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Sample records for psychoanalytic object relations

  1. Encountering a cartwheeling princess: relational psychoanalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was conducted to demonstrate the use and process of contemporary relational psychoanalytic child therapy to address the interpersonal implications of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and interlinked insecure attachment processes. Method: This therapy case study explicates the seven-month ...

  2. Pichon Rivière's psychoanalytic contributions: Some comparisons with object relations and modern developments in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, David E; Losso, Roberto; Setton, Lea

    2017-02-01

    Enrique Pichon Rivière's work, fundamental to Latin American and European psychoanalytic development, is largely unknown in English-language psychoanalysis. Pichon's central contribution, the link (el vinculo), describes relational bonds in all dimensions. People are born into, live in, and relate through links. Psychic structure is built of links that then influence external interaction. Links, expressed in mind, body and external action, continuously join internal and external worlds. Links have two axes: vertical axis links connect generations through unconscious transgenerational transmission; horizontal axis links connect persons to life partners, family, community and society. For Pichon, treatment constitutes a spiral process through which interpretation disrupts existent structures, promoting new emergent organizations at successively deeper levels. Psychic and link structures evolve over time unless repetitive cycles stunt growth. For Pichon, transference is constituted in the here-and-now-with-me because of the analytic link. Pichon also undertook family and group psychoanalysis where individuals become spokespersons for unconscious links and family secrets. He developed operative groups that apply psychoanalysis to both analytic and non-analytic tasks. After describing Pichon's major contributions, the paper compares Pichon Rivière's ideas with those of Klein, Fairbairn, Bion, Winnicott and Bowlby, and contemporary writers including Ogden, Kaës, and Ferro whose works echo Pichon Rivière's thought. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. The Bible as Transformational Object: The Psychoanalytic Theories of Christopher Bollas and Their Relevance for Religious Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGear, Elizabeth Berne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the psychoanalytic concepts of object-relations theorist Christopher Bollas, applying them to a view of the Bible as "transformational object." Emphasizing the connection between psychological process and religious experience, this article suggests that each person's innate ability to choose and use objects is a key…

  4. Lost objects: from the laboratories of hypnosis to the psychoanalytic setting.

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    Mayer, Andreas

    2006-03-01

    The psychoanalytic setting counts today as one of the familiar therapeutic rituals of the Western world. Taking up some of the insights of the anthropology of science will allow us to account for both the social and the material arrangements from which Freud's invention emerged at the end of the nineteenth century out of the clinical laboratories and private consulting rooms of practitioners of hypnosis. The peculiar way of neglecting or forgetting the object world and the institution of the psychoanalyst as a "transference object" will be traced back to multiple reconfigurations in the history of hypnotism in France and in Germany. In this process, different practitioners tried to achieve a synthesis of clinical work and experimental psychology, with the aim of objectifying knowledge about human subjectivity. While Freud retained the claim of psychoanalysis performing an experimental situation, he set apart his own setting from the objectifying practices which were characteristic of this experimental psychology located in the clinic and the private consulting room.

  5. Uma concepção psicanalítica de personalidade: teoria das relações objetais de Fairbairn Una concepción psicoanalítica de la personalidad: la teoría de las relaciones objetales de Fairbairn A psychoanalytical conception of personality: Fairbairn's object-relations theory

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    Luiz Augusto M. Celes

    2008-03-01

    propone realizar en la teoría psicoanalítica en función de la concepción de la meta libidinal como sujeto.The main purpose of this essay is to develop the idea that the object-relations theory, introduced in the psychoanalytical movement as an opposition to the libido theory as basis to psychic constitution, produced a radical change in the psychoanalytical concept of subjects. Change is represented by the quitting of the drive as a subject foundation and by the apprehension and comprehension of subjects as personalities, or rather, substantially structured. In terms of methodology, the main work by William Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964 was analyzed and taken as paradigmatic for all object-relations theories. The evolution of Fairbairn's thoughts, from his studies on schizophrenia - and the contradiction it brought to the contemporary libido theory - to the changes and overcoming the author proposed to accomplish in psychoanalytical theory, as a result of his finding that the libidinal goal is an object, are presented.

  6. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies

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    Jochem eWillemsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or ‘Classical psychoanalysis’ dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  7. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725

  8. [Personality disorders and psychoanalytic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    The author review object-relational theories of personality disorders as well as current standard psychotherapies borderline personality disorder, several of them. Although psychoanalytic approach theoretical understanding patients with borderline personality disorder, in practice applicability. With other types of personality disorders, however, psychoanalytic approach offered a variety of personality models that are pertinent and useful yet relatively unutilized in present day psychiatrynotion "basic fault" (M. Balint), "false self" (D.W. Winnicott), and "the psychotic part of the personality" (W.R. Bion). The last has developed into more complicated personality models in one of which the destructive part was idealized and worshiped the dependent part with the potential of growth was captured (H. Rosenfeld). This model is a forerunner of the idea of "pathological organization" (J. Steiner). Bion has also a universal therapeutic factor in psychotherapy. The author suggests that psychoanalytic approach based on emotional contact and transference-countertransference relationship has research value and can provide therapeutic models.

  9. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    . Pain deprived of meaning is buried as neurosis. As we see in John's story, experience that cannot be integrated at the time is locked away from whatever developmental progression has occurred. Intolerable affects and ideas require particular circumstances of object relation and verbalization such as are found in the context of psychoanalysis and arrived at through psychoanalytic interpretation. Or, as in John's case, they may give way only slowly and irregularly over long stretches of time, when subjected to life experiences in the company of new object relations. Broadly stated, the Freud-Dann paper helps us to appreciate that there are several pathways of protection and growth in the ego that involve the discovery or construction of new objects. Family-romance fantasies are a common manifestation of new-object phenomena. Transitional object phenomena are also related. For some individuals at a particular time or over a span of time, providing the right circumstances for the resumption of maturational and developmental growth is all it takes to make them whole. Changes in the adaptive ego are sufficient to alleviate the conflicts stemming from the neurotic ego. For others, depending upon the degree of their neurotic impairment, or for the same individual under other circumstances, therapeutic change in the deepest sense demands the relatively unconditional presence of the interactive and interpreting other. Children of the storm who come in for shelter and warmth may thrive, but they also require a means of getting at the storm in their core that has been internalized as part of the ego's survival mechanism. What can be extracted from the poignant story of the Bulldogs Bank children about current child-analytic technique? The psychoanalytic piano now may be more formally conceptualized as having white as well as black keys. Most analyses, adult and child, have been conducted as though the "black keys"--pressure to mastery through repetition and its subsequent

  10. The Psychoanalytic Interpretation of the Organizational Environment as a Management Tool for Sustainable Development

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    Khripko Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes contemporary materials and structures for sustainable development of organizational environment. Psychoanalytic modeling of organizational behavior makes it possible to identify out reflection, unconscious tendencies in individual, group and corporate behavior. This enables to significantly increase the effectiveness of measures for personnel management. Organizational Environment Researches base on psychoanalytic theory of object relations.

  11. Phantastic objects and the financial market's sense of reality: a psychoanalytic contribution to the understanding of stock market instability.

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    Tuckett, David; Taffler, Richard

    2008-04-01

    This paper sets out to explore if standard psychoanalytic thinking based on clinical experience can illuminate instability in financial markets and its widespread human consequences. Buying, holding or selling financial assets in conditions of inherent uncertainty and ambiguity, it is argued, necessarily implies an ambivalent emotional and phantasy relationship to them. Based on the evidence of historical accounts, supplemented by some interviewing, the authors suggest a psychoanalytic approach focusing on unconscious phantasy relationships, states of mind, and unconscious group functioning can explain some outstanding questions about financial bubbles which cannot be explained with mainstream economic theories. The authors also suggest some institutional features of financial markets which may ordinarily increase or decrease the likelihood that financial decisions result from splitting off those thoughts which give rise to painful emotions. Splitting would increase the future risk of financial instability and in this respect the theory with which economic agents in such markets approach their work is important. An interdisciplinary theory recognizing and making possible the integration of emotional experience may be more useful to economic agents than the present mainstream theories which contrast rational and irrational decision-making and model them as making consistent decisions on the basis of reasoning alone.

  12. A critique of research in psychoanalytic theory.

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    Masling, J; Schwartz, M

    1979-11-01

    The relationship between psychoanalytic theory and the experimental method is examined, with particular reference to the empirical studies on the oral and anal phases of development. The deficiencies in the design and conceptualization of many studies are discussed, as well as confusions in the writing of psychoanalytic theory. A central issue in bringing the experimental method to psychoanalytic theory is the question: What is being tested? A list of all projective and objective tests used to assess orality and anality is provided.

  13. Theory and practice in psychoanalysis: psychoanalytic praxis. 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleger, José

    2012-08-01

    The author systematises and examines the relation between theory and practice in psychoanalysis in three directions: one, eminently epistemological, which is only mentioned because it pertains not only to psychoanalysis but to all the sciences; another, the relation between theory and technique; and the third, the relation between theory and the institutional organisation of psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts. All the problems described, especially the second and third points, together define psychoanalytic praxis. With regard to contradictions between theory and technique, the author points out that psychoanalytic theory is constructed fundamentally on the basis of an approach that is historico-genetic, dynamic and consistent with formal logic, whereas psychoanalytic practice occurs within a transference–countertransference relation, in a situation configured as an analytic field, a ‘here and now’, within a dramatic explanation and in a dialectic process. This triple diagnosis involves naturalistic and phenomenological approaches, the problem of objectivity and the role given to sexuality as a privileged parameter in psychoanalytic theory. In relation to the third direction mentioned above,the author refers briefly to the problem of psychoanalytic organisations, in the sense that they come into conflict with the development of psychoanalytic theory and the deepening of investigation. In reference to the latter, the author emphasises the need to widen the perspective of what constitutes psychoanalytic praxis. He points out that praxis is always replete with contradictions and that it is not a question of ignoring,denying or impeding these contradictions themselves (which would in any case be totally ineffective), but that by taking them into account, scientific development could be managed in a more planned way, less blindly; that is to say, less abandoned to spontaneity.

  14. [The ethics of psychoanalytic technique].

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    Treurniet, N

    1996-01-01

    The ethic of psychoanalytic technique which goes back to Freud and emphasizes the importance of anonymity, abstinence, neutrality and the central role of interpretation is subjected to a critical examination. The author traces the changes that have taken place since Freud and proposes a new ethic of psychoanalytic technique. Proceeding from the theory of object relations, Treurniet stresses the symmetrical relationship between analyst and analysand permitting both to assume a "meta-position" in order to reflect on the analysis material. The author further suggests that, beyond the projections of the analysand, the analyst should be open to his own subjectivity, as this openness is the key to the essential feature of analytic procedure, the enactment of countertransference. Finally, Treurniet reformulates his advocacy of a non-intrusive, affirmative attitude on the part of the analyst, a spontaneous willingness to "fall into the analysand's trap", an ability to oscillate between acting-out and introspection, to live out countertransference involuntarily and finally to incorporate the non-ideal into his conscience. These rules of technique must be controlled not only by the conscience and the countertransference of the analyst, but also--apart from intervision and consultation with collegues--by the analysand himself, whose opinion of the analytic situation the analyst should ask for.

  15. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, D.J.; Hakkaart-Van Roijen, Leona

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility

  16. Psychoanalytic peregrinations. II: Psychoanalysis as science and art.

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    Chessick, Richard D

    2002-01-01

    The foundations of psychoanalytic clinical practice involve the role of fantasy, creativity, and imagination as well as the natural science aspects of psychoanalysis. There is a common ground for psychoanalytic technique and we should not in a "politically correct" manner, as is so popular today, abandon the philosophical or Platonic foundationalism that lies at the basis of Freud's psychoanalytic practices. Although it is a "politically incorrect" view, a reasonable degree of objectivity and scientific validity is attainable by the relatively neutral psychoanalyst, using both natural science observations as well as introspection and hermeneutics. Furthermore, since psychoanalysis is fundamentally a creative activity, the roots of creativity require exploration and careful study. Subjective and first person methodologies such as Freud's psychoanalysis and phenomenology cannot be ignored in our search for the core of the self of each of our patients.

  17. Mourning and psychosis: a psychoanalytic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizón, Jorge L

    2010-12-01

    The author attempts to develop some of the basic models and concepts relating to mourning processes in psychotic patients on the assumption that situations of loss and mourning are key moments for psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and therapeutic approaches in general. Secondly, he reminds us that 'mourning processes in psychotics' are not always 'psychotic mourning processes', that is to say, that they do not necessarily occur within, or give rise to, a psychotic clinical picture. These ideas are illustrated by a number of sessions and vignettes concerning two psychotic patients in psychotherapeutic and psychoanalytic treatment. In theoretical terms, it seems vitally important in this context to combine a relationship-based approach within a framework of special psychoanalytic psychopathology with an updated view of processes of mourning and affective loss. A fundamental requirement at clinical level is to determine the role to be played by psychoanalytically based treatments in combined, integrated or global therapies when working with psychotic patients. For this purpose, the paper ends by outlining a set of principles and objectives for such treatments. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. The French model of psychoanalytic training: Ethical conflicts.

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    François-Poncet, Claire-Marine

    2009-12-01

    Research on psychoanalytical education within the IPA may be clarified by reflecting on the ethic behind each of the three main models (Eitingonian, French and Uruguayan). In fact, the ethic underpinning psychoanalytical education, whatever the model, is confronted by irreducible conflicts between transmitting psychoanalysis by means of analytical experience or by means of academic teaching. Transmission by experience is essentially based on the ethic of psychoanalytic practice, which is difficult to regulate through institutional standards, whereas the academic aspect can be evaluated by objective and public criteria. The importance of both aspects and their relative weight in the training process depend on the conception of psychoanalysis underlying each model. This paper will look primarily at the French training model, the essentially analytical aspects of which favour the transmission of the very ethical foundations of psychoanalytic practice itself: the application of the method both as a working tool and as a tool of evaluation. It presupposes expanding the observation and analysis of transference beyond the framework of treatment to that of supervision. From this analysis, the paper will attempt to demonstrate how the French model proposes dealing with the inevitable conflicts between transmission by means of analysis and training by means of apprenticeship.

  19. Relational trauma and the developing right brain: an interface of psychoanalytic self psychology and neuroscience.

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    Schore, Allan N

    2009-04-01

    Psychoanalysis, the science of unconscious processes, has recently undergone a significant transformation. Self psychology, derived from the work of Heinz Kohut, represents perhaps the most important revision of Freud's theory as it has shifted its basic core concepts from an intrapsychic to a relational unconscious and from a cognitive ego to an emotion-processing self. As a result of a common interest in the essential, rapid, bodily based, affective processes that lie beneath conscious awareness, a productive dialogue is now occurring between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Here I apply this interdisciplinary perspective to a deeper understanding of the nonconscious brain/mind/body mechanisms that lie at the core of self psychology. I offer a neuropsychoanalytic conception of the development and structuralization of the self, focusing on the experience-dependent maturation of the emotion-processing right brain in infancy. I then articulate an interdisciplinary model of attachment trauma and pathological dissociation, an early forming defense against overwhelming affect that is a cardinal feature of self-psychopathologies. I end with some thoughts on the mechanism of the psychotherapeutic change process and suggest that self psychology is, in essence, a psychology of the unique functions of the right brain and that a rapprochement between psychoanalysis and neuroscience is now at hand.

  20. Object relations in Harry Potter.

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    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other.

  1. Studium and Punctum in Psychoanalytic Writing: Reading Case Studies Through Roland Barthes.

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    Amir, Dana

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on the link between Roland Barthes's reflection on photography and the essential characteristics of psychoanalytic case studies. The case study, like the photograph, seeks to take hold of something nearly intangible. It attempts to capture in time, space, and language something whose dynamic presence remains elusive. The attempt to capture this object often strips it of its essence. Case studies may be accurate on their face while giving us the unpleasant sense that they have "deadened" their object in the process. This paper attempts to clarify what is dropped from the picture that the psychoanalytic writing is trying to take. The relation between the "cultural context" (the Studium) and the freedom to puncture and undermine this context in psychoanalytic writing is discussed through a fresh reading of Georges Perec's "W, or the Memory of Childhood" and through clinical vignettes by Ronald Britton and Michael Eigen.

  2. The British object relations theorists: Balint, Winnicott, Fairbairn, Guntrip.

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    Sutherland, J D

    1980-01-01

    What I believe to be the essential contribution of this group of analysts may be summarized as follows. The role of object relations has always been a prominent theme in analytic thought and has become much more so in recent years. Instead of grafting the implications of relations onto a theory that started from a different standpoint, what the British group has done is to show that the development of the person has to be conceived as the progressive differentiation of a structure from a unitary matrix that itself interacts at a holistic personal level from the start. While Balint noted clinical data that required this step, he did not put forward a theoretical scheme. Winnicott, who suggested more specifically how the infant's relationships at the earliest stages patterned its whole subsequent personal development, also refrained from following through the theoretical logic of his observations. Fairbairn was the first analyst to expose the questionable logic of a developmental scheme based upon the energic concepts that Freud retained as his theoretical base. Fairbairn's scheme, however, did not account adequately for the earliest developmental stages as these were inferred from the study of regressive states. Guntrip, making full use of Winnicott's views, has sought to make good this limitation. The British group does not presume to have made anything like an adequate conceptual map for the development of the psyche. The theoretical problems are far too complex for that. They have, however, shown a fruitful direction and have influenced many areas of contemporary psychoanalytic thought.

  3. A psychoanalytical perspective on nowadays depression

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    Érico Bruno Viana Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of epidemic depression nowadays as a symptom of the socio-cultural setting of contemporary subjectivity, through a critique to the framework of psychiatric psychopathology from psychoanalysis. It shows the importance of taking depression as an expression of collusion in the removal of the subject in contemporary times, as the result of a movement of social medicalization. It also presents an overview of the understanding of depression in psychoanalytic psychopathology, highlighting its structural unspecificity and pointing out different trends about their fundamental position in the Lacanian and object relations traditions. It argues that the depressive problems must be taken in their different structural arrangements, as an expression of failure and fixings along the narcissistic-melancholy axis of subjectivity constitution as a relevant and comprising model for understanding the problem of depression in psychoanalysis.

  4. Psychoanalytic reality of prose

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    Todorović Milorad V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific methods of a particular field of knowledge can not be freely applied to a different field without any adjustments or reservations. Openness to a different approach is detrimental here. According to Nothrop Frye, psychonalysis in literature tends to 'blur the lines between methods' (Frye 1979: 383 thus increasing openness. Therefore, the anxiety that exists between the theory of psychonalysis and the practice of psychoanalytic therapy will follow the application of psychoanalysis to other scientific fields. Solid grasp of the theory of psychoanalysis is incomplete without understanding its practical implementation in the domain of pain as its priviledged source of truth. Even Jacques Lacan emphasized this by distinguishing between understanding and knowing Jacques Derrida's psychoanalysis. The interdisciplinary activity, valued today as an important aspect of research, cannot be accomplished by simple confrontations between various specialized branches of knowledge. According to Roland Barthes, interdisciplinary work is not a peaceful operation: it begins effectively when the solidarity of the old disciplines breaks down to the benefit of a new object and a new language, neither of which is in the domain of those branches of knowledge that one calmly sought to confront (Barthes 1986b:181. Mirjana Lončar Vujnović proposes, following Barthes logic, to substitute the term psychoanalysis with the term 'experimental mysticism' (Lončar Vujnović 2014: 46. Her proposition has no semantic justification (and not only for its failed attempt at oxymoron let alone scientific. The exploration of the unconscious psyche which is unknown and irrational - designated under certain circumstances as the exploration of the mystical as a hidden, secret part of a man's soul - was scrutinized in psychoanalysis by employing a rigorous scientific method in reverence to the methods of the natural sciences. Furthermore, due to the nomothetic-ideographic and

  5. Without Discipleship: A Psychoanalytic Study of Influence for Education

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    Farley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    While psychoanalytic and educational research consistently document a fraught relation between the two fields, they share in common the problem of how to influence others in the direction of psychical and perhaps more so in the case of education, social change. And yet, the changes at stake in psychoanalytic theory do not proceed from conscious…

  6. Psychoanalytic Ethnography and the Transformation of Racially Wounded Communities

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    Stanfield, John H., II

    2006-01-01

    This paper first defines race and related dehumanizing experiences and then explores the history of the study of Blacks in ethnography and in psychoanalysis before addressing the primary focus: psychoanalytical ethnography. Psychoanalytical ethnography is valuable for transforming racially wounded communities into vibrant open communities through…

  7. Thirdness and psychoanalytic concepts.

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    Green, André

    2004-01-01

    Many psychoanalytic concepts lend themselves to the notion of thirdness. Starting from a basis of Freudian thought, the author discusses some of the elaborative contributions of Winnicott, Lacan, and Bion, as well as the ideas of Saussure and Peirce, noting how all these incorporate an appreciation of the value and relevance of thirdness in both the theory and practice of psychoanalysis.

  8. [Homosexuality and psychoanalytic hypocrisy].

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    Moor, P

    1990-06-01

    The author criticizes the common practice in the national and international psychoanalytic associations of denying homosexual applicants admission to training even though all parties know full well that there are more than a few homosexual psychoanalysts within their ranks, some of whom enjoy the high professional esteem of their colleagues. The author refers to his earlier article "Homosexuality and psychoanalysis" (Psyche, 1985, 39, 750-759).

  9. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  10. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  11. The Ellsberg psychoanalytic situation.

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    Bernal, V

    1976-01-01

    The author proposes to explore an event that received nationwide publicity through the Watergate investigation: the burglary of the office of a Los Angeles psychoanalyst believed to be treating Dr. Daniel Ellsberg. A brief questionnaire, with an accompanying letter, was mailed to all members of the American Psychoanalytic Association. It requested voluntary information on the reaction of their patients to the aforesaid particular event. The results of the study was then evaluated as serving hopefully an indirect inquiry into psychoanalytic practice. This paper is based on an adjusted sample of 861 respondent psychoanalysts, who reported on a total of 5,074 analysands. The resultant figures indicate that a high percentage of the analysand sample was silent concerning the office break-in during the eight-week period following the national publicity given the event. Of the small percentage of analysands that did present material concerning the event, the survey found that they were the patients of only 84 analysts of the entire sample of 861. The absence of reference to the Ellsberg Affair in so many patients may have been due to (1) the fact that analysts create an analytic situation which has a basic quality of interference such that events of this kind do not get communicated, and (2), more important, the fact that analysts through some defensive need failed to take cognizance of references to the Ellsberg Affair in dreams or in the latent content of the associations of their patients. A "natural" psychoanalytic experiment has been studied, and the results are offered for consideration.

  12. The clinical popularity of object relations concepts.

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    Friedman, L

    1988-10-01

    Object relations theory has the effect of supporting the psychoanalyst when he feels that the patient's effort is strongly opposed to his own. The current popularity of object relations theory may be related to the gradual disappearance from Freudian theory of a simple, clear image of an obligatory insistence by the patient that is useful even though it is unreflective. Object relations theory offers the practitioner a way of fortifying himself against blind demand, while newer Freudian theorists cope with the problem by orienting themselves more stringently toward the original paradigm of optional choice.

  13. Addiction as an attempt at self-regulation (contemporary psychoanalytic theories of addiction

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    Gregor Žvelc

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article author presents the development of psychoanalytic theory of addiction from early writings to contemporary ego, self psychological and theories of object relations. Classical psychoanalysis understood addiction as a regressive gratification of libidinal drives, whereas contemporary authors understand it as an attempt of adaptation to certain problems and worries. The neurotic conflict is not anymore in the foreground, but disturbances in ego, self and object relations. On the basis of a review of contemporary psychoanalytical theories, the author concludes that individuals prone to addiction have a disturbance in self-regulation. Because of that, they have problems in tolerating and coping with certain emotions. With the help of outer means they tend to re-establish internal balance, which they can't manage alone. This outer 'help' can be seen in various forms of addiction (drugs, food, relationships, sex .... So, the core problem of addicted people is a deficit of self-regulation, which is a consequence of a lack of internalisaton of regulatory functions of primary object. Contemporary psychoanalytical theories of addiction bring us greater insight in personality factors which influence the formation of addiction, thus giving us guidelines for adequate psychotherapy of addiction.

  14. Relating microbiological criteria to food safety objectives and performance objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Buchanan, R.L.; Cole, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiological criteria, food safety objectives and performance objectives, and the relationship between them are discussed and described in the context of risk-based food safety management. A modified method to quantify the sensitivity of attributes sampling plans is presented to show how sampling

  15. Learning Ontology from Object-Relational Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaulins Andrejs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method of transformation of object-relational model into ontology. The offered method uses learning rules for such complex data types as object tables and collections – arrays of a variable size, as well as nested tables. Object types and their transformation into ontologies are insufficiently considered in scientific literature. This fact served as motivation for the authors to investigate this issue and to write the article on this matter. In the beginning, we acquaint the reader with complex data types and object-oriented databases. Then we describe an algorithm of transformation of complex data types into ontologies. At the end of the article, some examples of ontologies described in the OWL language are given.

  16. Competition and postural confrontation in life, sports, and psychoanalytic treatment--illustrated clinically and in relation to Vladimir Nabokov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, Leonard

    2008-04-01

    The importance of the emotions that can be evoked by (face-to-face and face-to-back) postural and visual contrapositions in life and in psychoanalysis-and specifically in relation to sports and games-is delineated and illustrated in clinical and literary material. The latter features aspects of the life and works of the writer Vladimir Nabokov.

  17. Thirty methods to destroy the creativity of psychoanalytic candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, O F

    1996-10-01

    The author explores formal aspects of psychoanalytic education relevant to the fostering or inhibiting of creativity in the work of candidates. He refers to thirty features of psychoanalytic institutes that inhibit candidates' creativity and, by implication, illustrate problems in psychoanalytic education that require our attention. These features include systematic slowing down of institutional progression of candidates, repetitive and unquestioning teaching of key papers by Freud, monolithic tendencies regarding theoretical approaches, isolation of candidates from the professional and scientific activities of the psychoanalytic society, accentuation of the hieratical relations among the psychoanalytic faculty, graduation rituals, discouragement of original contributions by candidates, intellectual isolation of institutes, lack of full presentation of clinical work by senior members of the faculty, neglect of studies of controversies regarding psychoanalytic technique, 'paranoiagenic' features of the relationship among faculty and regarding requirements for candidates, the 'convoy' system, neglect of exploration of the scientific and cultural boundaries and applications of psychoanalysis and the effects of institutional conflicts around the appointment of training analysts.

