Sample records for psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy

  1. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy: differences and similarities]. (United States)

    Rössler-Schülein, Hemma; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette


    Psychoanalysis as well as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy derived from Psychoanalysis are efficient methods offered by the Austrian health care system in the treatment for anxiety, depression, personality disorders, neurotic and somatoform disorders. In both methods similar basic treatment techniques are applied. Therefore differentiation between both treatment options often is made pragmatically by the frequency of sessions or the use of the couch and seems to be vague in the light of empirical studies. This overview focuses a potential differentiation-the objective and subjective dimensions of the indication process. Concerning the latter it is to investigate, if reflective functioning and ego-integration can be enhanced in the patient during the interaction process between patient and psychoanalyst. Empirical data underline the necessity to investigate to which extent externalizing defence processes are used and to integrate such factors into the decision and indication process. Differing treatment aims display another possibility to differentiate psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims for example more at circumscribed problem-foci, the capability for self-reflexion is one of the most prominent treatment effects in psychoanalysis that results in on-going symptom reduction and resilience. The most prominent differentiation lies in the utilization of technical neutrality. Within Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy neutrality has sometimes to be suspended in order to stop severe acting out. Empirical evidence is given concerning the differentiation between psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, that treatment efficacy is not correlated with the duration of the treatment, but with the frequency of sessions. Results give support to the assumption that the dosage of specific and appropriate psychoanalytic techniques facilitates sustained therapeutic change.

  2. For developmental period specific tasks in psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy: The case report

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    Miloš Židanik


    Full Text Available The patient – therapist relationship is always unique, depending from both personalities – the patient's and the therapist's one. Therefore the rules for therapeutic interventions are strict and rigid – they should give some objective frames for the therapy. In this article I present psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy, where I outrouled the rigidness of psychotherapeutic interventions.At deep pathology of personality structure, especially at ego and self pathology, it is sometimes advisable to overcame the therapeutic boundaries for a more active healing process of developmental deficits.

  3. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

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    Izabel Cristina Paez


    Full Text Available Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive and retrospective study analyzed the clinical records of 600 children treated in three institutions that offer graduate courses in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in Porto Alegre, Brazil.Results: The analysis of clinical records revealed that 24.2% of the child patients were discharged from treatment. Neurological assessment and treatment duration were predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Conclusion: The predictors of discharge and dropout may coincide, but they are not the same. In this sample, the construction of the therapeutic alliance and the understanding of the reasons why children need psychotherapy by their parents or guardians may explain our findings.

  4. Spiritually oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Shafranske, Edward P


    Spiritually oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy pays particular attention to the roles that religious and spiritual beliefs, practices, and experiences play in the psychological life of the client. Contemporary psychoanalytic theorists offer multiple approaches to understand the functions of religious experience. Spirituality provides a means to address existential issues and provide a context to form personal meaning. Religious narratives present schemas of relationship and models of experiences salient to mental health, such as hope. God images or other symbolic representations of the transcendent have the power to evoke emotions, which in turn, influence motivation and behavior. While employing theories and techniques derived from psychodynamic psychotherapy, this therapeutic approach encourages the analysis of the functions religion and spirituality serve, while respecting the client's act of believing in faith. Psychotherapists address a client's spirituality by exploring the psychological meaning of such personal commitments and experiences and refrain from entering into discussion of faith claims. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona


    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  6. Use of extratransference interpretation in psychoanalytic psychotherapy

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    Jojić Boris R.


    Full Text Available Background. In psychoanalytic psychotherapy, the transference analysis takes the central position of the work. The work in the extratransference sphere and experience in a professional practice with extratransference interventions have not been reported much in the literature. Extratransference sphere includes less transferring relation to a psychotherapist, transference to other objects, or may refer to the external reality rather than the psychic reality or fantasy. Case report. We pointed out extratransference interventions. We demonstrated an application of a genetic interpretation and reconstruction, too, which could restore and establish the connections between the past and the present, in order to understand the influences of the current reality and the past, and helping us, further, to resolve the infantile conflicts. Conclusion. Interpretation of extratransference situations takes an important part of an analytical work and it is an essential category of the interpretation. Analytic understanding should include transference and extratransference spheres, fantasy and reality, past and present. Working with neurotic patterns and character resistance needs an optimal choice of intervention in the given moment of the analytic process. Extratransference interventions are an essential category of intervention, irreplaceable for its effectiveness in the analytic process.

  7. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  8. The symbolic and concrete: Psychotic adolescents in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Pestalozzi, Julia


    Unique disturbances in symbolisation are characteristic of the pathology of schizophrenia. Drawing on the case vignette of a psychotic adolescent, the author discusses theoretical problems in the symbolisation process in general and then in psychosis, in particular the relation between 'concretism' as a thought disorder and other psychotic defences. The ability to symbolise on the one hand and to maintain sufficiently stable ego boundaries on the other hand are examined in their relation. The author's clinical experience supports her hypothesis that there is a close relationship between the impairment of the symbolisation process in the adolescent or adult psychotic patient and his/her inability to engage in symbolic play as a child. Special attention is paid to the role of early trauma and consequent pathology of object relations for disturbances of symbolic play in childhood. Regression to concrete thinking is understood as the chance of the psychotic patient to give some meaning to reality in an unreal, delusional world and as his/her last chance to communicate at all. Conclusions are drawn for psychoanalytic techniques in the treatment of patients who are deeply regressed in this respect. Special attention is given to the particular circumstances and challenges of adolescence and to providing psychoanalytic psychotherapy to adolescent psychotic patients.

  9. A psychoanalytically oriented combined treatment approach for severely disturbed borderline patients: the Athens project. (United States)

    Vaslamatzis, Grigoris; Coccossis, Maria; Zervis, Christos; Panagiotopoulou, Victoria; Chatziandreou, Maria


    A psychoanalytically oriented combined treatment is considered beneficial for severely disturbed borderline patients, especially during an acute crisis. The proposed treatment comprises hospitalization and specialized psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment, individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy, and psychiatric management. It is important to take into account that during inpatient treatment, projective identifications and splitting mechanisms are activated, involving different members of the therapeutic personnel or other patients. The mental health team--the psychiatrist, the nurses, the assigned psychotherapist, and other members of the therapeutic personnel--should work together in the context of teamwork in order to explore transference and countertransference manifestations. This function promotes empathy and understanding of the patient's inner difficulties. A combined treatment approach can help the patient stabilize his or her condition and develop awareness and motivation for undertaking long-term treatment and individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy, with the prospect that therapy will be maintained after the patient's discharge.

  10. Neuroscience in the residency curriculum: the psychoanalytic psychotherapy perspective. (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Michels, Robert


    Educators of future psychiatrists tend to teach an array of approaches to the mind and brain, including among them the neurobiologic perspective and the psychoanalytic perspective. These may be considered at opposite ends of many spectra, including the fact that psychoanalysis takes a large-scale and treatment-oriented perspective and has helped countless patients over the years, while neuroscience has tended to be reductionistic, focused on understanding, and has helped very few people. A tension, therefore, exists for the educator in teaching neuroscience: is it wise to spend valuable time and energy teaching this interesting but, thus far, impractical field to future practitioners? Here, we argue that neuroscience is re-orienting itself towards more psychoanalytically relevant questions and is likely, in future years, to give new insights into the nature of basic drives and social relations. We additionally argue for balance on the part of providers in both acknowledging biologic underpinnings for clinical phenomena and yet continuing to take a stance oriented towards appropriate change. Given the burgeoning new focus within neuroscience on topics directly relating to the human internal experience and the novel challenges in both understanding those advances and appropriately using them, we encourage educators to continue to give future psychiatrists the educational foundation they need to follow neuroscientific discoveries into the future.

  11. Cultural function and psychological transformation in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa


    Cultural experience of silence and individual vicissitudes between talking and being silent influence the way individuals form an alliance and pursue the analytic process. This is of relevance both for the patient and for the psychoanalyst/therapist. The author describes a patient, whose silent phase occurred in the fifth and sixth year of intensive psychoanalytic psychotherapy. She suggests that a) the silence functioned as a protection of a space for the core self and promoted inner transformation and psychological development; b) the silence involved a transference-countertransference matrix with projective identifications of the patient's internalized mother- and father-related objects that caused a tenuous balance between maintaining and erasing the relationship between the patient and the author; c) the silence phase was highly influenced by the author's own cultural background and what she brought into the relationship of tolerance of being silent in the presence of another, and understanding of the many complex functions of silence. During the silent phase the patient moved from simply describing and naming her affects and inner experiences or expressing them as somatic processes, to being able to internally access and verbally convey her own affects and experiences in the therapeutic alliance. This process involved both affect desomatization, affect differentiation, and affect verbalization.


    Busch, Fredric N.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Sandberg, Larry S.


    Systematic research on psychoanalytic treatments has been limited by several factors, including a belief that clinical experience can demonstrate the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, rendering systematic research unnecessary, the view that psychoanalytic research would be difficult or impossible to accomplish, and a concern that research would distort the treatment being delivered. In recent years, however, many psychoanalysts have recognized the necessity of research in order to obtain a more balanced assessment of the role of psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in a contemporary treatment armamentarium, as well as to allow appropriate evaluation and potentially greater acceptance by the broader mental health and medical communities. In this context, studies were conducted of a psychodynamic treatment, Panic-Focused Psycho-dynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP), initially in an open trial and then in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in comparison with a less active treatment, Applied Relaxation Training (ART; Cerny et al. 1984), for adults with primary DSM-IV panic disorder. The results of the RCT demonstrated the efficacy of PFPP in treating panic disorder, and also demonstrated that a psychoanalytic treatment can be systematically evaluated in a mode consistent with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Two specific features of the methodology, the development of the treatment manual and the operationalization of the adherence instrument, both core building blocks of contemporary psychotherapy outcome research, and their implications for psychoanalytic research are discussed in greater depth. The theoretical, clinical, and educational implications of the PFPP studies are elaborated, and suggestions are made for pursuing further outcome research of psychoanalytic treatments. PMID:19270248

  13. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Parker, Ben; Turner, William


    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Method: The Cochrane Collaboration's criteria for data synthesis and study quality assessment were used. Electronic bibliographic databases and web searches were used to identify randomized and…

  14. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, C.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.


    Objectives: Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility

  15. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, D.J.; Hakkaart-Van Roijen, Leona

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility

  16. Child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the UK National Health Service: an historical analysis. (United States)

    Rous, Elizabeth; Clark, Andrew


    This review developed from a discussion with the late Professor Richard Harrington about interventions in Child and Adolescent Mental Health services (CAMHS) that lacked an evidence base. Our aim is to investigate the literature for signs that child psychoanalysis is a declining paradigm within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the United Kingdom (UK). We present the literature chronologically since the inception of the UK National Health Service. This study shows that there have been a number of threats to child psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but no significant consistent decline. The profession is beginning to develop the social profile of a scientific discipline. We conclude that child psychoanalytic psychotherapy does not consistently demonstrate features of a declining scientific paradigm.

  17. Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. (United States)

    Parker, Ben; Turner, William


    The sexual abuse of children and adolescents is a significant worldwide problem. It is associated with a wide variety of negative psychological, social and physical consequences for the victims. These effects can often be seen immediately following sexual abuse, but they may manifest later on and sometimes only in adult life. There are a number of different interventions aimed at helping children and adolescents who have been sexually abused, and psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy has a long-established tradition of being used for such victims. In this review, we set out to find the evidence for its effectiveness specifically in children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. We searched the following databases in May 2013: CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science and Humanities, LILACS and WorldCat. We also searched three trials registers, checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted known experts. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy with treatment as usual or no treatment/waiting list control for children and adolescents up to age of 18 who had experienced sexual abuse at any time prior to the intervention. The review authors (BP and WT) independently screened search results to identify studies that met eligibility criteria. No studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria for this review. There are no randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compare psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapy with treatment as usual, no treatment or waiting list control for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. As a result, we cannot draw any conclusions as to the effectiveness of psychoanalytic

  18. [Psychoanalytic psychotherapy and the ADHD-triad (impulsivity, hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder)]. (United States)

    Bürgin, Dieter; Steck, Barbara


    A brief survey of the psychoanalytically oriented literature regarding the symptom triad of ADHD is followed by the discussion of frequently found disturbances in infantile development, attachment, object relations (regulation of drives and affects, ego functions) of the role of infantile trauma (object loss) and psychic conflict. In the analytic-psychotherapeutic process with a child, the ADHD-symptom-triad may manifest itself e.g. as intrapsychic conflict on the level of the self-representation or of the representation of central self-object-relations (characterized by an insufficient containing-/holding-function), as impairment of self-regulative functions, as inconsistent symbolizing capacity or as deficient regulating and controlling capacity of the ego. The multitude of factors involved does not allow a generalisation of neither the etiology or the pathogenesis of this symptom triad. This is particularly evident in a therapeutic procedure which is relation oriented. In a first interview the authors illustrate the capacity of a ten year old boy (diagnosed as ADHD patient) to make use of the analytic therapeutic dialogue and to present his intrapsychic experiences and problems in a figurative and narrative performance. Finally some specific technical features of low or high frequent analytic psychotherapy with ADHD children are shown: according to the foremost pregenital form of relations--manifested mostly by intensive self esteem problems, narcissistic aggressiveness and motor impulsivity--the transference and counter-transference movements proceed predominantly by projective and introjective identifications. Containment of the difficulties by the therapist is often paralleled for a long period of time by assistance in regulation and by limit setting for the child. Translation of action into language and transformation of intrapsychic processes within the psyche of the therapist into helpful interventions for the child require a continuous adjustment to the

  19. Eroticism in group psychotherapy: psychoanalytic reflections on desire, agony, and ecstasy. (United States)

    Tylim, Isaac


    To fully understand the complexities of eroticism in groups, it may be necessary to review a conceptual differentiation of desire and its allies: agony and ecstasy. This article suggests that psychoanalytic group psychotherapy is made for neither agony nor ecstasy. Sexual excitement maybe; eroticism and desire, yes; agony and ecstasy, no. While agony or ecstasy imply a threat to the survival of the group, eroticism and desire reaffirm its existence. In this manner the group may be converted into a theater where desire may be celebrated, while the threat of being dissolved in the depths or exaltation of agony and ecstasy is elaborated and worked through: "Desire is desire only if it succeeds in postponing something".

  20. The interpretive process in the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of borderline personality pathology. (United States)

    Caligor, Eve; Diamond, Diana; Yeomans, Frank E; Kernberg, Otto F


    While all patients become more concrete in their psychological functioning in areas of conflict, especially in the setting of transference regression, in the treatment of patients with severe personality pathology this process poses a particular clinical challenge. In the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of patients with severe personality pathology in general, and borderline personality disorder in particular, the interpretive process serves multiple functions. This process comprises a series of steps or phases that can be viewed as moving the patient further away from a single, poorly elaborated, and concrete experience in the transference, which dominates and floods subjectivity, and toward more fully elaborated, complex, stable, and integrated representations of the analyst and of what he or she evokes in the patient's internal world.

  1. German students' current choice of profession in the field of psychotherapy: Reasons for or against engaging in psychoanalytic training. (United States)

    Lebiger-Vogel, Judith


    The psychoanalytic societies in Germany as in many other countries are concerned by a decline in the number of candidates for full psychoanalytic training. While this situation is partly attributable to changes both in society and in educational and healthcare systems, it is questionable whether psychoanalytic training institutions have yet found adequate responses to it. Under the banner of 'evidence-based treatment', behaviour therapy has come to be widely disseminated, with major implications for the teaching of different psychotherapy paradigms at universities. To investigate the determinants of this trend in the specific German situation, a large-scale, multi-method exploratory study supported by IPA's DPPT programme was undertaken, focusing on the reasons given by a population (N = 679) of German psychology, medical, and education students for embarking on training in psychoanalysis or behaviour therapy. The results suggest that behaviour therapy is more compatible with the prevailing scientific understanding and with current societal and cultural trends, owing in part to inadequacies or bias in university teaching of the various paradigms of psychotherapy. While most of the psychology students expressed a preference for behavioural training, the psychotherapy option proved less attractive for their counterparts in the fields of medicine and education. Semi-standardized qualitative interviews were used to gain a deeper understanding of the students' decisions for or against training in a specific paradigm, and led to the identification of seven decision-making prototypes. Possible reasons for the students' decisions are discussed, and concrete proposals and recommendations are presented. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Essentials of psychoanalytic process and change: how can we investigate the neural effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy in individualized neuro-imaging?


    Heinz eBoeker; André eRichter; Holger eHimmighoffen; Jutta eErnst; Laura eBohleber; Elena eHofmann; Johannes eVetter; Georg eNorthoff


    The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to “remember, repeat, and work through” concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved ...

  3. The challenge of professional identity for Chinese clinicians in the process of learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy: the discussion on the frame of Chinese culture. (United States)

    Yang, Yunping


    One important element in psychoanalysis, which is derived from Western culture, is individualization: the independency and autonomy of an individual are highly valued. However, one of the significant essences in Chinese culture is that the collective interests transcend the individual interests and the interests of social groups are more important than those of families. Therefore, when learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy, Chinese clinicians inevitably experience conflicts derived from this difference of cultural values. This article attempts to use a historical perspective to discuss the current challenges of professional identity for Chinese clinicians learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. Making unformulated experience real through painting: Painting and psychoanalytic psychotherapy practice as two ways of making sense. (United States)

    Schwartz, Karen M


    I contend that painting, like psychoanalytic psychotherapy, is an intersubjective process able to connect hearts and minds of painters and viewers alike, because the creative process of making a painting brings painters into more complex and more animated relationship with themselves. My own painting process is largely nonverbal. Interactions between me and my evolving artwork-in-process reveal experiences, thoughts, and feelings not yet formulated in words, and so, not available explicitly to conscious awareness until visual representation allows questions of meaning and intention to be thought about and elaborated in the usual, verbal sense. I describe how my particular painting practice provides an experiential frame for the creative process of self-articulation that goes on in psychotherapy, as well as how the physical and mostly nonverbal dialogue experienced in the painting studio served as a source of listening attitudes and self-regulation in my work with a patient's inhibited self-expression and thwarted artistic ambitions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Avaliação de resultados da psicoterapia psicanalítica Assessment of psychoanalytic psychotherapy outcomes

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    Simone Isabel Jung


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este artigo relata uma investigação de coorte retrospectiva que avaliou a efetividade da psicoterapia psicanalítica com pacientes adultos em um serviço de atendimento comunitário na cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil. MÉTODO: A amostra foi constituída por 34 pacientes divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1, 17 pacientes que realizaram tratamento por até 11 meses (média de 6,4 meses, e grupo 2, 17 pacientes com 1 ano ou mais de psicoterapia (média de 24,7 meses, contatados após o término de seu tratamento psicoterápico, em média 20,9 meses no grupo 1 e 29,9 meses no grupo 2. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista semi-estruturada, questionário de efetividade e escala de avaliação global do funcionamento. Experts independentes aplicaram a escala de avaliação global do funcionamento na entrevista inicial de tratamento (realizada pelo psicoterapeuta e encontrada no arquivo da instituição e de seguimento. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes melhoraram significativamente seu funcionamento global, comparando a avaliação inicial à de seguimento da psicoterapia (p INTRODUCTION: This article reports a retrospective cohort investigation, which assessed the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in adult patients at a community health center in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODs: The sample was composed of 34 patients, who were divided into two groups: group 1, 17 patients who underwent treatment for up to 11 months (mean 6.4 months and group 2, 17 patients who underwent psychotherapy for 1 year or longer (mean 24.7 months. The patients were contacted after their psychotherapeutic treatment was over, in average 20.9 months (group 1 and 29.9 months (group 2. Instruments used were semi-structured interview, effectiveness questionnaire and global assessment of functioning scale. Independent experts applied the global assessment of functioning scale in the initial interview (carried out by the psychotherapist and found in

  6. Impact of Bereavement-Oriented Group Psychotherapy for School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological debriefing is widely applied for victims who encounter overwhelming trauma. This study aimed at assessing the anxiety levels and psychiatric morbidity of class mates of the victims of a plane crash and also to carry out bereavement-oriented group psychotherapy to alleviate observed psychopathology in the ...

  7. [The theoretical basis of "process-oriented psychotherapy"]. (United States)

    Heretik, A; Simkovic, M


    Process-oriented psychotherapy /POP/ is an eclectic trend. It is based on Jungian psychology but is inspired also by some dynamic schools and oriental philosophy, in particular Taoism. The essence of the psychotherapeutic method is work with signals in the communication channels. By their reinforcement the personality attains contact with the secondary process behind the borderline of identity. In addition to psychopathological indications it uses somatic symptoms and diseases which are considered a purposeful message of the dream body.

  8. Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS): a randomised controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory forms of depression


    Taylor, D.; Carlyle, J. A.; McPherson, S.; Rost, F.; Thomas, R.; Fonagy, P.


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Long-term forms of depression represent a significant mental health problem for which there is a lack of effective evidence-based treatment. This study aims to produce findings about the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory depression and to deepen the understanding of this complex form of depression. METHODS: INDEX GROUP: Patients with treatment resistant/treatment refractory depression. DEFINITION & INC...

  9. Through the storm: psychoanalytic theory in the psychotherapy of the anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Zerbe, K J


    Anxiety is one of the most ubiquitous problems facing human beings. The author summarizes the views of the major psychodynamic theorists who have contributed to a psychoanalytic understanding of anxiety: Freud's toxic and signal theories; the interpersonal schools of Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney, and Frieda Fromm-Reichmann; the object relations theorists; and the self-psychological perspective of Heinz Kohut. The author then describes how each of these schools provides a different way to appreciate and work with anxiety. She emphasizes the containing and soothing functions of therapy, which have their roots in several of the theories.

  10. Termination of psychotherapy: the journey of 10 psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapists. (United States)

    Fragkiadaki, Evangelia; Strauss, Susan M


    Literature on termination originates mainly from clinical and theoretical accounts as well as practitioners' autobiographical reports. There is, however, a paucity of psychological research on termination. The purpose of this study is to examine the process of termination of therapy based on therapists' narratives of experiences of endings with patients. Grounded Theory methodology has been applied in this study in order to conceptualize the process of termination from the therapist's perspective. Ten psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapists were interviewed for this study. Grounded Theory analysis of the data revealed five central categories: therapist as a person, therapist's awareness of termination, development of therapeutic relationship, working through termination, and the aftermath (post-termination phase). The results offer a Grounded Theory model of the therapist's journey through termination of therapy with patients. Subcategories and their relationships will be explored. Implications for clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research will be discussed. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS): a randomised controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory forms of depression. (United States)

    Taylor, David; Carlyle, Jo-anne; McPherson, Susan; Rost, Felicitas; Thomas, Rachel; Fonagy, Peter


    Long-term forms of depression represent a significant mental health problem for which there is a lack of effective evidence-based treatment. This study aims to produce findings about the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory depression and to deepen the understanding of this complex form of depression. Patients with treatment resistant/treatment refractory depression. Current major depressive disorder, 2 years history of depression, a minimum of two failed treatment attempts, ≥14 on the HRSD or ≥21 on the BDI-II, plus complex personality and/or psycho-social difficulties. Moderate or severe learning disability, psychotic illness, bipolar disorder, substance dependency or receipt of test intervention in the previous two years. Pragmatic, randomised controlled trial with qualitative and clinical components. 18 months of weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy, manualised and fidelity-assessed using the Psychotherapy Process Q-Sort. Treatment as usual, managed by the referring practitioner. GP referrals from primary care. HRSD (with ≤14 as remission). depression severity (BDI-II), degree of co-morbid disorders Axis-I and Axis-II (SCID-I and SCID-II-PQ), quality of life and functioning (GAF, CORE, Q-les-Q), object relations (PROQ2a), Cost-effectiveness analysis (CSRI and GP medical records). 2 years. Plus: a). Qualitative study of participants' and therapists' problem formulation, experience of treatment and of participation in trial. (b) Narrative data from semi-structured pre/post psychodynamic interviews to produce prototypes of responders and non-responders. (c) Clinical case-studies of sub-types of TRD and of change. TRD needs complex, long-term intervention and extended research follow-up for the proper evaluation of treatment outcome. This pushes at the limits of the design of randomised therapeutic trials. We discuss some of the consequent problems and suggest how they may be mitigated. Current

  12. Toward a tripartite vision of supervision for psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapies: alliance, transference-countertransference configuration, and real relationship. (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward


    The psychoanalytic supervision relationship is examined as a tripartite phenomenon, comprised of the supervisory alliance, transference-countertransference configuration, and real relationship. While most supervisory analysts would readily acknowledge that a real (or personal) relationship element exists in analytic supervision, that facet of the supervision relationship has not routinely been incorporated into considerations of psychoanalytic supervision. In this vision of supervision, real relationship, supervisory alliance, and transference-countertransference configuration are presented as integral and complementary constructs that define psychoanalytic supervision. Each of those three components is examined briefly with regard to its beginnings, evolution, and contemporary status; each component is also considered from an empirical perspective. While we have a growing quantitative and qualitative research foundation that supports psychoanalytic practice, psychoanalytic supervision has largely been ignored as a subject and object of scientific study. Supervisory alliance, transference-countertransference configuration, and real relationship are explored as research ready variables. Some clinical hypotheses--eminently testable and worthy of investigation--are proposed with regard to each component of the model, and some ideas--albeit tentative and preliminary--about how to initiate such inquiries are offered. © 2011 N.P.A.P.

  13. Abandono de tratamento na psicoterapia psicanalítica: em busca de definição Treatment dropout in psychoanalytical psychotherapy: searching for definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar as definições de abandono de tratamento encontradas na literatura sobre psicoterapia, problematizar a dificuldade de definir abandono nas diversas abordagens psicoterapêuticas, refletir sobre os critérios utilizados nas diferentes definições e propor uma definição de abandono para a psicoterapia psicanalítica. MÉTODO: Realizou-se revisão de artigos sobre abandono de tratamento envolvendo diferentes modalidades psicoterapêuticas, encontrados nas seguintes bases de dados: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline e PsycINFO. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Definições de abandono de tratamento são apresentadas em três quadros, divididos pelo referencial teórico do processo psicoterapêutico. Os critérios utilizados nas definições são discutidos. CONCLUSÃO: A fim de construir uma definição padronizada de abandono para psicoterapia psicanalítica, propõe-se três categorias de definição para término de psicoterapia, com base na discussão crítica da literatura revisada.OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review the definitions of treatment dropout in psychotherapy literature, discuss the difficulty of defining dropout in various psychotherapeutic approaches, reflect on the criteria used in different definitions and propose a dropout definition for psychoanalytical psychotherapy. METHOD: A review of articles on treatment dropout involving different psychotherapeutic modalities was conducted in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline and PsycINFO. RESULTS AND DISCUSS: Definitions of treatment dropout are presented in three figures and divided by the theoretical framework of the psychotherapeutic process. Criteria used in definitions are discussed. CONCLUSION: In order to build a standardized definition of psychoanalytical psychotherapy dropout, three definition categories for termination of psychotherapy are proposed, based on the critical discussion of the reviewed literature.

  14. Essentials of psychoanalytic process and change: How can we investigate the neural effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy in individualized neuro-imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz eBoeker


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to remember, repeat and work through concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved it corresponds to neuronal transformation.Individualized neuro-imaging requires controlling and measuring of variables that must be defined. Two main methodological problems can be distinguished: The design problem addresses the issue of how to account for functionally related variables in an experimentally independent way. The translation problem raises the question of how to bridge the gaps between different levels of the concepts presupposed in individualized neuro-imaging (e.g. the personal level of the therapist and the client, the neural level of the brain.An overview of individualized paradigms, which have been used until now is given, including Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2 and the Maladaptive Interpersonal Patterns Q-Start (MIPQS. The development of a new paradigm that will be used in fMRI experiments, the Interpersonal Relationship Picture Set (IRPS, is described. Further perspectives and limitations of this new approach concerning the design and the translation problem are discussed.

  15. Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS: a randomised controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory forms of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term forms of depression represent a significant mental health problem for which there is a lack of effective evidence-based treatment. This study aims to produce findings about the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory depression and to deepen the understanding of this complex form of depression. Methods/Design INDEX GROUP: Patients with treatment resistant/treatment refractory depression. DEFINITION & INCLUSION CRITERIA: Current major depressive disorder, 2 years history of depression, a minimum of two failed treatment attempts, ≥14 on the HRSD or ≥21 on the BDI-II, plus complex personality and/or psycho-social difficulties. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Moderate or severe learning disability, psychotic illness, bipolar disorder, substance dependency or receipt of test intervention in the previous two years. DESIGN: Pragmatic, randomised controlled trial with qualitative and clinical components. TEST INTERVENTION: 18 months of weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy, manualised and fidelity-assessed using the Psychotherapy Process Q-Sort. CONTROL CONDITION: Treatment as usual, managed by the referring practitioner. RECRUITMENT: GP referrals from primary care. RCT MAIN OUTCOME: HRSD (with ≤14 as remission. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: depression severity (BDI-II, degree of co-morbid disorders Axis-I and Axis-II (SCID-I and SCID-II-PQ, quality of life and functioning (GAF, CORE, Q-les-Q, object relations (PROQ2a, Cost-effectiveness analysis (CSRI and GP medical records. FOLLOW-UP: 2 years. Plus: a. Qualitative study of participants’ and therapists’ problem formulation, experience of treatment and of participation in trial. (b Narrative data from semi-structured pre/post psychodynamic interviews to produce prototypes of responders and non-responders. (c Clinical case-studies of sub-types of TRD and of change. Discussion TRD needs complex, long-term intervention and

  16. Psychotherapies (United States)

    ... talk therapy”) is a term for a variety of treatment techniques that aim to help a person identify and ... this be assured? If you are interested in reading more about evidence based therapies, see the links at the end of this material. Psychotherapies and Other Treatment Options Psychotherapy ...

  17. [Problems of bilinguism in psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Fadda, S; Müller, C


    The authors have attempted an introductory study of problems which are inherent to psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in the second language of a bilingual therapist. This situation seems to be more complex than is usually admitted in current literature. The main problem encountered by the authors in their personal practice stems from the fact that the process of identification becomes complex when the therapist is confronted with regressive and/or progressive shifts in the course of the treatment.

  18. Fatores associados a abandono precoce do tratamento em psicoterapia de orientação analítica Factors related to early dropout in psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Hauck


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A eficácia da psicoterapia psicanalítica foi bem estabelecida através de ensaios clínicos controlados; no entanto, algumas das características individuais que predizem melhores resultados são ainda pouco estudadas. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a associação entre os dados demográficos, o diagnóstico psiquiátrico, a sintomatologia clínica, a qualidade de vida, os critérios de indicação da psicoterapia, o estilo defensivo e o abandono da psicoterapia psicanalítica antes de 3 meses de tratamento. MÉTODO: Uma amostra consecutiva de 56 pacientes foi avaliada após a indicação da psicoterapia, através de um protocolo padronizado, do World Health Organization Quality of Life Bref (WHOQOL-Bref, do Self Report Questionnaire, do Defensive Style Questionnaire, da Escala de Funcionamento Defensivo do Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais, 4ª edição, texto revisado (DSM-IV-TR e da Avaliação do Funcionamento Global (Global Assessment of Functioning, e acompanhada por 3 meses. RESULTADOS: A taxa de abandono foi de 12,5%. Não houve diferença quanto à Avaliação do Funcionamento Global, Self Report Questionnaire e Defensive Style Questionnaire. Os pacientes que abandonaram estavam satisfeitos com sua saúde, apesar da gravidade da sua psicopatologia, mesmo controlando para outras variáveis (p INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapy is well established in controlled clinical trials; however, some individual characteristics that predict better outcomes are yet poorly studied. This study aimed at evaluating the association of demographics data, psychiatric diagnosis, clinical impairment, quality of life, aspects of psychotherapy suitability, defensive style and dropout before 3 months. METHOD: A consecutive sample of 56 subjects was evaluated after psychotherapy indication through a standardized protocol, World Health Organization Quality of Life Bref (WHOQOL-Bref, Self

  19. Psychoanalysis and analytic psychotherapy in the NHS--a problem for medical ethics. (United States)

    Wilkinson, G


    I question the place of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy in the National Health Service (NHS), with reference to published material; and, particularly, in relation to primary care, health economics and medical ethics. I argue that there are pressing clinical, research, economic, and ethical reasons in support of the contention that an urgent review of the extent and impact of psychoanalytic practices in the health service is called for. PMID:3735363

  20. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression: the Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS). (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Rost, Felicitas; Carlyle, Jo-Anne; McPherson, Susan; Thomas, Rachel; Pasco Fearon, R M; Goldberg, David; Taylor, David


    This pragmatic randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (LTPP) as an adjunct to treatment-as-usual according to UK national guidelines (TAU), compared to TAU alone, in patients with long-standing major depression who had failed at least two different treatments and were considered to have treatment-resistant depression. Patients (N=129) were recruited from primary care and randomly allocated to the two treatment conditions. They were assessed at 6-monthly intervals during the 18 months of treatment and at 24, 30 and 42 months during follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), with complete remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤8, and partial remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤12. Secondary outcome measures included self-reported depression as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory - II, social functioning as evaluated by the Global Assessment of Functioning, subjective wellbeing as rated by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure, and satisfaction with general activities as assessed by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. Complete remission was infrequent in both groups at the end of treatment (9.4% in the LTPP group vs. 6.5% in the control group) as well as at 42-month follow-up (14.9% vs. 4.4%). Partial remission was not significantly more likely in the LTPP than in the control group at the end of treatment (32.1% vs. 23.9%, p=0.37), but significant differences emerged during follow-up (24 months: 38.8% vs. 19.2%, p=0.03; 30 months: 34.7% vs. 12.2%, p=0.008; 42 months: 30.0% vs. 4.4%, p=0.001). Both observer-based and self-reported depression scores showed steeper declines in the LTPP group, alongside greater improvements on measures of social adjustment. These data suggest that LTPP can be useful in improving the long-term outcome of treatment-resistant depression. End

  1. A Four-Component Model of Sexual Orientation & Its Application to Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    Distress related to sexual orientation is a common focus in psychotherapy. In some instances the distress is external in nature as with persecution, and in others it is internal as with self-acceptance issues. Complicating matters, sexual orientation is a very complex topic producing a great deal of confusion for both clients and therapists. The current paper provides a four component model-sexual orientation dimensions, activation of these dimensions, the role of erotic fantasy, and social construction of sexual orientation-that in combination provide a comprehensive perspective. Activation of dimensions is a novel contribution not proposed in any other model. With improved understanding of sexual orientation issues, and utilization of this knowledge to guide interventions, psychotherapists can improve outcomes with their clients. Also described is how dimensions of sexual orientation relate to transgender. In addition to improving psychotherapy outcomes, the fourcomponent model presented can help reduce discrimination and persecution, by demonstrating that the capacity for both homoerotic and heteroerotic behavior is universal.

  2. Verbal Therapeutic Behavior of Expert Psychoanalytically Oriented, Gestalt, and Behavior Therapists. (United States)

    Brunink, Sharon A.; Schroeder, Harold E.


    Findings indicated that expert therapists were similar in their communication of empathy, the basis for their therapeutic relationships. Theoretical orientation, however, differentially influenced use of direct guidance and facilitative techniques, interview content, therapist self-disclosure, therapist initiative, and supportive therapy climate.…

  3. Cognitive behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy versus a brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial. (United States)

    Goodyer, Ian M; Reynolds, Shirley; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Dubicka, Bernadka; Hill, Jonathan; Holland, Fiona; Kelvin, Raphael; Midgley, Nick; Roberts, Chris; Senior, Rob; Target, Mary; Widmer, Barry; Wilkinson, Paul; Fonagy, Peter


    Psychological treatments for adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder are associated with diagnostic remission within 28 weeks in 65-70% of patients. We aimed to assess the medium-term effects and costs of psychological therapies on maintenance of reduced depression symptoms 12 months after treatment. We did this multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial (IMPACT) at 15 National Health Service child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinics in three regions in England. Adolescent patients (aged 11-17 years) with a diagnosis of DSM IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a web-based randomisation service, to receive cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychoanalytical therapy versus a reference brief psychological intervention. Randomisation was stochastically minimised by age, sex, self-reported depression sum score, and region. Patients and clinicians were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. Patients were followed up and reassessed at weeks 6, 12, 36, 52, and 86 post-randomisation. The primary outcome was self-reported depression symptoms at weeks 36, 52, and 86, as measured with the self-reported Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Because our aim was to compare the two psychological therapies with the brief psychosocial intervention, we first established whether CBT was inferior to short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the same outcome. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN83033550. Between June 29, 2010, and Jan 17, 2013, we randomly assigned 470 patients to receive the brief psychosocial intervention (n=158), CBT (n=155), or short-term psychoanalytical therapy (n=157); 465 patients comprised the intention-to-treat population. 392 (84%) patients had available data for primary analysis by the end of follow-up. Treatment fidelity and

  4. Economic evaluation of schema therapy and clarification-oriented psychotherapy for personality disorders: A multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamelis, L.L.M.; Arntz, A.; Wetzelaer, P.; Verdoorn, R.; Evers, S.M.A.A.


    Purpose: To compare from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of schema therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy, and treatment as usual for patients with avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid, histrionic, and/or narcissistic personality disorder. Method:

  5. Transference focused psychotherapy: overview and update. (United States)

    Kernberg, Otto F; Yeomans, Frank E; Clarkin, John F; Levy, Kenneth N


    This paper describes a specific psychoanalytic psychotherapy for patients with severe personality disorders, its technical approach and specific research projects establishing empirical evidence supporting its efficacy. This treatment derives from the findings of the Menninger Foundation Psychotherapy Research project, and applies a model of contemporary psychoanalytic object relations theory as its theoretical foundation. The paper differentiates this treatment from alternative psychoanalytic approaches, including other types of psychoanalytic psychotherapy as well as standard psychoanalysis, and from three alternative non-analytical treatments prevalent in the treatment of borderline patients, namely, dialectic behavior therapy, supportive psychotherapy based on psychoanalytic theory, and schema focused therapy. It concludes with indications and contraindications to this particular therapeutic approach derived from the clinical experience that evolved in the course of the sequence of research projects leading to the empirical establishment of its efficacy.

  6. [Psychoanalytically based and psychoanalysis in children and adolescents from the viewpoint of a child and adolescent psychotherapist]. (United States)

    Berns, Inge


    The author, practitioner of psychoanalytic psychotherapy with children and adolescents, explains her point of view regarding psychotherapy versus psychoanalysis. Verbatim process notes illustrate the work and are used to plan the therapeutic method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyacheslav Alekseevich Ermakov


    Full Text Available n this article the author reconstructed and generalized the religious and philosophical aspects of Christian criticism of psychoanalytic methodology of dreams interpretation. The research opens an occult specifics of a psychoanalytic oneurocritics. There is a consideration of a concept how such factors as «cocaine promotion» affects Freudian theory of dreams, a freemasonry and cabalism. The article reveals that Christian ekzegetics of dreams is essentially opposite to psychoanalytic interpretation of dreaming experience. The author makes a hypothesis of before-Freud unity of psychiatric and Christian approaches to interpretation of dreams and an orientation of psychoanalysis on destruction of this unity. The assumption of spiritual and psychological danger of application of psychoanalytic approach of dreams interpretation in psychological work is reasonable. The author comes to a conclusion that the Freudian methodology of dreams interpretation has been developed with the purposes of introduction of anti-Christian occult psychology in the theory and practice of medical and psychiatric activity and elimination of Christian vicarial psychotherapy.Purpose. The research objective consists of retrospective reconstruction of the main critical aspects of the psychoanalytic concept of dreams presented in Christian approach to ekzegetics of dreams.Methodology. Method of this research is a comparative analysis of Christian and psychoanalytic approaches of understanding the nature and essence of dreaming process and its interpretation.Results. Results of research can be used as in the scientific purposes of critical genera-lization and studying of the theoretical model of a dream developed by psychoanalysis and in educational activity where students can compare Christian and psychoanalytic approaches.Practical implementation: psychology, philosophy history, sociology, theological researches.

  8. 20/20 Hindsight: A 25-year programme at the Anna Freud Centre of efficacy and effectiveness research on child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Target, Mary


    This paper describes the evolution of methods of enquiry-through 25 years of work, with Professor Peter Fonagy and many other colleagues-of research and theorizing about child and adolescent therapy outcomes. The work has focused on measuring psychoanalytic outcomes, but with an increasing interest in discovering therapeutic elements across treatment modalities. Headline findings are described, with lessons from the ups and downs of developing (a) retrospective, follow-up, and prospective outcome studies, and (b) measures of child and family functioning. Issues of manualizing and measuring treatment process are discussed, together with the fruitfulness of mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) process and outcome research with young people and families. Using the dilemmas, experiences, and findings ‌‌of our group as examples, growing points and well as growing pains for the field are suggested.

  9. Does interpersonal behaviour of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?


    Janna Ida Fincke; Heidi eMöller; Svenja eTaubner


    Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behaviour on Work Involvement (WI) and compared their social behaviour within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic (PA), psychodynamic (PD) and cognitive behavi...

  10. Analytically oriented psychotherapy in schizotypal and borderline patients: at the border of treatability. (United States)

    Stone, M. H.


    Analytically oriented psychotherapy (AOP) has been considered the treatment of choice for borderline patients and a useful technique in the treatment of schizotypal patients. There are many exceptions, however, in addition to a number of borderline and schizotypal patients who are just barely amenable to this modality: they are at the border of treatability by AOP. Limitations relating to time, cost, and the availability of therapists trained in this discipline render it important to delineate the factors which conduce either to the success or failure of AOP. From the author's clinical impressions about borderline and schizotypal patients at the border of treatability by AOP, a number of such factors emerge. On the positive side: likeableness, autoplastic defenses, high motivation, psychological-mindedness, genuine concern, good moral sense, self-discipline, and low impulsivity. Negative factors include, beside the opposites to the aforementioned, vengefulness and parental abusiveness or exploitation. A scale for measuring the balance between these positive and negative factors is proposed. Its use may, it is hoped, improve forecast, during initial consultation, as to which borderline and schizotypal patients will respond favorably to AOP. PMID:4049910

  11. [Psychanalitic psychotherapy: practice and indications in the aged]. (United States)

    Claudel, Bertrand


    Use of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for the elderly remains an issue. Even though regular psychoanalysis cure is contraindicated for elderly patients in most cases, yet, face-to-face psychotherapies can prove useful. The methods used for psychoanalytic psychotherapy for elderly patients are different from those applicable to middle age patients. These methods take into account the mourning process experienced by the elderly patient in three spheres: loss of object, loss of function and loss of oneself. Indications concerning psychoanalytic psychotherapy for the elderly have to be carefully assessed and will be detailed throughout the paper.

