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Sample records for psychoda albipennis diptera

  1. New records, and the first description of a female, for Psychoda simillima (Diptera, Psychodidae in southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cordeiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based onmale and female, Psychoda simillima Tonnoir, 1929 is redescribed, with a discussion of generic and subgeneric classifications. This is the first record for Chile as well as the first description of a female for this species.

  2. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report

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    Sima RASTI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies’ larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  3. Fenología de algunas especies que son alimento para la pava aliblanca Penélope albipennis

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    Joaquín R. Martos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Reserva Ecológica Privada Chaparrí, Chongoyape (Lambayeque se evaluó la fenología (desarrollo vegetativo, floración y fructificación de 17 especies vegetales que alimentan a la pava aliblanca (Penélope albipennis Taczanowski. Las evaluaciones fueron mensuales entre julio 2004 y junio 2005, en tres zonas denominadas: bosque seco de planicie, bosque seco de quebrada húmeda y bosque seco de ladera. La temperatura tuvo correlación con el desarrollo vegetativo, floración y fructificación. De las 17 especies evaluadas, 6 especies (35,3% estuvieron disponibles como alimento de la pava aliblanca durante todo el año, en tanto que de las 11 especies restantes (64,7% fueron de carácter estacional; durante todo el año la pava aliblanca dispone de oferta alimenticia de alguna de las especies evaluadas.

  4. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  5. Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) males to made and inseminate female flies in different mating ratios to sustain a laboratory tsetsefly colony for sterile insect technique control programme in Ghana.

  6. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  7. Review of the Psychodinae from Mallorca, Spain, with description of Pericoma unipennata, sp. n. (Diptera, Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Stokkan, Morten; Wagner, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    We review the Psychodinae of Mallorca, recognising fifteen species based on recent collections and available literature. Previously unpublished data is presented for eleven species, of which Neoarisemus ibericus Wagner, 1978, Mormia tenebricosa (Vaillant, 1954), Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893), Lepiseodina rothschildi (Eaton, 1913), Paramormia ustulata (Walker, 1856), Philosepedon pyrenaicus Vaillant, 1974 and Psychoda (Psycha) grisescens Tonnoir, 1922 are first records for Mallorca. An old record of Pericoma trifasciata (Meigen, 1804) is considered doubtful. Pericoma unipennata sp. n is described and illustrated based on a male collected at Deía. Distributional data are reviewed for all newly recorded species. Based on the Psychodinae fauna, the zoogeographical affinities of Mallorca are briefly discussed.

  8. Fannia flavicincta Stein (Diptera, Fanniidae: a new vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

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    Cleber Barreto Espindola

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae is first recorded as a vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. The material was collected in Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in September, 2002.Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae é registrada pela primeira vez como vetor de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. O material foi coletado em Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil em setembro de 2002.

  9. Identification of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) invadens Drew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a new species of fruit fly in 2005. It belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, but is difficult to diagnose based on solely morphological identification. It occurs in India, Bhutan and some countries of Africa. In this study, 14 adult samples of fruit flies were ...

  10. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    3-33. Forattini, O.P. 1957. Culicoides da Regido Neotropical (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Arq. Fac. Hig. Saude Pub. Univ. Scio Paulo 11: 161-526. Fox...Cullcoides: 239. boormani; 240. gem. flus; 241. gentills ; 242. gymnopterus; 243. hoffmanloldes; 244. kinari; 245. klsangkini; 246. mellipes; 247. nitens

  11. Een nieuwe daas voor Nederland: Hybomitra arpadi (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, T.

    2002-01-01

    A new horsefly for the Netherlands: Hybomitra arpadi (Diptera: Tabanidae) The horsefly Hybomitra arpadi (Diptera: Tabanidae) is recorded for the first time from the Netherlands. New features for the recognition of the males and some notes on the biology are given.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Miltogramminae (Diptera Sarcophagidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine...... life habit remains unsettled. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic tree consisting of 58 representatives of Miltogramminae, reconstructed using sequence data from three mitochondrial (COI, cytB, ND4) and one nuclear (Ef-1α) genes. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that...

  13. Factors affecting decomposition and Diptera colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, C P; Di Vella, G; Introna, F

    2001-08-15

    Understanding the process of corpse decomposition is basic to establishing the postmortem interval (PMI) in any death investigation even using insect evidence. The sequence of postmortem changes in soft tissues usually gives an idea of how long an individual has been dead. However, modification of the decomposition process can considerably alter the estimate of the time of death. A body after death is sometimes subject to depredation by various types of animals among which insects can have a predominant role in the breakdown of the corpse thus, accelerating the decomposition rate. The interference of the insect community in the decomposition process has been investigated by several experimental studies using animal models and very few contributions directly on cadavers. Several of the most frequent factors affecting PMI estimates such as temperature, burial depth and access of the body to insects are fully reviewed. On account of their activity and world wide distribution, Diptera are the insects of greatest forensic interest. The knowledge of factors inhibiting or favouring colonization and Diptera development is a necessary pre-requisite for estimating the PMI using entomological data.

  14. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae

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    James O Hara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.

  15. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

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    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  16. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  17. Notes and illustrations on Amicitia Emden species (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae

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    Couri Márcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amicitia Emden, 1940 is an Afrotropical genus of Coenosiinae (Diptera, Muscidae, with four known species described by Emden (1940: A. insignis, A. lucens, A. modesta and A. seclusa. All examined holotypes are deposited at "The Natural History Museum" (London, UK. Notes on the species and illustrations, especially of the terminalia are presented.

  18. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different

  19. Mouthpart deformities in Chironomidae (Diptera) as indicators of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the absence of appropriate and sensitive tools for monitoring heavy metal pollution in northern Lake Victoria (Uganda), this study investigated mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae (Diptera) in relation to concentrations of lead, copper, cadmium and zinc in lake sediments, and to dissolved oxygen, pH and ...

  20. Nieuwe en zeldzame zweefvliegen voor de Nederlandse fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van B.

    1993-01-01

    New and rare hoverflies for the Dutch fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae). Paragus albifrons (Fallén), P. bicolor (Fabricius), Sphegina verecunda Collin, Neoascia annexa (O.F. Müller), Callicera aenea (Fabricius), Cheilosia caerulescens (Meigen), C. chloris (Meigen), C. flavipes (Panzer), Chamaesyrphus

  1. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

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    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  2. Molecular identification of tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christopher

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) anti-vector measures are reliant upon accurate identification of species and their subpopulations. Two species were studied, Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA: cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and cytochrome ...

  3. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  4. Ceratitis cosyra, een Afrikaanse boorvlieg gevonden in Drenthe (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.; Aartsen, van B.

    2002-01-01

    Ceratitis cosyra, an African fruitfly found in the Dutch province of Drenthe (Diptera: Tephritidae) A single specimen of Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) cosyra (Walker, 1849) was collected near Papenvoort (utm ld4768) with a malaisetrap in the period 4-6 september 1993 (leg. L. Witmond). Up till now it was

  5. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  6. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Karter

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, Hypoderma tarandi (L and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasittiske diptera.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Likeartet forsvars-adferd ble utvist av en rein som ble eksperimentelt utsatt for tre forskjellige arter av bundne, flyvende parasittiske diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, Hypoderma tarandi (L og Tabanid. Den forsvarsmessige adferd syntes å ha sammenheng med parasittenes angreps-vinkel og ble ikke utløst av lydstimuli. Disse observasjoner reiser spørsmål om gyldigheten av parasittære artsspesifikke forsvarsreaksjoner hos rein.Poron puolustuskàyttàytyminen lentàvià kaksisiipisià (Diptera hyônteisià vastaan.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Poro kàyttàytyi samalla tavalla kun se joutui tekemisiin kolmen kiinniolevan lentàvân kaksisiipisen hyônteisen: saulakan {Cephenemyia trompe Modeer, kurumupaarman {Hypoderma tarandi L ja parman kanssa. Puolustuskàyttàytyminen riippui hyônteisen làhestymiskulvàt kysymyksià lajispesifisen puolustuskàyttàytymisen esiintymisestà proolla hyônteisià vastaan.

  7. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  8. Survival and development of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) is the most important and widespread pest in the olive growing countries in the Mediterranean basin. The development and survival of olive fruit fly, B. oleae from egg to adult stage was studied in the laboratory at 16, 22, 27 and 35°C. The objective of the study was to get ...

  9. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  10. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  11. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

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    Kabkaew L Sukontason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  12. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Lertthamnongtham, Sirisuda; Boonchu, Noppawan

    2002-07-01

    We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  13. Zoogeography and biodiversity of syrphidae (Diptera) in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoogeography and biodiversity of syrphidae (Diptera) in East Africa. Marc De Meyer, Edward Vanden Berghe, Andy E Whittington. Abstract. This paper reports on the occurrence of Syrphidae in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda), based on 5,600 specimen records incorporated in the biodiversity database of the ...

  14. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    The Diptera genus-group names of Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart are reviewed and annotated. A total of 399 available genus-group names in 69 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically, for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species...

  15. Diptera Community In The Littoral Zone Of A North East Arid Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maiduguri, Nigeria, were studied between January and June 2002. Dipteran samples were collected every 2 weeks from five different stations. Five groups of diptera organisms simulidae, chironomidae, centrapogo nidae, culicidae and chaoboridae were found in analyzable numbers. The diptera assemblage was ...

  16. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  17. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    OpenAIRE

    Karter, Andrew J.; Ivar Folstad

    1989-01-01

    Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer), Hypoderma tarandi (L) and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasitt...

  18. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini.

  19. New Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859 Crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) of North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2015-02-27

    Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.

  20. A New Species for a Bromeliad Phytotelm-Dwelling Tanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter S. Cranston

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The first species of Tanytarsus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanytarsini) from a phytotelm (plant-held water) is described as a larva, pupa, and adults from specimens reared from leaf axils of Guzmania...

  1. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  2. Two new species of fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) from Kunashir Island, Kuril Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitzev, Alexander

    2017-04-05

    Two new species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera), Clastobasis subalternans sp. n. and Phthinia kurilensis sp. n. are described from Kunashir I. (South Kuril Is.). Their relationships with other species of Clastobasis Skuse and Phthinia Winnertz are briefly discussed.

  3. Temperature-Dependent Development Modeling of the Phorid Fly Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barzegar, S; Zamani, A A; Abbasi, S; Vafaei Shooshtari, R; Shirvani Farsani, N

    2016-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae) on A15 variety of button mushroom in the stages of casing and spawn-running was investigated at eight constant temperatures...

  4. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  5. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  6. Laboratory Studies of Larval Cannibalism in ’Toxorhynchites amboinensis’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    AD-A233 327 LABORATORY STUDIES OF LARVAL CANNIBALISM IN TOXORHYNCHITES ANfSOIENSIS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) Barry Annis, Umi T. Bismo Sarojo, Masir...and Development Command for Work Unit 3M161102BS10.AD410. --------------------------------------------------- Distribution of this document is...unlimited. J.C. COOLBAUGH CAPT MSC USN Commanding Officer fH., D TR-1090 Laboratory Studies of Larval Cannibalism in Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Diptera

  7. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  8. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Low, VAN Lun; Pham, Xuan DA; Adler, Peter H

    2017-05-05

    The biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), which are biting insects of medical and veterinary importance, is strikingly high in Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. In 2013, we began to explore the fauna of black flies in Vietnam, which has so far been poorly studied. In this monograph, the wealth of the biodiversity of black flies in Vietnam is also confirmed on the basis of the results of our recent investigations, though limited to five provinces in the country.      Morphotaxonomic studies of black flies obtained from Sapa, Lao Cai Province, northern Vietnam, in 2014 and Nghe An Province, northern Vietnam, in 2015, and reexaminations of black flies collected from Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam, in 2013, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam, in 2014, and Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam, in 2014, were conducted. A total of 22 species are described as new, including one in the newly recorded subgenus Montisimulium Rubtsov, and three species are recognized as new records from Vietnam. This investigation brings the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam to 70, all of which are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille, and are placed in four subgenera (25 in Gomphostilbia Enderlein, one in Montisimulium, seven in Nevermannia Enderlein, and 37 in Simulium Latreille s. str.). The numbers of species-groups recognized include seven in Gomphostilbia, three in Nevermannia and nine in Simulium, indicating a high diversity of putative phylogenetic lineages. New species include S. (G.) sanchayense sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim), S. (S.) lowi sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies), S. (S.) fuscicoxae sp. nov. [= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti (in part)], S. (S.) suoivangense sp. nov. [= morphoform 'b' of the S. (S.) tani Takaoka & Davies (complex

  9. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-08-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.

  10. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.

  12. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.

  13. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  14. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Marcelo A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively; Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p < 0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p < 0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively.

  15. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Marcelo A; Centeno, Néstor

    2003-03-01

    To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively); Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p<0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively) and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p<0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively).

  16. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval.

  17. Third Supplement to ’A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    holotype 6: USNM). (Note 6). hancoi Geoffroy 1987:103 (65*). Type loc.: Banco forest, near Abijan. Ivory Coast (holotype 6: USNM). masoalensis...Diptera: Cul- Culev (Melanoconion) guedesi uma nova icidae) do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil . Mem. especie do Brasil (Diptera. Culicidae). Rev. ,0I Inst...Oswaldo Cruz Rio 78:501-505. Brasil . Biol. 51:193-196. Lourenco de Oliviera and L.M. Deane. 1984. McCabe. T.L. and L.M. Johnson. 1980. Cat- What is

  18. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.

  19. Facultative myiasis of domestic cats by Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Bonacci, Teresa; Del Zingaro, Carlo Nicola Francesco; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Massimo; Leis, Marilena

    2017-10-01

    We describe five cases of myiasis of domestic cats, Felis silvestris catus L. (Carnivora: Felidae), reported in 2016 in northern Italy and caused by three Diptera species: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae). Three were cases of traumatic myiasis, one by S. argyrostoma and two by L. sericata, one was a case of auricular myiasis by C. vicina and one was a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by an association of L. sericata and C. vicina. The myiasis by S. argyrostoma is the first reported case of this species in a cat, whereas the two myiases by C. vicina are the first reported cases in cats in Italy.

  20. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  1. Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada a Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae no Brasil Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro C. Angelo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae which causes galls on Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821 is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female. The gall is characterized and some biological notes are given.

  2. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  3. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  4. Oviposition behavior of the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in environments with multiple pest aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural enemies are constantly faced with oviposition decisions that have potential fitness consequences. We investigated the oviposition behavior of the aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) when faced with multiple prey choices, i.e. plants infested with Myzus persic...

  5. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, L.; Zimmer, J.-Y.; Verheggen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central

  6. Evaluation of mass trapping and bait stations to control Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies in mango orchards of Chiapas, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvador Flores; Enoc Gómez; Sergio Campos; Fredy Gálvez; Jorge Toledo; Pablo Liedo; Rui Pereira; Pablo Montoya

    2017-01-01

    ...) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango orchards in Chiapas, Mexico. Among the bait stations evaluated, we found that a wide-mouth 2 L plastic bottle baited with Cera Trap...

  7. Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    2). However, the strains of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) col- greater susceptibility of the Brazilian strains than lected in North and South...AD-A259 565 Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) S1 ls from... susceptibility of’ selected strains of’ Ecuador and Peru in northern South America Ac. albopictus for VEE and CHIK viruses to de- and as far north as southern

  8. Diversity of the chironomidae (diptera) of river Niger related to water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of the chironomidae (diptera) of river Niger related to water pollution at Niamey (Niger). Bassirou Alhou, Jean-Claude Micha, Boudewijn Goddeeris. Abstract. This paper presents the first results on the water quality of the River Niger at Niamey based on the Chironomidae. Artificial substrata of stones covered with ...

  9. Multiple, independent colonizations of the Hawaiian Archipelago by the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goodman, K.R.; Evenhuis, N.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV 17 (2016), č. článku e2704. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : colonization history * Diptera * divergence dating * Dolichopodidae * evolutionary radiation * long distance dispersal * Hawaiian islands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  10. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  11. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semifield, and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  12. A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...

  13. Amazonimyia gigantea gen. n., sp. n., a new Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Wiedenbrug, Sofia

    2015-04-15

    A new genus, Amazonimyia, is established for a species of the tribe Pentaneurini (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae) from the Amazon Rainforest in northern Brazil. Generic diagnoses for adult male and pupa are provided together with descriptions of a new species, Amazonimyia gigantea.

  14. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E.

  15. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    DNA isolation. Individual larvae or adults were ground with a strong diagnostic bands and simple patterns. Primers pro- plastic pestle in...V. (1988) Com- peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq parison of DNA probe and cytogenic methods for identifying field Syst 20

  16. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.

  17. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  18. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-03-22

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini.

  19. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  20. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  1. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis Thomas M. Mascari1... Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of...zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis . Methods and Findings: We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

  2. De invasieve Oost-Amerikaanse kersenboorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.; Dijkstra, E.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive American Eastern Cherry Fruitfly Rhagoletis cingulata in the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) In 2003 the European Invertebrate Survey - Netherlands, on request of the Plant Protection Service of the Netherlands, conducted a survey of the distribution and phenology of the American

  3. Verspreiding en fenologie van de boorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Verspreiding en fenologievan de boorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae) In opdracht van de Plantenziektenkundige Dienst heeft EIS-Nederland van 10 juli t/m 2 oktober 2003 een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de verspreiding en de fenologie van de boorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in

  4. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    F.T. de SB. 1969b. Estudo da longevidade do Anopheies (Kerteszia) cruzii e do Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator em condiNes naturais. Rev. Bras...and A.M. Zavortink, TJ. 1973. Mosquito studies (Diptera, Borba. 1977. Sobre a longevidade de Anophe- Culicidae). XXIX. A review of the subgenus les

  5. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  6. The Anopheles (Anopheles) Crucians Subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Forattini, 0. P. 1962. Entomologica medica. Vol. 1: Parte geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Departamento de Parasitologia , Sao Paulo, Brazil. 662 p. Freeborn, S...Ross, E. S. and H. R. Roberts. 194%. Mosquito atlas : Part I. The nearctic Anophe Zes , important malaria vectors of the Americas and Aedes aegypti

  7. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

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    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.Sobre o primeiro taquinídeo (Diptera, Tachinidae carregando polinários de Asclepiadoideae na Região Neotropical. Esta contribuição relata a primeira espécie neotropical de Tachinidae possivelmente associada à polinização de Asclepiadoideae: uma fêmea de Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini transportando dois polinários de Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae presos à sua probóscide. O espécime foi coletado no Paraguai, Departamento Canindeyú. O polinário é ilustrado e caracterizado. Este é o primeiro registro de antofilia para G. parviflorus e para o gênero.

  8. Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.

  9. Miíase humana por Dermatobia hominis (Linneaus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae e Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel (Diptera, Calliphoridae em Sucessão Parasitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Batista-da-Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso raro de sucessão parasitária de duas espécies de larvas de moscas produtora de miíase primária, Dermatobia hominis e Cochliomyia hominivorax, em um jovem de 12 anos atendido em um hospital público no município de São Gonçalo (RJ.Human Myiases for Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae and Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Parasitic SuccessionAbstract. The objective this work was to tell a rare case of parasitic succession of two species of larvae of flies producing of primary myiases, Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax, in a 12 year-old youth assisted in an public hospital in São Gonçalo (RJ.

  10. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

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    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera

  11. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  12. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

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    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  14. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  15. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Arun; Rinehart, Joseph P; Leopold, Roger A

    2014-03-01

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 degrees C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve. Removal of the embryonic surface water was done using 2-propanol before the alkane treatment to permeabilize the embryo. Exposure to 2-propanol for > 10 s caused necrotic tissue damage in the embryos. Among the alkanes used, hexane was found to be a superior permeabilizing solvent compared with heptane or octane, with embryo hatching rates on par with the controls. Treatment with the vitrification solution for < 12 min was insufficient to vitrify the embryos. Treatment time in the solution beyond 15 min reduced embryo viability. However, the percentage of embryos vitrifying upon exposure to liquid nitrogen vapor remained constant after 12 min of treatment. Long-term storage was initiated in 2004, and the mean hatch percentage recorded then for the short-term cryopreserved embryos was 9.51%. When the long-term stored samples were retrieved in 2012, 8.47% of the embryos hatched, 66.36% larvae pupariated, and 36.96% of the pupae eclosed. Recent optimization of the technique has resulted in a hatch rate of 34.08 +/- 15.5%, of which 67.5% of the larvae pupariated and 72% of the pupae eclosed to normal flies.

  17. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation.

  18. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge.

  19. Photophase Duration Affects Immature Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leslie A; VanLaerhoven, Sherah L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-10-23

    This study tested the effect of photophase duration on black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.; Diptera: Stratiomyidae), development. Successful larval eclosion, development time and adult emergence were measured for individuals exposed to 0 h, 8 h, and 12 h of light, at approximately 27°C and 70% relative humidity. Accumulated degree hours (ADH) were calculated to correct for differences in temperature across treatments. Larvae successfully eclosed in all treatments, with larvae in 12 h light requiring 5.77% and 4.5% fewer ADH to eclose than larvae in 0 h and 8 h, respectively. Overall, larvae in 0 h required 39.34% and 37.78% more ADH to complete their development from egg to adult than larvae in 8 h and 12 h, respectively. The effect of photophase duration on juvenile development was largest in the post-feeding stage, and smallest in the pupal stage. Specifically, post-feeding larvae in 0 h required 80.02% and 90.08% more ADH to pupate than larvae in 8 h and 12 h, respectively, but pupae in 8 h required 9.63% and 7.52% fewer ADH to eclose than pupae in 0 h and 12 h, respectively. Lastly, larval mortality was significantly higher in 0 h, with 72% survivorship, and 96% and 97% in 8 h and 12 h, respectively. However, 17.8% of mortality in the absence of light is hypothesized to be a result of predation by Arachnidae and Blattidae. These data could prove valuable for optimizing industrial processes for mass-production of this species for use as alternative protein in feed for livestock, poultry, and aquaculture. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. The evolution of head structures in lower Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Schneeberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The head of adult dipterans is mainly characterized by modifications and more or less far-reaching reductions of the mouthparts (e.g., mandibles and maxillae, linked with the specialization on liquid food and the reduced necessity to process substrates mechanically. In contrast, the compound eyes and the antennae, sense organs used for orientation and for finding a suitable mating partner and oviposition site, are well developed. Some evolutionary novelties are specific adaptations to feeding on liquefied substrates, such as labellae with furrows or pseudotracheae on their surface, and the strongly developed pre– and postcerebral pumping apparatuses. In some dipteran groups specialized on blood, the mandibles are still present as piercing stylets. They are completely reduced in the vast majority of families. Within the group far-reaching modifications of the antennae take place, with a strongly reduced number of segments and a specific configuration in Brachycera. The feeding habits and mouthparts of dipteran larvae are much more diverse than in the adults. The larval head is prognathous and fully exposed in the dipteran groundplan and most groups of lower Diptera. In Tipuloidea and Brachycera it is partly or largely retracted, and the sclerotized elements of the external head capsule are partly or fully reduced. The larval head of Cyclorrhapha is largely reduced. A complex and unique feature of this group is the cephaloskeleton. The movability of the larvae is limited due to the lack of thoracic legs. This can be partly compensated by the mouthparts, which are involved in locomotion in different groups. The mouth hooks associated with the cyclorrhaphan cephaloskeleton provide anchorage in the substrate.

  2. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  3. A Case of Secondary Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Berenji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the invasion of vertebrates' tissue by the larvae of a fly of the order Diptera. The objective of this paper is to present a rare case of secondary myiasis of ocular infestation by Chrysomya bezziana. A 55-year-old female from Sar village of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, referred to Khatam Al-Anbia Hospital of Mashhad with extensive destruction of left orbital cavity. Existence of larvae was the major complaint in recent months. Some live larvae were removed from her destructed left eye. Primary diagnosis was myiasis of left upper lid (LUL and suspected recurrent Basal cell carcinoma (BCC. The laboratory diagnosis was done in parasitology lab of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad and collected larvae were identified and confirmed to be larvae of the C. bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae. It is a case report of secondary ophtalmiomyiasis due to C. bezziana of a patient lives in Mazandaran Province.

  4. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  5. Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Hong; Xu, Jin; Li, Yong-He; Dan, Wenli; Pan, Yongzhi

    2016-11-01

    Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most serious pest insects in south China and surrounding Southeast Asian countries. The family Tephritidae includes over 4257 species distributed worldwide, so the complete mitochondrial genome would be helpful for bio-identification, biogeography and phylogeny. The B. correcta genome consists of 15 936 bp. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.2% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species and other insects. The phylogenetic tree indicated the presence of three distinct families (Tephritidae, Muscidae, Drosophilidae) in Order Diptera.

  7. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  9. Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE , REPELLENTS Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae...detections. Progenesis CoMet (Nonlinear Dynamics Limited, Newcastle, UK ; http://www.nonlinear.com) software was used to process the Thermo raw data Þles... antimicrobial compound in the houseßy,Musca domestica. Insect Biochem.Mol. Biol. 34: 43Ð49. Ready, P. D. 2013. Biology of phlebotomine sand ßies as vectors of

  10. Insecticide Susceptibility Screening Against Culex and Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes From the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Balanay, Jo Anne G; White, Avian V; Hope, Joe; Vandock, Kurt; Byrd, Brian D; Reiskind, Michael H

    2017-11-23

    Mosquitoes exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides may be selected for resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AIs). Mosquitoes are exposed to AIs through agricultural, public/private mosquito control programs, homeowners, and other sources. Hence, mosquito control programs should routinely measure the resistance/susceptibility status of mosquito populations of public health concern. The objectives here were to determine resistance status for six AIs used in adult mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance/susceptibility differs between AI, mosquito species (states where > 1 species collected), and between years (some populations sampled for 2 yr). Field-collected eggs from 21 mosquito populations of six different species or hybrid species (Aedes albopictus Skuse [Diptera: Culicidae], Aedes aegypti L. [Diptera: Culicidae], Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex pipiens L. [Diptera: Culicidae], Culex quinquefasciatus Say [Diptera: Culicidae], Cx. pipiens/quinquefasciatus) were obtained. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays were used to assess the resistance/susceptibility status for six AIs (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, malathion, permethrin, and phenothrin). World Health Organization guidelines were used to classify mosquitoes as susceptible (98-100% mortality at diagnostic time [DT]), possibly resistant (80-97% mortality at DT), or resistant (susceptibility/resistance between species and AIs. In states where both Aedes and Culex were collected, the odds of exhibiting resistance in Culex were 68-69 times higher than Aedes (Texas odds ratio: 69.30; 95% confidence interval: 5.86, 819.44; P = 0.001; North Carolina odds ratio: 67.99; 95% confidence interval: 15.21, 303.94; P < 0.0001). Some level of resistance was detected against all tested AIs in several mosquito populations and some varied between 2015 and 2016. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of

  11. Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) from madicolous habitat in Southeast Brazil: new species and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Shimabukuro, Erika Mayumi

    2017-05-23

    Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) collected from madicolous habitats in Brazil are analyzed, and three new species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp are described and illustrated: T. angelae sp. n. and T. alaidae sp. n. as adult male and T. alienus sp. n. as male and female. New records of another Brazilian Tanytarsus species are also presented, and immature stages of Paratanytarsus silentii Trivinho-Strixino are described.

  12. [Genetic Differentiation of Populations of Baikal Endemic Sergentia baicalensis Tshern. (Diptera, Chironomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, L S; Bukin, Yu S; Peretolchina, T E; Shcherbakov, D Yu

    2015-07-01

    The population structure of endemic species Sergentia baicalensis (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Lake Baikal was studied using the first subunit of the cytochrome C oxidase mitochondrial gene (Col). Two populations inhabiting different basins of this lake, the southern-central and northern, were detected. It was confirmed that the divergence time of this species was dated to Late Miocene (9.53 ± 3.9 Mya), during the period when geographically separated basins existed in the Baikal rift zone.

  13. The species of the genus Diamesa (Diptera, Chironomidae) known to occur in Italian Alps and Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Urbanelli, Sandra; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-11-15

    Some rare species from Italian Alps, belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae) are here redescribed as adult males, because only old, incomplete descriptions are available for these taxa. Terminology of male genitalia is reviewed, diagnostic features are illustrated in detail, and notes on biology and geographical distribution of the examined species are provided. An identification key to the known adult males is presented.

  14. Culicidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha from the western Brazilian Amazon: Juami-Japurá Ecological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.

  15. New species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Urso-Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.

  16. A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae

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    Hüseyin Özdikmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae. A junior homonym was detected among neotropical sciarid flies genera and the following replacement name is proposed: Novaniarella nom. nov. for Aniarella Enderlein, 1911 (nec Bolivar, 1906. Accordingly, new combinations are herein proposed for the species currently included in this genus: Novaniarella azteca (Lane, 1959 comb. nov., Novaniarella brevis (Rubsaamen, 1894 comb. nov. and Novaniarella pelluscens (Enderlein, 1911 comb. nov.

  17. Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Barros de Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil. There are 11 species of Richardia known to Brazil. Of these, only four are known to occur in the Brazilian Amazon Region, where the diversity of Richardia is underestimated. Herein we describe and illustrate Richardia intemperata sp. nov. and Richardia parispina sp. nov. from Amazonas, Brazil. An illustrated key to males from this region is also provided.