  18. The products of the imagination: psychoanalytic theory and postmodern literary criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souter, K T

    2000-12-01

    This article considers some of the affinities between postmodern literary theory and the psychoanalytic theories concerned with intersubjective phenomena. Postmodern literary theory is described briefly, and it is argued that one of its major concerns is the nature of, and the political and cultural influences on, subjectivity and identity. Despite that, postmodernism generally, and literary postmodernism in particular, can be said to lack a theory of the psychological and interpersonal dimensions of the experience of self. This article contends that the more relational schools of psychoanalytic theory can provide an example of the construction of selfhood that is of importance to contemporary and postmodern literary criticism. The academy has, to a considerable extent identified 'psychoanalysis' with the work of Jacques Lacan, but since the 1980s the work of such theorists as Jane Flax and Jessica Benjamin, building on the work of Nancy Chodorow, have increasingly opened up the possibilities of relational and object relations theory for literary studies. The relational psychoanalytic theories operate in the same epistemological universe as postmodern literary criticism, congruent with the postmodern idea of 'truth' as constructed and relational, and selfhood as shifting, contingent, and always-in-process. Particular attention is paid to the work of Wilfred Bion, whose understanding of self provides an account both of the failure of meaning, and of the development of mind. Some examples of a relational approach to literary analysis are provided.

  19. An object relations approach to cult membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salande, Joseph D; Perkins, David R

    2011-01-01

    Several pieces of literature suggest that most individuals who are successfully integrated into cults do not typically manifest symptoms of mental illness. However, the public is often taken aback by the lack of autonomy displayed by cult members and is bewildered by the ability of the cult leader and other cult members to transform fundamental personality functioning in an individual Within the framework of an object relations model of personality structure and functioning as delineated by Otto Kernberg and using existing data concerning the cult experience, the authors engage in a theoretical exploration of cult membership. The authors propose that some behaviors exhibited by cult members may be a function of an object relations-level regression, which is exemplified by the activation of primitive defensive operations that are usually relegated to those suffering with severe personality disorders.

  20. The rooting of the mind in the body: new links between attachment theory and psychoanalytic thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Target, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between psychoanalysis and attachment theory is complex indeed. A brief review of the psychoanalytic literature as it concerns attachment theory and research, and of the attachment literature as it pertains to psychoanalytic ideas, demonstrates an increasing interest in attachment theory within psychoanalysis. Some of the difficulties that attachment theory faces in relation to psychoanalytic ideas are traced to its links to the now dated cognitive science of the 1960s and 1970s. Today, however, a second-generation cognitive neuroscience seeks neurobiologically plausible accounts in which links with brain and body are seen as shaping mind and consciousness, which increasingly are seen as "embodied", as emerging from or serving the needs of a physical being located in a specific time, place, and social context. This idea has also been at the core of much psychoanalytic thinking, which has historically affirmed the rootedness of symbolic thought in sensory, emotional, and enacted experience with objects. Now neurobiological advances supporting the concept of embodied cognition offer an opportunity to forge powerful links between the hitherto separate domains of attachment theory and psychoanalysis. Speculations about the nature of language are presented that emphasize the origin of internal working models (and of representations in general) in early sensorimotor and emotional experiences with a caregiver. It is argued that language and symbolic thought may be phylogenetically and ontogenetically embodied, built on a foundation of gestures and actions, and are thus profoundly influenced by the experience of early physical interaction with the primary object. Finally, the clinical and research implications of these ideas are discussed.

  1. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

  2. A psychoanalytical phenomenology of perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan Pablo

    2004-02-01

    After stating that the current tasks of psychoanalytic research should fundamentally include the exploration of the analyst's mental processes in sessions with the patient, the author describes the analytical relation as one having an intersubjective nature. Seen from the outside, the analytical relation evidences two poles: a symmetric structural pole where both analyst and patient share a single world and a single approach to reality, and a functional asymmetric pole that defines the assignment of the respective roles. In the analysis of a perverse patient, the symmetry-asymmetry polarities acquire some very particular characteristics. Seen from the perspective of the analyst's subjectivity, perversion appears in the analyst's mind as a surreptitious and unexpected transgression of the basic agreement that facilitates and structures intersubjective encounters. It may go as far as altering the Aristotelian rules of logic. When coming into contact with the psychic reality of a perverse patient, what happens in the analyst's mind is that a world takes shape. This world is misleadingly coloured by an erotisation that sooner or later will acquire some characteristics of violence. The perverse nucleus, as a false reality, remains dangling in mid-air as an experience that is inaccessible to the analyst's empathy. The only way the analyst can reach it is from the 'periphery' of the patient's psychic reality, by trying in an indirect way to lead him back to his intersubjective roots. At this point, the author's intention is to explain this intersubjective phenomenon in terms of metapsychological and empirical research-based theories. Finally, some ideas on the psychogenesis of perversion are set forth.

  3. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy: differences and similarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler-Schülein, Hemma; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalysis as well as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy derived from Psychoanalysis are efficient methods offered by the Austrian health care system in the treatment for anxiety, depression, personality disorders, neurotic and somatoform disorders. In both methods similar basic treatment techniques are applied. Therefore differentiation between both treatment options often is made pragmatically by the frequency of sessions or the use of the couch and seems to be vague in the light of empirical studies. This overview focuses a potential differentiation-the objective and subjective dimensions of the indication process. Concerning the latter it is to investigate, if reflective functioning and ego-integration can be enhanced in the patient during the interaction process between patient and psychoanalyst. Empirical data underline the necessity to investigate to which extent externalizing defence processes are used and to integrate such factors into the decision and indication process. Differing treatment aims display another possibility to differentiate psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims for example more at circumscribed problem-foci, the capability for self-reflexion is one of the most prominent treatment effects in psychoanalysis that results in on-going symptom reduction and resilience. The most prominent differentiation lies in the utilization of technical neutrality. Within Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy neutrality has sometimes to be suspended in order to stop severe acting out. Empirical evidence is given concerning the differentiation between psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, that treatment efficacy is not correlated with the duration of the treatment, but with the frequency of sessions. Results give support to the assumption that the dosage of specific and appropriate psychoanalytic techniques facilitates sustained therapeutic change.

  4. Psyche--the meeting of mind and soul: current psychoanalytic views on the mental representation of god.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2013-11-01

    The author presents an overview of two contemporary, related psychoanalytic perspectives on religious phenomena. Based on data from systematic interviews, Ana-Maria Rizzuto explores the way the human mind forms the idea of God as it evolves through the various stages of childhood and adult development. The object-representation of God is greatly influenced by the mental representations of mother, father, and other important adults in the child's life. Object relations theory and the writings of Winnicott play an important role in these concepts. William Meissner, a Jesuit priest as well as a psychoanalyst, addresses Freud's views of religious belief as an illusion, or when accepted with certainty as real, as a delusion. Instead, Meissner sees religious belief as a developmental process that resides in the mental realm of transitional phenomena where spirituality, creativity, appreciation of beauty, transcendental states, play, and the psychoanalytic process itself also take place. In psychoanalytic treatment, religious phenomena are not exempt from exploration and understanding, perhaps resulting in more mature development of object representations, ego functions, and the superego functions of conscience and ego ideal as well as more mature religious life.

  5. Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Eating Disorders: A Case Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Howard D.

    This paper examines recent formulations derived from different lines of conceptual development within psychoanalytic theory in relation to the anorexic and bulimic syndromes. The case history, clinical picture, and course of treatment of a bulimic adolescent girl are reviewed. This discussion illustrates the profound consequences upon cognition of…

  6. Ethics education in psychoanalytic training: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Paul M

    2010-02-01

    Didactic education in psychoanalytic ethics is a relatively new phenomenon. Ethics courses were offered by few institutes before they were mandated and before publication of the first Ethics Case Book in 2001. As institutes have developed ethics training, the solutions they have arrived at-formats, length and placement of courses, and preferred readings- remain unknown to other educators and analysts. This survey was undertaken to gain an overview of the current state of ethics education. Twenty-nine of the thirty-one training institutes of the American Psychoanalytic Association (93%) responded to inquiries. Most institutes (79%) offered one course, and the average number of class sessions was 6.3. Of 258 different readings used, 61 (23.6%) were used by more than one institute and 37 (14.3%) by more than two. The most frequent topics were boundaries, confidentiality, and illness, and Dewald and Clark's Case Book (2008) and Gabbard and Lester (1995) were the most common readings. These findings should be useful to instructors, curriculum committees, and ethics committees in their ethics education planning, as well as to practicing analysts in their ethical self-education. This study may also serve as a model for analogous investigations into other areas of analytic education and as an impetus to further research and educational innovation.

  7. Moments of real relationship in psychoanalytic supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2012-09-01

    What role does the real relationship play in psychoanalytic supervision? While the real relationship's role has long been and continues to be considered with regard to psychoanalysis, it has received virtually no attention in the supervision literature. In this paper, using Horney's construct of the real self as conceptual anchor, I attempt to: (1) situate the real relationship squarely within the borders of the psychoanalytic supervision relationship; (2) examine the relevance of real relationship phenomena for the supervision experience; (3) provide some simple, ordinary yet meaningful examples of case dialogue that illustrate moments of real relationship in supervision; and (4) introduce the concept of real relationship rupture and consider its potential ramifications for and impact upon the supervisor-supervisee relationship. Just as ruptures can occur in the supervisory alliance, I propose that ruptures can also transpire in the supervisory real relationship, have the potential to reverberate throughout the entirety of the supervision experience, and depending upon how they are handled, can prove either constructive and relationally energizing and enlivening or enervating and eviscerating to supervision process and outcome.

  8. Through the storm: psychoanalytic theory in the psychotherapy of the anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, K J

    1990-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most ubiquitous problems facing human beings. The author summarizes the views of the major psychodynamic theorists who have contributed to a psychoanalytic understanding of anxiety: Freud's toxic and signal theories; the interpersonal schools of Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney, and Frieda Fromm-Reichmann; the object relations theorists; and the self-psychological perspective of Heinz Kohut. The author then describes how each of these schools provides a different way to appreciate and work with anxiety. She emphasizes the containing and soothing functions of therapy, which have their roots in several of the theories.

  9. On psychoanalytic supervision as signature pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2014-04-01

    What is signature pedagogy in psychoanalytic education? This paper examines that question, considering why psychoanalytic supervision best deserves that designation. In focusing on supervision as signature pedagogy, I accentuate its role in building psychoanalytic habits of mind, habits of hand, and habits of heart, and transforming theory and self-knowledge into practical product. Other facets of supervision as signature pedagogy addressed in this paper include its features of engagement, uncertainty, formation, and pervasiveness, as well as levels of surface, deep, and implicit structure. Epistemological, ontological, and axiological in nature, psychoanalytic supervision engages trainees in learning to do, think, and value what psychoanalytic practitioners in the field do, think, and value: It is, most fundamentally, professional preparation for competent, "good work." In this paper, effort is made to shine a light on and celebrate the pivotal role of supervision in "making" or developing budding psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists. Now over a century old, psychoanalytic supervision remains unparalleled in (1) connecting and integrating conceptualization and practice, (2) transforming psychoanalytic theory and self-knowledge into an informed analyzing instrument, and (3) teaching, transmitting, and perpetuating the traditions, practice, and culture of psychoanalytic treatment.

  10. Assessing Object Relations and Social Cognitive Correlates of Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesacker, Roberta S.; Neimeyer, Greg J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated relation between eating disorder and disturbances in object relations and cognitive structure in undergraduate female college students (n=183). Results indicated that eating disorder was predicted by measures of object relations disturbance and cognitive structure. (Author/ABL)

  11. The Valency Theory: The Human Bond From A New Psychoanalytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Med Hafsi

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses some psychoanalytical conceptions concerning what links people to each other, or the human bond. Psychoanalysis, can be regarded as a science dealing basically with, although not directly, the human bond or link linking the person with his external and internal objects. The fact that this bond is in perpetualtransformation, and therefore can be apprehended from different angles has led to various psychoanalytical conceptions or theories which are more complementary...

  12. Object-relational database design-exploiting object orientation at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper applies the object-relational database paradigm in the design of a Health Management Information System. The class design, mapping of object classes to relational tables, the representation of inheritance hierarchies, and the appropriate database schema are all examined. Keywords: object relational ...

  13. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    . Hinshelwood, R. D. & Skogstad, W. (2000),Observing Organisations – Anxiety, defence and culture in health care. Great Britain: Routledge. Menzies, I. E. P. (1975). A Case-Study in the Functioning of Social Systems as a Defence Against Anxiety. In Colman, A. D. & Bexton, W. (eds.), Group Relations Reader 1. A...... mentioned, Menzies combines two types of analysis. In the first type she understands the development of work organizations as the development of psycho-social defence systems. Psycho-social defence systems are composed of many specific defence techniques that are developed by the staff during a long period...... of specific atmospheres in organizations. In the empirical part of the paper I shall combine my inspiration from Menzies (defence systems and defence techniques) with my inspiration from Hinschelwood & Skogstad (defensive myths and specific atmospheres) to demonstrate different aspects of psycho-social...

  14. Fatores associados a abandono precoce do tratamento em psicoterapia de orientação analítica Factors related to early dropout in psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Hauck

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A eficácia da psicoterapia psicanalítica foi bem estabelecida através de ensaios clínicos controlados; no entanto, algumas das características individuais que predizem melhores resultados são ainda pouco estudadas. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a associação entre os dados demográficos, o diagnóstico psiquiátrico, a sintomatologia clínica, a qualidade de vida, os critérios de indicação da psicoterapia, o estilo defensivo e o abandono da psicoterapia psicanalítica antes de 3 meses de tratamento. MÉTODO: Uma amostra consecutiva de 56 pacientes foi avaliada após a indicação da psicoterapia, através de um protocolo padronizado, do World Health Organization Quality of Life Bref (WHOQOL-Bref, do Self Report Questionnaire, do Defensive Style Questionnaire, da Escala de Funcionamento Defensivo do Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais, 4ª edição, texto revisado (DSM-IV-TR e da Avaliação do Funcionamento Global (Global Assessment of Functioning, e acompanhada por 3 meses. RESULTADOS: A taxa de abandono foi de 12,5%. Não houve diferença quanto à Avaliação do Funcionamento Global, Self Report Questionnaire e Defensive Style Questionnaire. Os pacientes que abandonaram estavam satisfeitos com sua saúde, apesar da gravidade da sua psicopatologia, mesmo controlando para outras variáveis (p INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapy is well established in controlled clinical trials; however, some individual characteristics that predict better outcomes are yet poorly studied. This study aimed at evaluating the association of demographics data, psychiatric diagnosis, clinical impairment, quality of life, aspects of psychotherapy suitability, defensive style and dropout before 3 months. METHOD: A consecutive sample of 56 subjects was evaluated after psychotherapy indication through a standardized protocol, World Health Organization Quality of Life Bref (WHOQOL-Bref, Self

  15. Beyond Death’s Dream Kingdom: modernity and the psychoanalytic Social Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Turnbull

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The appearance on the historical stage of Western modernity is often understood as an “epochal event” that overturned an earlier pre-modern cultural condition that was premised on the dialectic of life and death and the attempt to forge a suitable balance or harmony between them. As such Western modernity is often viewed as the emergence as a new liberal political order based upon individualism, radical immanence and the emergence of a new calculating subjectivities and governmentalities in ways that led to the rejection of the transcendent, the metaphysical and the theological dimensions of human life. In this paper, using Hans Holbein’s famous painting The Ambassadors as a point of reference and adopting the oblique position in relation to the modern taken up by the artist in this painting, I suggest that in the 20th Century, largely as a result of an awareness of the metaphysical significance of the catastrophe of the First World War, that modern liberalism was thrown into crisis and the old pre-modern metaphysical problematic returned as new focus of social and political concern. With specific reference to the work of Sigmund Freud and later psychoanalytic thinkers who took Freud’s idea of the death drive as their theoretical point of departure, I show how in the 20th century psychoanalytically-informed practitioners attempted to resolve the ancient conflict between the forces of life and death through the creation of an enchanted phantasmagoria of mass consumable objects that were often specifically designed and marketed in order to eroticise the nascent thanatic dimensions of modern life, thereby rendering the latter manageable and ultimately liveable. Drawing on the work of social theorists of the imaginary such as Glibert Durand as well as famous propagandisers of Freud such as Edward Bernays and Ernst Dichter (who saw in Freud’s work the possibility of developing a political technology I will suggest that in the 20th century

  16. TRANSCENDING FAMILY/UNIVERSALITY: A PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF ROHINTON MISTRY'S SUCH A LONG JOURNEY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ram Lalit

    2017-01-01

    Tracing the origin of psychoanalytical interpretation of the literary texts M.A.R. Habib writes: Critics, rhetoricians, and philosophers since Aristotle have examined the psychological dimensions of literature, ranging from an author’s motivation and intentions to the effect of texts and performances on an audience. The application of psychoanalytic principles to the study of literature, however, is a relatively recent phenomenon, initiated primarily by Freud and in other directions by Alfred...

  17. An experimental study of psychoanalytic theories of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipp, S; Nissenfeld, S

    1981-10-01

    This study involves an application of a new methodology, subliminal psychodynamic activation, which can be used to experimentally test psychoanalytic "dynamic" propositions. It was found that with a sample of neurotically depressed female patients, there was a significant decrease in depression-related responses following the stimulation of a symbiotic gratification fantasy ("Mommy and I are one"). Subliminal symbiotic stimulation had been shown previously in studies with different populations (schizophrenics, homosexuals, phobics, alcoholics and overeaters) to have similar ameliorative effects. The current results point to the importance of symbiotic dynamics and the relationship dependent on a dominant other, rather than to the retroflexion of aggression in neurotic depression. This is in keeping with the formulations of Arieti (1959), Bemporad (1953), Horowitz (1980), and the senior author (Slipp, 1977). Hypotheses regarding the effects of stimulating fantasies involving success were not supported by the primary data, although secondary data (from correlational analyses) did provide some indirect support for the senior author's hypothesis. The "Autonomous Succeed" message ("Succeed for myself") did not reverse the depressive mood, possibly because autonomy was equated with abandonment. Relatively differentiated depressives tended to respond to the "Exploitative Succeed" ("Succeed for Father or Mother") messages with a decrease in depression, while depressives with a low level of self-object differentiation tended to respond with an increase in depression. For more differentiated depressives, performing for and giving over a part of the self to another is an adaptive style that insures the dependent relationship and bolsters the patient's weak self-image. However, with poorly differentiated depressives, giving over to another raises the threat of total annihilation, since the self is already diminished. These secondary data can be viewed, however, as only

  18. An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.

    2013-09-01

    Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups, and then it constructs the Voronoi diagram between the two groups using the triangular network. After this, the normal of each Voronoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed. Finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

  19. Psychoanalytic Teaching by Video Link and Telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, David E

    2015-06-01

    In this era of global connectedness, there is great interest in using distance video platforms such as Skype and VSee, as well as the telephone, for conducting psychoanalysis and psychotherapy across geographic distance. Little, however, has been written about the use of technology for psychoanalytic education. The International Psychotherapy Institute has extensive experience in the use of videoconference and telephone technology in the teaching of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, including didactic teaching, infant observation, and individual and group supervision, with individuals and groups across the United States and overseas. Use of this technology for tele-education has facilitated the spread of psychoanalytic ideas, recruitment of psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic trainees, and ongoing training for members living at great distances from one another and from the institute. This work is in many ways similar to ordinary psychoanalytic teaching and supervision, and yet presents significant differences in technique, opportunity, and group dynamics. Further implementation and study of this methodology can greatly aid in the dissemination of psychoanalysis in the digital age. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  20. Cultural function and psychological transformation in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2006-10-01

    Cultural experience of silence and individual vicissitudes between talking and being silent influence the way individuals form an alliance and pursue the analytic process. This is of relevance both for the patient and for the psychoanalyst/therapist. The author describes a patient, whose silent phase occurred in the fifth and sixth year of intensive psychoanalytic psychotherapy. She suggests that a) the silence functioned as a protection of a space for the core self and promoted inner transformation and psychological development; b) the silence involved a transference-countertransference matrix with projective identifications of the patient's internalized mother- and father-related objects that caused a tenuous balance between maintaining and erasing the relationship between the patient and the author; c) the silence phase was highly influenced by the author's own cultural background and what she brought into the relationship of tolerance of being silent in the presence of another, and understanding of the many complex functions of silence. During the silent phase the patient moved from simply describing and naming her affects and inner experiences or expressing them as somatic processes, to being able to internally access and verbally convey her own affects and experiences in the therapeutic alliance. This process involved both affect desomatization, affect differentiation, and affect verbalization.

  1. Teaching professional ethics in psychoanalytic institutes: engaging the inner ethicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Merle

    2014-04-01

    Teaching professional ethics in psychoanalytic institutes begins with two assumptions: (1) Students learn not only a code of ethics, they learn to develop their inner ethicist. (2) Institutes do not "train" students to become versed in a professional discipline, institutes educate, so students acquire a complex range of knowledge, developing intellectually and emotionally. Studying professional ethics begins with questions concerning freedom, free will, and responsibility, allowing students to contemplate emotionally charged topics: power politics, collegial relationships, organizational malfeasance, and boundary violations. Another area of concern involves the ability to observe and manage countertransference. Another related theme is trust: trust in supervisors, training analysts, instructors, and one's own ability to process countertransference. Processing countertransference is a necessary ethical obligation. Instructors need to be aware of the emotional stresses involved in studying professional ethics, particularly in discussions of sexual boundary violations. Students developing an ethical stance can enhance creativity in psychoanalytic work.

  2. Questions of technique following the psychoanalytic perspective of Erich Fromm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancoli, Romano

    2006-01-01

    To avoid dogma and ritual Erich Fromm chose not to write a book on psychoanalytic technique, leaving his teachings to the oral tradition of his pupils which advises us to treat each patient and each session as unique. The rules of technique are neither revoked nor denied but rather discussed and criticized. In the author's opinion the "question of technique" takes the place of technique, making the Frommian approach wholly current and in dialogue with interpersonal and relational orientations in psychoanalysis. On this dialectical line and assuming the analyst's awareness as point of view, the theme of the relationship between the here-and-now of the session and the there-and-then of the analysand's life is developed. A dialectical context is also offered between operations of objectivization and operations of alienation in the psychoanalytic process.

  3. O-ODM Framework for Object-Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rombaldo Jr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-Relational Databases introduce new features which allow manipulating objects in databases. At present, many DBMS offer resources to manipulate objects in database, but most application developers just map class to relations tables, failing to exploit the O-R model strength. The lack of tools that aid the database project contributes to this situation. This work presents O-ODM (Object-Object Database Mapping, a persistent framework that maps objects from OO applications to database objects. Persistent Frameworks have been used to aid developers, managing all access to DBMS. This kind of tool allows developers to persist objects without solid knowledge about DBMSs and specific languages, improving the developers’ productivity, mainly when a different DBMS is used. The results of some experiments using O-ODM are shown.

  4. Psychoanalytic theory and the problem of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, G

    1985-01-01

    The current crisis of psychoanalysis also involves studies of various forms of creativity. After having pointed out the need for distinction between clinical-empirical theory and hypothetical theory (such as metapsychology) the author identifies and summarizes a number of trends of investigation as reported in our literature: libidinal-energetic, contenutistic (unconscious fantasies), anthropomorphic (of the ego), aggression-reparation, phenomenological, and object-relationship approaches. The role played by metapsychological concepts (the author, in agreement with those who consider them unacceptable, discusses some of the most well-known criticisms), and the confusion between theoretical levels are responsible for having made the psychoanalytical contribution entirely unsatisfactory at a higher explanatory level and for having hindered adequate reorganization of data of an empirical nature. After having examined several elements involved in creativity (symbolism, role of pathology and body experience, etc.), the author outlines a personal theoretical hypothesis of the structural type as a basis for the establishment of a clinical-empirical theory which, as regards research on creativity too, may constitute the chief field of investigation for psychoanalysis.

  5. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  6. Object relations theory and pharmacopsychotherapy of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, N G; Sacks, L H; Hamilton, C A

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of object relations concepts, applying them specifically to combined psychoterapy-pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders. Anxiety in this clinical theory is conceptualized as arising from threatened loss of the self- and object-relationship. At a rudimentary level, individuals can attempt to manage potential loss through splitting and projective identification. As benign and loving experiences accumulate and ego functions neurophysiologically develop, whole object relations provide alternate and more modulated ways of coping with anxiety. In anxiety disorders, these more mature coping styles break down. Treatment combining object relations approaches to psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy pay particular attention to the relationship aspects and meanings of medication and prescribing. These approaches use the concepts of empathy, containment, countertransference, splitting, projective identification, and transitional object formation to help patients come to terms with their anxiety and with the treatment relationship.

  7. RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL CRITICISM OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH TO EKZEGETICS OF DREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyacheslav Alekseevich Ermakov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available n this article the author reconstructed and generalized the religious and philosophical aspects of Christian criticism of psychoanalytic methodology of dreams interpretation. The research opens an occult specifics of a psychoanalytic oneurocritics. There is a consideration of a concept how such factors as «cocaine promotion» affects Freudian theory of dreams, a freemasonry and cabalism. The article reveals that Christian ekzegetics of dreams is essentially opposite to psychoanalytic interpretation of dreaming experience. The author makes a hypothesis of before-Freud unity of psychiatric and Christian approaches to interpretation of dreams and an orientation of psychoanalysis on destruction of this unity. The assumption of spiritual and psychological danger of application of psychoanalytic approach of dreams interpretation in psychological work is reasonable. The author comes to a conclusion that the Freudian methodology of dreams interpretation has been developed with the purposes of introduction of anti-Christian occult psychology in the theory and practice of medical and psychiatric activity and elimination of Christian vicarial psychotherapy.Purpose. The research objective consists of retrospective reconstruction of the main critical aspects of the psychoanalytic concept of dreams presented in Christian approach to ekzegetics of dreams.Methodology. Method of this research is a comparative analysis of Christian and psychoanalytic approaches of understanding the nature and essence of dreaming process and its interpretation.Results. Results of research can be used as in the scientific purposes of critical genera-lization and studying of the theoretical model of a dream developed by psychoanalysis and in educational activity where students can compare Christian and psychoanalytic approaches.Practical implementation: psychology, philosophy history, sociology, theological researches.

  8. Psychoanalytic attitudes towards homosexuality: an empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Capozzi, Paola

    2004-02-01

    Homosexuality is a challenging subject for the psychoanalytic community, which is now rethinking some of its basic theoretical and institutional assumptions. In recent decades psychoanalytic theory has changed, and the classical psychosexual model has been challenged. After a short review of major psychoanalytical theories of homosexuality, the authors focus on the existence of contrasting attitudes towards homosexuality. This plurality of theories and their clinical and institutional consequences stimulated the authors to investigate the relationship between the individual analyst's theoretical model and his/her clinical practice. The authors present the results of empirical research conducted in the Italian psychoanalytic community on the attitude of psychoanalysts towards homosexuality and the implications for cultural, theoretical and institutional issues. A questionnaire was sent to 600 psychoanalysts (206 of which responded), members of the five main Italian psychoanalytic institutions. First, analysts' personal characteristics and preferred theoretical models were investigated. Second, the respondents responded to statements eliciting their theoretical and clinical approach towards homosexuality. Results indicate that: a) cultural and theoretical background influences the analysts' attitudes towards homosexuality more than gender; b) there is a discrepancy between analysts' theoretical position and their clinical practice; and c) IPA institutes are more discriminatory towards homosexual colleagues than are Jungian ones.

