodromal symptoms, and health behaviour. Controls participated in supportive dialogues or in an occupational rehabilitation programme. Psychopathology, re-hospitalisations, knowledge, functional outcome and coping strategies were assessed before, directly after and 12 months post therapy. 82 patients participated. In both groups (experimental, control) a significant improvement in psychopathology and general functioning level were observed. Specific advantages for patients of the experimental group were limited to a few aspects, including rehospitalizations in the first year and certain coping strategies. In the treatment of schizophrenia different forms of psycho-social intervention (experimental, control) can be effective. Identification of subgroups profiting specially from certain types of intervention should be subject of future research.

  7. A Pharmacotherapy and ECT resistant OCD patient’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacettin KURU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a common disease causing to significant deterioration in the person’s social and occupational functions. In this case report cognitive behavioral therapy’s (CBT location in treatmentresistant patients is discussed from pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT resistant an OCD patient. Case: Patient was 46 years old, male. Patient had recourse to with complaints that loved ones arrive per accident or sexual thoughts about inappropriate people that led to the unintentional and occurred to distress so repetitive behaviors to get rid of that woes. He hospitalized for treatment because of to intensify his symptoms in spite of treatment in the last 6 months. In the first 6 months of entering to clinic pharmacotherapy and 3 times a week in 20 ECT session was completed but he didn’t answer to these treatments. Thereupon CBT was started to patient. Therapy process started with evaluation and cross-sectional case formulation, afterward psychoeducation that contains OCD and OCD’s CBT model was done, the patient’s symptoms and the findings are evaluated in that context. Then CBT rationale that perform to the patient had been transferred. Patient’s coping methods with his current shortage and its results had been analyzed. Cognitive reconfiguration techniques related his current comments had been practised. Rationale of exposure and response prevention (ERP therapies were transferred. Hypothesized about each situation before ERP therapy and these hypothesis had been looked over with patient after ERP therapy. Results: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is an effective treatment for treatment-resistant patients with drug and ECT.

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Woods, Briana A.

    2011-01-01

    A number of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) approaches are available for treating child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Similar to other CBT treatments, particularly those for anxiety disorders, these treatments all include common elements (e.g., psychoeducation, relaxation and affective modulation skills, exposure). The goals of this review are to: 1) delineate common elements in CBT approaches for treating child and adolescent PTSD; 2) provide a detailed review of two CBT approaches with substantial evidence of effectiveness; and 3) describe “Promising Practices,” in the area of CBT approaches to treating child and adolescent PTSD. The two treatments reviewed in detail are Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS). For these treatments, we describe the research evidence to date, specific elements of the treatment model, and discuss implementation and cultural considerations. In the “Promising Practices” section, other CBT approaches are reviewed that include many of the common elements; however, these approaches have accumulated less evidence of effectiveness to date. Research on CBT approaches to treating PTSD is ongoing, with a growing focus on explicit consideration of the multiple systems in which youth exposed to trauma are involved, and ways to better address co-occurring difficulties (e.g. serious behavior problems, substance use). Future directions for the field are discussed. These include further study of promising practices, cultural applicability of CBT approaches to treating PTSD, and strategies to enhance implementation and dissemination efforts to improve access to high-quality, evidence-based care for children and adolescents with PTSD. PMID:21440854

  9. The Therapeutic Alliance and Family Psychoeducation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: An Exploratory Prospective Change Process Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerud, Phyllis E.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.