  12. Client attachment security predicts alliance in a randomized controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig Bernt


    Objective: This study investigated the relation between clients’ attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance in two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa. Method: Data derive from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia...

  13. Economic evaluation of schema therapy and clarification-oriented psychotherapy for personality disorders: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Bamelis, Lotte L M; Arntz, Arnoud; Wetzelaer, Pim; Verdoorn, Ryanne; Evers, Silvia M A A


    To compare from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of schema therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy, and treatment as usual for patients with avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid, histrionic, and/or narcissistic personality disorder. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial, single-blind parallel design, was conducted between May 2006 and December 2011 in 12 Dutch mental health institutes. Data from 320 patients (diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria) randomly assigned to schema therapy (n = 145), treatment as usual (n = 134), or clarification-oriented psychotherapy (n = 41) were analyzed. Costs were repeatedly measured during 36 months by interview and patient registries. Primary outcome measures were proportion of recovered patients as measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders for the cost-effectiveness analysis, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the cost-utility analysis. Bootstrap replications in the cost-effectiveness and the cost-utility planes were used to estimate the probability that one treatment was more cost-effective than the other. Mixed gamma regression on net monetary benefit for different levels of willingness to pay for extra effects was used as sensitivity analysis. Additional sensitivity analyses were done to assess robustness of the results. Due to higher clinical effects and lower costs, schema therapy was dominant over the other treatments in the cost-effectiveness analyses. Schema therapy has the probability of being the most cost-effective treatment (78% at €0 to 96% at €37,500 [$27,375] willingness to pay per extra recovery). Treatment as usual was more cost-effective than clarification-oriented psychotherapy due to lower costs. In the cost-utility analysis, schema therapy had a stable 75% probability of being cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. The results support the cost-effectiveness of schema

  14. Law and psychiatry: regulating psychotherapy or restricting freedom of speech? California's ban on sexual orientation change efforts. (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S


    California's new law banning sexual orientation change efforts by licensed therapists for patients under 18 immediately provoked court challenges. Therapists, parents, and patients argued that the statute infringed constitutional rights to freedom of speech and parental rights to select treatments for their children. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected all of these claims in a unanimous decision upholding the law. However, the decision evokes concerns that other forms of psychotherapy could be subject to similar regulation. Tort remedies may provide less intrusive means for discouraging use of ineffective and potentially harmful therapies.

  15. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn


    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  16. Definitions of homework, types of homework, and ratings of the importance of homework among psychologists with cognitive behavior therapy and psychoanalytic theoretical orientations. (United States)

    Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Dattilio, Frank M


    A random sample of 827 psychologists were surveyed to assess their definitions of homework, use of homework tasks, and perceived importance of homework. Theoretical orientation distinguished practitioners' responses. Cognitive-behavioral therapists defined homework as being closer to empirically supported therapy, whereas psychodynamic therapists rated homework as less characteristic of a process that embraces client responsibility and adaptive skills. Cognitive-behavior therapists did not limit their choices to activity-based tasks, and psychodynamic therapists reported using behavioral tasks "sometimes." Monitoring dreams and conscious thought were also used among the entire sample surveyed. Psychodynamic therapists rated homework as "somewhat" or "moderately" important, whereas cognitive-behavior therapists more often rated homework as "very important." Data suggest some homework may be common to different psychotherapeutic approaches. Findings are discussed in the context of recent theoretical work on homework in psychotherapy and recommendations for future research.

  17. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.


    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies ( to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725

  18. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies. (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D


    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies ( to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  19. TIGA-CUB - manualised psychoanalytic child psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant conduct disorders and their primary carers: study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial. (United States)

    Edginton, Elizabeth; Walwyn, Rebecca; Burton, Kayleigh; Cicero, Robert; Graham, Liz; Reed, Sadie; Tubeuf, Sandy; Twiddy, Maureen; Wright-Hughes, Alex; Ellis, Lynda; Evans, Dot; Hughes, Tom; Midgley, Nick; Wallis, Paul; Cottrell, David


    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends evidence-based parenting programmes as a first-line intervention for conduct disorders (CD) in children aged 5-11 years. As these are not effective in 25-33% of cases, NICE has requested research into second-line interventions. Child and Adolescent Psychotherapists (CAPTs) address highly complex problems where first-line treatments have failed and there have been small-scale studies of Psychoanalytic Child Psychotherapy (PCP) for CD. A feasibility trial is needed to determine whether a confirmatory trial of manualised PCP (mPCP) versus Treatment as Usual (TaU) for CD is practicable or needs refinement. The aim of this paper is to publish the abridged protocol of this feasibility trial. TIGA-CUB (Trial on improving Inter-Generational Attachment for Children Undergoing Behaviour problems) is a two-arm, pragmatic, parallel-group, multicentre, individually randomised (1:1) controlled feasibility trial (target n = 60) with blinded outcome assessment (at 4 and 8 months), which aims to develop an optimum practicable protocol for a confirmatory, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT) (primary outcome: child's behaviour; secondary outcomes: parental reflective functioning and mental health, child and parent quality of life), comparing mPCP and TaU as second-line treatments for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant CD and inter-generational attachment difficulties, and for their primary carers. Child-primary carer dyads will be recruited following a referral to, or re-referral within, National Health Service (NHS) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) after an unsuccessful first-line parenting intervention. PCP will be delivered by qualified CAPTs working in routine NHS clinical practice, using a trial-specific PCP manual (a brief version of established PCP clinical practice). Outcomes are: (1) feasibility of recruitment methods, (2) uptake and follow-up rates, (3

  20. Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy (Professional Doctorate) (Tavistock)


    Midgen, Melissa Jane


    This thesis seeks to chart the creation, development and eventual demise of the child analytic training of The Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP), the foremost Jungian Society in the UK. The brainchild of the Society's founding director, Michael Fordham, the creation of the child training drew on the talents and persistence of many committed individuals. Through oral history interviews and archival research I weave together a narrative that will serve as testament to this achievement and ...

  1. The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interviewees also described adaptive responses to these contextual challenges. These responses are discussed as evidence of the usefulness of theoretical and technical eclecticism, when applied with psychoanalytic mindfulness, in developing the South African parent–infant/child psychotherapy field. Journal of Child ...

  2. Conceptualización psicoanalítica acerca del juego de los niños: Punto de partida para una investigación empírica en psicoterapia Psychoanalytical conceptual approach to children´s play: Initial step for an empirical research in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Luzzi


    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una exploración del marco teórico de una investigación desarrollada mediante una beca UBACyT de maestría, cuyo propósito es efectuar un estudio descriptivo del juego de niños entre 6 y 8 años en el contexto de la psicoterapia psicoanalítica grupal y su potencial relación con la contención emocional de los padres. Objetivos: Delimitar el significado otorgado al juego de los niños en la obra de autores clásicos del psicoanálisis. Metodología: Se efectúa una investigación conceptual sobre el juego de los niños, en tanto actividad normal de su vida anímica y en el contexto de la psicoterapia psicoanalítica. Se rastrea el concepto en la obra de Sigmund Freud, punto de partida de teorizaciones posteriores de autores de la Escuela Inglesa de Psicoanálisis. Dentro de esta corriente, se enfatizan los aportes de Melanie Klein, pionera en el trabajo psicoanalítico con niños, y de Donald Winnicott, que enriquecen la conceptualización de la actividad lúdica. Resultados y Conclusión: Los diferentes modos de conceptuar la actividad lúdica de los niños por parte de los autores mencionados, influyó en el modo de concebir la clínica psicoanalítica con niños.The following paper is part of the theoretical frame of an investigation that is being developed by an UBACyT master scholarship, which purpose is to carry out a descriptive study of children´s play between six and eight years old in the context of the psychoanalytic psychotherapy group and its potential relationship with the capacity of emotional containment of parents. Aim: Specify the meaning given to children´s play in the work of classical psychoanalytical authors. Methodology: A conceptual research about children´s play is carried out, as a normal activity in their mind life and as a psychoanalytical psychotherapy activity. The concept has been searched throughout Sigmund Freud´s work, as the basic and first step of the following theoretical discoveries

  3. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy versus brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depression (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Goodyer, Ian M; Reynolds, Shirley; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Dubicka, Bernadka; Hill, Jonathan; Holland, Fiona; Kelvin, Raphael; Midgley, Nick; Roberts, Chris; Senior, Rob; Target, Mary; Widmer, Barry; Wilkinson, Paul; Fonagy, Peter


    Although there are effective psychological treatments for unipolar major depression in adolescents, whether or not one or more of the available therapies maintain reduced depressive symptoms 1 year after the end of treatment is not known. This is a non-trivial issue because maintaining lowered depressive symptoms below a clinical threshold level reduces the risk for diagnostic relapse into the adult years. To determine whether or not either of two specialist psychological treatments, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (STPP), is more effective than a reference brief psychosocial intervention (BPI) in maintaining reduction of depression symptoms in the year after treatment. Observer-blind, parallel-group, pragmatic superiority randomised controlled trial. A total of 15 outpatient NHS clinics in the UK from East Anglia, north-west England and North London. Adolescents aged 11-17 years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -Fourth Edition major depression including those with suicidality, depressive psychosis and conduct disorder. Patients were randomised using stochastic minimisation controlling for age, sex and self-reported depression sum score; 470 patients were randomised and 465 were included in the analyses. In total, 154 adolescents received CBT, 156 received STPP and 155 received BPI. The trial lasted 86 weeks and study treatments were delivered in the first 36 weeks, with 52 weeks of follow-up. Mean sum score on self-reported depressive symptoms (primary outcome) at final study assessment (nominally 86 weeks, at least 52 weeks after end of treatment). Secondary measures were change in mean sum scores on self-reported anxiety symptoms and researcher-rated Health of the Nation scales for children and adolescents measuring psychosocial function. Following baseline assessment, there were a further five planned follow-up reassessments at nominal time points of 6, 12, 52 and 86 weeks post

  4. Sexual Orientation Microaggressions: The Experience of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Clients in Psychotherapy (United States)

    Shelton, Kimber; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.


    Psychological research has shown the detrimental effects that overt heterosexism have on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients and on the psychotherapeutic relationship. However, the effects of subtle forms of discrimination, specifically sexual orientation microaggressions, have on LGBQ clients and the therapeutic relationship have not…

  5. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina. (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther


    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  6. "Espíritos infernais" e "astutos encantamentos" em psicoterapia de orientação psicanalítica: a interpretação transferencial "Espíritus infernales" y "astutos encantamientos" en psicoterapia psicoanalítica: la interpretación transferencial "Spirits from the underworld" and "cunning spells" in psychoanalytic psychotherapy: transference interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lopes Schimitt


    Full Text Available Este é um texto sobre interpretação transferencial utilizada no contexto da psicoterapia de orientação psicanalítica. A primeira parte deste trabalho contempla a evolução do conceito de transferência até ele ocupar uma posição central no trabalho terapêutico. A segunda parte aborda o conceito de interpretação transferencial, considerando-o um recurso técnico amplamente utilizado em psicoterapia de orientação psicanalítica, e enfoca os critérios e inconveniências de sua utilização. Por fim, são apresentados dois exemplos clínicos a título de ilustração do tema desenvolvido.Este es un texto sobre la interpretación transferencial utilizada en el contexto de la Psicoterapia de Orientación Psicoanalítica. La primera parte trata de la evolución del concepto de transferencia hasta que dicho concepto ocupara la posición central en el trabajo terapéutico. La segunda parte aborda el concepto de interpretación transferencial, considerándolo un recurso técnico ampliamente utilizado en Psicoterapia de Orientación Psicoanalítica, y enfoca los criterios e inconveniencias de su utilización. Por fin, se presentan dos ejemplos clínicos para ilustración del tema desarrollado.The present article focuses on transference interpretation in the context of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The first part of this work describes the evolution of the concept of transference until it reaches a central position in the therapeutic work. The second part deals with the concept of transference interpretation, considering it as a widely used technical resource in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, and focuses on the criteria and inconveniences of its use. Finally, two clinical examples are presented to illustrate the theme.

  7. Mourning and psychosis: a psychoanalytic perspective. (United States)

    Tizón, Jorge L


    The author attempts to develop some of the basic models and concepts relating to mourning processes in psychotic patients on the assumption that situations of loss and mourning are key moments for psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and therapeutic approaches in general. Secondly, he reminds us that 'mourning processes in psychotics' are not always 'psychotic mourning processes', that is to say, that they do not necessarily occur within, or give rise to, a psychotic clinical picture. These ideas are illustrated by a number of sessions and vignettes concerning two psychotic patients in psychotherapeutic and psychoanalytic treatment. In theoretical terms, it seems vitally important in this context to combine a relationship-based approach within a framework of special psychoanalytic psychopathology with an updated view of processes of mourning and affective loss. A fundamental requirement at clinical level is to determine the role to be played by psychoanalytically based treatments in combined, integrated or global therapies when working with psychotic patients. For this purpose, the paper ends by outlining a set of principles and objectives for such treatments. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. [Changes in vocabulary in a psychoanalytic process]. (United States)

    Kächele, H; Thomä, H; Schaumburg, C


    This paper at first deals with some aspects of the relationship between psychoanalysis and linguistics. Freuds theory of parapraxis is interpreted in terms of Bühlers model of speech, whereby the entire verbal output of a speaker can be understood as an act of symptomatic behavior. The investigation of the vocabulary of nouns of a patient suffering from anxiety neurosis illustrates the fertility of this model. The frequency dispersion of all nouns taken from a specific sample of the patient's and analyst's speaking shows the stability of statistical properties of speech behavior. Following, the role of content-analytic techniques for the specific demands of research in pstchotherapy is discussed. A large part of content-analytic measures is rather far removed from the clinical description of the psychotherapeutic process, thus diminishing the validating relevance of these studies for psychoanalytic concepts. The final chapter describes the process of a psychoanalytic treatment by means of the content-analytic technique. The changes of the patient's verbal content show highly specific correlation to the clinical ratings of psychoanalytic concepts like transference and anxiety. As an initial study, these results are qualified to stimulate the development of content-analytic categories for research in psychotherapy.

  9. How Can Geography and Mobile Phones Contribute to Psychotherapy? (United States)

    Ferrás, Carlos; García, Yolanda; Aguilera, Adrián; Rocha, Álvaro


    Interdisciplinary relationships between Geography and Psychotherapy are an opportunity for innovation. Indeed, scientific works found on bibliographic databases and concerning this theme are scarce. Geographical sub-fields, such as the Geography of Emotions or Psychoanalytical Geography have started to emerge, theorizing about and interpreting feelings, emotions, moods, sufferings, of the chronically ill or diversified social groups and sites. But a less theoretical and more practical approach, in the sense of proposing, predicting and intervening, is lacking; as well as research into the possibilities offered by communication technologies and mobile phones. In the present work, we present the results of a review of the most relevant scientific works published internationally; we reflect on the contributions of Geography and mobile phones to psychosocial therapies and define the orientation and questions that should be posed in future research, from the point of view of geography and regarding psychotherapy. We conclude that the production of georeferenced data via mobile phones concerning the daily lives of people opens great possibilities for cognitive behavioural therapy and mental health. They allow for the development of personalized mood maps that locate the places where a person experiences greater or lesser stress on a daily basis; they allow for a cartography of emotions, a cognitive cartography of the places we access physically or through the Internet, of our feelings and psychosocial experiences. They open the door to the possibility of offering personalized psychotherapy treatments focusing on the ecological-environmental analysis of the places frequented by the person on a daily basis.

  10. Investigação em psicoterapia com crianças: uma revisão Investigation in child psychotherapy: a review

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    Elisabeth Kuhn Deakin


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as pesquisas mais recentes em psicoterapia com crianças, com ênfase na psicoterapia psicanalítica infantil. Procedeu-se à revisão de todos os trabalhos encontrados na consulta às publicações científicas indexadas de acesso on-line e aos livros-textos das áreas de avaliação de resultados de psicoterapia psicanalítica com crianças, avaliando e discutindo os aspectos metodológicos. Os resultados demonstraram que, apesar dos avanços alcançados, ainda existe uma escassez de pesquisas na área, principalmente no que diz respeito às pesquisas que comprovem a efetividade das psicoterapias de orientação psicanalítica com crianças. Por último, conclui-se que existe uma necessidade de desenvolver estudos com metodologias mais sofisticadas para avaliar os resultados de psicoterapia com crianças.The objective of this study was to review the literature on recent research in child psychotherapy, focusing on child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. All articles addressing outcome research in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy obtained from online scientific publications and textbooks were included and discussed in the review. The study revealed that, although important advances can be identified in outcome research, there is still a lack of research in this field, especially concerning the effectiveness of psychoanalytic-oriented psychotherapies in children. In conclusion, further studies using more sophisticated methodology are needed to assess outcome in child psychotherapy.

  11. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S


    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  12. [Integrated psychotherapy for eating disorders]. (United States)

    Tomizawa, O


    The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment

  13. A transferência nos atendimentos breves de orientação psicanalítica/The short on transfer of oriented psychotherapy

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    Gabriela Gomes Costardi


    Full Text Available Esse trabalho tem como objetivo discutir a especificidade da transferência em psicoterapia breve. A metodologia utilizada é um estudo de caso. A relação de reciprocidade estabelecida inicialmente pela dupla terapêutica demarcou o espaço psicoterápico como um lugar de ‘palavra vazia’ e o cliente só pôde falar do que lhe fazia sofrer quando a estagiária saiu do lugar de sujeito que ocupava na relação. Esse deslocamento teve um efeito terapêutico para o cliente, que se fez marcar pela subtração da palavra. "Quem fala perde"(sic. Perder este lugar-sintoma foi o efeito resultante deste tratamento. Conclui-se que a proposta dos atendimentos breves de orientação psicanalítica opera a partir da sustentação do cliente enquanto sujeito do tratamento. This paper aims to discuss the specificity of transference in short-term psychotherapy. The methodology used is a case study. The reciprocity relationship established at first by the therapeutic pair determined the psychotherapeutic space as a place for an “empty word”; the patient was only able to talk about the source of his suffering when the intern stepped out of her role as the subject she had been playing in the relationship. That move had a therapeutic effect on the patient, marked by the subtraction of the word - “the one who speaks loses”. Losing that place/symptom was the resulting effect of the treatment. The conclusion herein is that the proposal of short-term psychoanalytical treatments operates from the establishment of the patient as the subject in the treatment.

  14. Hamlet and psychoanalytic experience. (United States)

    Schwaber, Paul


    Hamlet draws us into its rendered world, enabling us to experience it with depth, awareness, and resonance, in a mode we recognize as aesthetic. By way of Shakespeare's play--primarily the first act--and a detailed case study, aesthetic and psychoanalytic experience are compared, to suggest that, for our own analytic discourse, we revalue Freud's unease that his case studies read like short stories.

  15. Succession and survival in psychotherapy organizations. (United States)

    Khaleelee, Olya


    This paper examines the world of psychotherapy by applying a systemic and psychodynamic understanding of the family business as a way of understanding the dilemmas and challenges of leadership succession. Oedipal factors are explored as an important theme within the succession process. This exploration is set within the context of what function psychotherapy has performed in society over the last thirty years. The hypothesis is that the first generation of leaders aimed to provide containment for the individual citizen at a time of failed dependency in society. The suggestion is that this gave way to the primary task for the second generation, which has been to focus on the therapist in training. The challenge for the third generation is to develop a meaningful role for psychotherapy today and to ensure survival at a time when other shorter therapies such as CBT are gaining ascendancy over longer term psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

  16. Forensic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel


    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  17. A integração da psicofarmacoterapia e psicoterapia de orientação analítica: uma revisão crítica The integration of psychopharmacotherapy and psychoanalytical psychotherapy: a critical review

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    Benício Noronha Frey


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A integração entre a psicoterapia e a psicofarmacoterapia tem sido uma questão conflitante na história da psiquiatria. Ainda hoje, observa-se uma dicotomia entre as correntes "biológica" e "psicológica", embora estudos mais recentes venham demonstrando a importância da associação dessas modalidades na prática psiquiátrica atual. O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar os aspectos psicodinâmicos e técnicos, entre outros, que envolvem a integração entre o tratamento medicamentoso e psicoterápico. MÉTODOS: A revisão da literatura foi realizada através da busca on-line das bases de dados MEDLINE, PsychoINFO e Lilacs, no período entre 1966 e setembro de 2002. RESULTADOS: Os estudos revisados demonstraram que a aplicação do tratamento combinado parece ser uma associação positiva. CONCLUSÕES: A eficácia do tratamento combinado depende da capacidade de integração das diferentes formas de tratamento. São necessárias mais pesquisas nesta área.OBJECTIVE: Integration between psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy has been a conflicting subject in the history of psychiatry. To date, dichotomy between "biological" and "psychological" models is noticed, although recent studies have been showing the importance of the association of these modalities in the current psychiatric practice. This study attempts to review psychodynamic, technical, and other issues involving the integration of pharmacological and psychotherapeutical treatments. METHODS: Literature search was based on MEDLINE, PsychoINFO and Lilacs, referring to the period from 1966 to September 2002. RESULTS: The studies reviewed demonstrated that the application of combined treatment might be positive. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of the combined treatment depends on the capacity of the integration of the different forms of treatment. More research is necessary in this area.

  18. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient. (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Salas, Christian E; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H


    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL's impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space - where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general - and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  19. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient (United States)

    Moore, Paul A.; Salas, Christian E.; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H.


    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change. PMID:28890703

  20. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore


    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  1. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland. (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar


    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  2. Towards the recovery of a sense of self: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of patients' experience of body-oriented psychotherapy for schizophrenia. (United States)

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa; Fuchs, Thomas


    Increasing evidence supports the efficacy of body-oriented psychotherapy (BPT) for schizophrenia. Yet, so far no research has investigated outcome in relation to therapy process: Why and how BPT is effective. In this study, we qualitatively explore participants' experience of a manualized BPT for schizophrenia to shed light on the process of therapeutic change. We conducted in-depth interviews with 6 participants who completed a 10-week BPT group intervention. Interviews explored participants' experience of change and helpful aspects of therapy and were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. We identified six master themes across the interviews: (i) Being a whole: body-mind connection; (ii) Being agentic and being able; (iii) Being unique and worthy: Being accepted for who one is; (iv) Changing interactions: Engaging in authentic interpersonal contact; (v) Being part of a group: Feeling integrated; and (vi) Hope and investing in the future. We discuss the clinical implications for each theme and bring the findings together by describing therapeutic change in schizophrenia as a recovery of sense of self at different but interlocked levels. Moreover, we put forward recommendations for both specific and common factors for schizophrenia therapy. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: The clinical significance of this study is twofold. On the one hand, the findings of this analysis might inform the theory and practice of BPT and might directly feedback into a further development of the manual guidelines. On the other hand, common helpful factors have been identified thatmight also be relevant for the more general clinical practice concerning patients with schizophrenia. Here, we summarize our key messages for the clinical practitioner emerging from the findings: The inclusion of bodily aspects and a focus on pre-reflective experience in psychotherapy can help persons with schizophrenia recover the sense of being a body-mind unity

  3. Sexual orientation change efforts through psychotherapy for LGBQ individuals affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Kate; Dehlin, John P; Crowell, Katherine A; Galliher, Renee V; Bradshaw, William S


    This study reports the results of a comprehensive online survey of 1,612 current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, many of whom engaged in psychotherapy to cope with (i.e., understand, accept, or change) their same-sex attractions. Data obtained from written and quantitative responses showed that therapy was initiated over a very wide age range and continued for many years. However, counseling was largely ineffective; less than 4% reported any modification of core same-sex erotic attraction. Moreover, 42% reported that their change-oriented therapy was not at all effective, and 37% found it to be moderately to severely harmful. In contrast, affirming psychotherapeutic strategies were often found to be beneficial in reducing depression, increasing self-esteem, and improving family and other relationships. Results suggest that the very low likelihood of a modification of sexual orientation and the ambiguous nature of any such change should be important considerations for highly religious sexual minority individuals considering reorientation therapy.

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... Resources For Professionals Contact Us Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Questions to Ask ...

  5. Toward a renewal of personology in psychotherapy research. (United States)

    Stolorow, Robert D


    The articles by Elkins (D. N. Elkins, 2012, Toward a common focus in psychotherapy research, Psychotherapy, 49, pp. 450-454) and Hayes (S. C. Hayes, 2012, Humanistic psychology and contextual behavioral perspectives, Psychotherapy, 49, pp. 455-460) serve as a springboard for a call for a renewal of personological methods in studies of the psychotherapeutic relationship-methods that can investigate the emotional worlds of patient and psychotherapist as well as the relational systems constituted by the interplay between them. I believe only such idiographic research can illuminate the nexus of humanistic elements in which the psychotherapeutic process takes form. The beginnings of the author's own phenomenological-contextualist psychoanalytic perspective hark back to a series of personological studies of the subjective origins of psychoanalytic theories. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Psychoanalytic Schools in Historical Perspective


    Suzuki, Yuzuru


    This paper summarizes the historical evolution of major psychoanalytic schools. Because Sigmund Freud founded psychoanalysis, we start with the description of the Freudian model. Freud proposed his libido theory as an answer to the fundamental question in psychology, i.e. "What drives the human mind?" Many of the psychoanalytic schools came into existence from criticism of Freud's libido theory. Although they all disagree with the libido theory in one way or another, each school formulated a ...

  7. Procedimentos, colocação em cena da dupla ("Enactment" e validação clínica em psicoterapia psicanalítica e psicanálise Psicoanálisis y psicoterapia psicoanalítica: procedimientos, validación clínica y el modelo de "colocación en escena" ("enactment" Procedures, enactment and clinical validation in psychoanalytical psychotherapy and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosevelt M. Smeke Cassorla


    ían fallas en la capacidad del analista, y la necesidad de su validación. Para ese propósito se presentan diferencias entre Psicoanálisis y Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica con relación a sus procedimientos y objetivos. Es presentado el modelo de la "colocación en escena dupla" ("enactment", y se discute la posibilidad de él ser útil para el proceso de validación, en conjunto con la definición de los objetivos del tratamiento. OBJETIVOS: describir y discutir formas de validación clínica de procedimientos en psicoanálisis y relacionarlos con los objetivos del Psicoanálisis y de la Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica. MÉTODO: Clínico - psicoanalítico, ilustrado con pacientes con TOC. RESULTADOS-MATERIAL CLÍNICO: SE Presenta la dinámica subyacente a trechos de dos sesiones, mostrándose que una "falla" del analista se reveló productiva, al evaluarse su efecto (validación clínica, resultando en ampliación de la capacidad de pensar, modelo teórico utilizado. DISCUSIÓN: son discutidos: 1 Validación, "enactment" y contra transferencia: mostrándose la necesidad del analista "entrar en la escena" y usar los derivados de su contra transferencia para la comprensión de los "enactments", 2 Psicoanálisis y Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica: mostrándose con clareza en sus objetivos es condición para que la validación sea posible. CONCLUSIONES: por lidiar con variables complejas, de imposible aislamiento y control, el psicoanálisis y la psicoterapia psicoanalítica necesitan de la validación intra clínica continua y la clareza de los objetivos es condición esencial para tal. Se demuestra utilidad de los modelos del "enactment" asociado a la teoría del pensar de Bion, como bases para esa validación.INTRODUCTION: Procedures used in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapies are presented, emphasizing those that show failures in the analyst's capacity, indicating the need to validate the procedures. For this purpose, differences between Psychoanalysis and

  8. Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutel Manfred E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite limited effectiveness of short-term psychotherapy for chronic depression, there is a lack of trials of long-term psychotherapy. Our study is the first to determine the effectiveness of controlled long-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral (CBT treatments and to assess the effects of preferential vs. randomized assessment. Methods/design Patients are assigned to treatment according to their preference or randomized (if they have no clear preference. Up to 80 sessions of psychodynamic or psychoanalytically oriented treatments (PAT or up to 60 sessions of CBT are offered during the first year in the study. After the first year, PAT can be continued according to the ‘naturalistic’ usual method of treating such patients within the system of German health care (normally from 240 up to 300 sessions over two to three years. CBT therapists may extend their treatment up to 80 sessions, but focus mainly maintenance and relapse prevention. We plan to recruit a total of 240 patients (60 per arm. A total of 11 assessments are conducted throughout treatment and up to three years after initiation of treatment. The primary outcome measures are the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS, independent clinician rating and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI after the first year. Discussion We combine a naturalistic approach with randomized controlled trials(RCTsto investigate how effectively chronic depression can be treated on an outpatient basis by the two forms of treatment reimbursed in the German healthcare system and we will determine the effects of treatment preference vs. randomization. Trial registration

  9. [Review of several different forms of psychotherapy in treatment of depression]. (United States)

    Zogg, W


    The present article endeavours to introduce, in a concise form, selected forms of psychotherapy for the treatment of depressions. In particular behaviour therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and a psychoanalytically oriented and inspired therapy, subsequently named psychodynamic therapy (PT), are described. The attempt to offer a brief presentation of these treatment methods follows essentially the descriptions of Elizabeth Schramm in her book "Interpersonelle Psychotherapie". We thank the author for giving her kind consent to our publication. Our main concern is to enable the reader to recognize the essential characteristics and differences between these treatment forms, so that he can give the depressive patient advice on the choice of an adequate treatment. The first three brief psychotherapies have been developed specifically for the treatment of depressions. The psychodynamically (psychoanalytically) oriented approach is the most frequently used. CT, BT and IPT in particular have in common that they offer a temporally limited, clearly structured treatment programme in the sense of a manual, and are thus teachable and conveyable and efficient with respect to costs. We would point out, however, that combinations between the different treatment forms are possible and that a strict distinction between the separate methods is chiefly of didactic value. Essential to all treatment methods is the empathic and supporting relation to the patient. The therapist should play an active role and should convey the hope that the patient can be helped. All the described treatment forms are suited for the treatment of light to moderately severe depressions, with or without concomitant psychopharmacological therapy. In psychodynamic therapy the tendency is to dispense with medication, whereas CB, CT and IPT tend to integrate the use of psychoactive drugs in their treatment schedules. In our opinion psychopharmacological treatment should on no

  10. Does interpersonal behavior of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships? (United States)

    Fincke, Janna I; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja


    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees' interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.

  11. Does interpersonal behavior of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships? (United States)

    Fincke, Janna I.; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja


    Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees’ interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees’ relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees’ level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees’ interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training. PMID:26106347

  12. Does interpersonal behaviour of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Ida Fincke


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behaviour on Work Involvement (WI and compared their social behaviour within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic (PA, psychodynamic (PD and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT training. Trainees from sample 1 (N = 184 were asked to describe their interpersonal behaviour in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from sample 2 (N = 135 were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of Healing Involvement (HI, while Stress Involvement (SI was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behaviour within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behaviour. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behaviour with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behaviour could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behaviour in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.

  13. Minding the gap between positivism and hermeneutics in psychoanalytic research. (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J; Corveleyn, Jozef


    Two quite different cultures are to be found within psychoanalysis, one more clinical in orientation, more focused on meaning and interpretation, and relying primarily on the traditional case study method, the other more research-oriented, focused on cause-and-effect relationships, and relying primarily on methods borrowed from the natural and social sciences. The history of this divide is reviewed and arguments, pro and con, about the potential contributions of specific types of empirical investigation are discussed. Increasingly, it seems, criticisms concerning the scientific status of psychoanalysis are being responded to by empirical research. This has contributed to a growing recognition within the scientific community of the credibility of aspects of psychoanalytic theories and of the effectiveness of psychodynamic treatment. However, some segments of the psychoanalytic community are concerned that this increase in the quantity and quality of empirical research on psychoanalytic concepts risks creating an empirical one-sidedness, while other segments are concerned that not engaging in systematic empirical research can lead to intellectual isolation, fragmentation, stagnation, and orthodoxy. To counter this polarizing tendency, a recommendation is made for methodological pluralism. Adopting this stance could contribute to an enriched understanding of the clinical process and to the development of new research methodologies to investigate complex psychodynamic hypotheses, thus bridging the gap between the two psychoanalytic cultures, as well as the gap between research and clinical practice.

  14. Psychoanalytic reality of prose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.


    Full Text Available Scientific methods of a particular field of knowledge can not be freely applied to a different field without any adjustments or reservations. Openness to a different approach is detrimental here. According to Nothrop Frye, psychonalysis in literature tends to 'blur the lines between methods' (Frye 1979: 383 thus increasing openness. Therefore, the anxiety that exists between the theory of psychonalysis and the practice of psychoanalytic therapy will follow the application of psychoanalysis to other scientific fields. Solid grasp of the theory of psychoanalysis is incomplete without understanding its practical implementation in the domain of pain as its priviledged source of truth. Even Jacques Lacan emphasized this by distinguishing between understanding and knowing Jacques Derrida's psychoanalysis. The interdisciplinary activity, valued today as an important aspect of research, cannot be accomplished by simple confrontations between various specialized branches of knowledge. According to Roland Barthes, interdisciplinary work is not a peaceful operation: it begins effectively when the solidarity of the old disciplines breaks down to the benefit of a new object and a new language, neither of which is in the domain of those branches of knowledge that one calmly sought to confront (Barthes 1986b:181. Mirjana Lončar Vujnović proposes, following Barthes logic, to substitute the term psychoanalysis with the term 'experimental mysticism' (Lončar Vujnović 2014: 46. Her proposition has no semantic justification (and not only for its failed attempt at oxymoron let alone scientific. The exploration of the unconscious psyche which is unknown and irrational - designated under certain circumstances as the exploration of the mystical as a hidden, secret part of a man's soul - was scrutinized in psychoanalysis by employing a rigorous scientific method in reverence to the methods of the natural sciences. Furthermore, due to the nomothetic-ideographic and

  15. On psychoanalytic approaches to autism. (United States)

    Hobson, R P


    An analysis of the strengths and limitations of psychoanalytic approaches to autism serves to highlight the need for a theoretical scheme adequate to encompass social as well as cognitive development in autistic individuals. It is proposed that such a scheme will entail an account of normal development in which children's "object relations" feature prominently.

  16. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork (United States)

    Ramvi, Ellen


    This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

  17. The didactics of psychoanalytic education. (United States)

    Körner, Jürgen


    The author first discusses general didactic considerations regarding psychoanalytic education and the teacher-pupil relationship. He then demonstrates that psychoanalytic education is greatly influenced by the ideal of a liberal education, of which in Germany there is a strong tradition under the name 'Bildung'. The main characteristics of 'Bildung'--as opposed to professional training--are that the objectives remain undefined and there is no attempt to achieve defined and operationalisable professional qualifications. The relationship between teacher and pupil is characterised by authority and trust. A psychoanalytic education by means of a 'liberal education' is based upon the assumption that the student should be motivated and supported in achieving competence through a passionate study of the world of psychic reality. Today, however, psychoanalytic education must be seen within a contemporary context that forces us to abandon the ideals of a liberal education, to operationalise the subjects studied and to control the education itself with regard to efficiency and results. These modern demands are the result of a professionalisation which has reached all social professions and from which psychoanalysis also cannot escape. Because of this, it is especially important to reflect on our educational methods and objectives. The author makes several suggestions on this subject. It is to be hoped that psychoanalysis will find its own way, without, on the one hand, losing sight of the special nature of psychoanalytic competence through an over-hasty adaptation to the process of professionalisation and, on the other hand, without reverting to unquestioned and outdated ideas on education.

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Questions to ...

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Questions to ...

  1. The evolution of psychoanalytic thought: a brief view through the lens of Western art and history: Freud and beyond. (United States)

    Stavovy, Tania


    The aim of this paper is to explore the diversity and progress in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy post-Sigmund Freud from the perspective of Western art. Since 1900 the shift from one-person psychology to the more contemporary two-person psychology is reflected in the creativity of artists, particularly in their depiction of the mother-infant relationship. An alternative perspective in understanding the evolution of Man's nature can be drawn from a discourse between art, history and psychoanalytic thought. Using art as evidence that reflects concurrent changes in psychoanalytic thought is a stimulating way to engage trainee psychiatrists and psychiatrists in their exploration of human nature.

  2. Psychotherapy with people with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zafošnik


    Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.

  3. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    This study concerns the systematic integration of qualitative research strategies in a psychoanalytic single case study of a child who had suffered early abuse and neglect. A systematic exploration of core features of the therapeutic relationship was carried out, possible links between such core...... with Interpretational Phenomenological Analysis were applied on recorded session notes and other case-file material from a concluded child psychotherapy case as well as on transcripts from follow-up interviews with the child’s birth and foster parents. The case material analyzed in three steps; principles...... for transparent selection developed: 1) Inductive exploration highlighting core object relationship themes in the first 24 therapy sessions. 2) Predefined manifestations of these themes systematically studied in case file reports from various informants about the child’s infancy, daily life, at end of therapy...

  4. Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. (United States)

    Geller, Jesse D


    This article is an effort to integrate contemporary psychoanalytic and existential perspectives on intentional therapist self-disclosure. It offers a two-stage decision-making model that considers self-disclosure from the vantage points of style and internalization. Clinical and research findings are presented to support the notion that the meanings a patient attributes to a particular self-disclosure, and its power to move him or her towards greater health, is the product of a fluctuating matrix of interpersonal and intrapsychic variables. Special consideration is given to the challenges that arise during the early and termination stages of treatment and to the psychotherapy of therapists. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Helping Alliance Questionnaire-I in psychodynamic psychotherapy for major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Marielle; Van, Rien; Peen, Jaap; Oudejans, Suzan; Schoevers, Robert; Dekker, Jack


    The psychometric properties of the Helping Alliance Questionnaire-I were analyzed at two times in short-term psychoanalytic supportive psychotherapy for outpatient depression. Exploratory factor analysis conducted in 142 patients generated a model that was confirmed in a different validation sample

  6. Psychoanalytic interpretation and cognitive transformation. (United States)

    Basch, M F


    Psychoanalytic metapsychology should be recognized for what it is, namely a theory of cognition and affect that is not derived directly from clinical data but is advanced in order to provide the development background that will let us deal with the clinical findings of psychoanalysis as aberrations of and deviations from the normal and expected evolution of the thinking process. Its cornerstone is Freud's belief that thought depends on the forging of links between the sensory perception of objects and their appropriate verbal descriptions. He made no secret of his dissatisfaction with his metapsychology and repeatedly revised it in an attempt to encompass those clinical discoveries of psychoanalysis that outstripped the explanatory power of that metapsychology and demonstrated its shortcomings. Using what we now know about normal development in infancy and childhood through the work of Piaget, Vygotsky and other investigators, it is possible to formulate an explanatory theory that does justice to the varied and complex findings uncovered by the application of the psychoanalytic method. For example, the significance of Freud's postulated second censorship between the preconscious and consciousness, as well as the importance of the defence of disavowal that Freud emphasized in his writings after 1927, can now be accounted for with a theory of thought formation that was not available to the founder of psychoanalysis. The implications of this proposed reformulation for psychoanalytic interpretation and for the application of psychoanalysis to an increasingly wide range of psychopathology is discussed in some detail.

  7. Questions of technique following the psychoanalytic perspective of Erich Fromm. (United States)

    Biancoli, Romano


    To avoid dogma and ritual Erich Fromm chose not to write a book on psychoanalytic technique, leaving his teachings to the oral tradition of his pupils which advises us to treat each patient and each session as unique. The rules of technique are neither revoked nor denied but rather discussed and criticized. In the author's opinion the "question of technique" takes the place of technique, making the Frommian approach wholly current and in dialogue with interpersonal and relational orientations in psychoanalysis. On this dialectical line and assuming the analyst's awareness as point of view, the theme of the relationship between the here-and-now of the session and the there-and-then of the analysand's life is developed. A dialectical context is also offered between operations of objectivization and operations of alienation in the psychoanalytic process.

  8. On psychoanalytic supervision as signature pedagogy. (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward


    What is signature pedagogy in psychoanalytic education? This paper examines that question, considering why psychoanalytic supervision best deserves that designation. In focusing on supervision as signature pedagogy, I accentuate its role in building psychoanalytic habits of mind, habits of hand, and habits of heart, and transforming theory and self-knowledge into practical product. Other facets of supervision as signature pedagogy addressed in this paper include its features of engagement, uncertainty, formation, and pervasiveness, as well as levels of surface, deep, and implicit structure. Epistemological, ontological, and axiological in nature, psychoanalytic supervision engages trainees in learning to do, think, and value what psychoanalytic practitioners in the field do, think, and value: It is, most fundamentally, professional preparation for competent, "good work." In this paper, effort is made to shine a light on and celebrate the pivotal role of supervision in "making" or developing budding psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists. Now over a century old, psychoanalytic supervision remains unparalleled in (1) connecting and integrating conceptualization and practice, (2) transforming psychoanalytic theory and self-knowledge into an informed analyzing instrument, and (3) teaching, transmitting, and perpetuating the traditions, practice, and culture of psychoanalytic treatment.

  9. [The ethics of psychoanalytic technique]. (United States)

    Treurniet, N


    The ethic of psychoanalytic technique which goes back to Freud and emphasizes the importance of anonymity, abstinence, neutrality and the central role of interpretation is subjected to a critical examination. The author traces the changes that have taken place since Freud and proposes a new ethic of psychoanalytic technique. Proceeding from the theory of object relations, Treurniet stresses the symmetrical relationship between analyst and analysand permitting both to assume a "meta-position" in order to reflect on the analysis material. The author further suggests that, beyond the projections of the analysand, the analyst should be open to his own subjectivity, as this openness is the key to the essential feature of analytic procedure, the enactment of countertransference. Finally, Treurniet reformulates his advocacy of a non-intrusive, affirmative attitude on the part of the analyst, a spontaneous willingness to "fall into the analysand's trap", an ability to oscillate between acting-out and introspection, to live out countertransference involuntarily and finally to incorporate the non-ideal into his conscience. These rules of technique must be controlled not only by the conscience and the countertransference of the analyst, but also--apart from intervision and consultation with collegues--by the analysand himself, whose opinion of the analytic situation the analyst should ask for.

  10. Medicating patients in psychoanalytic therapy: implications for introjection, transference, and countertransference. (United States)

    Riccio, Dominick J


    If a patient comes for psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, why medicate him with psychotropic drugs? The answers to this question are explored and addressed from several points of view. The central hypothesis of this paper suggests that most of the reasons for medicating patients have to do with therapist's unresolved countertransference issues. Furthermore, medicating a patient may have deleterious effects on his introjected sense of self, and impacts the transference relationship in a significant way. The issues surrounding medication as adjunctive therapy are elucidated and clarified in terms of rationale, efficacy, and the impact on the psychotherapeutic relationship. Psychoanalytic solutions are offered and discussed.