  9. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    properties of the objects, viz., redshift, color indices, radio spectral index and absorption lines. It is found that at high ... degree of variability has been shown earlier to be related to redshifts, colors, radio spectral index, and presence or absence of ..... The importance of these objects in such studies will be appreciated as they ...

  10. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color, Radio Spectral Index and Absorption Lines ... on relationships between variability and various observed properties of the objects, viz., redshift, color indices, radio spectral index and absorption lines.

  11. Miss Julie: A Psychoanalytic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sigmund Freud theorized that ‘the hero of the tragedy must suffer…to bear the burden of tragic guilt…(that lay in rebellion against some divine or human authority.’ August Strindberg, the Swedish poet, playwright, author and visual artist, like Shakespeare before him, portrayed insanity as the ultimate of tragic conflict. In this paper I seek to explore and reiterate the dynamics of human relationships that are as relevant today as they were in Strindberg’s time. I propose to examine Strindberg’s Miss Julie, a play set in nineteenth century Sweden, through a psychoanalytic lens. The play deals with bold themes of class and sexual identity politics. Notwithstanding the progress made in breaking down gender barriers, the inequalities inherent in a patriarchal system persist in modern society. Miss Julie highlights these imbalances. My analysis of the play deals with issues of culture and psyche, and draws on Freud, Melanie Klein, Lacan, Luce Irigaray and other contemporary feminists. Miss Julie is a discourse on hysteria, which is still pivotal to psychoanalysis. Prominent philosophers like Hegel and the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan have written about the dialectic of the master and the slave – a relationship that is characterized by dependence, demand and cruelty. The history of human civilization shows beyond any doubt that there is an intimate connection between cruelty and the sexual instinct. An analysis of the text is carried out using the sado-masochistic dynamic as well the slave-master discourse. I argue that Miss Julie subverts the slave-master relationship. The struggle for dominance and power is closely linked with the theme of sexuality in the unconscious. To quote the English actor and director Alan Rickman, ‘Watching or working on the plays of Strindberg is like seeing the skin, flesh and bones of life separated from each other. Challenging and timeless.’

  12. Empathy in group psychoanalytic psychotherapy: questionnaire development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Slavica; Vlastelica, Mirela

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a questionnaire that can observe empathy in group psychoanalytic psychotherapy and examine the structure of its factors. A questionnaire comprised of 160 items in five-point Likert-type scale was developed through analysis of communication and interaction related to empathizing during group sessions. The questionnaire was applied on 256 patients from 40 therapy groups in 9 cities in Croatia. All 20 group analysts are trained in the Institute for Group Analysis in Zagreb. The patients were selected based on group analysis criteria. After item discrimination and principal component analysis limited to five factors were assessed, 80 items were isolated, 20 of which made a control scale for socially desirable responses. Two parallel questionnaire forms were developed: Group-Analysis-Empathy 1 (GA-Em1) and Group-Analysis-Empathy 2 (GA-Em2). A new, reliable and valid questionnaire for empathy observation employable in group psychotherapy was designed. The following factors were isolated by means of factor analysis: 1. Emotional disclosure and sensibility; 2. Containing and metabolizing; 3. Immersion; 4. Resonance and responsiveness; 5. Insight. A new questionnaire on empathy in group-analytical psychotherapy can measure the capacity for emotional communication among group members and between the group and the group analyst - conductor.

  13. On the origins of psychoanalytic psychohistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietikainen, Petteri; Ihanus, Juhani

    2003-05-01

    This article examines the origins and early development of psychoanalytically inspired psychohistory from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. It focuses on Erik H. Erikson, Bruce Mazlish, and Robert Jay Lifton and illustrates their contributions to psychoanalytic psychohistory. Erikson, Mazlish, and Lifton were core members of the Wellfleet group, a research project originally funded by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1965 to conceptualize the foundation of psychohistory. The article gives an account of the early history of the Wellfleet group and argues for specific historical reasons to explain why psychoanalytic psychohistory emerged on the East Coast of the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s. A critique of the Wellfleet group in unpublished correspondence of Erich Fromm and David Riesman is also discussed.

  14. The mind: psychoanalytic understanding then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Martin S

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the evolution of psychoanalytic understanding from Freud's time to the present, citing the influence of various sociocultural changes. He addresses Freud's proper place in history and notes ways in which Freud's contributions cast him as belonging to Romanticism. Freud's shift from the topographic model of the mind to the structural one, and the influence of this on psychoanalysis, is discussed, as well as important developments in the field since Freud. The author focuses particularly on difficulties encountered in psychoanalytic practice today, and he describes what he has termed organizing interpretations as uniquely valuable in the treatment setting.

  15. Object-related generativity in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Deborah J; Will, Elizabeth; Daunhauer, Lisa A; Gerlach-McDonald, Brianne; Visootsak, Jeannie

    2014-12-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) show challenges in some aspects of goal-directed behavior when compared to developmentally matched children (Daunhauer et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2011), particularly in the area of goal-directed action on objects (Fidler et al., 2005a,b). In this study, we examined one aspect of goal-directed action on objects, object-related generativity, in school-aged children with DS (n = 52), a developmentally matched group of children with intellectual disability, but not Down syndrome (DD; n = 21), and a group of chronologically younger, but developmentally matched typically developing children (TD; n = 34). We administered the Leiter-R, the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS), and an Object-Related Generativity Task, which involved 2 min of unstructured play with a variety of objects that have divergent usages. Children with DS generated significantly fewer instances of initiating actions on new objects than children in both comparison groups, were less likely to produce novel functional action on any object (new or familiar) than TD children, and they showed fewer instances of novel functional object engagement with new objects overall than TD children. Frequency of acts on new objects in DS was associated with Leiter-R Form Completion and Repeated Patterns Raw Scores and OWLS Listening Comprehension Raw Scores. These findings contribute to the growing knowledge base regarding goal-directed behavior and self-regulation in individuals with Down syndrome. Implications for education and intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE MISSING FATHER FUNCTION IN PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY AND TECHNIQUE: THE ANALYST'S INTERNAL COUPLE AND MATURING INTIMACY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    This paper argues that recovering the "missing" paternal function in analytic space is essential for the patient's achievement of mature object relations. Emerging from the helpless infant's contact with primary caregivers, mature intimacy rests on establishing healthy triadic functioning based on an infant-with-mother-and-father. Despite a maternocentric bias in contemporary clinical theory, the emergence of triangularity and the inclusion of the paternal third as a separating element is vital in the analytic dyad. Effective technique requires the analyst's balanced interplay between the paternal, investigative and the maternal, maximally receptive modes of functioning-the good enough analytic couple within the analyst-to serve as the separating element that procreatively fertilizes the capacity for intimacy with a differentiated other. A clinical example illustrates how treatment is limited when the paternal function is minimized within more collusive, unconsciously symbiotic dyads. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  17. The application of postmodern thought to the clinical practice of psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article has been to acquaint psychoanalysts and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapists with some of the most current ideas in philosophy and psychology, which have crucial implications for our professional organizations and our clinical work. The basic stance of this postmodern thinking constitutes a challenge to what is called foundationalism, which dominated scientific and philosophical thought until recently. In place of foundationalism, even in the production of scientific or philosophical works, we could hope for an ongoing dialogue between a king or queen who states the basic theoretical orientation, the loyal opposition that looks for inconsistencies and kinks in it, the jester who deconstructs the whole thing and introduces parenthetical digressions, and finally, a secret society of organization that functions to hold the adherents of the theory together and provide them with a unifying ego ideal. Postmodern thought is described and there is some discussion of its "four horsemen," Derrida, Rorty, Foucault, and Lyotard, who in general question the possibility of whether any form of interpretation can be thought of as related to reality or the truth. My own point of view is that an intermediate position is necessary rather than a binary opposition between nihilism and foundationalism or more specifically, postmodernism and traditional psychoanalysis. That is to say, within certain horizons and with an understanding of the cultural and historical referents that always affect and delimit both the patient and the therapist, it is still possible to reach conceptions about what is going on both in the psychoanalytic process and the psyche of the patient that have at least a tentative "truth." Careful attention to the patient's material following an interpretation can provide clues about the validity of our conception at the time. But the horizons and historicity that delimit all "truth" reduce the authority and the stature of the analyst

  18. Psychoanalytic interpretations: word-music and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Beatriz

    2003-02-01

    A perspective on psychoanalytic interpretations as a special case of artistic translations (i.e. translations of both content and formal aspects of discourse) is proposed. Mutative interpretations are seen as creative endeavours that always presuppose a prior text, which is itself already a translation. Freud's main uses of the metaphor of translation as an intrapsychic as well as an intersubjective phenomena, their resonance among later psychoanalytic thinkers and their convergence with classic theories of translation are presented. A perspective on psychoanalytic interpretations as an evolving self-other dialect is developed within the framework of Borges's theory of translation and Bakhtin's concept of exotopy. This framework questions the possibility of an original source, proposes the translator's inevitable implication in translation and underscores intersubjectivity as a necessary way towards the translation of absent meanings. The work of translation also highlights the relevance of space and time contexts, as well as the necessary role of a different other for the interpretation of unconscious processes. Differences between theories of translation reiterate contemporary psychoanalytic controversies about the preeminence of the analysand's subjectivity and the intersubjective approach to treatment. Borges's 'The Aleph' and an excerpt of Dora's case offer paradigmatic demonstrations of the limits and possibilities of understanding through translation.

  19. Psychoanalytic School Consultation: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzner, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a psychoanalytic consultation model to an independent grade 7-12 school that offers a practical and efficient approach to improve school climate. This model may stand alone or complement other approaches, and it can be implemented in both independent and public school settings. It focuses not only on "at risk" students,…

  20. Performance Evaluation of Java Based Object Relational Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mahmood Bhatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Object persistency is the hot issue in the form of ORM (Object Relational Mapping tools in industry as developers use these tools during software development. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Java based ORM tools. For this purpose, Hibernate, Ebean and TopLinkhave been selected as the ORM tools which are popular and open source. Their performance has been measured from execution point of view. The results show that ORM tools are the good option for the developers considering the system throughput in shorter setbacks and they can be used efficiently and effectively for performing mapping of the objects into the relational dominated world of database, thus creating a hope for a better and well dominated future of this technology.

  1. Survivor Revictimization: Object Relations Dynamics and Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Andrew L.

    1997-01-01

    Uses an integrated, unified framework based on object relations theory and research to provide specific and practical understanding of survivor revictimization. Focuses on revictimization dynamics, revictimization research, the survivor's world of revictimization, and treatment implications based on that framework. Offers a case study to elaborate…

  2. Priming the Comprehension of German Object Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Silke; Nitschke, Sanjo; Kidd, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is a useful laboratory-based technique for investigating how children respond to temporary changes in the distribution of structures in their input. In the current study we investigated whether increasing the number of object relative clauses (RCs) in German-speaking children's input changes their processing preferences for…

  3. Relations between subjective evaluations of memory and objective memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G

    2001-01-01

    Several explanations for the weak relations between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance were investigated in two groups of normal older adults. Group 1 sampled a general population (mean age 61.6 yr., range 46-891, while Group 2 sampled subjects who were on a waiting Est for

  4. Modeling Spatial Data within Object Relational-Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana BOTHA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data can refer to elements that help place a certain object in a certain area. These elements are latitude, longitude, points, geometric figures represented by points, etc. However, when translating these elements into data that can be stored in a computer, it all comes down to numbers. The interesting part that requires attention is how to memorize them in order to obtain fast and various spatial queries. This part is where the DBMS (Data Base Management System that contains the database acts in. In this paper, we analyzed and compared two object-relational DBMS that work with spatial data: Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  5. Database Independent Migration of Objects into an Object-Relational Database

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Munir, K; Waseem-Hassan, M; Willers, I

    2002-01-01

    CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project [1] deals with the replication of data between homogeneous sources in a Wide Area Network (WAN) using the extensible Markup Language (XML). The last phase of the WISDOM (Wide-area, database Independent Serialization of Distributed Objects for data Migration) project [2], indicates the future directions for this work to be to incorporate heterogeneous sources as compared to homogeneous sources as described by [3]. This work will become essential for the CERN community once the need to transfer their legacy data to some other source, other then Objectivity [4], arises. Oracle 9i - an Object-Relational Database (including support for abstract data types, ADTs) appears to be a potential candidate for the physics event store in the CERN CMS experiment as suggested by [4] & [5]. Consequently this database has been selected for study. As a result of this work the HEP community will get a tool for migrating their data from Objectivity to Oracle9i.

  6. Psychoanalytic theory and loving God concepts: parent referencing versus self-referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R; Mueller, R A

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their parents' nurturance, their parents' permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness, and the students' own self-esteem. Although parents' nurturance, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness were related to participants' conceptions of God (thus providing some support for psychoanalytic assertions), the variable of self-esteem far outweighed all other variables in accounting for the variance in God concepts. These results suggest that self-referencing explanations better account for individuals' conceptions of God than do parent referencing (i.e., psychoanalytic) explanations.

  7. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  8. Counselling University Students: A Psychoanalytic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Sommantico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a psychoanalytic approach to the counselling with university students, as it is proposed at the University of Naples Federico II. On one hand, the focus is on the specific evolution phase of counselling students, which is late adolescence; on the other hand, it is on the specific aspects of the approach at issue. The authors particularly carry out a description of three characteristics of psychoanalytic counselling with university students: the specific space-time of the setting, the functioning through the free association/freely floating attention, the transference/countertransference dynamic. The authors support their theses, by presenting the clinical case of a student, who consulted the Psychological Counselling Centre for University Students (CCPSU. Clinical excerpts of four counselling sessions are then briefly commented on the basis of the theoretical-clinical paradigm of reference.

  9. [Psychoanalytic diagnosis and routine pedagogic management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgin, D; Meng, H

    2000-09-01

    The results of the psychoanalytic evaluation of a patient gathered during the diagnostic process can only be applied in appropriate educational procedures if an undisturbed dialogue exists within the multidisciplinary treatment team of a ward. Pedagogic activities based on such assessments bring about a continuous verification or falsification of the primary diagnostic evaluation. They not only reflect it's quality but also furnish new information. In loop-like movements the position of the evaluation at the beginning of the in-patient treatment is supplemented or revised. Every traumatic experience, be it dissociated or otherwise isolated from consciousness, because of the continuous vulnerability of the traumatised subject can be triggered and reactivated under special conditions. The practical interlock of the results of the psychoanalytic assessment at the beginning and the educational activities of everyday-life during hospitalisation are exemplified by the case history of a multiple traumatised adolescent.

  10. Neuroscience in the residency curriculum: the psychoanalytic psychotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Michels, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Educators of future psychiatrists tend to teach an array of approaches to the mind and brain, including among them the neurobiologic perspective and the psychoanalytic perspective. These may be considered at opposite ends of many spectra, including the fact that psychoanalysis takes a large-scale and treatment-oriented perspective and has helped countless patients over the years, while neuroscience has tended to be reductionistic, focused on understanding, and has helped very few people. A tension, therefore, exists for the educator in teaching neuroscience: is it wise to spend valuable time and energy teaching this interesting but, thus far, impractical field to future practitioners? Here, we argue that neuroscience is re-orienting itself towards more psychoanalytically relevant questions and is likely, in future years, to give new insights into the nature of basic drives and social relations. We additionally argue for balance on the part of providers in both acknowledging biologic underpinnings for clinical phenomena and yet continuing to take a stance oriented towards appropriate change. Given the burgeoning new focus within neuroscience on topics directly relating to the human internal experience and the novel challenges in both understanding those advances and appropriately using them, we encourage educators to continue to give future psychiatrists the educational foundation they need to follow neuroscientific discoveries into the future.

  11. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychosis in institutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Belinda S.

    2017-01-01

    Psychoanalysis can provide a conceptual foundation for the treatment of psychosis and for understanding how institutions that care for patients with psychosis function. The research of this thesis aims to examine theoretic, therapeutic and institutional approaches to psychosis. What is of significance is the priority that psychoanalysis places on the individual patient's treatment, how it is conceived psychoanalytically and incorporated in the overall organisation of an institution. Psychoan...

  12. Civilisation on the Couch: Theorising Multi-Levelled Psychoanalytical Arts Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Garfield

    2014-01-01

    This paper combines two psychological approaches to art to theorise a both subjective and cultural methodology for practice-based arts research. The first psychoanalytical approach will follow the work of Deleuze and Guattari's Schizoanalysis, considering the role of the artist in order to assess their work in relation to society from an…

  13. Identities and ideals: Psychoanalytic dialogues of self and leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Gazi Islam

    2014-01-01

    The author contextualizes recent developments in socio-cognitive approaches to leadership by drawing on psychoanalytic conceptions of self-identity. It is argued that psychoanalytic views of the self are complementary to contemporary social-cognitive approaches, although historical divergences in these literatures have impeded mutual dialogue. This initiative at dialogue examines charismatic, schema, and self- identity theories of leadership within a psychoanalytic framework, arguing that whe...

  14. infrared spectra of T Tau stars and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanin, G.I.; Shevchenko, V.S.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Four T Tau stars and related objects (RY Tau, T Tau, AB Aur and V1057 Cyg) have been included in the authors' spectroscopic programme since 1973. The present paper is concerned with the spectroscopic observations made at the Crimea with the single stage image tube S1. Tentative atomic line identifications are given for programme stars. Ca II and O I emission line equivalent widths and profiles are presented for RY Tau, T Tau and AB Aur. The lambda 10830 A line of neutral helium has shown P Cyg-type features for T Tau and V 1057 Cyg. (Auth.)

  15. Bootstrapping Relational Affordances of Object Pairs Using Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    a tool to retrieve a desired object. We investigate how these relational affordances could be learned by a robot from its own action experience. A major challenge in this approach is to reduce the number of training samples needed to achieve accuracy, and hence we investigate an approach which can...... leverage past knowledge to accelerate current learning (which we call bootstrapping). We learn random forest-based affordance predictors from visual inputs and demonstrate two approaches to knowledge transfer for bootstrapping. In the first approach [direct bootstrapping (DB)], the state-space for a new...

  16. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    of a prototype and a realworld case study that it is possible to implement a multiple representation schema language on top of an object-relational database management system. Specifically, it is demonstrated how it is possible to map the constructs of the language used for specifying the multiple representation...... by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means...

  17. 'For Beauty is nothing but the barely endurable onset of Terror': Outline of a general psychoanalytic aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikert, Sebastian

    2017-06-01

    Even close to 80 years after Freud's words that psychoanalysis "has scarcely anything to say about beauty" (Freud, Civilization and its Discontents, SE 21, p. 82) the question of a specific psychoanalytic aesthetic is still faced with a deficit in theory. Since aesthetics is related to Aisthesis, the Greek word for 'perception', a psychoanalytic aesthetic can solely emerge from a psychoanalysis of perceptive structures. The term 'kinaesthetic semantic' is introduced in order to exemplify via music how perceptive experiences must be structured for them to be experienced as beautiful. The basic mechanisms - repetition of form (rhythm, unification) and seduction (deviation, surprise) - are defined. With the help of these mechanisms an intensive contact between perceiving object and kinetic subject, the physical self, is established. The intensive relatedness is a requirement for the creative process in art and also for psychic growth on the subject's level. The described basic mechanisms of the aesthetic process in music can also be encountered in painting and poetry. By the means of a self-portrait by Bacon it will be examined how, in art, terror and traumatization are represented via targeted disorganization of beauty endowing mechanisms, hence finding an enabling form of confrontation and integration of fended contents. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. Lacanian Psychoanalytical Theories in Marsha Norman’s ‘Night, Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieyh Alsadat Jafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marsha Norman’s ‘Night, Mother (1983, is a great American play with psychological basis and it is considered as a feminist play. The present paper investigates it in the light of Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytical theories which serve as a methodology in psychoanalytic criticism. Lacan knows the human psyche formed by the three interacting ‘orders’ of the Imaginary, Symbolic, and Real. He argues that the roles of ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘Object petit a’, ‘Jouissance’, ‘the Name-of-the-Father’, ‘Big Other’ and ‘others’ are also significant in affecting one’s psyche. The characters of ‘Night, Mother are Lacanian ‘subjects’ whose lives have been embodiments of Lacan’s psychoanalytical theories, especially Jessie whose disorders, behaviors, reactions to the ‘others’, frustration, committing suicide, and death indicate that many familial, social and mental issues have affected her psyche, and they are crystalized by psychoanalytical theories of Lacan in this paper.

  19. Narcissism and neurosis--an opportunity for integration in psychoanalytic theory and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, R

    1988-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since Kohut's clinical discoveries irrupted into psychoanalytic thinking and aroused enthusiastic and favourable responses as well as massive rejection. The theoretical crystallization of the psychology of the self into a new psychoanalytic metapsychology has brought about an acute polarization in the psychoanalytic movement which might still lead to a serious rupture or, conversely, might bring about--as a counter-reaction to the revolutionary innovation--the abandonment of a whole sphere of the human psyche which has the means of enriching psychoanalysis both as a psychological theory and as a unique clinical method of treatment. This paper is an attempt to map out the gap between the 'traditional' and the Kohutian approaches as it is constituted in four major areas: the sources of human motivation; the sources of normal mental development and psychopathology; the status of the object in the life of the individual; and the goals of psychoanalytic therapy. In each sphere a theoretical conceptualization for the integration of the two approaches is suggested, and the application of this synthesis is presented in the clinical arena of the neurosis through specific therapeutic tools demonstrated by clinical material.

  20. Object Recognition and Object Segregation in Infancy: Historical Perspective, Theoretical Significance, "Kinds" of Knowledge, and Relation to Object Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2001-01-01

    Reflects on Needham's findings on infants' object recognition and segregation. Examines the role for perceptual bias in explaining infant performance, places Needham's studies in historical perspective, and assesses their theoretical significance. Discusses the merits of positing different kinds of information sources for object segregation, and…

  1. On a type of heterosexuality, and the fluidity of object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, D W

    1989-01-01

    This paper delineates a form of heterosexuality whose underlying psychological structure resembles that of perversions. It is characterized by: idealization of instinctual processes, whereby the ego subordinates the object to the actualization of the instinctual event itself; heightened narcissism in an otherwise neurotic ego organization; multiple intrapsychic uses of the object; a special kind of defensive organization; an experienced victory over the superego and associated elevation of certain aspects of the ego ideal; and a resultant alteration in the nature of close interpersonal relationships. I use clinical vignettes from both male and female patients in psychoanalysis to focus on the phenomena in question. The thinking of Chassequet-Smirgel, Freud, Khan, Rangell, Socarides, and others is used in an attempt to gain an encompassing perspective. It is emphasized that patients demonstrating this form of heterosexuality do not possess a perversion per se, but demonstrate a character neurosis which integrates certain perverse mechanisms into its defensive organization. These mechanisms can be isolated and studied in psychoanalytic treatment, with the potential for illuminating their defensive and mood-regulating functions, and eventual working through and resolution of the intrapsychic conflicts underlying them. Some comments on the implications of this form of sexuality for our contemporary culture are included.

  2. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  3. Estimating relative values for multiple objectives on private forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Thomas H. Stevens; David B. Kittredge; Mark G. Rickenbach

    2001-01-01

    Conjoint and other techniques were used to examine private forest-land owner's willingness to manage for timber and nontimber objectives. The objectives were to: maintain apple trees to benefit wildlife, protect rare ferns to enhance aesthetics and biodiversity, improve recreational trails, and harvest timber. Ecological objectives were found to be more important...

  4. Implementation of object-oriented GIS data model with topological relations between spatial objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youliang; Wang, Zhaoru; Chen, Zhicheng

    2013-03-01

    Traditional GIS (Geographical Information System) data models are focused on the description of the data organizational structure and constraints from single aspect, which are the absence or little relevance of the hierarchy and connotation of data objects. These data models do not match the natural concept of humans about geographical spatial data and also failed to fully consider the spatial relationships and arithmetic operations with the relationship between geographic objects. Object-oriented technology mimics the human way of thinking as much as possible, it appears to overcome the shortcomings of traditional software design methods and improve the stability and reusability of the software systems. Based on the existing GIS data model, this paper introduces the basic idea of object-oriented GIS data model combined the object-oriented methods and the vectorial expression of spatial entities, and describes the definition and implementation of the object-oriented GIS data model. Furthermore, the topological operations between spatial objects have been defined in the paper for the importance of topological relationships among spatial relationships. The topological operations are directly defined in geometry classes by means of methods, and they include Touch, Disjoint, Cross, Contains, Overlaps, and Intersects and so on.

  5. Feminist psychoanalytic theory: American and French reactions to Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H; Zickler, E

    1996-01-01

    Ever since Freud's observations on women and their psychology were published, there have been revisions, expansions, and reactions to his ideas. Most recently, feminist psychoanalytic theorists from the United States and France have been fertile in producing revisions to traditional psychoanalytic theory about women. Reviewing the disjointed psychoanalytic traditions of the two countries provides a context for understanding the different approaches to feminist thinking that each country has produced. American feminist psychoanalytic theorists tend to stage reversals of traditional Freudian theory, while the French feminist psychoanalytic theorists have had to position themselves intellectually and politically with reference to the teachings of Lacan. This paper examines selected contemporary theorists from these two countries--Jean Baker Miller, Nancy Chodorow, and Carol Gilligan from the United States and Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, and Helene Cixous from France--and discusses the difficulties of constructing a theory of sexual difference that avoids the pitfalls of either biological essentialism or its reverse, social constructionism.

  6. Towards psychoanalytic contribution to linguistic metaphor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Tair

    2017-07-05

    This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  7. Alienating identifications and the psychoanalytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scariati, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    The transmission of psychic life from one generation to the next can result in unconscious, alienating identifications when the parents have not been able to elaborate a process of mourning for their own childhoods. In this article, the author describes the nature of these identifications, constructed around insufficiently symbolized experiences, as revealed during the psychoanalytic process. These unconscious, alienating identifications raise some arduous technical problems for the psychoanalyst as they lead the patient to carry out complex enactments that erase the normal transference markers. The psychoanalyst may then be tempted to resort to pejorative theoretical concepts, such as the death drive. And yet, unknown to the analysand, the insufficiently symbolized psychic elements contain a potential for transformation that may lead to reconstructions and dis-alienating interpretations. The author distinguishes between alienating identifications and fantasies of identification when the latter transiently appear during the psychoanalytic process. These identification fantasies symbolically register the emotional experience undergone during the analytic sessions and contribute to the integration of insufficiently symbolized psychic elements. These theoretical considerations are fully illustrated by the clinical report of some analytic sessions.