  18. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  19. Anopheles (Anopheles) forattinii: a New Species in Series Arribalzagia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Anophelini, with notes on the malaria vectors (Diptera, Culicidae). Am. J. Hyg. Monogr. Ser. 18: l-20. 1948. Notas sobre a distribuicgo e a biologia dos...36: 282-300. Tadei, W. P., B. M. Mascarenhas, and M. G. Podesti. 1983. Biologia de anofelinos amazonicos. VIII. Conhecimentos sbbre a distribui@o...passa. 1988. Biologia de anofelinos amazonicos. XII. Ocorr&ncia de especies de Anopheles, din&mica da trans- missgo e controle da malaria na zona

  20. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  1. Potential Use of Pyriproxyfen for Control of Aedes aegypti Diptera: Culicidae) in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    ecdysteroid peak in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera ). Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29: 111Ð119. Received 16 January 2005; accepted 20 January 2005. 630 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 42, no. 4 ...horizontal transfer Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a perido- mestic mosquito species that exhibits a diurnal, bi- modal feeding pattern in...were col- lected in cups and returned to the large polystyrene/ gauze cages to emerge, mate, blood- feed , and con- tinue the rearing cycle. The colony was

  2. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from ...

  3. Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae del Pleistoceno de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Leonardo C. RAMÍREZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae es descripta a partir de un ala con un excepcional estado de preservación proveniente del afloramiento de Camet Norte en Buenos Aires, Argentina, con una antigüedad de 24.500 años A.P. El ejemplar es el primer díptero adulto identificable que proviene de dichos depósitos.

  4. Sazonalidade de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) no Pantanal Sul-mato-grossense, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Werner Koller; Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de Barros; Elaine Cristina Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throu...

  5. Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a green bottle fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalezić, Tanja; Stojković, Milenko; Vuković, Ivana; Spasić, Radoslava; Andjelkovic, Marko; Stanojlović, Svetlana; Božić, Marija; Džamić, Aleksandar

    2014-07-14

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the result of infestation of the conjunctiva by the larval form or maggots of flies from the order Diptera. If not recognized and managed appropriately, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis). We present the first case, to our knowledge, of ophthalmomyiasis externa in an elderly woman from Belgrade caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen--a green bottle fly.

  6. The Previously Undetected Presence of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central America, with Notes on Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    California -Central America populations and those of the rest of the United States and Canada. The presence of hindtarsal banding in the first group and...to acknowledge Taina Litwak for preparation of the figures. REFERENCES CITED Bohart, R.M. and R.K. Washino. 1978. Mosquitoes of California . Third... Psorophora cingulata and Uranotaenia apicalis in Guatemala. Mosq. Syst. 15: 28-32. Darsie, R.F., Jr. 1984. The presence of Psorophora cilipes (Diptera

  7. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Prabhakar; Pankaj Sood; P. K. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B...

  8. Phlebotomus Sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-10-01

    minimum and this can best be achieved by using taxa in their broadest senses until taxonomic studies are complete enough to assure widespread...drey- fussi: Ristorcelli, 1941, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Maroc , 2: 521. Parrot, 1946, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Alg. 24: 72. Kirk & Lewis, 1946a, Ann. Trop...Diptera-Psychodidae) du Nord-Tchad. Mission epidemiologique au Nord- Tchad, pp. 30-52. Arts et Metiers Graphiques, Paris. Adler, S. & O. Theodor. 1957

  9. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  11. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

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    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  12. A check list of necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae from urban area in Medellín, Colombia Lista de moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Calyptratae del área urbana del municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.

  13. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  14. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  15. Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em áreas florestal, rural e urbana em Monte Alegre, MG Parasitoids of Diptera collected in forest, rural, and urban areas in Monte Alegre, MG

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; L.F. Barbaresco; M.E. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the species of parasitoids of Diptera present in forest, rural, and urban areas in the municipality of Monte Alegre, MG, from March to November 2006. The percentages of parasitism in forest, rural, and urban areas were 14.3%, 11.0%, and 18.8%, respectively. The most frequent species (34.7%) was Triplasta atrocoxalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae).

  16. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  17. Host plants of Solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of Bactrocera(Bactrocera)latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. Bactrocera latifrons i...

  18. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  19. Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human emanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hoppe, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Bakker, E.J.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human skin emanations collected on glass beads were studied using a dual-port olfactometer and electroantannography. Glass beads to which skin emanations from human hands had been

  20. Biological control of Tipula paludosa (Diptera : Nematocera) using entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp.) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Østergaard, J.; Belau, C.; Strauch, O.; Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.; Ehlers, R.U.

    2006-01-01

    Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) is the major insect pest in grassland in Northwest Europe and has been accidentally introduced to North America. Oviposition occurs during late August and first instars hatch from September until mid-October. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to assess

  1. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  2. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  3. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  4. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  5. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  6. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  7. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  8. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  9. Morphology and Evolution of the Larval Maxilla and Its Importance in the Classification of the Sabethini (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    where they lie ventral to the mandi- notypical subgenus of the genus Psorophora bles. For simplicity, the surface of each max- Robineau-Desvoidy. The...containing species with South Pacific (Diptera, Culicidae). Vols. I differently modified maxillae and maxillary and 2. University of California Press

  10. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  11. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  12. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  13. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  14. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  15. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  16. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

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    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  17. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs.

  18. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

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    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  19. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  20. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of the egg and the first instar larva of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera, cuterebridae

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    Antonio Cesar Rios Leite

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The egg and the first instar larva of Dermatobia hominis were described based on observation with a scanning electron microscope.O ovo e a larva de primeiro estágio de Dermatobia hominis são descritos baseados em observações com um microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Comparações morfológicas são feitas com outras espécies de Diptera, particularmente com Cuterebridae.

  2. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  3. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

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    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  4. Molecular Phylogeny of Neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Species Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Museum, Department of7.ool0l(y, Cromwell Rd.• London 5W75Bo. United KinJ(dom. 1 Nlicleo de Pesquisas Taxon&nica e Sistemdtica em Entomologia M~ica...Lynch.Arribalzaga 1878 (Diptera: Culicidae) includin~ from the type 10<.".11. ity, Barndero, Argentina . Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 85: 275-290...Culicidae) from Parolguay, Argentina , and Brazil. J. Mcd. Elltomol. 32: 697-704. Receiced 15 l:ebnlartj 200.’; lUX~."tet/ 28 July 2005.

  5. New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae

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    M. Ayelen Lutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae. The genus Melaloncha Brues is a large assemblage of New World, parasitoid phorid flies. They are parasitoids of Apoidea bees. However, here we present the first record of a wasp parasitized by Melaloncha sp. The new host is Polybia scutellaris (White, a neotropical eusocial wasp. The parasitized wasp was found in an urban park near the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. It appears that the genus Melaloncha parasitizes a wider range of social Hymenoptera than currently known.

  6. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland.

  7. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  8. A case of oral myiasis caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mun; Ryu, Seung-Min; Kwon, Sang-Chang; Ha, Jun-Ouk; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Soon-Myung; Lee, Soon-Il; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Cha, Hee-Jae; Ock, Meesun

    2013-02-01

    We report here a case of oral myiasis in the Republic of Korea. The patient was a 37-year-old man with a 30-year history of Becker's muscular dystrophy. He was intubated due to dyspnea 8 days prior to admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). A few hours after the ICU admission, 43 fly larvae were found during suction of the oral cavity. All maggots were identified as the third instars of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by morphology. We discussed on the characteristics of myiasis acquired in Korea, including the infection risk and predisposing factors.

  9. Primer reporte de miasis hospitalaria por Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Quesada-Lobo; Adriana Troyo; Ólger Calderón-Arguedas

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. Las miasis hospitalarias son entidades con una importancia manifiesta en salud pública. La documentación de este tipo de casos es escasa en la literatura biomédica regional y mundial. Objetivo. Informar un caso de miasis hospitalaria en Costa Rica, donde el agente etiológico implicado fue Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Este caso de miasis hospitalaria figura como el primer informe para Latinoamérica asociado con este agente etiológico. Presentación del caso. U...

  10. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  11. A sex pheromone receptor in the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

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    Martin N. Andersson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the

  12. Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) em Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae) no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gredilha,Rodrigo; Balthazar,Daniel de A.; Spadetti,Alex L.; Fedullo,Luiz Paulo L.; Mello,Rubens P.

    2008-01-01

    Registro de Pseudolynchia canariensis em dois gaviões caranguejeiros de vida livre atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Fundação RioZoo. Os dezenoves exemplares coletados foram identificados no Laboratório de Diptera da Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. O encontro de P. canariensis fora do hospedeiro natural (Columba livia), representa uma contribuição aos estudos da família Hippoboscidae, visto que não há registros sobre aves nativas do continente americano parasitadas por P. canariensis....

  13. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  14. Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Southern Pantanal, Brazil Sazonalidade de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Pantanal Sul-mato-grossense, Brasil

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    Wilson Werner Koller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throughout the study period and collections were carried out on a weekly basis. A total of 159,397 Calliphoridae were caught and C. macellaria (57.33% was the most abundant species. C. macellaria occurred all over the year showing a bimodal behavior with peaks in May-July (late autumn/early winter and October-December (spring.Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, conhecida como mosca-varejeira, ocorre no continente americano e apresenta importância médico-veterinária e forense. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a flutuação sazonal dessa espécie na região do Pantanal. De dezembro/2004 a novembro/2007 foram realizadas coletas de dípteros na fazenda Nhumirim, sub-região da Nhecolândia, Pantanal sul-mato-grossense. Foram utilizadas quatro armadilhas orientadas pelo vento, iscadas com fígado bovino deteriorado. As armadilhas permaneceram ativas durante todo o período de estudo, e coletas foram realizadas semanalmente. Foram capturados 159.397 califorídeos, sendo C. macellaria (57,33% a espécie mais abundante. C. macellaria foi observada em todos os meses do ano, apresentando comportamento bimodal com picos populacionais em maio/julho (final de outono/início de inverno e outubro/dezembro (primavera.

  15. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  16. Morphology of the Antenna of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): An Ultrastructural Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, M; Leis, M; Chicca, M; Falabella, P; Salvia, R; Scala, A; Whitmore, D

    2017-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), is a relevant species in waste and pest management, but is also of forensic and medical importance. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the antennae of both sexes of H. illucens is presented here for the first time. The antenna is composed of three regions: the scape, the pedicel, and the flagellum. The first two regions are single segments, whereas the third region, the longest one, is composed of eight flagellomeres. The scape and pedicel have microtrichia, chaetic sensilla, and rounded perforations. The flagellum is covered by different microtrichia, the morphology of which is described in detail. Two types of sensory pit are found on flagellomeres 1 to 6. An oval depression with trichoid sensilla extends from flagellomeres 4 to 6. On both sides of flagellomere 8 is a lanceolate depression covered by hair-like microtrichia. Morphometric and morphological analyses revealed some sex-related differences. The results of the SEM investigations are compared with those obtained on other species of the family Stratiomyidae and other brachyceran Diptera. The possible role of sensilla in sensory perception is also discussed in comparison with nondipteran species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. First records of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) from forensic cases in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Pinto, Sara; Giordani, Giorgia; Tuccia, Fabiola; Ventura, Francesco; Vanin, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of the fauna associated with carrions and cadavers for a specific region plays a fundamental role in the estimation of the time since death in forensic cases. In the last years global warming and globalization have affected the insect species distribution. This phenomenon is affecting also the species of forensic interest associated with the cadaver decomposition. The species distribution shift, in the forensic context, has been mainly observed in Diptera of different family: Calliphoridae, Stratiomyidae and Phoridae. In the last decade the presence of the carrion feeding species, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae), was reported from forensic cases in Spain and in the last year from Italy where the species was collected from 5 bodies in different decomposition stages in the Genoa district. All the records concern indoor cases with the presence of other species belonging to the first colonization waves (e.g. Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Different hypothesis about the presence of the species in Italy can be suggested, but the molecular analysis and the importation records support the introduction trough commercial exchanges with Asian countries instead of a variation in the species distribution area from the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

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    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  19. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Checklist dos Conopidae (Insecta, Diptera do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Leonardo Silvestre Gomes Rocha

    Full Text Available RESUMO Conopidae é uma família pouco estudada e de sistemática controversa entre os Diptera. Os adultos são nectarívoros e as larvas têm hábito parasitóide em Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Blattaria e Diptera. São conhecidas 800 espécies e 56 gêneros com distribuição mundial. Uma lista de 15 espécies em quatro gêneros registradas para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, elaborada com base na bibliografia disponível e no material identificado de diversas coleções brasileiras, é fornecida. As coletas estão concentradas no município de Maracaju em bioma de Cerrado, com apenas uma exceção. Faz-se necessário incrementar as coletas em outras regiões e outros ambientes do estado, para que lacunas de amostragem sejam preenchidas.

  1. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used for inter- and intraspecific differentiation of screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamalakala, L; Skoda, S R; Foster, J E

    2009-04-01

    Morphologically, early immature stages of the economically important pest called screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and non-pest secondary screwworms, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), are nearly indistinguishable. Correct identification is crucial to the ongoing eradication and exclusion program protecting the United States, Mexico and Central America from reinvasion of screwworms persistent in South America and the Caribbean. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) polymerase chain reaction was used to differentiate populations of C. hominivorax and to discriminate them from C. macellaria. Ten primer pairs screened for interspecific discrimination of C. hominivorax from C. macellaria showed 52 discrete bands, allowing the two species to be readily distinguished; divergent branches on resulting dendrograms showed 100% bootstrap support. C. macellaria populations grouped at the 92% level; C. hominivorax populations grouped at the 68% level. Of the 52 bands, seven were monomorphic for both species, 22 were specific to C. macellaria, ten were present only in C. hominivorax and the remaining 13 bands differentiated C. hominivorax populations. Separate studies using ten strains of C. hominivorax showed a higher level of genetic similarity within than between populations. Analyses using 72 bands (19 monomorphic bands, 53 bands grouped all ten strains at the 58% similarity level) resolved seven mutant strains from Mexico (85% similarity level); all ten strains were resolved at the 72% similarity level. Diagnostic bands were identified for species and strain identification. We conclude that AFLP can be a valuable tool for studies of interspecific and intraspecific genetic variation in screwworm populations.

  2. Phytosanitary Treatments Against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae): Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W

    2017-02-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

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    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  4. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Daniela Vergara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.

  5. Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em áreas florestal, rural e urbana em Monte Alegre, MG Parasitoids of Diptera collected in forest, rural, and urban areas in Monte Alegre, MG

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    C.H. Marchiori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the species of parasitoids of Diptera present in forest, rural, and urban areas in the municipality of Monte Alegre, MG, from March to November 2006. The percentages of parasitism in forest, rural, and urban areas were 14.3%, 11.0%, and 18.8%, respectively. The most frequent species (34.7% was Triplasta atrocoxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae.

  6. Review of Thompsoniella Guimarães with description of a new species from Colombia (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae

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    Marta Wolff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Thompsoniella Guimarães with description of a new species from Colombia (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae. The Mesembrinellinae (Diptera, Calliphoridae are exclusively Neotropical with nine genera comprising 36 recognized species, including the genus Thompsoniella Guimarães with a single species, T. anomala Guimarães. We describe a new species, Thompsoniella andina sp. nov., from the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Colombia (Cordillera Central of the Andes, between 2600 - 2700 m and redescribe T. anomala. A key to the nine genera of Mesembrinellinae and a key to the males of the two species of Thompsoniella are provided. Color photographs to illustrate the two species of Thompsoniella and drawings of the male genitalia of both species are also provided. Here we record Thompsoniella for the first time in Colombia.

  7. Lack of cross-resistance to Mtx1 from Bacillus sphaericus in B. sphaericus-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Suzhen; Cai, Quanxin; Cai, Yajun; Yuan, Zhiming

    2007-02-01

    The toxicities of Mtx1 toxin against dipteran and lepidopteran species have been evaluated in this study. It was shown that Mtx1 has little or no toxicity to the tested lepidopteran species, but has moderate-level toxicity to Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) and high-level toxicity to both susceptible and binary toxin-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The LC(50) values of Mtx1 against a susceptible C. quinquefasciatus colony SLCq and two resistant colonies RLCq1/C3-41 and RLCq2/IAB59 selected in the laboratory with Bacillus sphaericus (Mayer & Neide) strains C3-41 and IAB59 respectively were 0.508, 0.854 and 0.675 mg L(-1) respectively. The data indicate that Mtx1 has a different mode of action from the binary toxin, and that it could be an alternative toxin to delay or overcome resistance development to binary toxin in C. quinquefasciatus.

  8. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-02-26

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.

  9. Dasiops luzestelae: a new species of the genus dasiops rondani (diptera: lonchaeidae) associated with passion fruit crops in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Angela; Korytkowski, Cheslavo; Ebratt, Everth; Brochero, Helena L.

    2013-01-01

    Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) is a species that previously was not described formally and is regarded as an undetermined pest affecting buds of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener. This study evaluated material collected in 10 departments of Colombia where passion fruit crops constitute an important economic income. Data of geographical distribution and passion fruit crops associated with Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. are presented.

  10. Estudo de Novos Atraentes de Oviposição de Fêmeas do Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulino, Sivaldo Soares

    2008-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viral tropical diseases represent a great threat to the global public health. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are usually endemic, and millions of people throughout the world are infected by mosquitoes of the Family Culicidae. The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the main vector of the dengue viruses and the urban yellow fever. The great proliferation of the different mosquitoes species is not only due to the high num...

  11. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera,Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil

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    Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.

  12. Description of a new species and new country distribution records of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-09-04

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1α and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species.

  13. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, C H; Pereira, L A; Filho, O M

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which was collected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individuals emerging from the same pupae.

  14. Identification of Species Related to Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    plified polymorphic DNA in the population genet- ics and systematics of grasshoppers . Genome 35: 569-574. Galvgo ALA, Damesceno RG 1942. Sobre urn...iynchus) albitarsis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA -Polymerase Chain Reaction (Diptera: Culicidae) Richard C Wilkerson/+, Thomas V Caffigan, Jo...Instituto de Biologia do ExCrcito, Rua Francisco Manuel 102, 2091 l-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Species-specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

  15. Of pigs and men-comparing the development of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on human and porcine tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, V; Schomerus, C; Verhoff, M A; Amendt, J

    2017-05-01

    Over the last decades, studies on juvenile development of forensically important Diptera were performed by using non-human tissues (e.g., beef liver) as a nutrition medium. Such developmental data are used as a reference in determining the age of juvenile necrophagous insects sampled from a human body and thereby to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). Despite the acceptance of these studies in the forensic community, some might ask whether such data appropriately reflect the growth of blow flies on human tissue. We, therefore, studied larval growth rates and development times of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on human muscle tissue as well as on pork loin, pork liver, and minced pork at 25 °C. Larval growth rates were significantly (p human muscle tissue. Nonetheless, the time at which the examined developmental landmarks "post-feeding larvae," "pupae," and "adult fly" were reached was similar for all tissues, with significant delays in first fly eclosion only for specimens reared on pork loin (p = 0.027) and pork liver (p = 0.036). Our results highlight the fact that not all porcine tissues are similarly suitable for producing sound growth data for necrophagous Diptera. At present, we recommend the use of minced pork as a non-human nutrition medium, since our results show no developmental differences on this diet compared to human tissue.

  16. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

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    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  17. Calliphoridae (Diptera from Southeastern Argentinean Patagonia: Species Composition and Abundance Calliphoridae (Diptera del Sudeste de la Patagonia Argentina: Composición Específica y Abundancia

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    Juan A. Schnack

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and spatial and temporal numerical trends of blow flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae species from three southeastern Patagonia localities: Río Grande (53° 48' S, 67° 36' W (province of Tierra del Fuego, Río Gallegos (51° 34' S, 69° 14' W and Puerto Santa Cruz (50° 04' S, 68° 27' W (province de Santa Cruz were studied during November, December (1997, and January and February (1998. Results showed remarkable differences of overall fly abundance and species relative importance at every sampling site; nevertheless, they shared a poor species representation (S £ 6. The cosmopolitan Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, the nearly worldwide Lucilia sericata (Meigen, and the native Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy prevailed over the remaining species. Records of Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, a species indigenous to the Northern Hemisphere are noteworthy.Se estudian la composición y las variaciones numéricas espacio-temporales de especies de Calliphoridae (Diptera de tres localidades del sudeste patagónico: Río Grande (53° 48' S, 67° 36' W (provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Río Gallegos (51° 34' S, 69° 14' W y Puerto Santa Cruz (50° 04' S, 68° 27' W (provincia de Santa Cruz, a partir de muestreos realizados en noviembre, diciembre (1997, enero y febrero (1998. Comparando los sitios de muestreo, los resultados obtenidos muestran diferencias marcadas en la abundancia total de la taxocenosis como de cada una de sus especies, destacándose la escasa riqueza específica de cada uno de ellos (S £ 6. Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (cosmopolita, Lucilia sericata (Meigen (de amplia distribución mundial y Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy (nativa, son las mejor representadas numéricamente. Se subraya el hallazgo, en el área de estudio, de Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, especie indígena del hemisferio norte.

  18. Integrating DNA barcodes and morphology for species delimitation in the Corynoneura group (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F L; Wiedenbrug, S

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we use DNA barcodes for species delimitation to solve taxonomic conflicts in 86 specimens of 14 species belonging to the Corynoneura group (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae), from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Molecular analysis of cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences supported 14 cohesive species groups, of which two similar groups were subsequently associated with morphological variation at the pupal stage. Eleven species previously described based on morphological criteria were linked to DNA markers. Furthermore, there is the possibility that there may be cryptic species within the Corynoneura group, since one group of species presented internal grouping, although no morphological divergence was observed. Our results support DNA-barcoding as an excellent tool for species delimitation in groups where taxonomy by means of morphology is difficult or even impossible.

  19. Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Lin, Xiaolong; Liu, Yuedan; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae), Stenochironomus brevissimus sp. n. and Stenochironomus linanensis sp. n., are described from China and the male imagines are illustrated. Stenochironomus brevissimus sp. n. can be separated from the so far known species by having very short and small, spatulate superior volsella with two long setae, whereas Stenochironomus linanensis sp. n. is easily separated from the other species of Stenochironomus by the following characters: wings transparent, body yellow, superior volsella finger-like, with nine long setae, elongated inferior volsella with four long setae and one well developed terminal spine; tergite IX with 10−15 long setae medially. A key to the males of Stenochironomus occurring in China is given. PMID:25685018

  20. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.

  1. Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy from Costa Rica: descriptions and first records (Diptera, Muscidae

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    MS. Couri

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae occurs in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is known in the Neotropical Region from fifteen species. The genus is here recorded for the first time from Costa Rica, on the basis of three species: G. auriceps Malloch, 1934; G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, 1893 and G. tropicalis Malloch, 1934. A key for the recognition of these three species is given. G. auriceps is redescribed, including the morphology of male and female terminalia and the male of G. tropicalis is described for the first time. For G. mexicana, a well-known species in the literature, only a brief diagnosis and the material examined are listed.

  2. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

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    Alexandra Bächtold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  3. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  4. Foraging, Mating, and Thermoregulatory Behavior of Cyrtopogon willistoni Curran (Diptera: Asilidae

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    Kevin M. O'Neill

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The robber fly Cyrtopogon willistoni Curran was studied in SW Montana, where it was an opportunistic predator of relatively small insects from 25 families in 7 orders. The most common prey were Diptera (44% and Homoptera (21%, with Cicadellidae, Bibionidae, and Formicidae comprising 44% of the prey. The elaborate courtship behavior of males included audible airborne visual displays that made use of silvery-white combs of hairs on the males' foretarsi. While perching, the flies exhibited both lateral and dorsal basking postures, and were apparently capable of strong flight only when direct sunlight was available. I compare the foraging and courtship behaviors of C. willistoni to those of other Cyrtopogon, and their thermal responses to those of other robber flies in the same habitat.

  5. Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae in different diets

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    WERMELINGER E. D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested.

  6. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

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    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.

  7. Seasonality of Lutzomyia fairtigi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, a species endemic to Eastern Colombia

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    Jorge Alberto Molina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%, Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira (20.9%, and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho (13.5% were the predominant species in the region. Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia panamensis, potential vectors of Leishmania in Colombia and neighboring countries, were also collected, but in low numbers. Lu. fairtigi is an endemic species to Colombia, and minimal data are available on its biology and distribution. The present study provides additional information about Lu. fairtigi, such as the diurnal activity displayed by females on cloudy days, the greater density during the rainy season (April to October, marked anthropophilia, and the presence of flagellates in the midgut of one female.

  8. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae with a key to New World genera

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    Evert Schlinger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n. is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: S. micella Schlinger sp. n. is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n., is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (P. brunea Schlinger sp. n. and P. corbiculata Schlinger sp. n. are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included.

  9. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  10. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-04-01

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  13. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global......, quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used on both morphological and molecular data. All previous quantitative morphological studies addressed narrower phylogenetic problems, often below the suborder or infraorder level. Here we present the first numerical analysis of phylogenetic relationships...... of the entire order using a comprehensive morphological character matrix. We scored 371 external and internal morphological characters from larvae, pupae and adults for 42 species, representing all infraorders selected from 42 families. Almost all characters were obtained from previous studies but required...

  14. Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Wilson Werner; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Corrêa, Elaine Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throughout the study period and collections were carried out on a weekly basis. A total of 159,397 Calliphoridae were caught and C. macellaria (57.33%) was the most abundant species. C. macellaria occurred all over the year showing a bimodal behavior with peaks in May-July (late autumn/early winter) and October-December (spring).

  15. Responses of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to cadaveric volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, Francois J; Haubruge, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Flies of the Calliphoridae Family are the most forensically important insects because of their abundance on the decedent during the first minutes following death. Necrophagous insects are attracted at a distance by a decomposing body, through the use of volatile chemical cues. We tested the possible attractive role of some volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) released by decaying cadavers, on male and female of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Two complementary approaches were used. Electroantennography (EAG) allowed identifying the semiochemicals that are detected by the olfactory system of L. sericata. Dose-response tests with EAG showed that dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and butan-1-ol elicited the highest responses. Behavioral assays showed that, among the VOCs tested, DMDS and butan-1-ol are attractive for L. sericata, while the other VOCs are repulsive or do not cause any behavior. Our results may have potential implications in a better understanding of attractiveness of blowflies toward a corpse. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Nosocomial myiasis with Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in an ICU patient in Mashhad, Northeastern of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjari, Mohsen; Shafiei, Reza; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of larvae to human or animal live tissues by flies belonging to the order Diptera and families like Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oesteridae, etc. Although rare, nosocomial myiasis must be noted carefully, especially in case of hospitalized patients. A 63-year old man admitted to an ICU ward in Mashhad is investigated and presented in this research. On the 35(th) day of hospitalization, about 100 larvae 6-7 mm in length, yellow to cream and fusiform were observed around the tracheotomy site. They were identified as second instar larvae of Lucilia genus of the family Calliphoridae based on morphological characters of the larvae. However, for exact identification of the species, the emerging adults must also be tested. According to the standard key of adult flies, they were identified as Lucilia sericata.

  17. Natural Field Infestation of and by Oriental Fruit Fly, (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Grant T McQuate

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae, is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives” which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae, of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa . Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported.

  18. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

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    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  19. Morfología de los estadios inmaduros de Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead, 1914 (Diptera: psychodidae

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    Cristina Ferro

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los estadios inmaduros de Lu. walkeri (Newstead, 1914 (Diptera: Psychodidae. El huevo y la larva son similares a los de Lu. bahiensis, Lu. lenti y Lu. migonei. La pupa muestra una más grande similitud con la de Lu. lenti, particularmente en la desigual longitud de las cerdas del par 10. El aspecto general de la larva corresponde a una especie que, de acuerdo a Hanson (1968, sus larvas permanecen por debajo del substrato de su comida en los cultivos o colonias de laboratorio y probablemente también sucede lo mismo en su habitat natural. Infortunadamente, los estadios inmaduros no han sido encontrados en condiciones naturales. Las descripciones se basan en material de una colonia de Lu. walkeri que se mantiene en el Laboratorio de Entomología del Instituto Nacional de Salud de Bogotá, Colombia, S.A.

  20. Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae and Megamerinidae (Diptera in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: current state of knowledge

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the occurrence of representatives of the families Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae and Megamerinidae (Diptera in the Czech Republic and Slovakia is presented based on literary data and recently obtained records. Strongylophthalmyia pictipes Frey, 1935 (Strongylophthalmyiidae is a new addition to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Its record from the Jizerské hory Mts is the second from Central Europe and represents a new southwestern most distribution limit of the species. Biology, distribution, faunistics in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and importance for nature conservation (with evaluation of degree of jeopardy are discussed for all species, including also Strongylophthalmyia ustulata (Zetterstedt, 1847, Tanypeza longimana Fallén, 1820 (Tanypezidae and Megamerina dolium (Fabricius, 1805 (Megamerinidae.