    2008-01-01

    Although family psychoeducation has been shown to be highly efficacious in the treatment of schizophrenia, the mechanisms underlying the treatment's success are poorly understood. The therapeutic alliance in behavioral family management (BFM) was examined to determine whether the alliance plays a role in the efficacy of this treatment. One early…

  10. Efficacy of a Brief Psychoeducational Intervention for Mothers of Children with Breath-Holding Spells: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Eliacik, Kayi; Sargin, Enis; Kanik, Ali; Baydan, Figen; Sarioglu, Berrak

    2016-08-01

    Objective Mothers of individuals with breath-holding spells (BHS) suffer more often from anxiety and experience more stressors in their everyday life. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of psychoeducational intervention in reducing BHS and coping with these spells. Participants and Methods Mothers who have children with BHS were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group receiving psychoeducational therapy in addition to the routine follow-up (n = 31) and a control group who did not receive psychoeducation in their routine follow-up (n = 28). The data collected at the beginning of the study and at the end of 3rd and 6th months about the frequency of the spells per month, maternal anxiety, and depression levels and mothers' perceived self-knowledge about coping BHS of both groups were compared. Results Mothers in psychoeducation group, compared with controls, improved significantly on state anxiety, depression, perceived anticipation anxiety level for BHS of their children and self-knowledge about coping with the spells. Conclusion The intervention program had a positive effect on anxiety-depression levels of the mothers and the frequency of BHS among the children. The possible link between emotional and autonomic dysregulation in children with BHS and maternal mental health were discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  12. A C.L.E.A.R. Approach to Report Writing: A Framework for Improving the Efficacy of Psychoeducational Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastoras, Sarah M.; Climie, Emma A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.; Schwean, Vicki L.

    2011-01-01

    Psychoeducational reports are the primary means for a school psychologist to communicate the results of an assessment. Although reports should be written in the most efficient and reader-friendly manner, this is not always the case. Additionally, problems in report writing have remained relatively consistent for several decades, despite…

  13. Effects of a Group Psychoeducation Program on Self-Stigma, Empowerment and Perceived Discrimination of Persons with Schizophrenia.

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    Ivezić, Slađana Štrkalj; Sesar, Marijan Alfonso; Mužinić, Lana

    2017-03-01

    Self-stigma adversely affects recovery from schizophrenia. Analyses of self stigma reduction programs discovered that few studies have investigated the impact of education about the illness on self-stigma reduction. The objective of this study was to determine whether psychoeducation based on the principles of recovery and empowerment using therapeutic group factors assists in reduction of self-stigma, increased empowerment and reduced perception of discrimination in patients with schizophrenia. 40 patients participated in psychoeducation group program and were compared with a control group of 40 patients placed on the waiting list for the same program. A Solomon four group design was used to control the influence of the pretest. Rating scales were used to measure internalized stigma, empowerment and perception of discrimination. Two-way analysis of variance was used to determine the main effects and interaction between the treatment and pretest. Simple analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to additionally test effect of treatment onself-stigma, empowerment and perceived discrimination. The participants in the psychoeducation group had lower scores on internalized stigma (F(1,76)=8.18; pdiscrimination. Group psychoeducation decreased the level of self stigma. This intervention can assist in recovery from schizophrenia.

  14. A Demonstration of Long Term Follow-Up of a Psychoeducational Intensive Day Treatment Facility for Emotionally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Jerome

    To determine the status of emotionally handicapped children who had attended a psychoeducational intensive day treatment facility and to explore procedures for long term assessment, a followup telephone interview was undertaken with 37 parents or guardians of the elementary program clients. It was found that the children are for the most part…

  15. Evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children treated for cancer: a descriptive pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Silberbusch, Lobke M.; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present paper reports about the content and evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children growing up with a history of cancer, Op Koers Oncologie (OK Onco). OK Onco is aimed at empowerment of survivors of childhood cancer by teaching disease-related skills. The

  16. Evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children treated for cancer: A descriptive pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, H.; Last, B.F.; Silberbusch, L.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present paper reports about the content and evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children growing up with a history of cancer, Op Koers Oncologie (OK Onco). OK Onco is aimed at empowerment of survivors of childhood cancer by teaching disease-related skills. The

  17. Psychoeducational Interventions with Pediatric Cancer Patients: Part II. Effects of Information and Skills Training on Health-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Ivan L.; Bradlyn, Andrew S.; Kato, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a model that was used as a framework for reviewing studies of psychoeducational interventions intended to influence illness- and treatment-related behaviors and attitudes in pediatric cancer patients. In Part II, we distinguish between interventions that attempt to influence patients' behaviors just by…