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  12. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... 20 two-hour sessions led by an experienced social worker. When used with other types of treatment ( ... Psychotherapy A form of psychotherapy in which consistency, support from others, and a hopeful attitude are used ...

  13. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... may be given one-on-one and through support groups, enabling people with BPD to interact with ... Psychotherapy A form of psychotherapy in which consistency, support from others, and a hopeful attitude are used ...

  14. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders


    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola


    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychothera...

  15. Educational Psychotherapy of Preschoolers. (United States)

    Stein, Myron; Ronald, Doris

    Educational psychotherapy for preschool children and its functioning are described in detail. Also described is the process of training teachers to do this work. The educational psychotherapy process attempts to operate at the interface between education and psychotherapy. The components of catharsis, recall, sharpening and correcting of…

  16. Group affective learning in training for psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Scharff, Jill Savege; Scharff, David E


    This paper describes The Group Affective Model, a method for teaching psychoanalytic concepts and their clinical application, using multi-channel teaching, process and review in group settings, and learning from experience in an open systems learning community for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. This innovation arose in response to criticism of existing methods in psychoanalytic education that have subordinated the primary educational task to that of the training analysis. Noticing this split between education and training analysis, between cognition and affect, and between concepts of individual and group unconscious processes, we developed the Group Affective Model for teaching and learning psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in an open psychological space in which students and faculty experience individual and group processes of digestion, assimilation, and review, which demonstrate the concepts in action and make them available for internalization selectively. We discuss our philosophy and our educational stance. We describe our institution and our participants. We give examples of teaching situations that we have studied to provide some insight about assimilation and internalization of the concepts and clinical approaches being taught. We discuss the transferability of the Group Affective Model to other teaching settings and psychoanalytic training institutions and propose it as the fourth pillar of psychoanalytic training, next to analytic treatment, clinical supervision, and didactic seminars. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  17. Psychoanalytic lexicography: notes from two "harmless drudges". (United States)

    Samberg, Eslee; Auchincloss, Elizabeth L


    The co-Editors in Chief of the American Psychoanalytic Association's new edition of Psychoanalytic Terms and Concepts (previously edited by Moore and Fine and last revised in 1990) recount their lexicographical adventures. Editing a dictionary at the turn of the twenty-first century is a daunting, some might say foolhardy, undertaking. The most obvious challenge faced by the editors was the growing pluralism within psychoanalysis. However, a more fundamental challenge was that the object of psychoanalytic study, the mind and its processes, can be known only by putting words to our observations, inferences, and interpretations. Psychoanalytic thinkers, starting with Freud, have wrestled with this challenge in ways that define the history of psychoanalysis itself. Long gone are the days when Freud could commend the "correctness" of Sterba's lexicographical efforts. Today postmodern critics, at the opposite extreme, argue that terms and concepts are best understood as "verbal gestures" in the "language-game" of psychoanalysis. Some go so far as to assert that dictionary-writing is obsolete. The co-Editors in Chief of Psychoanalytic Terms and Concepts have not succumbed to such nihilistic views, but have instead struggled to establish a reasonable stance within contemporary debates over the nature of psychoanalytic language.

  18. [Psychodynamic psychotherapy and the treatment of pathological gambling]. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Richard J


    The search for empirically based treatments for pathological gambling is in its infancy, with relatively few clinical trials and an absence of naturalistic studies. Treatment retention of gamblers has been a problem; cognitive-behavioral treatment and pharmacotherapy studies report especially high dropout rates. Psychodynamic approaches, with their emphasis on the therapeutic relationship, and the meaning of the patient's self-destructive and seemingly irrational behaviors, and on obstacles to self-forgiveness, might improve outcome. After a description of psychodynamic psychotherapy, the literature on both short-term and longer therapies is reviewed regarding their efficacy for a variety of disorders. With regard to pathological gambling, the author summarizes the early (1914-1970) psychoanalytic literature then reviews the more recent psychodynamic psychotherapy literature on pathological gambling. A review of the recent psychodynamic psychotherapy literature on pathological gambling failed to disclose a single randomized controlled study of treatment efficacy or effectiveness. However, there are eight positive outcome studies described as multi-modal eclectic; half of those seem to utilize psychodynamic approaches. Two of the more successful programs are described. A review of the outcomes literature for psychodynamic psychotherapy demonstrates efficacy for a variety of disorders sufficient to justify a clinical trial for pathological gambling. Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, with its focus on core issues, may be particularly applicable to the pathological gambler's need to avoid or escape intolerable affects and problems. Longer therapies may be needed to modify an avoidant coping style and defenses.




  20. Addiction as an attempt at self-regulation (contemporary psychoanalytic theories of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc


    Full Text Available In the article author presents the development of psychoanalytic theory of addiction from early writings to contemporary ego, self psychological and theories of object relations. Classical psychoanalysis understood addiction as a regressive gratification of libidinal drives, whereas contemporary authors understand it as an attempt of adaptation to certain problems and worries. The neurotic conflict is not anymore in the foreground, but disturbances in ego, self and object relations. On the basis of a review of contemporary psychoanalytical theories, the author concludes that individuals prone to addiction have a disturbance in self-regulation. Because of that, they have problems in tolerating and coping with certain emotions. With the help of outer means they tend to re-establish internal balance, which they can't manage alone. This outer 'help' can be seen in various forms of addiction (drugs, food, relationships, sex .... So, the core problem of addicted people is a deficit of self-regulation, which is a consequence of a lack of internalisaton of regulatory functions of primary object. Contemporary psychoanalytical theories of addiction bring us greater insight in personality factors which influence the formation of addiction, thus giving us guidelines for adequate psychotherapy of addiction.

  1. [Referral success to psychotherapy of patients with personality disorders - therapeutic consequences]. (United States)

    Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Frantal, Sophie; Blüml, Victor; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth


    Psychotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients suffering from a personality disorder. It is known that many patients with personality disorders do not take up psychotherapy or drop out of treatment prematurely. The aim of the present study was the detection of factors in patients with personality disorders which influence the referral to psychotherapy. Personality characteristics (socio-demographic parameters, affect experience and regulation, quality of object relations, character traits, level of interpersonal problems) of 297 patients of a psychoanalytic-psychotherapeutic outpatient clinic were assessed. Their influence on therapy engagement were analysed by means of logistic regressions. Within univariate analysis certain personality traits (mature psychological functioning vs. negativistic personality features) showed predictive power. The multivariate analysis identified the patients' educational level as the principal indicator for psychotherapy utilization. Consequences for diagnostic initial interviews in connection with the role of the educational level for the therapeutic alliance are discussed. Further, the impact of economic aspects on therapy engagement is discussed.

  2. “Moving Along” in Psychotherapy With Schizophrenia Patients (United States)

    Rogan, Alice


    Current treatment of the schizophrenic patient relies primarily on psychopharmacological management, psychoeducation, and family work. If individual psychotherapy is an adjunct, it is generally supportive. Recent focus on determinants of change in classical psychoanalysis suggests that noninterpretive mechanisms may have an impact at least equivalent to that of the well-timed transference interpretation. The author argues that the same noninterpretive mechanisms may be even more important for change in patients in a supportive process. A case study is used to illustrate that such an application of psychoanalytic principles and developmental research can be used to help even the most disturbed patients. PMID:10896741

  3. The effect of psychotherapy in improving physical and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Faramarzi


    Full Text Available Functional Dyspepsia (FD is a common symptom of upper gastrointestinal discomfort. Few data are available on the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of dyspeptic syndromes. This study assesses whether brief core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT psychoanalytic psychotherapy improves gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.A randomized, controlled trial was planned in two educational hospitals in city of Babol. Forty-nine patients with FD were randomly assigned to receive standard medication treatment with CCRT psychotherapy (24 participants or standard medication treatment alone (25 participants. The participants completed the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (PAGI-SYM and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R questionnaires before the trial, after the treatment and at 1 and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects (regression model was used to analyze the data.The results showed that CCRT psychotherapy improved all of the FD symptoms (heartburn/regurgitation, nausea/vomiting, fullness, bloating, upper abdominal pain, and lower abdominal pain and many of the psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation after the treatment and at 1-month and 12-month follow-ups.Brief CCRT psychoanalytic psychotherapy can serve as an effective intervention for promoting gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  4. Psychoanalytic attitudes towards homosexuality: an empirical research. (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Capozzi, Paola


    Homosexuality is a challenging subject for the psychoanalytic community, which is now rethinking some of its basic theoretical and institutional assumptions. In recent decades psychoanalytic theory has changed, and the classical psychosexual model has been challenged. After a short review of major psychoanalytical theories of homosexuality, the authors focus on the existence of contrasting attitudes towards homosexuality. This plurality of theories and their clinical and institutional consequences stimulated the authors to investigate the relationship between the individual analyst's theoretical model and his/her clinical practice. The authors present the results of empirical research conducted in the Italian psychoanalytic community on the attitude of psychoanalysts towards homosexuality and the implications for cultural, theoretical and institutional issues. A questionnaire was sent to 600 psychoanalysts (206 of which responded), members of the five main Italian psychoanalytic institutions. First, analysts' personal characteristics and preferred theoretical models were investigated. Second, the respondents responded to statements eliciting their theoretical and clinical approach towards homosexuality. Results indicate that: a) cultural and theoretical background influences the analysts' attitudes towards homosexuality more than gender; b) there is a discrepancy between analysts' theoretical position and their clinical practice; and c) IPA institutes are more discriminatory towards homosexual colleagues than are Jungian ones.

  5. [Psychotherapy and efficacy]. (United States)

    Papp, Barbara; Péley, Bernadette


    Evaluation of the efficacy in psychotherapy dates back to the beginnings of psychotherapy itself. However, it is not an easy task to undertake efficacy evaluation because it is expensive and several methodological difficulties may be also present. The authors discuss some questions related efficacy evaluation in psychotherapy, including criteria for selecting the cases and the actual target of evaluation. In addition, the authors analyze the narrative psychological content analysis method which includes the analysis of psychological features and their changes of texts written by the patient about him- or herself. They conclude that this method can open novel perspectives in psychotherapy.

  6. Meaning in life in psychotherapy: The perspective of experienced psychotherapists. (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Kanazawa, Yoshi; Knox, Sarah; Schauerman, Iris; Loureiro, Darren; James, Danielle; Carter, Imani; King, Shakeena; Razzak, Suad; Scarff, Melanie; Moore, Jasmine


    Our goal was to explore the meaning experienced psychotherapists derive from providing psychotherapy, their beliefs about the role of meaning in life (MIL) in psychotherapy, how they worked with MIL with a client who explicitly presented concerns about MIL, and how they worked with a different client for whom MIL was a secondary and more implicit concern. Thirteen experienced psychotherapists were interviewed and data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Therapists derived self-oriented meaning (e.g., feeling gratified, fulfilled, connected) and other-oriented meaning (helping others, making the world a better place) from providing psychotherapy. They believed that MIL is fundamental and underlies all human concerns, including those brought to therapy. In contrast to the clients who had implicit MIL concerns, clients who explicitly presented MIL concerns were reported to have more interpersonal problems and physical problems, but about the same amount of psychological distress and loss/grief. Therapists used insight-oriented interventions, support, action-oriented interventions, and exploratory interventions to work with MIL with both types of clients, but used more exploratory interventions with implicit than explicit MIL clients. MIL is a salient topic for experienced, existentially oriented psychotherapists; they work with MIL extensively with some clients in psychotherapy. We recommend that therapists receive training to work with MIL in therapy, and that they pay attention to MIL concerns when they conduct psychotherapy. We also recommend additional research on MIL in psychotherapy.

  7. Beyond Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalysis: A Review of Psychoanalytic Empirical Single Case Studies Published in ISI-Ranked Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reitske Meganck


    Full Text Available Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation.

  8. Beyond Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalysis: A Review of Psychoanalytic Empirical Single Case Studies Published in ISI-Ranked Journals (United States)

    Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Krivzov, Juri; Notaerts, Liza


    Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization) over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation. PMID:29046660

  9. The patient's experience of validation in psychoanalytic treatment. (United States)

    Schechter, Mark


    The importance of the patient's experience of validation is not a new one in psychoanalytic thinking, and can be traced throughout the literature. However, its role as an essential aspect of the psychoanalytic process, particularly in working with intrapsychic conflict, has traditionally been underappreciated. It is argued that validating interventions have an important role in psychoanalytic treatment, and that they often serve to open up, rather than foreclose, the analysis of transference. Marsha Linehan's conceptualization of the role of validation in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy provides a unifying framework for a more extensive psychoanalytic consideration of validation. After a review of the psychoanalytic literature, a number of conceptual issues are discussed that have complicated thinking about validation from a psychoanalytic perspective. Two clinical examples are presented, one from the author's psychoanalytic practice and one from his own analysis. Both illustrate how active validation by the analyst can play an essential facilitating role in the psychoanalytic process.

  10. On the origins of psychoanalytic psychohistory. (United States)

    Pietikainen, Petteri; Ihanus, Juhani


    This article examines the origins and early development of psychoanalytically inspired psychohistory from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. It focuses on Erik H. Erikson, Bruce Mazlish, and Robert Jay Lifton and illustrates their contributions to psychoanalytic psychohistory. Erikson, Mazlish, and Lifton were core members of the Wellfleet group, a research project originally funded by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1965 to conceptualize the foundation of psychohistory. The article gives an account of the early history of the Wellfleet group and argues for specific historical reasons to explain why psychoanalytic psychohistory emerged on the East Coast of the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s. A critique of the Wellfleet group in unpublished correspondence of Erich Fromm and David Riesman is also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova


    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  12. Psychotherapy and Phenomenology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    What happens when two people meet and engage in a meaningful conversation, specifically in psycho- therapy? This question has perennially engaged psychology and psychotherapy since its beginnings. Ian Rory Owen's book entitled Psychotherapy and. Phenomenology: On Freud, Husserl and Heidegger is another ...

  13. The Play of Psychotherapy (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry


    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  14. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... Psychotherapy A form of psychotherapy in which consistency, support from others, and a hopeful attitude are used to sustain the patient through periods of crisis and encourage small gains over time. ... For Professionals Disclaimer Privacy Notice © 2017 ...

  15. Psychotherapy with multiple-sclerosis patients. (United States)

    Langenmayr, A; Schöttes, N


    We wanted to find out if psychotherapy may influence the course of the physical aspects of multiple sclerosis and the consequences of psychotherapy for coping processes. 46 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis who had chosen to undergo a 1-yr. group psychotherapy treatment were compared with a control group of 24 multiple-sclerosis patients without such treatment. They were given the Giessen test (personality test), the Achievement Capacities Questionnaire by Kesselring, an intensive interview as well as the content analysis scales of verbal behavior by Gottschalk and Gleser. The various tests were carried out at each of four times of measurement with a 2-yr. follow-up. There were significant changes in the area of relationships and aggressive loosening (interview) between the Therapy and Control groups. Several changes were also found with regard to physical symptoms (Achievement Capacities Questionnaire) in the Therapy group compared to the Control group, e.g., increases in physical mobility and decreases in care of the body. The decreases appear to be a known effect of therapy with psychosomatic disorders. We interpret it psychoanalytically as resistance against releasing anxiety of counter-cathected motives which multiple sclerosis helps to keep unconscious. In a follow-up, the Therapy group showed greater optimism and physical improvements, e.g., decrease in feeling cold and lack of energy. Some positive changes appeared in both groups, such as, for example, an improvement of cognitive impairment (Gottschalk & Gleser). It appears that the attention from the research itself may have affected both groups because some members of both groups were in contact and hence the Control group was also informed about the research project and its underlying hypothesis.

  16. Encountering a cartwheeling princess: relational psychoanalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was conducted to demonstrate the use and process of contemporary relational psychoanalytic child therapy to address the interpersonal implications of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and interlinked insecure attachment processes. Method: This therapy case study explicates the seven-month ...

  17. A psychoanalytic study of Sophocles' Antigone. (United States)

    Almansi, R J


    This paper examines, in a detailed and comprehensive fashion, the unconscious motivations of the main protagonists of Sophocles' Antigone and the play's general structure as a psychoanalytically coherent whole. This examination helps to foster an understanding of the conceptual place of Antigone within the Oedipus Trilogy, its relationship to Oedipus Rex, and the complementary character of these two tragedies.

  18. Spiritual and Religious Issues in Psychotherapy with Schizophrenia: Cultural Implications and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Chandrika Millner


    Full Text Available The topics of spirituality and psychotherapy have often been controversial in the literature on schizophrenia treatment. However, current research indicates many potential benefits of integrating issues of religion and spirituality into psychotherapy for individuals with schizophrenia. In this paper, implications are presented for incorporating spiritual and religious issues in psychotherapy for individuals with schizophrenia. A background on the integration of spirituality into the practice of psychotherapy is discussed. The literature on spiritually-oriented psychotherapy for schizophrenia is provided. Clinical implications are offered with specific attention to issues of religious delusions and cultural considerations. Lastly, steps for implementing spiritually-oriented psychotherapy for individuals with schizophrenia are delineated to assist providers in carrying out spiritually sensitive care.

  19. Advanced psychotherapy training: psychotherapy scholars' track, and the apprenticeship model. (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel


    Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and experience with empirically supported and traditional psychotherapies, the authors aimed to develop an advanced contemporary and pragmatic approach to psychotherapy training for eight residents (two per PGY year) enrolled in a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars' Track within an adult general-residency program. The authors developed core principles and clinical practices, and drafted year-by-year educational goals and objectives to teach the psychotherapy scholars. Based on experiential learning principles, we also developed an individualized form of psychotherapy training, which we call "The Apprenticeship Model." The Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and "Apprenticeship Model" of training are now in their third year. To date, authors report that scholars are highly satisfied with the structure and curriculum in the track. Trainees appreciate the protected time for self-directed study, mentored scholarship, and psychotherapy rotations. Patients and the Psychotherapy Scholars experience the "Apprenticeship Model" of psychotherapy training as authentic and compatible with their needs and resources. The Psychotherapy Scholars' Track developed and piloted in our general psychiatry residency is based on common factors, empirically-supported treatments, and use of experiential learning principles. Whether the Psychotherapy Scholars' Track and "Apprenticeship Model" will ultimately increase residents' psychotherapy skills and positively affect their ability to sustain postgraduate psychotherapy practice in varied settings requires long-term evaluation. The developers welcome empirical testing of the comparative effectiveness of this psychotherapy teaching approach

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... people learn tools, exercises, and concrete things they can do to manage their emotions when certain challenging ... treatment (such as medications or individual psychotherapy), STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve ...

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... therapy appears to be dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). This type of therapy focuses on the concept of ... therapy for BPD include: Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) This form of therapy is rooted in the patient’s ...

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... or stress. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) This treatment consists of 20 two- ... individual psychotherapy), STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve ...

  3. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... identify and verbally express their emotions, describe their interactions with other people, and talk about themselves and ... stress (particularly the stress of rejection or disappointing interactions with other people). Supportive Psychotherapy A form of ...

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... DBT). This type of therapy focuses on the concept of mindfulness, or being aware of and attentive ... used with other types of treatment (such as medications or individual psychotherapy), STEPPS can help reduce symptoms ...

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available ... options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD include: ... than acting out these emotions impulsively. Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT) This type of therapy focuses on reframing “ ...

  6. Student Attitudes Toward Psychotherapy (United States)

    Farber, Barry A.; Geller, Jesse D.


    Psychotherapy is viewed by college students as highly useful in dealing with living problems, yet--when given the availability of other treatment methods (peer interaction, yoga, meditation)-- it is frequently not the first choice of the student. (MJB)

  7. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

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    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  8. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD ... STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of ...

  9. Effects of a brief psychoanalytic intervention for perinatal depression. (United States)

    Nanzer, Nathalie; Sancho Rossignol, Ana; Righetti-Veltema, Marion; Knauer, Dora; Manzano, Juan; Palacio Espasa, Francisco


    This pilot study explores the effects of a brief individual psychoanalytic therapy on perinatal depressive symptoms. This intervention is based on the Geneva's mother-infant intervention model. A sample of 129 pregnant women was recruited in Geneva (Switzerland) and screened for depressive symptoms with two instruments: the 'Edinburgh postnatal depression scale' (EPDS) and the 'Dépistage anténatal de la dépression postnatale'. A group of 40 women presenting depressive symptoms (treatment group) participated in a four-session intervention called 'Psychotherapy centred on parenthood (PCP)'. It consists in two antenatal and two postnatal sessions and is focussed on changing problematic representations of parenthood. This treatment group was compared to a control group of 88 women without depressive symptoms and following the usual obstetrical care. The main outcome measure was EPDS at 3 and 6 months after delivery. The 'Global assessment functioning scale' was administered at the end of each therapeutic session. The 'Parent-infant relationship global assessment scale' was administered at the two postnatal sessions in order to explore if PCP was also effective in preventing the potential negative effects of depression on mother-infant relationship. Results show that in the treatment group (N = 31), EPDS scores dropped from 12.8 to 4.8; none of these women met the EPDS cut-off score of 12 at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Mother-infant relationship was well adapted for all 31 dyads at the end of the intervention. These results suggest that PCP is a promising intervention for treating perinatal depression and helping mothers engaging in parenting.

  10. Transference patterns and working alliance during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Working alliance, as a collaborative part of the therapeutic relationship has been proven to be one of the most powerful therapeutic factors in psychotherapy in general, regardless many technical differences between numerous psychotherapeutic modalities. On the other hand, transference is the basic concept of psychodynamic psychotherapy, and, according to the psychoanalytic theory and practice, it forms a major part of the therapeutic relationship. The aim of our paper was to determine the differences between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance scores and the dropout group in transference patterns, sociodemographic and clinical parameters, during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Methods. Our sample consisted of 61 non-psychotic patients, randomly selected by the method of consecutive admissions and treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting. The patients were prospectively followed during 5 initial sessions of the therapeutic process. The working alliance inventory and Core conflictual relationship theme method were used for the estimation of working alliance and transference patterns, respectively. According to the Working Alliance Inventory scores, four groups of patients were formed and than compared. Results. Our results show a significant difference between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance inventory scores and the dropout group on the variable - transference patterns in the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Disharmonious transference patterns are more frequent in patients who form poor quality working alliance in the early phase of psychotherapy, or early dropout psychotherapy. It is of great importance to recognize transference patterns of a patient at the beginning of the psychotherapeutic process, because of their potentially harmful influence on the quality of working alliance.

  11. Counselling University Students: A Psychoanalytic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Sommantico


    Full Text Available The authors describe a psychoanalytic approach to the counselling with university students, as it is proposed at the University of Naples Federico II. On one hand, the focus is on the specific evolution phase of counselling students, which is late adolescence; on the other hand, it is on the specific aspects of the approach at issue. The authors particularly carry out a description of three characteristics of psychoanalytic counselling with university students: the specific space-time of the setting, the functioning through the free association/freely floating attention, the transference/countertransference dynamic. The authors support their theses, by presenting the clinical case of a student, who consulted the Psychological Counselling Centre for University Students (CCPSU. Clinical excerpts of four counselling sessions are then briefly commented on the basis of the theoretical-clinical paradigm of reference.

  12. Writing about clinical theory and psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Glick, Robert Alan; Stern, Gloria Jean


    In the Senior Candidate Case Writing Seminar, the final component of the Writing as Pedagogy Program at the Columbia Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research, candidates write about one of their longer training cases, with attention to the ways they use clinical theory, particularly transference and countertransference, to deepen their understanding of psychoanalytic process and therapeutic action. Building on the previous four years of the writing program, this seminar teaches advanced candidates to recognize and integrate the lived experience of conducting an analysis, the micro- and macroprocesses, and the theories most relevant to an understanding of the analytic work. The seminar emphasizes the challenge of dealing with the power of the transference, unrecognized or unacknowledged countertransference, and the nature of therapeutic action. Pedagogical emphasis is placed on peer group discussions and group learning, and common problems in integrating theory and practice are described and illustrated.

  13. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychosis in institutions.


    Mackie, Belinda S.


    Psychoanalysis can provide a conceptual foundation for the treatment of psychosis and for understanding how institutions that care for patients with psychosis function. The research of this thesis aims to examine theoretic, therapeutic and institutional approaches to psychosis. What is of significance is the priority that psychoanalysis places on the individual patient's treatment, how it is conceived psychoanalytically and incorporated in the overall organisation of an institution. Psychoan...

  14. Aaron T. Beck's drawings and the psychoanalytic origin story of cognitive therapy. (United States)

    Rosner, Rachael I


    In this essay the author challenges the standard origin story of cognitive therapy, namely, that its founder Aaron T. Beck broke with psychoanalysis to pursue a more pragmatic, parsimonious, and experimentalist cognitive model. It is true that Beck broke with psychoanalysis in large measure as a result of his experimental disconfirmation of key psychoanalytic ideas. His new school of cognitive therapy brought the experimental ethos into every corner of psychological life, extending outward into the largest multisite randomized controlled studies of psychotherapy ever attempted and inward into the deepest recesses of our private worlds. But newly discovered hand-sketched drawings from 1964 of the schema, a conceptual centerpiece of cognitive therapy, as well as unpublished personal correspondence show that Beck continued to think psychoanalytically even after he broke with psychoanalysis. The drawings urge us to consider an origin story much more complex than the one of inherited tradition. This new, multifaceted origin story of cognitive therapy reaches beyond sectarian disagreements and speaks to a broader understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of cognitive therapy.

  15. Psychotherapy of mood disorders. (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola


    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder.

  16. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... Facts for Families - Vietnamese Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...

  17. Changing Trends in Three Decades of Psychotherapy Research: The Flight from Theory into Pragmatics. (United States)

    Omer, Haim; Dar, Reuven


    Reviewed 252 empirical studies of psychotherapy from "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" in 1967/1968, 1977/1978, and 1987/1988. Found main trend to be decline in theory-guided and rise in pragmatic, clinically oriented research. Discusses disadvantages of purely empirical approach to psychotherapy research and makes…

  18. Relationship-focused psychotherapies for eating disorders come of age. (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A


    This is a commentary on 3 case studies of relationship-focused therapies for eating disorders. The 3 approaches vary along a number of dimensions, but nevertheless share important similarities especially related to the role played by variables such as interpersonal problems and affect dysregulation. I briefly review research on interpersonal- and attachment-based models of eating disorders that provide the evidence-base for theories of therapy that are relationship-focused. The Interpersonal Psychotherapy case presented by Tanofsky-Kraff, Shomaker, Young, and Wilfley (2016) illustrates how a group context can facilitate change in key role disputes and role transitions in an adolescent at risk of developing an eating disorder later in her life. The Integrative-Dynamic Therapy case presented by Richards, Shingleton, Goldman, Siegel, and Thompson-Brenner (2016) is a novel sequential combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy followed by dynamic psychotherapy for a young adult with bulimia nervosa that likely reflects what most clinicians do in everyday practice. The Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy case presented by Lunn, Poulsen, and Daniel (2016) of a patient with severe personality pathology demonstrates how treatments for eating disorders sometimes must address complex attachment dysfunction, self-organization, and therapist countertransference in order to provide a useful therapeutic experience. Relationship-focused theories and therapies for eating disorders have come a long way over the past decades, thus providing therapists with a wider range of approaches that can be truly personalized to their clients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N


    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Home, bitter sweet home. A psychoanalytic reading. (United States)

    Tylim, Isaac


    The paper offers a psychoanalytic reading of the popular TV series "Homeland." The series' manifest content centers on terrorism and counterterrorism. From a dynamic perspective, the viewer is invited to mistrust what is represented, and focus on the tension between what is projected on the screen and what remains hidden in the narrative's intriguing subtexts. These are: the choreography of internal and external reality, a recurrent theme of longing for the absent, idealized pre-Oedipal father, and attempts to transform memories of horror.

  1. A psychoanalytic consideration of Pasolini's Salo. (United States)

    Salvage, David


    Salo represented the culmination of Pier Paolo Pasolini's career as a filmmaker and engages several questions concerning the nature of perversion and the excitement with the negative. Through exploration of Pasolini's motives and techniques for creating this film, an analysis is offered of the creative process that does not seek to create an aesthetically pleasing compromise formation of psychic conflict, nor a form of erotizing sadomasochism. Rather, this film is explored as an example of a lucid and psychoanalytically informed artwork that speaks to the psychic fascination with what is purely negative--thanatos--which is not mediated by libido.

  2. Finding Educational Insights in Psychoanalytic Theory with Marcuse and Adorno (United States)

    Huhtala, Hanna-Maija


    This article seeks to clarify the potential that Herbert Marcuse's and Theodor W. Adorno's psychoanalytic accounts may have with respect to the philosophy of education today. Marcuse and Adorno both share the view that psychoanalytic theory enables a deeper understanding of the social and biological dynamics of consciousness. For both thinkers,…

  3. Psychoanalytic peregrinations I: Transference and transference neurosis revisited. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    The various meanings of transference and transference neurosis are reviewed with special attention to the various roles transference plays in the psychoanalytic process. A study of the provenance of transference is offered with some remarks on the crucial emphasis on understanding and interpreting the transference in psychoanalytic treatment. The danger of using other types of interventions as being manifestations of countertransference is suggested.

  4. "Psychotherapy" Versus "Treatment" (United States)

    Arkowitz, Hal


    This paper presents comments on "Psychological treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow proposed that we distinguish between the terms "treatment" and "psychotherapy." The author believes that not only is the distinction unnecessary, but that its implications could have negative consequences for the field of clinical psychology. It is the proposed…

  5. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen


    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  6. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients. (United States)

    Lester, David


    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  7. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 20 two-hour sessions led by an experienced social worker. When used with other types of treatment (such as medications or individual psychotherapy), STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of ...

  8. Piaget and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Friedman, T L


    It is difficult to apply Piaget's theory to psychotherapy because the place of affect in it is ambiguous. When the alternatives are considered, it seems most consistent with Piaget's ideas to regard both cognitive and affective phenomena as problem-solving organizations. Piaget's remarkable discoveries in the cognitive sphere are a consequence of the easy access in that sphere to the kind of problems that need solving, and the phasic development of solutions. But the nature of the problems to be solved or the values to be guarded by a patient in psychotherapy are not knowable independently of the patient's actual behavior. In one respect all that is left from Piaget's approach for psychotherapy generally is the truism that therapy fosters differentiation and integration. However, even if we cannot frame a peculiarly Piagetian paradigm of psychotherapy, Piaget is valuable in posing a subsidiary question, namely, what in therapy fosters problem-solving activity. A reading of Piaget suggests that a patient learns by acting on his therapist and tacitly interpreting the results of his actions, that difficulties in therapy are the material from which therapy proceeds, and that in order to grasp the situation of the patient, the therapist himself may need to act on him and not just think about him. An implied lesson for training would be that supervision should instill a professional identity that is reinforced rather than challenged by therapy difficulties, and does not rely solely on theoretical categorizing.

  9. Personality Theory and Psychotherapy (United States)

    Fagan, Joen; And Others


    This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…

  10. Psychotherapy and Women's Liberation (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean


    Personality theories and scientific data on women frequently contribute negatively to the psychotherapy of female clients. This paper examines some of the background factors which have shaped our information about women, and then reviews some contemporaneous approaches to the therapy of women. (Author)

  11. What Makes Psychotherapy Humanistic? (United States)

    Tisdale, John R.

    Based on an earlier list of characteristics, ten assertions were derived about the nature of psychotherapy upon which it was believed that humanistic therapists would agree. These assertions were then submitted to three groups of therapists (111 returns) listed in the "National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology":…

  12. The "black hole" as the basic psychotic experience: some newer psychoanalytic and neuroscience perspectives on psychosis. (United States)

    Grotstein, J S


    The psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic disorders has had a long and complicated history because of the historic preference of psychoanalysis for neurotics. Nevertheless, it has survived the prejudice of psychoanalysts and empirical psychiatrists and now enters an interdisciplinary phase in which psychotic psychopathology is understood as primarily an emotional disorder, but one that must also be considered from the point of view of neurobiology and neuropsychology as well as sociology. In this contribution, I offer the idea that perhaps the most important subtext in the psyche of the psychotic is what has been called the black hole. This massive deficit is ultimately attributable to a precocious abruption of the mother's physical and psychical presence from the infant, a phenomenon that has hereditary, congenital, perinatal, and continuing developmental reinterpretive elaborations. The psychoanalytic treatment of the psychotic consists of reversing the direction of his or her cataclysmic descent into the black hole and, at the same time, empathically loosening the control that the protective psychotic alterego has on the surviving self. Further, the psychoanalytic treatment of schizophrenia, in particular (as well as many of the other primitive mental disorders), now frequently involves both an interdisciplinary orientation and perspective and choices of interdisciplinary modalities extending across the whole biopsychosocial spectrum.

  13. [From psychotherapy to psychoanalysis: Max Levy-Suhl (1876-1947)]. (United States)

    Hermanns, Ludger M; Schröter, Michael; Stroeken, Harry


    From psychotherapy to psychoanalysis: Max Levy-Suhl (1876-1947). Levy-Suhl can be considered one of the great practising psychotherapists in early 20th century Berlin. He was active in various fields, including ophthalmology, forensic adolescent psychiatry and hypnosis. Prominent among his publications were two handbooks of psychotherapeutic methods. His attitude towards psychoanalysis shifted from initial criticism to acceptance. Ca. 1930 he experienced some kind of conversion, resulting in his training at the Berlin Institute and becoming a member of the German Psychoanalytic Society. As a Jew being forced to emigrate in 1933, Levy-Suhl turned to the Netherlands where he had a psychoanalytic children's home in Amersfoort, followed by an analyst's practice in Amsterdam. He survived the German occupation, but apparently as a broken man. After the war he committed suicide.--The paper is complemented by an appendix, containing documents and an extensive bibliography.

  14. The efficacy of various modalities of psychotherapy for personality disorders: a systematic review of the evidence and clinical recommendations. (United States)

    Verheul, Roel; Herbrink, Marjolein


    The aim of this paper is to review the level of empirical evidence for four different formats and settings that are available for psychotherapy delivery, i.e., group psychotherapy, out-patient individual psychotherapy, day hospital psychotherapy, and in-patient psychotherapy. The focus is on studies which include a wide range of DSM-IV-TR Axis II personality disorders. The results show that various psychotherapeutic treatments have proven to be efficacious with respect to reducing symptomatology and personality pathology, and improving social functioning in patients with Cluster A, B, C, or not-otherwise-specified personality disorders. This is especially true for cognitive-behaviorally or psychodynamically oriented out-patient individual psychotherapies. However, some evidence indicates that this also applies to (1) long-term, psychodynamically oriented group psychotherapy, (2) short-term, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy in a day hospital setting, and (3) various duration variants of psychodynamically oriented, in-patient psychotherapy programmes. The available evidence mostly applies to borderline, dependent, avoidant and not-otherwise-specified personality disorder, and perhaps also paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal personality disorder. It is unknown whether these conclusions also apply to schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, and histrionic personality disorder.

  15. Towards psychoanalytic contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. (United States)

    Caspi, Tair


    This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Alienating identifications and the psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Scariati, Giuseppe


    The transmission of psychic life from one generation to the next can result in unconscious, alienating identifications when the parents have not been able to elaborate a process of mourning for their own childhoods. In this article, the author describes the nature of these identifications, constructed around insufficiently symbolized experiences, as revealed during the psychoanalytic process. These unconscious, alienating identifications raise some arduous technical problems for the psychoanalyst as they lead the patient to carry out complex enactments that erase the normal transference markers. The psychoanalyst may then be tempted to resort to pejorative theoretical concepts, such as the death drive. And yet, unknown to the analysand, the insufficiently symbolized psychic elements contain a potential for transformation that may lead to reconstructions and dis-alienating interpretations. The author distinguishes between alienating identifications and fantasies of identification when the latter transiently appear during the psychoanalytic process. These identification fantasies symbolically register the emotional experience undergone during the analytic sessions and contribute to the integration of insufficiently symbolized psychic elements. These theoretical considerations are fully illustrated by the clinical report of some analytic sessions.

  17. Ethics education in psychoanalytic training: a survey. (United States)

    Ransohoff, Paul M


    Didactic education in psychoanalytic ethics is a relatively new phenomenon. Ethics courses were offered by few institutes before they were mandated and before publication of the first Ethics Case Book in 2001. As institutes have developed ethics training, the solutions they have arrived at-formats, length and placement of courses, and preferred readings- remain unknown to other educators and analysts. This survey was undertaken to gain an overview of the current state of ethics education. Twenty-nine of the thirty-one training institutes of the American Psychoanalytic Association (93%) responded to inquiries. Most institutes (79%) offered one course, and the average number of class sessions was 6.3. Of 258 different readings used, 61 (23.6%) were used by more than one institute and 37 (14.3%) by more than two. The most frequent topics were boundaries, confidentiality, and illness, and Dewald and Clark's Case Book (2008) and Gabbard and Lester (1995) were the most common readings. These findings should be useful to instructors, curriculum committees, and ethics committees in their ethics education planning, as well as to practicing analysts in their ethical self-education. This study may also serve as a model for analogous investigations into other areas of analytic education and as an impetus to further research and educational innovation.

  18. Repression and splitting in the psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Savvopoulos, Savvas; Manolopoulos, Sotiris; Beratis, Stavroula


    The authors examine the concepts of repression and splitting and their interplay during the psychoanalytic process. Initially, repression was introduced by the clinical phenomenon of resistance, leading to the formulation of the association between intrapsychic conflicts and neurotic symptoms. Later, repression was linked to normal development and to personality organization. Splitting, on the other hand, has been defined in quite diverse ways. The two main definitions are of splitting within the ego, and splitting of representations of the self, and of internal and external objects. Repression and splitting are compared developmentally, dynamically, and with respect to their relationship to psychic functioning and energic conditions. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a patient who presented with borderline personality organization and narcissistic features. During the initial phase of analysis, splitting associated with projection, projective identification and idealization were the main defence mechanisms. As the analysis progressed and the themes of omnipotence and mourning were explored with the simultaneous working through of drive derivatives expressed in the transference, repression gained ground over the more primitive defence mechanisms. The evolution of the case showed a gradual shift from splitting to repression and the association of repression with a more advanced psychic organization. This development reflected the dynamic movement from borderline to hysterical organization in psychoanalytic nosology. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  19. Psychodynamic psychotherapy as treatment for depression in adolescence. (United States)

    Midgley, Nick; Cregeen, Simon; Hughes, Carol; Rustin, Margaret


    This article presents a psychodynamic approach to understanding and treating adolescent depression, based largely on the manual for short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (STPP) for adolescents (11-17 years old) with moderate to severe depression, developed for the IMPACT Study from Great Britain. Although the authors make reference to longer-term psychodynamic treatments, the 28-session model (plus 7 sessions of parent/carer work) used in the IMPACT Study informs the psychodynamic approach presented herein. In the course of discussing the analytical framework for depression and the treatment, a single case study is presented throughout to graphically illustrate the clinical course and outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of religious imagery in adaptive psychotherapy. (United States)

    Langs, Robert


    This paper presents the viewpoint of the adaptive approach in respect to manifest allusions to God and other religious themes from patients in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Such imagery is understood and interpreted on a par with secular imagery, as reflections of encoded deep unconscious experiences, many of them in response to therapists' interventions. The article also explores the reasons why religious imagery is uncommon in adaptive modes of therapy, discusses encoded evidence that therapists' religious self-revelations and extended personal reactions to patients' religious images are maladaptively countertransference-based, and suggests that particular kinds of encoded nonreligious imagery suggest that the deep unconscious mind should be thought of as an inner god of divine wisdom and pristine morality. The decision as to whether this viewpoint speaks for the existence of a transcendental deity or is properly considered in secular terms lies beyond the province of psychoanalytic observations and thinking.

  1. The interaction of existential concerns and psychoanalytic insights in the treatment of contemporary patients. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    Middle-aged and elderly patients have been shown to respond to psychoanalytic treatment, but they present certain characteristic problems not typical of young patients. I discuss these and offer a brief case presentation followed by a general discussion of the role of existential concerns and of their intertwining with psychoanalytic insights and interpretations in the treatment of older patients from our contemporary culture. The particular case of a relatively mild narcissistic personality disorder is used as an example of the kinds of difficulties contemporary psychoanalysts and psychodynamic psychiatrists run into in the current treatment of the aging patient population. The analyst's beliefs and personality are seen as more important than in classical Freudian psychoanalysis, and deliberate attention to the patient's existential concerns and cultural milieu cannot be avoided. A great deal of correction of what Gedo called "apraxias" is necessary, but I argue that in this situation each person must develop one's self in one's own way and without education and intrusion by the analyst. This self development in the face of one's inevitable future is seen as a vital aspect of contemporary psychoanalytic treatment of aging patients, regardless of which of the five orientation channels (that I have discussed elsewhere) are employed. The patient is seen as dealing both with his or her own infantile neurosis that is interfering with adult functioning and at the same time with universal existential human problems that become increasingly pressing as one ages. I contend that the current biological orientation of psychiatry is insufficient to address these difficulties, regardless of what advances we make in psychopharmacology and neurobiology. An exclusive neurobiological orientation can represent what existentialists label an "inauthentic choice" and a retreat from the spirit of humanism.

  2. Voices of the self in psychotherapy: a qualitative analysis. (United States)

    Georgaca, E


    Approaches that view the self as constituted by socio-cultural processes and as plural, consisting of a multiplicity of states, positions, functions, etc., have flourished in the last decades. This paper explores the multi-voiced nature of the self, drawing upon Lacan's theory of subjectivity and Bakhtin's concept of dialogism. Subjectivity is seen as constituted through language as expressed in the speech of the subject's important early others. The psychoanalytic concept of transference, understood as a semiotic process of enacting early interpersonal patterns in the subject's present relations, provides a link between the unfolding of subjectivity in the present and its historical continuity. The articulation of subjectivity is discussed through a micro-analysis of extracts from sessions of a long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The analysis demonstrates the enactment of transferential dialogical positions at the beginning of the therapy and traces their recognition by the client through the gradual development of increasingly reflexive subject positions towards the end of therapy. It is argued that the aim of therapy should be the facilitation of a complex subjectivity, whereby the different subject positions can be fluently articulated within an overall reflexive frame.

  3. Approche communicative et psychotherapie (The Communicative Approach and Psychotherapy). (United States)

    Perramond, Daniel B.