  1. Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2013-05-01

    Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Maewa National Park, Lampang Province, Thailand. This new species represents the fourth member of the subgenus Asiosimulium Takaoka & Chochoote, one of two small black fly subgenera endemic in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by a pear-shaped spermatheca in the female; a ventral plate in the male with a laterally compressed median keel directed ventrally and with a deep notch posteromedially, and aedeagal membrane with stout spines; and by 22 gill filaments in the pupa. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from three known species, Simulium (Asiosimulium) oblongum Takaoka & Choochote and Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, both from Thailand, and Simulium (Asiosimulium) suchitrae Takaoka from Nepal.

  2. Gastromermis cordobensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae parasitizing Simulium lahillei Patterson & Shannon (Diptera: Simuliidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora B. Camino

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastromermis cordobensis n. sp (Nematoda: Mermithidae a parasite of larvae of the blackfly Simulium lahillei Paterson & Shannon (Diptera: Simuliidae in Argentina, is described. Diagnostic characters of this species include a mouth ventrlly shifted; six cephalic papillae; eigh hypodermal chords; small and pear shaped amphids; a long and S-shaped vagina; a singl spicule, which is long, has non-uniform walls, and a tip with sculpture; three rows of genital papillae, the middle one with 18 pre-anal and 10 post-anal papillae, the lateral rows have 36 papillae each; oval eggs; and post-parasitic juveniles with long thin tails. Pre-parasitic and parasitic juveniles are included in the description.

  3. New species and new records of Mydidae from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions (Insecta, Diptera, Asiloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Dikow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India, Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal, Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand; Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya; Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates astrictus sp. n. (Kenya, Syllegomydas (Notobates heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda, Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe. Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates dispar (Loew, 1852, which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species.

  4. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  5. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  6. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause biting nuisance to livestock and humans and are vectors of a range of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Despite their economic significance, the delineation and identification of species where only morphology is co...

  7. Development of Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)in mango and other tropical and temperate fruit in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...

  8. Direct multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the identification of six Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae), including major Leishmania vectors of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  9. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrejo, Nancy; Diaz, Ana E; Woodley, Norman E

    2013-11-18

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam., in Colombia. Aspects of its biology are briefly discussed.

  10. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  11. Morphometric and Molecular Analyses of the Sand Fly Species Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotiminae) Collected from Seven Different Geographical Areas in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-05

    believed to specifically target reptiles for blood meals (Young and Perkins, 1984; Schall, 2000; Klein et al., 1987) although suspicion has been...bahienis (Diptera, Psychodidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia . 23: 49 – 53. 150 Testa, J. M., J. Montoya-Lerma, H. Cadena, M. Oviedo, and

  12. A new species of Pediobius (hymenoptera: eulophidae) parasitizing Chyliza apicalis (Diptera: Psilidae) in ash trees attacked by Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W. Gates; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Michael E. Schauff

    2005-01-01

    Pediobius chylizae, spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described as new and illustrated. This parasitoid has been reared from the puparia of Chyliza apicalis Loew (Diptera: Psilidae) collected from under the bark of ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus spp.) dying after attack by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleptera: Buprestidae), an invasive...

  13. First new world record of a gall midge from palms: a new species of Contarinia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Geonoma cuneata in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contarinia geonomae Gagné, new species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from galls found on the infructescences of Geonoma cuneata (Arecaceae) in Costa Rica. The galls are cylindrical in shape and develop concurrently with or instead of the spherical fruit. The larval chamber is located at the...

  14. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  15. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  16. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  17. Capture of melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a food-baited Multilure trap: influence of distance, diet, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many countries operate trapping programs to detect invasions of pestiferous fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Surveillance relies heavily on traps baited with male lures, which, while powerful, have limited effectiveness, because (i) they are sex-specific and (ii) males of some species do no...

  18. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  19. Multi-state survey of picture-winged flies (Diptera:Ulidiidae) attacking sweet corn in the southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four picture-winged fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) species in two genera were identified as direct pests of sweet and field corn ears in Florida from surveys conducted during 2007 and 2008. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited mostly in the silk canal to damage silk, kernels and cob rendering infested sweet...

  20. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates in the Netherlands : comparing cattle, sheep and the black-light suction trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Host preference is an important determinant of feeding behaviour in biting insects and a critical component in the transmission of vector-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to quantify Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates using tethered livestock at pasture

  1. Interkingdom cues by bacteria associated with conspecific and heterospecific eggs of Cochliomyia macellaria and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) potentially govern succession on carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate animal behavior related to succession on ephemeral resources is critical for elucidating food web dynamics and nutrient recycling. Blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonization and utilization of vertebrate carrion serve as a model for such studies, as the...

  2. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  3. A review of recorded host plants of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera)dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the Oriental fruit fly, is regulated through the Plant Protection Act of 2000 (7 U.S.C. 7701-7772) and relevant Parts and Subparts of the Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR – Agriculture). Presented herein is a compre...

  4. Benthic communities in inland salinized waters with different salinities and nutrient concentrations and the ecology of Chironomus aprilinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěna, Josef; Šímová, I.; Brom, J.; Novotná, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, January (2016), s. 122-129 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Chironomus aprilinus * coal mining * hydric restoration * saline inland waters * fertilization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  5. X-ray diffraction pattern from the flight muscle of Toxorhynchites towadensis reveals the specific phylogenic position of mosquito among Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Diptera are a group of insects with only a single pair of wings (forewings), and are considered monophyletic (originating from a common ancestor). The flight muscle in Diptera has features not observed in other insects, such as the long Pro-Ala-rich peptide associated with tropomyosin, not with troponin-I as in other insects, and the formation of a superlattice by myosin filaments analogous to that in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Here we describe X-ray diffraction patterns from the flight muscle of a mosquito, Toxorhynchites towadensis (Culicidae), belonging to a primitive group of Diptera. The diffraction pattern indicates that myosin filaments in the flight muscle of this species do not form a superlattice. X-ray diffraction also shows meridional reflections that are not observed in other dipterans, but are present in the patterns from bumblebee (Hymenoptera) flight muscle. These observations suggest that the superlattice structure evolved after the common ancestor of Diptera had diverged from other insects. The flight muscle of mosquito may retain primitive structural features that are shared by Hymenoptera.

  6. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the se...

  7. A catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2015-02-12

    Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.

  8. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae A cronologia e as mudanças morfológicas que ocorrem durante o desenvolvimento intra-pupal de Chrysomya albiceps são descritos com base em 254 espécimes criados em laboratório. As larvas foram obtidas a partir os ovos postos por uma única fêmea. As pré-pupas foram separadas de acordo com a redução do comprimento larval, o grau de pigmentação e esclerotização da cutícula, depois da formação das pupas, 10 indivíduos foram fixados em solução de Carnoy e conservados em etanol

  9. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Palbopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, PAedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Primer reporte en Chile de Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) en evidencia entomológica forense First report in Chile of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in forensic entomological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    A Ortloff-Trautmann; A Jara-Peñailillo; S Albornoz-Muñoz; R Silva-Riveros; MP Riquelme-Gatica; P Peña-Rehbein

    2013-01-01

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) es una mosca hemisinantrópica ampliamente distribuida en América Latina. Es probable que esta especie de mosca sea la más importante para la entomología forense en casuística humana y veterinaria. Hasta la fecha, no hay evidencia de la presencia de esta especie en Chile. En esta investigación se analizó la evidencia entomológica recogida de 60 cadáveres humanos encontrados por Carabineros de Chile (Labocar) desde el año 2006 hasta el 201...

  11. The evolution of abdominal reduction and the recent origin of distinct Abdominal-B transcript classes in Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, John H; Carroll, Sean B

    2006-01-01

    In insects, the Hox gene Abdominal-B (Abd-B) governs the development of the posterior-most segments, the number and fate of which differ within and between orders. A striking feature of insect evolution is a trend toward the reduction of posterior abdominal segments which is most pronounced in higher Diptera. In Drosophila melanogaster, two distinct Abd-B transcript classes and protein isoforms are expressed in non-overlapping domains and have discrete functions in patterning the posterior abdomen. It has been proposed that evolutionary changes in Abd-B structure and expression are responsible for the reduction of the dipteran abdomen. We have investigated the relationship between the evolution of the Abd-B gene and abdominal reduction by analyzing the structure and expression of homologs from four additional dipterans representing distinct clades within the order. The lower dipteran mosquito Anopheles gambiae expresses a single Abd-B transcript class, as do two species phylogenetically intermediate to mosquitoes and drosophilids. These results delimit the evolution of distinct functional Abd-B isoforms to within the dipteran radiation after the origin of the reduced abdominal morphology. Furthermore, we found that the spatial distribution of Abd-B transcripts in non-drosophilid Diptera is identical to the combined domains of the two D. melanogaster Abd-B transcripts. Therefore, neither the structural evolution nor changes in the spatial regulation of Abd-B account for the derived abdomen of higher Diptera. The recent subfunctionalization of this Hox gene has occurred without any apparent morphological correlate. We conclude that regulatory modifications to developmental programs downstream of or parallel to Abd-B are responsible for the evolutionary reduction of the higher dipteran postabdomen.

  12. Survival and Development of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): A Biodegradation Agent of Organic Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2016-12-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R 0 ), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d -1 ), 1.0759 (d -1 ), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars.  La mosca soldado negro, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), fue alimentada en una dieta artificial (salvado de trigo y alimento para pollos) en el laboratorio a 28ºC (estados inmaduros) y en un invernadero a 28ºC (adultos). Los datos fueron recopilados y analizados en base a la tabla de vida de ambos sexos, edad y etapa. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r), tasa finita de crecimiento (λ), la tasa neta de reproducción (R 0 ) y el tiempo medio generacional (T) fueron 0.0759 (d), 1.0759 (d), 68.225 crías, y 55.635 (d), respectivamente. El valor reproductivo máximo de las hembras se produjo a los 54 días. Sólo 6 de las 21 hembras fueron capaces de poner huevos con éxito. El número de huevos por hembra varió de 236 a un máximo de 1088 huevos. Hemos demostrado que cuando han sido criados en una dieta artificial, las larvas de H. illucens durante el primer instar son más susceptibles a perecer que los instares posteriores. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgeni Jakovlev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, M. thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, M. monstera Maximova, 2002, M. uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002.

  14. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Salmela, Jukka; Polevoi, Alexei; Penttinen, Jouni; Vartija, Noora-Annukka

    2014-01-01

    New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomyashewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomyathula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemiatrifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosiagracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfeliakrivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophilabiformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilamonstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilauschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichontapalustris Maximova, 2002.

  15. Toxic effect of ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) leaves against different developmental stages of Muscina stabulans (Diptera-Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M M; Nassar, M I; el-Sherief, H A

    1996-08-01

    Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) is evergreen shrubs widely used for ornamental purpose in mediterranean region. The present investigation, revealed for the first time the insecticidal effect of ethanolic extract from leaves of this plant against 2nd instar larvae of the medically important false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Diptera: Muscidae). LC50 of the extract was 113.66 ppm. This dose delayed larval and pupal duration suppressed oviposition and decreased adult longevity of the survivors. Morphogenic abnormalities were recorded and photographed in larval, pupal and adult stages, which were produced from treating 2nd instar larvae with different concentrations of the extract.

  16. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Pedroso, Murilo Fernandes; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Onilda Santos

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.

  17. Leptoconops bezzii (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) parasitizing tortoises Testudo graeca (Testudines: Testudinidae) in mountain ranges of Lebanon and western Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroký, P; Jandzík, D; Mikulícek, P; Moravec, J; Országh, I

    2007-07-01

    Biting midges of the genus Leptoconops, subgenus Leptoconops (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were repeatedly found parasitizing on spur-thighed tortoises Testudo graeca in western Syria and Lebanon. Collected females were assigned to the species L. bezzii according to their morphological characteristics. Tortoises parasitized by midges were observed throughout the daytime, under mild temperatures, and slight winds, in Mediterranean or stony steppe habitats. Intensity of the infestations ranged from a few specimens up to thousands of midges per tortoise. Midges infested predominantly the tortoises' carapax, finding their approach to the capillaries in the seams between the keratinized scutes. The vector potential of ceratopogonids is discussed.

  18. Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Callisto; Michael D.C. Goulart; Pablo Moreno; Martins, Rogério P.

    2006-01-01

    Commensalism between Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) and Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) larvae was recorded in Indaiá stream, at 1,380 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, 19º-20ºS, 43º-44ºW) and in the headwaters of São Francisco river, at 1,300-1,700 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, 20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W), in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Seventy eight Corydalus larvae (range 22-88 mm) were sampled: 61 in ...

  19. Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Lopes Falaschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London. A commented list of the types of three families of Bibionomorpha - Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae - housed at the Natural History Museum (London is provided. This includes four holotypes and one paratype of five species of Bolitophilidae; one paratype and three syntypes of two species of Diadocidiidae; and 17 holotypes, 91 paratypes, four lectotypes, and fourteen paralectotypes of 38 species of Ditomyiidae. Lectotypes are designated for the Neotropical species of the ditomyiids Australosymmerus (Melosymmerus bisetosus Edwards, 1940 and A. (M. pediferus Edwards, 1940.

  20. [CONTRIBUTION TO THE BLACK FLY FAUNA OF THE TRIBE SIMULIINI (DIPTERA: SIMULIIDAE) OF THE SAKHA REPUBLIC (YAKUTIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibulatov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The data on the black fly fauna of the tribe Simuliini (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) comprising available literature, collections of the Zoological Institute RAS, and new material collected in Yakutia were analyzed. Three new species were recorded in the fauna of the Sakha Republic: Archesimulium polare Rubzov, 1940, A. splendidum Rubzov, 1940, and A. tumulosum Rubzov, 1956. Distribution of eleven black fly species was clarified. Processing of the collected material confirmed the presence of 9 black fly species previously known from Yakutia. On the whole, the fauna of the region comprises 27 black fly species.

  1. [Contribution to the black fly fauna of the tribes Nevermanniini and Wilhelmiini (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Sakha Republik (Yakutia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibulatov, S V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the data on fauna of Nevermanniini and Wilhelmiini tribes (Diptera: Simuliidae) were analyzed. All the accessible literature sources, institute collections and new materials recently collected in Yakutia were examined. Regional fauna was supplemented by two species: Schoenbaueria dendrofila (Patrusheva, 1962) and S. furculata Shewell, 1952, the latter being new for the Russian fauna also. The distribution of five more species from Simuliidae family was clarified. Processing of the collected material proved that 10 species previously registered in Yakutia can still be found in the region.

  2. Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.

  3. Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) jerighatiansis, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from Kandhamal district, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P

    2013-12-01

    Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) jerighatiansis a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from the villages of Kandhamal district, Orissa, located on the east coast of India is described. Descriptive morphology, character measurements, and illustrations of males and females are provided and its taxonomic position within the genus is also defined. Voucher specimens of the new species have been deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India and Zoological Survey of India, India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  5. Efeito do Envelhecimento de Isca na Captura de Moscas (Diptera: Brachycera em Área de Caatinga

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    Eduardo Nascimento

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Diptera species, especially flies, has shown potential as bioindicators for environmental changes. There are different methods to capture these animals, including traps with food baits. In this study, we assess the efficiency of traps for catching flies using bait of cane sugar molasses, analyzing the ecological parameters: abundance, species richness and species composition of flies during different periods of exposure of the traps in the field: 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Species richness and abundance showed significant change with respect to exposure time in the field, with stabilization after 48h, and species composition differed between the first and the other days.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes ( Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Betina Westphal-Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.

  7. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Susceptibility of wounded and intact black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtois, Joseph; Ali, Jared Gregory; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    Production costs and limited regional availability are two key factors limiting the widespread adoption of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) in biological control programs. We explore the potential of using black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as an alternative in vivo rearing host to the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We injured black soldier fly larvae to test the hypothesis that the tough cuticle was preventing the penetration of founding infective juveniles (IJs) into the host and egress of offspring from the cadaver. Injuring the black soldier fly larvae increased the infection rate, the number of nematodes entering a host, and the number of IJs harvested from a cadaver. Black soldier fly larvae, however, provided at most 10-fold less IJs compared to G. mellonella. In olfactometer assays, we assessed nematode behavioral responses to wounded black soldier fly larvae. Steinernema carpocapsae did not move towards the insects. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was attracted to black soldier fly larvae but not G. mellonella. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora did not show a preference for injured black soldier fly larvae over non-injured larvae. Thus, increased colonization on wounded black soldier fly larvae was likely due to additional entry points rather than an increase in their apparency in the soil solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diptera of forensic importance in the Iberian Peninsula: larval identification key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Y; Magaña, C; Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S

    2010-09-01

    A revision of the species and families of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae, Piophilidae and Stratiomyidae) suitable for forensic purposes in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. Morphological characteristics that allow the accurate identification of third instars of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula are described and presented in the form of a diagnostic key. For larval Calliphoridae, characteristics such as the spines of the body segments were useful for the genus Calliphora whereas features of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were useful for larvae of Lucilia. Identification of three Chrysominae species present in the Iberian Peninsula is included. For larval Sarcophagidae, characters such as the arrangement and shape of spiracular openings, structures of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were used for the first time. A new record of Sarcophaga cultellata Pandellé, from a human corpse, is also included as well as recent incursions into the European cadaveric entomofauna such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus). This work provides useful new information that could be applied to forensic investigations in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe.

  10. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.

  11. Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species associated with human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola A; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R

    2013-09-10

    The analyses of necrophagous insects feeding on a corpse can be successfully used to estimate the minimum time since death. A minimum time frame is sometimes an underestimate, but it is actually the only method that can provide such information when decomposed remains are found at a crime scene. Many insects are known to be colonisers of a corpse, but because there is an endless spectrum of crime scene environments, the development data bases for necrophagous insects is incomplete. The two cases detailed in this paper show different entomological patterns due to the different environments (well and burial) and locations (south and central Italy) where the two cadavers were found. Common to both of these cases' was the discovery of the corpse in the same period of the year (January) and the presence of Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a species that has never been associated with deceased humans. The ecological information concerning this insect was used in combination with the more typical entomofauna found on the corpse to provide a minimum post mortem interval. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survival of the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) on Truvia and Other Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael L; Fowler, Fallon E; Denning, Steven S; Watson, David W

    2017-07-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies. Our data show that house flies may prefer high calorie options when given a choice and that house fly longevity likely increases as calorie content increases. Additionally, no significant differences in longevity were observed between the water only control (zero calories) and erythritol treatments. This suggests that decreased survival rates and death could be the result of starvation rather than insecticidal activity. This research furthers our understanding of house fly survival and sugar-feeding behavior. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  14. DNA Barcoding for Species Identification of Insect Skins: A Test on Chironomidae (Diptera) Pupal Exuviae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrem, Torbjørn; Stur, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chironomidae (Diptera) pupal exuviae samples are commonly used for biological monitoring of aquatic habitats. DNA barcoding has proved useful for species identification of chironomid life stages containing cellular tissue, but the barcoding success of chironomid pupal exuviae is unknown. We assessed whether standard DNA barcoding could be efficiently used for species identification of chironomid pupal exuviae when compared with morphological techniques and if there were differences in performance between temperate and tropical ecosystems, subfamilies, and tribes. PCR, sequence, and identification success differed significantly between geographic regions and taxonomic groups. For Norway, 27 out of 190 (14.2%) of pupal exuviae resulted in high-quality chironomid sequences that match species. For Costa Rica, 69 out of 190 (36.3%) Costa Rican pupal exuviae resulted in high-quality sequences, but none matched known species. Standard DNA barcoding of chironomid pupal exuviae had limited success in species identification of unknown specimens due to contaminations and lack of matching references in available barcode libraries, especially from Costa Rica. Therefore, we recommend future biodiversity studies that focus their efforts on understudied regions, to simultaneously use morphological and molecular identification techniques to identify all life stages of chironomids and populate the barcode reference library with identified sequences.

  15. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  16. [Key to chironomid pupal exuviae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of tropical high Andean streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Narcís; González-Trujillo, Juan David; Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo

    2014-12-01

    The Chironomidae is a cosmopolitan family of Nematoceran flies with more than 20,000 species described. However the diversity of genera and species of the family in the Andean region beyond the 2,000 m.a.s.l are scarcely known. We conducted faunal surveys and biomonitoring research in different streams of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from May 2005 to October 2011. Based on specimens collections, a taxonomic key was developed to identify pupae and pupal exuviae of 46 genera of midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) collected from streams at high altitude areas on the Andean tropical mountains. We included illustrations and brief taxonomic descriptions for all genera, of which several ones have not yet been formally described; in this latter case we used the nomenclature of Roback & Coffman (1983). For two genera, Cricotopus and Genus 1, keys to the most com- mon morphospecies were provided. Results showed that in this area the chironomid assemblages are dominated by the members of the subfamily Orthocladiinae (22 genera) followed by the Chironominae (13). Six genera of Tanypodinae were identified, while only three and two genera were present from subfamilies Podonominae and Diamesinae. This key may be very useful for both studies about drift in streams, and for biomonitoring purposes.

  17. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-05-09

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future.

  18. Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in eastern Canadian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Isabelle; Martin, Jon; Carew, Melissa; Hare, Landis

    2013-11-29

    Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae are usually the largest sediment-burrowing chironomids, and as such often constitute a major part of the freshwater infaunal biomass. However, use of this genus in ecological, environmental and paleoecological studies is hampered by the fact that Chironomus larvae are difficult to identify to species because the larvae of many species are morphologically similar. We used a combination of morphological, cytological and genetic techniques to distinguish Chironomus larvae collected from 31 water bodies located in eastern Canada, producing 17 distinguishable groupings. These groups of larvae were ultimately identified as belonging to 14 known species (C. anthracinus, C. bifurcatus, C. cucini, C. decorus-group sp. 2, C. dilutus, C. entis, C. frommeri, C. harpi, C. maturus, C. nr. atroviridis (sp. 2i), C. ochreatus, C. plumosus, C. staegeri and C. 'tigris') and three other species that remain unidentified (C. sp. NAI-III). No single approach served to delimit and identify larvae of all 17 Chironomus species that we collected. Although we expected that morphological criteria alone would be insufficient, our results suggest that DNA barcoding, using either the mitochondrial cox1 or the nuclear gb2β gene, was also inadequate for separating some Chironomus species. Thus we suggest that multiple approaches will often be needed to correctly identify Chironomus larvae to species.

  19. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  20. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  1. A new genus and species of Australian Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) tolerant to mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2017-05-09

    For over 25 years an undescribed Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) has been known to dominate the lotic invertebrate assemblage associated with long-term polluting mine adits in Captains Flat, on the Molonglo River, southern New South Wales, Australia. Although known in all life stages, it has been impossible to allocate the species to any described genus. Renewed interest in the taxonomy of the Tanypodinae, particularly associated with molecular investigations and pollution indicator status warrants formal description. All stages conform to tribe Pentaneurini, but each life stage differs in morphological resemblance. Yarrhpelopia Cranston gen. n. is proposed for the taxon previously referred to under the informal code name of 'genus A'. The genus name derives from south-east Australian aboriginal word yarrh, in recognition of its core distribution and presence in flowing waters. A single species, A. norrisi Cranston sp. n., is described, acknowledging the late Professor Richard Norris, an influential Australian limnologist. Larvae dominate the benthos immediately adjacent to mine adits that continue to leach heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, copper and lead) into downstream sediments. A wider distribution includes cleaner near pristine, eastern Australian rivers between 30° and 42°S, but these records are excluded from the type series pending molecular insights into species limits.

  2. Are sex ratio distorting endosymbionts responsible for mating system variation among dance flies (Diptera: Empidinae)?

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    Murray, Rosalind L; Herridge, Elizabeth J; Ness, Rob W; Bussière, Luc F

    2017-01-01

    Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts are common in many arthropod species. Some endosymbionts cause female-biased sex ratio distortion in their hosts that can result in profound changes to a host's mating behaviour and reproductive biology. Dance flies (Diptera: Empidinae) are well known for their unusual reproductive biology, including species with female-specific ornamentation and female-biased lek-like swarming behaviour. The cause of the repeated evolution of female ornaments in these flies remains unknown, but is probably associated with female-biased sex ratios in individual species. In this study we assessed whether dance flies harbour sex ratio distorting endosymbionts that might have driven these mating system evolutionary changes. We measured the incidence and prevalence of infection by three endosymbionts that are known to cause female-biased sex ratios in other insect hosts (Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma) across 20 species of dance flies. We found evidence of widespread infection by all three symbionts and variation in sex-specific prevalence across the taxa sampled. However, there was no relationship between infection prevalence and adult sex ratio measures and no evidence that female ornaments are associated with high prevalences of sex-biased symbiont infections. We conclude that the current distribution of endosymbiont infections is unlikely to explain the diversity in mating systems among dance fly species.

  3. Differentiation of Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, N; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2005-11-01

    Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) and Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are sibling species of the Obsoletus group. This group comprises species of biting midges that are suspect vectors of bluetongue virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, BTV) and African horse sickness virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, AHSV). BTV and AHSV have been isolated several times from females of this group, although it has not been possible to determine the particular species harboring the virus, because of the inability to clearly identify the females of each species based on morphology. Both sexes of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus midges from Catalonia and the Balearics (Spain) were sequenced for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and these sequences were analyzed to determine intra- and interspecific genetic variability. Species-specific primers for C. obsoletus and C. scoticus were designed and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay based on the COI gene and using a hemi-nested PCR technique was developed for reliably distinguishing the females of both species. The species-specific PCR diagnostic was compared with morphological discrimination of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus females. The morphologic characters were not fully reliable.

  4. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  5. Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Giatropoulos, Athanasios; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (enantiomers of alpha- and beta-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Citrus essential oils contained in high proportion limonene and in lower quantities p-menthane molecules and pinenes. The insecticidal action of these essential oils and enantiomers of their pinenes on mosquito larvae was evaluated. Plant essential oils exhibited strong toxicity against larvae with the LC(50) values ranging from 30.1 (lemon) to 51.5 mg/L (orange) depending on Citrus species and their composition. Finally, the LC(50) value of pinenes ranging from 36.53 to 66.52 mg/L indicated an enantioselective toxicity only for the beta-pinene enantiomer.

  6. Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

    2008-06-01

    We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight.

  7. Olfactory response of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Citrus aurantium volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.

  8. Traumatic myiasis in farmed animals caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica in southern Italy (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

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    Teresa Bonacci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten herds of sheep and goats (455 heads were inspected for the presence of traumatic myiasis between May and September 2013 in the province of Cosenza, Calabria, southern Italy. Nine cases were discovered in sheep, goats and a sheepdog. Infested body sites included external genitalia, wounds (sheep and sheepdog and hooves (goats. Larvae were removed from the infested body areas and reared to adult stage in the laboratory. Both the larvae and the adults were identified as belonging to the Mediterranean screwworm fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner, 1862 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, an obligatory parasite of humans and warm-blooded vertebrates. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of wohlfahrtiosis in sheep and goats to be reported from Calabria. The infested animals were living outdoors in spring and summer, and enclosed in sheds during the autumn and winter months. Observed effects of the myiases included severely impeded walking and tissue damage. Wohlfahrtiosis can cause significant economic loss to farmers. Data about the local distribution, seasonality and types of infestation caused by W. magnifica are useful to farmers and vets to improve control systems, in Calabria as elsewhere within the distributional range of the species

  9. Does autocthonous primary production influence oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in container habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Amanda R; Walker, Edward D; Kaufman, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues.

  10. Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai

    2017-02-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.

  11. ENTEROBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SYNANTHROPIC FLIES (DIPTERA, CALYPTRATAE IN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

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    ISABEL CRISTINA CADAVID-SANCHEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae causing enteric diseases can be carried and dispersed through insects that act as mechanical vectors, especially flies (Insecta: Diptera. In this study, enterobacteria associated with synanthropic flies were isolated and identified; four different urban areas in the municipality of Medellín were surveyed. Thirteen taxa of calyptrate flies belonging to four families were identified and classified according to the Mechanical Vector Risk Index (MVRI value, which is proposed in this study. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1819, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 are of high risk; Fannia sp., Atherigona orientalis Schiner, 1868, and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 of moderate risk; remaining species were classified as low or no risk. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium according to the number of isolations (32%, followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (12%, Pasteurella pneumotropica (11%, and Kluyvera spp. (8%. Raoultella ornithinolitica, Stenotrophomponas maltophilia, and Chryseobacterium menigosepticum were isolated for the first time from flies. Finally, 22 new records of bacteria associated with eight fly species are documented. These results allow us to foresee the existence of a generalist pattern in the interaction between flies and bacteria and indicate that synanthropic flies have a quantifiable potential as vectors of infectious diseases according to the index proposed.

  12. Description of Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Peruvian Equadorean interandean areas

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    Eunice A. Bianchi Galati

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez and L. serrana was corroborated.Descreve-se Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta, sp.n., provável vetora de bartonelose e leishmaniose tegumentar, de ocorrência em vales interandinos no Peru e Equador e que apresenta estreita afinidade com L. serrana (Damasceno e Arouck. A separação de ambas foi possível, por meio de análise de variância de alguns caracteres do macho e apenas um da fêmea. Na análise de variância, foram estudadas populações de L. serrana da região amazônica do Brasil, Peru e Bolívia; costa do Equador; região atlântica e outras áreas do Brasil. Corrobora-se a sinonímia de Phlebotomus guayasi Rodríguez com L. serrana.

  13. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  14. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.