  18. Implementing Self-Advocacy Training within a Brief Psychoeducational Group to Improve the Academic Motivation of Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2009-01-01

    Black adolescents are confronted with ongoing social barriers that affect their academic motivation. School counselors can improve the educational landscape for Black adolescents by employing advocacy competencies in their schools. In this article I describe a brief psychoeducational group that can be used to teach self-advocacy skills to Black…

  19. A Bilingual (English and Spanish) Psychoeducational Assessment MODEL Grounded in Cattell-Horn Carroll (CHC) Theory: A Cross Battery Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Pedro; Gomez-Cerrillo, Lino

    2011-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Education Act mandates nondiscriminatory assessment for children who are culturally and linguistically diverse. Because of the overrepresentation of English Language Learners (ELL) in special education programs in the United States, the focus of this article is the psychoeducational assessment of Spanish- and…

  20. Effect of Psycho-Educational Training Program for Parent's Having Child with Leukemia on Their Experience and Psychological Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Elaziz, Nahla Ahmed Abd

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is a significant public health and life-threatening problem for pediatric cancer patients. Family caregivers of cancer patients receive little preparation, information, or support to perform their care giving role. This study aims to assess the effect of psycho-educational training program to enhancing practice and psychosocial adaptation…

  1. Effects of a psychoeducational intervention program on the attitudes and health perceptions of relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Ferrer-García, Marta

    2009-05-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the role played by families in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Some family interventions may significantly reduce clinical difficulties and may have a positive impact, both emotionally and economically. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a family psychoeducational program in changing attitude and health perceptions in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. 45 relatives, key caregivers of patients with schizophrenia seen at a public mental health outpatient centre in Arica (Chile). Attitudes of Relatives toward Schizophrenia Questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire SF-36. The sample was randomly divided into a control group, in which caregivers received the usual treatment (a monthly interview with a psychiatric nurse), and an experimental group, which participated in a family psychoeducational intervention program in addition to the usual treatment. Medication of patients remained unchanged in both groups. The psychoeducational program was effective in modifying caregivers' attitudes. However, it had no effect on their health perceptions. This family psychoeducational treatment program modifies the negative attitudes of relatives towards schizophrenia. However, programs of this kind may not improve health problems; alternatively, their effects may only be seen in the long term.

  2. Effects of a Psychoeducational Group on Mood and Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes and Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trozzolino, Linda; Thompson, Pamela S.; Tansman, Mara S.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 12-week psychoeducational group therapy program in improving mood and glycemic control in 48 adults with diabetes and visual impairments. Participants made statistically significant gains in glycemic control. There was a significant positive relationship between control and improvement in depression, but…

  3. Using a Psychoeducational Approach To Increase the Self-Esteem of Adolescents at High Risk for Dropping Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Don; Miller, Mark; Tobacyk, Jerome; Clanton, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of an ecologically oriented approach in changing the self-concepts of 80 high-risk adolescents. Participants were administered a self-esteem scale before and after an eight-week psychoeducational program designed for dropout prevention. Results indicated significant reductions in dropout rates and increased…

  4. Differential Effects of Emotion-Focused Therapy and Psychoeducation in Facilitating Forgiveness and Letting Go of Emotional Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Leslie J.; Warwar, Serine H.; Malcolm, Wanda M.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) involving gestalt empty-chair dialogue in the treatment of individuals who were emotionally injured by a significant other with therapy in a psychoeducation group designed to deal with these injuries. In addition, this study examined aspects of the emotional process of…

  5. Therapeutic Factors and Members' Perception of Co-Leaders' Attitudes in a Psychoeducational Group for Greek Children with Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouzos, Andreas; Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Baourda, Vasiliki C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate therapeutic factors and perception of co-leaders' attitudes in elementary children. The Critical Incident Questionnaire was collected from participants during 8 sessions of 3 psychoeducational groups for social anxiety, whereas the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory was administered twice. It was…