    Reviews different principles and techniques proposed by psychotherapy concerning the facilitation of communication and learning, as they confirm the hypotheses and methodological choices of the communicative approach. (MSE)

  4. Abandono de psicoterapia com crianças Child psychotherapy dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Kuhn Deakin


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma amostra de 24 crianças que completaram 12 meses de psicoterapia psicanalítica com uma amostra de 38 crianças que interromperam prematuramente o tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo em dois grupos de crianças; tratamento quase-experimental de medida única antes do início da psicoterapia psicanalítica individual. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes nas seguintes variáveis: sexo, sintomas, frequência dos atendimentos, capacidade da criança de controlar as emoções e os impulsos, medida pelo teste Rorschach e nas escalas de sociabilidade, queixas somáticas e comportamentos internalizantes, tais como ansiedade e depressão, medidas pelo Child Behavior Checklist. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo revelou que a psicoterapia psicanalítica é efetiva no tratamento da criança do sexo feminino que apresenta transtornos internalizantes, tais como ansiedade e depressão, tem maior descontrole de emoções e impulsos e recebe atendimento com uma frequência de duas vezes por semana por pelo menos 12 meses.OBJECTIVE: To compare a sample of 24 children who completed 12 months of psychoanalytical psychotherapy with a sample of 38 children who dropped out from treatment before 12 months of intervention. METHOD: Quantitative study involving two groups of children. Quasi-experimental treatment of single measure before the beginning of individual psychoanalytical psychotherapy. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the following variables: gender, symptoms, frequency of sessions, child's impulse and emotion control (measured using the Rorschach test and sociability scales, somatic complaints and internalizing behaviors, such as anxiety and depression (measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. CONCLUSIONS: CThe results revealed that child psychoanalytical psychotherapy is effective in the treatment of female children with internalizing disorders, such as

  5. Perversion and pathology: a critique of psychoanalytic criticism in art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille Holmes


    Full Text Available For over three decades, Jacques Lacan denounced ego psychology for its emphasis on a strong and well-adapted ego. This article recruits the principle of that critique to examine the use of psychoanalytic theories in contemporary art criticism, with specific focus on the subject of perversion, Freudo-Lacanian psychoanalysis, and the work of art critic Donald Kuspit. The discussion examines the main influences and concepts in Kuspit's psychoanalytic criticism, analyses specific differences between this psychoanalytic model and a Lacanian theory of perversion and desire, and considers the effect of these differences in the interpretation of art.

  6. Constructivism and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J; Granvold, Donald K


    Constructivism is a metatheoretical perspective that embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom. Constructive psychotherapy emphasizes complex cycles in the natural ordering and reorganizing processes that characterize all development in living systems. Individuals are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. Within rich contexts of human relationship and symbol systems, people make new meanings as they develop. Techniques from many different traditions can help people find and refine their sense of balance as they develop.

  7. Psychoanalytical Culture in the American Film Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Sánchez Noriega


    Full Text Available In the American Film Noir from the classic period (1930-1960, it is possible to perceive the influence of psychoanalytical culture and of Freud’s most widely read works. The theory of drives involves the consideration of the perpetrator of criminal activity as a sick person. This is reflected in the films, where morals are relegated to a secondary plane. The importance of sexuality is reflected in the figure of the “femme fatale” and in behaviours in which the principle of pleasure overarches that of reality. The conscious/unconscious duality and the place of dreams in psychoanalysis are the cornerstones of films addressing the split personality and nightmares that plague essentially decent people. The solution to certain criminal conflicts is not found through police work but through medicine: in such situations the therapist manages to solve the problem of the delinquent behaviour born of sick minds.

  8. A psychoanalytical perspective on nowadays depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Bruno Viana Campos


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of epidemic depression nowadays as a symptom of the socio-cultural setting of contemporary subjectivity, through a critique to the framework of psychiatric psychopathology from psychoanalysis. It shows the importance of taking depression as an expression of collusion in the removal of the subject in contemporary times, as the result of a movement of social medicalization. It also presents an overview of the understanding of depression in psychoanalytic psychopathology, highlighting its structural unspecificity and pointing out different trends about their fundamental position in the Lacanian and object relations traditions. It argues that the depressive problems must be taken in their different structural arrangements, as an expression of failure and fixings along the narcissistic-melancholy axis of subjectivity constitution as a relevant and comprising model for understanding the problem of depression in psychoanalysis.

  9. Promoting Behavioral Change in Psychoanalytic Treatments. (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N


    One of the shibboleths of psychoanalysis is that treatment should not target behavioral change, focusing instead on gaining insight and the therapeutic relationship (Freud, 1917; 1923; Gabbard, 2014; Greenson, 1967). Such an approach is believed to be accompanied by disruptions of exploration or problematic distortions of the transference (Freud, 1917; 1923; Gabbard, 2014; Greenson, 1967). However, ignoring behavioral change can put patients at increased risk for stalemates in treatment and persistent problematic behaviors that interfere with improvement and impair relationships. This article suggests that rather than being at odds or disruptive, efforts at behavioral change can be part of the development and employment of a psychodynamic formulation, and can be used to enhance self-understanding and exploration of the transference. Psychoanalytic approaches provide strategies for behavioral change not included in other psychotherapeutic treatments. This article describes a variety of ways in which efforts at behavioral change can be integrated with and enhanced by psychodynamic exploration.

  10. Helping alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: what predicts what in routine outpatient treatment? (United States)

    Puschner, Bernd; Wolf, Markus; Kraft, Susanne


    This naturalistic longitudinal study analyzed the reciprocal dependency of the helping alliance and symptom outcome over the course of mid- and long-term outpatient psychotherapy as practiced in routine care in Germany. Patient-rated helping alliance and symptom distress were assessed repeatedly over a 2-year period in a sample of 259 outpatients in psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Hierarchical linear models showed that initial symptom distress negatively predicted subsequent quality of the helping alliance but not vice versa. Only initial symptom distress affected symptom status at the last treatment session. These results raise doubts about the helping alliance being a strong predictor of outcome and indicate that other patient and therapist variables might be more important for treatment success.

  11. Psychosexual Pursuit: Enhancing Learning of Theoretical Psychoanalytic Constructs. (United States)

    Carlson, Janet F.


    Describes a board game used to facilitate the learning of theoretical principles associated with the psychoanalytic perspective on personality. Covers rules governing play and special advantages of this learning experience. Game board is reproduced. (Author/LS)

  12. Hamlet in Freud's Thoughts: Reinterpretations in the Psychoanalytic Literature. (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.


    Presents a selection of interpretations in the psychoanalytic literature of "Hamlet," by William Shakespeare, beginning with an extensive look at the role this literature played in Sigmund Freud's mind at the origins of psychoanalysis. Also examines later interpretations. (SR)

  13. Intergenerational work as an adjunct to psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Braverman, S


    Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are opportunities for individuals to repair faulty aspects of their development that have resulted in symptoms or other difficulties in living. Although transference is the major therapeutic tool in this work, it is not the only one. The potential resources for healing that exist in family relationships is great, especially as these relationships go on long after therapy has ended. We are all living longer; families of three and four generations are no longer uncommon. There are many adult patients who have one or both parents alive and well. Intergenerational work can be a useful adjunct where there is no severe narcissistic pathology or psychosis in either patient or parent. It is especially helpful in cases where there is severe resistance and insight is not effective in promoting change. "By focusing constantly on the patient's transference distortions and ignoring reality elements we undermine self-esteem and make him feel he is always wrong, sick or crazy" (Greenson, 1978b,p. 434). The addition of intergenerational work in the course of psychoanalysis/psychotherapy can shorten the time of therapy and be another tool for dealing with resistance. This work has theoretical implications for the modification of the place that transference has in psychoanalytic therapy. By placing greater emphasis on the patient's real relationships in influencing intrapsychic change we pave the way to exciting clinical and theoretical possibilities.

  14. [What place is there for psychotherapy in public psychiatry?]. (United States)

    Kramer, U; Ambresin, G; de Roten, Y; Fassassi, S; Hedjal, A; Herrera, F; Kolly, S; Pomini, V; Preisig, M; Despland, J-N


    The question of the place of psychotherapy in psychiatric public care is posed in this article. We will address this question first by presenting two clinical and research programmes which were implemented in a clinical psychiatric unit, section Karl Jaspers (Service of General Psychiatry) of the Department of Psychiatry CHUV, in Lausanne with the collaboration of the University Institute of Psychotherapy. The first one puts forward psychodynamic psychotherapy of depressed inpatients; the clinical programme and the research questions on efficacy of this treatment are discussed. The second focuses on the early treatment of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder, in particular in its research question on the effect of the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in this process. We conclude by underlining the convergences of the two programmes.

  15. [Psychoanalytic study of social withdrawal: grandiose narcissism and passive aggression due to insufficient maternal containing in childhood]. (United States)

    Ogawa, Toyoaki


    Two different types of pathology can cause social withdrawal: the narcissistic--schizoid personality organization (NSPO) type and the mild Asperger's syndrome (mild developmental disorders) type. Only the former type can be treated by psychoanalytic psychotherapy. In the childhood of both types, one may find traumatic family environments which will result in social withdrawal (Hikikomori). In the infancy of the NSPO type, the mother fails to function as a sufficient container of the child's emotion, which encourages formation of a schizoid personality organization i.e. the psychic withdrawal (or "psychic retreat" by Steiner, J.). With only a little failure in life events, this may turn into a physical withdrawal for a long time. And in this type of pathology their aggression takes a passive form that hardens their social withdrawal situation. Moreover, the social withdrawal itself serves to reinforce the pathological narcissism.

  16. [Psychotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorders]. (United States)

    Schnyder, U


    Since the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was introduced in DSM-III in 1980, a variety of psychotherapeutic approaches have been developed to address the specific problems and needs of traumatized patients. Successful treatment of PTSD requires a well thought-out therapeutic attitude. The therapist must find a well-balanced position between over-identification and turning away out of helplessness. A sensation-seeking attitude should be avoided as should the danger of vicarious traumatisation. In many instances, PTSD can not be treated sufficiently by psychotherapy alone: a comprehensive, multi-modal treatment plan may include pharmacotherapeutic, physical, social, legal, and other interventions. Early psychotherapeutic interventions in the immediate aftermath of a traumatic event follow the rules of crisis intervention (immediacy, focus on the current problems, time limitation). Special attention should be paid to the issues of developing a trusting therapeutic relationship, creating an atmosphere of safety, helping the patient to regain control over and/or distance himself from intrusive recollections. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and other "power therapies" can offer quick relief from symptoms. After collective traumatization, psychological debriefings are widely used although the evidence for their usefulness in preventing PTSD is questionable. In patients with chronic PTSD, the psychotherapist should not work exclusively on the traumatic event and its sequelae: treatment should be oriented towards the future rather than the past. Instead of exploring, the therapist should try to activate the patients' resources and help them to find new meaning in their future life.

  17. Power Politics of Family Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Whitaker, Carl A.

    It is postulated that the standard framework for psychotherapy, a cooperative transference neurosis, does not validly carry over to the successful psychotherapy of a two-generation family group. In many disturbed families, the necessary and sufficient dynamics for change must be initiated, controlled, and augmented by a group dynamic power-play,…

  18. Transference, transference interpretations, and transference-focused psychotherapies. (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N; Scala, J Wesley


    The concept of transference and the use of transference interpretations in psychotherapy have been highly controversial topics garnering frequent attention both within psychoanalysis and across multiple orientations of psychotherapy. In this article, we review the empirical evidence as it bears on this controversy and discuss the implications of the evidence for psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and therapy in general. We provide a brief historical and contextual overview, followed by a discussion of the development of the concept of transference. We then discuss the evidence for the concept of transference from basic psychological research and contend that these findings are not only consistent with a social-cognitive and information processing model, but that they may also indicate conflict and defensive processes suggestive of a dynamic transference process model. We continue with a discussion of the evidence for the concept of transference from psychotherapy research and examine process findings relating to the use of transference interpretations and transference-focused psychotherapies. Finally, we present the implications of this emerging evidence for clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil. (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M


    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  20. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

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    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua


    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  1. Transferences in parent-infant psychoanalytic treatments. (United States)

    Salomonsson, Bjorn


    In parent-infant treatments, babies sometimes exhibit symptoms such as screaming, clinging, and fearful gaze avoidance of the analyst. The paper investigates if such phenomena may be regarded as transference manifestations, and if so, if they appear both in younger and older infants. Based on three case presentations, it is concluded that some babies are capable of forming both brief and enduring transferences. The term "indirect infant transference" refers to when a baby reacts emotionally to the analyst as long as the parent's transference remains unresolved. "Direct transference" refers to when a baby reacts in a non-mediated way to the analyst. The necessary tool of investigation for discovering these phenomena is a psychoanalytic method with an explicit, though not exclusive, focus on the baby. Discerning them in the clinical encounter may help us understand the baby's predicament and when and how to address the baby or the parent. These treatments constitute an empirical field awaiting more extensive clinical and theoretical investigation. Already now, they suggest that transference may be rooted in, and may appear during, very early developmental stages. The paper's positions are compared with those put forward by other parent-infant clinicians. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. [Asomatognosia and oral drive: a psychoanalytical perspective]. (United States)

    Morin, C; Durand, E; Marchal, F; Timsit, S; Manai, R; Pradat-Diehl, P; Rancurel, G


    The psychoanalytic concept of specular image refers to the complex construction that associates the body image with the language coordinates of the individual, thus making him/her a human subject. The acquisition of this specular image implies the loss of corporeal exchanges between mother and child, i.e., the "neutralization" of those body parts or extensions where these exchanges take place. These conceptions of body image and subjectivity lead to the hypothesis that neurological disturbances of body schema may alter the patients' subjectivity and their relation to the lost "object" insofar as they alter body image. In the present paper, we present two patients aged under 50, with a unique first ever stroke due to ischemia in the right middle cerebral artery territory and asomatognosia. On one hand, Bisiach's protocol was used to assess hemiplegia, sensory troubles, visual troubles, hemineglect and anosognosia, and adapted to assess asomatognosia. On the other hand, subjective data were gathered during a semistructured interview and a self-portrait test. This showed that asomatognosia was accompanied by a destructuration of body image and aberrant oral manifestations involving the paralyzed hand. The psychological positive phenomena accompanying asomatognosia might correspond to the intrusion of the lost object in the patients' psychic reality, due to the alteration of body schema and body image.

  3. Of God and Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Karasu, T Byram


    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients.

  4. Theory and practice in psychoanalysis: psychoanalytic praxis. 1969. (United States)

    Bleger, José


    The author systematises and examines the relation between theory and practice in psychoanalysis in three directions: one, eminently epistemological, which is only mentioned because it pertains not only to psychoanalysis but to all the sciences; another, the relation between theory and technique; and the third, the relation between theory and the institutional organisation of psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts. All the problems described, especially the second and third points, together define psychoanalytic praxis. With regard to contradictions between theory and technique, the author points out that psychoanalytic theory is constructed fundamentally on the basis of an approach that is historico-genetic, dynamic and consistent with formal logic, whereas psychoanalytic practice occurs within a transference–countertransference relation, in a situation configured as an analytic field, a ‘here and now’, within a dramatic explanation and in a dialectic process. This triple diagnosis involves naturalistic and phenomenological approaches, the problem of objectivity and the role given to sexuality as a privileged parameter in psychoanalytic theory. In relation to the third direction mentioned above,the author refers briefly to the problem of psychoanalytic organisations, in the sense that they come into conflict with the development of psychoanalytic theory and the deepening of investigation. In reference to the latter, the author emphasises the need to widen the perspective of what constitutes psychoanalytic praxis. He points out that praxis is always replete with contradictions and that it is not a question of ignoring,denying or impeding these contradictions themselves (which would in any case be totally ineffective), but that by taking them into account, scientific development could be managed in a more planned way, less blindly; that is to say, less abandoned to spontaneity.

  5. ["The most ill go into psychoanalytic treatment"? Critical comments on an article in Report Psychologie]. (United States)

    Richter, R; Hartmann, A; Meyer, A E; Rüger, U


    Thomas and Schmitz claim that they "deliver a proof for the effectiveness of humanistic methods" (p. 25) with their study. However, they did not or were not able to verify their claim due to several reasons: The authors did not say if and if so to what extent the treatments carried out within the framework of the TK-regulation were treatments using humanistic methods. The validity of the only criterium used by the authors, the average duration of the inability to work, must be questioned. The inferential statistical treatment of the data is insufficient; a non-parametrical evaluation is necessary. Especially missing are personal details concerning the treatment groups (age, sex, occupation, method, duration and frequency of therapy), which are indispensable for a differentiated interpretation. In addition there are numerous formal faults (wrong quotations, mistakes in tables, unclear terms etc.). In view of this criticism we come to the conclusion that the results are to a large degree worthless, at least until several of our objections have been refuted by further information and adequate inferential statistical methods. This study is especially unsuitable to prove a however defined "effectiveness of out-patient psychotherapies", therefore also not suitable to prove the effectiveness of those treatments conducted within the framework of the TK-regulation and especially not suitable to prove the superiority of humanistic methods in comparison with psychoanalytic methods and behavioural therapy.

  6. On emergence: a neo-psychoanalytic essay on change and science. (United States)

    Whitehead, Clay C


    The neo-psychoanalytic paradigm re-establishes the connection between psychodynamics and evolution. This allows us to transcend the limitations of dualistic metapsychology, and to make seminal contributions to traditional science. The new paradigm employs the concept of emergence, the potential for change in the evolutionary and clinical process. Emergence is described as originating with the Big Bang, but also is reflected at much higher levels, for example, biochemistry, or the capacity of the evolved mind to produce insights in psychotherapy. The constraints of dualistic theories are examined. A neuron-based view of change illustrates the evolution of traditional science as well as the neuron, itself. The new mind paradigm recognizes individual, familial, communitarian, and global reciprocal influences mediated by culture and illustrated by the extended mind and the democratic spirit. Thus both traditional and psychodynamic sciences are undergoing revolutionary changes in their common efforts to better understand the mechanisms of knowledge, relationship and consciousness. The boundaries of the self and the consultation suite are also expanded in this view. Following a survey of invagination, the work is concluded by an application of emergence theory to the creationist controversy and Freud's views of religion.


    Silverman, Martin A


    Advances in Contemporary Psychoanalytic Field Theory: Concept and Further Development. Edited by S. Montana Katz, Roosevelt Cassorla, and Giuseppe Civitarese. London/New York: Routledge, 2017. 212 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  8. [Emotional stress psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Rozhnov, V E


    The concept of emotional stress psychotherapy (ESP) is based on the theoretical understanding of mental process as a system of cross-potentiating synergism of consciousness and the unconscious. Therefore, one can regard this kind of treatment as an appeal to the spiritual components of personality arousing its need of self-perfectioning. Owing to this, ESP turns the demands and higher interests creating a personality dominant to oppose the illness with ensuing depression and apathy. In a sense, this method is a qualitative contrast to S. Freud's psychoanalysis digging in the dark compartments of the soul. As a result of treatment of thousands of neurotic patients and those with psychosomatic disorders and alcoholism, the following techniques of ESP were elaborated: rational, shaped as a socratic dialogue; hypnosuggestive comprising individual or collective hypnosis, extremely loaded with emotions; autosuggestive like mental self-regulation and autogenic training filled with specific emotions.

  9. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho


    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  10. Motivating Institutionalized Adolescents for Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Ranieri, Daniel J.


    Reviews the literature regarding client motivation and client references. Offers recommendations for designing a program to increase motivation for psychotherapy in institutionalized adolescents, based on pretherapy and token economics. (JAC)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Suhendro


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacological actions in order to increase the level of maximum healing. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Psychoanalytic peregrinations. II: Psychoanalysis as science and art. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    The foundations of psychoanalytic clinical practice involve the role of fantasy, creativity, and imagination as well as the natural science aspects of psychoanalysis. There is a common ground for psychoanalytic technique and we should not in a "politically correct" manner, as is so popular today, abandon the philosophical or Platonic foundationalism that lies at the basis of Freud's psychoanalytic practices. Although it is a "politically incorrect" view, a reasonable degree of objectivity and scientific validity is attainable by the relatively neutral psychoanalyst, using both natural science observations as well as introspection and hermeneutics. Furthermore, since psychoanalysis is fundamentally a creative activity, the roots of creativity require exploration and careful study. Subjective and first person methodologies such as Freud's psychoanalysis and phenomenology cannot be ignored in our search for the core of the self of each of our patients.

  13. The ambiguity of confidentiality in a psychoanalytic institute. (United States)

    Dulchin, J; Segal, A J


    Traditionally, psychoanalytic training institutes have used the knowledge which faculty gained in the psychoanalyses of their student patients to evaluate the progress of those students. The training institute that we shall call Eastern Institute regarded such a practice as unacceptable, and organized its program with the intention that analysis would exercise no power over their student patients' careers. The institute's commitment to the confidentiality of psychoanalytic relationships led to an ambiguous definition of confidentiality. This ambiguity meant that some faculty members violated the confidentiality of the analytic relationship even though they believed thye were sustaining it. This paper examines the ways in which confidential information was managed, the conditions under which it was compromised, and the significance of this paradoxical situation in the life of the Institute and in the wider psychoanalytic world.

  14. Dialectical thinking and therapeutic action in the psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Hoffman, I Z


    The therapeutic action of the psychoanalytic process depends upon a special kind of power with which the analyst is invested by the patient and by society, a power that is enhanced by adherence to psychoanalytic rituals, including the asymmetrical aspects of the arrangement. It is important, however, that the analyst also engage with the patient in a way that is sufficiently self-expressive and spontaneous so that a bond of mutual identification can develop between the participants. At the core of the generic "good object" is an element of uncertainty as the analyst struggles to find an optimal position relative to this dialetic between formal psychoanalytic authority and personal responsivity and self-expression. At the core of the generic "bad object" is an uncritical commitment to one side of the dialetic at the expense of the other. An extended clinical vignette illustrates how the analyst's struggle with this dialetic has great therapeutic potential.

  15. Psychoanalytic Thoughts on the European Refugee Crisis and the Other. (United States)

    Volkan, Vamık D


    There are many aspects-political, economic, legal, medical, cultural, religious-of the present refugee crisis in Europe. Difficulties at border crossings, settlement programs, life-saving issues, and security measures come to mind immediately, but the refugee crisis also needs to be examined from a psychological angle. This paper outlines psychoanalytic findings on voluntary and forced immigration and human responses to the Other. Change in the twenty-first century is occurring at an unprecedented pace and scale. Globalization, incredible advances in communication technology, fast travel, recourse limitations, terrorist activities, and now the refugee crisis in Europe make psychoanalytic investigation of the Other a necessity.

  16. Ego-structuring psychotherapy. (United States)

    Villemoes, Palle


    Psychoanalysis regards psychosis as an early disturbance in the development of the personality, specifically, of the ego. The disturbance occurs during that period prior to the castration complex and thus before the phase when the ordering of relations becomes oedipal. Responsible for this disturbance is, according to Freud, foreclosure (verwerfung) of an important factor that normally accomplishes the primal repression (urverdrängung) and which renders repression proper (verdrängung) out of the question. According to Lacan this factor is the Name of the Father, which instigates the metaphorical dimension as such and, thereby, makes language come into action through a pact between the subject and the Other. In psychosis, Lacan postulates a foreclosure of the Name of the Father, which hinders the unconscious, structured as a language, from safeguarding the ego and the world, that is, the imaginary. Ego-structuring psychotherapy brings the Name of the Father into effect, enabling the psychotic person to become linguistically structured; consequently, a world view develops in the person and he or she becomes a historically determined person engaged in fulfilling a plan for life.

  17. Psychoanalytical Theories about Dance and Art | Akunna | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the recent trend of crossing academic boundaries and integrating the humanities with social and abstract sciences in contemporary times, this article focuses on the role of art in the school of psychoanalytical thought and by extension, modern medicine. In the process, it explores the relationship between Aristotle's ...

  18. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Volume XXIII. (United States)

    Eissler, Ruth S., Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-seven papers treat aspects of the psychoanalytic study of the child. Problems of psychopathology and therapy considered are the fantasy of the phallic woman, the use of child analysis, the background of perversions, variables in the production of neurotic disturbances, treatment of narcissistic personality disorders, and problems of the…

  19. What Is the Use of Theory? A Psychoanalytic Discussion (United States)

    Britzman, Deborah P.


    Freud asking whether psychoanalysis could be taught in the university, and then whether it could be learned, provides an occasion for asking about the emotional uses of theory. The paper draws from literature, clinical writing and pedagogy to build a psychoanalytic discussion of teaching and learning that takes seriously phantasies of knowledge…

  20. Observation of agoraphobic syndrome through the prism of psychoanalytic epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Aneta


    Full Text Available Focus of the text is on psychoanalytic epistemology of agoraphobic syndrome which is still not sufficiently clarified in psychodynamic parameters. Detailed theorethic study starts from the very origins, theoretical and practical suggestions of Sigmund Freud. Early psychoanalytic formulations include psychodynamic models of Karl Abraham, Helene Deutsch and Edoardo Weiss, as well as a number of other significant analysts who gave significant insight to the metapsychological formulations of agoraphobia in the beginning of XX century. After portraying crucial theoretic frames of dynamics of agoraphobia originating from French psychoanalysis, illustrated through the work of Maurice Bouvet and Jannine Chasseguet - Smirgle, author moves towards psychoanalytic models presented to the psychoanalytic community during the first and second decade of XXI century. This segment incorporates autistic objects of agoraphobic neurotic according to Donald Cartwright and synthesis of crucial traits of representations of self and representations of object according to Barbara Milrod. Leading us towards the conclusion author makes a resume of the actual psychoanalytic epistemology of the agoraphoic syndrome pointing out at the centrality of non adequately solved separation - individuation stage, as well as ego defects associated to he agoraphobic syndrome. Specificity of object relations of agoraphobic neurotic she illustrates pointing out at the nature of his relationship with the follower, that psychic fusion which provides the feeling of certainty outside the safety of ones own home. This detailed overview of severely insufficient published literature devoted to agoraphobia is resumed accenting the necessity for its further research, as well as clear notion that although neurotic disorder, agoraphobic syndrome by at least one of its pole gravitates towards nozologycal unit marking personality disorders.

  1. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter. (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef


    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Längle, A


    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Popescu


    Full Text Available One of the most important tendencies in child psychotherapy is the integration of various psychotherapeutic approaches and technical interventions belonging to different orientations. Based on the Harry Potter stories, the „Wizarding School” structured group therapy program is a 12-step integratively oriented program applicable in personal development, individual and group therapy for children aged 6 to 13 (at present being adapted for adult psychotherapy. The program takes place within a fairy tale, being therefore a type of informal hypnotic trance. The interventions are drawn from the lessons described in Harry Potter’s story at Hogwarts, based on the fundamental principles of child psychotherapy and including elements of play therapy, art therapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive- behavioural therapy, transactional analysis, supportive therapy, family therapy and person centred therapy. From a theoretical point of view the program is based on elements from a number of psychotherapeutic approaches, the main concept being that we need to create a therapeutic myth that is acceptable to a child. The program is not suitable for children with structural deficits, who have difficulties in making the difference between fantasy and reality.

  4. The splitting of the New York Psychoanalytic Society and the construction of psychoanalytic authority. (United States)

    Eisold, K


    The splitting apart of the New York Psychoanalytic Society, which began in 1941 with the expulsion of Karen Horney, is seen in the context of a concerted effort to establish the professional authority of psychoanalysis on unimpeachable foundations. On the one hand, a core group of young psychiatrists trained abroad, led by Kubie, sought to establish strict standards of training along orthodox lines; following in the footsteps of medical reformers who had established the professional authority of medicine with strict standards for training and credentialling, they opposed their more 'lax' elders as well as revisionists such as Horney and Rado. On the other hand, the refugee analysts fleeing Hitler sought to establish the security and conditions of orthodoxy they had enjoyed abroad, though they were forced to compromise on the issue of lay analysis. Together they expelled the deviants and sought to establish the professional authority of psychoanalysis on the twin foundations of medical standards and Freudian orthodoxy. Anxieties following the death of Freud contributed to this dynamic process. But contradictions between the conflicting demands of these two sources of authority undermined the stability of this alliance and, eventually, contributed to its collapse.

  5. [Psychology and psychotherapy in bipolar disorder]. (United States)

    Kupka, R W; de Been, D


    This essay presents recent insights and theories relating to the various psychological mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder and describes a number of the psychotherapies that are based on these mechanisms. Each type of psychotherapy derives from the assumption that bipolar disorder has a neurobiological origin and all the psychotherapies involve long-term pharmacotherapy and comprise many psychoeducational elements. The psychotherapies complement each other and the best and most useful parts of one therapy can be combined with those of others in everyday practice. Patients participating in these psychotherapies can obtain additional support from self help manuals.

  6. Short-term residential psychotherapy: psychotherapy in a nutshell. (United States)

    Bolten, M P


    Psychotherapy in a psychotherapeutic community often is characterized by absence of time limits and by long duration. In this article an account is given of the adaptions that are necessary when short-term treatment is carried out in such a residential setting. Implications for focus, therapy program, and treatment style are presented.

  7. Outcomes of psychotherapy from the perspective of the users. (United States)

    Valkonen, Jukka; Hanninen, Vilma; Lindfors, Olavi


    Psychotherapy is widely held to be an effective means to decrease depression. It seems, however, that not everyone benefits from every kind of therapy, and the relevant outcomes vary from person to person. In this article, the pre-therapy views and post-therapy experiences of 14 users of either long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy or short-term solution-focused therapy are analyzed. The interviewees' personal views about their depression and therapy are approached with the concept of inner narrative. Three "basic stories" or orientations were found: life historical, situational and moral. These offered people different contexts from which to evaluate the outcomes of their therapy. The findings suggest that a person's expectations, hopes and values are worth taking into account to ensure positive therapy outcomes.

  8. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends (United States)



    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  9. Tele-analysis: the use of media technology in psychotherapy and its impact on the therapeutic relationship. (United States)

    Roesler, Christian


    A growing number of approaches in psychotherapy make use of internet- and other media-based interactions. This paper discusses the impact on the therapist-client relationship of using media technology and gives an overview of the current state of the debate. It is suggested that the technical conditions of internet-based interactions produce new forms of social relationships that differ significantly from face-to-face-interactions and that unconscious, nonverbal cues get lost. Research on the therapeutic interaction making use of 'discourse linguistic' methods is presented. The loss of nonverbal cues has implications for psychotherapy in general and especially for the treatment of patients who have difficulties relying on a secure therapeutic relationship. Emotional security in interactional relationships is transmitted to a much greater extent by nonverbal cues than by verbal content; psychoanalytic methods are specialized to refer to this level of interaction. Two alternative scenarios are discussed based on the psychoanalytic theories of Winnicott and Lacan: the risk of an illusionary, idealized image of the other and the possibility that cyberspace can be used for psychological development as a transitional space. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. The current status of psychotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    action of psychotherapy is a promising new development that is emanating from modern techniques of neuro- ... modernes de neurosciences et neuroimageries. Peut etre qu'une telle comprehension pourrait mener a .... On the other hand, cognitive therapy, developed in. Philadelphia by the psychiatrist Aaron Beck, has a ...

  11. Deepening psychoanalytic listening: the marriage of Buddha and Freud. (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B


    Freud (1912) delineated the ideal state of mind for therapists to listen, what he called "evenly hovering" or "evenly suspended attention." No one has ever offered positive recommendations for how to cultivate this elusive yet eminently trainable state of mind. This leaves an important gap in training and technique. What Buddhism terms meditation-non-judgmental attention to what is happening moment-to-moment-cultivates exactly the extraordinary, yet accessible, state of mind Freud was depicting. But genuine analytic listening requires one other quality: the capacity to decode or translate what we hear on the latent and metaphoric level-which meditation does not do. This is a crucial weakness of meditation. In this chapter I will draw on the best of the Western psychoanalytic and Eastern meditative traditions to illuminate how therapists could use meditation to cultivate "evenly hovering attention" and how a psychoanalytic understanding of the language and logic of the unconscious complements and enriches meditative attention.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Debieux Rosa


    Full Text Available This article addresses the dilemmas of the advancement of psychoanalysis when taking into account certain problems, such as social exclusion, racism and others. These issues emerge when the psychoanalyst offers his or her listening in the pólis: in health care, assistance or education institutions, in communities. Such clinical-political psychoanalytic practices find the limits of its field and encourage the necessary dialogue with other fields of knowledge. On the other hand, they encourage the deepening of concepts and the creation of clinical devices compatible with the sociopolitical dimension of suffering. In the first part of the article, we discuss present the way that Freud articulates clinical practice, theory and social issues. Since then, however, the theoretical advance of psychoanalysis in its interface with culture has privileged artistic and religious facts, at the expense of the political, economic and social dimension. In the second part, we present our conception of clinical-political psychoanalytic or implicated psychoanalysis.

  13. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy. (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara


    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. Copyright

  14. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy. (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P


    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.

  15. Research on psychotherapy integration: building on the past, looking to the future. (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Eubanks, Catherine F; Goldfried, Marvin R; Muran, J Christopher; Lutz, Wolfgang


    Integration has become an important and influential movement within psychotherapy practice, reflected by the fact that many treatment providers now identify as integrative. However, integration has not had as great an influence on psychotherapy research. The goal of this paper is to highlight the growing body of research on psychotherapy integration, and to identify future directions for research that may strengthen the integration movement as well as the field of psychotherapy as a whole. We first summarize the past 25 years of research on integration, with a focus on four approaches to integration: theoretical integration, technical eclectic, common factors, and assimilative integration. Next, we identify directions of research within these four areas that could strengthen and support integrative practice. We then propose ways in which the perspective of integrationists could contribute to psychotherapy research in the critical areas of harmful effects, therapist effects, practice-oriented research, and training. We end this paper by suggesting that a greater collaboration between integrationists and psychotherapy researchers will help to create a unified landscape of knowledge and action that will benefit all participants and advance the field.

  16. Change mechanisms of schema-centered group psychotherapy with personality disorder patients. (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Zorn, Peter; Ramseyer, Fabian


    This study addressed the temporal properties of personality disorders and their treatment by schema-centered group psychotherapy. It investigated the change mechanisms of psychotherapy using a novel method by which psychotherapy can be modeled explicitly in the temporal domain. 69 patients were assigned to a specific schema-centered behavioral group psychotherapy, 26 to social skills training as a control condition. The largest diagnostic subgroups were narcissistic and borderline personality disorder. Both treatments offered 30 group sessions of 100 min duration each, at a frequency of two sessions per week. Therapy process was described by components resulting from principal component analysis of patients' session-reports that were obtained after each session. These patient-assessed components were Clarification, Bond, Rejection, and Emotional Activation. The statistical approach focused on time-lagged associations of components using time-series panel analysis. This method provided a detailed quantitative representation of therapy process. It was found that Clarification played a core role in schema-centered psychotherapy, reducing rejection and regulating the emotion of patients. This was also a change mechanism linked to therapy outcome. The introduced process-oriented methodology allowed to highlight the mechanisms by which psychotherapeutic treatment became effective. Additionally, process models depicted the actual patterns that differentiated specific diagnostic subgroups. Time-series analysis explores Granger causality, a non-experimental approximation of causality based on temporal sequences. This methodology, resting upon naturalistic data, can explicate mechanisms of action in psychotherapy research and illustrate the temporal patterns underlying personality disorders.

  17. The form of the story: Measuring formal aspects of narrative activity in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Döll-Hentschker, Susanne


    We ask which are the clinically relevant qualities of narratives in psychotherapy and how they can be measured. On the background of psychoanalytic assumptions and narrative theory, we propose to measure formal narrative processes which stay close to the linguistic surface, because these escape conscious control. We propose five aspects of narratives to be especially sensitive to distortions and therefore prone to change in successful therapies: (1) The actual chronological, stepwise narrating of events, (2) the intentional structuring of events, or emplotment, (3) the immediate evaluation, (4) the reflected interpretation of events, and finally (5) the consistency and completeness of the narrative. For each aspect we discuss ways to measure them. Finally the aspects are illustrated with excerpts from a series of diagnostic interviews. Implications for the analysis of the co-narrative role of the therapist are suggested.

  18. Integration in the Psychodynamic Psychotherapy of Severe Personality Disorders: The Conversational Model. (United States)

    Haliburn, Joan; Stevenson, Janine; Halovic, Shaun


    The psychotherapy of commonly occurring severe personality disorders-borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive, and schizoid-presents the therapist with a unique therapeutic challenge, as each personality disorder rarely occurs alone. Integration of what is most useful and what works in each model is being proposed to enable a more successful approach to the diversity of presentations. We describe the conversational model, some outcome research, and descriptive studies to illustrate this. Based in psychoanalytic theory, the conversational model is integrated with trauma theory, findings in memory research, linguistics, neurophysiological data, and, above all, on the observations of clinical experiences. Our emphasis in this article is on the treatment principles, methods, and techniques, along with case examples to illustrate what we mean. Case material is taken from audio recordings for which written informed consent was obtained for presentations and journal articles. Some changes have been made to maintain confidentiality.

  19. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke. (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie


    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  20. An effective analytical psychotherapy in crosscultural context. An East Asian student in the United States. (United States)

    Chang, S C


    An effective analytical psychotherapy of a severe anxiety disorder with panic, in a crosscultural context of East Asia and the United States, specifically a Japanese student studying English, is presented. What was crucial in facilitating the therapeutic process was an introduction of analytical way of looking at life born of Western culture into an integrative orientation of Asian culture and mentality.

  1. Varieties of Castration Experience: Relevance to Contemporary Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Taylor, Graeme J


    Although Freud considered castration to be one of the two major anxieties of human life, the castration complex has been relatively neglected in contemporary psychoanalytic writing and is insufficiently discussed in presentations of clinical cases. This article discusses the relevance of the concept to contemporary psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy, in particular the important contributing role of castration conflicts in the pathogenesis of a wide range of clinical symptoms. The author begins by briefly reviewing some classical and contemporary psychoanalytic ideas about castration to show how the concept has broadened and is currently used not only to signify fear of damage to or loss of the genital, but also metaphorically to indicate a threat to or loss of any valued human characteristic or function. He outlines Brenner's distinction between castration anxiety and castration depression, and reviews the role of childhood trauma in intensifying castration conflicts. He then illustrates the clinical application of these ideas by describing aspects of his psychotherapeutic work with three male patients who presented with a variety of symptoms and distressing psychological experiences that were gradually resolved through the analysis of underlying castration anxiety and/or castration depression. Although castration anxiety is frequently intermingled with separation anxiety, the author concludes that with many traumatized patients castration conflicts are in the foreground and the therapist needs to focus on the patient's proneness to humiliation, powerlessness, and shame.

  2. The State of the Art of Group Psychotherapy in Spain. (United States)

    Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara


    (1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction.

  3. The beneficial demands of conducting psychotherapy. (United States)

    Hayes, Jeffrey A


    The practice of psychotherapy requires me to have several qualities: presence, perspective, and self-knowledge. These demands of conducting psychotherapy are discussed from an experiential point of view as primarily beneficial. Practicing psychotherapy also frequently reminds me of important lessons that I need to remember. Case examples are provided to illustrate central concepts, and research findings occasionally are presented to supplement primary clinical ideas. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Attachment, ethology and adult psychotherapy. (United States)

    Sable, Pat


    This article discusses Bowlby's development of an ethological-evolutionary perspective, and its implications for psychotherapy with adults. According to Bowlby, attachment behavior is instinctive, having emerged throughout the course of evolution to ensure protection and actual survival. Because the environment affects how attachment behavior unfolds, adverse experiences can divert developmental pathways away from resilience, toward dysfunction and emotional distress. Psychotherapy offers the experience of an attachment relationship. Part of the process involves helping patients understand that feelings such as fear and anxiety are inherent responses to safeguard affectional relationships when they are endangered. As working models are re-appraised and revised, there is emphasis on clarifying the attachment experiences that may have intensified these natural feelings.

  5. Implementing Dynamic Assessments in Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Luo, Xiaochen; Bernard, Nicola; Lin, Yanli; Levendosky, Alytia A


    In this article, we organize multimethod, multitimescale data around the interpersonal situation, a conceptual framework that can be used to integrate personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy constructs in order to guide the assessment of clinical dynamics. We first describe the key variables of the interpersonal situation model and articulate methods for assessing those variables as they manifest (a) across different levels of personality, (b) across situations, and (c) within situations. We next use a case to demonstrate how to assess aspects of the interpersonal situation in a manner that enhances case conceptualization and facilitates the evaluation of clinical hypotheses. We also use this case to highlight challenges and decisions involved in implementing dynamic assessment in psychotherapy. We conclude by outlining areas in need of further exploration toward a more sophisticated approach to clinical practice that involves the routine assessment of dynamic processes.

  6. Personal construct psychotherapy of addictions. (United States)

    Klion, R E; Pfenninger, D T


    Personal construct psychotherapy and its utility in understanding and treating addictions is explored. Several clinical phenomena related to chemical dependency are discussed from the perspective of constructivism. Framed within the context of Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross' (1992) stages of change model, several psychotherapeutic techniques are outlined. These concepts and techniques are offered as theoretically based heuristics and are intended to illustrate the potential utility of a clinical approach based upon personal construct theory.

  7. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postnatal Anxiety Disorder. (United States)

    Chung, J P Y


    Interpersonal psychotherapy is one of two evidence-based formal psychotherapies for perinatal mood disorders. It is a time-limited, non-transference / cognitive-based therapy that focuses on communication and social support and can be easily conducted in a perinatal clinic setting. There is limited patient access to interpersonal psychotherapy in Hong Kong because the therapy is not widely disseminated. This case report aimed to illustrate the principles and techniques of interpersonal psychotherapy in perinatal psychiatry, and to raise interest among mental health professionals in Hong Kong in this evidence-based treatment.

  8. Practical tips for sexual counseling and psychotherapy in premature ejaculation. (United States)

    Rowland, David; Cooper, Stewart


    A number of milestones in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) have occurred over the past five decades, including the development of various behavioral and cognitive techniques as well as pharmacotherapies that modify neurophysiological processes involved in ejaculation. Nevertheless, the notion that sexual responses such as PE are influenced by physiological, psychobehavioral, cultural, and relationship factors is as valid now as it was 50 years ago, and therefore, interventions should consider all such domains in the development of effective treatment strategies. Provide an overview of which patients with PE are suitable to receive psychosexual treatment and the psychological approaches for managing this disorder. Review of the literature. Psychosexual treatments that integrate behavioral, psychological, and relationship functioning. PE is typically a couple's problem and, therefore, psychotherapy is best when the partner is involved. Before embarking on psychotherapy, the clinician should obtain a medical history pertaining to sexual-, psychological-, and relationship-related factors, so that the treatment strategy can be tailored to the needs of the individual. General strategies underpinning integrative, "process-oriented" elements of psychotherapy most relevant to PE are: developing the therapist-patient relationship; expressing empathy, genuineness, and positive regard; motivational interviewing, i.e., developing motivation to change; developing discrepancy; working through resistance; identifying PE-related affect, cognitions, and behaviors (including interaction with partners); and supporting self-efficacy. The four main domains that encompass psychotherapy techniques specific to the treatment of PE are: behavioral; cognitive; affective; and relational. Sustained positive outcomes in PE may be obtained using a combination treatment strategy that addresses all elements of PE, including psychological and biological factors. Psychosexual treatments

  9. Healing after Columbine: reflections of psychoanalytic responders to community trauma. (United States)

    Levy, Mary Ann; Haglund, Pamela; Plaut, Linda; Emde, Robert; Stewart, Marguerite; Shaw, Ronnie; Ilvonen, Carol; Buirski, Cathy Krown; Singer, Mel; Hea, Rebecca; Edwards, William


    Following the shootings at Columbine High School on April 20, 1999, the Denver Psychoanalytic Society provided both immediate and long-term interventions to those closely impacted by the tragedy. In this effort, analytically trained volunteers faced many personal challenges and role adjustments. To address these issues a reflective study group was formed twenty months after the traumatic event. Group discussions revealed a surprising number of residual symptoms from secondary trauma, as well as opportunities for shared coping among analysts. Little has been written about the very human and subjective responses of analysts in such circumstances. These experiences may be helpful to others in today's world of terrorism and unexpected violent events.