  15. “Jejenes” (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results

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    Luis M. HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera(Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (1 sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (1 sp. y Simulium (Pternaspatha (11 spp.. Hasta el presente, se han colectado los cinco géneros, un subgénero (Pternaspatha y 19 especies de Simuliidae en el PNNH, lo cual representa el 57% de la fauna de Simuliidae en esta área. La mayor diversidad de Simuliidae se encontró en Puerto Blest, zona característica del bosque de la provincia fitogeográfica Alto-Andina.

  16. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  17. Unexpected diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in tourist caves in Northern Thailand.

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    Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James

    2017-11-01

    Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.

  18. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  19. Development of a trap for collecting Cochliomyia hominivorax (diptera: caliphoridae flies

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    Bruna Carolina Druzian Salinas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The insect Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Caliphoridae causes primary cutaneous myiasis, and the use of traps is an alternative to monitor this fly in the field. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a low-cost trap for collecting C. hominivorax in the field. Three experiments were conducted, with six replications, in the experimental field of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Agropecuária Oeste, in Ponta Porã, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Traps were developed using two-liter polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles cut in half, with 30 grams of bovine liver and water covering 90 % of the liver mass placed in the bottom half, using the upper half as a cover funnel to keep the captured flies in the bottom half. The experiments consisted of evaluations of different opening diameter of the trap entrance (3, 4, 6 and 7 mm with traps installed at 1.16 m from the ground (Experiment 1, heights of installation of the traps (0.00, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20, 1.60 and 2.00 m from the ground (Experiment 2 and bottle colors (yellow, blue, white, green, red and transparent (Experiment 3. The collected data were subjected to Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. The ideal traps for collecting C. hominivorax in the field were those with opening diameter of 6 mm, height installation of 1.20 m from the ground, using transparent PET bottles.

  20. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogério P

    2015-04-01

    Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest.

  1. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-06-01

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of Miltogramminae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): Implications for classification, systematics and evolution of larval feeding strategies.

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    Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Sikora, Marcin; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2017-11-01

    Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine life habit remains unsettled. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic tree consisting of 58 representatives of Miltogramminae, reconstructed using sequence data from three mitochondrial (COI, cytB, ND4) and one nuclear (Ef-1α) genes. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (1) Miltogramminae are sister to Paramacronychiinae, (2) Miltogramminae can be divided into the "lower miltogrammines" containing two clades of mainly saprophages and a clade of "higher miltogrammines" with mainly kleptoparasitic species, (3) only three genera turn out to be non-monophyletic: Miltogramma, Senotainia and Pterella and (4) the genus Sarcotachina, which traditionally has been considered as belonging to the Paramacronychiinae, is placed in one of the clades of "lower miltogrammines". Ancestral state reconstruction of larval feeding strategy and five larval characters reveals that the ancestor of Miltogramminae was likely a saprophage retaining plesiomorphic oral ridges and a cephaloskeleton with sclerotized dorsal bridge. Synapomorphies like large pseudocephalic sensory organs and well-developed cuticular sculpture suggest that the ancestral first instar larva actively searched for a buried food supply. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Salivary glands of second and third instars of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

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    Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

    2007-05-01

    Salivary glands of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae were studied under light and electron microscopy. The salivary glands of second (L2) and third instars (L3) are similar and consist of pairs of translucent tubules. The individual efferent ducts unite to form a single deferent duct, which inserts dorsally into the cephalopharingeal skeleton. Each gland has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The cellular plasma membrane is enfolded at its base, forming a labyrinthine area. The cell surface is linked to the basement membrane (BM) by hemidesmosomes and to adjacent cells by septet junctions and desmosomes. Irregular channels with several vesicles occur between the cytoplasm and BM. Golgi complex, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and myelin figures are usually present in the cells. The nucleus is large, with diffuse chromatin. The connective tissue circling the BM contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers and tracheal tubes. Lined cuticle encloses the efferent and deferent ductal cells, which have few, widely dispersed mitochondria, free ribosomes, microtubules, and a large nucleus with diffuse chromatin.

  4. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.

  5. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  6. Pupation Behavior and Predation on Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pupae in Maine Wild Blueberry Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A

    2017-09-27

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  8. Sexual chemoecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Current knowledge and implications for vector control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts.

  10. Oviposition of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits

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    N. P. Dias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae represent a threat to fruit growing worldwide, mainly the citrus culture, however, biological studies show that fruit flies are not perfectly adapted to this host. This study investigated oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits. We evaluated the relationship between depth of oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata and epicarp thickness of orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] ‘Navelina’ and tangerine [C. reticulata (L.] ‘Clemenules’ and the influence of fruit mesocarp of tangerine ‘Clemenules’ on oviposition of these species. The study was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C, relative humidity (70 ± 10% RH and photophase (12 h. A. fraterculus and C. capitata laid their eggs in the flavedo region of orange ‘Navelina’ and between the albedo and flavedo of tangerine ‘Clemenules’. When fruits with mesocarp exposed were offered, there was no oviposition by both fruit fly species. The results show that epicarp thickness of citrus fruits did not influence oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata as oviposition did not occur only in the presence of the mesocarp, suggesting that other factors are involved in oviposition of these species.

  11. The first fossil streblid bat fly, Enischnomyia stegosoma n. g., n. sp. (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea: Streblidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George; Brown, Alex

    2012-02-01

    The first fossil streblid, Enischnomyia stegosoma n. g., n. sp. (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea: Streblidae), is described from Dominican amber. Placed in the subfamily Nycterophiliinae Wenzel, 1966, which includes two New World extant genera, Nycterophilia Ferris, 1916 and Phalconomus Wenzel, 1984 (=Phalcophila Wenzel, 1976), the male specimen of E. stegosoma is characterised by the following features: a laterally compressed body, well-developed two-segmented antennae with the scape fused with the head, a tubular pedicel with an annulated basal portion and swollen apical portion bearing setae and bristles, a distinct flagellum with a dorsal boss bearing microsetae and a subterminal pectinate arista, a large tubular labium (proboscis) with the tip held upwards, eyes reduced to three facets, an expanded and flattened profemur, an anteriorly curved protarsus, and a well-developed wing with an entire distal margin. The possession of wings separates E. stegosoma from the species of Phalconomus, and the wing outline and venation, as well as the structure of the antennae and palps, distinguish it from species of Nycterophilia.

  12. Molecular Confirmation of Frogs (Anura) as Hosts of Corethrellidae (Diptera) in the Southeastern United States.

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    Camp, Jeremy V; Irby, William S

    2017-09-01

    Flies in the family Corethrellidae Edwards 1932 (Diptera) are known to be attracted to the mating calls of male frogs. For the first time, the hosts of corethrellids were identified to species by analyzing bloodmeals taken from resting female flies. A portion of the cytochrome b gene was amplified and sequenced from blood-engorged flies using vertebrate-specific primers. The flies were collected over 6 yr at two locations in the southeastern United States from resting boxes and natural resting sites (rodent burrows). Potential host abundance focused on frog surveillance, and estimation relied on visual encounters, passive trapping (artificial refugia), and call surveys. This study confirms that corethrellids take blood from tree frogs (Hylidae); however, it was found that true frogs (Lithobates Fitzinger 1843 (Ranidae: Anura) sp.) were the principal host selected by Corethrella brakeleyi (Coquillett 1902) (~73% of identified bloodmeals). These preliminary data suggest that host selection of Corethrella Freeman 1962 sp. is not necessarily correlated with host calling abundance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. Species Composition and Distribution of Adult Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025

  14. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  15. Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) from Yucatan and Updated Species List for Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuxim-Koyoc, Alan; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Bolívar-Cimé, Beatriz; Laborde, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the diversity of ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Fieldwork was carried out from June 2010 to January 2012 in seven municipalities of Yucatan, where 13 sampling sites were selected to capture bats using mist nets. Over 156 sampling nights a total of 910 bats were captured; these belonged to 19 species in four families: Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Natalidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae was the richest family (13 bat species), followed by Mormoopidae (3 spp.), Vespertilionidae (2 spp.), and Natalidae (1 spp.). After careful inspection of the bats, a total of 2,134 Streblid bat flies were collected, belonging to 17 species in six genera (Nycterophilia coxata Ferris, N. natali Wenzel, Trichobius diphyllae Wenzel, T. dugesii Townsend, T. galei Wenzel, T. hirsutulus Bequaert, T. intermedius Peterson and Hurka, T. parasiticus Gervais, T. uniformis Curran, T. yunkeri Wenzel, Megistopoda aranea Coquillett, M. proxima Séguy, Aspidoptera delatorrei Wenzel, Strebla alvarezi Wenzel, S. diphyllae Wenzel, S. wiedemanni Kolenati, and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett). The richest and most diverse genus was Trichobius. Five species--N. natali, T. diphyllae, M. proxima, A. delatorrei, and M. pseudopterus, are new records for Yucatan, and T. galei is a new record for the country, increasing the total number of Streblidae species for Mexico to 49. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2015-07-01

    Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla.

  17. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria E Macêdo

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  18. Phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cranberry and blueberry indicates potential for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D

    2012-08-01

    Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation.

  19. Flight and swarming behaviour of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a livestock farm in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonza Lez, Mikel; Alarco N-Elbal, Pedro M; Venter, Gert J; Lo Pez, Sergio

    2017-06-30

    The efficacy of sweep nets and a CDC white light-suction trap for the sampling of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were compared on a livestock farm in Northern Spain during the Summer of 2013. A total of 6,082 specimens representing 26 species were collected with sweep nets in 4 areas at di erent heights (ground level, 1.5 m, and 3 m), and 8,463 specimens representing 28 species with a single white light trap. Eight species - Culicoides brunnicans, Culicoides punctatus, Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus, Culicoides lupicaris, Culcoides picturatus, Culicoides achrayi, and Culicoides simulator - were dominant and accounted for 97.4% and 97.2% of the total specimens collected with both methods, sweep nets, and light traps, respectively. The sex ratios with sweep netting and light trapping were strongly female biased (78.4% and 97.1%, respectively). Nulliparous and parous females were predominantly captured with both methods. A high percentage (17%) of gravid females was, however, captured on manure at ground level while sweeping. Searches for male swarms revealed the presence of several C. punctatus swarms consisting of 26 to 196 males and 3 swarms of C. obsoletus that ranged from 1 to 12 males in size. This study suggested that both methods are suitable and complementary tools for Culicoides sampling.

  20. Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheo N; Lee, Yeon-Suk; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2008-02-01

    Plant essential oils from 20 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activity against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity (>90%) against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed Carum carvi (L.)], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 X 10-3 mg/1 air. Among them, caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red essential oils were highly effective against L. ingenua at 20 x 10(-3) mg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 4, 9, 8, and 17 compounds from caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red oils, respectively. These compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua, and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, cuminaldehyde, p-cymen, terpinen-4-ol, and carvone was effective at 10 x 10(-3) mg/l. The insecticidal activity of dichlorvos was 60% at 10 x 10(-3) mg/ml. Effects of four selected plant essential oils on growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, also were investigated.

  1. Temperature and Tissue Type Impact Development of Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambaradeniya, Y Tharindu B; Karunaratne, W A Inoka P; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Goonerathne, Induwara; Kotakadeniya, Rasika B

    2017-11-23

    Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann; Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a facultative ecto-parasitic fly, distributed throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world. This blow fly species is of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance due to it being used in maggot debridement therapy (MDT), a causative agent of myiasis, and a decomposer of vertebrate carrion. The current study examined the combined effects of temperature and tissue type on the development of L. cuprina. Specimens were reared on three tissue types; swine muscle, swine liver, and bovine muscle at 20°C, 25°C, 27°C, and 38°C. The optimum condition for L. cuprina development was for immatures reared on bovine muscle (287.4 h) followed by those reared on swine muscle (288.0 h) and swine liver (288.4 h) at 27°C. The minimum temperature threshold of L. cuprina was deduced to be 14°C. No significant differences in larval width and length over time were determined for the tissue type. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

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    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  3. Wing shape is influenced by environmental variability in Polietina orbitalis (Stein (Diptera: Muscidae

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    Victor Michelon Alves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We measured variation and covariation in wing morphology in six populations of the fly Polietina orbitalis (Stein (Diptera: Muscidae to test for geographic morphological structure. Additionally, we examined the role of environmental variables in determining geographic variation in wing shape. We sampled five populations in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (Colombo, Fênix, Guarapuava, Jundiaí do Sul and Ponta Grossa, and one in Paraguay (Mbaracayú. We choose 15 landmarks to describe the wing shape and size and 19 environmental variables to describe the local environmental conditions. Our results showed that P. orbitalis wing shape, but not size, varies geographically. A canonical variate analysis showed the existence of two clusters of populations based on wing shape. These groups compare populations in which the wing is slender with groups in which the wings are broad. These shape differences were correlated with variation in elevation, precipitation and temperature but were not allometric. Taken together, these results suggest that wing shape differences in P. orbitalis populations are due to a plastic response to local environmental conditions.

  4. Comparative studies on effects of three chitin synthesis inhibitors on common malaria mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun Yan; Heise, Stephanie; Zhang, Jianzhen; Anderson, Troy D; Starkey, Sharon R

    2007-11-01

    Toxicities of three chitin synthesis inhibitors (diflubenzuron, nikkomycin Z and polyoxin D) were evaluated using second instars of the common malaria mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Neither nikkomycin Z nor polyoxin D at 50 microg/liter caused significant larval mortality, although they reduced the body weight of the survivors by 20.5 and 33.8%, respectively, in 48 h. In contrast, exposures of the larvae to diflubenzuron at 12.5 microg/liter for 48 h resulted in 86.7% larval mortality and reduced the body weight of the survivors by 29.1%. Exposure of the pupae (affect chitin contents in the guts. Our results indicated that diflubenzuron was highly toxic to second instars by not only causing high larval mortality but also by affecting their growth. Diflubenzuron was also fairly toxic to pupae by not only causing pupal mortality but also affecting the adult emergence. Our results suggest that diflubenzuron might affect only chitin synthesis in the cuticle but not in the peritrophic matrix, which is probably due to diflubenzuron's direct contact to mosquito larvae in water, slow distribution in insect body, rapid degradation in the insect gut, or a combination.

  5. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  6. Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2018-03-01

    Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental factors affecting early carcass attendance by four species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-05-01

    As the most common primary colonizer of carrion, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) play an important role in initiating arthropod-mediated breakdown of soft tissue; however, their timing is highly variable. This variability complicates the estimation of precolonization intervals or periods of insect activity by forensic entomologists. In this study, the size of the adult blow fly on swine carcasses was compared with various environmental conditions including time of day, temperature, wind speed, and light levels. Four trials were conducted: two in August and September 2008, one in January 2009, and one in February-March 2010. Of the measured variables, time of day was the only consistent factor explaining the population size of blow fly on a carcass, although precipitation and high winds affected winter-active Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Male flies were also collected, suggesting that carcasses may play additional roles in adult blow fly ecology beyond that of a simple oviposition site. For both sexes of flies, a strong diel pattern of behavior emerged, which could be useful in estimating precolonization intervals by considering the environmental conditions at a scene, and thus forensic entomologists may be better able to estimate the likelihood of adult activity at a carcass.

  8. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V; Slone, Daniel H; Capinera, John L

    2007-05-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September.

  9. Ultrastructure of immature stages of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is known as the secondary screwworm because it causes secondary or facultative myiasis when the larvae feed on necrotic tissues. This fly has a significant medical and veterinary importance since it has been reported to transport eggs of Dermatobia hominis (human botfly), which can cause significant economic losses to livestock. Since this screwworm has been collected colonizing both pig carcasses and human cadavers, it is considered one of the most important species for forensic entomology studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information on the morphological characteristics which can help identify the immature forms of the flies. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the eggs, all the larval instars, and the puparia of Cochliomyia macellaria using SEM. The egg is ellipsoid and the dorsal surface is concave. The islands inside the median area had no anastomosis, but some perforations could be observed. From the second larval instar onwards, besides the intersegmental spines, other bands of spines were observed at the abdominal segments. Two spiracular openings were visible on the first and second larval instars, which were not expected. These characteristics are specific to Cochliomyia genus. The number and the general aspect of the spine tips in the cephalic region, the intersegmental bands on the abdomen, and the number of the spiracular openings could together help identify C. macellaria.

  10. Quantifying pteridines in the heads of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Application for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Reiskind, M H; Guisewite, L M; Denning, S S; Watson, D W

    2017-11-01

    In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value. In this study we applied an age-grading technique to estimate the age of adults of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Phormia regina (Meigen), based on the temperature-dependent accumulation of pteridines in the compound eyes, when reared at temperatures ranging from 5 to 35°C. Age could be estimated for all species*sex*rearing temperature combinations (mean r2±SE: 0.90±0.01) for all but P. regina reared at 5.4°C. These models can be used to increase the precision of post-CI estimates for remains found indoors, and the high r2 values of 22 of the 24 regression equations indicates that this is a valid method for estimating the age of adult blow flies at temperatures ≥15°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of significance of bacteria in larval development of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Broce, Alberto; Zurek, Ludek

    2006-11-01

    Bacteria were isolated and identified from the digestive tract of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and their role in the larval development of this insect was assessed in laboratory bioassays. The analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the bacterial isolates represented four species: Providencia sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Escherich), Enterococcus faecalis (Orla-Jensen), and Ochrobactrum sp. (Holmes). Developmental assays demonstrated that C. macellaria larvae are able to develop on a sterile blood agar, and no bacteria are required to complete larval development. Indeed, developmental times were shorter and survival rates of C. macellaria on a sterile blood agar and the modified Harris rearing diet were greater compared with that on the blood agar inoculated with individual and mixed bacterial isolates. The cultures of Ochrobactrum sp. and E. faecalis supported larval development to a significantly greater extent than those of Providencia sp. and E. coli O157:H7. The presence of bacteria in newly emerged C. macellaria adults also was assessed and revealed that the bacteria in the gut of larvae can survive pupation and colonize the gut of adult flies. This study shows that development of larvae of C. macellaria does not depend on bacteria and that some bacterial isolates negatively impact larval development.

  12. New Records of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae at Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar Elías BEJARANO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available NUEVOS HALLAZGOS DE FLEBOTOMÍNEOS (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE EN LA SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIAEl componente entomológico de la leishmaniasis ha sido poco estudiado en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, incluido el departamento del Magdalena, donde a la fecha están registradas trece especies de Lutzomyia. En la presente nota se informa el hallazgo de tres especies y un subgénero más en la región. Se recolectaron 885 flebotomíneos en Seywiaka y las veredas Las Tinajas y Calabazo, estribaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (117-130 m.s.n.m.. El 84% de los ejemplares se obtuvieron con trampa CDC, el 11% con trampa Shannon y el 5% fueron capturados, en reposo, con un dispositivo eléctrico de succión.  Se identificaron nueve especies, Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trinidadensis, Lu. carpenteri, Lu. evansi, Lu. dysponeta, Lu. dubitans, Lu. shannoni, y Lu. micropyga, la más abundante fue Lu. gomezi (69%, seguida por Lu. panamensis (14%. También se recolectaron ejemplares de la serie Lu. osornoi del subgénero Helcocyrtomyia. Entre el material hallado sobresalen Lu. carpenteri, Lu. dubitans y Lu. dysponeta como primeros registros para el departamento del Magdalena, además de Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia sp., que representa el primer hallazgo del subgénero en el Caribe colombiano.

  13. ECOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-HENAO GABRIEL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During the months of June to September 2006, collections of tabanids (Diptera:Tabanidae and ticks were conducted in the Caucasia municipality, Antioquia,Colombia. Tabanids were caught on horses during daylight using hand nets and pots atthe ecotone zone between secondary forests and paddock habitats. Ticks were collecteddirectly from cattle by hand. The purpose of the study was to identify possible vectorsof bovine trypanosomosis, and register the diversity and abundance of tabanids inthe zone. The arthropods were brought to the laboratory for taxonomic determinationand protozooans searching in proboscis, midgut, and salivary glands of flies. Inthe case of ticks, protozoans were searched in hemolymph. One hundred and fortytabanids belonging to four genera and nine species were caught. Among the species,Lepiselaga crassipes was the most abundant (43.6%, with the highest abundancein July and a biting peak at 14:00 h. The highest diversity of tabanids was observedduring September. Three tabanids were found infected with flagellates morphologicallycompatible with Trypanosoma vivax. 315 ticks belonging to Boophilus microplusspecies were collected, all of them negative to flagellates. These results suggest T.vivax transmission by tabanids in the study area. However, the specific status ofthe parasites should be determined by molecular techniques and the transmissionmechanism should be established too by controlled studies

  14. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of and (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant T. Mcquate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett, and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel. In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges ( Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck and Clementine tangerines ( C. reticulata L. var. Clementine, but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae , including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed.

  15. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in fresh commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Swedman, Allison; Prices, Donald K

    2014-06-01

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on larval and pupal development and adult reproduction in D. suzukii were examined. Larvae (first, second, and third instars) and pupae (1-2-d-old, 3-5-d-old, and 7-8-d-old) on diet were irradiated at target doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. Males and females were equally susceptible. A radiation dose of 40 Gy applied to first- and second-instar larvae prevented adult emergence. The late-stage pupa was the most radiation-tolerant stage that occurs in fruit, and individuals irradiated at this stage readily emerged as adults; therefore, prevention of F1 adults was the desired treatment response for large-scale validation tests with naturally infested fruit. In large-scale tests, a radiation dose of 80 Gy applied to late-stage pupae in sweet cherries or grapes resulted in no production of F1 adults in > 33,000 treated individuals, which meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. A minimum absorbed dose of 80 Gy is recommended for quarantine control of D. suzukii.

  16. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  17. Relative Tolerance of Six Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) Species to Phytosanitary Cold Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Cancio-Martinez, Elena; Hallman, Guy J; Fontenot, Emily A; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-12-01

    To compare relative cold treatment tolerance across the economically important tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), four populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), eggs (in vitro), and larvae (in infested fruit or on carrot diet) were cold treated at 2.0 ± 0.2 °C for selected durations. The study was performed to assess whether a single (i.e., generic) cold treatment could be developed that would control the entire group of fruit flies that were tested. Probit regression models showed that the hierarchy of cold resistance was third-instar larvae reared on carrot diet > third-instar larvae reared on orange > eggs test in vitro. Differences in mortality responses of third-instar larvae reared in oranges across populations of B. dorsalis were observed only at subefficacious levels of control. The majority of Bactrocera species responded the same at the high levels of control demanded of phytosanitary treatments, which indicated that cold treatments would be similarly effective across the species and populations tested. B. cucurbitae was found to be the most cold tolerant of all the species tested. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Desiccation resistance of wild and mass-reared Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, C W; Yap, S; Taylor, P W

    2013-12-01

    In pest management programmes that incorporate the sterile insect technique (SIT), the ability of mass-reared insects to tolerate dry conditions may influence their survival after release in the field. In the present study, desiccation resistance of adult mass-reared Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Frogatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), that are routinely released in SIT programmes was compared with that of wild flies at 1, 10 and 20 days after adult eclosion. Under dry conditions without access to food or water, longevity of mass-reared B. tryoni was significantly less than that of their wild counterparts. Desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies declined monotonically with age, but this was not the case for wild flies. The sharp decline in desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies as they aged was likely explained by decreased dehydration tolerance. As in an earlier study, desiccation resistance of females was significantly lower than that of males but this was particularly pronounced in mass-reared females. Female susceptibility to dry conditions corresponded with declining dehydration tolerance with age and associated patterns of reproductive development, which suggests that water content of their oocyte load is not available for survival during periods of water stress.

  19. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Small-Scale Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Using Probability Kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Q; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z L

    2016-10-01

    Understanding spatio-temporal distribution of pest in orchards can provide important information that could be used to design monitoring schemes and establish better means for pest control. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed, and activity trends were evaluated by using probability kriging. Adults of B. minax were captured in two successive occurrences in a small-scale citrus orchard by using food bait traps, which were placed both inside and outside the orchard. The weekly spatial distribution of B. minax within the orchard and adjacent woods was examined using semivariogram parameters. The edge concentration was discovered during the most weeks in adult occurrence, and the population of the adults aggregated with high probability within a less-than-100-m-wide band on both of the sides of the orchard and the woods. The sequential probability kriged maps showed that the adults were estimated in the marginal zone with higher probability, especially in the early and peak stages. The feeding, ovipositing, and mating behaviors of B. minax are possible explanations for these spatio-temporal patterns. Therefore, spatial arrangement and distance to the forest edge of traps or spraying spot should be considered to enhance pest control on B. minax in small-scale orchards.

  2. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTROCERA DORSALIS COMPLEX (DIPTERA : TEPHRITIDAE USING WING IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ADSAVAKULCHAI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae used in this study included B. dorsalis, B. arecae, B. propinqua, B. pyrifoliae, B. verbascifoliae, and three new species complexes are species E, species K and species P. Bactrocera tau was used as an out-group. A total of 424 adults, which emerged from pupae collected from natural populations in Thai land, were prepared for wing measurements. Morphometric analysis was performed on measurements of wing vein characters. Wing images were captured in digital format and taken through digital image processing to calculate the Euclidean distance between wing vein junctions. Discriminant and cluster analyses were used for dichotomy of classification processes. All 424 wing specimens were classified to species in terms of the percentage of "grouped" cases which yielded about 89.6% accurate identificati on compared with the formal description of these species. After clustering, the percentage of "grouped"cases yielded 100.0%, 98.9%, 98.1%, 95.2% and 84.6% accurate identification between the B. dorsalis complex and B. tau; B. arecae and Species E; B. dorsalis and B. verbascifoliae; B. propinqua and B. pyrifoliae; and species K and species P, respectively. This method of numerical taxonomy may be useful for practical identification of other groups of agricultural pests.

  3. Genetic consequences of domestication and mass rearing of pest fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, A S; Cameron, E C; Sved, J A; Meats, A W

    2012-06-01

    Tephritid fruit flies, an important pest of horticulture worldwide, are increasingly targeted for control or eradication by large-scale releases of sterile flies of the same species. For each species treated, strains must be domesticated for mass rearing to provide sufficiently large numbers of individuals for releases. Increases in productivity of domesticated tephritid strains are well documented, but there have been few systematic studies of the genetic consequences of domestication in tephritids. Here, we used nine DNA microsatellite markers to monitor changes in genetic diversity during the early generations of domestication in replicated lines of the fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The observed changes in heterozygosity and allelic richness were compared with the expected changes in heterozygosity generated by a stochastic simulation including genetic drift but not selection. The results showed that repeatable genetic bottlenecks occur in the early generations and that selection occurs in the later generations. Furthermore, using the same simulation, we show that there is inadvertent selection for increased productivity for the entire life on a mass-rearing colony, in addition to intentional selection for increased productivity. That additional selection results from the common practice of establishing the next generation of the breeding colony from a small proportion of one day's pupae collection (the pupal raffle). That selection occurs during all generations and acts only on fecundity variation. Practical methods to counter that unavoidable loss of genetic diversity during the domestication process in B. tryoni are discussed.

  4. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

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    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  5. Bacteria and Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Tree Hollows From the Iberian Mediterranean Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Galván, I R; Ferrer, J; Galante, E; Marcos-García, M A

    2017-02-01

    Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollows in Mediterranean forests depend on a combination of physical characteristics and interactions occurring between community member species. Despite the need to preserve these organisms, little is known about their interrelationships, in particular those relationships between saproxylic insects and microbiota occurring in these microhabitats. In tree hollows of Quercus rotundifolia Lamark that hold water and contain dead leaves, abundant microbial populations can be found. Developing on them are the larvae of Mallota dusmeti Andréu, 1926 (Diptera: Syrphidae), a vulnerable species (IUCN category: Marcos-García and Quinto 2011). This study provides the first data on the microbiota living inside the gut of the larvae of M. dusmeti, as well as the microbiota in the hollow where these larvae develop. Bacteria were identified by amplification and partial sequencing of the V1-V3 regions and the complete nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes. We found eight species of bacteria living in tree hollows and three species in the gut of M. dusmeti larvae: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus toyonensis, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The filter-feeding mechanism characteristic of M. dusmeti larvae is selective in enabling ingestion of bacteria only above 2.1 µm in diameter. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-02-25

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.