  6. A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental…

  7. At-risk adolescents as experts in a new requirements elicitation procedure for the development of a smart phone psychoeducational trauma-informed care application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Schug, Seran; Zhu, Jichen; Smith, T J; Senathirajah, Yalini; Bloom, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents from urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities of color encounter high rates of adverse childhood experiences. To address the resulting multidimensional problems, we developed an innovative approach, Experiential Participatory and Interactive Knowledge Elicitation (EPIKE), using remote experiential needs elicitation methods to generate design and content requirements for a mobile health (mHealth) psychoeducational intervention. At a community-based organization in a northeastern city, the research team developed EPIKE by incorporating elicitation of input on the graphics and conducting remotely recorded experiential meetings and iterative reviews of the design to produce an mHealth smartphone story application (app) prototype for the participants to critique. The 22 participants were 13- to 17-year-olds, predominantly African American and female, from underresourced communities. The four goals of the design process were attained: 1) story development from participant input; 2) needs-elicitation that reflected the patient-centered care approach; 3) interactive story game creation that accommodates the participants' emotional and cognitive developmental needs; 4) development of a game that adolescents can relate to and that which matches their comfort levels of emotional intensity. The EPIKE approach can be used successfully to identify the needs of adolescents across the digital divide to inform the design and development of mHealth apps.

  8. Effectiveness of psycho-educational intervention in improving outcome of unipolar depression: results from a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Gupta, M

    2015-03-01

    Depressive disorders are one of the leading components of the global burden of disease with a prevalence of up to 14% in the general population. Numerous studies have demonstrated that pharmacotherapy combined with non-pharmacological measures offer the best treatment approach. Psycho-education as an intervention has been studied mostly in disorders such as schizophrenia and dementia, less so in depressive disorders. The present study aimed to assess the impact of psycho-education of patients and their caregivers on the outcome of depression. A total of 80 eligible depressed subjects were recruited and randomised into 2 groups. The study group involved an eligible family member and all were offered individual structured psycho-educational modules. Another group (controls) received routine counselling. The subjects in both groups also received routine pharmacotherapy and counselling from the treating clinician and were assessed at baseline, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI). Results from both groups were compared using statistical methods including Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, as well as univariate and multiple regression analyses. Baseline socio-demographic and assessment measures were similar in both groups. The study group had consistent improvement in terms of outcome measures with HDRS, GAF, and PGWBI scores showing respective mean change of -15.08, 22, and 60 over 12 weeks. The comparable respective changes in the controls were -8.77, 18.1, and 43.25. Structured psycho-education combined with pharmacotherapy is an effective intervention for people with depressive disorders. Psycho-education optimises the pharmacological treatment of depression in terms of faster recovery, reduction in severity of depression, and improvement in subjective wellbeing and social functioning.

  9. Emotions and health: findings from a randomized clinical trial on psychoeducational nursing to patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Støier, Louise; Moons, Philip; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Winkel, Per; Ulrich Pedersen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Serious illness will inevitably lead to a fundamental emotional reaction. Traditionally, in interventional treatment or rehabilitation trials, the psychological status of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators has been evaluated with anxiety and depression as outcome measures. In caring for these patients, the aim of nursing is to help patients manage life with complex heart disease. The early detection and management of negative emotional response might prevent the development of pathological conditions such as depression. The aims of this study were to (a) describe the trajectory of primary emotions over time in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators and (b) examine the potential effects of psychoeducational nursing on primary emotions. During the inclusion period (October 2007 to November 2009), 196 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator were randomized (1:1) to rehabilitation versus usual care. Rehabilitation consisted of a psychoeducational nursing component and an exercise training component. This article concerns phase 1, psychoeducational nursing, guided by a theory of nursing, Rosemary Rizzo Parses Human Becoming Practice Methodologies. The outcome measure is the Emotions and Health Scale. The scale consists of 8 primary emotions: joy, agreeableness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, anger, and anticipation. Mean (SD) age was 58 (13) years, and 79% of the participants were men. Significant improvements were found in primary emotional responses over time (P nursing intervention (P > .05). Primary emotions are affected after implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. Improvements over time were found. However, it was not possible to detect any effect of a short-term psychoeducational nursing intervention. Evaluating the primary emotions might be a good way for nurses to monitor patients' psychological outcomes because the instrument is sensitive to changes over a short period. Further development of early