  8. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, John; Naessen, Jonas; Sprei, Frances

    2006-09-01

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  9. Haptic object perception: spatial dimensionality and relation to vision

    OpenAIRE

    Klatzky, Roberta L.; Lederman, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Enabled by the remarkable dexterity of the human hand, specialized haptic exploration is a hallmark of object perception by touch. Haptic exploration normally takes place in a spatial world that is three-dimensional; nevertheless, stimuli of reduced spatial dimensionality are also used to display spatial information. This paper examines the consequences of full (three-dimensional) versus reduced (two-dimensional) spatial dimensionality for object processing by touch, particularly in compariso...

  10. Indian Culture and the Experience of Psychoanalytic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Gurmeet S

    2015-12-01

    While there is a long history to the acquaintance between psychoanalysis and India, psychoanalytic thought has never quite taken hold in Indian culture. However, due to economic globalization, the boom in digital technologies, and the consequent increase in interactions between the East and West, it is becoming increasingly necessary to take notice of the cultural dimensions of psychological experience and its place in psychoanalytic theory and practice. This article explores how the experience of participating in a psychoanalytically oriented treatment structure may be shaped by Indian culture. Developmental, social, clinical, and technical perspectives are considered in each instance.

  11. Perversion and pathology: a critique of psychoanalytic criticism in art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille Holmes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For over three decades, Jacques Lacan denounced ego psychology for its emphasis on a strong and well-adapted ego. This article recruits the principle of that critique to examine the use of psychoanalytic theories in contemporary art criticism, with specific focus on the subject of perversion, Freudo-Lacanian psychoanalysis, and the work of art critic Donald Kuspit. The discussion examines the main influences and concepts in Kuspit's psychoanalytic criticism, analyses specific differences between this psychoanalytic model and a Lacanian theory of perversion and desire, and considers the effect of these differences in the interpretation of art.

  12. Psychoanalytical Culture in the American Film Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Sánchez Noriega

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the American Film Noir from the classic period (1930-1960, it is possible to perceive the influence of psychoanalytical culture and of Freud’s most widely read works. The theory of drives involves the consideration of the perpetrator of criminal activity as a sick person. This is reflected in the films, where morals are relegated to a secondary plane. The importance of sexuality is reflected in the figure of the “femme fatale” and in behaviours in which the principle of pleasure overarches that of reality. The conscious/unconscious duality and the place of dreams in psychoanalysis are the cornerstones of films addressing the split personality and nightmares that plague essentially decent people. The solution to certain criminal conflicts is not found through police work but through medicine: in such situations the therapist manages to solve the problem of the delinquent behaviour born of sick minds.

  13. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India.

  14. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a...

  15. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1995); Veron-Cetti & Veron (1996); Fan (1997) and Hall et al (1998). A break- down of the number of different types of objects in different classes in the present analysis compared to the same in the earlier work is shown in Table 2. The pur-.

  16. Gravitational field of compact objects in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Quevedo, Hernando; Ruffini, Remo

    2012-09-01

    We study some exact and approximate solutions of Einstein’s equations that can be used to describe the gravitational field of astrophysical compact objects in the limiting case of slow rotation and slight deformation. First, we show that none of the standard models obtained by using Fock’s method can be used as an interior source for the approximate exterior Kerr solution. We then use Fock’s method to derive a generalized interior solution, and also an exterior solution that turns out to be equivalent to the exterior Hartle-Thorne approximate solution that, in turn, is equivalent to an approximate limiting case of the exact Quevedo-Mashhoon solution. As a result we obtain an analytic approximate solution that describes the interior and exterior gravitational field of a slowly rotating and slightly deformed astrophysical object.

  17. Reasoning about Object Capabilities with Logical Relations and Effect Parametricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devriese, Dominique; Piessens, Frank; Birkedal, Lars

    -of-the-art techniques from programming languages research, we define a logical relation for a core calculus of JavaScript that better characterises capability-safety. The relation is powerful enough to reason about typical capability patterns and supports evolvable invariants on shared data structures, capabilities...

  18. Hamlet in Freud's Thoughts: Reinterpretations in the Psychoanalytic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a selection of interpretations in the psychoanalytic literature of "Hamlet," by William Shakespeare, beginning with an extensive look at the role this literature played in Sigmund Freud's mind at the origins of psychoanalysis. Also examines later interpretations. (SR)

  19. Perversion and pathology: a critique of psychoanalytic criticism in art

    OpenAIRE

    Lucille Holmes

    2012-01-01

    For over three decades, Jacques Lacan denounced ego psychology for its emphasis on a strong and well-adapted ego. This article recruits the principle of that critique to examine the use of psychoanalytic theories in contemporary art criticism, with specific focus on the subject of perversion, Freudo-Lacanian psychoanalysis, and the work of art critic Donald Kuspit. The discussion examines the main influences and concepts in Kuspit’s psychoanalytic criticism, analyses specific differences betw...

  20. A successful trial utilizing the Leuzinger-Bohleber methodology for evaluation of psychoanalytic treatment: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón, Socorro Ramonet; Corona, Pablo Cuevas; Lartigue, Teresa; Rios, Josefina Mendoza; Garza, David López

    2005-10-01

    Utilizing audio-recorded psychoanalytic interviews of both patients and their analysts, group discussions of these interviews, and the application of questionnaires commonly used in psychotherapy research, the authors investigate the potential use of the Leuzinger-Bohleber methodology as an objective evaluative instrument to assess the quality of psychoanalytic treatment. Preliminary study results were obtained through interviews conducted with seven analysts and their respective patients, three of whom were treated with psychoanalysis (three or more sessions per week, for a duration of no less than one year) and four with psychotherapy (one or two sessions per week, for a duration of no less than one year). Patients were found to be eager to participate, and no adverse experiences were reported by analysts, patients or the research team. In addition to the interviews, further data were obtained through review of mailed-in questionnaires completed by 21 patients. The authors present both preliminary observations regarding the methodology as a whole, as well as the detailed results of one specific case subject treated with psychotherapy. Review of study findings supports the utilization of this methodology as an evaluative instrument which may ultimately advance current knowledge of the process and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment.

  1. Inner and Outer Life at Work. The Roots and Horizon of Psychoanalytically Informed Work Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundgaard Andersen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern labour market has increasingly put the inner working life on the agenda. This stems from a number of societal changes: the knowledge society and its need of personalised competences and work investments in welfare services, the transformation from subject-object relationships to subject-subject relationships and the emergence of the "learning organisations" and reflexive leadership. All of this has been the subject of critical analyses tracing modern work life identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work—in a generic display of concepts, methods and epistemology. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203232

  2. Antigone’s Legacy: A Feminist psychoanalytic of an Other Sexual Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila L. Cavanagh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about Antigone who buried her brother Polynices in Theban soil despite the prohibition issued by King Creon (her uncle in the Sophocles tragedy. In order to understand the magnitude of Antigone’s radical act in the play by the same name I engage the scholarship of Israeli feminist psychoanalytic scholar Bracha L. Ettinger. By engaging Ettinger’s theory of the Other (Feminine Sexual Difference, I consider how ways of being in the Feminine tap into the matrixial domain, thus expanding the bounds of what counts as subjective experience in psychoanalysis. I situate Ettinger’s theory of the matrixial in relation to Lacan’s analysis of Antigone in The Ethics of Psychoanalysis (Seminar VII. I also focus on Julia Kristeva’s concept of ‘debinding’ (2010 and Judith Butler’s (2002 writing on gender and kinship disorder in the tragedy. My objective is to build upon Ettinger’s analysis of Antigone to better understand how it is not death, exactly, that is at stake in the drama, but rather the status of the Feminine dimension in the Theban city-state. If Antigone’s transgression can be understood through a matrixial lens it behooves us as feminist scholars to more fully understand the affective landscape and maternal ethics of difference enacted in the play.

  3. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    to the involvement of re-entrant activation from stored structural knowledge. Evidence in favor of this interpretation comes from the additional finding that activation of the anterior part of the left fusiform gyrus and a more anterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus, areas previously associated......We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform...... and inferior temporal gyri were more activated by tasks with recognizable stimuli than by tasks with unrecognizable stimuli. We propose that the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri, compared with the inferior occipital gyri, are involved in higher level integration, due...

  4. The clinician in the university: Reflections on a South African psychoanalytically oriented doctoral programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Carol; Eagle, Gillian; Stevens, Garth

    2017-04-01

    There is increasing interest, both internationally and in South Africa, in strengthening the relationship between psychoanalytic practice and research. This paper reports on a psychoanalytically oriented doctoral programme offered at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. The programme is described in relation to the broader context of the historical relationship of psychoanalysis to the university as well as to the specific context of the history of psychoanalysis in South Africa. Key challenges of the programme, specifically concerning research tensions and methodological and theoretical tolerance, are subsequently explored. The way in which these challenges manifested within a group context illustrates their potential for conflict as well as productive debate. The paper reflects on how this specific programme illuminates and extends some of the broader debates in the field of psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Objective Measures for Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Groot (Mirthe)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPain in the lumbar spine and pelvic region is a frequent complication of pregnancy and delivery. The prevalence of pregnancy related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) varies between 14.2 and 56%. In 6 to 15% the pain is so severe that it impedes daily life activities. The symptoms of

  6. Looking Back--and Forward--at The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinich, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The following (quite personal and idiosyncratic) review of The PSOC's first volume, published in 1945, highlights some aspects of then-current psychoanalytic thinking that have passed--or failed--the test of time. Two abstractions rise from the particulars of the volume's twenty-five chapters. First, those authors who respected the position of the founding editors--that is, that child psychoanalysis was both independent from related fields and, at the same time, dependent upon them--tend to have fared better than those who allowed their psychoanalytic theories(and sometimes personal rancor) to cloud their views of the facts on the ground. Second, many of the contributions in this first volume integrated an intrapsychic perspective with an environmental or social one. This gave the work of these authors a kind of vitality that is lost when psychoanalytic theory is used to promote adaptation and social conformity. Perhaps it is worth recalling Freud's (1900) opening to The Interpretation of Dreams: "Flectere si nequeo Superos, Acheronta movebo" (If I cannot move the heavens, I shall shake the nether regions). Freud and The PSOC's founding editors knew very well how disturbing psychoanalysis could be to the Superos, the established order. The revolutionary potential of Freud's analysis of the human condition attracted some remarkable people to the field, most of whom believed that intrapsychic and social changes are intimately related to each other. We would do well to emulate their example; only such an integration will keep psychoanalysis alive in the twenty-first century.

  7. [Object relations and performance: on the relational dynamics of the libido].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Götz

    2012-01-01

    The essay depicts the therapeutic process of a psychodynamic short-term child therapy, containing thoughts on object relations and performativity. During therapy, object internalizations emerge and manifest themselves through enactments inside and outside the therapeutic relationship. The subsiding of the patient's mild depressive symptom, which carries imprints of oedipality, is outlined by means of psychodynamic and performative concepts, these focusing on subject orientation. Pathology oriented understanding gives way to few interventions whilst play and conversation are taking place within the therapeutic relationship. The transformation of the symptom toward restitutio ad integrum primarily takes place through the performance within the relational process. The interpretative work is close to consciousness and solution oriented, carrying uncovering aspects. By means of biographical work, contextualizations of problems and propositions of interpretation with the patient's mother, the patient's experiencing as well as others' views on her change. She begins to see herself, and begins to be seen, more and more in terms of a subject of active autonomy rather than of an object of passive victimhood. This process takes place within a period of eight months. At the end, for the patient's further developmental process, restitutio ad integritatem can be expected.

  8. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  9. The internal/external issue what is an outer object? Another person as object and as separate other in object relations models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The question of what we mean by the term outer object has its roots in the epistemological foundation of psychoanalysis. From the very beginning, Freud's view was Kantian, and psychoanalysis has kept that stance, as it seems. The author reviews the internal/external issue in Freud's thinking and in the central object relations theories (Klein, Winnicott, and Bion). On this background he proposes a simple model to differentiate the concept of object along one central dimension: internal object, external object, and actual person. The main arguments are: (1) there is no direct, unmediated perception of the actual person--the experience of the other is always affected by the perceiver's subjectivity; (2) in intense transference reactions and projections, the perception of the person is dominated by the qualities of an inner object--and the other person "becomes" an external object for the perceiver; (3) when this distortion is less dominating, the other person to a higher degree remains a separate other--a person in his or her own right. Clinical material illustrates these phenomena, and a graphical picture of the model is presented. Finally with the model as background, the author comments on a selection of phenomena and concepts such as unobjectionable transference, "the third position," mourning and loneliness. The way that the internal colours and distorts the external is of course a central preoccupation of psychoanalysis generally. (Spillius et al., 2011, p. 326)

  10. Proposed Framework which Uses Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems: Structure and Formating (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our approach tries to overcome the limitations of so called “flat nature” of relational systems, in the actual context of actual relational database theories, database systems technologies and object oriented methodologies by proposing an MDA framework to map an object oriented (UML formalized model to object-relational structures of today’s database systems.

  11. Freedom and the psychoanalytic ontology of quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullatz, Stefan; Gildersleeve, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Jung's paper 'Synchronicity - an acausal connecting principle', defining the phenomenon as a 'meaningful' coincidence depending on archetypal activation, was published in 1952, together with a conceptually related piece by physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli entitled, 'The influence of archetypal ideas on the scientific theories of Kepler'. Slavoj Žižek, in The Indivisible Remainder: On Schelling and Related Matters, suggests that, in contrast to any notion of a 'pre-modern Jungian harmony', the main lesson of quantum physics was that not only was the psychoanalytic, empty subject of the signifier constitutively out-of-joint with respect to the world, but that the Real in itself was already incomplete, out-of-joint, 'not-all'. Yet while Žižek frequently tries to separate Jung from his own ontology, this paper shows that his ontology is not as different as he suggests. Consistent with our earlier publications on Jung and Zizek, a closer investigation reveals an underlying congruence of both of their approaches. In this paper we show that this affinity lies in the rejection by both Jung and Žižek of the ideology of reductive materialism, a rejection that demonstrably draws on quantum physics in similar ways. While Jung posits an inherently meaningful universe, Žižek attempts to salvage the freedom of human subjectivity by opposing his Lacanian 'dialectical materialism' to reductive materialism. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  12. Transformations in dreaming and characters in the psychoanalytic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Antonino

    2009-04-01

    Having reviewed certain similarities and differences between the various psychoanalytic models (historical reconstruction/development of the container and of the mind's metabolic and transformational function; the significance to be attributed to dream-type material; reality gradients of narrations; tolerability of truth/lies as polar opposites; and the form in which characters are understood in a psychoanalytic session), the author uses clinical material to demonstrate his conception of a session as a virtual reality in which the central operation is transformation in dreaming (de-construction, de-concretization, and re-dreaming), accompanied in particular by the development of this attitude in both patient and analyst as an antidote to the operations of transformation in hallucinosis that bear witness to the failure of the functions of meaning generation. The theoretical roots of this model are traced in the concept of the field and its developments as a constantly expanding oneiric holographic field; in the developments of Bion's ideas (waking dream thought and its derivatives, and the patient as signaller of the movements of the field); and in the contributions of narratology (narrative transformations and the transformations of characters and screenplays). Stress is also laid on the transition from a psychoanalysis directed predominantly towards contents to a psychoanalysis that emphasizes the development of the instruments for dreaming, feeling, and thinking. An extensive case history and a session reported in its entirety are presented so as to convey a living impression of the ongoing process, in the consulting room, of the unsaturated co-construction of an emotional reality in the throes of continuous transformation. The author also describes the technical implications of this model in terms of forms of interpretation, the countertransference, reveries, and, in particular, how the analyst listens to the patient's communications. The paper ends with an

  13. ON THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOANALYTIC FIELD THEORY, PART 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Martin A

    2017-10-01

    Advances in Contemporary Psychoanalytic Field Theory: Concept and Further Development. Edited by S. Montana Katz, Roosevelt Cassorla, and Giuseppe Civitarese. London/New York: Routledge, 2017. 212 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  14. The paternal function in Winnicott: the psychoanalytical frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faimberg, Haydée

    2014-08-01

    My first aim has been to identify the implicit assumptions underlying Winnicott's detailed notes on a fragment of an analysis dating from 1955 and published after his death. The importance given by Winnicott to the father figure as early as 1955 is one of my discoveries; another is the deep Freudian roots of his thinking. In this essay I propose a new way of linking together the concepts of 'paternal function' and the 'psychoanalytical frame'. Developing my hypothesis, I compare my reading of Winnicott and my way of reading José Bleger's study on the frame. Like Winnicott, I explore in detail a process of discovery, focusing on what the analyst and the patient are nor fully aware of …'as yet'. I am not proposing to unify Winnicott's and Bleger's thinking. My aim is to avoid the pitfall of eclecticism and, in so doing, to recognize both the related depths they sound in their thinking and their otherness. I want to share with the readers their 'meeting' in my mind. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  15. The sense of solitude in the psychoanalytic encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, J M

    1996-06-01

    The author emphasises the importance of the sense of solitude for the integration of psychic life in both analysand and analyst. This complex affect is stated to accompany different levels of anxiety that can be worked through in the transference. While the normal sense of solitude is a manifestation of relative maturity, the author shows that it is not readily tolerated by some analysands when, in the form of a painful sense of loneliness, it signals the approach of the depressive position and of psychic integration. A discussion of the concept in the work of Freud, Klein and Winnicott is followed by a clinical sequence showing how a female patient uses projective identification to transfer intolerable transference separation feelings on to the analyst, who then experiences them as his own. When the analyst succeeds in distinguishing between the pathological aspect (depression) and the healthy side (psychic pain due to the prospect of integration) of these affects, he is able to interpret. The author draws attention to the dangers of acting out by both partners in the analysis if this is not possible. The author deems it important for the psychoanalyst to have acquired a well-developed sense of solitude and insists that particular consideration be devoted to its presence in prospective candidates for psychoanalytic training.

  16. Techniques for assessing relative values for multiple objective management on private forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Thomas H. Stevens; David B. Kittredge; Mark G. Rickenbach

    2003-01-01

    Decision models for assessing multiple objective management of private lands will require estimates of the relative values of various nonmarket outputs or objectives that have become increasingly important. In this study, conjoint techniques are used to assess the relative values and acceptable trade-offs (marginal rates of substitution) among various objectives...

  17. Are Categorical Spatial Relations Encoded by Shifting Visual Attention between Objects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yuan

    Full Text Available Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects-the shift account of relation processing-which states that relations such as 'above' or 'below' are extracted by shifting visual attention upward or downward in space. If so, then shifts of attention should improve the representation of spatial relations, compared to a control condition of identity memory. Participants viewed a pair of briefly flashed objects and were then tested on either the relative spatial relation or identity of one of those objects. Using eye tracking to reveal participants' voluntary shifts of attention over time, we found that when initial fixation was on neither object, relational memory showed an absolute advantage for the object following an attention shift, while identity memory showed no advantage for either object. This result is consistent with the shift account of relation processing. When initial fixation began on one of the objects, identity memory strongly benefited this fixated object, while relational memory only showed a relative benefit for objects following an attention shift. This result is also consistent, although not as uniquely, with the shift account of relation processing. Taken together, we suggest that the attention shift account provides a mechanistic explanation for the overall results. This account can potentially serve as the common mechanism underlying both linguistic and perceptual representations of spatial relations.

  18. Analysis of process parameters in surface grinding using single objective Taguchi and multi-objective grey relational grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant J. Patil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Close tolerance and good surface finish are achieved by means of grinding process. This study was carried out for multi-objective optimization of MQL grinding process parameters. Water based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids of various concentrations are used as lubricant for MQL system. Grinding experiments were carried out on instrumented surface grinding machine. For experimentation purpose Taguchi's method was used. Important process parameters that affect the G ratio and surface finish in MQL grinding are depth of cut, type of lubricant, feed rate, grinding wheel speed, coolant flow rate, and nanoparticle size. Grinding performance was calculated by the measurement G ratio and surface finish. For improvement of grinding process a multi-objective process parameter optimization is performed by use of Taguchi based grey relational analysis. To identify most significant factor of process analysis of variance (ANOVA has been used.

  19. Objective and subjective predictors of cancer-related stress symptoms in testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk; Hoekstra, Harald; Tuinman, Marrit; Klip, Ed; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette

    2006-01-01

    Objective: (1) To investigate cancer-related stress symptoms among testicular cancer survivors (TCSs), (2) to gain insight into the relationship Of sociodemographic and cancer-related variables with cancer-related stress symptoms and (3) to assess whether objective and subjective aspects of cancer

  20. The Matrix Verb as a Source of Comprehension Difficulty in Object Relative Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Adrian; Dillon, Brian; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments used eyetracking during reading to examine the processing of the matrix verb following object and subject relative clauses. The experiments show that the processing of the matrix verb following an object relative is indeed slowed compared to the processing of the same verb following a subject relative. However, this difficulty is…

  1. Proposed Framework which Uses Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems: Structure and Formating (Part 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Our approach tries to overcome the limitations of so called “flat nature†of relational systems, in the actual context of actual relational database theories, database systems technologies and object oriented methodologies by proposing an MDA framework to map an object oriented (UML formalized) model to object-relational structures of today’s database systems.

  2. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  3. What Is the Use of Theory? A Psychoanalytic Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzman, Deborah P.

    2012-01-01

    Freud asking whether psychoanalysis could be taught in the university, and then whether it could be learned, provides an occasion for asking about the emotional uses of theory. The paper draws from literature, clinical writing and pedagogy to build a psychoanalytic discussion of teaching and learning that takes seriously phantasies of knowledge…

  4. Psychoanalytical Theories about Dance and Art | Akunna | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the recent trend of crossing academic boundaries and integrating the humanities with social and abstract sciences in contemporary times, this article focuses on the role of art in the school of psychoanalytical thought and by extension, modern medicine. In the process, it explores the relationship between Aristotle's ...

  5. A framework and two sketches concerning psychoanalytical training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Belinda

    2003-02-01

    The author discusses the mode of knowledge production in psychoanalysis based on a reflection on the psychoanalytical education and its relationship to clinical practice. She points out that there is a risk in a form of clinical activity found in our education, which, under the fascination of the analyst's power of operating in the metaphorical domain of words, loses sight of the material dimension of the clinical action. In other words, this form of clinical activity loses sight of the meeting with another human being, of the repertoire of theories and experiences that informs this action and the patient's and the analyst's concrete life situation. The author highlights the role of writing as a privileged way of dealing with the material and immaterial facts that constitute the clinical action and reflects on some of the forces that structure nowadays the reception of knowledge production inside the psychoanalytical field. She uses the notion of 'minor literature', by Franz Kafka, to express the possibility that a live circuit of writings exchanged among psychoanalysts can offer to an interchange of experiences and ideas that is the live expression of the history of the psychoanalytical groups. A clinical session is presented in order to promote considerations about the psychoanalytical education, theory and practice.

  6. Psychoanalytic Bases for One's Image of God: Fact or Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.

    As a result of Freud's seminal postulations of the psychoanalytic bases for one's God-concept, it is a frequently accepted hypothesis that an individual's image of God is largely a reflection of experiences with and feelings toward one's own father. While such speculations as to an individual's phenomenological conceptions of God have an…

  7. The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interviewees also described adaptive responses to these contextual challenges. These responses are discussed as evidence of the usefulness of theoretical and technical eclecticism, when applied with psychoanalytic mindfulness, in developing the South African parent–infant/child psychotherapy field. Journal of Child ...

  8. Gestalt and psychoanalytic therapies: structural analysis and rapprochement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A C

    1980-10-01

    This paper examines the psychoanalytic concepts of interpretation, resistance, and transference as manifest in gestalt therapy. Although these concepts are de-emphasized, criticized, and disavowed in gestalt theoretical writings, they are actually fundamental to the underlying or "deep" structure of gestalt therapy. Examples of gestalt interventions are described and indications for their use suggested.

  9. Identifying clinical cases among patients assigned to psychoanalytic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared 89 patients assigned to long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy or psychoanalysis in the Netherlands with psychiatric and nonclinical norm groups with regard to symptoms and personality pathology as assessed with six instruments. Patients filled in four self-report

  10. Lacan's psycho-analytic evacuation of the rainbow nation identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lacan's psycho-analytic evacuation of the rainbow nation identity [English] Given the increasing displacement of the essentialist racial categories of the past and the emergence of often-superficial theorisations of race in terms of the diverse South African experiences of difference and Otherness, this article seeks to ...

  11. Minding the gap between positivism and hermeneutics in psychoanalytic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    Two quite different cultures are to be found within psychoanalysis, one more clinical in orientation, more focused on meaning and interpretation, and relying primarily on the traditional case study method, the other more research-oriented, focused on cause-and-effect relationships, and relying primarily on methods borrowed from the natural and social sciences. The history of this divide is reviewed and arguments, pro and con, about the potential contributions of specific types of empirical investigation are discussed. Increasingly, it seems, criticisms concerning the scientific status of psychoanalysis are being responded to by empirical research. This has contributed to a growing recognition within the scientific community of the credibility of aspects of psychoanalytic theories and of the effectiveness of psychodynamic treatment. However, some segments of the psychoanalytic community are concerned that this increase in the quantity and quality of empirical research on psychoanalytic concepts risks creating an empirical one-sidedness, while other segments are concerned that not engaging in systematic empirical research can lead to intellectual isolation, fragmentation, stagnation, and orthodoxy. To counter this polarizing tendency, a recommendation is made for methodological pluralism. Adopting this stance could contribute to an enriched understanding of the clinical process and to the development of new research methodologies to investigate complex psychodynamic hypotheses, thus bridging the gap between the two psychoanalytic cultures, as well as the gap between research and clinical practice.