  7. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  9. Sex-biased Patterns of Saprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) Collected With Different Baits of Animal Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, P R; Patitucci, L D; Olea, M S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the response behavior of males and females of different families of Calyptratae (Diptera) to two different baits (rotten liver and feces) as separate attractants. We describe the sex bias toward these baits for species of Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae and compare the general patterns of this sex bias according to the family or trophic guild. In total, 15 species of Sarcophagidae, 10 species of Muscidae, and 9 species of Calliphoridae were analyzed. A female-biased pattern was observed for most calliphorids and for all muscids, whereas a male-biased pattern was more frequent among sarcophagids. The female captures on each kind of bait were assessed as a potential indicator of potential breeding substrates of the species. Three different trophic guilds and their pattern of sex bias were compared. The results obtained allow hypothesizing on the biological traits of saprophagous species, especially on their potential breeding substrates, and assessing proper sampling methods. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Aedes aegypti survival in the presence of Toxorhynchites violaceus (Diptera: Culicidae fourth instar larvae

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    Daniel S Albeny

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Different methods have been used to control A. aegypti, including chemical and biological tools. However, chemical control can lead to a subsequent increase in the mosquitoes' insecticide resistance, and biological control represents an important method as an alternative to insecticide usage. Larvae from the Toxorhynchites genus (Diptera: Culicidae are predators of other mosquitoes and represent a potential natural biocontrol agent of A. aegypti larvae. In the present work, A. aegypti larval survival was studied in the presence of the neotropical Toxorhynchites violaceus (Wiedemann, 1821 fourth instar larvae. Toxorhynchites violaceus consumption of A. aegypti increased during the 192 hours of the experiment and was more marked in the intervals between 96 and 120 hours and between 168 and 192 hours, when the A. aegypti survival reached 0%. During the fourth instar, T. violaceus increased its predation on A. aegypti larvae, possibly in order to increase its nutrient storage prior to pupation. Otherwise, low prey consumption can lead to a nutritional deficit for the larvae, delaying the adult's sexual development and reducing its egg production. Here we show that A. aegypti survival can be reduced by the T. violaceus fourth larvae predation under laboratory conditions

  11. Jenis dan habitat “lalat mata bertangkai” (Diptera: Diopsidae di bogor

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    Sopian Sopian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stalk eye flies (Diptera: Diopsidae is an insect family which has unique eye morphology. Their eyes are in the distal end of a long stalk. The information of species and their habitats is still very limited in Indonesia. Therefore, the objectives of this research were studying species diversity, habitat, and distribution areas of stalk eye flies in soroundings in Bogor. The sample sites are classified into three areas; lowland, middle, and upland. The flies ware taken with two methods: net sweeping and direct capture, then parts of the body were measured. The observation of stalk eye flies activity and behavior was done in the morning, midday, and afternoon. The result of observation indicated that stalk eye flies were found almost in all areas, from lowland to upland. On 15 survey locations, stalk eye flies were found in 10 locations with the same habitat. The species are Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni and Teleopsis sp.. C. dalmanni was found in 5 locations, and Teleopsis sp. in 9 locations. The observation result of stalk eye flies activity and behavior indicated that the number of stalk eye flies which captured in three period of time were not obviously different. Result from measuring stalk eye flies bodyparts indicated that the average size of male and female flies was not obviously different, except the male stalk is longer than female. In addition, C. dalmanni stalks are longer than Teleopsis sp. stalks.

  12. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control. PMID:28553626

  13. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae

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    Jukka Salmela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.

  14. Phylogenetics of Australasian gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae): Evolutionary patterns of host-shifting and gall morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, S J; Davies, K A; Taylor, G S; Thornhill, A H; Lewis, M L; Winkler, I S; Yeates, D K; Purcell, M F; Makinson, J; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated host-specificity and phylogenetic relationships in Australian galling flies, Fergusonina Malloch (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), in order to assess diversity and explore the evolutionary history of host plant affiliation and gall morphology. A DNA barcoding approach using COI data from 203 Fergusonina specimens from 5gall types on 56 host plant species indicated 85 presumptive fly species. These exhibited a high degree of host specificity; of the 40 species with multiple representatives, each fed only on a single host genus, 29 (72.5%) were strictly monophagous, and 11 (27.5%) were reared from multiple closely related hosts. COI variation within species was not correlated with either sample size or geographic distance. However variation was greater within oligophagous species, consistent with expectations of the initial stages of host-associated divergence during speciation. Phylogenetic analysis using both nuclear and mitochondrial genes revealed host genus-restricted clades but also clear evidence of multiple colonizations of both host plant genus and host species. With the exception of unilocular peagalls, evolution of gall type was somewhat constrained, but to a lesser degree than host plant association. Unilocular peagalls arose more often than any other gall type, were primarily located at the tips of the phylogeny, and did not form clades comprising more than a few species. For ecological reasons, species of this gall type are predicted to harbor substantially less genetic variation than others, possibly reducing evolutionary flexibility resulting in reduced diversification in unilocular gallers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Phylogeographic Structure in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations Inferred With mtDNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Owen, Christopher L; Thomas, Donald B; Barr, Norman B; McPheron, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America, with infestations occurring in Texas, California, and Florida with origins believed to have been centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utility of a sequence-based approach for two mitochondrial (COI and ND6) gene regions. We use these markers to examine genetic diversity, estimate population structure, and identify diagnostic information for A. ludens populations. We analyzed 543 individuals from 67 geographic collections and found one predominant haplotype occurring in the majority of specimens. We observed 68 haplotypes in all and see differences among haplotypes belonging to northern and southern collections. Mexico haplotypes differ by few bases possibly as a result of a recent bottleneck event. In contrast to the hypothesis suggesting northeastern Mexico as the origin of this species, we see that specimens from two southern collections show high genetic variability delineating three mitochondrial groups. These data suggest that Central America is the origin for A. ludens. We show that COI and ND6 are useful for phylogeographic studies of A. ludens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Primer reporte de miasis hospitalaria por Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae en Costa Rica

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    Lucía Quesada-Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las miasis hospitalarias son entidades con una importancia manifiesta en salud pública. La documentación de este tipo de casos es escasa en la literatura biomédica regional y mundial. Objetivo. Informar un caso de miasis hospitalaria en Costa Rica, donde el agente etiológico implicado fue Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Este caso de miasis hospitalaria figura como el primer informe para Latinoamérica asociado con este agente etiológico. Presentación del caso. Una paciente de 91 años de edad, con signos de inmunosupresión, afectación grave de la función pulmonar y asistencia respiratoria mecánica, presentó larvas en ambas fosas nasales al séptimo día después del ingreso hospitalario. Varios ejemplares fueron recolectados y procesados para su identificación. La identificación taxonómica de los ejemplares recolectados estableció que la especie de los muscomorfos correspondía a L. cuprina. Conclusión. El presente constituye el primer caso de miasis hospitalaria por L. cuprina en la literatura biomédica de Costa Rica y el primero registrado en Latinoamérica.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.690

  17. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan

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    Anna Alcaine-Colet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866 (Diptera, phoridae is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint.

  18. Effects of contaminants of emerging concern on Megaselia scalaris (Lowe, Diptera: Phoridae) and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Marcus J; Rothman, Jason A; Jones, Michael B; McFrederick, Quinn S; Gan, Jay; Trumble, John T

    2017-08-15

    Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae). Larvae were reared on artificial diets spiked with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Female flies showed no oviposition preference for treated or untreated diets. Larvae exposed to caffeine in diets showed increased mortality, and larvae fed antibiotics and hormones showed signs of slowed development, especially in females. The normal sex ratio observed in M. scalaris from control diets was affected by exposure to caffeine and pharmaceutical mixture treatments. There was an overall effect of treatment on the flies' microbial communities; notably, caffeine fed insects displayed higher microbial variability. Eight bacterial families accounted for approximately 95% of the total microbes in diet and insects. Our results suggest that CECs at environmentally relevant concentrations can affect the biology and microbial communities of an insect of ecological and medical importance.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Development Modeling of the Phorid Fly Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, S; Zamani, A A; Abbasi, S; Vafaei Shooshtari, R; Shirvani Farsani, N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae) on A15 variety of button mushroom in the stages of casing and spawn-running was investigated at eight constant temperatures (10, 12.5, 15, 18, 20, 22.5, 25, and 27°C) and developmental rates were modeled as a function of temperature. At 25 and 27°C, an average of 22.2 ± 0.14 and 20.0 ± 0.10 days was needed for M. halterata to complete its development from oviposition to adult eclosion in the stages of casing and spawn-running, respectively. The developmental times of males or females at various constant temperatures were significantly different. Among the linear models, the Ikemoto and Takai linear model in the absence of 12.5 and 25°C showed the best statistical goodness-of-fit and based on this model, the lower developmental threshold and the thermal constant were estimated as 10.4°C and 526.3 degree-days, respectively. Twelve nonlinear temperature-dependent models were examined to find the best model to describe the relationship between temperature and development rate of M. halterata. The Logan 10 nonlinear model provided the best estimation for T opt and T max and is strongly recommended for the description of temperature-dependent development of M. halterata.

  20. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaine-Colet, Anna; Wotton, Karl R; Jimenez-Guri, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint.

  1. Nocturnal oviposition of the forensic scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew (Diptera: Phoridae indoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Siti Zulaikha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In forensic entomology, nocturnal oviposition of flies could reduce discrepancy of minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin estimation which is due to assumption that oviposition only occurs during day time hours. Previous records indicate that some forensic species of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae displayed nocturnal oviposition and larviposition but such occurrences can be inconsistent. Apart from blow flies and flesh flies, the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are known to be forensically important indoors and they exhibit diurnal and nocturnal behaviour. To investigate if oviposition by scuttle flies occurs during night or day time hours, baited scuttle fly traps consisting decomposed cow’s liver were placed inside the Forensic Entomology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia on diurnal and nocturnal intervals. The traps were divided into two groups, i.e. light-exposed and total dark conditions. It was discovered that all specimens collected were Megaselia scalaris (Loew and they were active and performed oviposition during day and night times. Light exposure did not affect oviposition activity during diurnal and nocturnal periods. Therefore, it is recommended that nocturnal oviposition must be taken into consideration when using this fly as reference for PMImin estimation.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Qinlai; Luo, Baihua; Wu, Chang; Wen, Jifang

    2016-01-01

    More than 1400 scuttle flies species in worldwide comprise the Megaselia genus, the largest genus in the family Phoridae. The complete mitochondrial genome of Megaselia scalaris, a medically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 15,599 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. The arrangement of the genes was identical with other insect. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.87%, G: 13.74%, C: 9.46%, T: 37.93% and the A + T content 76.80%. The mitochondrial genome of M. scalaris presented may be valuable for determining phylogenetic relationships within the order Diptera and especially for the family Phoridae. These sequences could also be used to select reliable molecular markers for species identification in forensic entomology.

  3. Community patterns of nectivorous adult parasitoids (Diptera, Bombyliidae) on their resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Catherine A

    1983-03-01

    Highly diverse assemblages of nectivorous bee flies (Diptera: bombyliidae) occur at desert sites in California presenting an opportunity to investigate the ecology of this little-known group. This study compared communities of adult bee flies visiting flowers at two sites, one in the Mojave Desert (Darwin Plateau) and one in the Great Basin (Mono Basin), during periods of higher and lower resource abundance. The range of resources used by single species varied inversely with the number of species present, with the greatest number of species and smallest niche breadths occurring at the Darwin Plateau. Adult bee flies did not visit flower resources at random. Rather the two major divisions of the family exhibited contrasting patterns of specialization on plant species. Results of this study support the hypothesis that resources were limiting for adult bee flies in the period of lower food abundance at the Darwin Plateau and not limiting at the Mono Basin during this study. Bee flies at the Mono Basin exhibited lower densities per flower (despite higher densities per unit area), lower frequency of feeding, a lower degree of specialization, and less pronounced phenological changes than bee flies at the Darwin Plateau. The data suggest that episodes of population regulation in the non-parasitic (i.e. adult) stage, due to short supply of the adults' food, contribute to determining the structure of parasitoid communities.

  4. Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae em Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera:Hippoboscidae on Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gredilha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Registro de Pseudolynchia canariensis em dois gaviões caranguejeiros de vida livre atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Fundação RioZoo. Os dezenoves exemplares coletados foram identificados no Laboratório de Diptera da Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. O encontro de P. canariensis fora do hospedeiro natural (Columba livia, representa uma contribuição aos estudos da família Hippoboscidae, visto que não há registros sobre aves nativas do continente americano parasitadas por P. canariensis.The record of Pseudolynchia canariensis on two Rufous Crab-Hawk in situ taken care of the Hospital Veterinarian of the RioZoo Foundation. The nineteen collected specimens had been identified in the Laboratory of Diptera, Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The findings of P canariensis out natural hosty (Columba livia it represents a contribution to the studies of the family Hippoboscidae considering that it does not have records about native birds of the american continent parasitized by P canariensis.

  5. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  6. Distribucion geografica de Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, vector de la batonellosis humana en el Peru Geographical distribution of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae vector of human bartonellosis in Peru

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    Abraham G. Caceres

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae, vector natural de la verruga peruana o enfermedad de Carrión es una especie propia del Perú. Su distribución geográfica esta entre los paralelos 5º y 13º25' de latitud Sur, se encuentra en los valles Occidentales e Interandinos de los Andes. La distribución altitudinal de Lu. verrucarum en los diversos valles es variable; asi: Occidentales, desde 1100 hasta 2980 msnm e Interandinos, de 1200 a 3200 msnm. En ciertas áreas verrucógenas no hay correlación entre la presencia de Lu. verrucarum y la enfermedad de Carrión lo que suguiere la existencia de vectores secundarios.Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae; the natural vector of Bartonella bacilliformis, agent of human bartonellosis (peruvian verruga or Carrion's disease, is a native specie of Peru; its geographic distribution occurres between latitudes 5º and 13º 25' South: in the Occidental and Interandean valleys of the Andean. The altitudinal distribution of Lu. verrucarum in the different valleys is as follows: Occidental between 1100 and 2980 m sea level and Interandean from 1200 to 3200 m sea level. Some discrepancies between the distribution of Carrion's disease and Lu. verrucarum suggest the existence of secondary vectors in certain areas where Lu. verrucarum is not present

  7. Vetufebrus ovatus n. gen., n. sp. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) vectored by a streblid bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera. PMID:22152687

  8. Lista das espécies de Bibionomorpha (Diptera do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Sarah Siqueira Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho, é fornecida uma lista de espécies de Bibionomorpha conhecidas para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Das famílias dessa subordem de Diptera, apenas Anisopodidae, Sciaridae, Keroplatidae e Mycetophilidae foram registradas até o momento para essa região. Anisopodidae é representada por um gênero e uma espécie, Sciaridae por três gêneros e nove espécies, Keroplatidae por cinco gêneros e seis espécies, enquanto que Mycetophilidae é conhecida por oito gêneros e 14 espécies. São elencadas possíveis espécies das famílias de Bibionomorpha já conhecidas da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil cuja presença é esperada no Mato Grosso do Sul. Este levantamento é bastante indicativo da enorme diferença existente entre o conhecimento efetivo da biodiversidade de um grupo importante, como Diptera, em uma área grande, como o Mato Grosso do Sul, e a diversidade real do grupo em uma região do Brasil.

  9. Chironomidae (Diptera and Gammaridae (Amphipoda Fauna in Dupnisa Cave (Sarpdere Village, Demirköy, Kırklareli.

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    Nurcan Özkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dupnisa Mağarası’nın (Sarpdere Köyü, Demirköy, Kırklareli Chironomidae (Diptera ve Gammaridae (Amphipoda Faunası. Dupnisa Mağarasına 20.08.2001 ve 06.07.2004 tarihlerinde 2 arazi çalışması gerçekleştirildi. 4 örnekleme lokalitesinden Chironomidae (Diptera ve Gammaridae (Amphipoda familyalarına ait örnekler toplandı. Daha sonra laboratuvarda mikroskop altında teşhisleri gerçekleştirildi. 1 nolu lokalitede Chironomidae familyasına ait larva bulunmadı. 2 nolu lokalitede Paratrissocladius excerptus (Walker, 1806; Epoicocladius ephemerae (Kieffer, 1924; Polypedilum (Tripodura scalaenum (Schrank, 1803, 3 nolu lokalitede Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen, 1804; Telmatopelopia nemorum Goetghebuer, 1921; Paratrichocladius rufiventris (Meigen, 1830; Rheotanytarsus sp.; Micropsectra praecox Wiedemann, 1918 ve 4 nolu lokalitede Heleniella orniaticollis Edwards, 1929; Chaetocladius piger Goetghebuer, 1913; Psectrocladius barbimans Edwards, 1929; Polypedilum (Tripodura scalaenum (Schrank, 1803; Micropsectra praecox Wiedemann, 1918 türleri bulundu. Gammaridae familyasından ise 4 örnekleme lokalitesinin herbirinde yalnız Gammarus arduus G.S. Karaman, 1973 türü saptandı

  10. Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.Morfologia comparada das espermatecas de espécies de Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy e Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Pouco se conhece sobre a morfologia das estruturas quitinizadas das espermatecas de Calliphoridae. Nesse trabalho as espermatecas de Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 e C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 são descritas e ilustradas. Foi registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência em uma espécie com quatro espermatecas, uma forma atípica em califorídeos. A análise dessas estruturas possibilitará uma melhor compreensão do grupo e fornecerá caracteres taxonômicos para futuros estudos filogenéticos.

  11. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  12. Necrophagous species of Diptera and Coleoptera in northeastern Brazil: state of the art and challenges for the Forensic Entomologist

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    Simão D. Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventories on necrophagous insects carried out in Brazil encompass mostly species from the southeastern and central-western regions of the country. This review aims to produce the first checklist of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera species of forensic relevance in northeastern Brazil, an area that concentrates high rates of homicides. We performed a literature survey on scientific articles, theses and dissertations regarding necrophagous insect species in the region, and contacted scientists who develop research on forensic entomology. Fifty-two species of Diptera belonging to eight families with previous record of necrophagy were reported in the region: Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae. Coleopteran species from six families of forensic relevance were registered, although taxonomical identification remained superficial. Bait traps were the most frequent methodology used, followed by collection on animal carcasses. Seven Dipteran species from two families were registered on human cadavers. All species had been previously reported in other Brazilian states and/or other countries, although none has been effectively used in legal procedures in the region. The status of research on forensic entomology in northeastern Brazil is incipient, and the checklist produced here contributes to the knowledge on the local diversity of necrophagous insects.

  13. Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    , 1988; ... cient way to detect gene flow, reproductive isolation, species boundaries and population ..... NJ tree based on partial mitochondrial (a) 16S rRNA, (b) COI and (c) COII genes (left to right). Statistical support for nodes ...

  14. Ultramorphological features of the egg of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae

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    Thalita Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultramorphological features of the egg of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae. Psychodidae flies, also known as sewage, sand and filter flies are important for medical and veterinary purposes. General information about life cycle and adult habits is available, but few species are known about the egg morphology. Therefore, in this study, the egg ultramorphology of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893 was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to describe its structure, generating data for further comparison between different fly species and genera. General aspects of T. albipunctatus egg are similar to other Psychodidae; egg measuring approximately 0.4 mm in length and 0.1 mm in width. However, based on the continuous and discontinuous longitudinal ridge sculptures observed on the exochorion, which can be species-specific, we can infer that T. albipunctatus eggs can survive under dry or moist conditions, making their control much more difficult. Our data emphasize the advantages of the electron microscope approach in the study of the exochorion patterns. Eggshell morphology of T. albipunctatus can be used as basis for further studies and as a tool to compare different species of Psychodidae flies.Aspectos ultramorfológicos do ovo de Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae. As moscas da família Psychodidae, também conhecidas como moscas de banheiro, são de importância médica e veterinária. Informações gerais sobre ciclo de vida e hábitos do adulto são facilmente encontradas, mas pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do ovo. Dessa forma, neste estudo, a ultramofologia do ovo de Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893 foi analisada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura com o objetivo de descrever sua estrutura, provendo importantes dados para futuras comparações entre moscas de diferentes espécies e gêneros. O aspecto geral do ovo de T. albipunctatus é similar a outros

  15. Biology of immature stages of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae in sugarcane and vinasse

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    Otávia Reis e Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Silva O.R., Andriotti P.A., Leal L.C.S.R. & Bittencourt A.J. [Biology of immature stages of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae in sugarcane and vinasse.] Biologia de estágios imaturos de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae em cana de açúcar e vinhoto. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:45-50, 2015. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: bittenc@ufrrj.br To evaluate the effect of vinasse associated with sugarcane in the preoviposition, oviposition and immature stages of S. calcitrans, flies were collected, divided into groups of 15 (six cages and maintained in BOD (26.5±1°C/80% RH. The rearing media (77g of cane was deposited into beaker and stored for three days of fermentation. The vinasse was added in proportions of 1Kg/2L, 1kg/1L and 1Kg/0.5L; Groups I, II and III, and a Control (water for each group with vinasse. The adults were exposed to vinasse in cages, containing blood, water and 10g of the diet. The eggs were deposited in Petri dishes with moistened filter paper (0.5mL distilled water and a drop of blood. The hatched larvae (24h were counted and transferred to beakers containing diet. On the tenth day, the L3 were counted, weighed and returned to the diet. The pupae were removed on the 15th day post-oviposition and deposited in Petri dishes into the cage for emergence of adults. The preoviposition lasted four days and oviposition in Groups I (16 days and II (20 days was longer when compared to Group III (11 days. Larval viability showed how critical this stage is, as at the highest concentration of vinasse, viability was lower than in its control (Group I-2.4%/Control I-29%. Fungal contamination occurred in Group II, affecting larval viability (0.51% and the following stages, being lower than its control (8.75%. In Group III (19

  16. Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry

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    Camila de Oliveira Ferreira Mendes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mendes C.deO.F., Silva A.C., Leal L.C.deS.R., Barbosa C.G & Bittencourt A.J. [Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry.] Biologia de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae em subprodutos da indústria sucroalcoleira. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:23-30, 2016. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23.890-000, Brasil. E-mail: camilamendes1009@gmail.com Stomoxys calcitrans fly is one of the dipterans of importance for livestock farming due to the considerable economic losses it determines worldwide. An aspect that favors the occurrence of this insect's outbreaks in Brazil is the generation of large quantities of by-products from the alcohol industry, such as vinasse, sugarcane straw, bagasse, filtercake and ashes. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible interference of vinasse and ashes on the immature stages of S. calcitrans, by comparing the biological parameters observed with or without the presence of these substrates. In Experiment I, three groups of 50 eggs were deposited in a diet composed of one kilogram of chopped cane and 250mL, 500mL and 1L of vinasse (groups 1, 2 and 3. In the control groups, distilled water was added to the chopped cane in the same proportions used in the groups treated with vinasse. In Experiment II, three groups of 50 larvae from eight to 10 days of emergence were deposited on a diet composed of cane, vinasse and ashes. The ashes were used in the proportion of 1, 2 and 3% (groups 1, 2 and 3 of sugar cane (100g and vinasse was used in the proportion of 100mL for all groups and their respective controls. The control group contained only sugarcane and vinasse. Both experiments were kept in a climatized chamber (27 ± 1°C and 70-80% RH, and three replications were performed. After Experiment I, it was verified that

  17. First colony of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae successfully established under laboratory conditions in Argentina

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    Maricel ANGULO LEWYLLE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas de los establos, Stomoxys calcitrans (L. (Diptera:Muscidae son insectos hematófagos que representan un problema, no solo por su hemato - fagia y transmisión de patógenos, sino además, porque su impacto económico en las producciones pecuarias es relevante. En Argentina aún no existe una cría de la plaga. El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer y describir la primera cría de Stomoxys calcitrans en el país y registrar la duración de cada estadio bajo condi - ciones controladas de laboratorio. Los adultos fueron exitosamente criados en una cámara de cría (28 ± 1 ºC y 47 ± 1 %RH bajo un fotoperiodo de 14 h: 10 h (Luz: Oscuridad, mientras que los estadios inmaduros se criaron a 25 ± 2 ºC y luz na - tural. El ciclo desde los huevos hasta la emergencia de adultos duró 16,75 ± 2,9 días. El tiempo de desarrollo requerido para alcanzar el nuevo estado fue de: 2,0 ± 0,8, 6,75 ± 1,3 y 7,75 ± 1,7 días para huevos, larvas y pupas; respectivamente. Los adultos vivieron 16,5 ± 1,91 días. El período de preoviposición fue de 5,0 ± 0,8 días. La supervivencia de larvas y pupas fue de 93,28% y 70,25%, respectivamen - te. Estos resultados pueden ser usados como referencia por otras colonias que se establecieren en un futuro en el país.

  18. Assessment of Vegetable and Fruit Substrates as Potential Rearing Media for Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucker, Costanza; Erba, Daniela; Leonardi, Maria Giovanna; Lupi, Daniela; Savoldelli, Sara

    2017-10-13

    Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is able to consume a wide range of organic matter and is of particular interest for waste management. The nutritional value of preimaginal stages, in particular the protein content, makes this species a valid candidate for use as feed for other organisms. Vegetables and fruits are promising rearing substrates for insects produced for this purpose according to the EU regulation. In order to examine the effects of diets on insect performance and chemical composition, larvae were reared on the following substrates: 1) fruit (apple, pear, and orange); 2) vegetable (lettuce, green beans, and cabbage); and 3) mixed fruits and vegetables. High percentages of survival were observed on all diets, but there were differences among weights of larvae, pupae, and adults, with weights of larvae reared on mixed fruits and vegetables lower than on other diets. Pupae reared on the mixed diet were heaviest, and also morphometric measurements of adults were highest. Larvae reared on fruit diets had the highest fat content, comprising mostly saturated fatty acids; the highest content of essential n-3 fatty acids was found in vegetable reared larvae and that of n-6 in mixed reared larvae. Larvae reared on the mixed diet had the highest protein content. Calcium contents were high and moderate amounts of iron and zinc were found. H. illucens showed the capability to develop on vegetable and fruits diets displaying different nutrient profiles and biological performances. The best-performing rearing strategy should vary in relation to the final use of H. illucens. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Grass Pollen Affects Survival and Development of Larval Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-09-01

    Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L. (Poales: Typhaceae), Echinochloa pyramidalis Lamarck, Pennisetum setaceum Forsskål, and Zea mays L. pollen on larval survival and rate of development in An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. In addition, we characterize the carbon to nitrogen ratio and the size of pollen grains as a measure of diet quality. Carbon-rich pollen with a small grain size (T. latifolia and P. setaceum; 9.7 ± 0.3 × 103 and 5.5 ± 0.2 × 104 µm3, respectively) resulted in enhanced rates of development of An. arabiensis. In contrast, the larva fed on the nitrogen-rich control diet (TetraMin) was slower to develop, but demonstrated the highest larval survival. Larvae fed on carbon-rich and large-grained Z. mays pollen (4.1 ± 0.2 × 105 µm3) survived at similar levels as those fed on the control diet and also took a longer time to develop compared with larvae fed on the other pollens. While males and females did not appear to develop differently on the different pollen diets, males consistently emerged faster than their female counterparts. These results are discussed in relation to integrated vector management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Bloodmeal analysis reveals avian Plasmodium infections and broad host preferences of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae vectors.

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    Diego Santiago-Alarcon

    Full Text Available Changing environmental conditions and human encroachment on natural habitats bring human populations closer to novel sources of parasites, which might then develop into new emerging diseases. Diseases transmitted by host generalist vectors are of special interest due to their capacity to move pathogens into novel hosts. We hypothesize that humans using forests for recreation are exposed to a broad range of parasites from wild animals and their vectors. A corollary of this is that new vector-host, parasite-host, and vector-parasite associations could eventually develop. Thus, we expect to observe atypical vector-host associations. Using molecular bloodmeal analysis via amplification of the mtDNA COI gene we identified the vertebrate hosts of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae species in a sub-urban forest of Southwestern Germany. Bloodmeals were also checked for haemosporidian infections by amplifying a fragment of the mtDNA cyt b gene. We identified a total of 20 Culicoides species, thirteen of which fed on humans. From 105 screened bloodmeals we obtained high quality sequences for 77 samples, 73 (94.8% originated from humans, two from livestock (Bos taurus and Equus caballus, and two from wild birds (Sylvia atricapilla and Turdus merula. We found that four Culicoides species previously assumed to feed exclusively on either birds (C. kibunensis or domestic mammals (C. chiopterus, C. deltus, C. scoticus fed also on humans. A total of six Culicoides abdomens were infected with avian haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, four of those abdomens contained blood derived from humans. Our results suggest that parasites of wild animals may be transferred to humans through infectious bites of Culicoides vectors. Further, we show that Culicoides vectors believed to be a specialist on specific vertebrate groups can have plastic feeding preferences, and that Culicoides are susceptible to infection by Plasmodium parasites, though vector

  1. Effects of adhesive powders on the mating and flight behavior of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Armsworth, Clare G; Baxter, Ian H; Barton, Lucy E E; Poppy, Guy M; Nansen, Christian

    2006-08-01

    Powders that adhere to insect cuticle can be used as carrier particles for synthetic insecticides, entomopathogens, or pheromones in insect control systems, and insects can be lured into contact with such powder mixtures by using attractants. Secondary transfer of adhesive powders to conspecifics during social interactions has been reported; however, this transfer relies on insects leaving the source of powder and continuing normal behavior when contaminated. We examined the ability of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), to fly and mate after being contaminated with one of two adhesive powders: an electrostatic wax powder, Entostat, and a proprietary metallic powder, Entomag. During continuous observations for 1 h in a flight tunnel, male C. capitata made significantly more flights than females. Treating C. capitata with either powder significantly suppressed the flight activity of male C. capitata compared with untreated controls, whereas powder treatment had a negligible effect on female flight activity. Within 1 h, male C. capitata treated with Entomag recovered normal flight activity, but Entostat-treated males were not fully recovered. Virgin male C. capitata treated with either Entostat or Entomag were able to mate with virgin female C. capitata, but the onset of mating was delayed compared with control C. capitata by approximately 1 h. Even though the effect of powder uptake on behavior seemed to be temporary, scanning electron micrograph images of treated C. capitata showed that both powders were retained for > 24 h on most body parts. The adhesive powders showed potential for use as carrier particles for pesticides, entomopathogens, or pheromones in novel C. capitata control systems.