  10. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total

  11. Effectiveness of a psycho-educational program for improving quality of life of fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montesano Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most fibromyalgia patients are seen in primary care (PC. However, the effectiveness of the treatments prescribed by general practitioners is usually minimal. The main objective of the present research is to assess the efficacy of structured psycho-educational intervention, combined with relaxation, developed to improve the quality of life of patients suffering fibromyalgia (FM. The second objective is to assess the cost-effectiveness of this multimodal intervention. Method/Design Design. Randomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up involving two groups, one of which is the intervention group that includes patients receiving a psychoeducational program and the other the control group consisting of patients treated for FM in the usual way. Setting. Three urban PC centers in the province of Barcelona (Spain. Sample. The total sample comprises 218 patients (over 18 years of age suffering FM, selected from a database (Rheumatology service-Viladecans Hospital of patients with this illness. Only those patients introduced in the database between the years 2005 and 2007 were included in the selection. Selected patients will be asked for written informed consent to participate in the study. Intervention. Multi-component program including information about the illness, counselling about physical exercise and training in autogenic relaxation. The intervention consists of nine 2-hour sessions delivered during a two-month period. The pharmacological treatment prescribed by the physician was maintained in both groups. Main variables. Sociodemographic characteristics, quality of life, use and cost of healthcare and social services. Measures. Quality of life is to be measured with the FIQ and the EuroQol-5D, and the use of healthcare services with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI. These variables will be measured before the beginning of the program (baseline and 1, 2, 6 and 12 months later. Discussion

  12. The effects of exposure to feminist ideology on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rachel D; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Bedwell, Jeffrey S

    2006-09-01

    Body image disturbance has become a common problem among women and there is a need to focus on creating empirically supported treatments. Psychoeducational interventions have reduced body image dissatisfaction, but their impact is limited because they do not offer women adaptive methods of interpreting the many appearance-related messages they receive. This study examined if exposure to a feminist perspective may provide alternative interpretations of cultural messages, thereby increasing body image satisfaction. Participants were randomly assigned to a feminist or psychoeducational intervention, or a control group. Exposure to the feminist condition resulted in increased self-identification as a feminist and greater appearance satisfaction, and changes in feminist identity were related to positive changes in body image. The findings indicate that exposure to feminist theories may serve as an effective intervention strategy.

  13. Group and Individual Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Cognitive Therapy and Exposure Plus Response Prevention: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Two Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittal, Maureen L.; Robichaud, Melisa; Thordarson, Dana S.; McLean, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the long-term durability of group treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and contemporary cognitive treatments. The current study investigated the 2-year follow-up results for participants who completed randomized trials of group or individual treatment and received either cognitive therapy (CT) or…

  14. Impact of Psychoeducational Content Delivered Online to a Positive Psychology Aware Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeck, Carly; Schueller, Stephen M; Parks, Acacia C

    Happiness-increasing interventions demonstrate significant variation in outcomes, suggesting that the people who use them might be as important as the interventions themselves to determine efficacy. In light of this, instructive interventions might not be necessary to increase happiness given a population with knowledge of happiness-increasing strategies. We recruited 270 participants with knowledge of positive psychology to receive six weeks of online psychoeducation. We explored participants' use of the website, reported use of happiness strategies, and changes in well-being. Those who spent more time on the website reported smaller changes in well-being than those who spent less time on the website. Conversely, those who reported employing more happiness strategies reported greater increases in well-being than those who used fewer strategies. This shows that for those already familiar with positive psychology, information, rather than instruction, might increase well-being. This has implications for studies evaluating the efficacy of happiness-increasing interventions more broadly.