  12. [Psychoanalytic psychotherapy and the ADHD-triad (impulsivity, hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgin, Dieter; Steck, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    A brief survey of the psychoanalytically oriented literature regarding the symptom triad of ADHD is followed by the discussion of frequently found disturbances in infantile development, attachment, object relations (regulation of drives and affects, ego functions) of the role of infantile trauma (object loss) and psychic conflict. In the analytic-psychotherapeutic process with a child, the ADHD-symptom-triad may manifest itself e.g. as intrapsychic conflict on the level of the self-representation or of the representation of central self-object-relations (characterized by an insufficient containing-/holding-function), as impairment of self-regulative functions, as inconsistent symbolizing capacity or as deficient regulating and controlling capacity of the ego. The multitude of factors involved does not allow a generalisation of neither the etiology or the pathogenesis of this symptom triad. This is particularly evident in a therapeutic procedure which is relation oriented. In a first interview the authors illustrate the capacity of a ten year old boy (diagnosed as ADHD patient) to make use of the analytic therapeutic dialogue and to present his intrapsychic experiences and problems in a figurative and narrative performance. Finally some specific technical features of low or high frequent analytic psychotherapy with ADHD children are shown: according to the foremost pregenital form of relations--manifested mostly by intensive self esteem problems, narcissistic aggressiveness and motor impulsivity--the transference and counter-transference movements proceed predominantly by projective and introjective identifications. Containment of the difficulties by the therapist is often paralleled for a long period of time by assistance in regulation and by limit setting for the child. Translation of action into language and transformation of intrapsychic processes within the psyche of the therapist into helpful interventions for the child require a continuous adjustment to the

  13. Instinctual impulses in obsessive compulsive disorder: A neuropsychological and psychoanalytic interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Pritha; Tarafder, Sreemoyee; Bilimoria, Dinaz D; Paul, Debika; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam

    2010-12-01

    Psychopathology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that has been characterized by a conflict between the ego and superego on one hand, and aggressive and sexual impulses emerging from the id on the other, and employment of characteristic defenses to combat intense conflicts being connected with ones' biological disposition from the psychoanalytic school of thought now gets empirical foundation from neuroimaging research. The findings disregard the psychological construct, exclusively establishing the neurobiology of the disorder. With the objective to study the impact of sexual and aggressive impulses on the executive functions and processing speed in the patient group, 20 OCD patients (11 males, 9 females) and 20 normal control subjects, matched for all relevant variables including age, sex, educational level and handedness were studied. Sexual impulse and guilt was assessed on the Sex Guilt Rating Scale (SGRS), aggressive impulses were tested using State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to assess symptom severity, executive functions were assessed through Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and processing speed was assessed by employing the Processing Speed Index (PSI) - from WAIS III. It was found that the OCD group differed significantly from the controls, attaining significantly lower percentiles on Processing Speed Index and for all variables of WCST under consideration, namely, perseverative response, perseverative error, non-perseverative error, conceptual level response and number of categories completed. They reported higher scores on subscales of STAXI, specifically related to trait anger and lower scores on anger expression. On the items of SGRS, the OCD group significantly differed with the controls, expressing greater sexual inhibition. In conclusion, we propose an explanation of psychopathology of OCD, which addresses instinctual impulses, executive functions and neural

  14. The influence of object relative size on priming and explicit memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects displayed in large vs. small size at test. Our findings of substantial size-specific influences on priming with common objects under some but not other conditions are consistent with instance views of object perception and priming but inconsistent with structural description views.

  15. Object and subject relations in adulthood--towards an integrative model of interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvelc, Gregor

    2010-12-01

    In the article the author presents a model of interpersonal relationships based on integration of object relations theory and theory of attachment. He proposes three main bipolar dimensions of interpersonal relationships: Independence - Dependence, Connectedness - Alienation and Reciprocity - Self-absorption. The author also proposes that it is important to distinguish between two main types of adult interpersonal relationships: object and subject relations. Object relations describe relationships in which the other person is perceived as an object that serves the satisfaction of the first person's needs. Object relations are a manifestation of the right pole of the three main dimensions of interpersonal relationships (Dependence, Alienation and Self-absorption). Subject relations are a counter-pole to the concept of object relations. They describe relationships with other people who are experienced as subjects with their own wishes, interests and needs. Subject relations are a manifestation of the left pole of the main dimensions (Independence, Connectedness and Reciprocity). In this article the author specifically focuses on definitions of object relations in adulthood through a description of six sub-dimensions of object relations: Symbiotic Merging, Separation Anxiety, Social Isolation, Fear of Engulfment, Egocentrism and Narcissism. Every sub-dimension is described in connection to adaptive and pathological functioning. Further research is needed to test the clinical and scientific validity of the model.

  16. A psychoanalytic study of Alexander the Great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K R

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate how Freudian concepts such as the Oedipus complex, castration anxiety, fear of loss of love, the psychosexual stages of development, and the tripartite structure of personality can be used to understand the life and achievements of Alexander the Great. To accomplish this purpose, specific incidents, myths, and relationships in Alexander's life were analyzed from a Freudian psychoanalytic perspective. Green (1991), in his recent biography of Alexander, has questioned the merit of using Freudian concepts to understand Alexander's character. In fact, he stated specifically: If he (Alexander) had any kind of Oedipus complex it came in a poor second to the burning dynastic ambition which Olympias so sedulously fostered in him; those who insist on his psychological motivation would do better to take Adler as their mentor than Freud (p.56). Later, in the concluding section of his book, Green (1991, pp. 486-487) discounted Freudian interpretations of Alexander's distaste for sex, the rumors of his homosexual liaisons, his partiality for middle-aged or elderly ladies, and the systematic domination of his early years by Olympias as little more than the projected fears and desires of the interpreters. And again, an Adlerian power-complex paradigm was suggested as the preferable theoretical framework to use. Green's argument was based primarily on an exchange, reported originally by Plutarch, which took place between Alexander and Philip prior to Alexander's tutorship with Aristotle. Purportedly, Philip enjoined his son to study hard and pay close attention to all Aristotle said "so that you may not do a great many things of the sort that I am sorry I have done." At this point, Alexander "somewhat pertly" took Philip to task "because he was having children by other women besides his wife." Philip's reply was: "Well then, if you have many competitors for the kingdom, prove yourself honorable and good, so that you may obtain the

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTHER AND CHILD AND ITS IMPACT ON THE FORMATION OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE CONTEXT OF PSYCHOANALYTIC FEMINISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bulanova-Duvalko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The article analyzes the influence of the experience of motherhood on formation steady sexual arrangements and stereotypical models of femininity and masculinity in society in the context of the psychoanalytic feminism. In particular, the importance of philosophical analysis of mother-child interrelations as the subjects of motherhood experience facilitates the understanding of mechanisms for construction and reproduction of the sexual arrangements and stereotyped gender roles is covered. Moreover, the influence of separation and individuation processes in the mother-child interrelations on the reproduction of patriarchy in social relations is considered. Research methodology. The basis of the research is a methodology of the psychoanalytic feminism as well as content analysis and a systematic method. Scientific novelty of the research lies in studying and systematizing the key theses of stereotypical manifestations of femininity theoretical substantiation from the perspective of psychoanalytic feminism that had not been presented within the national scientific thought. The research handles the following tasks: 1to define the main directions of polemics of the psychoanalytic feminism and psychoanalytic concepts of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Laca; 2 to highlight the major spheres of the psychoanalytic feminism scientific interest;3 to consider the features of theory about the influence of the human psyche development during the pre-oedipal stage on producing the constant sexual arrangements in the perspective of the Anglo-American tradition of the psychoanalytic feminism; 4 to describe the main aspects of the theory about constructing femininity in the French feminism studies; 5 to analyze different ways to overcome the patriarchal symbolic order suggested by the psychoanalytic feminism. Conclusions. The research found that despite the adherence to a particular psychoanalytic theory the scholars agree that the pre-oedipal stage of

  18. [Attempt at a psychoanalytic approach to "concept art"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchfleisch, U

    1980-01-01

    In a short review the development of psychoanalytic explorations in art from "pathography to psychobiography" is given. Chasseguet-Smirgel's critique on a limitation to looking for connections between the biography of the artist and his work is discussed as well as Eissler's proposal of an "endopoetic approach". The characteristic of most of the psychoanalytic publications is their orientation on the psychoanalytic conflict-model. New impulses to psychoanalytic interpretations of art were given by ego-psychology. The author tries to understand the artistic creations of "Concept Art" which appeared in the late Sixties, by the psychoanalytic model. It can be shown that especially in these productions which made their theme the "idea" and which are characterised by a degree of abstractness which had not been known before the ego-psychological approach seems to be the most adequate one. Ego performances manifest themselves in these works of concept art at an extreme intensity while the conflictual material of the id is reduced to a minimum or is totally eliminated. The concept artist is not only showing us a mirror of the pathology of our time, but is also giving us ways to overcome these problems. The hypothesis is formulated that concept art is giving us responses to three main problems of our time which is makes it's theme and by doing so tries to solve: it is dealing with the fear of a common psychic disintegration, especially with the danger of outbreaks of aggressive impulses. Moreover single central ego-functions are demonstrated by the concepts to the recipient and he has (actively) to discover them. Lastly the communicative function of art is formulated in concept art in such a radical way as has not been known before. In some of the artistic concepts the recipient is not only meant to reflect upon them, but is also forced to communicative actions.

  19. Dreams: the convergence of neurobiologic and psychoanalytic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, H

    1997-01-01

    Fromm's Aristotelian statement that "Dreaming is a meaningful expression of any kind of mental activity under the condition of sleep" (Fromm, 1951, p. 25) is similar to a modern neurobiological conclusion about the dreaming process. The current data from the neurosciences lead to the definition of dreams as a neuropsychological event during sleep whose manifest contents are affect laden, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. Their functions are adaptive and problem solving in themselves. They are part of the brain's connectionist information-processing system which channel, compare, and integrate current affect-laden memories with memories of past successful strategies. Thus, the neurobiological perspective of dreams provides an underlying neuroanatomical and information-processing matrix for the dream process that further supports the current psychoanalytic view concerning their assimilative and accommodative functions. In conclusion, I would like to return to the termination phase of Mr. M's therapy. This patient planned to leave therapy approximately 22 months after the occurrence of Dream 2, as this dream had predicted. He was to be married and move to another city. Although I felt somewhat anxious about his leaving, despite his significant progress, we agreed to a termination date. Just prior to the second-to-last session Mr. M had the following dream: It took place in a large gothic building in a zoo. It is dark and depressing and filled with cages of rhesus monkeys. I go around with a nurse to inoculate the monkeys. I am scared of the virus. My future wife appears. She is immune to the virus. She is brave and she rescues me. The patient seemed pleased in relating his dream, and it offered resolution and closure for both of us despite a paucity of discussion. Two years later I received a letter from him in which he stated that he was well and had no additional "monkey dreams."

  20. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects...... a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...

  1. A STUDY DEMONSTRATING EFFICACY OF A PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PANIC DISORDER: IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHOANALYTIC RESEARCH, THEORY, AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Sandberg, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic research on psychoanalytic treatments has been limited by several factors, including a belief that clinical experience can demonstrate the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, rendering systematic research unnecessary, the view that psychoanalytic research would be difficult or impossible to accomplish, and a concern that research would distort the treatment being delivered. In recent years, however, many psychoanalysts have recognized the necessity of research in order to obtain a more balanced assessment of the role of psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in a contemporary treatment armamentarium, as well as to allow appropriate evaluation and potentially greater acceptance by the broader mental health and medical communities. In this context, studies were conducted of a psychodynamic treatment, Panic-Focused Psycho-dynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP), initially in an open trial and then in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in comparison with a less active treatment, Applied Relaxation Training (ART; Cerny et al. 1984), for adults with primary DSM-IV panic disorder. The results of the RCT demonstrated the efficacy of PFPP in treating panic disorder, and also demonstrated that a psychoanalytic treatment can be systematically evaluated in a mode consistent with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Two specific features of the methodology, the development of the treatment manual and the operationalization of the adherence instrument, both core building blocks of contemporary psychotherapy outcome research, and their implications for psychoanalytic research are discussed in greater depth. The theoretical, clinical, and educational implications of the PFPP studies are elaborated, and suggestions are made for pursuing further outcome research of psychoanalytic treatments. PMID:19270248

  2. The splitting of the New York Psychoanalytic Society and the construction of psychoanalytic authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    1998-10-01

    The splitting apart of the New York Psychoanalytic Society, which began in 1941 with the expulsion of Karen Horney, is seen in the context of a concerted effort to establish the professional authority of psychoanalysis on unimpeachable foundations. On the one hand, a core group of young psychiatrists trained abroad, led by Kubie, sought to establish strict standards of training along orthodox lines; following in the footsteps of medical reformers who had established the professional authority of medicine with strict standards for training and credentialling, they opposed their more 'lax' elders as well as revisionists such as Horney and Rado. On the other hand, the refugee analysts fleeing Hitler sought to establish the security and conditions of orthodoxy they had enjoyed abroad, though they were forced to compromise on the issue of lay analysis. Together they expelled the deviants and sought to establish the professional authority of psychoanalysis on the twin foundations of medical standards and Freudian orthodoxy. Anxieties following the death of Freud contributed to this dynamic process. But contradictions between the conflicting demands of these two sources of authority undermined the stability of this alliance and, eventually, contributed to its collapse.

  3. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  4. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  5. Objective hot flashes are negatively related to verbal memory performance in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M; Drogos, Lauren L; Rubin, Leah H; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that hot flashes specifically relate to verbal memory performance by examining the relationship between objective hot flashes and cognitive test performance in women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. In an observational study, 29 midlife women (mean age, 53 y) with moderate to severe hot flashes provided measures of objective hot flashes with an ambulatory hot flash monitor, subjective hot flashes with a diary and questionnaire, and objective measures of verbal memory and other cognitive functions with standardized neuropsychological tests. The mean number of objective hot flashes was 19.5 per day (range, 6 to 35), including 15.3 (range, 6 to 35) during waking hours and 4.2 (range, 0 to 9) during sleep. The mean sensitivity (ie, subjective detection of objectively measured hot flashes) was 60%. Regression analyses revealed that total number of objective hot flashes, sleep duration, and verbal knowledge were significant predictors of delayed verbal memory. Verbal fluency correlated positively with objective daytime hot flashes. Hot flashes did not predict performance on any of the other secondary cognitive measures (ie, attention, working memory, visual memory), although poor sleep predicted worse performance on several outcome measures. Highly symptomatic women underreport the number of objective hot flashes that they experience by 43%. Verbal memory performance relates significantly to the objective number of hot flashes women experience but not to the number of hot flashes that they report. These findings suggest that physiological factors related to hot flashes, rather than psychological factors, predict poorer verbal memory function.

  6. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8° and 28°). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3° and 8°). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details.

  7. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  8. Deepening psychoanalytic listening: the marriage of Buddha and Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2009-06-01

    Freud (1912) delineated the ideal state of mind for therapists to listen, what he called "evenly hovering" or "evenly suspended attention." No one has ever offered positive recommendations for how to cultivate this elusive yet eminently trainable state of mind. This leaves an important gap in training and technique. What Buddhism terms meditation-non-judgmental attention to what is happening moment-to-moment-cultivates exactly the extraordinary, yet accessible, state of mind Freud was depicting. But genuine analytic listening requires one other quality: the capacity to decode or translate what we hear on the latent and metaphoric level-which meditation does not do. This is a crucial weakness of meditation. In this chapter I will draw on the best of the Western psychoanalytic and Eastern meditative traditions to illuminate how therapists could use meditation to cultivate "evenly hovering attention" and how a psychoanalytic understanding of the language and logic of the unconscious complements and enriches meditative attention.

  9. Sexuality and psychoanalytic aggrandisement: Freud's 1908 theory of cultural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    In 1908, in his article "'Civilized" sexual morality and modern nervous illness', Freud presented neuroses as the consequence of a restrictive state of cultural development and its 'civilized morality'. He found the inspiration for this idea by expanding upon previous formulations in this area by his predecessors (notably Christian von Ehrenfels) that focused on a cultural process earlier introduced by Kant, while also integrating in his analysis the principles of Haeckel's evolutionism (history of development, recapitulation) which eventually re-defined the psychoanalytic theory of neuroses. These new theoretical elements became the basis of psychoanalytic theory and thereby influenced subsequent thinking in the cultural process itself and in human sciences. This transformation of underlying theory provided a unique historical and analytical framework for psychoanalysis which allowed Freud to claim for it a pre-eminent position among the human sciences.

  10. Identifying the Micro-relations Underpinning Familiarity Detection in Dynamic Displays Containing Multiple Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. North

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We identified the important micro-relations that are perceived when attempting to recognize patterns in stimuli consisting of multiple dynamic objects. Skilled and less-skilled participants were presented with point light display sequences representing dynamic patterns in an invasion sport and were subsequently required to make familiarity based recognition judgments in three different conditions, each of which contained only a select number of features that were present at initial viewing. No differences in recognition accuracy were observed between skilled and less-skilled participants when just objects located in the periphery were presented. Yet, when presented with the relative motions of two centrally located attacking objects only, skilled participants were significantly more accurate than less-skilled participants and their recognition accuracy improved further when a target object was included against which these relative motions could be judged. Skilled participants can perceive and recognize global patterns on the basis of centrally located relational information.

  11. Aggressiveness and characteristics of object-relations in students at risk of migrainous headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research, carried out in a sample of Slovene students, was to determine how subjects with migraine differ from subjects with migrainous disorder, subjects with non-migrainous headaches and subjects without recurrent headaches. The existence of migraine was assessed by UCSD migraine questionnaire, aggressiveness by Buss-Durkee hostility inventory and characteristics of object-relations by Bell object relations and reality testing inventory - form O. Subjects with migraine express significantly more negativism, indirect aggressiveness, irritability, hostility, suspicion and feelings of guilt than subject without recurrent headaches, while there are no differences in physical and verbal aggressiveness. There are less significant differences among subjects with different types of headache (migraine, migrainous disorder, non-migrainous headaches. Subjects with migraine and subjects without recurrent headaches differ significantly in characteristics of object-relations, subjects with migraine having more disturbed object-relations. Subject with different types of headaches do not differ in characteristics of object-relations. It is concluded that subjects with migraine have a raised level of aggressiveness, especially of indirect forms, which can indicate non-neutralized aggressiveness, and their object-relations are more disturbed.

  12. Psychoanalytic dream theory and recent neurobiological findings about REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, M D

    1984-01-01

    I have reviewed Hobson and McCarley's activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming which attempts to show that the instigation and certain formal aspects of dreaming are physiologically determined by a brainstem neuronal mechanism, their reasons for suggesting major revisions in psychoanalytic dream theory, and neurophysiological data that are inconsistent with their hypothesis. I then discussed the concept of mind-body isomorphism pointing out that they use this concept inconsistently, that despite their denials they regularly view physiology as primary and psychological processes as secondary, and that they frequently make the error of mixing the languages of physiology and psychology in their explanatory statements. Finally, in order to evaluate Hobson and McCarley's claim that their findings require revision of psychoanalytic dream theory, I examined their discussions of chase dreams, flying dreams, sexual dreams, the formal characteristics of dreams, the forgetting of dreams, and the instigation of dreams. I concluded that although their fascinating physiological findings may be central to understanding the neurobiology of REM sleep, they do not alter the meaning and interpretation of dreams gleaned through psychoanalytic study.

  13. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  14. Otra posible invención sobre el dolor. Una elucidación psicoanalítica de la melancolía. // Another possible invention related to pain. A psychoanalytical elucidation to melancholia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Ramírez Escobar.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to elucidate certain structural features that allow us to think about a possible clinic of melancholia, following what has been said by Freud and Lacan, without ignoring the historical development of this concept and some works in classic psychiatry. After a brief review to subjects already mentioned, the author outlines a possible treatment for this structure that within the psychosis has not been included in many studies on the matter. Finally, explaining the statute of the object to which the melancholic is identified and the pain at existing, triggered by the foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father, will offer a clear way to elucidate the issue. // El presente trabajo apunta al esclarecimiento de ciertos rasgos estructurales que permiten pensar una clínica posible de la melancolía, siempre atendiendo a lo dicho por Freud y Lacan pero sin pasar por alto tanto las elaboraciones históricas del concepto como los trabajos efectuados en la psiquiatría clásica. Haciendo un breve recorrido por lo ya mencionado podrá surgir un esbozo de tratamiento posible de una estructura que dentro de las psicosis ha quedado al margen de muchos trabajos al respecto. Por último, apuntar hacia el estatuto del objeto al cuál se identifica el melancólico y al dolor de existir desencadenado por la forclusión del Nombre del Padre permitirá una vía de esclarecimiento como propuesta de trabajo.

  15. A case Study of Applying Object-Relational Persistence in Astronomy Data Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. S.; Hiriart, R.; Barg, I.; Warner, P.; Gasson, D.

    2005-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) team is developing a comprehensive domain model to capture the science data in the archive. Java and an object model derived from the domain model weil address the application layer of the archive system. However, since RDBMS is the best proven technology for data management, the challenge is the paradigm mismatch between the object and the relational models. Transparent object-relational mapping (ORM) persistence is a successful solution to this challenge. In the data modeling and persistence implementation of NSA, we are using Hibernate, a well-accepted ORM tool, to bridge the object model in the business tier and the relational model in the database tier. Thus, the database is isolated from the Java application. The application queries directly on objects using a DBMS-independent object-oriented query API, which frees the application developers from the low level JDBC and SQL so that they can focus on the domain logic. We present the detailed design of the NSA R3 (Release 3) data model and object-relational persistence, including mapping, retrieving and caching. Persistence layer optimization and performance tuning will be analyzed. The system is being built on J2EE, so the integration of Hibernate into the EJB container and the transaction management are also explored.

  16. [Object loss in criminologic psychiatry or passion according to Werther].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénézech, M

    1987-04-01

    The author's aim is to objectivate the importance of the psychoanalytical concept of "object-loss" in the "criminogenous" passional process, as described by De Greeff. To illustrate his claim, he proceeds to the criminological analysis of Werther, a novel of great psychological realism, by Goethe. He them studies the personality of criminal driven by passion, where borderline and narcissistic features prevail. The object relation with the victim is usually of a narcissistic pregenital type. Any serious threat to this object relation creates a dangerous situation which can resolve in murder, frequently followed by the murderer's suicide. The author finally states that the so-called "passional" crime is not the only form of suicide/homicide, the psychopathology of which involves object-loss. This kind of acting is in fact also observed in melancholia, psychoses and prepsychotic states, depressions with jealousy, borderlines and the actors of "accompanied suicides".

  17. Holding On; Being Held; Letting Go: The Relevance of Bion's Thinking for Psychoanalytic Work with Parents, Infants and Children under Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to convey how the ideas of Klein, Bion and Bick underpin psychoanalytically based interventions with parents, babies and young children in the Camden Under Fives' Service, Tavistock Clinic. As the title suggests, my focus is on ways in which anxiety relating to separation and loss, can be contained through the transformative…

  18. Age-related deficits in the mnemonic similarity task for objects and scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Shauna M; Stark, Craig E L

    2017-08-30

    Using the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST), we have demonstrated an age-related impairment in lure discrimination, or the ability to recognize an item as distinct from one that was similar, but not identical to one viewed earlier. A growing body of evidence links these behavioral changes to age-related alterations in the hippocampus. In this study, we sought to evaluate a novel version of this task, utilizing scenes that might emphasize the role of the hippocampus in contextual and spatial processing. In addition, we investigated whether, by utilizing two stimulus classes (scenes and objects), we could also interrogate the roles of the PRC and PHC in aging. Thus, we evaluated differential contributions to these tasks by relating performance on objects versus scenes to volumes of the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe structures. We found that while there was an age-related impairment on lure discrimination performance for both objects and scenes, relationships to brain volumes and other measure of memory performance were stronger when using objects. In particular, lure discrimination performance for objects showed a positive relationship with the volume of the hippocampus, specifically the combined dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 subfields, and the subiculum. We conclude that though using scenes was effective in detecting age-related lure discrimination impairments, it does not provide as strong a brain-behavior relationship as using objects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrodynamic interactions between two forced objects of arbitrary shape. II. Relative translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally, such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry; for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant, and Witten, Phys. Fluids 27, 123303 (2015)], 10.1063/1.4936894. The interplay between the orientational interaction and the translational one, in most cases, leads over time to repulsion between the two objects. The repulsion is qualitatively different for self-aligning objects compared to the more symmetric case of uniform prolate spheroids. The separation between the two objects increases with time t as t1 /3 in the former case, and more strongly, as t , in the latter.

  20. Agents of the Father's law in a society of brothers: A philosophic and psychoanalytic perspective on legitimate use of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri

    This paper explores subjective processes of "Agents of Law" - individuals who the state grants the authority to use violence - and the dissonance stemming from the contradictory demands posed on them as legitimate users of violence despite the societal taboo against violence. A conceptual model will be offered based on two theoretical legs, Lacanian psychoanalysis and political theories of legitimacy. Specifically, psychoanalytic ideas would serve to examine unconscious processes, subject position and various identifications related to the question of "self-legitimacy" of Agents of Law. A central link between psychoanalysis and political thought is found in the image of the father and in the triad ruler-God-Father, which calls for an oedipal analysis. A psychoanalytic reading of two philosophical schools that elaborated on the question of legitimacy will be presented, and yield two analytic poles of a model for the understanding of possible subject positions of agents of Law: identification with a "Living Father" vs. identification with a "Dead Father". The psychoanalytic reading will shed light on the limitations of the philosophical perspectives in reflecting on the various (im)possible psychological positions of agents of Law. Finally, then, it will be shown how psychoanalysis helps finding words to characterize different nuances in the coping of agents of Law with the contradictory demands posed on them in an age in which God is dead, the father was murdered and the king was beheaded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Talk to me baby, tell me what's the matter now". Semiotic and developmental perspectives on communication in psychoanalytic infant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Björn

    2007-02-01

    Infants suffer to a considerable degree from disturbances in nursing, sleep, mood, and attachment. Psychotherapeutic methods are increasingly used to help them. According to case reports, psychoanalytic work with infants and mothers has shown deep-reaching and often surprisingly rapid results, both in symptom reduction and in improved relations between mother and child. The clinical urgency of the method makes it important to study its results and theoretical underpinnings. Among the theoretical issues often raised in discussions on this modified form of psychoanalysis, those addressing the nature of communication between analyst, baby, and the mother are the most frequent. For example, how and what does an infant understand when the analyst interprets to her? What does the analyst understand of the infant's communication? These issues are addressed by investigating the infant's tools for understanding linguistic and emotional communication, and by providing a semiotic framework for describing the communication between the three participants in the analytic setting. The paper also investigates problems with the traditional ways of using the concept of symbolization within psychoanalytic theory. The theoretical investigation is illustrated by two brief vignettes from psychoanalytic work with an 8 month-old girl and her mother.