  2. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  3. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

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    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  4. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  5. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

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    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.

  6. Growth and Development of Acanthiophilus helianthi (Diptera: Tephritidae Feeding on Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius

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    Karim SAEIDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Safflower fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae, undergoes four stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult during its growth and development. In this study, observation showed that the egg’s stage took 1.16 ± 0.00, larva’s stage took 12.02 ± 0.13 and pupa’s stage took 7.03 ± 0.08 days before the emergence of adults. The male adult survived for 21.97 ± 2.69 days, while the female lived 19.19 ± 1.50 days. It was observed that the eggs were laid in a cluster, with a range between 10 – 50 eggs per cluster. The length and width of the individual egg were 1.12 ± 0.03 mm and 0.20 ± 0.00 mm respectively. The percentages of the survived individual larva decreased from the first instar until third instar. In the experiment, the length and width of the larva reached 7.77 ± 0.08 mm and 1.84 ± 0.03 mm respectively. Pupae were observed changing in colour from pale white to dark brown. The length and the width of the pupae observed were 6.78 ± 0.16 mm and 2.90 ± 0.02 mm. The longevity of the adults Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi was influenced by the diets they consumed, the presence of other individuals, wideness of the areas, differences in time taken within the life cycle (between different stages and temperature in the laboratory.

  7. Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

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    Yasoob, Hassan; Ali Khan, Hafiz Azhar; Zhang, Yalin

    2017-09-27

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of medical and veterinary importance all over the world. Management efforts for house flies are usually compromised owing to their resistance to many groups of conventional insecticides. Cantharidin, a natural toxin produced by meloid beetles, is a biopesticide with a reported toxicity to some insect pests including house flies. However, the effects of cantharidin on biological and fitness parameters of house flies have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the toxicity and sublethal effects of cantharidin on biological parameters of house flies for two consecutive generations. The results revealed that the values of LC50, LC25, LC10, and LC2 against house flies were to be 2.45, 1.23, 0.66, and 0.30 mg/liter, respectively. Sublethal effects of these concentrations on the development and reproduction parameters of house flies revealed that cantharidin reduced population growth by affecting pupation rate, adult emergence, and by lengthening developmental time. The female ratio, fecundity, egg hatching, and survival of adult flies were significantly reduced at LC2, LC10, LC25, and LC50 of cantharidin when compared with the control group. Furthermore, the increase in concentration of cantharidin had a significant effect on reducing the mean values of mean relative growth rate, net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), and biotic potential (bp). In conclusion, the results of this study revealed the toxicity of cantharidin against house flies and the adverse effects of sublethal concentrations on biological parameters which may have positive implications for effective management of house flies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern Louisiana to Larval Insecticides.

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    DeLisi, N; Ottea, J; Healy, K

    2017-10-06

    Mosquito control districts conduct rigorous insecticide treatments against both larval and adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), the primary vector of West Nile virus in the southern United States. However, the development of resistant populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus in response to extensive larvicide or adulticide applications has been demonstrated repeatedly across the world. Examining changes in insecticide susceptibility in treated field areas can help inform mosquito control districts as to whether or not their treatments remain effective. We hypothesized that frequent insecticide applications for the control of mosquitoes in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, lowered susceptibility of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus to larvicides. Larvicide susceptibility was measured using Lysinibacillus sphaericus, spinosad, and temephos in populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus sampled from sites in three Parishes where frequencies of insecticide applications varied, and frequencies of resistance were measured relative to a susceptible reference colony. Susceptibility to these larvicides was widespread, although fourfold resistance to the organophosphate temephos was detected at one site in East Baton Rouge Parish in the spring of 2016, which increased to eightfold resistance by the end of the mosquito season. Activities of esterases were found to be elevated in wild, temephos-resistant mosquitoes, indicating the potential role of these enzymes as a mechanism of resistance. The results of this study provide a baseline of comparison for future measurements of susceptibility in Cx. quinquefasciatus in Louisiana, and may help inform local mosquito control districts as to the effectiveness and sustainability of their insecticide programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Insecticidal Potential of Two Sugar Alcohols to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Edwin R; King, B H

    2017-10-01

    Pest management plans for house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), often include insecticides. Because of resistance and environmental concerns with traditional insecticides, safe new pesticides and pesticide formulations are needed. The insecticidal potential of two sugar alcohols, xylitol and erythritol, against adult house flies was assessed. Flies consumed both xylitol and erythritol. The proportion of flies that exhibited the proboscis extension reflex, which is associated with feeding, did not differ significantly between the sugar alcohols and sucrose in an experiment with 20% solutions and older flies, but was less for the sugar alcohols in an experiment with 2M solutions and younger flies. When presented alone or mixed with sucrose, both sugar alcohols significantly decreased fly survival relative to just sucrose. There was a strong negative relationship with concentration and mean days survived for xylitol, but no significant relationship for erythritol or sucrose. Relative to sucrose alone, a temporary exposure to xylitol, but not to erythritol, decreased survival when sucrose was subsequently available. Although xylitol and erythritol can both decrease survival of house flies and would meet the criteria for organic farming, deaths were often not very immediate. However, continued investigation of a variety of sweeteners as feeding-stimulant alternatives to sucrose is still useful, to minimize the risk of house flies evolving resistance to the sugar in baits. Our analysis of already published data on house flies that had been repeatedly exposed to a sucrose-based bait is consistent with the evolution of sucrose-feeding avoidance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The tympanal hearing organ of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea (Diptera, Tachinidae, Ormiini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, D; Read, M P; Hoy, R R

    1994-01-01

    Tympanate hearing has evolved in at least 6 different orders of insects, but had not been reported until recently in the Diptera. This study presents a newly discovered tympanal hearing organ, in the parasitoid tachinid fly, Ormia ochracea. The hearing organ is described in terms of external and internal morphology, cellular organization of the sensory organ and preliminary neuroanatomy of the primary auditory afferents. The ear is located on the frontal face of the prothorax, directly behind the head capsule. Conspicuously visible are a pair of thin cuticular membranes specialized for audition, the prosternal tympanal membranes. Directly attached to these membranes, within the enlarged prosternal chamber, are a pair of auditory sensory organs, the bulbae acusticae. These sensory organs are unique among all auditory organs known so far because both are contained within an unpartitioned acoustic chamber. The prosternal chamber is connected to the outside by a pair of tracheae. The cellular anatomy of the fly's scolopophorous organ was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The bulba acustica is a typical chordotonal organ and it contains approximately 70 receptor cells. It is similar to other insect sensory organs associated with tympanal ears. The similarity of the cellular organization and tympanal morphology of the ormiine ear to the ears of other tympanate insects suggests that there are potent constraints in the design features of tympanal hearing organs, which must function to detect high frequency auditory signals over long distances. Each sensory organ is innervated by a branch of the frontal nerve of the fused thoracic ganglia. The primary auditory afferents project to each of the pro-, meso-, and metathoracic neuropils. The fly's hearing organ is sexually dimorphic, whereby the tympanal membranes are larger in females and the spiracles larger in males. The dimorphism presumably reflects differences in the acoustic behavior in the two sexes.

  11. Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C; Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

    2009-04-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, flower methanol extracts of L. aspera and R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 44.21, 44.69, 53.16, 41.07, 35.32, 28.90 and 44.40 ppm; LC(90) = 187.31, 188.29, 233.18, 142.66, 151.60, 121.05 and 192.11 ppm, respectively) and against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 69.83, 51.29, 81.24, 71.79, 44.42, 84.47 and 65.35 ppm; LC(90) = 335.26, 245.63, 300.45, 361.83, 185.09, 351.41 and 302.42 ppm, respectively). These results suggest that the leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. tritaeniorhynchus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the medicinal plant extracts.

  12. Age-dependent changes in cuticular hydrocarbons of larvae in Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Xu, Ying; Hu, Cui; Zhu, Guang-Hui

    2014-09-01

    Necrophagous flies, comprising the first wave of insects present in a cadaver, provide a great potential for more accurate determination of the late postmortem interval (PMI) based on their age. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) are a promising age indicator in some insect species, especially for the larvae of necrophagous flies. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize the age-dependent, quantitative changes in CHs of larval Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at 24°C. The majority of low-molecular-weight alkanes (≤C25) and almost all of the alkenes decreased in abundance with larval development. By contrast, the abundance of high-molecular-weight alkanes of chain length greater than C25 gradually increased with age. For several peaks, including peak 28 (pentacosene a), peak 31 (n-C25), peak 43 (n-C27) and peak 68 (n-C31), a highly significant correlation was found between peak ratio (n-C29 divided by each chromatographic peak) and chronological age of the larvae. A mathematical model, derived from multivariate linear regression analysis, was developed for determining age of the larvae based on age-dependent changes in CHs. The estimated larval age based on the CHs had a good linear correlation with the chronological age (R(2)>0.9). These results indicate that CHs has a great potential for determining the age of fly larvae, and concomitantly for the PMI in forensic investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Description of a Neotropical New Species of OxysarcodexiaTownsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

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    Carina Souza

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Uma nova espécie de Oxysarcodexia Townsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae é descrita com base em espécimes machos. As espécies deste gênero de sarcofagídeos apresentam distribuição majoritariamente Neotropical, com algumas espécies ocorrendo também nas regiões Neártica, Australásia e Oceânica. As espécies deste gênero podem ser encontradas associadas à matéria orgânica em decomposição (fezes de mamíferos ou aves – espécies coprófilas e podem apresentar importância forense quando associadas a carcaças (fauna atraída e, em alguns casos, espécies que se criam. Fotografias digitais do hábito em vista lateral e da terminália em vistas lateral, posterior e ventral são apresentadas. Oxysarcodexia mineirensis sp. n. pertence ao “grupo Xarcophaga” (i.e. possui o falo alargado postero-distalmente e contém similaridades com Oxysarcodexia favorabilis (Lopes, 1935 devido à conformação da terminália, especialmente o formato do falo, semelhante a uma flor.

  14. Cuticular structures on antennae of the bot fly, Portschinskia magnifica (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Wang, Qi-Ke; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2012-10-01

    Portschinskia magnifica Pleske, 1926, is an endangered subcutaneous parasitic fly of voles that mimics bumblebees in appearance. Although the importance of antennae in Diptera has been repeatedly stressed, there is still a lack of morphology information of this group, let alone this species. Antennae of adult P. magnifica were studied with a stereoscopic microscope and scanning electron microscope. Six subtypes of antennal sensilla were observed on the funiculus and arista (one subtype of trichoid sensilla, one subtype of basiconic sensilla, and four subtypes of coeloconic sensilla). Sensilla on the antennal funiculus from one sample of both male and female flies were also mapped. Female P. magnifica bear a larger number of sensilla than males, and more sensilla were discovered on the posterior surface than on the anterior surface. However, what make this species special are the distinct structures and new morphological characteristics discovered in the antenna. The antennal funiculus of P. magnifica is completely enveloped by an antennal pedicel. A large number of branched or unbranched trichoid and basiconic sensilla are identified on the antennal funiculus. These two make the most numerous types of sensilla distributed all over the funicular surface. P. magnifica has the most coeloconic sensilla subtypes in previously studied oestrid flies. A total of four subtypes of coeloconic sensilla are found, with subtype I and subtype II on the proximal and middle part of the antennal funiculus and subtype III and subtype IV on the antennal arista. Two large bristles that resemble mechanoreceptors on the proximal two antennal segments located close to the arista are a unique feature. This has never been described in the oestrid funiculus. Interestingly, these bristles can appear as multi-tipped short structures in some individuals. P. magnifica lacks sensory pits that are usually abundant in other oestrid flies. The size, number, and distribution of sensilla on the male

  15. Genome Instability of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae from Polluted Water Basins in Bulgaria

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    Julia Ilkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.

  16. Overwintering in the Bamboo Mosquito Tripteroides bambusa (Diptera: Culicidae) During a Warm, But Unpredictably Changing, Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Jian, Jiun-Yu; Moji, Kazuhiko

    2017-12-22

    The bamboo mosquito, Tripteroides bambusa (Yamada) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a common insect across forested landscapes in Japan. Several studies have reported its overwintering as larvae and eggs, in both natural and artificial water containers. Nevertheless, it is unclear how sensitive this mosquito species is to changes in weather patterns associated with global warming. The El Niño event of 2015 through 2016 was one of the strongest on record and provided an ideal scenario for observations on the overwintering of the bamboo mosquito during a winter predicted to be unusually warm. Thus, we set oviposition traps in mid October 2015 and made weekly observations, from December 2015 to May 2016, on bamboo mosquito larval recruitment and pupation in Nagasaki, Japan. We found that larvae were pupating as late as the first week of January (prior records from the study site indicated mosquito pupation ended by mid-late October) and that pupation resumed in mid April (one month earlier than previous records at the study site). We also found that fourth instar larvae were able to survive in frozen oviposition traps following an extremely unusual snowstorm and cold spell and that recruitment of larvae from eggs happened after this unusual event. Our analysis suggested that overwintering and metamorphosis of the bamboo mosquito is sensitive to average and extreme temperatures, the latter measured by temperature kurtosis. Our results highlight the need to better understand changes in overwintering strategies in insects, and associated trade-offs and impacts on population dynamics, in light of climate change. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Identification of sarcosaprophagous Diptera species through DNA barcoding in wildlife forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolo, Eva A; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Dourado, Catarina G; Farinha, Ana; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; Dias, Deodália

    2013-05-10

    In recent years, forensic entomology has been applied in wildlife crimes, such as neglect cases, animal cruelty and illegal poaching. Likewise in human death investigations, in which insects can help to provide information about postmortem interval (PMI) and corpse transfer, entomology may be an important source of information in animal murder suspicion. The use of insects in forensic context relies primarily on its identification at the species level. To overcome some problems of morphological determination, molecular identification has gained relevance and has been applied frequently in forensic areas. Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was adopted in DNA barcoding approach. This methodology intends to unify the DNA-based identification using a specific region of mitochondrial DNA. COI sequences have been collected into the BOLD online database, allowing the molecular identification of sequences from unknown specimens. Nonetheless, to achieve a correct identification of an unknown sample, it is necessary that sequences from species under study exist, for comparison, in online databases. Due to the geographic differences, it is of huge importance to have samples from a certain species from its distribution range. In that sense, the aim of this research is to contribute to the potential and accuracy improvement of such databases in identification of species commonly found in wildlife carcasses. A portion of COI was sequenced from 95 specimens of seven species belonging to two families of Diptera (Calliphoridae and Muscidae) found in wildlife carcasses-baited traps in Serra da Estrela (Portugal). All specimens were identified at species level with a high specimen similarity and maximum identity percentage (through BOLD Systems and GenBank online databases, respectively). We also demonstrate the correct discrimination of all species through phylogenic and sequence divergence analyses proposed in DNA barcoding studies, reinforcing the suitability of this marker

  18. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  19. Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2011-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant and microbial products were used in various aspects. However, their use against insects decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insects. In this study, mosquito Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of the leaf of three plants, Eclipta alba, Cardiospermum halicacabum, and Andrographis paniculata, were tested against the early third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata, E. alba, and C. halicacabum against the larvae of A. stephensi (LC(50) = 79.68, 112.56, and 133.01 ppm; LC(90) = 154.66, 220.68, and 270.72 ppm), respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with methanol and ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata and methanol extract of E. alba were exerted at 200 ppm and methanol and benzene extract of C. halicacabum exerted at 150 ppm. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malaria vector, A. stephensi. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal and ovicidal activities against malaria vector, A. stephensi of E. alba plant extracts.

  20. Insecticide toxicity to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is influenced by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.

  1. Automated Kinematic Extraction of Wing and Body Motions of Free Flying Diptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostreski, Nicholas I.

    In the quest to understand the forces generated by micro aerial systems powered by oscillating appendages, it is necessary to study the kinematics that generate those forces. Automated and manual tracking techniques were developed to extract the complex wing and body motions of dipteran insects, ideal micro aerial systems, in free flight. Video sequences were captured by three high speed cameras (7500 fps) oriented orthogonally around a clear flight test chamber. Synchronization and image-based triggering were made possible by an automated triggering circuit. A multi-camera calibration was implemented using image-based tracking techniques. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the insect were generated from the 2-D images by shape from silhouette (SFS) methods. An intensity based segmentation of the wings and body was performed using a mixture of Gaussians. In addition to geometric and cost based filtering, spectral clustering was also used to refine the reconstruction and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to find the body roll axis and wing-span axes. The unobservable roll state of the cylindrically shaped body was successfully estimated by combining observations of the wing kinematics with a wing symmetry assumption. Wing pitch was determined by a ray tracing technique to compute and minimize a point-to-line cost function. Linear estimation with assumed motion models was accomplished by discrete Kalman filtering the measured body states. Generative models were developed for different species of diptera for model based tracking, simulation, and extraction of inertial properties. Manual and automated tracking results were analyzed and insect flight simulation videos were developed to quantify ground truth errors for an assumed model. The results demonstrated the automated tracker to have comparable performance to a human digitizer, though manual techniques displayed superiority during aggressive maneuvers and image blur. Both techniques demonstrated

  2. Response of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to weathered SPLAT-Spinosad-Cue-Lure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Jang, Eric B; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Gomez, Luis; Stoltman, Lyndsie; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to measure attraction of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-Cue-Lure (C-L) and SPLAT-Melo-Lure (M-L) (raspberry ketone formate). Direct field comparisons of SPLAT-C-L and SPLAT-M-L at low (5%) and high (20%) concentrations indicated few differences in attraction over a 15-wk period. Subsequently, only SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L (5%) was compared with Min-U-Gel C-L with naled (standard used in California) in weathering studies. Treatments were weathered for 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk in Riverside, CA, and shipped to Hawaii for attraction/toxicity tests under field and semifield conditions by using released males of controlled ages, and for feeding tests in the laboratory. In terms of attraction, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L compared favorably to, or outperformed the current standard of Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled. In terms of toxicity, the cumulative 24-h mortality did not differ between the two insecticide-containing C-L treatments in field cage studies after 8 wk. However, in feeding studies in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different C-L treatments after 4 wk of weathering, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L demonstrated reduced mortality compared with the Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled, suggesting reduced persistence of the spinosad material. Spinosad has low contact toxicity and when mixed with SPLAT and C-L offers a reduced risk alternative for control of B. cucurbitae and related C-L-responding species, without many of the negative effects to humans and nontargets of broad-spectrum contact poisons such as naled.

  3. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D H; Gruner, S V

    2007-05-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormnia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  5. Morphological and cytochemical aspects of spermatozoa in the genus Cochliomyia (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Name, K P O; Barros-Cordeiro, K B; Filho, Gama; Wolff, M; Pujol-Luz, J R; Báo, S N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize, structurally and ultrastructurally, the spermatozoa of the screwworm flies Cochliomyia hominivorax and Cochliomyia macellaria. To visualize the ultrastructure of microtubules and identify basic proteins, techniques such as the tannic acid fixation and the cytochemical method of ethanolic phosphotungstic acid (EPTA) were used. These methods of fixation are important because they reinforce the evidence of the protofilaments present in the microtubular wall and identify basic proteins, respectively. With the tannic acid fixative it was possible to observe a significant number of microtubules in the cell cytoplasm during spermiogenesis. Microtubules were observed in all regions of spermatids (head, 'overlap' zone and tail). The EPTA technique highlighted the presence of basic proteins on the border of the nucleus and nuclear envelope in the two species analyzed, and in the centriolar adjunct and on the border of mitochondrial derivatives in C. macellaria. The axoneme is of a conventional insect type with a 9 + 9 + 2 microtubular arrangement and the spermatozoa of C. hominivorax and C. macellaria are similar to those described for other Brachycera. The spermatozoa are long and thin in these two species, ∼190 µm in length, of which the head region measures ∼26 µm in C. hominivorax and 29 µm in C. macellaria. A polymorphism was observed in C. hominivorax and C. macellaria. These features are consistent with the structural diversity of the dipteran spermatozoa, constituting an essential tool for understanding the complex variations found in the Diptera order.

  6. Developmental variation among Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae) populations from three ecoregions of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, Charity G; Spiegelman, Cliff; Tarone, Aaron M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-07-01

    Forensic entomologists rely on published developmental datasets to estimate the age of insects developing on human remains. Currently, these datasets only represent populations of targeted insects from specific locations. However, recent data indicate that populations can exhibit genetic variation in their development, including signatures of local adaptation demonstrated by regionally distinct plastic responses to their environments. In this study, three geographically distinct populations of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae; College Station, Longview, and San Marcos, TX, USA), a common blow fly collected from human remains in the southern USA, were reared in two distinct environments (cool 21 °C, 65 % relative humidity (RH); and warm 31 °C, 70 % RH) over 2 years (2011 and 2012) in order to determine differences in development time and mass. Significant differences in immature and pupal development time, as well as pupal mass, were shown to exist among strains derived from different populations and years. For immature development times, there was evidence of only an environmental effect on phenotype, while genotype by environment interactions was observed in pupal development times and pupal mass. College Station and San Marcos populations exhibited faster pupal development and smaller pupal sizes in the cooler environment relative to the Longview population, but showed an opposite trend in the warm environment. Rank order for College Station and Longview populations was reversed across years. Failure to take genetic variation into consideration when making such estimates can lead to unanticipated error and bias. These results indicate that genetics will have little impact on error when working with Texas genotypes of C. macellaria at ~30 °C and 70 % RH, but will have a more meaningful impact on error in postmortem interval estimates with this species in cooler, drier environments.

  7. Discontinuous foraging behavior of necrophagous Lucilia sericata (Meigen 1826) (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2013-03-01

    Larvae of the necrophagous Blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) live on vertebrate cadavers. Although continuously feeding was previously assumed for this species, we hypothesized that larvae do not feed constantly. According to this hypothesis, their crop should not always be full, which should be reflected in crop surfaces. We dissected and measured the crops of larvae of the same age and bred in the same conditions. Crop surfaces of 117 larvae just removed from the food ranged from 0 to 16.6 mm(2) (mean=5.325±2.84 mm(2)). The distribution of these crop surfaces indicates a continuous variation of satiation/feeding activity in the population. Starving experiments showed a quite long digestive process. After 90 min of starving, the decrease in crop surfaces became obvious, but 150 min were necessary to observe more than a half of the population with an empty crop (less than 2 mm(2)). No more differences were observed after 150, 180 and 240 min of starving. We finally used starved larvae to observe the kinetic of food absorption and the duration of the food-intake phase. Our results indicates that larvae can ingest faster than they digest. After 5 min spent in the food, 70% of the larvae had a crop surface larger or equal to 8 mm(2). We observed for the first time an over-feeding of the larvae, with high crop surfaces overrepresented compared to larvae never starved (control). Together, these results indicate that larvae do not feed continuously, and regulate their foraging behavior. We propose that the foraging behavior of the larvae creates a permanent movement inside the larval masses. This turnover/scramble competition may be linked to the larval-mass effect, i.e. the local temperature increase observed in large necrophagous larvae aggregates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baneshwar; Crippen, Tawni L; Zheng, Longyu; Fields, Andrew T; Yu, Ziniu; Ma, Qun; Wood, Thomas K; Dowd, Scot E; Flores, Micah; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Although the genus is of considerable economic importance, our knowledge about microbes associated with these flies and how these bacteria are horizontally and trans-generationally transmitted is limited. In this study, we characterized bacteria associated with different life stages of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and in the salivary gland of L. sericata by using 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. Bacteria associated with the salivary gland of L. sericata were also characterized using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from this study suggest that the majority of bacteria associated with these flies belong to phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, and most bacteria are maintained intragenerationally, with a considerable degree of turnover from generation to generation. In both species, second-generation eggs exhibited the highest bacterial phylum diversity (20 % genetic distance) than other life stages. The Lucilia sister species shared the majority of their classified genera. Of the shared bacterial genera, Providencia, Ignatzschineria, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Morganella, and Myroides were present at relatively high abundances. Lactobacillus, Proteus, Diaphorobacter, and Morganella were the dominant bacterial genera associated with a survey of the salivary gland of L. sericata. TEM analysis showed a sparse distribution of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the salivary gland of L. sericata. There was more evidence for horizontal transmission of bacteria than there was for trans-generational inheritance. Several pathogenic genera were either amplified or reduced by the larval feeding on decomposing liver as a resource. Overall, this study provides

  9. Generic phytosanitary radiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies provides quarantine security for Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Phillips, Thomas W; Armstrong, John W; Moy, James H

    2011-10-01

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a quarantine pest of several solanaceous crops and tropical fruits that are treated using irradiation before export from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland. A dose of 150 Gy is approved as a generic irradiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies, but no confirmation of efficacy has been reported for B. latifrons. Dose response of B. latifrons was used to determine the most tolerant life stage and identify a dose that prevents adult emergence. Data indicated doses (plus 95% confidence limits) required to prevent adult emergence of 13.4 (10.0-29.6), 17.5 (14.4-24.8), and 88.1 (68.0-133.8) Gy for eggs, first instars and third instars, respectively. In large-scale confirmatory tests of the most radiotolerant life stage, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to B. latifrons late third instars in bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) resulted in no survival to the adult stage of 157,112 individuals, a treatment efficacy consistent with Probit 9-level mortality. The relative radiotolerance of melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet, and B. latifrons also was tested using a diagnostic radiation dose of 30 Gy. In diet, a mean of 6.9% of irradiated B. cucurbitae third instars developed to the adult stage, whereas no B. latifrons third instars developed to adults. In papaya, Carica papaya L., fruit, a mean of 3.3% of irradiated B. cucurbitae third instars developed to the adult stage, whereas 0.5% B. latifrons third instars developed to adults. This report supports the use of a generic radiation dose of 150 Gy in quarantine scenarios to control tephritid fruit flies on fresh commodities.

  10. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.

  11. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Capture probability of released males of two Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in detection traps in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, T; Nishimoto, J; Diaz, A; Leathers, J; War, M; Shoemaker, R; Al-Zubaidy, M; Joseph, D

    2010-12-01

    The genus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) includes approximately 70 polyphagous species that are major pests of fruit and vegetable crops. Most Bactrocera species have limited geographic distributions, but several species are invasive, and many countries operate continuous trapping programs to detect infestations. In the United States, California maintains approximately 25,000 traps (baited with male lures) specifically for Bactrocera detection distributed over an area of approximately 6,400 km2 (2,500 miles2) in the Los Angeles area. Although prior studies have used male lures to describe movement of Bactrocera males, they do not explicitly relate capture probability with fly distance from lure-baited traps; consequently, they do not address the relative effectiveness of male lures in detecting incipient populations of Bactrocera species. The objective of this study was to measure the distance-dependent capture probability of marked, released males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (methyl eugenol- and cue lure-responding species, respectively) within the detection trapping grid operating in southern California. These data were then used to compute simple probability estimates for detecting populations of different sizes of the two species. Methyl eugenol was the more powerful attractant, and based on the mark-recapture data, we estimated that B. dorsalis populations with as few as approximately 50 males would always (>99.9%) be detected using the current trap density of five methyl eugenol-baited traps per 2.6 km2 (1 mile2). By contrast, we estimated that certain detection of B. cucurbitae populations would not occur until these contained approximately 350 males. The implications of the results for the California trapping system are discussed, and the findings are compared with mark-release-recapture data obtained for the same two species in Hawaii.

  13. Effect of sweeteners on the survival and behaviour of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunyan; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) causes serious damage that affects fruit production. Chemical insecticides have been widely used for the prevention and control of this destructive pest. However, the resistance of B. dorsalis to these compounds has become a serious problem. This study tested six sweeteners for their toxicity to B. dorsalis. B. dorsalis fed on erythritol, aspartame and saccharin exhibited significantly higher mortality than those fed on sucrose. Flies fed on erythritol died faster than did the control flies (water). However, no dose-dependent effects were observed at the concentrations tested. These three sweeteners decreased the climbing ability of B. dorsalis. Notably, adults fed on saccharin exhibited significantly decreased climbing ability after 12 h compared with those fed on sucrose. Additionally, these three sweeteners had a negative effect on the frequency and duration of the flies' behaviour patterns (flying, walking, grooming and inactivity). Saccharin not only induced a marked reduction in the frequency of flights and walks but also induced decreases in the time spent flying and walking and increases in inactivity compared with sucrose. Erythritol induced a reduction in movement and increased the time spent inactive compared with the control and other treatments. Three sweeteners had significant negative effects on the survival of B. dorsalis. Erythritol was toxic to B. dorsalis. Aspartame and saccharin also decreased the survival and behaviour of adult flies and may be toxic to (or contribute to poor nutrition in) B. dorsalis. These sweeteners could therefore be developed as additive ingredients in baits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  15. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable.

  16. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique de Carvalho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800. For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0, and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates. Populational parameters such as the intrinsic growth rate (r and the finite growth rate (lambda were calculated as well.Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae é uma espécie de mosca-varejeira de considerável importância médico-sanitária que foi introduzida acidentalmente no Brasil nos anos 70. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos da ecologia populacional desta espécie, analisando aspectos demográficos de adultos mantidos sob condições experimentais. Gaiolas de C. megacephala foram montadas com quatro diferentes densidades larvais (100, 200, 400 e 800. Para cada gaiola, foram confeccionadas duas tabelas: uma com parâmetros demográficos para a estimativa da expectativa de vida na idade inicial (e0, e outra com as estimativas de taxa reprodutiva e idade média de reprodução. Parâmetros populacionais tais como a taxa intrínseca de crescimento (r e a taxa finita de crescimento (lambda foram também calculados.