  15. Effects of a cognitive training program and sleep hygiene for executive functions and sleep quality in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Moraes de Almondes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aging process causes changes in the sleep-wake cycle and cognition, especially executive functions. Interventions are required to minimize the impact of the losses caused by the aging process. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a cognitive training program and psychoeducation on sleep hygiene techniques for executive functions and sleep quality in healthy elderly. Methods: The participants were 41 healthy elderly randomized into four groups ([CG] control group, cognitive training group [CTG], sleep hygiene group [SHG] and cognitive training and hygiene group [THG]. The study was conducted in three stages: 1st - assessment of cognition and sleep; 2nd - specific intervention for each group; 3rd - post-intervention assessment. Results: The results showed that the CTG had significant improvements in cognitive flexibility tasks, planning, verbal fluency and episodic memory, gains in sleep quality and decreased excessive daytime sleepiness. The SHG also had improved sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and significant improvements in insights, planning, attention and episodic memory. The THG had significant gains in cognitive flexibility, problem solving, verbal fluency, attention and episodic memory. Conclusion: Cognitive training and sleep hygiene interventions were useful strategies for improving cognitive performance and sleep quality of healthy elderly, but there was no evidence that sessions combining cognitive training and psychoeducation on sleep hygiene enhanced the gains provided by these interventions applied individually.

  16. EFFECT OF A PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION ON DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, and HEALTH RESOURCE USE IN ICD PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Langberg, Jonathan J.; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Viswanathan, Bindu; McCarty, Frances; Culler, Steven D.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Weintraub, William S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychological responses have been reported for some patients after insertion of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). This study tested the effects of a psychoeducational intervention on anxiety, depressive symptoms, functional status and health resource use during the first year after ICD implantation. Methods ICD patients (n=246) were randomized to usual care (UC), group (GRP), or telephone counseling (TC) intervention that included education, symptom management, and coping skill training. Participants were 58 ± 11 years, 73% men, and 23% minorities. Anxiety (STAI), depressive symptoms (BDI-II), and functional status (DASI) were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, 6 & 12 months. Health resource use and disability days were tracked. Analyses were repeated-measures ANCOVA to assess Group X Time effects, Chi-square for percentage with clinically significant anxiety and depression at each time point, and logistic regression. Results All groups experienced decreased anxiety and depressive symptoms over the 12 months; GRP intervention had lower STAI (p=.03) than UC at 3 months. Logistic regression revealed group differences for predicted probability of having depressive symptoms at 12 months (UC=.31, GRP=.17, TC=.13, p=.03). UC had greater calls to providers at 1 and 6 months (p<.05) and more sick/disability days at 12 months (p=.01) than intervention groups. Conclusions A psychoeducational intervention reduced anxiety and depressive symptoms early after ICD, lowered probability of depressive symptoms at one year, and decreased disability days/calls to providers. These findings support further study and clinical use of both group and telephone interventions to yield better psychological outcomes after ICD implant. PMID:19796343

  17. Study protocol for reducing childbirth fear: a midwife-led psycho-education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Sneddon, Anne; Scuffham, Paul A; Ryding, Elsa L; Jarrett, Vivian; Toohill, Jocelyn