  10. Transference regression and psychoanalytic technique with infantile personalities. (United States)

    Kernberg, O F


    This paper describes a particular form of 'silent' regression during the psychoanalytic treatment of infantile personalities (a type of character pathology related to the hysterical personality). This regression is characterized by the development of rapid interchange in the roles enacted in the transference and projected on to the analyst, an apparent 'disconnexion' of the transference material from that dominant when the patient is in non-regressed states, and the intensification of the analyst's counter-transference reactions. The diagnosis and management of these regressive transferences requires a particular interpretive style and strategy outlined in this paper and illustrated with two case vignettes.

  11. Sanctioned social violence: A psychoanalytic view--part I. (United States)

    Kernberg, Otto F


    This paper is the first of a series of two that present an effort to systematize the application of psychoanalytic theory of group processes to the outbreak of massive violence. It explores the origins and social amplification of primitive aggression by means of group psychology and mass psychology, and the combined influences of the regressive pull of ideologies, the personality features of social and political leadership, and the triggering impact of historical trauma and social crises. The paper describes a spectrum of narcissistic-paranoid mechanisms that provide a common matrix for the analysis of those aspects of social psychology that co-determine socially sanctioned violence.

  12. Human foibles and psychoanalytic technique: Freud, Ferenczi, and Gizella Palos. (United States)

    Kilborne, Benjamin


    This paper explores relations between human conundrums and psychoanalytic technique and theory through the relationship between Freud and Ferenczi. Rather than vilify (or lionize) either figure, the paper seeks to see into their struggles and conflicts, and to draw from correspondence and writings a portrait of a relationship. The paper describes not two dusty figures drawn from the closet of history but rather two live, flawed, and struggling human beings whose rational ideas about what they were doing could never keep step with their emotions. There is therefore much to be learned from their relationship: about transference and countertransference, about boundaries and friendship, about rivalry and despair, and about shame.

  13. The Psychoanalytic Interpretation of the Organizational Environment as a Management Tool for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khripko Elena


    Full Text Available The article exposes contemporary materials and structures for sustainable development of organizational environment. Psychoanalytic modeling of organizational behavior makes it possible to identify out reflection, unconscious tendencies in individual, group and corporate behavior. This enables to significantly increase the effectiveness of measures for personnel management. Organizational Environment Researches base on psychoanalytic theory of object relations.

  14. James Baldwin's Go Tell it on the Mountain and the Psychoanalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But how the psychoanalytic poetics features in the novel and the reason for its employment appears to be largely ignored. In this essay, I utilize some psychoanalytic concepts in the reading of the novel, and argue that Baldwin's characters' internal (psychological) and external (sociological) conflicts are inseparable since ...

  15. The beginnings of psychoanalytic supervision: the crucial role of Max Eitingon. (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward


    Psychoanalytic supervision is moving well into its 2nd century of theory, practice, and (to a limited extent) research. In this paper, I take a look at the pioneering first efforts to define psychoanalytic supervision and its importance to the psychoanalytic education process. Max Eitingon, the "almost forgotten man" of psychoanalysis, looms large in any such consideration. His writings or organizational reports were seemingly the first psychoanalytic published material to address the following supervision issues: rationale, screening, notes, responsibility, supervisee learning/personality issues, and the extent and length of supervision itself. Although Eitingon never wrote formally on supervision, his pioneering work in the area has continued to echo across the decades and can still be seen reflected in contemporary supervision practice. I also recognize the role of Karen Horney-one of the founders of the Berlin Institute and Poliklinik, friend of Eitingon, and active, vital participant in Eitingon's efforts-in contributing to and shaping the beginnings of psychoanalytic education.

  16. Combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy - the example of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 20, 2003 ... psychotherapy - the example of depressive disorders ... Major depression is used as an example of a disorder where the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy offer great advantages. The evidence for .... channels of communication between psychiatrist and psycho- therapist. How effective is ...

  17. The Effectiveness of Western Psychotherapy in treating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of mental disorders in the western world but viewed as an alien method of treatment to Africans. Aim: To review the literature on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in sub- Saharan Africa. Method: A systematic search of Medline, PsychINFO, ...

  18. Psychotherapy for Personality Disorders in a Natural Setting: A Pilot Study over Two Years of Treatment. (United States)

    Kolly, Stéphane; Kramer, Ueli; Maillard, Pauline; Charbon, Patrick; Droz, Jessica; Frésard, Emmanuelle; Berney, Sylvie; Despland, Jean-Nicolas


    Long-term assessment of the effects of psychotherapy for personality disorders (PDs) in a natural environment is an important task. Such research contributes to enlarge the practice-based evidence, embedded in broad collaborations between clinicians and researchers in psychotherapy for PDs. The present pilot study used rigorous assessment procedures and incorporated feedback loops of outcome information to the therapists in demonstrating the effects of psychotherapy for PD in a natural setting. The number of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), criteria for any PD was the primary outcome (along with psychological distress, depression, impulsiveness, and quality of life as secondary measures), assessed at intake, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of psychotherapy for N = 13 patients with PD. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Results demonstrated a large pre-post effect (d = 2.22) for the observer-rated measure (primary outcome), and small to medium effects for the secondary outcomes; these results were corroborated by a steady decrease of symptoms over all five time points, which was significant for several outcomes. These results add a piece to the literature by demonstrating the effects of long-term psychotherapy for PDs in increasingly diverse contexts and suggest that practice-oriented research can be carried out in a collaborative and systematic manner.

  19. Psychotherapy research needs theory. Outline for an epistemology of the clinical exchange. (United States)

    Salvatore, Sergio


    This paper provides an analysis of a basic assumption grounding the clinical research: the ontological autonomy of psychotherapy-based on the idea that the clinical exchange is sufficiently distinguished from other social objects (i.e. exchange between teacher and pupils, or between buyer and seller, or interaction during dinner, and so forth). A criticism of such an assumption is discussed together with the proposal of a different epistemological interpretation, based on the distinction between communicative dynamics and the process of psychotherapy-psychotherapy is a goal-oriented process based on the general dynamics of human communication. Theoretical and methodological implications are drawn from such a view: It allows further sources of knowledge to be integrated within clinical research (i.e. those coming from other domains of analysis of human communication); it also enables a more abstract definition of the psychotherapy process to be developed, leading to innovative views of classical critical issues, like the specific-nonspecific debate. The final part of the paper is devoted to presenting a model of human communication--the Semiotic Dialogical Dialectic Theory--which is meant as the framework for the analysis of psychotherapy.

  20. Evaluating psychoanalytic papers. Towards the development of common editorial standards. (United States)

    Tuckett, D


    Psychoanalysis has insecure foundations. Many of its core theories and therapeutic principles are contested from both within and without the discipline. While it often has little difficulty embracing new ideas it has terrible trouble rejecting old ones. Typically those within the discipline have dealt with this situation by destructive rationalisation, denial, splitting and idealization. Foremost is the tendency to multiply schools and paradigms and to rely on rhetoric and argument by authority. It is argued that to counter such inevitably destructive processes we need to find a way of improving constructive engagement with each other and to achieve a discipline that can grow on the secure foundations of gradually accumulating knowledge. Giving examples, the author describes the ongoing development of a methodology for evaluating psychoanalytic papers according to a common standard. It is proposed that it is possible to conduct reasoned international and cross-cultural peer review. This means that we can in principle evaluate and reach agreement as to the merit of psychoanalytic papers even though their authors may have backgrounds in profoundly different local style and local traditions of argument. Moreover, it is suggested, this can be done without creating the monster of an internationally homogenised style that would numb creativity and original thought.

  1. Between paranoia and creativity: candidates' experience of psychoanalytic training. (United States)

    Ward, Anne; Gibson, Walter; Miqueu-Baz, Christine


    There is widespread concern regarding various aspects of psychoanalytic education. A recent paper by Patrick Casement, drawn widely from his long experience as a supervisor both in the U.K. and abroad, implied that the British Psychoanalytical Society is not exempt from these concerns. To investigate this, a semistructured, anonymous questionnaire was devised and sent to all candidates and all recently qualified analysts at the society. Overall there was a 58% response rate, with 77% of candidates and 39% of recently qualified analysts responding. Concerns were expressed about aspects of the training, but on the whole these were balanced by appreciation. Although strong criticism was expressed by a minority, it seems that when something goes wrong for a candidate, this experience is felt keenly by the peer group as well. The results are discussed in the context of the current training and ethos of the British Society, as well as in relation to a more widespread move toward "competency-based" education. The maturational tasks facing both candidates and trainers are also addressed.

  2. Mirror processes in the protected space of psychoanalytic supervision


    Schmolke, Margit; Hoffmann, Nataly


    Supervision is a useful instrument in psychodynamic psychotherapy as well as in a multi-disciplinary team-work. Precondition is a confidential setting in which the trainee is able to open him/herself in the relationship to his/her supervisor. Institutional conditions and rules as well as the personal background and professional experience of the trainee play an important role. The specific interest of the authors is the phenomenon of what happens within the trainee-supervisor-relationship, in...

  3. [Heidelberger study on psychoanalytic therapy of children and adolescents: methodology]. (United States)

    Fahrig, H


    In the representative studies published so far on the outcome of analytic child psychotherapy (Dührssen 1964; Fonagy and Target 1996) no techniques of treatment were mentioned. The following paper describes in detail the technique of treatment on which the Heidelberg Study "On the Therapeutic Outcome in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy" is based, as it developed from 1975 to 1993 at the Heidelberg Institute for Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Starting from Piaget's findings that the cognitive faculties of a child up to the age of 11 completely differ from those of an adult and taking into consideration the cerebral information processing and "the intellect pervadet sensory" (Schopenhauer) it is demonstrated that children take their intrapsychic and interpersonal conflicts into analytic play therapy or into role play on analogous levels. Protected by a safe distance from being aware of their conflicts they will on the analogous levels understand, work through, partially solve their conflicts and make use of it in reality without conscious recognition. The term "analogous level" is defined and the manifold possibilities of therapeutic intervention on this level are demonstrated. The efficacy of therapeutic treatment on analogous levels is discussed.

  4. Patient Personality and Relational Patterns in Psychotherapy: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity of the Psychotherapy Relationship Questionnaire. (United States)

    Tanzilli, Annalisa; Colli, Antonello; Gualco, Ivan; Lingiardi, Vittorio


    The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Psychotherapy Relationship Questionnaire (PRQ; Bradley, Heim, & Westen, 2005 ), a clinician report instrument that measures a wide spectrum of thoughts, feelings, motives, conflicts, and behaviors expressed by patients toward their therapists in psychotherapy. A national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N   = 314) of different theoretical orientations completed the PRQ, as well as the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a , 1999b ) to assess the personality of a patient in their care. Factor-analytic procedures identified 6 transference dimensions that showed excellent internal consistencies: (a) hostile, (b) positive/working alliance, (c) special/entitled, (d) anxious/preoccupied, (e) avoidant/dismissing attachment, and (f) sexualized. Factor scores were significantly related to patients' personality characteristics and psychological functioning, regardless of the clinicians' orientations. The findings support that the PRQ is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating the patients' relational patterns emerging in clinical practice in a clinically coherent and psychometrically robust way. Clinicians' careful understanding of these patterns can be very useful for making accurate diagnostic formulations, as well as for providing a roadmap for effective therapeutic intervention.

  5. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  6. Psychotherapy in the aesthetic attitude. (United States)

    Beebe, John


    Drawing upon the writings of Jungian analyst Joseph Henderson on unconscious attitudes toward culture that patients and analysts may bring to therapy, the author defines the aesthetic attitude as one of the basic ways that cultural experience is instinctively accessed and processed so that it can become part of an individual's self experience. In analytic treatment, the aesthetic attitude emerges as part of what Jung called the transcendent function to create new symbolic possibilities for the growth of consciousness. It can provide creative opportunities for new adaptation where individuation has become stuck in unconscious complexes, both personal and cultural. In contrast to formulations that have compared depth psychotherapy to religious ritual, philosophic discourse, and renewal of socialization, this paper focuses upon the considerations of beauty that make psychotherapy also an art. In psychotherapeutic work, the aesthetic attitude confronts both analyst and patient with the problem of taste, affects how the treatment is shaped and 'framed', and can grant a dimension of grace to the analyst's mirroring of the struggles that attend the patient's effort to be a more smoothly functioning human being. The patient may learn to extend the same grace to the analyst's fumbling attempts to be helpful. The author suggests that the aesthetic attitude is thus a help in the resolution of both countertransference and transference en route to psychological healing.

  7. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  8. Specificity of psychoanalytic hypotheses regarding the onset of adolescent psychoses: an empirical test of a psychodynamic model. (United States)

    Kutcher, S; Marton, P; Szalai, J; Kennedy, B


    The specificity of psychodynamic hypotheses regarding the onset of adolescent psychosis was assessed in a group of rigorously diagnosed psychotic (N = 75) and depressed (N = 53) adolescents. None of the four operationally defined psychodynamic hypotheses purported to be etiologically specific in the onset of adolescent psychotic illness: success and its opportunities; intimacy and its attempts; intent to act autonomously; or involved in insight-oriented psychotherapy was more commonly observed in the psychotic than the depressed group, thereby not supporting the hypotheses. The consequences of this finding are discussed.

  9. Review Essay: Our Rules Leave a Backdoor Open—At the Heart of the Radically Incomplete Psychoanalytic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Langenbach


    Full Text Available Practical work in psychoanalytic practice is a core component of the enhancement of psychoanalytic knowledge. Despite its importance it is a rather dark chapter in the research history of psychoanalysis and empirical research into what actually happens in practice has been rare. The book by Andreas STRATKÖTTER reviewed here takes psychoanalytic practice as the empirical basis of an extensive qualitative study. The psychoanalysts interviewed by STRATKÖTTER describe the criteria they take to indicate the need for psychoanalytic treatment, the practical relevance of central psychoanalytic notions, and their professional development after psychoanalytic training. STRATKÖTTER's study can be taken as a reference for demands for improvements in the culture of psychoanalytic training and for further development of qualitative research approaches in psychoanalysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901173

  10. Effectiveness of routine psychotherapy: Method matters. (United States)

    McAleavey, Andrew A; Youn, Soo Jeong; Xiao, Henry; Castonguay, Louis G; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Locke, Benjamin D


    Though many studies have shown that psychotherapy can be effective, psychotherapy available in routine practice may not be adequate. Several methods have been proposed to evaluate routine psychological treatments. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the combined utility of complementary methods, change-based benchmarking, and end-state normative comparisons, across a range of self-reported psychological symptoms. Benchmarks derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and normative comparisons were used to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy in a large (N = 9895) sample of clients in university counseling centers (UCCs). Overall, routine psychotherapy was associated with significant improvement across all symptoms examined. For clients whose initial severity was similar to RCT participants, the observed pre-post effect sizes were equivalent to those in RCTs. However, treatment tended to lead to normative end-state functioning only for those clients who were moderately, but not severely, distressed at the start of psychotherapy. This suggests that although psychotherapy is associated with an effective magnitude of symptom improvement in routine practice, additional services for highly distressed individuals may be necessary. The methods described here comprise a comprehensive analysis of the quality of routine care, and we recommend using both methods in concert. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: This study examines the effectiveness of routine psychotherapy provided in a large network of counseling centers. By comparing multiple established methods to define outcomes in this sample we provide a detailed understanding of typical outcomes. The findings show that, across several different problem areas, routine psychotherapy provided substantial benefit, particularly to clients in the most distress. However, there is room to improve, especially by increasing the number of clients who return to normal functioning by the end of

  11. Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT: a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suckling John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine

  12. [Effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Sander; Nørregaard, Trine Maria; Carlsson, Jessica


    An evaluation of the effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy is quite complex. In the few existing studies on the use of interpreters in psychotherapy no significant difference was found in treatment outcome related to whether an interpreter was used or not. On the other hand, the inclusion of an interpreter affects the therapeutic alliance and the relationships between the parties. The role of the interpreter in psychotherapy is characterized by diversity, and the included studies indicate the need for training to improve the cooperation between the interpreter and the therapist.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eCLARICI


    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is active in the central nervous system and is generally considered to be involved in prosocial behaviors and feelings. In light of its documented positive effect on maternal behaviour, we designed a study to ascertain whether oxytocin exerts any therapeutic effects on depressive symptoms in women affected by maternal postnatal depression. A group of 16 mothers were recruited in a randomized double-blind study: the women agreed to take part in a brief course of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (12 sessions, once a week while also being administered, during the 12-week period, with a daily dose of intranasal oxytocin (or a placebo. The pre-treatment evaluation also included a personality assessment of the major primary-process emotional command systems described by Panksepp (1998 and a semi-quantitative assessment by the therapist of the mother’s depressive symptoms and on her personality. No significant effect on depressive symptomatology was found following the administration of oxytocin (as compared to a placebo during the period of psychotherapy. Nevertheless, a personality trait evaluation of the mothers, conducted in our overall sample group, showed a decrease in the narcissistic trait only within the group who took oxytocin. The depressive (dysphoric trait was in fact significantly affected by psychotherapy (this effect was only present in the placebo group so it may reflect a positive placebo effect enhancing the favorable influence of psychotherapy on depressive symptoms but not in the presence of oxytocin. Based on these results, we confirm our hypothesis that what is generally defined as postnatal depression may include disturbances of narcissistic affective balance, and oxytocin supplementation can counteract that type of affective disturbance.

  14. The relationship between formal operations cognition and suitability for psychoanalytic treatment. (United States)

    Fielder, J F


    Psychoanalytic practice can benefit from a coherent theory of cognition that is more comprehensive than, but which includes the related concepts of primary/secondary processes. For reasons not yet understood, cognition has not received the continuing attention it deserves in psychoanalytic theory. As demonstrated, Piaget's empirical studies of cognition can potentially help the practicing psychoanalyst to clinically differentiate those patients suitable for psychoanalytic treatment. It appears that Piaget's theory may hold greater utility for psychoanalysis than has been evidenced to date and analysts may be able to eventually describe defensive operations as well as other ego functions in terms of the cognitive functions delineated by Piaget.

  15. The verbal portrait: Erik H. Erikson's contribution to psychoanalytic discourse. (United States)

    Capps, Donald


    This article makes the case that Erik H. Erikson developed a form of psychoanalytic discourse-the verbal portrait-which, although not unprecedented, became a focal feature of his work, and the testing ground for the cogency of his major contribution to psychoanalysis (the concept of identity). It suggests that Erikson was inspired to develop the verbal portrait because he came to psychoanalysis from art and was, in fact, a portrait artist. Drawing especially on the work of Richard Brilliant, it presents the view that a portrait is a portrayal of the subject's identity and goes on to show how Erikson's memorial to the cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict is representative of the verbal portrait.

  16. The usual intolerance and present one: a psychoanalytic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Ribeiro de Santi


    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze the roots of intolerance from a psychoanalytic perspective, as well as the ways it has been taken in our politic life in the last years. At first, I expose a relation between intolerance and the Ego origin; in order to understand what changes in the measure of what is or isn’t tolerable in distinct contexts. After that, I analyze the psychosocial conditions for the tolerance of the Other, sustaining that a failure in the symbolic intermediation is an important issue in the contemporary forms of intolerance. From that failure, the relation with ideas and persons remains on an imaginary level, and the reflection ability in inhibited, as it is in a fetish. My conclusion is that a symbolic intermediation between the Ego and the other is a condition to a tolerant coexistence.

  17. Training and disillusion in counselling psychology: a psychoanalytic perspective. (United States)

    Rizq, Rosemary


    In this paper, I argue that Counselling Psychology's professional identification with pluralism poses significant emotional problems for trainees. An important factor in such problems may be the trainee's sense of disappointment and disillusion that the route to professional and personal self-transformation will not be achieved via a set of universal theoretical principles and established clinical 'rules'. I draw on recent psychoanalytic theory to suggest that the task facing trainees involves balancing pluralism, characterized as an 'external' third position, with an 'internal' third space indexing an awareness of subjectivity and intersubjectivity. Maintaining a dialogical-dialectical perspective on these two positions allows for a creative space in which the trainee may be transformed from lay helper into professional counselling psychologist via a personal engagement with theoretical, clinical and academic material presented during training.

  18. Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Treatment (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Della Rosa, Elena; Kegerreis, Sue


    This manuscript provides a review of the clinical case study within the field of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic treatment. The method has been contested for methodological reasons and because it would contribute to theoretical pluralism in the field. We summarize how the case study method is being applied in different schools of psychoanalysis, and we clarify the unique strengths of this method and areas for improvement. Finally, based on the literature and on our own experience with case study research, we come to formulate nine guidelines for future case study authors: (1) basic information to include, (2) clarification of the motivation to select a particular patient, (3) information about informed consent and disguise, (4) patient background and context of referral or self-referral, (5) patient's narrative, therapist's observations and interpretations, (6) interpretative heuristics, (7) reflexivity and counter-transference, (8) leaving room for interpretation, and (9) answering the research question, and comparison with other cases. PMID:28210235

  19. Special problems for the elderly psychoanalyst in the psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    The psychoanalytic process takes on a special ambience when the analyst is clearly elderly. The effects of this ambience on the the aging analyst's patients are discussed, and the sparse literature on the subject is reviewed. Clinical vignettes illustrate a number of these effects on the analytic process. Dealing with these special problems requires not only the analyst's awareness of their existence but a continual monitoring of the transference-countertransference in order to avoid a silent collusion of patient and analyst to pretend these problems do not exist. The dangerous consequences of being unaware of the situation, for both patient and analyst, are discussed. If the influence of the patient's perception of the analyst's aging is ignored, it may lead to destruction of the treatment either through massive acting out or by a hopeless stalemate with or without the development of an endless psychoanalysis.

  20. [Nationalism, hatred of foreigners and antisemitism. Psychoanalytic considerations]. (United States)

    Bohleber, W


    Widespread social crisis phenomena such as unemployment, shortage of housing or lack of prospects are not sufficient to explain aggressive nationalism and the revival of xenophobia in present-day Germany. While from a psychoanalytic viewpoint xenophobia and anti-Semitism have been extensively examined, the same can by no means be said of the phantasm of the "nation". With reference to a case study, the author demonstrates that the adoption of nationalist ideologies (which in Germany specifically are very much bound up with the traditional notion of the nation as a biological organism) can serve both to prevent the outbreak of neurosis at the individual level and to effect what Freud called the "spurious" healing of existing neuroses. Psychologically speaking, the phantasm of the "nation" provides scope for the realization of the desire for pre-ambivalent fusion with an object that has rid itself of everything heterogeneous, alien and autonomous.

  1. Being an adult: Psychoanalytic model and social model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cappelli


    Full Text Available The author uses two psychoanalytic models, namely Kernberg’s and Kohut’s conceptualizations, to delineate a possible prototype of adult from the point of view of psychoanalysis. The author believes that this process of modulation of narcissism primitive, both in an evolutionary context and therapeutic, is crucial to achieving an adult level of integration.The author traces also, with the help of two political philosophers, a model of a democratic society, in which you can complete evolution of the mind. The concepts of negative freedom and pluralism of values of Berlin and that of Rawls' justice as fairness are used to identify some key aspects of a modern liberal society.

  2. The predictive power of Horney's psychoanalytic approach: an empirical study. (United States)

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Segal, Daniel L; Benight, Charles C; Danielian, Jack


    This study investigated the construct validity of a measure of Karen Horney's (1945) psychoanalytic theory that postulated three neurotic trends: compliant, aggressive, and detached. Her theory was operationalized by the Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator (HCTI). One hundred seventy-two adults completed the HCTI and the short form of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, a measure of the three DSM-IV personality disorder clusters. Multiple regression and canonical correlation analyses revealed significant and differential patterns of the three HCTI dimensions with the three clusters. Because Paris (1994) has noted that Horney's neurotic trends may today be conceived of as personality disorders, one implication of the present findings is that Horney's dynamic theory can be valid and useful in the general understanding of personality disorders from a cluster perspective.

  3. [Bipolar disorder and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania]. (United States)

    Solimano, Alberto; Manfredi, Clelia


    The categorical diagnostic model of bipolar disorders (DSM IV) has brought about increasing questioning, since its use gains troubles related not only to clinical experience, but to epidemiological studies as well. Regarding this, other models have emerged, such as the bipolar spectrum by Akiskal that covers the classic bipolar disorder on one side to unipolar disorder on the other, including soft bipolar disorders as well. The authors start from this notion of bipolar spectrum to set out the relationship between bipolar disease and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania. They develop Freud's basic theories and those of the British School that constitute a strong and coherent theoretical structure. Psychoanalysis proposes a unitary psychopathological model that manifests itself as depression or maniac reaction as secondary defense, to account for both the clinical expression and the psychodynamic comprehension of mood disorders.

  4. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse) (United States)

    Johnson, Brian


    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence ( The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments. PMID:22144975

  5. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse). (United States)

    Johnson, Brian


    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence ( The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  6. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Toward A New Perspective. (United States)

    Ivey, Allen E.


    Considers a person-environment approach as central to a metatheory of counseling and psychotherapy. Suggests counselors remain aware of the social and political frames of their work and the verbal and nonverbal communication between counselor and client. (JAC)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruša Zaletel


    Full Text Available In their article, the authors present the findings of the study in which they conceptualized the method of psychotherapy with the Parent ego state. Their aim was to explore whether this method could be divided into individual, content-wise separate chronological phases which can be observed with the majority of clients. By using a modified method of content analysis of five psychotherapy transcripts and a video recording of a psychotherapy session, nine chronological phases were identified. In order to illustrate the individual phases, excerpts from the transcripts and the video recording of psychotherapy have been included. The article proposes under what conditions can this method be used, and presents some of its limitations.

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapies: History and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar


    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapies are one of the most leading theories between current psychotherapies. As a psychotherapy school, besides sharing the common points reached collectively by the humanity throughout the history, it also achieved in integrating scientific and ampirical experiences into the psychotherapy practice. Having included mainstreams like Stoicism, Kantian philosopy in its historical roots, this approach has similarities with eastern philosophies, budism and sufism. Apart from its historical and cultural roots, cognitive approach integrated with behaviorism which applied scientific method in human psychology for the first time, and also implemented the scientific method in the cognitive field. Cognitive behavioral approaches shall make important contributions in the pathway that psychotherapies will cover. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 7-14

  9. Psychotherapy: from exorcism to cognitive theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Mazzei Nogueira Filho

    Full Text Available The author discusses aspects of psychotherapeutic action. He defends the rationality of the procedure, comments on the splintering of the field of psychotherapy and discusses the usefulness of applying the scientific methodology to this field of knowledge.

  10. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels


    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group...... psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...

  11. Change mechanisms of schema-centered group psychotherapy with personality disorder patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tschacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study addressed the temporal properties of personality disorders and their treatment by schema-centered group psychotherapy. It investigated the change mechanisms of psychotherapy using a novel method by which psychotherapy can be modeled explicitly in the temporal domain. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: 69 patients were assigned to a specific schema-centered behavioral group psychotherapy, 26 to social skills training as a control condition. The largest diagnostic subgroups were narcissistic and borderline personality disorder. Both treatments offered 30 group sessions of 100 min duration each, at a frequency of two sessions per week. Therapy process was described by components resulting from principal component analysis of patients' session-reports that were obtained after each session. These patient-assessed components were Clarification, Bond, Rejection, and Emotional Activation. The statistical approach focused on time-lagged associations of components using time-series panel analysis. This method provided a detailed quantitative representation of therapy process. It was found that Clarification played a core role in schema-centered psychotherapy, reducing rejection and regulating the emotion of patients. This was also a change mechanism linked to therapy outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The introduced process-oriented methodology allowed to highlight the mechanisms by which psychotherapeutic treatment became effective. Additionally, process models depicted the actual patterns that differentiated specific diagnostic subgroups. Time-series analysis explores Granger causality, a non-experimental approximation of causality based on temporal sequences. This methodology, resting upon naturalistic data, can explicate mechanisms of action in psychotherapy research and illustrate the temporal patterns underlying personality disorders.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine


    Full Text Available Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a relational psychotherapy.

  13. Treatment failure in humanistic and experiential psychotherapy. (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C


    In this article, treatment failure in humanistic experiential psychotherapy is defined and explored. I outline several markers that indicate when treatment is not going well. Factors that contribute to failure include client factors, for example, emotional processing capacities, shame, and impoverished narratives, as well as therapist factors including lack of empathic attunement and inflexibility. Treatment failure is illuminated with a case example drawn from humanistic/experiential psychotherapy, and clinical strategies for dealing with failures are recommended. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels


    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...

  15. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia


    Cuijpers, P.


    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of psychotherapy on the basis of 5 trials. Therefore, we have been careful in our meta-analysis of comparative studies to describe this as an important limitation of our study, and we have repeatedly indica...

  16. Antigone’s Legacy: A Feminist psychoanalytic of an Other Sexual Difference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheila L. Cavanagh


    ...) in the Sophocles tragedy. In order to understand the magnitude of Antigone’s radical act in the play by the same name I engage the scholarship of Israeli feminist psychoanalytic scholar Bracha L. Ettinger...

  17. Special population - child and adolescent psychotherapy. (United States)

    Halasz, George


    First, to outline the paradigm change of the past 20 years that has transformed the theory and practice of child and adolescent psychodynamic psychotherapy; second, to update aspects of the current Practice Parameters for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children to align with the paradigm change driven by the principles of regulation theory, relational trauma and repair, and the critical need for clinicians' self-care in trauma informed psychotherapy. The emerging neuroscience-driven paradigm of psychotherapy poses challenges for the child and adolescent psychotherapist: to embrace the new conceptual reference points as organising principles leads to an urgent need to rethink traditional diagnostic formulations and time-honoured techniques for intervention. Our child patients and their families are entitled to benefit from the translation of the new research evidence from attachment regulation theory to clinical psychotherapy. Our clinical psychotherapy should sustain the 'best-interest-of-the-child' standards for well-being while also heeding Frances Tustin's warning for therapists to avoid the 'perpetuation of an error' by overlooking recent developments from allied fields in developmental psychology and the neurosciences.

  18. The roots of violence: converging psychoanalytic explanatory models for power struggles and violence in schools. (United States)

    Twemlow, S W


    This paper demonstrates that several psychoanalytic models taken together converge to collectively explain school violence and power struggles better than each does alone. Using my own experience in doing psychoanalytically informed community intervention, I approach the problem of school violence from a combination of Adlerian, Stollerian, dialectical social systems, and Klein-Bion perspectives. This integrated model is then applied to the Columbine High School massacre in Littleton, Colorado.



    Dr. Ram Lalit


    Tracing the origin of psychoanalytical interpretation of the literary texts M.A.R. Habib writes: Critics, rhetoricians, and philosophers since Aristotle have examined the psychological dimensions of literature, ranging from an author’s motivation and intentions to the effect of texts and performances on an audience. The application of psychoanalytic principles to the study of literature, however, is a relatively recent phenomenon, initiated primarily by Freud and in other directions by Alfred...

  20. Developing Derrida’s Psychoanalytic Graphology: Diametric and Concentric Spatial Movements


    Downes, Paul


    Derrida’s work encompasses dynamic spatial dimensions to understanding as a pervasive theme, including the search for a ‘new psychoanalytic graphology’ in Writing and Difference. This preoccupation with a spatial text for repression also occurs later in Archive Fever. Building on Derrida, this paper seeks to develop key aspects of a new dynamic psychoanalytic graphology through diametric and concentric interactive spatial relation. These spatial movements emerge from a radical reconstruction ...

  1. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s]. (United States)

    Castro, Rafael Dias de


    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory.

  2. Understanding the role of emotion in sense-making: a semiotic psychoanalytic oriented perspective. (United States)

    Salvatore, Sergio; Venuleo, Claudia


    We propose a model of emotion grounded on Ignacio Matte Blanco's theory of the unconscious. According to this conceptualization, emotion is a generalized representation of the social context actors are involved in. We discuss how this model can help to better understand the sensemaking processes. For this purpose we present a hierarchical model of sensemaking based on the distinction between significance--the content of the sign--and sense--the psychological value of the act of producing the sign in the given contingence of the social exchange. According to this model, emotion categorization produces the frame of sense regulating the interpretation of the sense of the signs, therefore creating the psychological value of the sensemaking.

  3. Group psychotherapy for HIV-seropositive patients with major depression. (United States)

    Levine, S H; Bystritsky, A; Baron, D; Jones, L D


    Patients were recruited from the UCLA AIDS Research Center who had previously been referred to psychiatry for participation in an open-label pilot treating patients with major depression with fluoxetine. They chose to participate in group therapy for continuing distress in coping with their HIV-seropositive status, dissolution of their support system, "accepting patienthood," and on being placed on an experimental medical protocol. The group was a closed, twenty-session, homogeneous (for patient characteristics), psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitively oriented psychotherapy group. We found this to be a successful intervention in helping patients manage HIV illness and in providing the coping skills and social support necessary to function at home, work, and in their interaction with their health care providers.


    Fonagy, Peter; Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa


    There is a dearth of good-quality research investigating the outcomes of psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP). This randomized controlled trial investigated the outcomes of PIP for parents with mental health problems who also were experiencing high levels of social adversity and their young infants (parent-infant interaction, maternal psychopathology, maternal representations, maternal reflective functioning, and infant attachment. There were no differential effects over time between the groups on measures of infant development, parent-infant interaction, or maternal reflective functioning. Infant attachment classifications, measured only at the 12-month follow-up, did not differ between the groups. There were favorable outcomes over time for the PIP-treated dyads relative to the control group on several measures of maternal mental health, parenting stress, and parental representations of the baby and their relationship. The findings indicate potential benefits of parent-infant psychotherapy for improving mothers' psychological well-being and their representations of their baby and the parent-infant relationship. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Freedom and the psychoanalytic ontology of quantum physics. (United States)

    Gullatz, Stefan; Gildersleeve, Matthew


    Jung's paper 'Synchronicity - an acausal connecting principle', defining the phenomenon as a 'meaningful' coincidence depending on archetypal activation, was published in 1952, together with a conceptually related piece by physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli entitled, 'The influence of archetypal ideas on the scientific theories of Kepler'. Slavoj Žižek, in The Indivisible Remainder: On Schelling and Related Matters, suggests that, in contrast to any notion of a 'pre-modern Jungian harmony', the main lesson of quantum physics was that not only was the psychoanalytic, empty subject of the signifier constitutively out-of-joint with respect to the world, but that the Real in itself was already incomplete, out-of-joint, 'not-all'. Yet while Žižek frequently tries to separate Jung from his own ontology, this paper shows that his ontology is not as different as he suggests. Consistent with our earlier publications on Jung and Zizek, a closer investigation reveals an underlying congruence of both of their approaches. In this paper we show that this affinity lies in the rejection by both Jung and Žižek of the ideology of reductive materialism, a rejection that demonstrably draws on quantum physics in similar ways. While Jung posits an inherently meaningful universe, Žižek attempts to salvage the freedom of human subjectivity by opposing his Lacanian 'dialectical materialism' to reductive materialism. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  6. Interaction, Transference, and Subjectivity: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundgaard Andersen


    Full Text Available Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further investigate through a case study how the psychoanalytical concepts of “transference” and “institutional transference” can provide insight into the dynamics of efficiency and democracy at a number of Danish human service organisations.

  7. The sense of solitude in the psychoanalytic encounter. (United States)

    Quinodoz, J M


    The author emphasises the importance of the sense of solitude for the integration of psychic life in both analysand and analyst. This complex affect is stated to accompany different levels of anxiety that can be worked through in the transference. While the normal sense of solitude is a manifestation of relative maturity, the author shows that it is not readily tolerated by some analysands when, in the form of a painful sense of loneliness, it signals the approach of the depressive position and of psychic integration. A discussion of the concept in the work of Freud, Klein and Winnicott is followed by a clinical sequence showing how a female patient uses projective identification to transfer intolerable transference separation feelings on to the analyst, who then experiences them as his own. When the analyst succeeds in distinguishing between the pathological aspect (depression) and the healthy side (psychic pain due to the prospect of integration) of these affects, he is able to interpret. The author draws attention to the dangers of acting out by both partners in the analysis if this is not possible. The author deems it important for the psychoanalyst to have acquired a well-developed sense of solitude and insists that particular consideration be devoted to its presence in prospective candidates for psychoanalytic training.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohara de Souza Coca


    Full Text Available The loving separation is lived as an experience of death in life in which the individual needs to go through the grieving process so the loss can make sense. This study aimed to understand and analyze the grieving process towards the loving separation under a psychoanalytic perspective, and as specific objectives, identify the type of object-choice(anaclitic/ narcissistic of individuals; check if there was some kind of support during the process and analyze existing feelings after loving separation. For this, six participants were submitted a semi-structured interview, with data analyzed using content analysis. As a result, we identified the presence of both object-choices, especially the narcissistic choice in younger; the grieving process made possible changes and transformations; we found family support, friends, spiritual and psychological; and participants had greater individuality after the breakup. We hypothesized that the suffering caused by the relationship generates a defense as a detachment of another that could become a new object of love. In the grief process it’s possible to internalize the good parts of the beloved object, which are integrated into the Ego. Therefore, the good aspects become part of the subject, which can accept the loss. We pointed out that more studies are needed on the specific theme.

  9. On the problem of the id in psychoanalytic theory. (United States)

    Shulman, M E


    The id per se has ceased being a topic for explicit speculation for some time in psychoanalysis. This paper first examines certain problems posed by the concept "id' via a close reading of a passage from Freud in which the complex and paradoxical interrelationship of ego and id is reviewed. Several aspects of the concept "id' are differentiated from each other. The implications of a dialectical relationship of ego and id are explored, as are the consequences for the understanding of the id of the anxieties imposed on the infant by its life situation and its "sensing' impulses and fleeing them before it can know them. The relationship of id impulse and infantile need to the concepts of intention and avowal is considered, and fundamental differences between the infant and adult human subject via-à-vis knowing and intending are clarified. These examinations pave the way for a critique of the recent work of Gill, Eagle, and especially, of Schafer, concerning metapsychology and the nature of psychoanalysis as a science. It is shown that some concept of id as a pre-intentional force operating in human lives and linking these lives to a nature beyond individual intending is necessarily implied in any adequate psychoanalytic science.

  10. The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany. (United States)

    Danto, E A


    After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education.

  11. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson


    Full Text Available AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence ( The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery.Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

  12. [Psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy in Austria]. (United States)

    Pieringer, Walter; Schüssler, Gerhard


    In present-day Austria, psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy enjoy significantly more sociopolitical and cultural recognition perhaps as a heritage from the days of the Austrian monarchy -- than is reflected in their real presence. This development can be traced back to prewar times and the repudiation of the destructive national socialistic ideology. There is an immanent conflict between specialization in psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy as an independent field of medicine and the integration of a psychosomatic basic approach into the general fields of medicine. The organization of psychotherapy is doubly anchored in the laws governing medical practice (PSY diploma) and the statutes governing the practice of psychotherapy; this, however, has not resolved the sensitive and only partially creative tension between the two. Austrian medical health politics are currently characterized by renewed efforts to organize the field of psychosomatic medicine. Should medical psychology and psychotherapy, internal medicine, psychiatry or general medicine provide the foundations for this new organization? This conflict is crucial since it will influence the further development of the entire medical field.

  13. [Summary: Scientific evaluation of EMDR psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Haour, F; de Beaurepaire, C


    The evaluation of psychotherapy methods is made difficult by their practical and theoretical diversities as well as the increasing number of available therapies. Evaluation based on scientific criteria in randomized control trials is providing the highest level of proof and recognition by Health Agencies. A recently described integrative psychotherapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), developed by F. Shapiro since 1989, has been confronted with the validation procedure used in pharmacological treatment. It was of interest to review the scientific validation steps carried out for this EMDR psychotherapy and for its mechanisms of action. The practical and methodological protocol of the EMDR psychotherapy for trauma integration is reviewed as well as clinical results and mechanisms. This EMDR therapy, focused on the resolutions of traumas, was started by treating patients with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The integrative EMDR protocol obtained the highest level of efficiency, for PTSD treatment, twenty years after its first publication. The efficiency of the protocol is now under study and scientific evaluation for troubles in which the trauma experiences are triggers or factors of maintenance of the troubles: anxiety, depression, phobia, sexual troubles, schizophrenia, etc. This new integrative psychotherapy follows the pathways and the timing observed for the evaluation and the validation of other therapies. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Obstacles to early career psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy. (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa


    Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.

  15. From medicine to psychotherapy: the placebo effect. (United States)

    Justman, Stewart


    If placebos have been squeezed out of medicine to the point where their official place in in clinical trials designed to identify their own confounding effect, the placebo effect nevertheless thrives in psychotherapy. Not only does psychotherapy dispose of placebo effects that are less available to medicine as it becomes increasingly technological and preoccupied with body parts, but factors of the sort inhibiting the use of placebos in medicine have no equivalent in psychology. Medicine today is disturbed by the placebo effect in a way psychotherapy is not. Psychotherapy does not have to grapple with such a disconcerting paradox as successful sham surgery, and unlike those physicians who once pretended to treat the patient's body while actually attempting to treat the mind, the psychotherapist can treat the mind in all frankness. Perhaps it is because psychotherapy is less burdened by doubts about the placebo effect that it was able to come to its aid when it was orphaned by medicine. It is vain to expect something with so long a history as the placebo effect to disappear from the practices of healing.

  16. Effects of Psychotherapy Training and Intervention Use on Session Outcome (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Wasserman, Rachel H.