  17. Genetic Evidence for the Introduction of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) into the Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Doellman, Meredith M; Hood, Glen R; Yee, Wee L; Powell, Thomas H Q; Schwarz, Dietmar; Goughnour, Robert B; Egan, Scott P; Jean, Gilbert St; Smith, James J; Arcella, Tracy E; Dzurisin, Jason D K; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2017-12-05

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious quarantine pest in the apple-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. The fly is believed to have been introduced into the Pacific Northwest via the transport of larval-infested apples near Portland, Oregon, within the last 40 yr. However, R. pomonella also attacks native black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii Lindley (Rosales: Rosaceae), and introduced ornamental hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna Jacquin, in the region. It is, therefore, possible that R. pomonella was not introduced but has always been present on black hawthorn. If true, then the fly may have independently shifted from hawthorn onto apple in the Pacific Northwest within the last 40 yr after apples were introduced. Here, we test the introduction hypothesis through a microsatellite genetic survey of 10 R. pomonella sites in Washington and 5 in the eastern United States, as well as a comparison to patterns of genetic variation between populations of Rhagoletis cingulata Loew and Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, two sister species of cherry-infesting flies known to be native to the eastern and western United States, respectively. We report results based on genetic distance networks, patterns of allelic variation, and estimated times of population divergence that are consistent with the introduction hypothesis for R. pomonella. The results have important implications for R. pomonella management, suggesting that black hawthorn-infesting flies near commercial apple-growing regions of central Washington may harbor sufficient variation to utilize apple as an alternate host, urging careful monitoring, and possible removal of hawthorn trees near orchards. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DROSOPHILA SUZUKII (DIPTERA: DROSOPHILIDAE) IN BELGIUM IN 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D

    2014-01-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed.

  19. Attractiveness of fermentation and related products to spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Joseph R; Unelius, C Rikard; Lee, Jana C; Suckling, David Maxwell; Qian, Michael C; Bruck, Denny J

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory screening bioassays and field trapping experiments of spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), were conducted to determine the attractiveness of 17 compounds as well as to compare attractant efficiency during peak fruit ripeness and postharvest captures late in the season. Compounds structurally related to each of the fermentation products acetic acid, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and 2-phenethyl alcohol were screened for attractiveness compared with a soap water control in greenhouse cage bioassays. The compounds determined to be attractive in the greenhouse bioassay (methanol, ethanol, propanol, formic acid, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, phenethyl propionate, and phenethyl butyrate) were individually tested in the field added to apple cider vinegar (ACV). The acids were also tested individually in neutralized ACV (NACV; pH ≍7). Combinations of the compounds were tested in NACV. The capture numbers in ACV traps were not significantly increased by the addition of any of the compounds tested, although significant deterrent effects of some of the compounds allowed differences between treatments to be observed. Compounds that are most prevalent in wine and vinegar (methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate) as well as phenethyl propionate and phenethyl butyrate were less deterrent than the other compounds tested in the field. Captures during peak fruit ripeness were compared with the postharvest period when fruit hosts were not available or were overripe. Although the total number of flies captured late in the season was lower, the trends in treatment performance were similar, indicating a consistent performance of these baits from peak fruit ripeness through postharvest.

  20. Comparison of a synthetic chemical lure and standard fermented baits for trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (<0.5 cm) nontarget flies trapped. The SWD lure captured fewer nontarget small flies and more large flies compared with ACV bait in New York and fewer nontarget small flies compared with W + V in Germany, although no such differences were found in Washington for the SWD lure versus ACV bait and in Connecticut for the SWD lure versus the combination bait, indicating that these effects are likely influenced by the local nontarget insect community active at the time of trapping. In New York, Connecticut, and Germany, dome traps caught more nontarget flies compared with cup traps. Our results suggest that the four-component SWD chemical lure is an effective attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.

  1. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  2. Hymenopterous parasitoids attacking Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae in Kohgiluyeh Safflower farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Safflower capsule fly (SCF, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae is the most destructive insect pest attacking the Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. plant which are cultivated as an oil crop. It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an integrated pest management program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem. Therefore, in this research work the pupal parasitoids of Safflower capsule fly a main insect pest attacking Safflower plants were identified. The impact of these parasitoids against this pest was evaluated on the varying pest generations and within different locations in Kohgiluyeh province during 2008-2009 seasons. Pupal parasitoid adults of SCF were recorded from fieldreared pupae, which had been collected from heavily infested small flower heads of the first generation as well from large flower heads of the second and third generations. Rate of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten hymenopterous species belonging to different families parasitizing insect pupae were screened as follows: Bracon hebetor (Spinola, 1808 and Bracon luteator (Spinola, 1808 (Braconidae; Isocolus tinctorious (Melika and Gharaei, 2006 (Cynipidae; Pronotalia carlinarum (Szelenyi and Erdos, 1951 (Eulophidae; Eurytoma acroptilae (Zerova, 1986 (Eurytomidae; Ormyrus orientalis (Walker, 1871 (Ormyridae; Colotrechnus viridis (Masi, 1921 and Pteromalus sp. (Walker, 1976 (Pteromalidae; and Antistrophoplex conthurnatus (Zerova, 2000 and Microdontomenus annulatus (Masi, 1899 (Torymidae. The average parasitization rate was 23±1 as revealed through the present study. The highest parasitization rate occurred during the first generation in all localities tested, as well as in years. Statistical

  3. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Dengue : guide- lines for diagnosis, treatment , prevention and control. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. Zar, J. H. 1999. Biostatistical Analysis, 4th ed... Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), inside human habitations must be performed quickly and efÞciently to reduce the risk of transmission during dengue

  5. Catalogue of Anisopodidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha types housed in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela L. Falaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, this paper provides a catalogue of the type specimens of Anisopodidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP. Information on labels and type conditions, on 54 type specimens (including 21 primary types of 24 Neotropical species are provided.

  6. The classic episode of biological invasion: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) versus Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) - evaluation of the biotic potential

    OpenAIRE

    BARBOSA,LEANDRO S.; Couri, Márcia S.; Coelho, Valéria M. A.; FERNANDA AVELINO-CAPISTRANO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The classic episode of biological invasion: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) versus Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) - evaluation of the biotic potential. The biotic of the native fly Cochliomyia macellaria and the exotic Chrysomya megacephala was compared, through the reproductive capacity and longevity. The experiment took place in a climatized chamber, with four repetitions of 15 grouped couples of each species. The posture, egg mass weight,...

  7. A New Species of Culex (Eumelanomyia) from India with Descriptions of Pupae and Larvae of Cx. pluvialis Barraud and Cx. iphis Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    crown composed of 4,5 flat and blunt spicules laterally and several dark, spinelike spicules mesally; basal sternal process absent; cereal setae 3,4...filament well developed. DISTRIBUTION. In addition to the previous records from India and Peninsu- lar Malaysia (Sirivanakarn 1972; Sirivanakarn and...Ramalingam. 1976. A new species of CuZex (EwneZunoymial Theobald with notes on three other species from Malaysia (Diptera: Culici- dae). Mosq

  8. Is the alpine divide becoming more permeable to biological invasions? - Insights on the invasion and establishment of the Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Aluja, M.; Guillén, L.; Rull, J.; Höhn, H.; Frey, J.; Graf, B.; Samietz, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to North America (Midwestern US and north-eastern Mexico) and has invaded several European countries in the past decades by likely crossing the alpine divide separating most parts of Switzerland from Italy. Here, we determined its current distribution in Switzerland by sampling walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in ecologically and climatically distinct regions along potential invasion corridors. R. completa was found ...

  9. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on the

  10. Flies from L.A., The Sequel: A further twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) from the BioSCAN Project in Los Angeles (California, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, Emily A; Brown, Brian V; Disney, R Henry L

    2016-01-01

    Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) are described: M. baileyae, M. friedrichae, M. gonzalezorum, M. joanneae, M. losangelensis, M. phyllissunae, M. pongsaiae, M. shatesae, M. stoakesi, M. studentorum, M. voluntariorum, M. wongae.

  11. A laboratory-based study for first documented case of urinary myiasis caused by larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakid, Majed H

    2008-03-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the medically important insects. Maggots from a urine sample of a 5-year-old Saudi girl were examined microscopically for identification. These maggots were cultured to become adult flies. Larvae and adults were identified using standard keys. Protozoan flagellates were obtained from the gut of the larvae. This is the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of urinary human myiasis in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera Current knowledge of the family Ceratopogonidae in Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

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    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National

  13. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as a potential measure of human postmortem interval: observations and case histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, W D; Goff, M L; Adkins, T R; Haskell, N H

    1994-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), has been shown to be a ubiquitous inhabitant of both surface and buried human remains throughout the southern, central and western United States and Hawaii. Unlike most other species of forensically important Diptera, this species frequently dominates bodies in the dry/post decay stage of decomposition. Adults of the black soldier fly appear to initiate oviposition (egg laying) 20 to 30 days postmortem. Even at warm temperatures (27.8 degrees C), subsequent completion of the life cycle can require an additional 55 days. Life history data for H. illucens, when used in combination with data for other cohabiting arthropod species and viewed in the context of local environmental conditions, can provide medicolegal investigators with valuable parameters for estimating the postmortem intervals for badly decomposed remains.

  14. [Cutaneous myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Ossa, Napoleón; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Visbal, Lila; Santos, Ana María; Díaz, Esther; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M E

    2009-03-01

    Human myiasis is the parasitism of human tissues by fly larvae. Diagnoses are based on clinical pattern of tissue damage and presence of insect stages. Herein, a case myiasis is described in a seven-year-old female child. She presented with fever associated with abscessed scalp lesions containing exposed larvae. Severe pediculosis was also observed. The patient was hospitalized and treated with clindamycin, gentamicin (for bacterial secondary infections) and ivermectin (treatment for lice) after which the patient showed clinical improvement and was discharged four days later. Since human myiasis can be caused by a number of different species, larvae were collected from the patient and identified as those of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Because other cases of coinfestation of flies and lice are on record, health workers are to be alerted about the possible pediculosis-myasis risk.

  15. Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) of Latin America and the Caribbean: geographic distribution and check-list by country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a geographic database for the Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) that are endemic to Latin America and the Caribbean and non-synanthropic. We summarize the geographic information provided by specimens from three entomological collections in Brazil (DZUP, MNRJ, and MZUEFS) as well as geographic information we compiled in the literature. The resulting 817 species were linked to their geographic records by country, state/province/department, locality, latitude and longitude, including source reference. When coordinates were not provided in specimens' labels, we used the locality information to search geographic coordinates in online gazetteers. We also separated the species by country for a country-species list. These data comprise 250 years of collections and taxonomic studies of Neotropical Muscidae and we expect that it provides a foundation and serves as guide for future studies of systematics and biogeography of the family.

  16. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  17. Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n. based on immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Mulder, Monica; Spies, Martin

    2016-08-31

    The immature stages are described for the first time for Chironomus (Xenochironomus) australiensis Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the adult male is redescribed including from type specimens. The species does not belong to Chironomus Meigen or Xenochironomus Kieffer, but is best placed in a modestly expanded Einfeldia Kieffer. Application of this genus name is clarified, including by a lectotype fixation for its type species, E. pectoralis Kieffer, 1924. Einfeldia australiensis (Freeman) comb. n. provides the first record of the genus from Australia; otherwise the genus is reported confidently only from North America, Central America and western Europe to Japan. The immature stages of E. australiensis occur in relatively shallow mesotrophic to eutrophic dune lakes and maars with circum-neutral pH and high conductivity, from southeastern Queensland to southern Australia. The cytology is described briefly from larval salivary glands. Alternative genus placements for the species are discussed, and problems with Einfeldia and connected systematics in the tribe Chironomini are addressed.

  18. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

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    Nadja Gomes Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During the study period, we found 40.3 and 94.4 individuals/m2 at points 3 and 4 (low course, respectively. There is eutrophication in these sites due to domestic sewage discharges, indicating low quality water. The Barbado Stream needs restoration projects that include an awareness of the residents of their neighborhood’s environmental importance, and investments in the sanitation sector to prioritize the collection and treatment of wastewater and solid waste collection.

  19. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae). The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC).

  20. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

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    M. de S.,Jr. MENDONÇA

    Full Text Available The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae. The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC.

  1. Cuterebrid myiasis (Diptera: Oestridae) in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at a South Carolina zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuten, Holly C; Miller, Heather C; Ellis, Angela E

    2011-09-01

    In September 2008, two ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), comprising a mother-daughter pair, at the Greenville Zoo, Greenville, South Carolina, USA, were diagnosed with cuterebrid myiasis (Diptera: Oestridae) subsequent to sudden death of the adult lemur. On necropsy, a single bot warble was discovered in the subcutis of the axillary region. Histopathology revealed a severe eosinophilic bronchopneumonia. The juvenile lemur was inspected and found to have warbles on three separate dates in late September. One representative bot fly larva was identified as a Cuterebra sp. that normally infests lagomorphs in the southeastern United States. Cuterebrid myiasis is rarely reported in lemurs and has not been previously associated with pneumonia or death in these animals.

  2. Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature?

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    Sofija Pavković-Lučić

    Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.

  3. Checklist das espécies de Lauxaniidae (Insecta, Diptera do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Vera Cristina Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Lauxaniidae é uma das maiores famílias de Diptera Schizophora, com distribuição mundial, muito abundante nas áreas tropicais. A família está composta por cerca de 1.550 espécies. Os adultos apresentam o corpo pequeno a relativamente grande (2-11 mm, com coloração variada, muitas vezes com marcas, manchas, listras ou padrões reticulados. As larvas são conhecidas como saprófagas, alimentando-se em uma variedade de matéria vegetal em decomposição e mesmo em capítulos de flores. Adultos são raspadores de fungos em folhas. A fauna brasileira de Lauxaniidae compreende, até o momento, 74 espécies das quais 8 possuem registro assinalado para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.

  4. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area.

  5. Phenotypic plasticity for Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae larval olfactory behaviour in response to whole fruit olfactory stimuli

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    Nicolás J. LAVAGNINO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae es el organismo modelo por excelencia en insectos. Sin embargo, salvo algunas excepciones, los aspectos ecológicos de esta especie han sido poco estudiados. En el presente trabajo, se describe un ensayo comportamental para cuantificar la conducta olfativa de larvas de D. melanogaster en respuesta a estímulos olfativos complejos que se encuentran en los ambientes naturales, i. e.: frutos en descomposición que son hospedadores en la naturaleza. Los resultados obtenidos, utilizando este ensayo, revelaron que existe variabilidad genética intra-poblacional y plasticidad fenotípica para el carácter en una población natural del centro oeste de Argentina.

  6. Pengaruh penggunaan repelen masal jangka panjang pada suatu pemukiman terhadap keberadaan nyamuk Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Upik Kesumawati Hadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Study of The Effect of Mass Treatment of Repellent on Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae. Larval populations was carried out during 14 week period at Laladon village Bogor. A total of 3684 respondents were treated and 202 houses were surveyed for house index (HI, container index (CI, and breteau index (BI. The results showed that long-term mass treatments were effective to decrease 64.85% of the HI, 27.15% CI and 13.57% of BI, up to three weeks after the last application of the repellent. Final checks which were done four weeks later resulted HI as low as 13.86%, CI 7.68%, and BI 3.84%, compared to those at the beginning of the survey which were 73.27%, 31.87% and 15.93%, respectively.

  7. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Follett, Peter A; Liquido, Nicanor J; Sylva, Charmaine D

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed.

  8. Primary structure of two neuropeptide hormones with adipokinetic and hypotrehalosemic activity isolated from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, H; Raina, A K; Riley, C T; Fraser, B A; Nachman, R J; Vogel, V W; Zhang, Y S; Hayes, D K

    1989-01-01

    The primary structures of two neuropeptides, Tabanus atratus adipokinetic hormone (Taa-AKH) and Tabanus atratus hypotrehalosemic hormone (Taa-HoTH), from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) have been determined. Amino acid sequences of Taa-AKH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2) and Taa-HoTH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-Gly-Tyr-NH2) (where less than Glu = pyroglutamic acid) were determined by automated gas-phase Edman degradation of the peptides deblocked by pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The hormones were synthesized, and the natural and synthetic peptides exhibited identical chromatographic, spectroscopic, and biological properties. When assayed in adult face fly males, Taa-AKH and Taa-HoTH demonstrated hyperlipemic activity, in addition, Taa-HoTH also demonstrated a significant hypotrehalosemic activity. PMID:2813385

  9. Additions to the Diptera Acalyptrata fauna (Anthomyzidae, Stenomicridae, Carnidae, Milichiidae, Heleomyzidae of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of five species of Diptera Acalyptrata representing novelties for the faunas of Bohemia or Moravia (Czech Republic and Slovakia are given with discussion on their significance to the biodiversity knowledge of local faunas and a summary of their biology, distribution and identification with new information obtained from the material examined. Stiphrosoma humerale Roháček & Barber, 2005 (Anthomyzidae and Stenomicra cogani Irwin, 1982 (Stenomicridae are new additions to the dipterous fauna of Slovakia. Records of Meoneura alpina Hennig, 1948 (Carnidae and Milichia speciosa Meigen, 1830 (Milichiidae are the first from Bohemia and represent new northernmost distribution limits of these species; those of Heleomyza (Anypotacta setulosa (Czerny, 1924 are the first from Moravia. Macrophotographs of all these species are presented to document the specimens recorded and/or to facilitate identification of these uncommon species. In addition, new records of S. humerale from Russia: E Siberia and of M. speciosa from Greece: Peloponnesse are given.

  10. Effects of latex from "Amapazeiro"Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae) on blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) post-embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Paloma M; Lima, Mariana G; Albuquerque, Luis R M; Carvalho, Mario G; Queiroz, Margareth M C

    2011-06-10

    Nowadays, insect control is usually carried out using chemical insecticides, but insect resistance and other negative side effects have prompted the search for alternatives. Biopesticides provide a positive alternative to synthetic pesticides because they have low impact on the environmental, low toxicity to humans and low costs among other advantages. This research was carried out to evaluate the activity of Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) lyophilized latex on the post embryonic development of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Larvae treated with 1.0% latex showed a shorter post embryonic development period (larval, pupal and newly hatched larvae to adult); whereas larvae treated with 3.0% latex provoked a prolongation of these periods. Viability (53%) was also very low at the newly hatched larvae to adult period for larvae treated with 3.0% latex, indicating that latex from P. amapa at high concentrations could change C. megacephala post embryonic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Germ line transformation and in vivo labeling of nuclei in Diptera: report on Megaselia abdita (Phoridae) and Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroti, Francesca; Urbansky, Silvia; Wosch, Maike; Lemke, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    To understand how and when developmental traits of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster originated during the course of insect evolution, similar traits are functionally studied in variably related satellite species. The experimental toolkit available for relevant fly models typically comprises gene expression and loss as well as gain-of-function analyses. Here, we extend the set of available molecular tools to piggyBac-based germ line transformation in two satellite fly models, Megaselia abdita and Chironomus riparius. As proof-of-concept application, we used a Gateway variant of the piggyBac transposon vector pBac{3xP3-eGFPafm} to generate a transgenic line that expresses His2Av-mCherry as fluorescent nuclear reporter ubiquitously in the gastrulating embryo of M. abdita. Our results open two phylogenetically important nodes of the insect order Diptera for advanced developmental evolutionary genetics.

  12. Taxonomy and First Records of Two Megaselia Rondani Species (Diptera: Phoridae) Preying upon Eggs of Phyllomedusa iheringii Boulenger (Anura: Phyllomedusidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, D C; Dos Santos, T G

    2017-06-01

    Non-aquatic reproductive modes have evolved among frogs possibly favored by some advantages such as the avoidance of aquatic predators. These reproductive modes, however, make the egg clutches susceptible to terrestrial predators, among which Diptera larvae are some of the most harmful. The present work reports the predation by phorid flies of 22 egg clutches of Phyllomedusa iheringii Boulenger in the South of Brazil. Phorid specimens were identified as Megaselia bruchiana (Borgmeier & Schmitz) and Megaselia necrophaga (Enderlein), species that were reported previously to be associated with ants and dead beetles, respectively. Frog-feeding in these species is hypothesized to be use of an alternative seasonal food source. We amend the diagnoses of both Megaselia species and provide new illustrations to facilitate their identification. We also describe the male of M. bruchiana for the first time and associate males with females of both species.

  13. Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae as a parasitoid of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae: first report in Brazil

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    Marchiori C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787 parasitando estádios imaturos de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Brasil. Utilizaram-se armadilhas contendo como isca vísceras de galinha. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação. Elas foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos parasitóides. Foram obtidas 29 pupas de C. albiceps, quatro das quais emergiram parasitóides. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 13,7%.

  14. New Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) from Brazil and a key for the Neotropical species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Viviane R DE; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-01-01

    Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. The knowledge of this genus is very poor in the neotropics, with 12 known species, only six of them recorded from Brazil. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from "Cerrado" and "Pantanal" biomes and records three other species represented only by females that could not be identified to species level. We also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states and are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections. The adults were photographed and the male terminalia were dissected and illustrated.

  15. High altitude Chironomidae (Diptera of Serra da Estrela (Portugal: Additions to the Portuguese and Iberian Peninsula fauna

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    Rieradevall, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chironomidae (Diptera fauna list for headwater streams of high altitude areas in Serra da Estrela (Portugal is presented, doubling the previously established species richness for the region. The findings include 17 new records for Portugal, which represent an increase to 219 species for the Continental Portugal Chironomidae fauna. Two new records were detected for the Iberian Peninsula: one species (Tvetenia duodenaria, and one subgenus –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–; and the presence of the genus Natarsia is confirmed. The last two occurrences correspond to monoespecific taxa of the Palearctic region. However, as taxonomic identification has been based on larval material, instead of pupae, pupal exuviae or imagoes, species level assignment is still uncertain.

    Se presenta una lista de especies de Chironomidae (Diptera recolectadas en los ríos de cabecera de zonas de alta montaña en la Serra da Estrela (Portugal. Con esta aportación se duplica la riqueza de especies regional conocida hasta el momento y se eleva la fauna de quironómidos del Portugal continental a 219 especies. Se incluyen dos nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica, una especie (Tvetenia duodenaria y un subgénero –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–, y se confirma la presencia del género Natarsia. En los dos últimos casos se trata de larvas de taxones hasta el momento monoespecíficos en la región paleárctica, pero al no haberse recolectado pupas o adultos no se puede asegurar la identificación específica.

  16. Distributional patterns of the neotropical fly genus Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki (Diptera, Muscidae: a phylogeny-supported analysis using panbiogeographic tools

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    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, Neotropical region has been subdivided into smaller units (areas of endemism, yet these subdivisions were not necessarily based on an evolutionary perspective. Consequently, these areas of endemism may be biogeographic units that do not actually represent natural historical units. Here, the distributional patterns of the genus Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 (Diptera, Muscidae; including 15 species are analysed by applying panbiogeographic tools to recognise and propose primary homologous areas within the Neotropical region. The analysis and discussion of the results obtained here will be reconciled to the information provided by the phylogenetic hypothesis available for the genus.Durante as últimas décadas, a Região Neotropical tem sido classificada em unidades históricas menores (áreas de endemismo, entretanto, muitos desses estudos não têm se preocupado em propor uma classificação sob uma perspectiva evolutiva. Conseqüentemente, uma determinada classificação pode considerar unidades biogeográficas que não representem realmente unidades naturais. No presente estudo, o padrão de distribuição do gênero Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 (Diptera, Muscidae, com 15 espécies, é analisado pela aplicação de ferramentas da Pan-biogeografia para reconhecer e propor áreas de homologia primária na região Neotropical. A análise e discussão dos resultados aqui obtidos serão conciliados às informações fornecidas pela hipótese filogenética disponível para o gênero.

  17. Effect of Vapor Heat Treatment on the Mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Quality of Mango cv. Arumanis

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    Tri Wulan Widya Lestari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arumanis is a superior export variety mango from Indonesia. One inhibiting factor on the production of this fruit variety is the infestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae fruit fly. Vapor heat treatment was recommended by ISPM No. 28 of 2007 as an effective treatment in eradicating fruit flies. This research was aimed to find out the optimum temperature and the duration of vapor heat treatment on the mortality of egg and larvae of B. dorsalis. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Vapor Heat Treatment, BBPOPT, Jatisari, from October 2016 to January 2017. The observed parameters were temperature, duration of treatment, mortality of egg and larvae of fruit fly, and fruit quality. The results showed that vapor heat treatment at 47°C for 40 minutes (min was effective to reduce the number of eggs and larvae of B. dorsalis and had no negative impact on the fruit quality.   Intisari Buah mangga varietas Arumanis merupakan varietas mangga ekspor unggulan Indonesia. Salah satu faktor pembatas produksi buah mangga varietas Arumanis adalah lalat buah B. dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae. Perlakuan uap panas direkomendasikan oleh ISPM Nomor 28 tahun 2007 sebagai tindakan perlakuan yang efektif dalam mengeradikasi lalat buah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui suhu dan waktu optimum perlakuan uap panas terhadap mortalitas telur dan larva B. dorsalis pada buah mangga varietas Arumanis tanpa merusak kualitas buah. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Vapor Heat Treatment, BBPOPT, Jatisari, pada Oktober 2016 sampai dengan Januari 2017. Parameter yang diamati adalah suhu, lamanya waktu perlakuan, mortalitas telur dan larva lalat buah, dan kualitas buah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan uap panas pada suhu 47°C selama 40 menit terbukti efektif membunuh telur dan larva B. dorsalis dan tidak berdampak negatif terhadap kualitas buah.

  18. Actualización del catálogo de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae de España

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    Lucientes, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on arthropods of genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae has increased considerably in Spain in recent decades. This is due to the role these insects play as vectors of arboviruses that cause disease in animals, but also in humans. This work undertakes an updated catalogue of the species of this genus in our country, through a critical review of the literature, clarifying chronological aspects of these publications carried out for over a century of research. This update shows a total of 81 species of Culicoides in Spain, among which are some to be considered as directly related to the transmission of diseases such as bluetongue and African horse sickness.El número de estudios acerca de los artrópodos del género Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae en España ha experimentado un elevado incremento en las últimas décadas. Principalmente ello es debido al papel que estos dípteros juegan como vectores de arbovirus causantes de enfermedades en los animales, aunque también en humanos. Este trabajo acomete una actualización del catálogo de las especies que conforman este género en nuestro país, mediante una revisión crítica de la literatura existente, clarificando aspectos cronológicos sobre estas publicaciones llevadas a cabo durante más de un siglo de investigación. Esta actualización muestra un total de 81 especies de Culicoides para España, entre las que se encuentran algunas a tener en cuenta por estar directamente relacionadas con la trasmisión de enfermedades como la Lengua Azul o la Peste Equina Africana.

  19. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae under Future Climate Scenarios.