    2013-10-20

    Childbirth fear has received considerable attention in Scandinavian countries, and the United Kingdom, but not in Australia. For first-time mothers, fear is often linked to a perceived lack of control and disbelief in the body's ability to give birth safely, whereas multiparous women may be fearful as a result of previous negative and/or traumatic birth experiences. There have been few well-designed intervention studies that test interventions to address women's childbirth fear, support normal birth, and diminish the possibility of a negative birth experience. Pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy will be recruited and screened from antenatal clinics in Queensland, Australia. Women reporting high childbirth fear will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The psycho-educational intervention is offered by midwives over the telephone at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The intervention aims to review birth expectations, work through distressing elements of childbirth, discuss strategies to develop support networks, affirm that negative childbirth events can be managed and develop a birth plan. Women in the control group will receive standard care offered by the public funded maternity services in Australia. All women will receive an information booklet on childbirth choices. Data will be collected at recruitment during the second trimester, 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 4-6 weeks after birth. This study aims to test the efficacy of a brief, midwife-led psycho-education counselling (known as BELIEF: Birth Emotions - Looking to Improve Expectant Fear) to reduce women's childbirth fear. 1) Relative to controls, women receiving BELIEF will report lower levels of childbirth fear at term; 2) less decisional conflict; 3) less depressive symptoms; 4) better childbirth self-efficacy; and 5) improved health and obstetric outcomes. Australian New Zealand Controlled Trials Registry ACTRN12612000526875.

  18. Psychosocial and psychoeducational group program for main caregiver of mentally sick in early phase of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estíbaliz Amaro Martín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Deinstitutionalization processes in recent times have led to a new age in relations between family and mental health professionals. Care professionals were replaced, after the psychiatric reform, for care carried out by the family without the knowledge, information and skills to assume these functions. This is the situation of many families of patients with schizophrenia.Disabling features of schizophrenia usually cause depends on their families, who take care with the consequent impact on their lives. Psychosocial interventions assessing their work and want to build an alliance with them by giving them skills and coping mechanisms to reduce adverse family atmosphere, anticipate and solve problems and reduce the expressions of anger and guilt keeping appropiate expectations. However, these actions must be enforced by providing main caregivers with the skills that enable them to gain control, this is the main target of psychoeducational programs.Today there are many people in favour of such interventions in the early stages of schizophrenia. However, it is no clear how far development of these programs is supported by evidence of effectiveness. So it has proposed a psychosocial and psychoeducational program aimed at main caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in early stages. This program will be led by a psychiatric nurse in collaboration with other professionals in the interdisciplinary team; psychiatrist, clinical psychologist and social worker. It has developed clinical trial with a control group who will receive the gide for families, caregivers and people affected, "Cómo afrontar la esquizofrenia," and an experimental group will receive, in addition to the guide, the group intervention sessions.

  19. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. PMID:24194642

  20. Efficacy and implementation of an Internet psychoeducational program for teens with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Liberti, Lauren S; Jeon, Sangchoon; Chao, Ariana; Minges, Karl E; Murphy, Kathryn; Grey, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the participation and preliminary efficacy of an Internet psychoeducational program (Teens.Connect) shown to be efficacious under controlled conditions compared with an open-access diabetes website for youth (Planet D) on the primary outcomes of A1C and quality of life (QoL), and secondary outcomes of psychosocial and behavioral factors. Teens with type 1 diabetes (n = 124, 11-14 yr) from two clinical sites were randomly prescribed one of the programs and completed baseline, 3-month and 6-month data. A1C was obtained from clinic records. Participation data included number of log ins, posts to the discussion board, and lessons completed (Teens.Connect only). Descriptive and mixed model analyses were used. Eighty-five percent (85%) of consented teens registered for their prescribed program. Satisfaction and log ins were similar between groups (satisfaction ranged 3.3-3.5/5; mean log ins = 14/teen). Posts to the discussion forum were higher in Planet D (mean = 28 vs. 19). Participation in the Teens.Connect lessons was low, with only 69% of teens completing any lesson. After 6 months there were no significant differences in A1C, QoL or secondary outcomes between groups. Teens in the Teens.Connect group reported lower perceived stress over time (p psychoeducational program when they do not have frequent reminders, which may have contributed to a lack of treatment effect. Teens have many competing demands. Strategic implementation that includes targeted reminders and family support may be necessary to assure participation and improvement in health outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.