  2. The Primary Role of Flow Processing in the Identification of Scene-Relative Object Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon K; Niehorster, Diederick C; Warren, Paul A; Li, Li

    2018-02-14

    Retinal image motion could be due to the movement of the observer through space or an object relative to the scene. Optic flow, form, and change of position cues all provide information that could be used to separate out retinal motion due to object movement from retinal motion due to observer movement. In Experiment 1, we used a minimal display to examine the contribution of optic flow and form cues. Human participants indicated the direction of movement of a probe object presented against a background of radially moving pairs of dots. By independently controlling the orientation of each dot pair, we were able to put flow cues to self-movement direction (the point from which all the motion radiated) and form cues to self-movement direction (the point toward which all the dot pairs were oriented) in conflict. We found that only flow cues influenced perceived probe movement. In Experiment 2, we switched to a rich stereo display composed of 3D objects to examine the contribution of flow and position cues. We moved the scene objects to simulate a lateral translation and counter-rotation of gaze. By changing the polarity of the scene objects (from light to dark and vice versa) between frames, we placed flow cues to self-movement direction in opposition to change of position cues. We found that again flow cues dominated the perceived probe movement relative to the scene. Together, these experiments indicate the neural network that processes optic flow has a primary role in the identification of scene-relative object movement. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motion of an object in the retinal image indicates relative movement between the observer and the object, but it does not indicate its cause: movement of an object in the scene; movement of the observer; or both. To isolate retinal motion due to movement of a scene object, the brain must parse out the retinal motion due to movement of the eye ("flow parsing"). Optic flow, form, and position cues all have potential roles in

  3. Spatial attention facilitates selection of illusory objects: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Antígona; Teder-Salejarvi, Wolfgang; Hillyard, Steven A

    2007-03-30

    The relationship between spatial attention and object-based attention has long been debated. On the basis of behavioral evidence it has been hypothesized that these two forms of attention share a common mechanism, such that directing spatial attention to one part of an object facilitates the selection of the entire object. In a previous study (Martinez, A., Teder-Salejarvi, W., Vazquez, M., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J., Javitt, D.C., Di Russo, F., Worden, M.S., Hillyard, S.A., 2006. "Objects are highlighted by spatial attention." J. Cogn. Neurosci. 18(2): 298-310) we used recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs) during a paradigm modeled after that of Egly et al. (Egly, R., Driver, J., Rafal, D.R., 1994. Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence from normal and parietal lesion subjects. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123(2) 161-77) to investigate this relationship. As reported in numerous studies of spatial attention, we found the typical pattern of enhanced neural activity in visual cortex elicited by attended stimuli. Unattended stimuli belonging to the same object as the attended stimuli elicited a very similar spatiotemporal pattern of enhanced neural activity that was localized to lateral occipital cortex (LOC). This similarity was taken as evidence that spatial- and object-selective attention share, at least in part, a common neural mechanism. In the present study we further investigate this relationship by examining whether this spread of spatial attention within attended objects can be guided by objects defined by illusory contours. Subjects viewed a display consisting of two illusory rectangular objects and directed attention to continuous sequences of stimuli (brief onsets) at one end of one of the objects. Stimuli occurring at irrelevant locations but belonging to the same attended object elicited larger posterior N1 amplitudes than that elicited by unattended objects forming part of a different object. This object-selective N1 enhancement

  4. Decree of the 24 April 2016 related to the objectives of development of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, Segolene

    2016-01-01

    This decree defines objectives by 2018 and 2023 in terms of installed power for ground-based wind energy, solar radiative energy, hydroelectricity, offshore wind energy, marine energies, electrical geothermal energy, wood energy, and methanization. It also indicates an agenda for bidding procedures related to these different renewable energies. It indicates objectives of heat and cold renewable production based on biomass, biogas, heat pumps, low and medium geothermal energy, and thermal solar energy. Targeted percentages of use of advanced biofuels are also defined

  5. The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, P.S.; Mendoza, P.A.; Ubillus, M.S.; Montoya, E.H.; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological ceramics have been enhanced through the analysis of entire objects, using both the k 0 method and the relative method, respectively, to determine the concentrations of chemical elements in aliquots of replicate objects used as comparators and in the sample object. Twenty-two chemical elements of archaeological importance were measured in mud figurines from Caral civilization (5000 year BC), irradiated inside a well-characterized radial channel facility of the nuclear research reactor at IPEN, Peru. The results showed less than 10 % of bias for most of the elements. (author)

  6. Navon's classical paradigm concerning local and global processing relates systematically to visual object classification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Poirel, Nicolas

    2018-01-10

    Forty years ago David Navon tried to tackle a central problem in psychology concerning the time course of perceptual processing: Do we first see the details (local level) followed by the overall outlay (global level) or is it rather the other way around? He did this by developing a now classical paradigm involving the presentation of compound stimuli; large letters composed of smaller letters. Despite the usefulness of this paradigm it remains uncertain whether effects found with compound stimuli relate directly to visual object recognition. It does so because compound stimuli are not actual objects but rather formations of elements and because the elements that form the global shape of compound stimuli are not features of the global shape but rather objects in their own right. To examine the relationship between performance on Navon's paradigm and visual object processing we derived two indexes from Navon's paradigm that reflect different aspects of the relationship between global and local processing. We find that individual differences on these indexes can explain a considerable amount of variance in two standard object classification paradigms; object decision and superordinate categorization, suggesting that Navon's paradigm does relate to visual object processing.

  7. Essentials of psychoanalytic cure: a symposium. Introduction and survey of some previous views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M P; Tabachnick, N D

    1988-01-01

    Friedman (1978) suggested that implicit in the theories of the psychoanalytic process a classification of three separate trends can be identified. In the first instance, there is what could be called "understanding," whether it be intellectual or emotional. Second, there is "attachment," which refers to curative measures based on some "binding emotional reaction to the analyst." And third, and less explicitly, there is "integration," which refers to the development of a synthesis that has the effect of harmonizing parts of the mind or elevating psychic functioning to a higher level. Freud's writings embodied all three of these trends. The participants of the symposium at Marienbad, being strongly influenced by Strachey's emphasis on superego alteration through introjection, placed the greater stress on attachment. Loewald, emphasizing as he does the importance of the patient's identification with the analyst as a corrective reliving of the origins of identification in childhood, highlights attachment while also relating it to understanding. Stone and Gitelson also focused on the beneficial aspects of the affective link to the analyst and the important function served by this link in facilitating understanding of the analyst's interpretation. At the Edinburgh conference, however, aside from Gitelson and Nacht, who viewed attachment as an integrating or structuring aspect of the analytic process, the participants placed their confidence almost completely on "understanding" strictly through interpretation. In the latest debate between the proponents of self psychology and the object relations approach proposed by Kernberg, many aspects of these previous discussions and controversies have resurfaced (Friedman, 1978). Kohut, utilizing Freud's concept that links gratification and minimal frustration together as the developer of structure, relied on the empathic bond between patient and analyst as a basic component of the process of cure. Kernberg, however, relying

  8. Ego Defense Mechanisms and Types of Object Relations in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Silva, Vanessa; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    This research evaluates the personality structure of adults with ADHD from a psychodynamic perspective. The hypothesis was that possible structural characteristics in personality could be correlated with this syndrome. Assessment tools for ego functions (Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory [BORRTI-Form O], Defense Style Questionnaire ( DSQ-40)) were applied to a sample of 90 adults with ADHD, recruited in a specialized clinic. Among the ADHD sample, 84.4% of the participants were identified as having object relations pathologies. Pathological elevations were observed mainly in the Alienation, Egocentricity, and Insecure Attachment subscales. Statistically, significant differences were found especially in the use of immature and neurotic defense mechanisms, compared with normative data. The findings indicate that adults with ADHD make more use of immature and neurotic defense mechanisms, and presented pathological internalized object relations that are typical of an archaic and poorly structured egoic structure. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Factors related to early dropout in psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hauck, Simone; Kruel, Letícia Rosito Pinto; Sordi, Anne Orgler; Sbardellotto, Gabriela; Cervieri, Aline; Moschetti, Laura; Schestatsky, Sidnei Samuel; Freitas, Lucia Helena Machado

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A eficácia da psicoterapia psicanalítica foi bem estabelecida através de ensaios clínicos controlados; no entanto, algumas das características individuais que predizem melhores resultados são ainda pouco estudadas. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a associação entre os dados demográficos, o diagnóstico psiquiátrico, a sintomatologia clínica, a qualidade de vida, os critérios de indicação da psicoterapia, o estilo defensivo e o abandono da psicoterapia psicanalítica antes de 3 mese...

  10. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marstaller, J.

    1993-12-01

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  11. Geometric Methods for ATR: Shape Spaces, Metrics, Object/Image Relations, and Shapelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    and only if Kr - 4 C L r - 3 C H r - l C r This fact and the incidence relations given in Theorem I, §5, Chapter VII of Hodge and Pedoe [4] give us our...Springer-Verlag, 1992. 4. W.V.D. Hodge and D. Pedoe , Methods of Algebraic Geometry, nos. 1, 2, and 3, in Mathematical Library Series, Cambridge...and Pedoe [5] give us our object-image relations. Theorem 2.4. Let Pi = (xi, yi, zi), 1 < i < r be an object configuration with corresponding matrix M

  12. Manual action, fitting, and spatial planning: relating objects by young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wendy P; Kahrs, Björn A; Lockman, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    This study uses motion tracking technology to provide a new way of addressing the development of the ability to prospectively orient objects with respect to one another. A group of toddlers between 16 and 33 months of age (N=30) were studied in an object fitting task while they wore reflective markers on their hands to track spatial adjustments in three dimensions. Manual displacements of the handheld object were separated into translations and rotations. Results revealed that younger children largely used a two-step approach in which they initially translate an object to a target and subsequently attempt to rotate the object to match the target. In contrast, older children evidence more advanced spatial planning and integrate translational and rotational components throughout the entire period when they are transporting the object to the target. Additionally, at the oldest ages, children show even further improvements in coordinating translations and rotations by using relatively shorter translations (i.e., covering less distance) and by avoiding unnecessary rotations of the object. More broadly, the results offer insights into how manual problem solving becomes more efficient and planful during the toddler years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TRAJECTORY CONTROL OF A SOLID BODY RELATIVE TO THE MOVABLE OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Kapitanyuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of dynamic tracking of an external movable object. These problems arise when designing tracking control systems for unmanned aircrafts following ground movable objects. A dynamic model of a solid body in three-dimensional space is selected as a control object model. An external object is described by the kinematic model of a solid body on the plane. Smooth trajectory is defined as an implicit curve associated with an external movable object. The desired height of movement is selected separately. Relative dynamics of the plant and an external movable object is considered for the synthesis of control algorithm, and methods of differential geometric transformation of the original model to the task-oriented coordinate system are applied. The original problem is formulated in terms of a longitudinal motion and two orthogonal deviations after transformation. The main results are represented by task-oriented model of spatial movement and the corresponding nonlinear control algorithms. An example of solid body motion along a circular trajectory with respect to a given rectilinear motion of an external object is given for the illustration of the proposed method performance.

  14. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted. PMID:22073192

  15. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.; Krüger, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal......Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space...... anchors also provide us with information about when to pay attention to additional important information, for example when to consider trajectory shapes and relative poses between objects. As a consequence a highly condensed representation emerges by which different manipulations can be recognized...

  16. Relativity, anomalies and objectivity loophole in recent tests of local realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednorz Adam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Local realism is in conflict with special quantum Bell-type models. Recently, several experiments have demonstrated violation of local realism if we trust their setup assuming special relativity valid. In this paper we question the assumption of relativity, point out not commented anomalies and show that the experiments have not closed objectivity loophole because clonability of the result has not been demonstrated. We propose several improvements in further experimental tests of local realism make the violation more convincing.

  17. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    This study concerns the systematic integration of qualitative research strategies in a psychoanalytic single case study of a child who had suffered early abuse and neglect. A systematic exploration of core features of the therapeutic relationship was carried out, possible links between such core...... with Interpretational Phenomenological Analysis were applied on recorded session notes and other case-file material from a concluded child psychotherapy case as well as on transcripts from follow-up interviews with the child’s birth and foster parents. The case material analyzed in three steps; principles...

  18. The Matrix Verb as a Source of Comprehension Difficulty in Object Relative Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Adrian; Dillon, Brian; Clifton, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Two experiments used eyetracking during reading to examine the processing of the matrix verb following object and subject relative clauses. The experiments show that the processing of the matrix verb following an object relative is indeed slowed compared to the processing of the same verb following a subject relative. However, this difficulty is entirely eliminated if additional material intervenes between the object gap and the matrix verb. An explanation in terms of spillover processing is ruled out, suggesting that it is the gap-matrix verb sequence that is itself responsible for the difficulty. We consider two accounts of this difficulty, one emphasizing the potential difficulty of rapidly switching between the sentential subject's thematic or syntactic role in the embedded clause and its role in the matrix clause, and one emphasizing the potential difficulty of performing two demanding memory retrievals in rapid succession. The present experiments also closely replicate the previous findings from eyetracking that the noun phrase and the verb within an object relative are both loci of processing difficulty, but that the former induces substantially greater difficulty. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Dreams of passage : - An object-relational perspective on a case of a Hindu death ritual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohkamsing-den Boer, E.P.; Zock, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    By examining the case of a death ritual in a Surinam-Hindu community in the Netherlands, the authors want to demonstrate the usefulness of object-relations theory in the study of religion. Because it focuses on the dynamic interaction between individual and culture, this psychological theory

  20. Dreams of passage : An object-relational perspective on a case of a Hindu death ritual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohkamsing-den Boer, E.; Zock, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    By examining the case of a death ritual in a Surinam-Hindu community in the Netherlands, the authors want to demonstrate the usefulness of object-relations theory in the study of religion. Because it focuses on the dynamic interaction between individual and culture, this psychological theory

  1. James Baldwin's Go Tell it on the Mountain and the Psychoanalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But how the psychoanalytic poetics features in the novel and the reason for its employment appears to be largely ignored. In this essay, I utilize some psychoanalytic concepts in the reading of the novel, and argue that Baldwin's characters' internal (psychological) and external (sociological) conflicts are inseparable since ...

  2. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. The current status of the psychoanalytic theory of instinctual drives. I: Drive concept, classification, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, A

    1983-07-01

    The evolution of Freud's theory of instinctual drives, with the accompanying models of a mental apparatus, is remarkable for its tenacious adherence to addressing the fundamental problems of human psychology, here phrased as the problems of body-mind-environment relationships. The concept of instinctual drives continues to be one of the most pervasive concepts of psychoanalysis, weathering considerable attack over the last several decades, although losing some clarity in the process. I have cited and discussed as basic issues of the concept of instinctual drives: the relationship of observational data and theoretical constructs in psychology; whether our construct of drives is or should be or can be purely psychological; the problem of conceptualizing the ontogenetic origin of mind; the issues of the "force-meaning conjunction" and the problem of psychic energy in psychoanalytic constructs; and the relation of our concept of instinctual drives to the concept of instincts in general. It seems that progress with these fundamental issues might be made by utilizing models that are more homologous with present knowledge in related fields than is Freud's reflex arc model of the nervous system, in order to build a better drive construct within the framework of psychoanalysis. The classification of instinctual drives remains a problem. Clinically, aggression seems to be a factor in conflict, very much like sexuality. Despite widespread acceptance of the idea of aggression as simply parallel to sexuality in all respects, there are major discrepancies. Perhaps aggression cannot be viewed as a drive after all; perhaps our drive construct needs to be modified to accommodate aggression. Certainly, controversy in this area has interfered with the production of good clinical studies which could begin to increase our understanding of aggression and its place in the human personality. The psychoanalytic theory of drive development has probably undergone less change in the last

  4. The beginnings of psychoanalytic supervision: the crucial role of Max Eitingon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2013-09-01

    Psychoanalytic supervision is moving well into its 2nd century of theory, practice, and (to a limited extent) research. In this paper, I take a look at the pioneering first efforts to define psychoanalytic supervision and its importance to the psychoanalytic education process. Max Eitingon, the "almost forgotten man" of psychoanalysis, looms large in any such consideration. His writings or organizational reports were seemingly the first psychoanalytic published material to address the following supervision issues: rationale, screening, notes, responsibility, supervisee learning/personality issues, and the extent and length of supervision itself. Although Eitingon never wrote formally on supervision, his pioneering work in the area has continued to echo across the decades and can still be seen reflected in contemporary supervision practice. I also recognize the role of Karen Horney-one of the founders of the Berlin Institute and Poliklinik, friend of Eitingon, and active, vital participant in Eitingon's efforts-in contributing to and shaping the beginnings of psychoanalytic education.

  5. [On the psychoanalytic view of Harry Potter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subkowski, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the exemplary mental development that Harry Potter undertakes after the massive traumatic loss of his parents at the early age of 15 months and the following neglect by his relatives until he becomes a mature adult. On the basis of his internalized mothers love and by identification with his father and his paternally friend Dumbledore Harry gains increasing self-confidence and new friends in his peer group in the course of time. After passing numerous conflicts and experiencing friendship Harry reaches the stage of initiation into the world of the adults. On the oedipal level he finally is able to deidealize his father and Dumbledore. And at the end Harry is not seduced by absolute power and the triumph over death itself. On the contrary he is ready to sacrifice himself for his friends and thus can overcome the fragmented Voldemort. Readers can identify with Harry, can recognize their own experiences and conflicts and can deal with the proposed conflict resolution patterns on different levels. This contemporary "Bildungsroman" deals with important typical interpersonal and cultural issues for young people. This is what leads young readers to strong resonance and identification processes and explains the great success of the Harry Potter story.

  6. Building on What You Have Learned: Object Construction Skill during Infancy Predicts the Comprehension of Spatial Relations Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Emily C.; Campbell, Julie Marie

    2017-01-01

    Object construction involves organizing multiple objects into a unified structure (e.g., stacking blocks into a tower) and may provide infants with unique spatial information. Because object construction entails placing objects in spatial locations relative to one another, infants can acquire information about spatial relations during construction…

  7. Confidentiality with respect to third parties: a psychoanalytic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Allannah

    2005-04-01

    It is assumed that confidentiality is not one singular ethical entity but a conglomerate of quite different issues depending upon clinical context and the sector of information sharing at stake. The focus here is on how to think psychoanalytically about requests for information from third parties (payers, courts, public security). Defining confidentiality as a promise to 'never tell anything' outside of the relationship omits evaluation of the impact of the third's listening on the combined freedom of thought and freedom of speech in analyst and analysand. Circulation of information outside the dyad need not be toxic, need not disrupt the analytic couple's openness to new meaning. Key to contamination and inhibition of analytic work is whether or not disclosure serves an analytic end. Current defense of confidentiality relies heavily on the models of protection of privacy and professional secrecy, which, though useful and relevant, fail to encompass the transitional, intersubjective space engendered by the analytic process. Suggestions are made for alternate sources of paradigms better suited to represent the latter. Offered for discussion is a draft of a confidentiality policy with respect to third parties that is informed by psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice rather than by local legal jurisdiction or original disciplines' ethics codes.

  8. GREAT IDEAS AND DUMB LUCK IN PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriloff, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Both Dr. Kuriloff's initial contribution to the Roundtable, and her later response to her fellow discussants focus on the social construction of psychoanalytic theories of therapeutic action. She notes the promise of the enlightenment/ modern era as impetus for an initially positivist "science" of psychoanalysis, and then implicates the scourge of the Shoah as that which galvanized the largely Jewish seminal community to cling to universal, versus contextual theories and technique. That the deconstruction of truth and authority, beginning with the post-war "baby boom" and student movements in the United States and Europe, put an end to one metapsychology is yet another example of the power of context upon ideas and praxis. This seemingly haphazard pairing of context and content determines the degree to which theories are embraced or ignored within any particular body politic, or within our tiny community at one time or another, prompting Kuriloff to warn against over valuing and/or excluding any theory, theorist, or technique from what we need to know and do to be helpful to people. This tension—between immersion in, and observation of the field—is what psychoanalytic theory and praxis ought to allow.

  9. Psychoanalytic contributions to the generation of creativity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A

    1981-08-01

    This paper describes the major characteristics of the concept of creativity: (1) originality and uniqueness, (2) comprehensibility to others, (3) utility, (4) generalizability to allied and other fields, (5) a capacity for continued and repeated creative outputs in similar and/or different fields, and (6) a capacity to stimulate others to artistic, literary, or scientific originality. Consideration is given to out limited current knowledge of hereditary factors contributing to creativity, in contrast to familial factors which are likely to include environmental contributions. A review follows of psychiatric and psychoanalytic observations on the enhancement or inhibition, during child development, of the innate capacity to be creative in children and adults. In regard to the development of creative prowess, emphasis is placed on the importance of preserving and encouraging the use of primary-process thinking in children so that this mental activity can be called upon at will. Emphasized also is the importance of the availability of examples of creative ability in parental behavior as well as in the kinship and social networks to which the child is exposed. The encouragement of analogical thinking and imagination in children and the development of the ability to turn on and off such mental activity by secondary-process thinking is stressed. Hence, in the enhancement of the creative process in children, catalytic parent-child rearing and exposure to creative people are key elements. Three brief case examples are given in which the creative potential was blocked or inhibited and later released by psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

  10. [Self-reflection, interpersonal behavior and psychoanalytic ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgy, M

    1997-05-01

    In the middle ages, ethical practice included a metaphysical theory of value. In comparison with that, self-reflection and interpersonality should be described as principles of more individual ethics and proceeding from philosophy to psychoanalysis in modern times. Drawing a borderline between human philosophy and metaphysies, Kant defined his so-called categorial imperative as a basic phenomenon of human reciprocity. Ethical relationship to another person, however, requires realization of one's own self, i.e. self-reflection. Hegel's subsequent association of intersubjectivity and selfreflection supplied the basis for Sarte's constitution of consciousness: Existence as existing for the good of the fellow-being. Self-reflection, basing on the sight of one's own self by the other person, leads to Sartre's concept of existential psychoanalysis and to his understanding of ethics. His concept illustrates the decline of significance of philosophy for the analysis of human relationship. Habermas describes self-reflection and interpersonality as fundamental principles of the psychoanalytic therapy and its ethical demands. With the historical concept of the super-ego, Freud established therapeutical one-sidedness and abstinence from ethics; however, as therapeutical interrelationship continued to intensity, ethics of depth psychology also began to develop. This ethical demand was not expressly formulated within the context of psychoanalysis, with the exception of jung and his epigones. Nevertheless, psychoanalytic interaction implies the development of self-reflection, which definitely represents a step forward in the sense of "ethical enlightenment" represented by Kant.

  11. Multiple degree of freedom object recognition using optical relational graph decision nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Lee, Andrew J.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple-degree-of-freedom object recognition concerns objects with no stable rest position with all scale, rotation, and aspect distortions possible. It is assumed that the objects are in a fairly benign background, so that feature extractors are usable. In-plane distortion invariance is provided by use of a polar-log coordinate transform feature space, and out-of-plane distortion invariance is provided by linear discriminant function design. Relational graph decision nets are considered for multiple-degree-of-freedom pattern recognition. The design of Fisher (1936) linear discriminant functions and synthetic discriminant function for use at the nodes of binary and multidecision nets is discussed. Case studies are detailed for two-class and multiclass problems. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the processors to quantization of the filter coefficients and to noise.

  12. The physician's quality of life: Relationship with ego defense mechanisms and object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benedito; Louzã, Mário Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether ego defense mechanisms and object relations (the way an individual subjectively experiences his/her relationships with others) are related to quality of life among physicians. In this cross-sectional mail survey, 602 physicians from Botucatu, SP, Brazil, were sent a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory-Form O (BORRTI-O), the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40), and the World Health Organization Abbreviated Instrument for Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF). 198 questionnaires (33%) with valid responses were obtained. High BORRTI-O scores (indicative of pathology) on the alienation, egocentricity and insecure attachment subscales were associated with reduced WHOQOL-BREF scores for the psychological health and social relationship domains. Immature ego defense mechanisms were associated with lower WHOQOL-BREF scores for all domains. No significant associations of WHOQOL-BREF scores with working hours, workplace or monthly income were observed in the study population WHOQOL-BREF scores correlated with mature defense mechanisms and normal object relations, suggesting an association between psychological maturity and quality of life among physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual contact between psychologists and their former therapy patients: psychoanalytic perspectives and professional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Natalie; Bucky, Steven

    2004-09-01

    Data was analyzed from the semi-structured interviews of 6 heterosexual male psychoanalytic psychotherapists who by self-report had not engaged in a post-termination sexual involvement. The focus of each interview was to elicit the participants' views about sexual contact between psychotherapists and their former therapy patients, as well as their related attitudes towards Standard 4.07 of the APA Ethics Code (1992). The results suggested great disparity of opinion regarding what might constitute acceptable, ethical behavior in this domain. Nonetheless, all the clinicians agreed that the potential for harm resulting from post-termination sexual involvements was great, They all shared the beliefs that transference did not resolve with termination, that professional responsibilities continued after treatment ended, and that power differentials between therapist and patient lingered, perhaps in perpetuity. However, it was determined to be premature to replace the current Standard 4.07 with an absolute prohibition against sexual involvements between therapists and their former patients.

  14. The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II Concluding Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giovannelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Before to conclude officially this workshop — far from me the idea to attempt some concluding remarks already dealt at the meeting with various burning by Joseph Patterson, Mariko Kato, Dmitry Bisikalo, and Rene Hudec —, I would like to comment few highlights coming out from our fruitful week of discussions about The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II, without any pretension of completeness.

  15. An atlas of optical spectra of DZ white dwarfs and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, E.M.; Kenyon, S.J.; Aannestad, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    An atlas of optical spectra and equivalent width measurements for DZ stars and several related objects is described. These data should improve abundance measurements for Ca/He, Mg/He, and Fe/He in these stars and provide tests for calculations of accretion, diffusion, and radiative transfer in white-dwarf atmospheres. Also reported is the possible detection of He I (3888-A) in three DZ white dwarfs, 0246 + 735, 1705 + 030, and 2215 + 388. 25 refs

  16. Epidemiological perspectives on sleep : health-related outcomes and subjective-objective sleep assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to expand knowledge about self-reported habitual sleep in relation to health outcomes and objectively measured sleep. Study I was a cross-sectional analysis of 40,197 Swedish adult volunteers participating in the National March, a fundraising event for the Swedish Cancer Society held in 1997. We compared the entire distribution of BMI between subjects with different sleep patterns. Relative to those who reported 6–8 h or good-quality sleep, the upper tail of the BMI di...

  17. A clinical case study of a psychoanalytic psychotherapy monitored with functional neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBuchheim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes one year of the psychoanalytic psychotherapy using clinical data, a standardized instrument of the psychotherapeutic process (Psychotherapy process Q-Set, PQS, and functional neuroimaging (fMRI. A female dysthymic patient with narcissistic traits was assessed at monthly intervals (12 sessions. In the fMRI scans, which took place immediately after therapy hours, the patient looked at pictures of attachment-relevant scenes (from the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, AAP divided into two groups: those accompanied by a neutral description, and those accompanied by a description tailored to core conflicts of the patient as assessed in the AAP.Clinically, this patient presented defense mechanisms that influenced the relationship with the therapist and that was characterized by fluctuations of mood that lasted whole days, following a pattern that remained stable during the year of the study. The two modes of functioning associated with the mood shifts strongly affected the interaction with the therapist, whose quality varied accordingly (‘easy’ and ‘difficult’ hours. The PQS analysis showed the association of 'easy' hours with the topic of the involvement in significant relationships and of 'difficult hours' with self-distancing, a defensive manoeuvre common in narcissistic personality structures. In the fMRI data, the modes of functioning visible in the therapy hours were significantly associated with modulation of the signal elicited by personalized attachment-related scenes in the posterior cingulate (p=0.017 cluster-level, whole-volume corrected. This region has been associated in previous studies to self-distancing from negatively valenced pictures presented during the scan.The present study may provide evidence of the possible involvement of this brain area in spontaneously enacted self-distancing defensive strategies, which may be of relevance in resistant patient reactions in the course of a

  18. The relation between subjective and objective assessment of speaking rate in Czech radio newsreaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Veroňková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examined objective and subjective speaking rate and their relation. Read speech of 22 Czech radio newsreaders (13 male and 9 female constituted the material for the study. The objective rate was measured as speech rate and articulation rate, both expressed in syllables per second. Two domains, a single news report and an intonation phrase, were chosen as the units of observation. A perception test was used to establish the subjective assessment of speaking rate. The test was made up of the full news reports and the subjects were asked to rate their tempo on a scale slow – normal – fast. The median of speech rate and articulation rate for the individual news reports was 5.7 syll/s and 6.2 syll/s, respectively. In general, the listeners rated the stimuli tempo as normal and there was no significant difference between the subjective evaluation of female and male speakers. The possible factors influencing the relation between the subjective and objective rating are discussed; no simple and direct relationship between them was found.