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    Anna Zuliani

    Full Text Available Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA and south-central Alberta (Canada between 2002 and 2012, together with monthly climatic and environmental predictors to develop a series of alternative maximum entropy distribution models. The best distribution model under current climatic conditions was selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and included four predictors: Vapour Pressure Deficit of July, standard deviation of Elevation, Land Cover and mean Precipitation of May. This model was then projected into three climate change scenarios adopted by the IPCC in its 5th assessment report and defined as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Climate change data for each predictor and each RCP were calculated for two time points pooling decadal data around each one of them: 2030 (2021-2040 and 2050 (2041-2060. Our projections showed that the areas predicted to be at moderate-high probability of C. sonorensis occurrence would increase from the baseline scenario to 2030 and from 2030 to 2050 for each RCP. The projection also indicated that the current northern limit of C. sonorensis distribution is expected to move northwards to above 53°N. This may indicate an increased risk of Culicoides-borne diseases occurrence over the next decades, particularly at the USA-Canada border, as a result of changes which favor C. sonorensis presence when associated to other factors (i.e. host and pathogen factors. Recent observations of EHD outbreaks in northern Montana and southern Alberta supported our projections and

  20. Developmental Acclimation of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Its Effect on Diapause and Winter Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Loeb, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of developmental conditions on adult morphology, reproductive arrest, and winter stress tolerance of the invasive pest of small fruit, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Cooler rearing temperatures (15 °C) resulted in larger, darker "winter morph" (WM) adults than "summer morph" flies reared at optimal temperatures (25 °C). Abdominal pigmentation scores and body size measurements of laboratory-reared WMs were similar to those of D. suzukii females captured in late autumn in Geneva, NY. We evaluated reproductive diapause and cold hardiness in live-captured D. suzukii WMs as well as WMs reared in the laboratory from egg to adult under four developmental conditions: static cool temperatures (SWM; 15 °C, 12:12 h L:D), fluctuating temperatures (FWM; 20 °C L: 10 °C D, 12:12 h L:D), and static cool temperatures (15 °C, 12:12 h L:D) followed by posteclosion chilling (CWM; 10 °C) under short-day (SD; 12:12 h L:D) or long-day photoperiods (LD; 16:8 h L:D). Live-captured D. suzukii WMs and CWMs had longer preoviposition times than newly eclosed summer morph adults, indicating a reproductive diapause that was not observed in SWMs or FWMs. Additionally, recovery after acute freeze stress was not different between CWM-SD females and live captured WM females. More 7-d-old CWMs survived 0, -1, or - 3 °C freeze stress than summer morph adults, and more CWM-SD adults survived -3 °C freeze stress than CWM-LD adults. Survival after -3 °C freeze stress was significantly higher in diapausing, CWMs than nondiapausing SWMs and FWMs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Parasites of parasites of bats: Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomycota) on bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P; Szentiványi, Tamara; Földvári, Mihály; Sándor, Attila D; Barti, Levente; Camacho, Jasmin J; Gort, Gerrit; Estók, Péter; Hiller, Thomas; Dick, Carl W; Pfister, Donald H

    2017-02-21

    Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own ectoparasites: fungi of the order Laboulbeniales. In Europe, members of the Nycteribiidae are parasitized by four species belonging to the genus Arthrorhynchus. We carried out a systematic survey of the distribution and fungus-bat fly associations of the genus in central Europe (Hungary, Romania). We encountered the bat fly Nycteribia pedicularia and the fungus Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae as new country records for Hungary. The following bat-bat fly associations are for the first time reported: Nycteribia kolenatii on Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis blythii, Myotis capaccinii and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Penicillidia conspicua on Myotis daubentonii; and Phthiridium biarticulatum on Myotis capaccinii. Laboulbeniales infections were found on 45 of 1,494 screened bat flies (3.0%). We report two fungal species: Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae on Nycteribia schmidlii, and A. nycteribiae on N. schmidlii, Penicillidia conspicua, and P. dufourii. Penicillidia conspicua was infected with Laboulbeniales most frequently (25%, n = 152), followed by N. schmidlii (3.1%, n = 159) and P. dufourii (2.0%, n = 102). Laboulbeniales seem to prefer female bat fly hosts to males. We think this might be due to a combination of factors: female bat flies have a longer life span, while during pregnancy female bat flies are significantly larger than males and accumulate an excess of fat reserves. Finally, ribosomal DNA sequences for A. nycteribiae are presented. We screened ectoparasitic bat flies from Hungary and Romania for the presence of ectoparasitic Laboulbeniales fungi. Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae and A. nycteribiae were found on three species of bat flies. This study extends geographical and host

  2. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  3. The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Iker; Ruiz, María F; Sánchez, Lucas

    2011-03-15

    The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex with the endogenous Drosophila

  4. Structure of Drosophilidae Assemblage (Insecta, Diptera in Pampa Biome (São Luiz Gonzaga, RS

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    Jean Lucas Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa (the southernmost end of the country is currently a highly modified environment because of increasing agricultural activities. In many places, only small parts of grasslands remain inside an agricultural landscape. Drosophilidae (Diptera have been widely used as a potential bioindicators to monitor the effects of anthropogenic changes in natural environments. However, the fauna of Drosophilidae in the Pampa Biome from natural and disturbed environments, still remains largely unknown. The present study represents one of the first attempts to fill this gap, showing results from monthly collections in the municipality of São Luiz Gonzaga (28º24'28"S, 54º57'39"W, in the Brazilian Pampa. A species inventory was carried out in two contrasting environments, an urban zone and a forest remnant (rural zone. In both areas banana-baited traps were used to capture adult drosophilids. The identification was made using external morphology and male terminalia. In total, 13,379 drosophilids were analyzed (rural zone: N = 8,812 and Sobs = 25; urban zone: N = 4,567 and Sobs = 16. In the present study, 16 (60% out of 26 species were found exclusively or preferentially in the forest. The period of highest richness was between the months of June to November (roughly winter and spring, and the period of lowest richness was from December to May (roughly summer and autumn. An analysis of cluster by the Coefficient of Jaccard showed that species composition slightly changes when the period of the year with higher temperatures (from January to May is compared with the period with lower temperatures (from June to October. The species abundances were also highly affected by seasonality, as revealed by the Morisita Index, since the samples clustered into similar groups in consecutive periods and in the same season, showing the seasonal preference of some species. The time component was a determinant in the diversity of the assemblage, surpassing the

  5. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

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    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  6. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in the phytosanitary pest melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Wall, Marisa; Bailey, Woodward

    2013-10-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) produces a low-oxygen (O2) environment that can increase produce shelf life by decreasing product respiration and growth of pathogens. However, low O2 is known to increase insect tolerance to irradiation, and the use of MAP with products treated by irradiation before export to control quarantine pests may inadvertently compromise treatment efficacy. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important economic and quarantine pest of tropical fruits and vegetables, and one of the most radiation-tolerant tephritid fruit flies known. The effect of low O2 generated by MAP on the radiation tolerance of B. cucurbitae was examined. Third-instar larval B. cucurbitae were inoculated into ripe papayas and treated by 1) MAP + irradiation, 2) irradiation alone, 3) MAP alone, or (4) no MAP and no irradiation, and held for adult emergence. Three types of commercially available MAP products were tested that produced O2 concentrations between 1 and 15%, and a sublethal radiation dose (50 Gy) was used to allow comparisons between treatments. Ziploc storage bags (1-4% O2) increased survivorship to adult from 14 to 25%, whereas Xtend PP61 bags (3-8% O2) and Xtend PP53 bags (11-15% O2) did not enhance survivorship to the adult stage in B. cucurbitae irradiated at 50 Gy. Radiation doses approved by the United States Department of Agriculture and the International Plant Protection Commission for B. cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) are 150 and 100 Gy, respectively. In large-scale tests, 9,000 B. cucurbitae and 3,800 C. capitata larvae infesting papayas in Ziploc bags were irradiated at 150 and 100 Gy, respectively, with no survivors to the adult stage. MAP can increase insect survivorship during irradiation treatment at certain doses and O2 concentrations, but should not compromise the efficacy of the 150-Gy generic radiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies or the 100-Gy radiation

  7. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae.

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    Bin Zhang

    Full Text Available The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%. Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs. Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD, the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites and amino acid sequence distance (ASD were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T stretch at the 5' end of the CR followed by a [TA(A]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front

  9. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009 Correções e adições ao Catálogo de Diptera Neotropical (Tabanidae de Coscarón & Papavero (2009

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    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.São apresentadas correções e informações taxonômicas omitidas no "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae". Quinze espécies recentemente descritas para a região Neotropical são adicionadas. Atualmente a Região Neotropical possui 1.205 espécies de Tabanidae, além de 35 espécies não reconhecidas e 29 nomina nuda.

  10. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  11. Predatory behavior of long-legged flies (Diptera:Dolichopodidae) and their potential negative effects on the parasitoid biological control agent of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera:Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact of biological control agents such as parasitoids can be improved by determining best times for release when predation pressures will be reduced. Large populations of long-legged predatory flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) impose heavy predation pressure on inundative releases of the parasitoid ...

  12. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  13. Actividad repelente de aceites esenciales contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Elsa Nieves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los repelentes naturales de extractos de plantas han mostrado eficacia contra diferentes especies de insectos. El presente estudio evaluó la acción repelente de aceites esenciales extraídos de ocho especies de plantas contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei, vector de Leishmania. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, utilizando una trampa de Clevenger, a partir de Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plectranthus amboinicus y Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Los ensayos de repelencia se realizaron sobre humanos en condiciones de laboratorio, frente a hembras de L. migonei provenientes de colonia, utilizando el método de la mano en la jaula. Los aceites con efecto repelente también se ensayaron con distintos voluntarios y concentraciones. Se determinó el porcentaje de protección y el tiempo de protección. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum fueron los más efectivos. El aceite de P. amboinicus presentó efecto de repelencia satisfactorio, sin embargo, ocasionó picazón y toxicidad en la piel. Los aceites de P. marginatum, H. suaveolens y P. racemosa no evidenciaron efecto repelente; el resto de los aceites presentaron repelencia significativa en grado variable. Los aceites de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum mostraron un 95% de protección de 3h contra las picaduras de L. migonei. El aceite de P. caeruleocanum presentó el mayor tiempo de protección, de más de 4h y de 2h en concentraciones de 50% y 10%, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que el aceite P. caeruleocanum podría ser un potencial candidato como repelente natural contra la picadura de dípteros posibles transmisores de Leishmania.Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae. Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some

  14. Effects of Temperature and Tissue Type on the Development of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joshua K; Sanford, Michelle R; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-05-01

    The scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), is of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance. In the case of the latter, M. scalaris is commonly associated with indoor death or neglect cases of humans or household animals, and its larvae are useful in determining time of colonization (TOC). This study is the first to examine the effects of different temperatures and tissues from two vertebrate species on the growth rate and larval length of M. scalaris A preliminary validation of these data was also conducted. Immatures of M. scalaris were reared on either bovine or porcine biceps femoris at 24  °C, 28 °C, and 32 °C. Temperature significantly impacted immature development time, including egg eclosion, eclosion to pupation, and pupation to adult emergence, to favor faster development at higher temperatures. From ovipostion to eclosion, development rate was 32.1% faster from 24 °C to 28 °C, 13.9% faster from 28 °C to 32 °C, and 45.5% faster from 24 °C to 32 °C. Development from eclosion to pupation displayed similar results with differences of 30.3% between 24 °C and 28 °C, 15.4% between 28 °C and 32 °C, and 45.2% between 24 °C and 32 °C. Development from pupation to adult emergence, likewise, displayed a 44.4% difference from 24 °C and 28 °C, 7.3% from 28 °C to 32 °C, and 51.2% from 24 °C to 32 °C. From oviposition to adult emergence, M. scalaris needed ∼32.7% more hours to complete development when reared at 24 °C than 28 °C, 8.5% when reared at 28 °C rather than 32 °C, and 38.4% more time when reared at 24 °C over 32 °C. Tissue type did not significantly impact development.A preliminary validation study was conducted in four indoor environments (two attics, a closet, and a bathroom) spanning two different buildings. Utilizing minimum and mean lengths, time of colonization estimates were underestimated in all instances. The predicted range encompassed the

  15. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de pupas de Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Espécies de Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 são encontradas em corpos em decomposição, usualmente nas fases fresca, inchamento e murcha. Entre estas espécies, Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 pode ser encontrada em carcaças de ratos e coelhos. A influência de fatores ambientais sobre pupas de O. albuquerquei não tinha sido avaliada até o momento. Desta maneira, o foco deste trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade por modelos de previsão do desenvolvimento de insetos necrófagos em função de fatores abióticos. Colônias de O. albuquerquei foram mantidas em laboratório para a obtenção de pupas. Até o décimo dia de cada mês, 200

  16. Estimativa de entropia de Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae em condições artificiais

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    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimativa de entropia de Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae em condições artificiais. O conceito de entropia (H foi adaptado da mecânica estatística para a demografia para quantificar o impacto da mortalidade na expectativa de vida e demonstrar quantitativamente a tendência da mortalidade em populações experimentais. Isto foi verificado para 160 casais de Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 mantidos em câmara climatizada a 24,8ºC ± 0,6ºC, umidade relativa do ar entre 70 e 80% e fotofase de 12 horas. Nestas condições, machos e fêmeas apresentaram valores de H intermediários aos valores teóricos de H = 0 e H = 0,5 demonstrando que para esta espécie, a curva de sobrevivência é do tipo retangular. A distribuição da mortalidade por idade específica indicou que a força desse parâmetro age de dois modos sobre os adultos desta espécie. Em um, a mortalidade tem maior força nos intervalos compreendidos entre a emergência dos adultos e o 10º dia após este processo. No segundo modo, a força de mortalidade é maior entre o 20º e 30º dias após a emergência, sendo que pequenas variações na mortalidade causam maior impacto na sobrevivência das fêmeas do que nos machos.Entropy estimation in Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions. Entropy (H as a concept in demography was adapted from that of physics to quantify the impact of mortality on life expectancy and to quantitatively demonstrate mortality tendencies in experimental populations. Entropy was estimated for 160 pairs of Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 in a climate-controlled chamber (24.8ºC ± 0.6ºC, relative humidity 70 - 80%, 12 h photophase. Both sexes had H values intermediate to those theoretically expected (0.0 - 0.5, showing that the survival curve is rectangular. The age-specific mortality distribution shows that mortality affects adults of this species in two ways. First, mortality is higher for 10 days from pupal

  17. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.

  18. Redescription of Cadrema pallida var. bilineata (de Meijere, 1904 (Diptera: Chloropidae and its role as pollinator and carrion feeder from Indian Sunderbans

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    Sankarsan Roy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunderbans, the UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of the largest mangrove forests in the World. This unique tidal halophytic mangrove ecosystem is also spread over the neighbouring country- Bangladesh. This ecosystem supports a variety of halophytic mangrove species and provides shelter and food to many faunal components (Chakraborty, 2011. Till date, several studies have been made on dipteran fauna from SBR which was altogether compiled by Mitra (2013. Further, Mitra et al. (2014, 2015 added some more records of the Diptera from this area. Apart from documenting the dipteran insects, we attempted here their functional contribution towards sustainability of this sensitive ecosystem.

  19. First record of genus Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) in Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Simões Albeny; Cassiano Sousa Rosa; Lívia Maria Silva Ataíde; Evaldo Ferreira Vilela

    2010-01-01

    Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae) em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1) e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906) encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relatadas ...

  20. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Chiapas collected near the Guatemala border, with additions to the fauna of Mexico and a new subgenus name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Muñoz, José; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Pech-May, Agelica; Marina, Carlos F

    2015-07-31

    Collections from four localities, two of the High Plateau and two of the Eastern Mountains Municipality of Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala, included 26 species with four new species records for Mexico: Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (Fairchild & Hertig, 1957), Dampfomyia (Coromyia) disneyi (Williams, 1987), Psychodopygus bispinosus (Fairchild & Hertig, 1951), and Psychodopygus corossoniensis (LePont & Pajot, 1978). These records represent an updated total of 50 species in Mexico, 48 of which are extant species and the remaining two fossils. The name Xiphopsathyromyia n. n. is proposed in substitution of Xiphomyia Artemiev, 1991, a homonym of Xiphomyia Townsend, 1917, a genus of Tachinidae (Diptera).

  1. Taxonomy and morphology of Apsil Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae, Coenosiini with new records, description of a new species and a key to identification

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    Márcia S. Couri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy and morphology of Apsil Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae, Coenosiini with new records, description of a new species and a key to identification. Apsil Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae, Coenosiini includes 10 species, most of them described from Chile, but some also from Argentina. Five of them and one new species were found at the California Academy of Sciences collection (San Francisco, California during the course of a project developed in that institution. Almost all material studied was collected in Chile, mainly by M. E. Irwin, during the year of 1966. Brief diagnosis of the known studied species (A. apicata Malloch, A. atripes Malloch, A. dilata Malloch, A. maculiventris Malloch (female described for the first time and A. spatulata, Malloch, the description of A. mallochi, sp. nov. and a key for the identification of all known species are given. Color illustrations of some morphological characters make easier the recognition of the species. New geographic records were assigned.Taxonomia e morfologia de Apsil Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae, Coenosiini com novos registros, descrição de uma nova espécie e chave para identificação. Apsil Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae, Coenosiini inclui 10 espécies, a maioria delas descrita do Chile, mas algumas também da Argentina. Cinco delas e uma espécie nova foram encontradas na coleção da Califórnia Academy of Sciences (São Francisco, California, durante projeto desenvolvido naquela instituição. Quase todo material foi coletado no Chile, principalmente por M. E. Irwin, durante o ano de 1966. Diagnoses das espécies conhecidas estudadas (A. apicata Malloch, A. atripes Malloch, A. dilata Malloch, A. maculiventris Malloch (fêmea descrita pela primeira vez e A. spatulata, Malloch, descrição de A. mallochi, sp. nov. e uma chave de identificação para todas as espécies conhecidas são fornecidos. Ilustrações coloridas de alguns caracteres morfol

  2. O papel de insetos (Blattodea, Diptera e Hymenoptera) como possíveis vetores mecânicos de helmintos em ambiente domiciliar e peridomiciliar

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Jacqueline Thyssen; Thiago de Carvalho Moretti; Marlene Tiduko Ueta; Odair Benedito Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Os helmintos podem ser transmitidos ao homem de várias maneiras, mas pouca ênfase é dada para a transmissão vetorial ou mecânica das formas infectantes por insetos. Neste estudo, procurou-se fazer um levantamento das espécies de helmintos presentes em três ordens de insetos que convivem próximo ao ambiente humano. Foram coletados e examinados, externa e individualmente, 700 exemplares sendo 54 pertencentes à ordem Blattodea, 275 à ordem Diptera e 371 à ordem Hymenoptera. Com relação à Blattod...

  3. Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae: Pisces and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae: Pisces as predators of immature Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Two fish species, Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae were tested for predacious behavior toward immature mosquitoes (Aedes fluviatili9s, Diptera: Culicidae and schistosomiasis snail hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, Mollusca: Planorbidae, in the presence or absence of non-living food and laboratory conditions. A. ocellatus, a species indigenous to Brazil, was a very efficient predator of both organisms (alpha=1,05; M. operculatis, an exotic species, preyed well on immature mosquitoes, but small snails and snail egg-masses were ingested only irregulary. Both fish species seemed to prefer live to non-living food.

  4. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  5. Occurrence of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus and P. chuni (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae on parica in Para State, Brazil Ocorrência de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus e P. chuni (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae em paricá, no Estado do Pará

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    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This is the first register of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus Enderlein e P. chuni Enderlein (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae attacking parica trees [Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S. F. Blake var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby] in Paragominas, Para State, Brazil. Whereas Para State has the largest area with parica plantation in Brazil, there is a risk of these insects become important pests of this crop.


    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.71

    As ocorrências de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus Enderlein e P. chuni Enderlein são registradas pela primeira vez em reflorestamentos com paricá [Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S. F. Blake var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby] no Estado do Pará, Município de Paragominas. Considerando que o Pará possui a maior área plantada de paricá no Brasil, existe o risco de esses insetos tornarem-se pragas importantes dessa cultura.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.71

  6. The Hippoboscidae (Insecta: Diptera from Madagascar, with new records from the “Parc National de Midongy Befotaka”

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    Rahola N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hippoboscidae or “louse-flies” is a family of pupiparous Diptera, which in their adult stage are ectoparasites of mammals and birds. This paper presents a comprehensive review of Malagasy Hippoboscidae. In total, amongst the 213 species of this family known worldwide, 14 have been reported in Madagascar, among which six are considered as endemic to the Malagasy region. In addition, data are presented from a collection of 17 Hippoboscidae obtained from seven species of forest-dwelling birds in the “Parc National de Midongy Befotaka”, southeastern Madagascar, in 2003. The flies in this collection belong to three different species: Icosta malagasii (one, Ornithoica podicipis (ten and Ornithoctona laticornis (six. The two former species were previously only known from single specimens in museum collections; the later species is distributed across much of the Afrotropical region and the records presented herein are the first for Madagascar. All the seven bird species are new hosts for hippoboscids. We present the first description of the male of Icosta malagasii. An illustrated dichotomous determination key of the 14 Malagasy species, based on morphological criteria only, is presented.

  7. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils from the Leaves and Fruits of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Anne Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the larvicidal activity of essential oil (EO extracted from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt leaves and fruits by steam distillation, and to analyze its chemical compounds. The EO yield of nutmeg leaves and fruits collected from the same tree was 0.66% and 0.30%, respectively. Larvicidal tests with the EO were carried out against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae. The concentrations of nutmeg EO used for the larvicidal assay were 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL. The results showed that fruit oil was more toxic than the leaf oil. LC50 values of leaf and fruit EOs were 133.8 and 110.1 µg/mL, respectively. The chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the chemical components in nutmeg leaf and fruit EOs were dominated by α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, delta-3-carene, limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinolene, linalool, safrole, croweacin, and myristicin.

  8. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Clarice Noleto Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  9. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  10. Effect of male densities on sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    Seyed Mohammad Tabadkani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, is a well-known characteristic in several species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. Theoretical models have proposed that monogeny may provide a system by which the arrhenogenic/thelygenic females can optionally raise or lower the number of their male/female eggs in response to changes in environmental conditions. In polygynous species, where the males mate with several females, a sex ratio bias toward females is expected to occur when environmental conditions such as food and temperature are suitable. In this paper, first, we evaluated the occurrence and intensity of monogeny in native populations of the polygynous predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza. Then, we examined the sex ratio variations in relation to different densities of males in the populations. Two proportions of male gall midges (5 and 12 unmated males vs. 10 virgin females were obtained in plastic cages and the sex ratio of progenies was determined in each density. There was no difference between sex ratio of progenies when the females were exposed to high or low densities of males. Apparently, females cannot regulate the number of female-producing and/or male-producing progenies in response to male densities. Our results incline us to think about other benefits that may have been achieved through transition to monogeny.

  11. Time of Death Revealed by Hydrocarbons of Empty Puparia of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae): A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Liang-Xing; Luo, Hao; Wang, Dian; Lv, Jun-Yao; Xu, Xiao-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) is crucial for investigating homicide. However, there are currently only limited methods available. Especially, once the PMI exceeds the duration of pre-adult development of the flies with the adult emergence, its determination is very approximate. Herein, we report the regular changes in hydrocarbon composition during the weathering process of the puparia in the field in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), one of the common species of necrophagous flies. Correlation analysis showed that the relative abundance of nearly all of the branched alkanes and alkenes decreased significantly with the weathering time. Especially, for 9 of the peaks, over 88% of the variance in their abundance was explained by weathering time. Further analysis indicated that the regular changes caused mainly by the different weathering rates of various hydrocarbons. Additionally, the weathering rates were found to depend on the chemical structure and molecular weight of the hydrocarbons. These results indicate strongly that hydrocarbon analysis is a powerful tool for determining the weathering time of the necrophagous fly puparia, and is expected to markedly improve the determination of the late PMI. PMID:24039855

  12. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

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    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  13. A second species, and first Central American record, of the phorid fly genus Lenkoa Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian V; Porras, Wendy

    2016-09-16

    A second species, and first Central American record, of the phorid fly genus Lenkoa Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae).        Many species of phorid flies have wingless or brachypterous females. Mostly, they belong to a group classified within the subfamily Metopininae corresponding to the Metopina group of genera of Brown (1992a) or the tribe Metopinini of Disney (2003, not 1987). The males of this group are much more typical in appearance, with well-developed wings, larger eyes, and fully developed abdominal tergites. These males carry females during a mating flight, often dispersing them to new breeding sites (Miller 1984). Generally, the sexual dimorphism is so great that the sexes cannot be confidently associated unless they are collected in copula. This has led to a profusion of species being described as males and females in separate genera. Some of these brachypterous females, both within the Metopinini and elsewhere in other Phoridae, have been correctly associated with their males when they are found together (e.g., Brown 1986, 1992b, 1994), but many remain unassociated.

  14. Assessing the importance of four sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of Leishmania mexicana in Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-May, A; Peraza-Herrera, G; Moo-Llanes, D A; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Berzunza-Cruz, M; Becker-Fauser, I; Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A

    2016-09-01

    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem in many areas of Mexico, especially in the Yucatan Peninsula. An understanding of vector ecology and bionomics is of great importance in evaluations of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania parasites. A field study was conducted in the county of Calakmul, state of Campeche, during the period from November 2006 to March 2007. Phlebotomine sandfly vectors were sampled using Centers for Disease Control light traps, baited Disney traps and Shannon traps. A total of 3374 specimens were captured in the two villages of Once de Mayo (93.8%) and Arroyo Negro (6.1%). In Once de Mayo, the most abundant species were Psathyromyia shannoni, Lutzomyia cruciata, Bichromomyia olmeca olmeca and Psychodopygus panamensis (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). The Shannon trap was by far the most efficient method of collection. The infection rate, as determined by Leishmania mexicana-specific polymerase chain reaction, was 0.3% in Once de Mayo and infected sandflies included Psy. panamensis, B. o. olmeca and Psa. shannoni. There were significant differences in human biting rates across sandfly species and month of sampling. Ecological niche modelling analyses showed an overall overlap of 39.1% for the four species in the whole state of Campeche. In addition, the finding of nine vector-reservoir pairs indicates a potential interaction. The roles of the various sandfly vectors in Calakmul are discussed. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Paleolimnological assessment of the effects of lake acidification on Chironomidae (Diptera) assemblages in the Adirondack region of New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uutala, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The stratigraphies of larval chironomid and Chaoborus (Diptera: Chironomidae and Chaoboridae) remains were determined for cores from five Adirondack lakes. Big Moose Lake, Deep Lake, Brook trout Lake and Upper Wallface Pond are currently acidic, while Windfall Pond is near neutral. Altered chironomid assemblages were evident in the four acidic lakes, and acid deposition was the most likely cause for the inferred changes. Declining pH was indicated beginning after 1950 in Big Moose L., after 1930 in Deep L. and Upper Wallface P., and after 1920 in Brook trout L. No recent pH change was inferred for Windfall P. Shifts in the chironomid assemblages were concordant with indications of declining pH inferred from analyses of cladocera, chrysophyte and diatom remains. The best indicators among the chironomid taxa were Heterotrissocladius changi, Micropsectra and Zavreliina, which tended to decline, and Salutschia cf. briani, Psectrocladius (Psectrocladius) and Tanytarsus, which tended to increase in abundance in response to increased acidity. Long-term presence of Chaoborus americanus in Deep L. and Upper Wallface P. indicated that fishes were probably never abundant in these lakes. Increases in the accumulation rates of C. americanus remains in Deep L. and Upper Wallface P. reflected the poor success and eventual halt of fish stocking in these lakes.

  16. The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88 mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21 mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. Additions to the aquatic diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01

    The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.

  18. Cryptic species in the nuisance midge Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the status of Tripedilum Kieffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Spies, Martin

    2016-02-15

    Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse, 1889), originally described from Australia, is an apparently widespread species of Chironomidae (Diptera) that can attain nuisance densities in some eutrophic water bodies. Appropriate management depends upon the identity and ability to distinguish from potential cryptic taxa. A morphological study of larvae, pupae and adults of both sexes confirmed P. nubifer as widely distributed and frequently abundant, but also revealed two previously cryptic species of limited distribution in northern Australia. These species are described as new and illustrated in all stages here. Polypedilum quasinubifer Cranston sp. n. is described from north-west Queensland, Australia and also from Thailand and Singapore. Polypedilum paranubifer Cranston sp. n. is known only from retention ponds of a uranium mine in Northern Territory, Australia. Unusual morphological features of P. nubifer including alternate Lauterborn organs on the larval antenna, cephalic tubules on the pupa and frontal tubercles on the adult head are present in both new species as well. Newly slide-mounted types of Polypedilum pelostolum Kieffer, 1912 (lectotype designated here) confirm synonymy to Chironomus nubifer Skuse, 1889, examined also as newly-slide mounted types. Reviewed plus new evidence does not support recognition of Tripedilum Kieffer, 1921 as a separate taxon; therefore, Tripedilum is returned to junior synonymy with Polypedilum s. str.

  19. Use of Chironomidae (Diptera) Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae as a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol for Water Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Petra; Anderson, Alyssa M; Egan, Alexander T; Mazack, Jane E; Bouchard, R William; Rufer, Moriya M; Ferrington, Leonard C

    2015-07-24

    Rapid bioassessment protocols using benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been successfully used to assess human impacts on water quality. Unfortunately, traditional benthic larval sampling methods, such as the dip-net, can be time-consuming and expensive. An alternative protocol involves collection of Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE). Chironomidae is a species-rich family of flies (Diptera) whose immature stages typically occur in aquatic habitats. Adult chironomids emerge from the water, leaving their pupal skins, or exuviae, floating on the water's surface. Exuviae often accumulate along banks or behind obstructions by action of the wind or water current, where they can be collected to assess chironomid diversity and richness. Chironomids can be used as important biological indicators, since some species are more tolerant to pollution than others. Therefore, the relative abundance and species composition of collected SFPE reflect changes in water quality. Here, methods associated with field collection, laboratory processing, slide mounting, and identification of chironomid SFPE are described in detail. Advantages of the SFPE method include minimal disturbance at a sampling area, efficient and economical sample collection and laboratory processing, ease of identification, applicability in nearly all aquatic environments, and a potentially more sensitive measure of ecosystem stress. Limitations include the inability to determine larval microhabitat use and inability to identify pupal exuviae to species if they have not been associated with adult males.

  20. Exploring the utility of DNA barcoding in species delimitation of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ruilei; Sun, Bingjiao; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-02-16

    In this study, we tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) as the barcode region to deal with taxonomical problems of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). The 114 DNA barcodes representing 27 morphospecies are divided into 33 well separated clusters based on both Neighbor Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods. DNA barcodes revealed an 82% success rate in matching with morphospecies. The selected DNA barcode data support 37-64 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on the methods of Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and Poisson Tree Process (PTP). Furthermore, a priori species based on consistent phenotypic variations were attested by molecular analysis, and a taxonomical misidentification of barcode sequences from GenBank was found. We could not observe a distinct barcode gap but an overlap ranged from 9-12%. Our results supported DNA barcoding as an ideal method to detect cryptic species, delimit sibling species, and associate different life stages in non-biting midges.