    Objective: This study was an investigation of the relationships among therapist training variables, psychotherapy process, and session outcome in a psychotherapy training clinic. The aims were to assess the relationship between "training as usual" and intervention use in individual psychotherapy, to investigate the relationship between therapist…

  17. A review of studies on the psychotherapy of obsessive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-chao XING


    Full Text Available Psychotherapy of personality disorder has received more and more attention. As a mental illness of high incidence, a few persons study the psychotherapy of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.This article overviewed the current situation of the research at home and abroad, in the hope of providing help for the psychotherapy of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

  18. The use of meditation in psychotherapy: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Bogart, G


    This article has explored research to date concerning the efficacy of introducing meditation into the therapeutic setting. I have presented the views of proponents and critics of the relaxation model of meditation and of theories describing the cognitive changes brought about by meditation--for example, Deikman's theory of the deautomatization of consciousness and Delmonte's view that meditation may be utilized to bring about "ascendence," "descendence," and "transcendence." After summarizing psychoanalytic and Jungian arguments against meditation, the writings of several transpersonal psychologists have been cited to demonstrate the differences in how psychotherapy and meditative disciplines conceptualize personal identity, work with unconscious material, and view the experience of emptiness. I conclude that the question of whether meditation should be used in therapy can be answered only by considering what therapeutic goals are being sought in a particular instance and whether or not meditation can reasonably be expected to facilitate achievement of those goals. Meditation may, in some cases, be compatible with, and effective in, promoting the aims of psychotherapy--for example, cognitive and behavioral change, or access to the deep regions of the personal unconscious. In other cases, it may be strongly contraindicated, especially when the therapeutic goal is to strengthen ego boundaries, release powerful emotions, or work through complex relational dynamics--ends which may be more effectively reached through standard psychotherapeutic methods than through meditation. Meditation may be of great value, however, through its capacity to awaken altered states of consciousness that may profoundly reorient an individual's identity, emotional attitude, and sense of wellbeing and purpose in life.

  19. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses. (United States)

    Kourkouta, Lambrini


    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  20. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis. (United States)

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike


    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C


    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The influence of psychotherapy on marriage typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewski Mirosław


    Full Text Available The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.

  3. Psychotherapy and the perfect storm of change. (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A


    The author surveys the many forces of change that will have an impact on the practice of psychotherapy in coming years. These include parity, health care reform, federal and state deficits, electronic health records, evidence-based medicine, pay-for-performance, reimbursement issues, and attacks on fee-for-service medicine. Vulnerable aspects of psychotherapy are privacy and confidentiality, individualization and choice of therapy, access to therapy, therapist's choice about participation, denial of coverage based on diagnosis, and sufficient payments to sustain practice. Psychiatric workforce issues may compound the effects. The author identifies some issues calling for vigilance, advocacy, and defense of the key values of psychotherapy and the environment for providing it. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2009;15:408-414).

  4. Psychotherapy and black women: a survey. (United States)

    Gray, B A; Jones, B E


    A survey of black and white psychiatrists on the subject of nonpsychotic black female patients in psychotherapy yielded 93 usable responses. Among the findings are a profile of the average black woman in psychotherapy, responses to questions on clinical and therapeutic issues, and the role of racism as reported by the psychiatrists.THE PROFILE OF THE AVERAGE BLACK WOMAN IN PSYCHOTHERAPY THAT EMERGED WAS: she is married, in a technical or semi-professional occupation, with some college experience, in the age range of 26 to 40 years, and most often diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The most frequent presenting problem is depression, with family problems second in frequency. Developing new coping mechanisms was the most difficult stage of the treatment process. Self-esteem was the most frequent unconscious conflict. Racial discrimination was most often incorportated as a symptom. The impact of racism on the treatment process most frequently occurred in the area of working through conflicts.

  5. [The future of psychotherapy in psychosomatic medicine]. (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Kruse, Johannes; Michal, Matthias; Herzog, Wolfgang


    To review the current perspectives and trends of psychotherapy as a key area of psychosomatic medicine with regard to both societal and scientific challenges as well as patient health care services. Also, to draw conclusions regarding the future training and practice of psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is confronted with many new challenges because of the high prevalence of mental and psychosomatic disorders, because of their increasing recognition as major health problems and because of the rapid technological and demographic changes going on in modern society. Despite its growth, psychotherapeutic care is still limited in many, especially rural, regions and for patients with complex psychosomatic and somatopsychic disorders. New models of training as well as integrated and multimodal care are needed in order to provide both, rapid, low-threshold and specialized, disorder-specific care.

  6. What should we expect from psychotherapy? (United States)

    Goldfried, Marvin R


    In addressing the very general question of what we should expect from psychotherapy, this article begins by discussing what constitutes relevant evidence on which to base the efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. In this context, an important distinction is made between empirically supported treatments and evidence-based practice. Although there is evidence that psychotherapy does indeed work, there are also findings that there are times when our patients are harmed by our interventions. It is noted that the therapeutic alliance plays an extremely important role in the change process, and that ruptures in the alliance can contribute to our therapeutic failures. In pointing to directions for the future, modifications of how we investigate the outcome of treatment, as well as how to close the gap between research and practice, are offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Dropout behavior during inpatient psychotherapy ]. (United States)

    Martens, Ute; Rempel, Irene; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul; Teufel, Martin


    Dropouts result in far-reaching consequences for the individual patient, fellow patients, therapists, and the clinic. This study was aimed at early identification of patients with a dropout risk. Data from patients of the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy of the Medical University Clinic of Tübingen (Germany) were analyzed retrospectively in a case-control study (matched). Differences in the results of various questionnaires (SCL-90-R, IIP-D, SF-36) regarding reasons for dropout and sociodemographic data were analyzed. A total of 59 dropouts, 50 females and 9 males, were included. They were split into 28 early dropouts and 31 late dropouts. The data were compared between early and late dropouts and control group. Early dropouts were significantly younger than late dropouts; they tended to live with their parents or on their own, and suffered more frequently from eating disorders. Late dropouts lived together with partners and suffered from somatoform disorders more frequently than early dropouts. The reasons given for dropout did not differ between the groups. No differences between dropouts and the controls were found with respect to psychopathology (SCL- 90-R) and quality of life (SF-36). Late dropouts did show significantly lower scores on the scale "autocracy/dominance" than the controls (IIP). Therapy dropout is a multifactorial occurrence. It is generally not predictable, though it may be predicted with different instruments on the basis of a diagnosis, especially with respect to interpersonal behavior patterns. In further studies, targeted interventions should be developed and tested which enable procedures to minimize the risk of dropout and to achieve complete treatment according to patients' intentions.

  8. Psychotherapies in Acute and Transient Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González de Chávez


    Full Text Available From a comprehensive and global view -psychological, biological and social - acute and transient psychoses could be considered identity breakdowns with fragmentation of its structure, paranoid mechanism and cognitive regression. Psychotherapies favour evolution of psychotic identity through disorder awareness and knowledge of aspects of patients that make them more vulnerable to psychotic experiences. We underline the key role of group psychotherapy to improve therapeutic relationships and best use of patient’s coping strategies in the chronology of therapeutic interventions and recovery process of these patients.

  9. Toward a common focus in psychotherapy research. (United States)

    Elkins, David N


    Documenting the schisms in clinical psychology, the author suggests that clinical scientists lay aside theoretical allegiances and work together by adopting a common focus in psychotherapy research on the determinants of effectiveness. Citing evidence showing that personal and interpersonal factors are primary determinants of effectiveness, the author suggests that humanism, broadly defined, provides the best philosophical and theoretical "home" for psychotherapy. Based on the evidence presented in the article, the author describes the revolutionary changes that must occur in research, training, and practice to bring clinical psychology into alignment with the findings of contemporary science. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Avoidance motivation in psychological problems and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Holtforth, Martin Grosse


    Avoidance of aversive experiences is common to all human beings. However, when avoidance is too strong, it might be associated with impaired psychological functioning and psychopathology. This article examines the role of avoidance motivation in psychological problems and psychotherapy from conceptual, assessment, and empirical perspectives. The concept of avoidance motivation is introduced, and measures of the intensity and satisfaction of avoidance motivation that the author developed are presented. Empirical findings generated using these measures are also reported. The findings address the role of avoidance motivation in relation to well-being, psychological problems, and psychotherapy outcome. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed and avenues for further research explored.

  11. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru


    The evidence debate in psychotherapy pays little attention to developing an evidence base for training practices. Understanding effective training requires an examination of what makes training work. This article examines the role of case studies in psychotherapy training. This has not been...... articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...... to collaborate with other professionals. The paper presents directions for future research into psychotherapy training, specifically proposing an international survey of training practices at psychotherapy training institutions....

  12. The psychoanalytic approach to the mass communication process modelling


    Косюк, Оксана Михайлівна; Kosiuk, O.M.


    У статті розглядається можливість введення додаткового (психоаналітичного) критерію для підтвердження функціонування чотирьох універсальних моделей у царині масової комунікації. The article considers the possibility of additional (psychoanalytic) criterion introduction for four universal models functioning confirmation in mass communication. В статье рассматривается возможность введения дополнительного (психоаналитического) критерия для подтверждения функционирования четырех уни...

  13. Condiciones de inicio de la clínica psicoanalítica en Argentina (1930-1942 An outline of the conditions at the onset of psychoanalytic practice in Argentina (1930-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Falcone


    Full Text Available En este trabajo nos proponemos dar cuenta de la utilización de conceptos psicoanalíticos y sus primeras aplicaciones en el ámbito de la psicoterapia en Argentina.¿Qué lugar ocupó el psicoanálisis en el período estudiado?¿qué conceptos se tomaron y de donde provenían?¿a qué problemas se los aplico y de qué modo?¿Quiénes fueron los pioneros en esta tarea?. La respuesta a estos interrogantes se ha buscado en los momentos previos a la fundación de la Asociación Psicoanalítica Argentina y en torno a la práctica en instituciones hospitalarias. El funcionamiento de la A.P.A. desde su fundación en 1942, al reglamentar el ejercicio profesional del Psicoanálisis y destinarlo en exclusividad al ámbito de la práctica privada, opacará los momentos inaugurales en que los primeros conceptos psicoanalíticos se incluyeron en el ámbito de las instituciones públicas.This paper deals with the use of psychoanalytic concepts and their application in the realm of psychotherapy in Argentina. What was the role of psychoanalysis in the period reviewed? What concepts were used and where did they come from? To what problems were these concepts applied and in what way? Who were the pioneers in this field? The answers to these questions were sought in the times prior to the foundation of the Argentine Psychoanalytic Association and the practice in hospitals. Such practices were never consolidated into a theoretical framework for psychoanalysis. The foundation of the Argentina Psychoanalytic Association in 1942 regulates the professional practice of Psychoanalysis and restrains it to the realm of private practice, thus casting a shadow upon the first times when the psychoanalytic concepts were included in the public institutions.

  14. Facts and values in psychotherapy-A critique of the empirical reduction of psychotherapy within evidence-based practice. (United States)

    Berg, Henrik; Slaattelid, Rasmus


    This paper addresses an implicit presupposition in research-supported psychological treatments and evidence-based practice in psychology. It argues that the notion of research-supported psychological treatments is based on a reductive conceptualisation of psychotherapy. Research-supported psychological treatments hinge upon an empirical reduction where psychotherapy schools become conceptualized as mere collections of empirical propositions. However, this paper argues that the different psychotherapy schools have distinct ethoses that are constituted by normative claims. Consequently, the evaluation of the different psychotherapy schools and the practice of psychotherapy should include the underlying normative claims of these ethoses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Two systems of self-regulation and the differential application of psychoanalytic technique. (United States)

    Novick, Kerry Kelly; Novick, Jack


    Out of our work over the years on child development, clinical technique, and sadomasochism, we have begun to formulate a model of development that describes two possible ways of responding to feelings of helplessness in the face of the challenges of internal and external experience. Any psychoanalytic model has implications for how we think about technique and can be tested on the basis of its utility in generating technical ideas and enhancing our therapeutic repertoire. At this juncture in the history of our field, it is crucial for us to demonstrate that psychoanalytic techniques are effective in helping people enter treatment, change, and finish in a way that consolidates their gains. In this paper we explore the utility of our two-systems model for expanding the discourse about psychoanalytic technique.

  16. Studium and Punctum in Psychoanalytic Writing: Reading Case Studies Through Roland Barthes. (United States)

    Amir, Dana


    This paper focuses on the link between Roland Barthes's reflection on photography and the essential characteristics of psychoanalytic case studies. The case study, like the photograph, seeks to take hold of something nearly intangible. It attempts to capture in time, space, and language something whose dynamic presence remains elusive. The attempt to capture this object often strips it of its essence. Case studies may be accurate on their face while giving us the unpleasant sense that they have "deadened" their object in the process. This paper attempts to clarify what is dropped from the picture that the psychoanalytic writing is trying to take. The relation between the "cultural context" (the Studium) and the freedom to puncture and undermine this context in psychoanalytic writing is discussed through a fresh reading of Georges Perec's "W, or the Memory of Childhood" and through clinical vignettes by Ronald Britton and Michael Eigen.

  17. Combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy - the example of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies looking at the neurobiological effects of psychotherapy is reviewed and discussed. The practical aspects of combination therapy are presented and problems inherent are indicated and the effectiveness presented. Finally the Canadian Psychiatric Association's comprehensive evidence based clinical guideline ...

  18. [Anxiety disorders: which psychotherapy for whom? (United States)

    Ströhle, A; Fydrich, T


    According to the Federal Healthcare Survey (Bundesgesundheitssurvey), approximately 15% of the German population fulfil the diagnostic criteria for at least one anxiety disorder within (any) 1 year. Women are affected approximately twice as often as men. The study by the Robert Koch Institute included the systematic assessment of panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias; therefore, the question for both those affected and the treating therapist is "anxiety disorders: which psychotherapy for whom?" is of great clinical and healthcare political importance. We therefore review the available literature for answering three more specific questions: 1) what are the most suitable forms of psychotherapy, 2) which psychotherapy is most promising for an individual patient and diagnosis (differential evaluation of indications) and 3) what is the best approach to nonresponse or avoidance of the treatment offered? National and international guidelines agree that cognitive behavioral therapy is the psychotherapy of first choice in most patients with anxiety disorders. In cases of nonresponse or lack of availability of the appropriate therapy, psychodynamic therapy or pharmacotherapy can also be recommended. For individualized treatment recommendations we do not have empirical evidence. Also, no evidence-based (individual) recommendations are available for non-responders;however, there are some preferred strategies based on a clinical consensus.

  19. Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Leach, Mark M.; Wampold, Bruce; Rodolfa, Emil


    In this rejoinder, the authors address several issues raised by R. L. Worthington and F. R. Dillon (2011) and C. R. Ridley and M. Shaw-Ridley (2011) regarding (a) the measurement of multicultural competencies (MCCs), (b) sampling considerations in multicultural research, and (c) the conceptual frame of multicultural psychotherapy research. The…

  20. Bentuhua: culturing psychotherapy in postsocialist China. (United States)

    Zhang, Li


    The breathless pace of market reform in China has brought about profound ruptures in socioeconomic structures and increased mental distress in the population. In this context, more middle-class urbanites are turning to nascent psychological counseling to grapple with their problems. This article examines how Chinese psychotherapists attempt to "culture" or indigenize (bentuhua) three imported psychotherapy models in order to fit their clients' expectations, desires, and sensibilities: the Satir family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sandplay therapy. It addresses three interrelated questions: What is the role of culture in adopting, translating, and recasting psychotherapy in contemporary China? How is cultural difference understood and mobilized by therapists in the therapeutic encounter? What kind of distinct therapeutic relationship is emerging in postsocialist China? Data presented here are drawn from my semistructured interviews and extensive participant observation at various counseling offices and psychotherapy workshops in the city of Kunming. My ethnographic account suggests that it is through constant dialog, translation, and re-articulation between multiple regimes of knowledge, cultural values, and social practices that a new form of talk therapy with "Chinese characteristics" is emerging. Finally, I reflect upon what this dialogic process of transformation means for psychotherapy as a form of globally circulating knowledge/practice.

  1. Serious Games for Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus


    In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.

  2. Antidepressants versus interpersonal psychotherapy in treating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy may be equally effective in the treatment of depression in HIV-positive patients. The choice of treatment will be influenced by factors such as adverse effects of antidepressants and adding another medication to an already complex antiretroviral regimen. In such cases, IPT may be ...

  3. Existential psychotherapy of students as learning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...

  4. Supervision of Psychotherapy: Models, Issues, and Recommendations (United States)

    Westefeld, John S.


    Current models and issues related to psychotherapy supervision are examined. These include ethical and legal issues, problems of interpersonal competence, and multicultural issues. As a part of this analysis, interviews about supervision with five prominent counseling psychologists are included to provide their perspectives. Implications for the…

  5. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  6. [Pharmaco- and psychotherapy in psychiatric ambulatory care]. (United States)

    Burner, M


    Our report describes the evolution of the outpatients' psychiatry in Lausanne. Here is mentioned the constant increase of consultations for new and former cases, and it is statistically shown that this augmentation is not only the result of the increasing population in the "Vaud District" (Canton de Vaud) but rather the consequence of the increasing number of patients with deeper investigations and treatments. It is true that the psychotherapeutic training was the most important in our outpatients' department, but the coming of psychotropic drugs has changed the treatment in certain cases and has developed mixed treatments. The creation of the Psycho-Social Center in the Psychiatric outpatients' department was the beginning of the social action in the institution, with the creation of an emergency department, consultations at the patients' home and treatment made by a team including doctors-outpatients' nurses-social assistants. We have checked that for many outpatients, very often in hard or psycho-reactive situations, there was no opposition between pharmaco-therapy or psychotherapy. So pharmaco-therapy and psychotherapy are often used separately or together in the outpatients' department through individual analytic psychotherapies, group or brief psychotherapies, relaxation, emergency treatments with perfusion of psychotropic and neuroleptic drugs.

  7. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise. (United States)

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  8. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.


    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of

  9. Toward a Neurobiology of Child Psychotherapy (United States)

    Kay, Jerald


    Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy alters brain structure and function. Learning and memory, both implicit and explicit, play central roles in this process through the creation of new genetic material that leads to increased synaptic efficiency through the creation of new neuronal connections. Although there is substantial…

  10. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for the depressive syndrome. (United States)

    Cameron, P M


    Historical approaches of psychotherapy for depression are contrasted with current psychotherapeutic strategies. Now more strategies are focused, structured, time-limited, observable, testable, researchable and data based. The following depressive syndromes are reviewed in terms of the literature that demonstrates the effectiveness of psychotherapy: major depressive disorder, bipolar depressive disorder, depression associated with medical illness such as cancer, myocardial infarction and stroke, resistant depression post-traumatic stress disorder, grief reactions and depression during adolescence, mid-life and the geriatric period of the life cycle. A conceptual model favoring tripartite focus of intervention is recommended. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression must consider intrapsychic, interpersonal and family dynamics as well as social supports. A model for each population needs to be studied and developed further. Recommendations for current research are suggested. In the individual modification of psychotherapeutic approaches we must consider the varying maturity of ego defenses and the ego strength of the individual patient. Forty well-designed studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of psychotherapy in the depressive syndromes are quoted in this paper.

  11. Goethe's anxieties, depressive episodes and (self-)therapeutic strategies: a contribution to method integration in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M


    In psychiatry and psychotherapy, abstract scientific principles need to be exemplified by narrative case reports to gain practical precision. Goethe was one of the most creative writers, productive scientists, and effective statesmen that ever lived. His descriptions of feelings, emotions, and mental states related to anxieties, depressive episodes, dysthymia, and creativity are unique in their phenomenological precision and richness. His life and work can thus serve as an excellent example enhancing our understanding of the relationship between anxiety, depression and creativity. Furthermore, he described (self-)therapeutic strategies that reinforce and refine modern views. Goethe's self-assessments in his works and letters, and the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of current psychiatric classification. His therapeutic techniques and recommendations are compared with cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and existential psychotherapy to amplify modern concepts of psychotherapy. From a scientific perspective, several distinctive depressive episodes can be diagnosed in Goethe's life. They were characterized by extended depressive moods, lack of drive, and loss of interest and self-esteem combined with social retreat. Goethe displayed diffuse and phobic anxieties as well as dysthymia. His (self-)therapeutic strategies were: (a) the systematic use of helping alliances, (b) behavioral techniques, (c) cognitive reflection on meanings and beliefs, (d) psychodynamic and psychoanalytic remembering, repeating, and working through, and (e) existential striving for self-actualization, social commitment, meaning, and creativity. In Goethe's life, creative incubation, illumination, and elaboration appear to have been associated with psychic instability and dysthymia, sometimes with depressive episodes in a clinical sense. On the one hand, his creative work was triggered by anxieties, dysthymia, and depressive moods. On the other hand, his creativity

  12. [Psychotherapy motivation--factor analysis and validity of a modified version of the Psychotherapy Motivation Questionnaire (FPTM)]. (United States)

    Schweickhardt, Axel; Leta, Rainer; Bauer, Joachim; Fritzsche, Kurt


    Motivation for psychotherapy is seen as a major factor for the success of psychotherapy. Examination of this motivation process requires procedures which recognize motivation for psychotherapy prior to initiation of therapy. Therefore, we reformulated the Psychotherapy Motivation Questionnaire (FPTM). N = 383 patients were given the questionnaire before their first consultation in outpatient psychosomatic treatment. The factorial and criteria validity were tested. The factorial structure of the altered questionnaire is identical to the original version. Confirmative factor analysis affirms "initiative" and "knowledge" as two separate factors. Patients with somatoform disorders and "unexplained physical symptoms" as the reason for referral show less motivation than other patients. Patients with previous experience with psychotherapy show higher motivation. The Psychotherapy Motivation Questionnaire can be used in its adapted version before patients start psychotherapy. The increase in motivation depends on the disorder and the treatment phase. Information and the reason for referral are important variables in motivation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.


    Blass, Rachel B


    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  14. The depressed masochistic patient: diagnostic and management considerations--a contemporary psychoanalytic perspective. (United States)

    Friedman, R C


    This article considers the relationship between depression and characterological masochism from a contemporary psychoanalytic perspective. Nosology is discussed historically from Krafft-Ebing to the DSM-III-R category, self-defeating personality disorder. Masochistic character traits are conceptualized as attempts to cope with depressed helpless and hostile feelings that have become part of the core self-concept. Psychotherapeutic strategy for treatment of masochistic patients at different levels of characterological integration is discussed. Many questions about self-defeating personality disorder remain open at present. The need for psychoanalytically informed clinical research on characterological masochism and particularly the relationship between masochism and depression is stressed.

  15. Phantasm of Freud: Nandor Fodor and the psychoanalytic approach to the supernatural in interwar Britain. (United States)

    Timms, Joanna


    The paper examines the appearance of "psychoanalytic psychical research" in interwar Britain, notably in the work of Nandor Fodor, Harry Price and others, including R. W. Pickford and Sylvia Payne. The varying responses of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones to the area of research are discussed. These researches are placed in the context of the increasingly widespread use of psychoanalytic and psychological interpretations of psychical events in the period, which in turn reflects the penetration of psychoanalysis into popular culture. The saturation of psychical research activity with gender and sexuality and the general fascination with, and embarrassment about, psychical activity is explored.

  16. Ethical dimensions of psychotherapy: a personal perspective. (United States)

    Chodoff, P


    A substantial increase in the interest devoted to ethical issues has been a defining feature of my 50 years in psychotherapeutic practice. Reasons include a shift from a paternalistic to a contractual model of the doctor-patient relationship, increased litigiousness, and greater emphasis on the business rather than professional aspects of practice. Many ethical violations stem from misuse of therapist power in the psychotherapeutic relationship. One of the most egregious of these is overt sexual acting out between therapist and patient, a dereliction now viewed much more sternly, largely because of the rise of the women's movement. Therapist power can also be misused for purposes of psychopathological gratification, such as to dominate patients or impose values, and by emphasizing financial rewards over patient needs. A sea change I have observed has been the gradual replacement of a two-party by a three-party system of payment for psychotherapy. Among its most serious consequences in the ethical domain has been the weakening of the therapist's guarantee of absolute confidentiality to the patient. Managed care has further compounded the ethical dilemma by imposing a need to choose between the interests of patients and the organizations from which therapists receive remuneration. In their efforts to ensure parity coverage for psychotherapy, therapists need to respond to certain questions about their claims that their work promotes both individual welfare and the common good. Questions include the professional qualifications for skillful practice of psychotherapy, the evidence for its efficacy, the delimitation of the conditions properly treated by psychotherapy, and the extent to which these conditions fall within the medical model and thus satisfy the criterion of medical necessity. I conclude that, in spite of the efforts needed to maintain ethical standards, the "ethical revolution" that I have witnessed has enhanced the integrity and value of psychotherapy, both

  17. Influences of Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysis in Carl Rogers' psychotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulo Coelho Castelo Branco; Emanuel Meireles Vieira; Sérgio Dias Cirino; Jaqueline de Oliveira Moreira


    This article, of historical and essayistic nature, aims to revisit didactically some aspects presents in the US context of psychoanalytical ideas that influenced Carl Rogers, during the composition of...

  18. Faecal incontinence in children in Calabar | Archibong | Orient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This procedure complemented with psychotherapy was effective in improving continence to various degrees in 90% of the patients. Conclusion: Faecal Incontinence is a societal problem and before school age is not taken seriously as diapers may be applied in the home environment. Orient Journal of Medicine Vol.

  19. On Whether to Convert from a Rhetorical to a Psychoanalytic Pedagogy (United States)

    Kraemer, Don J.


    Like psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic pedagogy is a particular way of paying attention, a way of paying attention that deflects attention away from other pedagogies' means and goals. Looking for what psychoanalysis deems the "root cause" of writing problems--intrapsychic conflict--foregrounds that kind of conflict, relegating to the background other…

  20. Investigating Trauma in Narrating World War I: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Pat Barker's "Regeneration" (United States)

    Sadjadi, Bakhtiar; Esmkhani, Farnaz


    The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker's "Regeneration" in terms of Cathy Caruth's psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker's novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the…

  1. Therapeutic Communications and the Process of Change in a Psychoanalytic Treatment (United States)

    Vegas, Monica


    This study looked at the interplay of the analyst verbal speech acts and the process of change in a psychoanalytic treatment. Using a single case design on the session transcripts of the well studied case of Mrs. C., following Halfon and Weinstein's (2013) methodology the study tracked linguistic patterns as represented by the interaction of…

  2. Civilisation on the Couch: Theorising Multi-Levelled Psychoanalytical Arts Practice (United States)

    Benjamin, Garfield


    This paper combines two psychological approaches to art to theorise a both subjective and cultural methodology for practice-based arts research. The first psychoanalytical approach will follow the work of Deleuze and Guattari's Schizoanalysis, considering the role of the artist in order to assess their work in relation to society from an…

  3. Beyond Freud in psychoanalytic psychology of religion? On the discussion of religion as projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.


    In 1907, Sigmund Freud initiated the psychoanalytic psychology of religion, until the present day the most important contributor to the psychology of religion literature in general, and the branch of psychological critique of religion best known outside of psychology circles (having drawn attention


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij


    Full Text Available Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  5. The "Matchbox School" (1927-1932): Anna Freud and the Idea of a "Psychoanalytically Informed Education" (United States)

    Midgley, Nick


    Of all the applications of psychoanalysis to various fields, perhaps none has been as important--or as fraught--as the application of psychoanalytic insights to education. This paper re-constructs some of the early debates around psychoanalysis and pedagogy that Anna Freud engaged with during the 1920s in Vienna, when the whole question of what…

  6. Miss Freud Returns to the Classroom: Toward Psychoanalytic Literacy among Educators (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel


    This essay is a call for a more psychoanalytically informed approach to educational psychology and teacher formation. To this end, the author gives an overview of a course in psychology that he recommends for inclusion in teacher education. This course is in two parts. The first part is an introduction to some important elements of psychoanalytic…



    N. I. Mushinskij


    Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  8. Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project (United States)

    Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue


    A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

  9. Between Trauma and Perpetration: Psychoanalytical and Social Psychological Perspectives on Difficult Histories in the Israeli Context (United States)

    Goldberg, Tsafrir


    This study explores the applicability of psychoanalytic trauma-centered perspectives and social psychological intergroup comparison perspectives to difficult histories of the Israeli context. The study describes 2 test cases of difficult histories in the Jewish-Israeli context at the levels of curriculum policy, teachers, and learners. The first…

  10. Spinsters, Schoolmarms, and Queers: Female Teacher Gender and Sexuality in Medicine and Psychoanalytic Theory and History (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sheila L.


    This paper examines the social construction of white, female, spinster teacher personality profiles in the first half of the 20th century. Focusing on the psychological, medical, and psychoanalytic literature, I provide an overview of how white unmarried female teacher personalities were understood in order to provide a historical context for…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Černetič


    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness on a theoretical as well as practical level. Although mindfulness is not an explicit constituent of Integrative Psychotherapy, the two are arguably a natural fit. Mindfulness has the potential to enhance internal and external contact, a central concept in Integrative Psychotherapy, as well as strengthen a client’s Adult ego state. This article presents a case study whereby Integrative Psychotherapy is analysed from the perspective of mindfulness. Within the course of therapy, parallels were observed between the client's increased mindfulness, improved internal and external contact, strengthened Adult ego state, mastery of introjections, as well as diminished feelings of guilt, improved mood, self care and ability to engage in appropriate separation and individuation. These gains support the conclusion that Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness are inherently related and that explicit incorporation of mindfulness may enhance the therapeutic process of Integrative Psychotherapy.

  12. Self and its anxieties in existential psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Mircea Adrian


    Full Text Available The existence of a self and the imperative of knowing it have gone through philosophy from its beginning until today. Existentialism, starting with Kierkegaard and continuing with Heidegger, relate the scope of the authentic self to that of anxiety. Once the scope of the anxiety of self has been formulated, it entered the sphere of psychological theories. The prolific encounter between existentialism and psychology materializes into the influent contemporary psychological school, named existential psychotherapy. Our analysis wishes to describe the nodal points of this encounter, having as reference points the scope of self and its anxieties. In the first part of the analysis we look into the philosophical premises, referring to the two above mentioned names, while in the second part we present the taking-ups and the applicative adjustments brought up by existential psychotherapy.

  13. [Psychotherapy with Immigrants and Traumatized Refugees]. (United States)

    Erim, Yesim; Morawa, Eva


    In view of the growing proportion of immigrants and refugees in the population of Germany the knowledge on the influence of culture and migration on identity, and mental health presents a substantial basis for effective therapy. This article addresses important topics of psychotherapy with immigrants in general and with refugees in particular. Following issues selected according to their relevance and actuality are highlighted: definition of persons with migration background, migrants and refugees, facts on immigration to Germany, main results and theories on mental health of immigrants, social psychological aspects of intercultural psychotherapy (individualism vs. collectivism, stereotypes, discrimination etc.), psychosomatic diagnostics in intercultural context, diversity management in institutions, language and use of translators, living conditions of immigrants - stress and protective factors in immigrant mental health, post traumatic stress disorders among refugees: their prevalence, risk factors, diagnostics, course, multimodal psychosocial interventions in consulting centers, trauma focused interventions, trauma pedagogics, education and prevention of the volunteers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Difficulties in integrating spirituality into psychotherapy (United States)

    Schultz-Ross, RA; Gutheil, TG


    The boundary between spiritual and psychotherapeutic issues is not well defined; indeed, the two may be interwoven. A patient's sense of a therapist may closely relate to the patient's assessment of the therapist's spirituality, and a therapist's recognition of the differences between psychopathological and spiritual beliefs may depend on a recognition of his or her own belief system. Changing the profession's approach to this issue is made difficult by 1) a traditional sense within many schools of psychotherapy that spirituality is outside the sphere of appropriate investigation and knowledge; 2) discomfort with personal spiritual issues in educators and trainees; 3) decreased emphasis on aspects of the therapist as important factors in patient outcome; and 4) decreased use of intensive supervision for psychotherapy in some training programs. PMID:9071663

  15. Psychotherapy and sociology: flirtation, marriage or divorce? (United States)

    Cox, M; Cox, C

    Psychotherapy and sociology are themselves products of mixed marriages; each experiences problems of identity and their children face problems of legitimacy. This paper considers the relevance of some sociological perspectives to the psychotherapeutic process, using the following analogies; (1) Flirtation: Why the attraction? 'going steady' or 'femme fatale'? (2) Marriage: Mutual enrichment, cross-fertilisation and new life? Examples of shared perspectives in the work of E. Becker, Erikson, Goffman etc. Influence of psychosocial contexts on psychotherapeutic processes. (3) Divorce: Too little shared life or too much destructive criticism? If the world within man and the world between men are interrelated, psychotherapy and sociology--although at times uneasy bedfellows--have much to give each other.

  16. [Indikationsfragen zur psychotherapie bei psychosomatischen patientinnen.]. (United States)

    Leithner, Katharina; Eder, Anselm; Springer-Kremser, Marianne


    The diagnostic process of psychosomatic patients finally arriving at an indication for psychotherapy is an important point of reference in the present discussion concerning the introduction of special clinics for psychosomatic patients in Austria: equippment of such clinics and standards for the personnel has to relate to the needs of these patients. The Etiology of psychosomatic disturbances includes psychological influences, which, via psychoneuroendocrinolgical mechanisms interact with somatic factors, and individual coping styles, shaped by the social environment and gender-related factors. The initial interview, besides physical complaints, has to assess the patient's reality sense, the affective competence, the cognitive competence, the nature and quality of relations with important others, the subjective illness-theories and the motivation for psychotherapy. The therapeutic method/setting finally choosen has to offer a scientifically based concept of psychosomatic disturbances, according to the different operationalisations of Psychosomatic.

  17. The outcome problem in psychotherapy: a reply. (United States)

    Eysenck, H J


    This reprinted article originally appeared in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 1964(MONTH), 1(3), 97-100. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1966-01631-001). Comments on the original article by H. H. Strupp (see record 1965-15636-001). In his recent article in this journal, Strupp (1963) has this to say in relation to the outcome problem in psychotherapy: "A brief review of Eysenck's (1952) widely quoted survey, which capitalized upon and added considerably to the existing confusion may be instructive." In reply I would like to suggest that Strupp's review is, in the lawyer's phrase, irrelevant, incompetent and immaterial. Fortunately, the points I wish to make are so simple that they will not take up much space.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento


    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  19. Adolescence and the reorganization of infant development: a neuro-psychoanalytic model. (United States)

    Stortelder, Frans; Ploegmakers-Burg, Marian


    The psychoanalytic view of adolescence as a phase of turbulence and reorganization occupied a central position in child and adolescent psychiatry until about 1980. The view of adolescence as a silent-transition phase then prevailed and diverged from the psychoanalytic perspective. This article reviews infant and adolescent development using an interdisciplinary, neuro-psychoanalytic model in which psychoanalytic, neurobiological, and developmental perspectives converge and complement each other. Recent empirical research focuses attention on adolescence as a phase in which a far-reaching neurobiological and psychological reorganization takes place. According to the ontogenetic principle of psychoanalysis, the development and organization of the basic psychic functions occur in the first five years of life, while a reorganization takes place in adolescence. Neurobiological research confirms that the basic growth and maturation of the brain occurs in the first five years of life, and that a substantial reorganization in brain development transpires in adolescence. Research also verifies the clinical psychoanalytic concept that neurobiological and psychological maturation in adolescence remain unfinished till approximately age 23. The long-term and late biopsychosocial maturation in adolescence implies that adequate monitoring by parents and school remains necessary. The view that adolescents need to separate, and discover their individuality and independence alone, is unsupported by recent findings. The adolescent must acquire his independence, personal identity, and self-agency ("scaffolding") step by step. It is important that the adolescent knows that his parents are in the background monitoring and intervening as necessary; that he is not entirely alone, adrift and at risk for potential fragmentation. The long-term plasticity of the brain in adolescence implies greater vulnerability for the development of psychopathology, but offers opportunity for

  20. Minding the body: psychotherapy and cancer survival. (United States)

    Spiegel, David


    This article reviews evidence regarding effects of psychotherapy on overall cancer survival time. Special emphasis is given to research on adverse effects of depression on cancer survival, breast cancer, and mediating psychophysiological pathways linking psychosocial support to longer survival. It reviews all published clinical trials addressing effects of psychotherapy on cancer survival, emphasizing depression, breast cancer, and psychophysiological evidence linking stress, depression, and support to cancer survival. Systematic literature review and synthesis. Eight of 15 published trials indicate that psychotherapy enhances cancer survival time. No studies show an adverse effect of psychotherapy on cancer survival. Potential psychophysiological mechanisms linking stress to shorter survival include dysregulation of diurnal cortisol, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced natural killer cell activity, shorter telomeres and lower telomerase activity, glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of p53 and BrCA1 gene expression, and sympathetic nervous system activation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Stress and support affect the course of cancer progression. What is known? Stress and support have been thought to be related to cancer risk and progression, but evidence has been mixed. Depression is a natural co-morbid condition with cancer. It has not been clear how stress and support could physiologically affect the rate of cancer progression. Immune function was not thought to have much relevance to cancer progression. Few other physiological mechanisms linking stress to cancer progression were known. What does this paper add? There is evidence from 15 RCTs indicating that effective psychosocial support improves quantity as well as quality of life with cancer. There is evidence that chronic depression predicts poorer prognosis with cancer. Dysregulated circadian cortisol patterns predict more rapid cancer progression. Inflammatory processes affect cancer

  1. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution. (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J


    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  2. Outcome in psychotherapy evaluated by independent judges. (United States)

    Bloch, S; Bond, G; Qualls, B; Yalom, I; Zimmerman, E


    To overcome common limitations in assessing the outcome of psychotherapy, the following method was used: independent assessment by teams of experienced psychotherapists; individualized measures of outcome; and videotaped clinical interviews to allow the judges to rate, at one sitting, a patient's clinical state before and after eight months of therapy. Agreement between the judges' ratings was low both for the severity of the clinical state and for its outcome. Possible reasons for this low agreement are discussed.

  3. On the Movement Toward Psychotherapy Integration (United States)



    The prospect of using psychotherapy integration to enhance therapeutic efficacy increases as clinical discussion and empirical inquiry mount. The authors review briefly the historical origins of integrative thought, discuss the new receptivity with which it is being met, and examine the clinical use of an integrative framework, using progress in the treatment of panic disorder as an example of the potential of integrative treatment strategies. PMID:22700098

  4. [How timely are the methods taught in psychotherapy training and practice?]. (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Subic-Wrana, Claudia


    Even though many psychotherapists consider themselves to be eclectic or integrative, training and reimbursement in the modern healthcare system are clearly oriented toward the model of distinct psychotherapy approaches. Prompted by the proposition to favor general, disorder-oriented psychotherapy, we investigate how timely distinctive methods are that are taught in training and practice. We reviewed the pertinent literature regarding general and specific factors, the effectiveness of integrative and eclectic treatments, orientation toward specific disorders, manualization and psychotherapeutic training. There is a lack of systematic studies on the efficacy of combining therapy methods from different approaches. The first empirical findings reveal that a superiority of combined versus single treatmentmethods has yet to be demonstrated. The development of transnosological manuals shows the limits of disorder-specific treatment.General factors such as therapeutic alliance or education about the model of disease and treatment rationale require specific definitions. Taking reference to a specific treatment approach provides important consistency of theory, training therapy and supervision, though this does not preclude an openness toward other therapy concepts. Current manualized examples show that methods and techniques can indeed be integrated from other approaches. Integrating different methods can also be seen as a developmental task for practitioners and researchers which may be mastered increasingly better with more experience.

  5. Applied philosophy and psychotherapy: Heraclitus as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes


    Full Text Available This article investigates a recent attempt to apply philosophy within the discipline of psychotherapy and to investigate the somewhat undefined realm of philosophical counselling. After introducing the claims of this interdisciplinary exercise and after addressing the problems involved in crossing the boundaries between philosophy and psychotherapy, the article elaborates on  Alex Howard’s (2000 [Philosophy for counselling and psychotherapy: Pythagoras to post-modernism. London: Macmillan] attempt to make explicit use of philosophy in psychotherapy, using his interpretation and application of Heraclitus’ philosophy as case study.

  6. Benefits and Challenges of Conducting Psychotherapy by Telephone. (United States)

    Brenes, Gretchen A; Ingram, Cobi W; Danhauer, Suzanne C


    Telephone-delivered psychotherapy has increased utility as a method of service delivery in the current world, where a number of barriers, including economic hardships and limited access to care, may prevent people from receiving the treatment they need. This method of service provision is practical and has the potential to reach large numbers of underserved people in a cost-effective manner. The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art of telephone-delivered psychotherapy and to identify improvements and possible solutions to challenges. Results of randomized controlled trials indicate high client acceptance and positive outcomes with this method of delivering psychotherapy. Nonetheless, psychotherapists wishing to deliver psychotherapy by telephone face a number of challenges, including a lack of control over the environment, potential compromises of privacy and confidentiality, developing therapeutic alliance without face-to-face contact, ethical and legal issues in providing psychotherapy by telephone, handling crisis situations at a distance, and psychotherapist adjustment to conducting psychotherapy in an alternative manner. There remains a need for further research, including direct comparisons of face-to-face psychotherapy with telephone-delivered psychotherapy and feasibility of telephone delivery of psychotherapies other than cognitive behavioral therapy.

  7. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders]. (United States)

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof


    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  8. The Arts, Crafts, and Sciences of Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Benjamin, Lorna Smith


    Contemporary training and practice of psychotherapy and the research that supports it is the subject of this review. I discuss it in the light of what I value most from my own professional training, which was, in my opinion, highly privileged by comparison with what is offered today. A minimal hoped-for outcome is that younger readers will find valuable tidbits here and there that will be useful in their own versions of psychotherapy. A maximal hope is that a few individuals who choose to maintain clinical skills as well as emphasize psychotherapy research might be encouraged to follow their instincts toward excellence. They would allow their curiosity to bloom and their work to be creative and more adherent to the rules of natural science than time allows in these days of dashboards that count funding associated with numbers of publications, grants, teaching, and service hours. Admittedly, that path less well traveled would be risky, because what truly is new takes time to develop and implement and the outcomes when research truly can disconfirm hypotheses (as distinct from fail to confirm them) are, well, uncertain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multimedia psychodynamic psychotherapy: a preliminary report. (United States)

    Nesci, Domenico Arturo


    Mourning the death of a beloved person is one of life's most stressful events. This psychotherapy case study describes a form of psychodynamic psychotherapy that the author developed in working with a patient who suffered from complicated grief after the death of her father from lung cancer. During sessions, the therapist worked with the patient to collect pictures and organize a "strip of life" of her father's most meaningful moments. The patient then wrote a short text associated with each picture. Finally, she chose music to be added to this "slide show" or "psychodynamic montage" as its soundtrack. The resulting multimedia presentation was finally posted on the Internet on a website to which only the patient and her relatives and friends had access via a password. This therapeutic strategy was effective in helping this patient resolve her symptoms of complicated grief. The author suggests that this new approach to psychodynamic psychotherapy may be a cost-effective and well-received tool for use in institutions such as hospices and general hospitals.