  19. Review Essay: Our Rules Leave a Backdoor Open—At the Heart of the Radically Incomplete Psychoanalytic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Langenbach

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Practical work in psychoanalytic practice is a core component of the enhancement of psychoanalytic knowledge. Despite its importance it is a rather dark chapter in the research history of psychoanalysis and empirical research into what actually happens in practice has been rare. The book by Andreas STRATKÖTTER reviewed here takes psychoanalytic practice as the empirical basis of an extensive qualitative study. The psychoanalysts interviewed by STRATKÖTTER describe the criteria they take to indicate the need for psychoanalytic treatment, the practical relevance of central psychoanalytic notions, and their professional development after psychoanalytic training. STRATKÖTTER's study can be taken as a reference for demands for improvements in the culture of psychoanalytic training and for further development of qualitative research approaches in psychoanalysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901173

  20. Bell object relations inventory for adolescents and children: reliability, validity, and factorial invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris

    2003-02-01

    The Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI; Bell,1995) is a self-report instrument that measures deficits in object relations ego functioning. It has demonstrated clinical and research utility in adult populations. This article reports the development of a version of the BORI for children ages 11 to 17, including studies of reliability, validity, and factorial invariance. Data of 705 children from public schools and 110 children from clinics and residential treatments were used. Of the 45 original BORI true/false items, 3 were dropped as inappropriate and most others were rewritten for easier reading. An additional 16 items were created to capture unique features of adolescent experiences in relationships. Items were tested in focus groups and revised accordingly. Eight items were dropped because of low communalities, so that 50 items were included in the final factor analysis. Assessments using self-report items from Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Camphaus, 1992) and the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) were also obtained to test concurrent validity. Oblique rotation yielded 5 factors. Four were very similar to the 4 from the adult version and were named accordingly: Alienation, Insecure Attachment, Egocentricity, and Social Incompetence. The fifth scale was comprised mostly of new items and was called Positive Attachment. Scales showed excellent factorial invariance and good internal consistency. Scales generally had very low intercorrelations reflecting their relative independence. Although differences were found for gender and race, the effect sizes were small. Support for construct validity came from moderate correlations with concurrent BASC and PIA scores, analyses of variance showing greater deficits in object relations in pathological subgroups compared with normals, and a trend analysis showed that Alienation scores followed a lawful relationship with increasing severity of psychopathology. These initial findings support

  1. The Role of Objective Numeracy and Fluid Intelligence in Sex-Related Protective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health.

  2. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought.

  3. Being an adult: Psychoanalytic model and social model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cappelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The author uses two psychoanalytic models, namely Kernberg’s and Kohut’s conceptualizations, to delineate a possible prototype of adult from the point of view of psychoanalysis. The author believes that this process of modulation of narcissism primitive, both in an evolutionary context and therapeutic, is crucial to achieving an adult level of integration.The author traces also, with the help of two political philosophers, a model of a democratic society, in which you can complete evolution of the mind. The concepts of negative freedom and pluralism of values of Berlin and that of Rawls' justice as fairness are used to identify some key aspects of a modern liberal society.

  4. The predictive power of Horney's psychoanalytic approach: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Segal, Daniel L; Benight, Charles C; Danielian, Jack

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated the construct validity of a measure of Karen Horney's (1945) psychoanalytic theory that postulated three neurotic trends: compliant, aggressive, and detached. Her theory was operationalized by the Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator (HCTI). One hundred seventy-two adults completed the HCTI and the short form of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, a measure of the three DSM-IV personality disorder clusters. Multiple regression and canonical correlation analyses revealed significant and differential patterns of the three HCTI dimensions with the three clusters. Because Paris (1994) has noted that Horney's neurotic trends may today be conceived of as personality disorders, one implication of the present findings is that Horney's dynamic theory can be valid and useful in the general understanding of personality disorders from a cluster perspective.

  5. Dante's Comedy: precursors of psychoanalytic technique and psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajnberg, Nathan Moses

    2010-02-01

    This paper uses a literary approach to explore what common ground exists in both psychoanalytic technique and views of the psyche, of 'person'. While Western literature has developed various views of psyche and person over centuries, there have been crystallizing, seminal portraits, for instance Shakespeare's perspective on what is human, some of which have endured to the present. By using Dante's Commedia, particularly the Inferno, a 14th century poem that both integrates and revises previous models of psyche and personhood, we can examine what features of psyche, and 'techniques' in soul-healing psychoanalysts have inherited culturally. Discovering basic features of technique and model of psyche we share as psychoanalysts permits us to explore why we have differences in variations on technique and models of inner life.

  6. The verbal portrait: Erik H. Erikson's contribution to psychoanalytic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2011-12-01

    This article makes the case that Erik H. Erikson developed a form of psychoanalytic discourse-the verbal portrait-which, although not unprecedented, became a focal feature of his work, and the testing ground for the cogency of his major contribution to psychoanalysis (the concept of identity). It suggests that Erikson was inspired to develop the verbal portrait because he came to psychoanalysis from art and was, in fact, a portrait artist. Drawing especially on the work of Richard Brilliant, it presents the view that a portrait is a portrayal of the subject's identity and goes on to show how Erikson's memorial to the cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict is representative of the verbal portrait.

  7. Dreams of passage: An object-relational perspective on a case of a Hindu death ritual

    OpenAIRE

    Mohkamsing-den Boer, E.; Zock, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    By examining the case of a death ritual in a Surinam-Hindu community in the Netherlands, the authors want to demonstrate the usefulness of object-relations theory in the study of religion. Because it focuses on the dynamic interaction between individual and culture, this psychological theory embraces a truly cultural-psychological approach. D.W. Winnicott’s idea of ‘transitional phenomena’ is central in this respect. Cultural activities, such as participating in rituals and myths, are said to...

  8. Use of geometric properties of landmark arrays for reorientation relative to remote cities and local objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Nankoo, Jean-François; Zhou, Ruojing; Spetch, Marcia L

    2014-03-01

    Five experiments investigated how human adults use landmark arrays in the immediate environment to reorient relative to the local environment and relative to remote cities. Participants learned targets' directions with the presence of a proximal 4 poles forming a rectangular shape and an array of more distal poles forming a rectangular shape. Then participants were disoriented and pointed to targets with the presence of the proximal poles or the distal poles. Participants' orientation was estimated by the mean of their pointing error across targets. The targets could be 7 objects in the immediate local environment in which the poles were located or 7 cities around Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) where the experiments occurred. The directions of the 7 cities could be learned from reading a map first and then from pointing to the cities when the poles were presented. The directions of the 7 cities could also be learned from viewing labels of cities moving back and forth in the specific direction in the immediate local environment in which the poles were located. The shape of the array of the distal poles varied in salience by changing the number of poles on each edge of the rectangle (2 vs. 34). The results showed that participants regained their orientation relative to local objects using the distal poles with 2 poles on each edge; participants could not reorient relative to cities using the distal pole array with 2 poles on each edge but could reorient relative to cities using the distal pole array with 34 poles on each edge. These results indicate that use of cues in reorientation depends not only on the cue salience but also on which environment people need to reorient to.

  9. Simultaneous object perception deficits are related to reduced visual processing speed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rizzo, Adriana L; Bublak, Peter; Redel, Petra; Grimmer, Timo; Müller, Hermann J; Sorg, Christian; Finke, Kathrin

    2017-07-01

    Simultanagnosia, an impairment in simultaneous object perception, has been attributed to deficits in visual attention and, specifically, to processing speed. Increasing visual attention deficits manifest over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), where the first changes are present already in its symptomatic predementia phase: amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). In this study, we examined whether patients with aMCI due to AD show simultaneous object perception deficits and whether and how these deficits relate to visual attention. Sixteen AD patients with aMCI and 16 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls were assessed with a simultaneous perception task, with shapes presented in an adjacent, embedded, or overlapping manner, under free viewing without temporal constraints. We used a parametric assessment of visual attention based on the Theory of Visual Attention. Results show that patients make significantly more errors than controls when identifying overlapping shapes, which correlate with reduced processing speed. Our findings suggest simultaneous object perception deficits in very early AD, and a visual processing speed reduction underlying these deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese relative clauses (RCs have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1-English(L2-Mandarin(L3 trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin

  11. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  12. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  13. Objective vestibular testing of children with dizziness and balance complaints following sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangwei; Brodsky, Jacob R

    2015-06-01

    To conduct objective assessment of children with balance and vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions and identify the underlying deficits by analyzing laboratory test outcomes. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Medical records were reviewed of 42 pediatric patients with balance and/or vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions who underwent comprehensive laboratory testing on their balance and vestibular function. Patients' characteristics were summarized and results analyzed. More than 90% of the children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion had at least 1 abnormal finding from the comprehensive balance and vestibular evaluation. The most frequent deficit was found in dynamic visual acuity test, followed by Sensory Organization Test and rotational test. Patient's balance problem associated with concussion seemed to be primarily instigated by vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, semicircular canal dysfunction was involved more often than dysfunction of otolith organs. Yet, sports-related concussion. Vestibular impairment is common among children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion. Our study demonstrated that proper and thorough evaluation is imperative to identify these underlying deficits and laboratory tests were helpful in the diagnosis and recommendation of following rehabilitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  14. Field-Testing Reusable Learning Objects Related to Sensory Over-Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an increased need for dynamic, mobile, and relevant parent and caregiver education related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD and Sensory Processing (SP. This need may be due to the increased incidence of the conditions’ co-morbidity and the revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Reusable learning objects (RLOs have been implemented as instructional tools as a part of, or adjunct to, formal health care education programs. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the appropriateness of RLOs as a part of routine patient and caregiver instruction of children with ASD. Method. A semi-structured interview/rating scale was implemented among three practicing occupational therapists to ascertain their opinions regarding six prototype RLOs related to sensory processing for caregivers of children with ASD. Results. The participants’ perspectives revealed that the SP-based prototype RLOs were a viable and valuable option to be included as a resource for parents and caregivers of children with ASD. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that RLOs related to SP were valuable, especially related to their subject matter, accessibility, and reusability. Furthermore, the participants indirectly identified the strengths related to the foundational concepts of RLOs and how they could be applied to other therapeutic and behavioral topics for parents and caregivers of children with ASD.

  15. Avaliação de resultados da psicoterapia psicanalítica Assessment of psychoanalytic psychotherapy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Isabel Jung

    2007-08-01

    the institution's files, as well as in the follow-up interview. RESULTS: The patients significantly improved their global functioning, when initial assessment was compared to psychotherapy follow-up (p < 0.001, regardless of treatment group. Patients and experts considered psychotherapy satisfactory. However, the experts' opinion was not related to the patients' opinion. CONCLUSIONS: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy was effective in the studied sample. Length of psychotherapy, when assessed alone, was not a decisive factor for treatment outcome, i.e., other factors should also be taken into account when assessing outcomes, such as therapeutic relationship, quality of object relations, self-awareness potential and reaction to interpretations. Most patients were found to be satisfied with outcomes in a shorter time than their psychotherapists would consider optimal.

  16. A psychoanalytically informed hospitalization-based treatment of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, Rudi; Luyten, Patrick; Verhaest, Yannic; Vandeneede, Bart; Vertommen, Hans; Lowyck, Benedicte

    2015-06-01

    This study presents a model of psychic change in personality disorders focusing on three dimensions: felt safety, mentalization and self-object relations. Based upon this model a hospitalization-based therapy program was created. Four scales to measure these three dimensions on the Object Relation Interview are discussed: the Felt Safety Scale, the Reflective Functioning Scale and the Bion Grid Scale and the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale. A naturalistic symptom outcome study of the program showed a large effect on both symptoms and personality functioning. Furthermore, trajectory based on pre-treatment patient characteristics (i.e., anaclitic versus introjective personality styles). Importantly, we also found a relation between symptomatic and personality change and change in felt safety and object relations. At 5-year follow-up, patients showed sustained improvement in symptomatic distress and further improvement in terms of personality and interpersonal functioning. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  17. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD....

  18. Querying Uncertain Data in Geospatial Object-relational Databases Using SQL and Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuračiová, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with uncertainty modeling in spatial object-relational databases by the use of Structured Query Language (SQL). The fundamental principles of uncertainty modeling by fuzzy sets are applied in the area of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial databases. A spatial database system includes types of spatial data and implements the spatial extension of SQL. The implementation of the principles of fuzzy logic to spatial databases brings an opportunity for the efficient processing of uncertain data, which is important, especially when using various data sources (e.g., multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) on the basis of heterogeneous spatial data resources). The modeling and data processing of uncertainties are presented in relation to the applicable International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards (standards of the series 19100 Geographic information) and the relevant specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The fuzzy spatial query approach is applied and tested on a case study with a fundamental database for GIS in Slovakia.

  19. Wealth related inequalities in self reported morbidity: Positional objectivity or epidemiological transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Jeyashree, Kathiresan; Rana, Saroj; Sharma, Atul; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Morbidity is self reported at a higher rate among the rich than the poor. However, objective measures suggest the contrary. We examined the role of epidemiological transition in wealth related inequalities in self-reported morbidity (SRM). Methods: We analyzed data of two States, Bihar and Kerala, from 60th Round of National Sample Survey (NSS). Bivariate analysis was performed to study the associations between various socio-demographic variables and self-reported morbidity. A prediction model based on hierarchical logistic regression was developed to identify determinants of self-reported morbidity. Results: In Bihar, acute morbidities (26 per 1000) were reported more often than chronic morbidities (19 per 1000) while in Kerala the reverse was true (89 acute and 123 chronic morbidities per 1000 person). In both the states, the rate of SRM showed an increasing trend from the poorest to the richest quintiles. The rising gradient in the odds of SRM across increasing socio-economic strata was more pronounced in Bihar [OR (richest)=2.52; 1.85-3.42] as compared to Kerala [OR (richest) =1.66; 1.37-2.0]. Moreover, this gradient was more on account of chronic diseases [OR (richest) =2.7; 1.8-4.0] for Bihar; [OR (richest) =1.6; 1.26-2.0 for Kerala] than the acute diseases [OR (richest) =1.82; 1.1-2.9 for Bihar]; [OR (richest) =1.4; 1.1-1.8 for Kerala]. Interpretation & conclusions: The present analysis shows that the epidemiologic transition results in higher prevalence and reporting of chronic ailments by the rich than the poor. This phenomenon is more evident in the early stages of transition. In later stages of transition, positional objectivity plays an important role to explain wealth related inequalities in SRM. PMID:26112845

  20. Wealth related inequalities in self reported morbidity: Positional objectivity or epidemiological transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Morbidity is self reported at a higher rate among the rich than the poor. However, objective measures suggest the contrary. We examined the role of epidemiological transition in wealth related inequalities in self-reported morbidity (SRM. Methods: We analyzed data of two States, Bihar and Kerala, from 60 [th] Round of National Sample Survey (NSS. Bivariate analysis was performed to study the associations between various socio-demographic variables and self-reported morbidity. A prediction model based on hierarchical logistic regression was developed to identify determinants of self-reported morbidity. Results: In Bihar, acute morbidities (26 per 1000 were reported more often than chronic morbidities (19 per 1000 while in Kerala the reverse was true (89 acute and 123 chronic morbidities per 1000 person. In both the s0 tates, the rate of SRM showed an increasing trend from the poorest to the richest quintiles. The rising gradient in the odds of SRM across increasing socio-economic strata was more pronounced in Bihar [OR (richest=2.52; 1.85-3.42] as compared to Kerala [OR (richest =1.66; 1.37-2.0]. Moreover, this gradient was more on account of chronic diseases [OR (richest =2.7; 1.8-4.0] for Bihar; [OR (richest =1.6; 1.26-2.0 for Kerala] than the acute diseases [OR (richest =1.82; 1.1-2.9 for Bihar]; [OR (richest =1.4; 1.1-1.8 for Kerala]. Interpretation & conclusions: The present analysis shows that the epidemiologic transition results in higher prevalence and reporting of chronic ailments by the rich than the poor. This phenomenon is more evident in the early stages of transition. In later stages of transition, positional objectivity plays an important role to explain wealth related inequalities in SRM.

  1. [Social representation of a psychoanalytical concept: what is the popular meaning of an "unconscious conflict"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Heitmann, Sabine; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2008-05-01

    A majority of the population regards unconscious conflict as a possible cause for depression or schizophrenia. We examine to what extent people associate psychoanalytical concepts with this term. Population-based telephone survey (n = 1010), open questions about the meaning and origin of the term unconscious conflict. 5 % gave a definition with clearly psychoanalytical elements, another 13 % perceived an internal conflict. 24 % thought of a conflict between persons, 23 % had no answer. Regarding the origin of the term, 4 % associated Freud or psychoanalysis, 27 % psychology. For both questions, answers closer to Freudian ideas were more common in West compared to East Germany. A concretised understanding far from Freud's original conception of unconscious conflict dominates, which is even stronger in the former communist parts of Germany. Psychoanalytical terms do not necessarily carry a psychoanalytical significance with the public.

  2. Inner and Outer Life at Work. The Roots and Horizon of Psychoanalytically Informed Work Life Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research...

  3. Patterns of interpersonal problems and their improvement in depressive and anxious patients treated with psychoanalytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Simone; Leibing, Eric; Jakobsen, Thorsten; Rudolf, Gerd; Brockmann, Josef; Eckert, Jochen; Huber, Dorothea; Klug, Günther; Henrich, Gerhard; Grande, Tilmann; Keller, Wolfram; Kreische, Reinhard; Biskup, Joachim; Staats, Hermann; Warwas, Jasmin; Leichsenring, Falk

    2010-01-01

    Interpersonal problems were studied in 121 patients treated with psychoanalytic therapy using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Four characteristic subtypes were identified, which differed in the quality and flexibility of their interpersonal behavior. Independent of the predominant type of interpersonal problems, the psychotherapy treatment led to strong decreases in interpersonal distress and increases in interpersonal differentiation. Psychoanalytic therapy was highly effective for all identified interpersonal subtypes and seems to help patients achieve more satisfactory relationships.

  4. Full pockets, empty lives: a psychoanalytic exploration of the contemporary culture of greed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Paul L

    2003-06-01

    This paper offers a psychoanalytic exploration of the dynamics of greed in individual lives and ways that those dynamics both reflect and influence the surrounding culture. The paper discusses the contradictions associated with the consumerist pursuit of wealth and goods, and finds evidence for the failure of such pursuit to provide the satisfaction that is anticipated. It also examines the implications for psychoanalytic theorizing on the ways in which ongoing social forces and institutions contribute to shaping the psyche.

  5. The life and work of Melanie Klein in the British Psycho-Analytical Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P H

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes certain aspects of the life and work of Melanie Klein in the British Psycho-Analytical Society. It attempts to highlight the reciprocity of the relationship between Melanie Klein and other members of that Society by showing how the climate of psychoanalytical opinion that was prevalent among members of that Society during the first decade of her stay in London, and which encouraged discussion of clinical work and interest in psychoanalytical discovery, provided a congenial setting for her to become firmly established as an active member of the British Society and to continue her contributions to psychoanalytic theory and clinical expertise. The paper also traces the development of Melanie Klein's main theoretical contributions, together with relevant criticisms of them as they emerged, against the background of the history of the British Psycho-Analytical Society. It describes the controversies that arose as to whether or not her ideas could properly be viewed within the framework of psychoanalytic theory, as formulated by Freud, and the attempted resolution of these controversies, together with some comments on the repercussions of these theoretical disagreements on relationships within the Society. An extensive list of references is included to facilitate a more detailed study of the subject.

  6. Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS: a randomised controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory forms of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term forms of depression represent a significant mental health problem for which there is a lack of effective evidence-based treatment. This study aims to produce findings about the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory depression and to deepen the understanding of this complex form of depression. Methods/Design INDEX GROUP: Patients with treatment resistant/treatment refractory depression. DEFINITION & INCLUSION CRITERIA: Current major depressive disorder, 2 years history of depression, a minimum of two failed treatment attempts, ≥14 on the HRSD or ≥21 on the BDI-II, plus complex personality and/or psycho-social difficulties. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Moderate or severe learning disability, psychotic illness, bipolar disorder, substance dependency or receipt of test intervention in the previous two years. DESIGN: Pragmatic, randomised controlled trial with qualitative and clinical components. TEST INTERVENTION: 18 months of weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy, manualised and fidelity-assessed using the Psychotherapy Process Q-Sort. CONTROL CONDITION: Treatment as usual, managed by the referring practitioner. RECRUITMENT: GP referrals from primary care. RCT MAIN OUTCOME: HRSD (with ≤14 as remission. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: depression severity (BDI-II, degree of co-morbid disorders Axis-I and Axis-II (SCID-I and SCID-II-PQ, quality of life and functioning (GAF, CORE, Q-les-Q, object relations (PROQ2a, Cost-effectiveness analysis (CSRI and GP medical records. FOLLOW-UP: 2 years. Plus: a. Qualitative study of participants’ and therapists’ problem formulation, experience of treatment and of participation in trial. (b Narrative data from semi-structured pre/post psychodynamic interviews to produce prototypes of responders and non-responders. (c Clinical case-studies of sub-types of TRD and of change. Discussion TRD needs complex, long-term intervention and

  7. Multi-objective optimization and grey relational analysis on configurations of organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Z.; Zhao, J.; Wang, Y.; An, Q.S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pareto frontier is an effective way to make comprehensive comparison of ORC. • Comprehensive performance from energy and economics of basic ORC is the best. • R141b shows the best comprehensive performance from energy and economics. - Abstract: Concerning the comprehensive performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC), comparisons and optimizations on 3 different configurations of ORC (basic, regenerative and extractive ORCs) are investigated in this paper. Medium-temperature geothermal water is used for comparing the influence of configurations, working fluids and operating parameters on different evaluation criteria. Different evaluation and optimization methods are adopted in evaluation of ORCs to obtain the one with the best comprehensive performance, such as exergoeconomic analysis, bi-objective optimization and grey relational analysis. The results reveal that the basic ORC performs the best among these 3 ORCs in terms of comprehensive thermodynamic and economic performances when using R245fa and driven by geothermal water at 150 °C. Furthermore, R141b shows the best comprehensive performance among 14 working fluids based on the Pareto frontier solutions without considering safe factors. Meanwhile, R141b is the best among all 14 working fluids with the optimal comprehensive performance when regarding all the evaluation criteria as equal by using grey relational analysis.

  8. Predictive value of object relations for therapeutic alliance and outcome in psychotherapy for depression: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, H.L.; Hendriksen, M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of object relations has been shown to be relevant for the process and outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapies. However, little is known about its relevance for the psychotherapeutic treatment of depression. In this study, we explored the predictive value of object relational functioning

  9. Positioning and Relating: Market Boundaries and the Slippery Identity of the Marketing Object

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, John; Geiger, Susi

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel perspective on positioning by identifying goods and services first as market objects and then as marketing objects. As part of their normal marketing activities marketers position market objects and thereby provide means for other market actors to evaluate differences and similarities across an array of goods and services. Hence, marketers help disentangle goods and services in a market space, so formatting them as market objects. At the same time, marketers tend to make...

  10. Audiovisual functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals multisensory integration effects in object-related sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Weigelt, Sarah; Altmann, Christian F; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2010-03-03

    Information integration across different sensory modalities contributes to object recognition, the generation of associations and long-term memory representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate the presence of sensory integrative effects at cortical levels as early as nonprimary auditory and extrastriate visual cortices, which are implicated in intermediate stages of object processing. Stimulation consisted of an adapting audiovisual stimulus S(1) and a subsequent stimulus S(2) from the same basic-level category (e.g., cat). The stimuli were carefully balanced with respect to stimulus complexity and semantic congruency and presented in four experimental conditions: (1) the same image and vocalization for S(1) and S(2), (2) the same image and a different vocalization, (3) different images and the same vocalization, or (4) different images and vocalizations. This two-by-two factorial design allowed us to assess the contributions of auditory and visual stimulus repetitions and changes in a statistically orthogonal manner. Responses in visual regions of right fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex were reduced for repeated visual stimuli (repetition suppression). Surprisingly, left lateral occipital cortex showed stronger responses to repeated auditory stimuli (repetition enhancement). Similarly, auditory regions of interest of the right middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus exhibited repetition suppression to auditory repetitions and repetition enhancement to visual repetitions. Our findings of crossmodal repetition-related effects in cortices of the respective other sensory modality add to the emerging view that in human subjects sensory integrative mechanisms operate on earlier cortical processing levels than previously assumed.

  11. Individual and Group Responses of Fourteen and Fifteen Year Olds to Short Stories, Novels, Poems, and Thematic Apperception Tests: Case Studies Based on Piagetian Genetic Epistemology and Freudian Psychoanalytic Ego Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Anthony R.