  10. [Future psychotherapists? Vocational plans and motivation for choosing psychotherapy as a career in german psychology students]. (United States)

    Glaesmer, Heide; Spangenberg, Lena; Sonntag, Astrid; Brähler, Elmar; Strauss, Bernhard


    in Germany psychology students can be seen as the major personal resource in psychotherapy. Nevertheless there are few studies on their vocational plans and their interest in psychotherapeutic training. 480 psychology students completed a self-developed questionnaire on their career expectations. 90% of respondents report interest in clinical work and psychotherapeutic training. Most frequently they mention improving therapeutic competencies and career options as pros and current training requirements as cons. Their theoretical orientation (38% behaviour therapy, 19% psychodynamic therapy) is associated with their psychotherapeutic knowledge, study conditions and respondent's characteristics. psychology students consider working and training conditions for psychologists and psychotherapists, when thinking about their future career.

  11. Penile malformation, gender identity and sexual orientation. (United States)

    Berg, R; Berg, G


    Gender identity and sexual orientation were investigated in 34 men operated for hypospadias in childhood and in 36 matched control subjects. Independent psychiatric assessments from semi-structured interviews, and double-blind formalized psychological ratings from the Rorschach, yielded similar findings. The probands were less secure in their maleness but were similar in sexual orientation as compared to the controls. A third blind, independent measure of unconscious gender identity, the Franck Drawing Completion Test, gave further evidence of uncertain gender identity in the patients. A self-administered inventory, the Gough Femininity Scale, showed a tendency for the patients to take more feminine sex roles. The findings are discussed from psychoendocrinological as well as psycho-analytical view points. The need for early psychological preventive measures for hypospadic boys and their parents is stressed.

  12. Dispositional optimism as predictor of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy. (United States)

    Heinonen, Erkki; Heiskanen, Tiia; Lindfors, Olavi; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Knekt, Paul


    Dispositional optimism predicts various beneficial outcomes in somatic health and treatment, but has been little studied in psychotherapy. This study investigated whether an optimistic disposition differentially predicts patients' ability to benefit from short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. A total of 326 adult outpatients with mood and/or anxiety disorder were randomized into short-term (solution-focused or short-term psychodynamic) or long-term psychodynamic therapy and followed up for 3 years. Dispositional optimism was assessed by patients at baseline with the self-rated Life Orientation Test (LOT) questionnaire. Outcome was assessed at baseline and seven times during the follow-up, in terms of depressive (BDI, HDRS), anxiety (SCL-90-ANX, HARS), and general psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90-GSI), all seven follow-up points including patients' self-reports and three including interview-based measures. Lower dispositional optimism predicted faster symptom reduction in short-term than in long-term psychotherapy. Higher optimism predicted equally rapid and eventually greater benefits in long-term, as compared to short-term, psychotherapy. Weaker optimism appeared to predict sustenance of problems early in long-term therapy. Stronger optimism seems to best facilitate engaging in and benefiting from a long-term therapy process. Closer research might clarify the psychological processes responsible for these effects and help fine-tune both briefer and longer interventions to optimize treatment effectiveness for particular patients and their psychological qualities. Weaker dispositional optimism does not appear to inhibit brief therapy from effecting symptomatic recovery. Patients with weaker optimism do not seem to gain added benefits from long-term therapy, but instead may be susceptible to prolonged psychiatric symptoms in the early stages of long-term therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Change in self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up after intensive multimodal psychotherapy for major depression. (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning


    Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Transference patterns in the psychotherapy of personality disorders: empirical investigation. (United States)

    Bradley, Rebekah; Heim, Amy Kegley; Westen, Drew


    The concept of transference has broadened to a recognition that patients often express enduring relational patterns in the therapeutic relationship. To examine the structure of patient relational patterns in psychotherapy and their relation with DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms. A random sample of psychologists and psychiatrists (n=181) completed a battery of instruments on a randomly selected patient in their care. Exploratory factor analysis identified five transference dimensions: angry/entitled, anxious/preoccupied, avoidant/counterdependent, secure/engaged and sexualised. These were associated in predictable ways with Axis II pathology; four mapped on to adult attachment styles. An aggregated portrait of transference patterns in narcissistic patients provided a clinically rich, empirically based description of transference processes that strongly resembled clinical theories. The ways patients interact with their therapists can provide important data about their personality, attachment patterns and interpersonal functioning. These processes can be measured in clinically sophisticated and psychometrically sound ways. Such processes are relatively independent of clinicians' theoretical orientation.

  15. Characteristics of Patients Involved in Psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of Bosnian and Herzegovinian patients involved in psychotherapeutic treatments in order to explore the current situation of psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The study included 213 patients (154 women and 47 men undergoing diverse psychotherapeutic treatments. Data about demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Following characteristics were documented: age, sex, education, employment status, marital status, specific problem that got the client involved in psychotherapy, type of psychotherapy, and use of psychopharmacology.Results: Majority of the patients undergoing psychotherapy are age up to 40 and female. They are by vast majority holding a university degree and are employed. Nearly equal number of patients is living in partnership or marriage compared to single or never been married. Most frequent reasons for getting involved in the psychotherapy treatment are of the intrapersonal nature (depression, anxiety and panic attacks. Majority of the patients were involved in gestalt and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, and at the same time majority of those were not prescribed medicaments.Conclusions: We point out and overview some of the most prominent socio-demographic traits of patients undergoing psychotherapy, the ones that could be important in the future research with the higher degree of control. In the terms of personal initiative, psychotherapy stops being a taboo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, there is still a long path until it reaches integration in daily life of the people.

  16. The Experiential as a Unifying Construct in Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Bohart, Arthur C.

    Although the importance of an experiential component in differing approaches to psychotherapy has been acknowledged, confusion over the concepts of "experience" and "emotion" has resulted in a focus on emotion rather than experience. The fundamental change event in psychotherapy is a kind of experiential learning or reorganization, and while…

  17. Conceptual Frame for Selecting Individual Psychotherapy in the Schools (United States)

    Hughes, Tammy L.; Theodore, Lea A.


    Psychotherapy is a service-delivery that is provided for both general and special education students. This manuscript examines a conceptual framework for determining when to employ psychotherapy within the school-based setting. Decisions are informed by the relationship between problem behavior, therapeutic techniques, short-term outcomes, and…

  18. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward


    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  19. Learning from traumatic experiences with brief eclectic psychotherapy for PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Schnyder, Ulrich


    Brief eclectic psychotherapy for PTSD (BEPP) is an evidence-based therapeutic approach that combines and integrates elements from psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and directive psychotherapy. Psychoeducation is done jointly with the patient and his or her partner. Exposure, a structured writing

  20. Shapes of Early Change in Psychotherapy under Routine Outpatient Conditions (United States)

    Stulz, Niklaus; Lutz, Wolfgang; Leach, Chris; Lucock, Mike; Barkham, Michael


    Although improvement of clients' state is a central concern for psychotherapy, relatively little is known about how change in outcome variables unfolds during psychotherapy. Client progress may follow highly variable temporal courses, and this variation in treatment courses may have important clinical implications. By analyzing treatment progress…

  1. The current status of psychotherapy | Gureje | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fundamental understanding about the mechanisms of action of psychotherapy is a promising new development that is emanating from modern techniques of neurosciences and neuroimaging. Whether such understanding will lead to a renaissance in the clinical utility of psychotherapy is still early to say. However, there is ...

  2. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: An Old Friend Revisited (United States)

    Delgado, Sergio V.


    The treatment of children and adolescents with psychotherapy is gradually losing ground to psychopharmacology. The author reviews the value the various forms of psychotherapy have in the treatment of children and the importance of having a clear curriculum for teaching this skill in residency programs. Although the importance of psychodynamic psychotherapy has a long history in the treatment of children, the reluctance some faculty have in recommending this form of therapy may be due to limited experience and limited knowledge of its benefits. The author highlights that a psychodynamic diagnostic evaluation is essential to assess a child’s suitability for psychotherapy. The characteristics of children who will benefit from psychodynamic psychotherapy, their defense mechanisms, and optimal characteristics of their parents are reviewed. The qualifications a psychiatrist needs to succeed in this endeavor are discussed. Two cases illustrate not only the importance in the suitability of the patient, but also the application of psychodynamic theory to practice. PMID:19727254

  3. The language of empathy: an analysis of its constitution, development, and role in psychoanalytic listening. (United States)

    Aragno, Anna


    Viewed from an epistemological perspective, empathy in psychoanalytic practice is described as that aspect of a specialized attentional stance that opens channels of interaction facilitating the formation of a trusting bond and enabling one to gain access to the emotional qualities of another's experience. A literature overview traces the origins of the concept in Freud and its role in psychoanalytic listening (including its controversial, divisive evolution in our field). Empathy is then examined from a semiotic-developmental framework. Its constitutional origins, differentiated forms, and distinctive purpose in clinical discourse are discussed. A developmental line is proposed, and clear distinctions are drawn between empathy in everyday life and its specialized technical application in clinical work.


    Gentile, Jill


    This essay explores the mostly unexamined analogy of psychoanalytic free association to democratic free speech. The author turns back to a time when free speech was a matter of considerable discussion: the classical period of the Athenian constitution and its experiment with parrhesia. Ordinarily translated into English as "free speech," parrhesia is startlingly relevant to psychoanalysis. The Athenian stage-in particular, Hippolytus (Euripides, 5th century BCE)-illustrates this point. Euripides's tragic tale anticipates Freud's inquiries, exploring the fundamental link between free speech and female embodiment. The author suggests that psychoanalysis should claim its own conception of a polis as a mediated and ethical space between private and public spheres, between body and mind, and between speaking and listening communities. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  5. Psychoanalytical interpretations of prejudices with emphasis on prejudices towards persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja


    Full Text Available This paper deals with interpretations of prejudices and specifically, prejudices towards people with disabilities, from the perspective of one of the many theoretical approaches. Psychoanalytic theoretical point of view interpret prejudices through the personality of the individual. The study and interpretation of prejudices towards people with disabilities is one of the major themes of modern social model of disability. Psychoanalytic interpretations determine prejudices, as well as prejudices towards people with disabilities, as a result of defense mechanisms, especially projection. This paper discusses the emotional component of attitude, based on its predominance in prejudices, as a extreme attitudes. In this analysis we have taken into account the emotional and unconscious reactions that can compose an emotional ambivalence in relation to the object of an attitude. Prejudice towards people with disabilities were brought in connection with the irrational and emotional reactions and unconscious fantasies related to the object of an attitude.

  6. ["... here I am entirely among patients now..": the psychoanalytical practice of Lou Andreas-Salomé]. (United States)

    Klemann, Manfred


    The aim of this article is to disprove the widespread prejudice depicting Andreas-Salomé merely as a femme fatale, or companion of a few famous contemporaries (Nietzsche, Rilke, and Freud), while suppressing her original intellectual and clinical-practical achievement as a psychoanalyst. An evaluation of both published and hitherto unpublished sources clearly confirms the broad and thorough foundations of her psychoanalytical training in theory as well as in practice. Between 1913 and 1933 Andreas-Salomé conducted a relatively large number of analyses, discussed some of them with Freud in a kind of "supervision" by correspondence and published several articles on central psychoanalytical issues. So far, however, many psychoanalysts seem to have been unaware of her status as a former accomplished colleague.

  7. Prisoners of liberation: a psychoanalytic perspective on disenchantment and burnout among career women lawyers. (United States)

    Berger, B


    Using a psychoanalytic perspective, this article addresses the roots and treatment of disillusionment and incipient burnout in female corporate lawyers. It suggests that one of the primary issues that needs to be addressed in therapy with this group is the tendency to be self-punishing, a characteristic that often may be traced back to insensitive parenting. This formulation, combined with the penchant of law firms to regard as "good and expected" the inclination of their workers (especially women) to work without respite and with little regard for their own needs, places individuals at high risk for burnout. A case example is used to illustrate this phenomenon. It is concluded that whereas psychoanalytic treatment greatly may help overstressed professionals, society at large must address the values that foster the attitude of high career achievement at any cost.

  8. The violent true believer as a "lone wolf" - psychoanalytic perspectives on terrorism. (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Yakeley, Jessica


    The existing research on lone wolf terrorists and case experience are reviewed and interpreted through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. A number of characteristics of the lone wolf are enumerated: a personal grievance and moral outrage; the framing of an ideology; failure to affiliate with an extremist group; dependence on a virtual community found on the Internet; the thwarting of occupational goals; radicalization fueled by changes in thinking and emotion - including cognitive rigidity, clandestine excitement, contempt, and disgust - regardless of the particular ideology; the failure of sexual pair bonding and the sexualization of violence; the nexus of psychopathology and ideology; greater creativity and innovation than terrorist groups; and predatory violence sanctioned by moral (superego) authority. A concluding psychoanalytic formulation is offered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Predicting Psychotherapy Dropouts: A Multilevel Approach. (United States)

    Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph


    The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are

  10. Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression. (United States)

    O'Hara, M W; Stuart, S; Gorman, L L; Wenzel, A


    Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their infants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapy for postpartum depression. A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) or to a waiting list condition (WLC) control group. Subjects completed interview and self-report assessments of depressive symptoms and social adjustment every 4 weeks. Ninety-nine of the 120 patients completed the protocol. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) scores of women receiving IPT declined from 19.4 to 8.3, a significantly greater decrease than occurred in the WLC group (19.8 to 16.8). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of women who received IPT declined from 23.6 to 10.6 over 12 weeks, a significantly greater decrease than occurred in the WLC group (23.0 to 19.2). A significantly greater proportion of women who received IPT recovered from their depressive episode based on HRSD scores of 6 or lower (37. 5%) and BDI scores of 9 or lower (43.8%) compared with women in the WLC group (13.7% and 13.7%, respectively). Women receiving IPT also had significant improvement on the Postpartum Adjustment Questionnaire and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report relative to women in the WLC group. These findings suggest that IPT is an efficacious treatment for postpartum depression. Interpersonal psychotherapy reduced depressive symptoms and improved social adjustment, and represents an alternative to pharmacotherapy, particularly for women who are breastfeeding.

  11. [The importance of transference in Junguian psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Scotillo, Irene Alejandra


    Transference is an absolutely natural and spontaneous process which cannot be developed in an artificial and voluntary manner by the therapist. Transference is carried out in a subjective interpersonal relation consisting of a patient and an analyst. Jung will say he feels happy when transference takes place calmly or runs virtually unnoticed and the therapist can then focus on other therapeutic factors that play an important role. One could argue that Jungian psychotherapy consists of two people who get together to try to understand what is happening in the subconscious of one of them. The Jungian therapist is an active therapist who encourages and helps the patient to develop its individuation.

  12. A Kantian critique of cognitive psychotherapy. (United States)

    Yesavage, J A


    Modern cognitive psychotherapies such as those practiced by George Kelly, Aaron Beck, and Albert Ellis are examined from the perspective of Immanuel Kant's critique of eighteenth-century cognitive philosophy. Parallel strengths and weaknesses are found in the psychotherapeutic and philosophical systems. The major strengths of the systems are based upon their abilities to predict phenomena based upon an understanding of concepts used to organize experience. The major weaknesses of the systems arise when one takes such concepts to be too concrete. It is argued that modern psychiatrists interested in cognitive techniques may relearn some important but forgotten, facts about the strengths and limits of cognition by reviewing Kantian philosophy.

  13. Review of Psychotherapy as a human science. (United States)

    Langan, Robert


    Reviews the book, Psychotherapy as a human science by Daniel Burston and Roger Frie (see record 2006-12980-000). In this book, the authors show how philosophical assumptions pervade therapeutic praxis. "In our view, philosophy is inherent to the very practice of psychotherapy" (p. 2). There is a "common ground that unites the therapists of today with the philosophers of the past" (p. 17). Their effort succeeds brilliantly in reconnecting psychology and philosophy and, by that homecoming, to ground psychotherapy (including contemporary psychoanalysis) as a "human science." The book begins by sketching ideas about truth we inherit from the Greeks, then shows how Descartes and Pascal helped launch the Enlightenment with their thinking about truth and the limits of reason. Kant, Hegel, and Marx broaden the scope to include reason, the unconscious, and the course of history. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche interject angst and authenticity. Dilthey proposes a human science neither scientistic nor irrational. Husserl launches phenomenology as the proper study of experience; Scheler, Jaspers and Heidegger react in their particular ways. Freud and Jung come to loggerheads over the unconscious. Buber, Binswanger, and Boss further develop existential-phenomenological perspectives in terms of human interrelatedness. Confrontation with the other and the limits of reciprocity engage Sartre, Lacan, and Laing. Psychoanalysis grows intersubjectively through the work of Sullivan, Fromm, Merleau-Ponty, Benjamin, and Stolorow. Postmodernism's excess, Frie and Burston conclude, requires acknowledgment of an authentic self answerable for choices in life: '...[W]e are both determined by, and exercise our agency in determining, the communicative contexts in which we exist" (p. 262). Psychotherapy from this existential-phenomenological perspective becomes "a rigorous exploration of our ways of making meaning--both consciously and unconsciously" (p. 263). The book ends, then, with an affirmation

  14. Psychotherapy in a changing postindustrial society. (United States)

    Lesse, S


    Psychotherapy in a postindustrial society will differ markedly from that practiced in the past and present. It will be necessary for psychotherapists to comprehend the interrelationships of macrosocial as well as microsocial forces in relation to intrapsychic dynamics. In a parallel fashion the psychotherapist will find it necessary to be aware of the interrelationship of biodynamic and psychodynamic processes. This paper outlines the sociologic and technologic forces that are likely to mold the postindustrial era and their relationship to psychologic stress and illness as they will be in the period 2000-2025.

  15. When the Subconscious Goes to Steering - Psychoanalytic Subtexts in Thriller Cinema: The Example of Duel


    Erol, Volkan


    Fear, an inseparable part of humanity, manifests itself in art andliterature as a reflection of subconscious, also occupies cinema since itsbeginning. Images that reflected from gigantic screens in the darkness of movietheaters, manage to revive collective fears simultaneously unlike any othermedium. Horror, thriller and suspense films, which use subconscious fears as asource and more often than not, prefer to use metaphors while narrate them,prepare the ground for psychoanalytic film analysi...


    Silverman, Martin A


    Defining Psychoanalysis: Achieving a Vernacular Expression, by Ian Miller. London: Karnac, 2016. 116 pp. The Pioneers of Psychoanalysis in South America: An Essential Guide, edited by Nydia Lisman-Pieczanski and Alberto Pieczanski. London/New York: Routledge, 2015. 537 pp. Reading Italian Psychoanalysis, edited by Franco Borgogno, Alberto Luchetti, and Luisa Marino Coe. London/New York: Routledge, 2016. 738 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  17. Bingham Dai, Adolf Storfer, and the tentative beginnings of psychoanalytic culture in China, 1935-1941. (United States)

    Blowers, Geoffrey


    This paper looks at the work of two figures who, while marginal to theoretical developments within the history of psychoanalysis, each briefly played an important role in the dissemination of analytical ideas in China, contributing to an early psychoanalytic culture there. Bingham Dai, a native of China, while studying for a PhD in sociology at Chicago, received instruction from Harry Stack Sullivan and a psychoanalytic training under Karen Horney's supervision. However, the neo-Freudian outlook with which this experience imbued him had its roots in an earlier encounter with his experiments in personality education first conducted on students in a Tientsin high school, and later in Shantung under the direction of the conservative Confucian scholar and reformer, Liang Shu Ming. These experiences convinced him that a less orthodox psychoanalytic perspective was what Chinese patients with psychological problems required. He returned in 1935 to teach medical psychology to doctors at Peking Union Medical College, taking a few into analysis and treating some patients. However, the Sino-Japanese war brought these activities to a close and he left in 1939, just a few months after the former Freud publisher and Viennese émigré, Adolf Storfer, arrived. Storfer set about publishing "Gelbe Post," a German language periodical replete with articles on psychoanalysis, linguistics and Chinese culture. But limited finances, severe competition from a rival publisher, plus his own ill health, forced him to abandon this in spite of the support offered him through the many contributors in the international psychoanalytic community whose articles he published. The paper concludes by considering the relative historiographic fate of the men upon whom subsequent scholarship has been very unevenly focused.

  18. The rooting of the mind in the body: new links between attachment theory and psychoanalytic thought. (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Target, Mary


    The relationship between psychoanalysis and attachment theory is complex indeed. A brief review of the psychoanalytic literature as it concerns attachment theory and research, and of the attachment literature as it pertains to psychoanalytic ideas, demonstrates an increasing interest in attachment theory within psychoanalysis. Some of the difficulties that attachment theory faces in relation to psychoanalytic ideas are traced to its links to the now dated cognitive science of the 1960s and 1970s. Today, however, a second-generation cognitive neuroscience seeks neurobiologically plausible accounts in which links with brain and body are seen as shaping mind and consciousness, which increasingly are seen as "embodied", as emerging from or serving the needs of a physical being located in a specific time, place, and social context. This idea has also been at the core of much psychoanalytic thinking, which has historically affirmed the rootedness of symbolic thought in sensory, emotional, and enacted experience with objects. Now neurobiological advances supporting the concept of embodied cognition offer an opportunity to forge powerful links between the hitherto separate domains of attachment theory and psychoanalysis. Speculations about the nature of language are presented that emphasize the origin of internal working models (and of representations in general) in early sensorimotor and emotional experiences with a caregiver. It is argued that language and symbolic thought may be phylogenetically and ontogenetically embodied, built on a foundation of gestures and actions, and are thus profoundly influenced by the experience of early physical interaction with the primary object. Finally, the clinical and research implications of these ideas are discussed.

  19. Aprendizagem e método psicanalítico Learning and the psychoanalytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina de Leão D'Agord


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo contribuir para a docência universitária e como origem a seguinte questão: se o método psicanalítico estabelece princípios para uma direção de tratamento, qual seria a contribuição do mesmo para os princípios de uma direção psicanalítica de aprendizagens (ou aprendizagem? na universidade? Trabalha-se com uma transposição do método psicanalítico, elaborado por Freud e Lacan, para o campo da aprendizagem, reconhecendo-se que o primeiro opera sobre o saber inconsciente, enquanto o segundo tem por objeto o conhecimento. As questões abordadas para a formulação de uma direção psicanalítica de aprendizagem são as seguintes: a relação entre saber e conhecimento; a relação entre o saber e o só-depois (Nachträglichkeit e a experiência dos cartéis nas instituições de formação psicanalítica.This work presents a contribution to university teaching. This study originates from the following question: if the psychoanalytical method establishes principles for a treatment direction, which would be the contribution of this method to the principles of a direction of learning in the university? This research works with a transposition of the psychoanalytical method to the field of learning, recognizing itself that the first one operates on unconscious knowing, as the second has for object knowledge. The relation between knowing and knowledge; the relation between knowing and the retroactivity (Nachträglichkeit, the experience of the institutions of psychoanalytical formation with the group called cartel are questions to a proposal of psychoanalytical direction of learning.

  20. Psicanálise e Universidade: a interface possível por meio da pesquisa psicanalítica clínica. Alice quebra-vidros Psychoanalysis and University: the potential interface through psychoanalytic clinical research. Alice Glass-breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Freitas Ramalho da Silva


    Full Text Available As relações entre Psicanálise, Ciência e Universidade são antigas. Remontam à época de Freud e têm se mostrado tema importante para a Psicanálise no século XXI. Os psicanalistas que trabalham nas Universidades sofrem demandas por evidenciar o funcionamento e os resultados de sua disciplina. Este artigo comenta os modelos possíveis de pesquisa psicanalítica e defende a pesquisa clínica de caso individual por meio do próprio método psicanalítico acrescido por elementos da pesquisa qualitativa. Para tanto, as autoras estudam o processo de psicoterapia psicanalítica e o funcionamento mental de uma paciente borderline atendida durante quatro anos em uma clínica universitária pública. Aproximadamente 120 sessões foram registradas de um total de 340 sessões. Estas foram lidas e relidas como se fossem narrativas pela psicanalista investigadora, revelando momentos significativos do trabalho da dupla analista-paciente.The relationships between Psychoanalysis, Science and Universities have been discussed since Freud and gained relevance over the 21st century as an important subject for Psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysts who work in Universities are supposed to conduct research. This article comments on possible psychoanalytical research models and supports individual case clinical research through the psychoanalytical method itself, added on qualitative research elements. The authors study the psychoanalytical psychotherapy process and the mental functioning of a borderline patient treated for four years in a public university institution. Approximately 120 of 340 sessions were registered. They were read and re-read by the investigator-psychoanalyst as if they were narratives and revealed some meaningful developments from the psychoanalyst-patient.

  1. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research. (United States)

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston


    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Andreea STOLERIU


    Full Text Available The starting point of the present paper is the work 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne', made by Leonardo da Vinci. The paper is based both on an artistic and psychoanalytic approach which opens new ways of interpretation due to the research of Sigmund Freud - 'Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood'. Freud claims that Leonardo had found the lost image of his mother in his works 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne' and 'Mona Lisa', thus justifying the artist’s direct attachment to these creations. Along with specific interpretations of the creative process, the psychoanalytic approach intends to explain and enrich the content of ideas of the present paper regarding one of the most valuable creations of Leonardo and also an artistic testament created towards the end of his life. Freud’s psychoanalytic approach brings specific interpretative content for the mentioned work of art. It is different from the artistic method, not contradicting various artistic studies, but complementing them in a harmonious way.

  3. Recrimination in the analytic situation. A hypothesis about its influence on psychoanalytical groups. (United States)

    Gálvez, Manuel José; Maldonado, Jorge Luis


    This paper deals with certain distortions in communication generated by mutual recrimination that is the result of disturbances in the ideal agencies of both parties. Although the ideal ego, superego and ego ideal participate equally in reproach, it is the latter which is the most decisive. In clinical experience, recrimination may easily colour the analytic dialogue. In such cases, interpretation loses its sense of clarification and another type of dialogue replaces it. There, words are used to take possession of the other, for its autonomy is a threat to the static character of the pathology of mourning. The problem of recrimination has also tainted the development of psychoanalysis, to the point of disrupting the process of discovery itself. This paper deals with repercussions in the psychoanalytic movement and also in the elements that constitute its structure. Finally, different variations and disturbances in the psychoanalytic ideal are considered, as well as the involvement of the psychoanalytic institution in preserving or transforming the ideal. Here the importance of institutions and institutional ideals is emphasised. Finally, we suggest that ideals either encourage or hinder the working through of individual and collective mourning.

  4. [Lou Andreas-Salome (1861-1937)--psychoanalytical and feministic contribution to understanding her biography]. (United States)

    Bramness, J G


    Lou (Louise) Andreas-Salomé's life and work has preoccupied many biographers. The interest may have be sparked by her liaisons with many of the greatest men of her time. She had an intimate relationship with Friedrich Nietzsche in a period of great change for him. She was Rainer Marie Rilke's mistress for several years. And she pursued a close friendship and working relationship with Sigmund Freud in the latter part of her life. But her significance goes beyond these associations. She was a celebrated novelist and essayist in her own right, with ten novels and more than 50 essays, also on psychoanalytical subjects. She has been viewed as femme fatale, opportunist, feminist, radical, liberal, but also as a significant contributor to psychoanalytical thought. There have been two biographical approaches: a psychoanalytical approach focusing on her loss of father-figures and later difficult relationships with famous men, and a feministic approach accusing psychoanalysts of not contributing to insight, but belittling Salomé's legitimate position. A fuller understanding may be obtained by integrating these two views.

  5. Inner and Outer Life at Work. The Roots and Horizon of Psychoanalytically Informed Work Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundgaard Andersen


    Full Text Available The modern labour market has increasingly put the inner working life on the agenda. This stems from a number of societal changes: the knowledge society and its need of personalised competences and work investments in welfare services, the transformation from subject-object relationships to subject-subject relationships and the emergence of the "learning organisations" and reflexive leadership. All of this has been the subject of critical analyses tracing modern work life identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work—in a generic display of concepts, methods and epistemology. URN:

  6. Psychotherapy mediated by remote communication technologies: a meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to psychotherapy is limited by psychopathology (e.g. agoraphobia, physical disability, occupational or social constraints and/or residency in under-served areas. For these populations, interventions delivered via remote communication technologies (e.g. telephone, internet may be more appropriate. However, there are concerns that such delivery may influence the therapeutic relationship and thus reduce therapy effectiveness. This review aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of remotely communicated, therapist-delivered psychotherapy. Methods Systematic review (including electronic database searching and correspondence with authors of randomised trials of individual remote psychotherapy. Electronic databases searched included MEDLINE (1966–2006, PsycInfo (1967–2006, EMBASE (1980–2006 and CINAHL databases (1982–2006. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDAN-CTR. All searches were conducted to include studies with a publication date to July 2006. Results Thirteen studies were identified, ten assessing psychotherapy by telephone, two by internet and one by videoconference. Pooled effect sizes for remote therapy versus control conditions were 0.44 for depression (95%CI 0.29 to 0.59, 7 comparisons, n = 726 and 1.15 for anxiety-related disorders (95%CI 0.81 to 1.49, 3 comparisons, n = 168. There were few comparisons of remote versus face-to-face psychotherapy. Conclusion Remote therapy has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to conventional psychological therapy services. Telephone-based interventions are a particularly popular research focus and as a means of therapeutic communication may confer specific advantages in terms of their widespread availability and ease of operation. However, the available evidence is limited in quantity and quality. More rigorous trials are required to

  7. [Healthier after Psychotherapy? Analysis of Claims Data (Lower Saxony, Germany) on Sickness Absence Duration before and after Outpatient Psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Epping, Jelena; de Zwaan, Martina; Geyer, Siegfried


    Introduction In employed populations sickness absence can be used as a good indicator of health status. In the present study, it was examined how periods of sickness absence are developing within one year before and after psychotherapy under comparison of three types of psychotherapy (behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis), all fully covered by statutory health insurance. Methods and data The analyses were performed with pseudonymized claims data from the AOK Niedersachsen, a statutory health insurance (N=2,900,065 insured). Certified sickness absences before and after psychotherapy were examined for 9,916 patients. Parallelized controls were used to build a comparison of the length of sickness absences. Analyses were performed separately for women and for men. Results Within one year before starting psychotherapy, patients had longer sickness absences than controls on average. There was a reduction in the length of sickness absence of 20 days (median) within one year before to 12 days (median) within one year after the psychotherapy. The obtained differences between types of psychotherapy were considerable. Discussion Differences in terms of sickness absences may in part be explained by socio-demographic differences. Patients who underwent psychoanalysis were younger and had higher educational levels. However, it remains unclear why the differences of sickness absence periods were that high. It has to be discussed whether self-selection of patients with better health into psychoanalysis had occurred. Conclusions Patients undergoing psychoanalysis differ from patients who underwent other types of psychotherapy in terms of their duration of sickness absence as well as socio-demographic profile. Thus, due to differences in the composition of patients future research in psychotherapy will have to differentiate by type of psychotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. [New Developments in Video Games for Psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika


    A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.

  9. Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Chadda, Rakesh K; Deb, Koushik Sinha


    Indian society is collectivistic and promotes social cohesion and interdependence. The traditional Indian joint family, which follows the same principles of collectivism, has proved itself to be an excellent resource for the care of the mentally ill. However, the society is changing with one of the most significant alterations being the disintegration of the joint family and the rise of nuclear and extended family system. Although even in today's changed scenario, the family forms a resource for mental health that the country cannot neglect, yet utilization of family in management of mental disorders is minimal. Family focused psychotherapeutic interventions might be the right tool for greater involvement of families in management of their mentally ill and it may pave the path for a deeper community focused treatment in mental disorders. This paper elaborates the features of Indian family systems in the light of the Asian collectivistic culture that are pertinent in psychotherapy. Authors evaluate the scope and effectiveness of family focused psychotherapy for mental disorders in India, and debate the issues and concerns faced in the practice of family therapy in India.

  10. What hath freud wrought? Current confusion and controversies about the clinical practice of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    This article discusses the current state of psychoanalysis and the challenges to the fundamental premises of Freud's psychoanalysis by those who have shifted to relationship or so-called two-person psychologies in our field. The author begins by briefly describing a parallel to the recent history of psychoanalysis in the sudden rise and fall of scholastic philosophy in the 14th century. He then focuses on contemporary attacks on Freud's psychoanalysis as a science, based on the contention by two-person psychologists that free association by the patient and evenly hovering attention by the analyst are actually impossible. He reviews Freud's idea of psychoanalysis, discusses psychodynamic psychotherapy, both conceived as scientific treatment procedures, and describes the current assault on their metapsychological and epistemological foundations. Returning to the parallel between what happened to medieval scholasticism and what has happened to psychoanalysis, he examines why this happened, and the resulting fragmentation of psychoanalytic practice. The article concludes with suggestions for the integration of various schools of psychoanalysis, reminding us of Benjamin Franklin's warning: "We must, indeed, all hang together or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately."

  11. Establishing psychiatric registrars' competence in psychotherapy: a portfolio based model. (United States)

    Naidu, T; Ramlall, S


    During most of the latter part of the last century, South Africa has followed international trends in the training of psychiatrists. Training programmes have become increasingly focused on the neurobiological aspects of psychiatric disorders with less attention being paid to psychotherapy. This is consistent with developments in psychiatric research. In the clinical arena this manifests as a focus on pharmacological and medically based interventions and a resulting relative inattention to non-pharmacological interventions, most especially psychotherapy. In an effort to address this imbalance there has been an international initiative, over the past two decades, to establish an acceptable level of competence in psychotherapy in the training of psychiatrists. A South African programme is needed that can take account of international trends and adapt them for the local context. In order to produce a programme for establishing competence in psychotherapy for psychiatric registrars at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, the authors examine directives for the development of psychotherapy skills from international regulatory bodies for graduate medical training and their application. Defining and setting preliminary standards for competence is emphasized. A programme based on five core psychotherapy components using a portfolio based model to facilitate learning and assessment of competence in psychotherapy, is proposed.

  12. The movement toward integrating the psychotherapies: an overview. (United States)

    Beitman, B D; Goldfried, M R; Norcross, J C


    There is a growing tendency among psychotherapists to ignore the ideological barriers dividing schools of psychotherapy and to define what is common among them and what is useful in each of them. After a brief introduction the authors provide a short glossary of terms often associated with psychotherapy integration. They then characterize integrative-eclectic therapists, describe the forces fostering their emergence, and outline recurrent themes of the movement and points of contention within it. The authors hope to encourage clinical thinking about the less ideological approaches to psychotherapy and to advance the integrative movement, which is likely to influence psychotherapeutic practice for decades to come.

  13. [The contribution of psychotherapy to a therapeutic approach of bipolar disorders that combines psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy]. (United States)

    Spivacow, Miguel Alejo


    The author assumes that genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology of Bipolar Disorders. The main goal of this article is to discuss the contribution of psychotherapy in a therapeutic approach to Bipolar Disorders that includes both psychopharmacological treatment and psychotherapy. The central tenet of the paper is that the psychotherapeutic approach to depression focuses on the personality structure as a whole and identifies the predominant psychodynamic factors: the disparity between actual and ideal self-representations, the loss of internal objects, the impact of the vicissitudes of symbiotic relationships on the psychic equilibrium. In the treatment of mania, the psychotherapeutic interventions are considered to be significantly less useful than in the treatment of depression.

  14. Abandono de tratamento na psicoterapia psicanalítica: em busca de definição Treatment dropout in psychoanalytical psychotherapy: searching for definition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marina Bento Gastaud; Maria Lúcia Tiellet Nunes


    OBJETIVOS: Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar as definições de abandono de tratamento encontradas na literatura sobre psicoterapia, problematizar a dificuldade de definir abandono nas diversas abordagens...

  15. Psychoanalytic Discourse of the 1920s-1930s Ukrainian Novellas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Maftyn


    Full Text Available The article highlights the impact of Freud’s ideas on the Ukrainian prose between the Two World Wars. The analysis of the works by V. Pidmohylnyi and I. Cherniava shows that in literary texts, the erotic-death paradigm is one of the ‘modernist’ algorithms for plot development; in the novellas, this paradigm affects the process of conflict modeling and conflict development. It is rightly believed that V. Pidmohylnyi’s dominant literary interest was the ‘helplessness of human morality before the temptations of crime’. In the novella analyzed in this study, Pidmohylnyi adopts the perspective of the ontogenesis of the human soul at the age of puberty. I. Cherniava explores the theme of subconscious ‘temptation of crime’ a wicked and thoughtless children’s game is sure to unleash. The two stories have many features in common: they are thematically close; in both of them, the plot is based on the Freudian ideas; stylistically, they are realist-oriented works with certain elements of naturalism. The novellas belong to the same type of structurally modified literary works, in which the action is no more important than the resultant psychic changes in the characters. In both novellas, the plot is built around stable structural-behavioural patterns of human culture (in Vania, it is the initiation trial pattern; in The Execution, the perverse play pattern, the game of a trial transformed into a crime. Both works have rather specific expositions, which fulfill the function of ‘Vorgeschichte’ – they tell a reader about certain psychic inclinations of the characters and present the projection of the central theme. In both novellas, the plot type, which determines the development of action, is outlined in the prehistory. Structurally, the two novellas are based on parallelism of events. As to their style, both works bear the features of naturalism.  

  16. Initial and last manifest dream reports of patients in psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy. (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton


    The initial and last manifest dream reports (MDRs) of 30 patients who had either successfully terminated, or continued to make satisfactory progress at an advanced stage of psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy, were rated according to the following variables: Affect and Affect Valence; Affect Valence of Associations and Direction of Association Themes; Dream Narrative; Psychodynamic Formulation; Transference; and Dream Theme. Similar to previous studies, the initial MDRs contained more negative than positive affect. Conversely, the last MDRs contained more positive than negative affect. Associations to initial MDRs contained more negative affect; on the other hand, associations to last MDRs contained more positive affect. Direction of association themes were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Dream narratives were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Psychodynamic formulations were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Transference was more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Relational and injury dream themes occurred more frequently than others in both initial and last MDRs. Initial MDRs contained more injury dream themes than last MDRs. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is a correlation between MDR variables and clinical improvement during treatment. The patients in this study were selected by MG, the treating therapist, on the basis of satisfactory progress. The MDRs of patients who failed to progress or did poorly were not discussed in this report. The findings, therefore, must be taken as preliminary and indicate the need for further research on manifest dreams during psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

  17. Listening beneath the Words: Parallel Processes in Music and Psychotherapy (United States)

    Shapiro, Yakov; Marks-Tarlow,Terry; Fridman, Joseph


    The authors investigate the parallels between musical performance and psychoanalytical therapy, using the former as a metaphor for the way therapist and patient jointly compose the therapeutic experience and better the treatment it offers. [Note: The volume and issue number (v9 n1) shown on this PDF is incorrect. The correct citation is v9 n2.

  18. The right brain is dominant in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Schore, Allan N


    This article discusses how recent studies of the right brain, which is dominant for the implicit, nonverbal, intuitive, holistic processing of emotional information and social interactions, can elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the relational foundations of psychotherapy. Utilizing the interpersonal neurobiological perspective of regulation theory, I describe the fundamental role of the early developing right brain in relational processes, throughout the life span. I present interdisciplinary evidence documenting right brain functions in early attachment processes, in emotional communications within the therapeutic alliance, in mutual therapeutic enactments, and in therapeutic change processes. This work highlights the fact that the current emphasis on relational processes is shared by, cross-fertilizing, and indeed transforming both psychology and neuroscience, with important consequences for clinical psychological models of psychotherapeutic change. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Analytic and Systemic Specialized Incest Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Henriette Kiilsholm; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    PURPOSE: Women with long-term sequalae of child sexual abuse (CSA) were randomly assigned to analytic (Group A) or systemic group psychotherapy (Group S). Pre-post-analysis indicated that both therapies led to significant improvement, but overall Group S had significantly better outcome than Group...... A. This study investigates if gains are maintained one and five years following termination, and if the groups differ in gains. METHOD: 106 women started on allocated intervention. Psychological distress (GSI from SCL-90R), psycho-social functioning (GAF), and global life quality (GLQ), were...... maintained statistical significant improvement on GSI, GAF and GLQ five years post-treatment. No significant difference was found in gains between groups....

  20. Thirty years of teaching psychotherapy skills. (United States)

    Lewis, J M


    The author outlines a basic model for teaching psychotherapeutic skills that includes five modules relating to (1) the dynamics of exploration, designed to encourage the patient's affective expression; (2) relationship structure, considering patterns of patient-therapist interaction along a closeness/separateness continuum; (3) affect, empathy, and distance regulation, emphasizing the crucial significance of identifying correctly and responding empathically to patients' affective messages; (4) basic cognitive interventions, focused on techniques for facilitating the patient's narrative flow and capacity to analyze experiences, and for formulating the patient's psychopathology; and (5) the therapist's use of self. The author concludes by examining why systematic psychotherapy training is particularly important at this time, in light of such pressures as managed health care, neuroscientific advances and psychopharmacologic breakthroughs, and the wave of self-help organizations.

  1. The use of autobiography in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Sommer, Robert


    First-person narratives may have advantages as adjuncts in psychotherapy. They provide an inside view of mental disorders expressed in the person's own words, emphasize issues that the person deems important, are interesting to read with strong story lines, are less didactic than self-help books, and offer identification with a protagonist. Recent trends in published autobiographies are described. There has been an increase in the number of published autobiographies describing mood disorder relative to schizophrenia, of psychotherapists going public with personal experiences of mental disorder, and of books expressing a positive view of treatment. The article includes case vignettes and a practitioner-recommended list of autobiographies on addictive disorders, death and grieving, and mood disorders. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Analysis of transference in Gestalt group psychotherapy. (United States)

    Frew, J E


    In Gestalt therapy, transference is viewed as a contact boundary disturbance which impairs the patient's ability to accurately perceive the present therapy situation. The boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy most closely related to the analytic notion of transference are projection, introjection, and confluence. In Gestalt group psychotherapy, group members interfere with the process of need identification and satisfaction by distorting their contact with each other through projecting, introjecting, and being confluent. The Gestalt group therapist uses interventions directed to individuals and to the group to increase participants' awareness of these boundary disturbances and of the present contact opportunities available to them when these disturbances are resolved. In formulating interventions, the leader is mindful of the function of boundary disturbances to the group-as-a-whole as well as to individuals.

  3. Reluctance to change and end psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Berg


    Full Text Available Reluctance to change therapy has clinical and economic implications. Therapists are expected to deliver treatment in a oneto- one setting ending up with patient improvement. Such an achievement is difficult to overview. There is great uncertainty as to what works in psychotherapies despite research efforts. Prolonged treatment duration with little positive effect may be caused by factors inherent in therapist and patient and the external environment. Two cases are discussed illustrating the need for better surveillance of what happens in the therapy room. Responsibility for the progress in therapy rests on the shoulders of the therapist. When therapy becomes detrimental to patient and therapist, we do not have a comprehensive system to interfere or help. Delayed recovery emanates as an increase in costs to society and the family. This is the case when return to work after treatment is partly or completely retarded.

  4. Feedback in Group Psychotherapy for Eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig; Lindschou, Jane


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of client feedback in group psychotherapy on attendance and treatment outcome for patients with eating disorders. METHOD: We conducted a randomized clinical trial with central randomization stratified for diagnosis and treatment type according to a computer...... outcome was rate of attendance to treatment sessions; the secondary outcome was severity of eating disorder symptoms measured with the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Exploratory outcomes were psychological distress measured with the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Outcome Rating Scale, social......-generated allocation sequence concealed to the investigators. One-hundred and 59 adult participants, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV, were included. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental group, and 79 participants...

  5. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra


    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  6. Reprint of "The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation." (United States)

    Eysenck, H. J.


    As part of the American Psychological Association's centennial, this article presents a reprint of an original work published in 1952 in the "Journal of Consulting Psychology" examining the evidence relating to the actual effects of psychotherapy. (NB)

  7. Enhancing the Personalization of Psychotherapy With Dynamic Assessment and Modeling. (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron J; Boswell, James F


    Clinicians have long recognized the importance of tailoring psychotherapy interventions to the needs and characteristics of the individual patient. However, traditional approaches to clinical assessment, service delivery, and intervention research have not been conducive to such personalization. Contrary to traditional nomothetic approaches, idiographic assessment and modeling of intraindividual dynamic processes holds tremendous promise for tailoring the implementation of psychotherapy to the individual patient. In this article, we (a) present an argument for assessing person-specific dynamics, (b) provide a detailed description of a method that harnesses person-specific dynamic assessment and modeling for use in routine psychotherapy, (c) present exemplar clinical cases illustrating these methods, and (d) discuss how these methods can be translated into routine clinical assessment and psychotherapy.

  8. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.


    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  9. Effectiveness of psychotherapy for severe somatoform disorder: meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, Jurrijn; Houtveen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/21422841X; Abbass, A.; Eurelings-Bontekoe, L.H.M.; van Broeckhuysen, S.; Luyten, P.; Bühring, M.E.F.; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571


    BACKGROUND: Patients with severe somatoform disorder (in secondary and tertiary care) typically experience functional impairment associated with physical symptoms and mental distress. Although psychotherapy is the preferred treatment, its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated. AIMS: To examine

  10. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions. (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M


    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Hazards of long-term psychotherapy during psychiatric residency. (United States)

    Dubovsky, S L; Scully, J H


    When he laid the groundwork for modern standards of training psychiatrists, Freud (1937) asked, "Where and how is the poor wretch to acquire the ideal qualifications which he will need in his profession? The answer is, in an analysis of himself" (p. 248). Fromm-Reichmann (1950), an equally important influence on psychiatric education, echoed this sentiment when she professed that "any attempt at intensive psychotherapy is fraught with danger, hence unacceptable, where not preceded by the future psychiatrist's personal analysis" (p. 42). Although most psychiatric residencies do not require personal psychotherapy (Pasnau and Russell 1975), many educators and their trainees still consider psychoanalysis or long-term reconstructive psychotherapy at least a valuable experience and at most a necessary step toward becoming a complete psychiatrist. In our experience, however, psychoanalysis and related psychotherapies can have adverse effects during the turmoil of residency training.

  12. Internet and video technology in psychotherapy supervision and training. (United States)

    Wolf, Abraham W


    The seven articles in this special section on the use of Internet and video technology represent the latest growth on one branch of the increasingly prolific and differentiated work in the technology of psychotherapy. In addition to the work presented here on video and the Internet applications to supervision and training, information technology is changing the field of psychotherapy through computer assisted therapies and virtual reality interventions.

  13. Toward a neurobiology of psychotherapy: basic science and clinical applications. (United States)

    Etkin, Amit; Pittenger, Christopher; Polan, H Jonathan; Kandel, Eric R


    Psychotherapy is used commonly to treat a variety of mental illnesses, yet surprisingly little is known about its biological mechanisms especially in comparison with pharmacotherapy. In this review we survey the current knowledge about changes in brain function following psychotherapeutic intervention that are detectable with current neuroimaging techniques. We also consider the possible role for neuroimaging in refining clinical diagnoses and predicting treatment outcome, which would benefit both clinical decision-making and the cognitive neuroscience of psychotherapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Urška Modic


    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative study of helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship in Integrative Psychotherapy. Participants of the study were sixteen clients who were in the process of Integrative Psychotherapy for at least a year. Participants were interviewed with the adapted version of the Change Interview (Elliott, 1999, which involves a semi-structured empathic exploration of the client's experience in therapy. The analysis of the clients’ experience of Integrative Psychotherapy revealed six categories of helpful aspects of therapeutic relationship: the therapist’s empathic attunement, the therapist’s acceptance, the match between the client and the therapist, feelings of trust and safety, feeling of connection, and experience of a new relational experience. Based on results of the research, we developed a model of the healing relationship in integrative psychotherapy. This model describes the interrelatedness of these six helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship. The categories of empathic attunement and acceptance proved to be the most important categories relating to the therapist’s contribution to the healing therapeutic relationship. Clients described that the therapist’s empathic attunement and acceptance influenced the development of safety and trust, feelings of connection and promotion of new relational experiences. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the theories of Integrative Psychotherapy and research regarding the therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy.

  15. Segmented assimilation and attitudes toward psychotherapy: a moderated mediation analysis. (United States)

    Rogers-Sirin, Lauren


    The present study examines the relations between acculturative stress, mental health, and attitudes toward psychotherapy, and whether these relations are the same for immigrants of color and White immigrants. This study predicted that acculturative stress would have a significant, negative relation with attitudes toward psychotherapy and that this relation would be moderated by race (immigrants of color and White immigrants) so that as acculturative stress increases, attitudes toward psychotherapy become more negative for immigrants of color but not White immigrants. Finally, mental health was predicted to mediate the relation between acculturative stress and attitudes toward psychotherapy for immigrants of color, but not White immigrants. Participants were 149 first-generation, immigrant, young adults, between the ages of 18 and 29, who identified as White, Black, Latino, or Asian. A significant negative correlation was found between acculturative stress and attitudes toward psychotherapy. A moderated mediation analysis demonstrated that the negative relation between acculturative stress and attitudes toward psychotherapy was mediated by mental health symptoms for immigrants of color but not White immigrants. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for cluster B personality disorders. (United States)

    Soeteman, Djøra I; Verheul, Roel; Delimon, Jos; Meerman, Anke M M A; van den Eijnden, Ellen; Rossum, Bert V; Ziegler, Uli; Thunnissen, Moniek; Busschbach, Jan J V; Kim, Jane J


    Recommendations on current clinical guidelines are informed by limited economic evidence. A formal economic evaluation of three modalities of psychotherapy for patients with cluster B personality disorders. A probabilistic decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of out-patient, day hospital and in-patient psychotherapy over 5 years in terms of cost per recovered patient-year and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Analyses were conducted from both societal and payer perspectives. From the societal perspective, the most cost-effective choice switched from out-patient to day hospital psychotherapy at a threshold of 12,274 euros per recovered patient-year; and from day hospital to in-patient psychotherapy at 113,298 euros. In terms of cost per QALY, the optimal strategy changed at 56,325 euros and 286,493 euros per QALY respectively. From the payer perspective, the switch points were at 9895 euros and 155,797 euros per recovered patient-year, and 43,427 euros and 561,188 euros per QALY. Out-patient psychotherapy and day hospital psychotherapy are the optimal treatments for patients with cluster B personality disorders in terms of cost per recovered patient-year and cost per QALY.

  17. Reality testing in place of interpretation: a phase in psychoanalytic work with descendants of Holocaust survivors. (United States)

    Grubrich-Simitis, Ilse


    Repetition of experience endured by the first generation has frequently been observed in descendants of Holocaust survivors. Such repetitions are associated with an erosion of the ability, in the area of the trauma, to distinguish more or less reliably between external and internal reality. This in turn results from the defensive need, in the affected families, to dissociate from such extreme traumatic experiences. Clinical material is presented to show that, at a certain phase in psychoanalytic work with patients belonging to subsequent generations, interpretive activity may need to be temporarily suspended in order to facilitate reality testing and the recognition of the Shoah as an objective historical fact.

  18. Psychoanalytic education in the twenty-first century: a syllabus for all seasons. (United States)

    Jacobs, Carl


    I am suggesting that psychoanalytic training facilities restructure their curriculum to include opposing views, in an effort to avoid the inevitable disintegration of the field at large. Without a sense of requirement for any particular viewpoint, I have suggested the model of class modules, usually based around three differing positions, be applied in as many classes as possible. This method enhances the very nature of psychoanalysis while it extends the educational provenance of each separate institute, and specifically each teacher of psychoanalysis. In so doing, candidates across the board will feel and think in a more collegial manner, and may find that learning psychoanalysis is to learn something new and exciting.


    Katz, S Montana


    The Bi-Personal Field: Experiences in Child Psychoanalysis. By Antonino Ferro. New York: Routledge, 1992 (1999). 232 pp. The Intimate Room: Theory and Technique of the Analytic Field. By Giuseppe Civitarese. New York: Routledge, 2008 (2010). 240 pp. The Necessary Dream: New Theories and Techniques of Interpretation in Psychoanalysis. By Giuseppe Civitarese; translated by Ian Harvey. London: Karnac, 2013 (2014). 246 pp. The Analytic Field and Its Transformations. By Antonino Ferro and Giuseppe Civitarese. London: Karnac, 2015. 224 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  20. Beyond Death’s Dream Kingdom: modernity and the psychoanalytic Social Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Turnbull


    Full Text Available The appearance on the historical stage of Western modernity is often understood as an “epochal event” that overturned an earlier pre-modern cultural condition that was premised on the dialectic of life and death and the attempt to forge a suitable balance or harmony between them. As such Western modernity is often viewed as the emergence as a new liberal political order based upon individualism, radical immanence and the emergence of a new calculating subjectivities and governmentalities in ways that led to the rejection of the transcendent, the metaphysical and the theological dimensions of human life. In this paper, using Hans Holbein’s famous painting The Ambassadors as a point of reference and adopting the oblique position in relation to the modern taken up by the artist in this painting, I suggest that in the 20th Century, largely as a result of an awareness of the metaphysical significance of the catastrophe of the First World War, that modern liberalism was thrown into crisis and the old pre-modern metaphysical problematic returned as new focus of social and political concern. With specific reference to the work of Sigmund Freud and later psychoanalytic thinkers who took Freud’s idea of the death drive as their theoretical point of departure, I show how in the 20th century psychoanalytically-informed practitioners attempted to resolve the ancient conflict between the forces of life and death through the creation of an enchanted phantasmagoria of mass consumable objects that were often specifically designed and marketed in order to eroticise the nascent thanatic dimensions of modern life, thereby rendering the latter manageable and ultimately liveable. Drawing on the work of social theorists of the imaginary such as Glibert Durand as well as famous propagandisers of Freud such as Edward Bernays and Ernst Dichter (who saw in Freud’s work the possibility of developing a political technology I will suggest that in the 20th century

  1. Inner and Outer Life at Work. The Roots and Horizon of Psychoanalytically Informed Work Life Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda


    »‚Innen‘ – und ‚Außenleben‘ in der Arbeitswelt. Ursprünge und Potenziale einer psychoanalytisch informierten Arbeitsweltforschung«. The modern labour market has increasingly put the inner working life on the agenda. This stems from a number of societal changes: the knowledge society and its need...... identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research...

  2. Antigone’s Legacy: A Feminist psychoanalytic of an Other Sexual Difference


    Cavanagh, Sheila L.


    Much has been written about Antigone who buried her brother Polynices in Theban soil despite the prohibition issued by King Creon (her uncle) in the Sophocles tragedy. In order to understand the magnitude of Antigone’s radical act in the play by the same name I engage the scholarship of Israeli feminist psychoanalytic scholar Bracha L. Ettinger. By engaging Ettinger’s theory of the Other (Feminine) Sexual Difference, I consider how ways of being in the Feminine tap into the matrixial domain, ...

  3. Effects of Coping-Oriented Couples Therapy on Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Plancherel, Bernard; Beach, Steven R. H.; Widmer, Kathrin; Gabriel, Barbara; Meuwly, Nathalie; Charvoz, Linda; Hautzinger, Martin; Schramm, Elisabeth


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of treating depression with coping-oriented couples therapy (COCT) as compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; A. T. Beck, C. Ward, & M. Mendelson, 1961) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT; M. M. Weissman, J. C. Markowitz, & G. L. Klerman, 2000). Sixty couples, including 1…

  4. Helpful and hindering events in psychotherapy: a practice research network study. (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Boswell, James F; Zack, Sanno E; Baker, Sally; Boutselis, Mary A; Chiswick, Nancy R; Damer, Diana D; Hemmelstein, Neal A; Jackson, Jeffrey S; Morford, Marolyn; Ragusea, Stephen A; Roper, J Gowen; Spayd, Catherine; Weiszer, Tara; Borkovec, Thomas D; Holtforth, Martin Grosse


    This paper presents the findings of a psychotherapy process study conducted within the Pennsylvania Psychological Association Practice Research Network (PPA-PRN). The investigation was the product of a long-term collaborative effort, both in terms of the study design and implementation, between experienced clinicians of various theoretical orientations and full-time psychotherapy researchers. Based on a relatively large sample of clients seen in independent practice settings, close to 1,500 therapeutic events (described by clients and therapists as being particularly helpful or hindering) were collected. These events were coded by three independent observers using a therapy content analysis system. Among the findings, both clients and therapists perceived the fostering of self-awareness as being particularly helpful. The results also point to the importance of paying careful attention to the therapeutic alliance and other significant interpersonal relationships. The merits and difficulties of conducting scientifically rigorous and clinically relevant studies in naturalistic contexts are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Mindful Processing in Psychotherapy - Facilitating Natural Healing Process within Attuned Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc


    Full Text Available Mindfulness is non-judgmental, accepting awareness of what is going on in the present moment. The author proposes that mindfulness promotes natural healing of the organism, where the change comes spontaneously by acceptance and awareness of internal experience. Such process the author describes as ‘mindful processing’, because with mindful awareness disturbing experiences can be processed and integrated. The author’s interest in how mindfulness can be systematically applied in psychotherapy led to the development of the ‘mindful processing’ method, which invites the client to become aware of the moment-to-moment subjective experience. The method is used within attuned therapeutic relationship and thetheoretical framework of Integrative Psychotherapy. Mindful Processing is not goal-oriented and doesn’t strive to achieve a positive outcome. Such an outcome is a natural by-product of accepting awareness of both pleasant and unpleasant inner experience (body sensations, affects and/or thoughts. The method is illustrated with a transcript of a session with commentary.

  6. Psychotherapy Knowledge Translation and Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Using Best-Education Practices to Transform Mental Health Care in Canada and Ethiopia. (United States)

    Ravitz, Paula; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Alem, Atalay; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Park, Jamie; Fefergrad, Mark; Leszcz, Molyn


    Psychotherapies, such as Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), that have proven effective for treating mental disorders mostly lie dormant in consensus-treatment guidelines. Broadly disseminating these psychotherapies by training trainers and front-line health workers could close the gap between mental health needs and access to care. Research in continuing medical education and knowledge translation can inform the design of educational interventions to build capacity for providing psychotherapy to those who need it. This paper summarizes psychotherapy training recommendations that: adapt treatments to cultural and health organizational contexts; consider implementation barriers, including opportunity costs and mental health stigma; and engage local opinion leaders to use longitudinal, interactive, case-based teaching with reflection, skills-coaching, simulations, auditing and feedback. Community-based training projects in Northern Ontario, Canada and Ethiopia illustrate how best-education practices can be implemented to disseminate evidence-supported psychotherapies, such as IPT, to expand the therapeutic repertoire of health care workers and improve their patients' clinical outcomes.


    Fulmer, Richard H


    The period during which grown children leave home and establish a new, self-supporting family is called emerging adulthood. This paper uses psychoanalytic concepts and family-life-cycle theory to analyze the film Rebel without a Cause () as a dramatic example of three families going through this phase. Freud's () rescue-motif of the child trying to save an endangered peer to repay his parents for having been nurtured is also characteristic of this period and is considered practice for parenting the next generation. Proximate conflict and support enable two of the film's families to continue the path to reproduce themselves. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  8. Methodological problems in the psychoanalytic interpretation of literature: a review of studies on Sophocles' Antigone. (United States)

    Werman, D


    Through a critical review of several studies dealing with Sophocles' drama, the Antigone, I have explored some of the prominent methodological problems encountered in the psychoanalytic interpretation of literature. Foremost among these is the inherent difficulty that the interpretation of literature is unable to benefit from the process of the analytic situation. Divorced from the realities of the therapeutic process, the drama itself is often used to corroborate an author's theoretical bias or to advance some special interest, with consequent distortion or blurring of the text. Although data about the artist's life and sociocultural environment may be of crucial significance, it is the text itself that must be the ultimate object of study. Through a re-examination of the Antigone as an aesthetic totality I have sketched out what appears to be an alternative manner of approaching the drama, and suggested that works of art reach us on both unconscious and conscious levels. I have stressed the need to analyze our emotional response to a work as affording a valuable source of insight into the work itself. Throughout, I have drawn attention to the need for greater scholarly rigor and the value of interdisciplinary collaboration. An open recognition of the problems in the psychoanalytic study of literature should serve to minimize dilettantism and raise the level of scholarship.

  9. Psychoanalytic self psychology and its conceptual development in light of developmental psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience. (United States)

    Hartmann, Hans-Peter


    The chapter starts with a historical overview of the subject of narcissism in psychoanalysis. Some sociophilosophical definitions of narcissism are explained and the connection to self psychology is described. It is especially referred to Honneth's Struggle for Recognition, which is related to the need for selfobject experiences. An outline of different concepts concerning narcissism, especially in the European psychoanalytic tradition, follows and leads to a clearer understanding of Kohut's conception of the self and its selfobjects. Because self psychology can often be understood as applied developmental psychology, useful links to attachment research are described and the move to the level of representation by mentalization is clarified. Further development of self psychology in the direction of intersubjectivity helps to supply connections to systems theory. Recently developed theories of empathy with reference to neurobiological findings provide a dynamic perspective of the activation of empathy. Thus, empathy seems to be better understood as a sort of contagion on which cognitive cortical processes are superimposed. Finally, the therapeutic process in psychoanalytic self psychology is portrayed. This process implies a disruption and repair process by which transmuting internalization can take place. More current theories of self psychology view this process in its essence intersubjectively as a co-construction between patient and analyst. The paper concludes with some hints for a paradigm shift in the direction of a more holistic understanding of the self.

  10. A co-vision group between members of the "Laboratorio di Gruppoanalisi" focused on multimodal and community analytic psychotherapy in private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bruschetta


    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience of a groupanalytic group of covision to the psychotherapy, understood as peer analytic supervision, composed of four participants and took place inside the Catania site of the scientific association “Laboratorio odi Gruppoanalisi”. The group of covision in question, with a closed setting (four persons and a fixed term (six sessions, was oriented to the peer supervision of four case (herein described cared through the private practice of psychotherapy, particularly with a focus on those cases that require a psychotherapy in multimodal settings and a therapeutic project co-constructed not only with the patient but also with other family, institutional and / or community commitments. Equality between its members and the consequent reshaping of the leadership role in the group, than in the classic setting of the supervision group, are discussed and presented by the authors through the description of the experience of working on clinical cases brought, the reflection on the process and the peculiar dynamics of the group, and the proposal of specific theoretical elaborations on the transformations and the knowledge that the groupanalytic covision provides access.Keywords: Analytic group; Group-analytic co-visio; Peer supervision; Multimodal setting; Community focused Psychotherapy  

  11. An Integrative Psychotherapy Approach to Foster Community Engagement and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study Illustration. (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H


    This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Psychotherapists' spiritual, religious, atheist or agnostic identity and their practice of psychotherapy: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Magaldi-Dopman, Danielle; Park-Taylor, Jennie; Ponterotto, Joseph G


    In this present grounded theory study, 16 experienced psychologists, who practiced from varied theoretical orientations and came from diverse religious/spiritual/nonreligious backgrounds, explored their personal religious/spiritual/nonreligious identity development journeys, their experiences with clients' religious/spiritual content in psychotherapy sessions, and how their identity may have influenced the way they interacted with religious/spiritual material during sessions. Results revealed that psychologists' spiritual/religious/nonreligious identity is conflicted and complex and that their academic and clinical training did not provide sufficient opportunity to examine how this may affect their therapeutic work. A tentative grounded theory emerged suggesting that psychologists both identified with and were activated by clients' spiritual/religious conflicts and their internal experiences about the spiritual/religious content, both of which presented significant challenges to therapeutic work.

  13. Relative efficacy of psychotherapy and combined therapy in the treatment of depression: A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, S.M.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Jonghe, de F.


    0.001). Conclusions In the acute treatment of adult psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder, patient compliance with combined therapy matches compliance with psychotherapy alone. Combined therapy is more efficacious than psychotherapy alone. However, these results depend on severity

  14. Clinical Thanatology and Psychotherapy: Some Reflections on Caring for the Dying Person. (United States)

    Feigenberg, Loma; Shneidman, Edwin S.


    Explores the relationship between psychotherapy and clinical thanatology relative to working with dying patients and their survivors. Eight special characteristics of thanatological exchanges are explained including comments on time, transference, aspirations, and empathy. Conversation, heirarchical exchange, psychotherapy, and thanatological…

  15. Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy. (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Bolt, Olivia C; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Margraf, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Frank H


    Behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders is believed to rely on fear extinction. Because preclinical studies have shown that glucocorticoids can promote extinction processes, we aimed at investigating whether the administration of these hormones might be useful in enhancing exposure therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with specific phobia for heights were treated with three sessions of exposure therapy using virtual reality exposure to heights. Cortisol (20 mg) or placebo was administered orally 1 h before each of the treatment sessions. Subjects returned for a posttreatment assessment 3-5 d after the last treatment session and for a follow-up assessment after 1 mo. Adding cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in fear of heights as measured with the acrophobia questionnaire (AQ) both at posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with placebo. Furthermore, subjects receiving cortisol showed a significantly greater reduction in acute anxiety during virtual exposure to a phobic situation at posttreatment and a significantly smaller exposure-induced increase in skin conductance level at follow-up. The present findings indicate that the administration of cortisol can enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

  16. Was ist eine erfolgreiche Psychotherapie? Was ist erfolgreich in der Psychotherapie? (United States)



    What Is Successful Treatment? What Is Success in Therapy? - Observations on Psychotherapy ResearchThe author raises the following questions: What are the criteria for the evaluation of successful psychotherapeutic treatment? Which are the suitable research methods for the assessment of psychotherapeutic success? He proposes a research paradigm based on multiple criteria and multiple methods. Psychotherapeutic treatment success must be assessed on different levels: aetiology of disease, disease as nosologic category (e. g. depression), symptomatology, consequences (psychic, physical, social, economical) of disease. He further develops a research logic that is multimethodical: Results from different research methods must be aggregated on the basis of convergent findings. The three 'key research methods' in psychotherapy research are: single-case studies, controlled trials, naturalistic catamnestic research. Statements about any psychotherapeutic method or intervention strategy are only valid when results from these different study types converge. It may be a very severe bias when findings from only one study type (e. g. controlled trials) are generalised as a final verdict on certain psychotherapeutic methods.

  17. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut ŠKODLAR


    Full Text Available Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a process of limitless idealization, and the search for a panacea. This all flows with a tint of colonialism, presumptuously taking over ideas, concepts and techniques without a proper study of the primary sources, and with all the accompanying negative side-effects: profiteering, self-promotion, unethical conduct, empty promises of instant rewards, and so on. In the present paper, the development of interest in mindfulness in psychotherapy, as well as the research findings and dilemmas, and concepts and mechanisms of applying mindfulness in psychotherapy, will be reviewed. The main purpose of the paper is to contribute to the critical reflection in studying and applying mindfulness in psychotherapy.

  18. Integrative Treatment of Personality Disorder. Part I: Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Jovanovic, Mirjana Divac; Svrakic, Dragan


    In this paper, we outline the concept of integrative therapy of borderline personality, also referred to as fragmented personality, which we consider to be the core psychopathology underlying all clinical subtypes of personality disorder. Hence, the terms borderline personality, borderline disorder, fragmented personality, and personality disorder are used interchangeably, as synonyms. Our integrative approach combines pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, each specifically tailored to accomplish a positive feedback modulation of their respective effects. We argue that pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of personality disorder complement each other. Pharmacological control of disruptive affects clears the stage, in some cases builds the stage, for the psychotherapeutic process to take place. In turn, psychotherapy promotes integration of personality fragments into more cohesive structures of self and identity, ultimately establishing self-regulation of mood and anxiety. We introduce our original method of psychotherapy, called reconstructive interpersonal therapy (RIT). The RIT integrates humanistic-existential and psychodynamic paradigms, and is thereby designed to accomplish a deep reconstruction of core psychopathology within the setting of high structure. We review and comment the current literature on the strategies, goals, therapy process, priorities, and phases of psychotherapy of borderline disorders, and describe in detail the fundamental principles of RIT.

  19. A supervisão na formação do analista e do psicoterapeuta psicanalítico The supervision in the training of psychoanalytical psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Alvim Saraiva


    Full Text Available Este artigo consiste na revisão sistemática da literatura brasileira sobre supervisão em psicanálise e psicoterapia psicanalítica, em periódicos científicos referenciados entre 2001 e 2006 nas bases de dados eletrônicas Lilacs, Scielo, Pepsic e Indexpsi, e localizada a partir do descritor supervisão psic$. A busca resultou em 64 artigos, posteriormente reduzidos para 13, em função de criteriosa leitura e descarte daqueles que não abordavam diretamente o tema. Os treze artigos foram lidos novamente e submetidos à análise de conteúdo, configurando 11 categorias de discussão. Concluiu-se que: poucos estudos que tratam do tema da supervisão assumem o formato de pesquisas empíricas; artigos não discutem os passos que supervisor e supervisionando devem seguir para atingir os objetivos desejados; as patologias na atualidade são discutidas, mas não há sugestões de mudanças na técnica e na estratégia da supervisão; poucos artigos trazem como foco o aspecto controle da supervisão; artigos com exemplos de casos não mencionam consentimento informado do paciente.The present paper is a systematic review of the Brazilian literature regarding supervision in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytical psychotherapy, in scientific journals indexed between 2001 and 2006 in the electronic databases Lilacs, Scielo, Pepsic, Indexpsi. The descriptor supervisão psic$ led to 64 articles which were reduced for 13, after a careful examination that disregarded those in which the theme was not approached directly. The articles were reread and categorized per content analysis method. Eleven categories of discussion emerged. Results show: few studies that focused supervision were empirical researches; articles do not mention the steps that supervisor and supervisee need to follow to reach the desirable objectives; new pathologies are mentioned but there are no suggestions about technical changes in supervision strategies to deal with them; few articles

  20. The Bible as Transformational Object: The Psychoanalytic Theories of Christopher Bollas and Their Relevance for Religious Educators (United States)

    DeGear, Elizabeth Berne


    This article examines the psychoanalytic concepts of object-relations theorist Christopher Bollas, applying them to a view of the Bible as "transformational object." Emphasizing the connection between psychological process and religious experience, this article suggests that each person's innate ability to choose and use objects is a key…

  1. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  2. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.


    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  3. The current status of the psychoanalytic theory of instinctual drives. I: Drive concept, classification, and development. (United States)

    Compton, A


    The evolution of Freud's theory of instinctual drives, with the accompanying models of a mental apparatus, is remarkable for its tenacious adherence to addressing the fundamental problems of human psychology, here phrased as the problems of body-mind-environment relationships. The concept of instinctual drives continues to be one of the most pervasive concepts of psychoanalysis, weathering considerable attack over the last several decades, although losing some clarity in the process. I have cited and discussed as basic issues of the concept of instinctual drives: the relationship of observational data and theoretical constructs in psychology; whether our construct of drives is or should be or can be purely psychological; the problem of conceptualizing the ontogenetic origin of mind; the issues of the "force-meaning conjunction" and the problem of psychic energy in psychoanalytic constructs; and the relation of our concept of instinctual drives to the concept of instincts in general. It seems that progress with these fundamental issues might be made by utilizing models that are more homologous with present knowledge in related fields than is Freud's reflex arc model of the nervous system, in order to build a better drive construct within the framework of psychoanalysis. The classification of instinctual drives remains a problem. Clinically, aggression seems to be a factor in conflict, very much like sexuality. Despite widespread acceptance of the idea of aggression as simply parallel to sexuality in all respects, there are major discrepancies. Perhaps aggression cannot be viewed as a drive after all; perhaps our drive construct needs to be modified to accommodate aggression. Certainly, controversy in this area has interfered with the production of good clinical studies which could begin to increase our understanding of aggression and its place in the human personality. The psychoanalytic theory of drive development has probably undergone less change in the last

  4. Hierarchical Recursive Organization and the Free Energy Principle: From Biological Self-Organization to the Psychoanalytic Mind. (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick; van Deventer, Vasi


    The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis. Consequently, central psychoanalytic claims should be restated, in order to be located in their proper place within a hierarchical recursive organization of the (situated) organism. In light of the FEP the realization of the psychoanalytic mind by the brain should be seen in terms of the evolution of different levels of systematic organization where the concepts of psychoanalysis describe a level of hierarchical recursive organization superordinate to that of biological self-organization and the FEP. The implication of this formulation is that while "psychoanalytic" mental processes are fundamentally subject to the FEP, they nonetheless also add their own principles of process over and above that of the FEP. A model found in Grobbelaar (1989) offers a recursive bottom-up description of the self-organization of the psychoanalytic ego as dependent on the organization of language (and affect), which is itself founded upon the tendency toward autopoiesis (self-making) within the organism, which is in turn described as formally similar to the FEP. Meaningful consilience between Grobbelaar's model and the hierarchical recursive description available in Friston's (2010a) theory is described. The paper concludes that the valuable contribution of the FEP to psychoanalysis underscores the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine


    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 4th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, April 17, 2009. In speaking to the conference theme of “Acute Trauma, Cumulative Neglect, and Chronic Stress” the article describes some of the principles of Relational Group Psychotherapy. The theory of methods is based on the concept that the healing of trauma, neglect and stress occurs through a contactful therapeutic relationship. Relational group psychotherapy draws from several developments in group therapy, particularly the cybernetic feedback and other-centered models. It emphasizes the healing power of relationships between group members and the importance of phenomenological inquiry, affective attunement, identification, and relational-needs. The leader’s tasks are to stimulate the flow of contactful dialogue and to teach about human needs and healthy relationships.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelita Gomes Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Online psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy conducted by means of synchronous Internet sessions that are still not allowed in Brazil, except in a few instances defined by the Resolution 011/2012 of the Federal Council of Psychology. Such restriction is based on the understanding that the research available is insufficient to authorize a widespread use of this type of service. Studies on therapeutic alliance in psychological care provided exclusively over the internet show that the establishment of the therapeutic relationship in synchronous online calls occurs much like it does in face-to-face therapeutic processes, considering both, its benefits and challenges. This article aims to broaden the understanding of the online psychotherapy and to question its prohibition, signaling the dangers it entails, vis-a-vis the increasing demand for the service and its widespread use in disregard with the current restrictions. This article also makes suggestions for the regulation of the service in Brazil.

  7. Criteria of Progress in Child Psychotherapies According to Psychotherapists

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    Lilian Pereira de Medeiros Guimarães


    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform a survey with psychotherapists, regarding the criteria they consider relevant to measure the progress of children in psychotherapy and whether the criteria indicated by them differ according to the therapist’s theoretical approach. Therapists were contacted electronically and answered a questionnaire composed of items with criteria of positive change present in the literature. Participants were 154 child therapists from different regions of Brazil. The analysis regarding the criteria of positive change that the participants indicated and their theoretical approach suggested that, despite the theoretical differences, in practice psychotherapists seem to adopt similar criteria to interpret progress in child psychotherapies. The criteria mentioned may be useful for a better systematization of the psychotherapy techniques for children. However, due to the lack of elements to evaluate the sample’s representativeness, caution is advised in generalizing the results.

  8. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva


    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  9. Reducing the dreaded: change of avoidance motivation in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Grawe, Klaus; Egger, Oliver; Berking, Matthias


    Abstract All humans avoid aversive experiences. Avoidance motivational goals are defined as ontogenetically developed mental representations of avoided transactions, and avoidance motivation as the totality of an individual's avoidance motivational goals. Based on previous research, avoidance motivation is hypothesized to contribute to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The authors tested the hypotheses that the intensity of avoidance motivation is reduced by outpatient psychotherapy, that the intensity of avoidance motivation after therapy approaches normality, and that change in avoidance motivation is related to other kinds of therapy outcomes. Seventy-six outpatients completed a self-report measure of avoidance motivational goals before and after therapy. All hypotheses were confirmed. Explorative analyses found differential patterns of change of avoidance motivational goals as well as relationships with psychotherapy outcomes. The authors discuss the role of avoidance motivation in psychotherapy practice and research and outline areas for future research.

  10. Virtual reality as a new imaginative tool in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Vincelli, F; Riva, G


    Imagination, experience and memory play a central role in psychotherapy. These elements are fundamental in the life of everyone but also in the etiology of many psychological disturbance. Thanks to Virtual Reality (VR) it is possible to transcend the absolute and relative limits linked to individual potential. The imagines re-created through VR may be more vivid and real than the one that most subjects are able to describe through their own imagination and their own memory. In this chapter we focus the attention on imaginative techniques to find new ways of applications in psychotherapy. We will explore the way VR can be used to improve the efficacy of traditional techniques. VR produces a change with respect to the traditional relationship between client and therapist. Virtual experiences is a third way between "in imagination" and "in vivo" techniques in psychotherapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Burgal Juanmartí


    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation is the efficacy comparison of the different psychotherapies for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, with the aim of analyzing and understanding which therapies obtain better results and why. To this end, a systematic review was carried out on the current psychotherapies for BPD. First of all, the results showed that the psychotherapies most used for BPD were Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT, Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT and Schema-Based Therapy (SBT, among others, and all of them were efficacious. It should be noted that each of these therapies, as shown in the results, was efficacious in treating various symptoms, such as parasuicidal behavior control, however, some aspects such as emotional regulation were still resistant to treatment in many cases. Therefore, further investigations should be carried out to include elements of emotional regulation and measuring their efficacy.

  12. Psychodynamic psychotherapy and clomipramine in the treatment of major depression. (United States)

    Burnand, Yvonne; Andreoli, Antonio; Kolatte, Evelyne; Venturini, Aurora; Rosset, Nicole


    The authors compared a combination of clomipramine and psychodynamic psychotherapy with clomipramine alone in a randomized controlled trial among patients with major depression. Seventy-four patients between the ages of 20 and 65 years who were assigned to ten weeks of acute outpatient treatment for major depression were studied. Bipolar disorder, psychotic symptoms, severe substance dependence, organic disorder, past intolerance to clomipramine, and mental retardation were exclusion criteria. Marked improvement was noted in both treatment groups. Combined treatment was associated with less treatment failure and better work adjustment at ten weeks and with better global functioning and lower hospitalization rates at discharge. A cost savings of 2,311 dollars per patient in the combined treatment group, associated with lower rates of hospitalization and fewer lost work days, exceeded the expenditures related to providing psychotherapy. Provision of supplemental psychodynamic psychotherapy to patients with major depression who are receiving antidepressant medication is cost-effective.

  13. [Tora Sandström and the history of psychotherapy in Sweden]. (United States)

    Qvarsell, R


    During the first decades of the 20th century several different kinds of psychotherapeutical technics were used among therapists working on the medical market place. Within the mental hospitals most of the patients did not get any kind of therapy at all, except occupational therapy and sedative drugs. The psychoanalytical theory was in Sweden as in many other countries received with very little enthusiasm and some psychiatrists even wrote articles and books where they tried to prove that Freud was totally wrong. Even if some of Freuds books were translated during the 1920s they did not influence the psychological and psychiatric debate until the 1930s. At the middle of the decade an association for psychoanalysis was established and several famous therapists visited the country and held lectures and courses. Especially among those psychiatrists working with children the interest in psycoanalytical thinking was growing very fast. But many of the other therapists seemed to be more interested in Alfred Adler than in Sigmund Freud and not so few tried to develop a psychological theory and a psychotherapeutical technic of their own. One of these pspychotherapists with a formal education from Vienna but mostly working with her own theory was Tora Sandström. Tora Sandström (1886-1949) established herself as a psychotherapist and with consultation rooms in Stockholm at the middle of the 1930s. Before that, but after her education in Vienna, she had written a psychobiography of the female novelist Victoria Benedictsson. She wanted the book to be accepted as a Ph.D. thesis, but it was rejected. During the following years she wrote two books about the importance of aggressiveness for the psychological development of children. During the 1940s Tora Sandström openly rejected the freudian theory, although she was still practising as a psychotherapist. Many of her colleagues seemed to join her in this escape from the freudian fold and in the intense discussion about the nature

  14. Basics of the ascetical (christian) psychotherapy. (United States)

    Ilievski, N


    It is obvious that contemporary man is suffering. His sufferings often seem pointless and causeless. Modern science more and more comes to reveal and acknowledge that human sufferings have a psychosomatic basis. In some of the cases, these sufferings are noogenic neuroses. They do not originate from the psychological dimension but from the noological or spiritual one of human existence. The pointlessness of life is the basic cause for the noogenic neurosis and depression from which the humankind suffers. e. Hence, the many escapes from such experienced reality into various addictions. Possible way towards healing is to retrieve one's meaning of life, to strengthen his will to meaning. Religion has always been - and still remains - a powerful and appealing purpose that fulfills the life and being of the believers. This article demonstrates the systematization of the spiritual development of a person presented in a table of the harmony of the ascetic-hesychastic struggle, according which everyone can find his place on the ladder of spiritual development, become aware, and reconciliate the mode of personal struggle according to his spiritual development. The reconciliation of the primary function of the mind with its secondary function - the intellect, is of an essential importance. Contemporary religious psychology do not regard man merely as a biological or a psychological being. The subject matter of research is the human being as a whole, as a spiritual person that is characterized by autonomy, regarding the biological and psychological processes. The importance of understanding the spiritual level of human existence enables holistic approach and experiencing of the human personality as a whole. Furthermore, it offers new perspectives of psychotherapeutic action not only within the range of the classical psychotherapeutic modalities but also within the range of the applied Christian Psychotherapy.

  15. The renewal of humanism in European psychotherapy: developments and applications. (United States)

    Längle, Alfried A; Kriz, Jürgen


    In Europe, humanistic psychotherapy is becoming increasingly widespread. Not only are the explicitly "humanistic" psychotherapies being robustly used, they are increasingly being integrated into approaches not traditionally viewed as humanistic. One can therefore observe a progression in the personalization of methodology within European modes of practice. In the past several decades, humanistic psychology has inspired the expanding use of existential-phenomenological modes of practice. This theoretical base, coupled with recent trends in person-centered systems theory, points toward an invigorating future for humanistic forms of practice in Europe, despite the political trends toward psychotherapeutic practice in Germany. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Spiritual energy of Islamic prayers as a catalyst for psychotherapy. (United States)

    Henry, Hani M


    Islamic prayers can produce spiritual energy that may yield many psychological benefits, such as amelioration of stress and improvement in subjective well-being, interpersonal sensitivity, and mastery. Islamic prayers can also be integrated into mainstream therapeutic interventions with religious Muslim clients, and this integration can mobilize, transform, and invigorate the process of psychotherapy. This paper provides methods that can be used for the explicit integration of Islamic prayers into traditional psychotherapy. Further, the paper offers strategies for avoiding potential pitfalls that may hamper this process. Finally, a case study illustrating this therapeutic integration and its psychological benefits will be presented.

  17. Benefits and Challenges of Conducting Psychotherapy by Telephone


    Brenes, Gretchen A.; Ingram, Cobi W.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.


    Telephone-delivered psychotherapy has increased utility as a method of service delivery in the current world, where a number of barriers, including economic hardships and limited access to care, may prevent people from receiving the treatment they need. This method of service provision is practical and has the potential to reach large numbers of underserved people in a cost-effective manner. The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art of telephone-delivered psychotherapy and to id...

  18. Psychotherapy: Adaptation or Walking Together? (A Roadside Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bychkova


    Full Text Available The article concerns psychotherapeutic work in the perspective of existential approach. Two trends are discerned in modern psychotherapy regardless of the known division into different schools – the adaptation therapy, and the one viewing a person in the context of his Personal being in the world. Therapy here is understood as the Way of mutual personal growth of both the therapist and the client. Distinction is singled out as one of the central points in forming the meanings, essential for both the normal development of a child and in psychotherapy, and remaining significant for spiritual growth in adults. 

  19. Shifting sexual cultures, the potential space of online relations, and the promise of psychoanalytic listening. (United States)

    Corbett, Ken


    How we listen to the potential space of online relations is rapidly becoming part of our daily work. Two treatments are examined where themes of sexual shame, repression, and relational difficulties were found and refound through online relating and hooking-up. Consideration is given to the ways in which online exploration opens a potential space that affords sexual practice and the reach of relationality. Moving with these patients into this potential space opened onto an intriguing and productive relational field. These cases help illuminate a shift in our modern social order, and how that shift has followed on a reconsideration of our psychoanalytic ideals about sexual well-being. We are now positioned to reflect not only on the evolution and revolution of our shifting sexual cultures, including the increasing role of technology in our modern relational world, but on how this new world finds its way into our consulting rooms.

  20. Memory, Identity and Desire: A Psychoanalytic Reading of David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Akser


    Full Text Available This is a reading of David Mulholland Drive through psychoanalytic approach of Lacan from the perspective of formation of fantasy and shifting identities. Lynch constructs his films consciously choosing his themes from the sub(versive/conscious side of human mind. Previous attempts to read Lynch's films are fixed around the idea that Lynch is using film genres to create postmodern pastiches. Mulholland Drive has been analyzed several times from different approaches ranging from gender (Love, 2004, narratology (Lentzner, 2005; McGowan, 2004; Cook, 2011. Elements of film noir, musical, caper films can be identified in Lynch’s films. This detailed textual analysis intends to rationalize Lynch’s narrative structure through Lacanian terms in reference to Zizekian terminology.