    A descriptive profile of adolescent response to literature is presented in this study, which also examines findings in terms of psychoanalytic concepts that relate response to life styles in terms of Piaget's genetic epistemology. There are two primary questions in this investigation: What is the psychological dynamic of response to literature? By…

  12. Brain activity related to working memory for temporal order and object information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brooke M; Libby, Laura A; Inhoff, Marika C; Ranganath, Charan

    2017-06-08

    Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail. To address these questions, participants were scanned while completing 3 working memory task conditions (Group, Position and Item) that were matched in terms of difficulty and the number of items to be actively maintained. Group and Position trials probed temporal working memory processes, requiring the maintenance of hierarchically organized coarse and fine temporal information, respectively. To isolate activation related to temporal working memory, Group and Position trials were contrasted against Item trials, which required detailed working memory maintenance of visual objects. Results revealed that working memory encoding and maintenance of temporal information relative to visual information was associated with increased activation in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and perirhinal cortex (PRC). In contrast, maintenance of visual details relative to temporal information was characterized by greater activation of parahippocampal cortex (PHC), medial and anterior PFC, and retrosplenial cortex. In the hippocampus, a dissociation along the longitudinal axis was observed such that the anterior hippocampus was more active for working memory encoding and maintenance of visual detail information relative to temporal information, whereas the posterior hippocampus displayed the opposite effect. Posterior parietal cortex was the only region to show sensitivity to temporal

  13. Behind the lines: Toward an aesthetic framework for psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnick, Billie A

    2018-02-01

    This article describes the author's development of an aesthetic approach to psychoanalytic psychotherapy of patients suffering from traumatic levels of grief by describing her experiences as a patient, a therapist, and a consultant to the design firm that partnered with the National September 11 Memorial and Museum. Using Aristotle's On Poetics as an inspiration, this article explores the ways dialogical storytelling creates a therapeutic "action-plot" that transforms reversals of fortune. Attending to patients' first-person phenomenological experience (without attributing cause), therapists help them transform their losses by listening to their stories. Therapists dwell with them in uncertainties while marking time in regularly scheduled meetings; they accompany their patients on a journey while also orienting to their modes of travel. They simultaneously co-construct tales of the journey, attentive to the poetic dimensions of sight, sound, and space that they encounter. In so doing, therapists serve not just guides and judges, but artists, bringing meanings to the trail. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Senses, Musicality and Psychotherapy in a Psychoanalytic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Pazzagli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the in-fancy "verbal" and "non-verbal" are united. Then, when the child begins to understand the semantic meanings of the words, the lived experience’s area and language’s area differentiate. According to some, the emotional connotation and relationship with the person who the word is learned from is essential to establish the link between thing and word. According to others, the language opens a gap between the interpersonal lived experience and the represented one, so it produces a radical split between verbal and non-verbal areas.These different approaches have important consequences in the consideration of mutative and therapeutic aspects in the psychoanalytic experience. We can put the emphasis on the content of the analyst’s interventions or, vice versa, we can highlight the global experiential aspects, keeping separated two areas that indeed are coexisting, seeing as inescapable a rich component of direct affective meanings, even in the tone of the analyst's interventions. In the last decades, the “focus” of psychoanalysis’ interest has expanded from an almost exclusive attention to the theme of “Interpretation” to aspects that can be called "aesthetic reception" both in the patient and in the analyst, being interpretation and “aesthetic” reception intrinsically connected. This paper presents and discusses this complex issue.

  15. [From crisis to impasse in the psychoanalytical cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    The question of impasse in the treatment and strategies utilized and solutions offered by the clinician to resolve them brings us to take an analytical look at factors that constitute critical situations encountered in the clinical setting. What appears crucial is first the necessity to distinguish moments of crisis from moments of impasse. Often, the demand for analysis is based on a moment of crisis in one person's life, a repetitive and prolonged crisis that the person was unable to solve with the usual means of friendly help and awareness or again with other therapeutics available. For others, a situation of impasse presented itself and left the person in a suspended state of his life, in a breakdown of creativity. In this article, in the light of our own psychoanalytical problem, we will distinguish between the crisis of the impasse by situating it in the logic of this particular and decisive stage of a cure of what is castration. We will identify the possibilities of resolution of the crises as well as conditions to envisage and overcome impasse in a constructive way in a psychotic or neurotic subject.

  16. Theodor Reik: architect of the subjective approach to psychoanalytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Morton

    2013-06-01

    An overview of the life and work of Theodor Reik is presented. Because of the confluence of various personal qualities and circumstantial factors, Reik's contributions to twentieth-century psychoanalysis were significant, varied, and controversial. His major contributions include the following: (1) He demonstrated the critical importance of unconscious guilt and masochism in human affairs, on an individual basis as well as man's social institutions. In effect, all neuroses have underlying unconscious guilt and punishment issues. (2) He emphasized that the mission of the analyst is to create an intimate clinical relationship with the patient by utilizing his or her (the analyst's) unconscious in concert with the unconscious of the patient. (3) In establishing the National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis in 1948, Reik became the father of nonmedical psychoanalytic training in America. (4) Over a thirty-year period after his arrival in New York City in 1938, Reik published over twenty books on psychoanalysis, Reikian style. The most read and influential was Listening With the Third Ear (1948). As a result, Reik became America's primary educator of psychoanalysis.

  17. [The transformation of Friedrich the Great. A psychoanalytic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy, E

    1995-08-01

    The transformation of Frederick the Great. A psychoanalytic study.--As a child and young man, Prince Frederick Hohenzollern, later King Frederick II of Prussia, flatly rejected his father's militaristic, Teutonic code of behaviour with its emphasis on dutiful service, self-abnegation and obedience. Instead he indulged his more "effeminate" leanings, taking an interest in literature, music and the unsoldierly delights provided by the courtly life of the age, and was encouraged in this by both his mother and his sister. This refusal to espouse the manly, paternal principle drove the crown prince into an increasingly vehement conflict with his father, who observed his son's indifference to all things military with growing bitterness, and finally led to a catastrophe in the course of which Frederick's closest friend was executed and he himself only just escaped his father's deadly vengeance. After this crisis, Frederick conformed more and more closely to his father's expectations and instructions and after the latter's death in 1740 developed into a ruler who enhanced Prussia's military and political glory and established a paternalistic principle that not only equalled but indeed exceeded everything that his father had stood for. The author traces in detail Frederick's astounding transformation into the "Frederick the Great" familiar to us from history books, analysing it both psychodynamically and in terms of identity theory. His conclusion is that it was the strength of Frederick's ego--itself the very prerequisite of "greatness"--that saved him from coming to grief over this conflict of identity.

  18. The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, E A

    1999-01-01

    After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education.

  19. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: An event-related fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded “living/non-living” classification task with three repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidencing repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle and inferior tem...

  20. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    to initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning...... approaches is also investigated. The system uses a scale-invariant shape representation and it is shown to outperform a state-of-the-art method particularly when a few samples are used for training. Both systems are benchmarked using a multi-view object dataset of 100 objects specially created...

  1. Mourning, Memorials, and Religion: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on the Park51 Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Carlin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a version of the “mourning religion” thesis—derived from the work of Peter Homans and further developed and advanced by William Parsons, Diane Jonte-Pace, and Susan Henking—and then demonstrates how this thesis can shed light on the Park51 controversy. We argue that the Park51 controversy represents a case of incomplete cultural mourning of an aspect of American civil religion that manifests itself in melancholic rage by means of protests, threats to burn the Qur’an (as well as actual burnings of the Qur’an, and vandalism of mosques around the United States. We explore various losses—military, economic, and symbolic—and note that these losses remain ambiguous, therefore preventing closure and productive mourning. The fact that a permanent memorial still has not been built at Ground Zero reflects, and perhaps exacerbates, this incomplete cultural mourning. Also, the fact that Freedom Tower, the building to replace the Twin Towers, is to be 1776 feet tall reflects that the losses related to 9/11 are connected to American civil religion, as 1776 is a sacred year in American history. Setting aside the ethics and the politics related to this controversy, we attempt here to understand this controversy from a psychoanalytic perspective.

  2. Issues Related to Measuring and Interpreting Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of objective measures of sedentary behavior has increased over the past decade; however, as is the case for objectively measured physical activity, methodological decisions before and after data collection are likely to influence the outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the evidence on different methodological decisions made by…

  3. Applying the Food Safety Objective and related concepts to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Membré, J.M.; Bassett, J.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this

  4. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  5. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela M Marin

    Full Text Available Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal and complexity (low versus high number of elements. For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in

  6. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  7. Critical issues related to registration of space objects and transparency of space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram S.; Jasani, Bhupendra; McDowell, Jonathan C.

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose of the 1975 Registration Convention is to achieve transparency in space activities and this objective is motivated by the belief that a mandatory registration system would assist in the identification of space objects launched into outer space. This would also consequently contribute to the application and development of international law governing the exploration and use of outer space. States Parties to the Convention furnish the required information to the United Nations' Register of Space Objects. However, the furnished information is often so general that it may not be as helpful in creating transparency as had been hoped by the drafters of the Convention. While registration of civil satellites has been furnished with some general details, till today, none of the Parties have described the objects as having military functions despite the fact that a large number of such objects do perform military functions as well. In some cases, the best they have done is to indicate that the space objects are for their defense establishments. Moreover, the number of registrations of space objects is declining. This paper addresses the challenges posed by the non-registration of space objects. Particularly, the paper provides some data about the registration and non-registration of satellites and the States that have and have not complied with their legal obligations. It also analyses the specific requirements of the Convention, the reasons for non-registration, new challenges posed by the registration of small satellites and the on-orbit transfer of satellites. Finally, the paper provides some recommendations on how to enhance the registration of space objects, on the monitoring of the implementation of the Registration Convention and consequently how to achieve maximum transparency in space activities.

  8. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives in Aerospace Systems Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to...

  9. On the relation between face and object recognition in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate cognitive domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical consequences as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important...... source of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity-hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests...... of visual object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive...

  10. Geometric Methods for ATR: Shape Spaces, Metrics, Object/Image Relations, and Shapelets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiller, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    .... It outlines our recent success in creating the first "global object/image equations and metrics for the full perspective case, and it discusses some of the additional experimental testing we did...

  11. [Objective assessment of transfusion-related knowledge of nurses using modern test theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajki, Veronika; Deutsch, Tibor; Csóka, Mária; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-09-13

    easily and which items were found harder to answer by the nurses who participated in the survey. In addition to the separate analysis of individual questions, a set of response patterns is also presented which shows how frequently the nurses responded correctly to different combinations (sub-sets) of questions. On the whole, nurses exhibited medium level performance in terms of knowledge and skills required for efficient and safe transfusion practice. Objective and reliable measurement of the level of acquired knowledge is a key requirement in nursing education. This paper, which demonstrates the use of cluster analysis and item response theory for the assessment of transfusion-related knowledge of nurses, focuses on this issue for the first time in nursing research. The results of this survey have revealed substantial limitations and deficiencies both in knowledge and skills of nurses which need to be addressed by training in order to improve the efficiency and safety of transfusion therapy.

  12. Extracting Spatiotemporal Objects from Raster Data to Represent Physical Features and Analyze Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollweg, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don't see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm `object'. Temporally, we don't see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain's perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA's High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2) data stream.

  13. Identification, recognition and misidentification syndromes. A psychoanalytical perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eThibierge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Misidentification syndromes are currently often understood as cognitive disorders of either the sense of uniqueness (Margariti & Kontaxakis, 2006 or the recognition of people (Ellis, Lewis, 2001. It is however necessary to consider how a normal sense of uniqueness or a normal people recognition are acquired by normal or neurotic subjects. It will be shown here that the normal conditions of cognition can be considered as one of the possible forms of a complex structure and not as just a setting for our sense and perception data. The consistency and the permanency of the body image in neurosis is what permits that we recognize other people and ourselves as unique beings. These consistency and permanency are related to object repression, as shown by neurological disorders of body image (somatoparaphrenia, which cause the object to come to the foreground in the patient’s words (Thibierge and Morin, 2010. In misidentification syndromes, as in other psychotic syndromes, one can also observe a damage of the specular image as well as an absence of object repression. This leads us to question whether, in the psychiatric disorders related to a damaged specular image, cognition disorders can be studied and managed using the same methods as for neurotic patients.

  14. Aetiology of phenomenon of fair play in sport through psychoanalytic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Vodeb

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available When discussing fair play, sports experts nowadays mostly talk about how to "be a sport" on a sport field. It means telling and preaching to athletes to obey all the written rules of sport's ethic and those not written as well. Here we want to explore the other meaning of the term "fair play". We want to really learn about it, because fair play certainly is a psychological category. Psychoanalytic logic teaches us that roots of fair play should be sought in the infantile period of child's development. It seems, that the events caused by the Oedipus complex and the building Superego have the most sufficient impact on someone's sports behavior. Theoretically speaking, fair play cannot be considered as something gained from culture - it is mainly a construct, a symptom of returning infantile repressions in the context of father as a sexual concurrent. "Turning to the opposite side" (reaction-formation is an ego-defense mechanism that in the etiology of fair play ought to be pointed out in particularly. As we are talking about men in sports, let us tell, it is the boy's relation towards his father at the time when he's arrogating the boy's mother to himself, the most crucial for feeling and performing fair play. Fantasies and repressions, which happened in the psychical reality of a child, have the main impact on fair play in sports as well as in other situations.

  15. A 27-Intersection Model for Representing Detailed Topological Relations between Spatial Objects in Two-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Shen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Determining the spatial relations between objects is a primary function of a geographic information system (GIS. One important aspect of spatial relations is topological relations, which remain constant under topological transformations. Describing the geometry of a spatial object using the OpenGIS Simple Features Specification requires only simple features: the interior, boundary and exterior of a spatial object are defined. This paper proposes a comprehensive model, the 27-intersection model (27IM, which considers both the dimensions and the number of intersections. Some propositions are presented to exclude relations that the 27IM cannot implement. The 27IM describes six groups of topological relations: point/point, point/line, point/region, line/line, line/region and region/region. The formalism of the 27IM and the corresponding geometric interpretations between spatial objects are illustrated and then compared to the topological relations represented by the existing models, the nine-intersection model (9IM, the dimensionally-extended nine-intersection matrix (DE-9IM and the separation number extended nine-intersection matrix (SNE-9IM. The results show that (1 the 27IM can represent the topological relations between two-dimensional spatial objects, (2 the 27IM can distinguish more topological relations than can the 9IM, DE-9IM or the SNE-9IM and that (3 the interoperability of the 27IM with the 9IM, DE-9IM and SNE-9IM is good.

  16. Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

  17. Forming Ideal Types by Understanding: The Psychoanalytic Treatment of Suicidal Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Lindner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of a qualitative methodology—forming ideal types by understanding—to the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of suicidal men. The paper focuses on a particular phase of the methodology: the validation through external expert replication. Data of cases from psychoanalytic treatment, analysed by the originating group in Germany, is analysed by a group in London, UK, which formed to undertake the task of blind comparison. We describe the contribution of this method in the field of psychoanalytic research, the method developed for generating data and the processes through which data are analysed. We demonstrate the comparative findings from the first (German and second (UK analyses and explore the meanings of the similarities and differences. The paper concludes with an appraisal of the strengths and limitations (in terms of moderate levels of generalisation of results from this method for research in the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002120

  18. Like grandparents, like parents: Empirical evidence and psychoanalytic thinking on the transmission of parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Bonalda, Valentina; Cesari, Paola Elena; Parolin, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The authors discuss the issue of intergenerational transmission of parenting from an empirical and psychoanalytic perspective. After presenting a framework to explain their conception of parenting, they describe intergenerational transmission of parenting as a key to interpreting and eventually changing parenting behaviors. Then they present (1) the empirical approach aimed at determining if there is actually a stability across generations that contributes to harsh parenting and eventually maltreatment and (2) the psyphoanalytic thinking that seeks to explain the continuity in terms of representations and clinical phenomena. The authors also discuss the relationship between the attachment and the caregiving systems and hypothesize a common base for the two systems in childhood experience. Finally, they propose the psychoanalytic perspective as a fruitful theoretical framework to integrate the evidence for the neurophysiological mediators and moderators of intergenerational transmission. Psychoanalytically informed research can provide clinically relevant insights and hypotheses to be tested.

  19. The relation between force and movement when grasping an object with a precision grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegstraaten, Marianne; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Brenner, Eli

    2006-05-01

    When reaching out for objects, the digits' paths curve so that they approach their positions of contact moving more or less perpendicularly to the local surface orientation. This increases the accuracy of positioning the digits and ensures that any forces exerted at contact are nearly perpendicular to the surface, so that friction will prevent the digits from slipping along the surface. When lifting the object a similar force perpendicular to the surface is needed to prevent the object from slipping from one's fingers. In order to determine whether these two issues are dealt with simultaneously we let subjects pick up a cube from three different starting positions and measured the digits' movements and forces from before contact until the moment the cube started moving. The impact force was low. After impact, the digits spent about 200 ms in contact with the surface of the cube before the latter started to move. The digits first decelerated, and then they gradually built up the grip- and lift forces to move the cube upwards. We found no direct relationship between the control of the reaching movement towards the object and the force applied at the surface of the object to pick it up. We conclude that the reaching and lifting movements are quite independent.

  20. EXTRACTING SPATIOTEMPORAL OBJECTS FROM RASTER DATA TO REPRESENT PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ANALYZE RELATED PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Zollweg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don’t see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm ‘object’. Temporally, we don’t see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain’s perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2 data stream.

  1. Comparison of a Psychoanalytic and a Client-Centered Group Treatment Model on Measures of Anxiety and Self-Actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, Pamela

    1983-01-01

    Compared the effects of a psychoanalytic or group treatment model in promoting self-actualization in 19 counselor trainees. Results showed significant differences between treatment models: psychoanalytic groups reported higher anxiety, and client-centered groups showed greater initial gains on the Personal Orientation Inventory and maintained…

  2. The One that Does, Leads: Action Relations Influence the Perceived Temporal Order of Graspable Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    Perception and action are influenced by the "possibilities for action" in the environment. Neuropsychological studies (e.g., Riddoch, Humphreys, Edwards, Baker, & Willson, 2003) have demonstrated that objects that are perceived to be interacting (e.g., a corkscrew going toward the top of a wine bottle) are perceptually integrated…

  3. A Meta-Relational Approach for the Definition and Management of Hybrid Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Antonio; Fernandez-Pampillon, Ana Ma.; Fernandez-Chamizo, Carmen; Fernandez-Valmayor, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Electronic learning objects (LOs) are commonly conceived of as digital units of information used for teaching and learning. To facilitate their classification for pedagogical planning and retrieval purposes, LOs are complemented with metadata (e.g., the author). These metadata are usually restricted by a set of predetermined tags to which the…

  4. The Kangaroo Book: Developmental Activities Related to the State Kindergarten Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Rhonda; And Others

    Intended for use in conjunction with the guidebook, "Early Childhood Education in South Carolina," this book of experiential activities aims to help kindergarten teachers plan an appropriate program for their children. Each activity described realizes one of the 18 objectives for kindergarten that were adopted by the South Carolina State…

  5. The relation between force and movement when grasping an object with a precision grip.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegstraaten, M.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Brenner, E.

    2006-01-01

    When reaching out for objects, the digits' paths curve so that they approach their positions of contact moving more or less perpendicularly to the local surface orientation. This increases the accuracy of positioning the digits and ensures that any forces exerted at contact are nearly perpendicular

  6. The Identification of Common Library Goals, Objectives, and Activities Relative to a Planning, Programming, Budgeting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, George E.

    The feasibility of utilizing Planning, Programming, Budgeting System (PPBS) procedures in library management was explored. A survey of public libraries in Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin was conducted by questionnaire to identify commonly accepted goals, objectives, and activities. The results of the survey were synthesized with the…

  7. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  8. The spit and image: a psychoanalytic dissection of a colloquial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2011-04-01

    "He is the spit of his father" or "he is the spit and image of his father" is a colloquial expression that has graced informal English for many centuries. When a "spitting image" made an entrance in the manifest content of an analysand's dream, it became possible to add a psychoanalytic point of view to an etymological and anthropological record. After discussing both this clinical case and an "anthropological case history," the author examines the subtle but complex genesis of this colloquial expression from a speculative applied psychoanalytic perspective.

  9. Phantasm of Freud: Nandor Fodor and the psychoanalytic approach to the supernatural in interwar Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the appearance of "psychoanalytic psychical research" in interwar Britain, notably in the work of Nandor Fodor, Harry Price and others, including R. W. Pickford and Sylvia Payne. The varying responses of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones to the area of research are discussed. These researches are placed in the context of the increasingly widespread use of psychoanalytic and psychological interpretations of psychical events in the period, which in turn reflects the penetration of psychoanalysis into popular culture. The saturation of psychical research activity with gender and sexuality and the general fascination with, and embarrassment about, psychical activity is explored.

  10. U.S. Public Relations from an International Perspective: Curricular Issues and Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.; Ogbondah, Chris W.

    This paper establishes a rationale for international public relations courses in the curricula of university public relations education in the U.S. and outlines the content of such courses. Disagreements between practitioners and educators on a blueprint for public relations education are documented. Developments pointing to a crucial need for…

  11. Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Second Language Acquisition of English Relatives and Embedded "Wh"-Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of "wh"-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded "wh"-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality…

  12. The effect of subjective and objective social class on health-related quality of life: new paradigm using longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-08-08

    To investigate the impact of the gap between subjective and objective social status on health-related quality of life. We analyzed data from 12,350 participants aged ≥ 18 years in the Korean Health Panel Survey. Health-related quality of life was measured by EuroQol-Visual analogue scale. Objective (income and education) and subjective social class (measured by MacArthur scale) was classified into three groups (High, Middle, Low). In terms of a gap between objective and subjective social class, social class was grouped into nine categories ranging from High-High to Low-Low. A linear mixed model was used to investigate the association between the combined social class and health-related quality of life. The impact of the gap between objective and subjective status on Health-related quality of life varied according to the type of gap. Namely, at any given subjective social class, an individual's quality of life declined with a decrease in the objective social class. At any given objective social class (e.g., HH, HM, HL; in terms of both education and income), an individual's quality of life declined with a one-level decrease in subjective social class. Our results suggest that studies of the relationship between social class and health outcomes may consider the multidimensional nature of social status.

  13. How crawling and manual object exploration are related to the mental rotation abilities of 9-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun eSchwarzer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored 5 toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

  14. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most. The results showed some statisticaly significant correlations between children's developmental qoutients (global and partial and their highest achieved levels of object play. As the basis for the interpretation of results I used the theories which explain the development of child's language, cognition and play.

  16. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  17. Childhood conscientiousness relates to objectively measured adult physical health four decades later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Edmonds, Grant W; Goldberg, Lewis R; Dubanoski, Joan P; Hillier, Teresa A

    2013-08-01

    Many life span personality-and-health models assume that childhood personality traits result in life-course pathways leading through morbidity to mortality. Although childhood conscientiousness in particular predicts mortality, there are few prospective studies that have investigated the associations between childhood personality and objective health status in adulthood. The present study tested this crucial assumption of life span models of personality and health using a comprehensive assessment of the Big Five traits in childhood (M age = 10 years) and biomarkers of health over 40 years later (M age = 51 years). Members of the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort (N = 753; 368 men, 385 women) underwent a medical examination at mean age 51. Their global health status was evaluated by well-established clinical indicators that were objectively measured using standard protocols, including blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, and body mass index. These indicators were combined to evaluate overall physiological dysregulation and grouped into five more homogeneous subcomponents (glucose intolerance, blood pressure, lipids, obesity, and medications). Lower levels of childhood conscientiousness predicted more physiological dysregulation (β = -.11, p Big Five childhood personality traits, gender, ethnicity, parental home ownership, and adult conscientiousness. These findings are consistent with a key assumption in life span models that childhood conscientiousness is associated with objective health status in older adults. They open the way for testing mechanisms by which childhood personality may influence mortality through morbidity; mechanisms that could then be targeted for intervention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G; Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC--operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)--will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC – operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) – will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  20. Use of Geometric Properties of Landmark Arrays for Reorientation Relative to Remote Cities and Local Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Nankoo, Jean-François; Zhou, Ruojing; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2014-01-01

    Five experiments investigated how human adults use landmark arrays in the immediate environment to reorient relative to the local environment and relative to remote cities. Participants learned targets' directions with the presence of a proximal 4 poles forming a rectangular shape and an array of more distal poles forming a rectangular shape. Then…

  1. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K

    2009-01-01

    Training studies in children have suggested that endurance training can give enlargement of cardiac dimensions. This relationship has not been studied on a population-based level in young children with objective methods. A cross-sectional study was made of 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls......), aged 8-11 years, from a population-based cohort. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDD) and left atrial end-systolic diameter (LA) were measured with echocardiography and indexed for body surface area (BSA). Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry, and the duration of vigorous physical...

  2. New insight for activity intensity relativity, metabolic expenditure during object projection skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacko, Ryan S; McIver, Kerry; Brian, Ali; Stodden, David F

    2018-04-02

    This study examined the metabolic cost (METs) of performing object projection skills at three practice trial intervals (6, 12, and 30 seconds). Forty adults (female n = 20) aged 18-30 (M = 23.7 ± 2.9 years) completed three, nine-minute sessions of skill trials performed at 6, 12, and 30 second intervals. Participants performed kicking, throwing and striking trials in a blocked schedule with maximal effort. Average METs during each session were measured using a COSMED K4b2. A three (interval condition) X two (sex) ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in METs across interval conditions and by sex. Results indicated a main effect for interval condition (F(5,114) = 187.02, p < .001, η 2  = 0.76) with decreased interval times yielding significantly higher METs [30 sec = 3.45, 12 sec = 5.68, 6 sec = 8.21]. A main effect for sex (F(5, 114) = 35.39, p < .001, η 2  = 0.24) also was found with men demonstrating higher METs across all intervals. At a rate of only two trials/min, participants elicited moderate physical activity, with 12 and 6-second intervals exhibiting vigorous PA. Demonstrating MVPA during the performance of object projection skill performance has potential implications for PA interventions.

  3. Tata Kelola Pada Perguruan Tinggi Menggunakan Control Objective for Information & Related Technology (COBIT) 5

    OpenAIRE

    asriyanik, asriyanik; Hendayun, Mokhamad

    2017-01-01

    A College needs a good governance in implementation of information technology, especially which related with information security because information is an important asset. Framework which can be used for the preparation of information security governance is COBIT 5 from ISACA. The first step to start the preparation of the governance using COBIT is mapping between the goal of college with enterprise goals (EG), IT Related Goals and domain process COBIT 5. From 15 colleges that have been acc...

  4. Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Second Language Acquisition of English Relatives and Embedded Wh-Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2016-12-01

    This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of wh-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded wh-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality judgment task. The learners demonstrated a subject advantage in the headed RCs and headless RCs, but an object advantage in the embedded wh-questions, which suggests that they treat embedded wh-questions differently from headed relatives and headless relatives despite the similarities in surface forms. The learners further demonstrated the order of developing headless RCs followed by embedded wh-questions, and subsequently headed RCs, which supports the primacy of headless relatives as a simple nominal in L2 development.

  5. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    2013-01-01

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  6. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars B; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    with transport-related walking and cycling. METHODS: This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability...... and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18-66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated...

  7. Transference and countertransference: two concepts specific to psychoanalytic theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladame, F

    1999-12-01

    The development of the theory of transference and countertransference from Freud to post-Freudian authors is described. It is concluded that the concepts of transference and countertransference are pertinent only within a definite psychoanalytic setting. They cannot be applied in every therapeutic situation.

  8. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF TECHNO-GENESIS PROBLEMS (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of Justice takes a great significance in the context of the processes of techno-genesis. Ethics of psychoanalysis connects a category of Justice with the notion of Unconscious. A psychoanalytic methodology of Freud helps successfully to solve modern technogenic problems. 

  9. The "Matchbox School" (1927-1932): Anna Freud and the Idea of a "Psychoanalytically Informed Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Of all the applications of psychoanalysis to various fields, perhaps none has been as important--or as fraught--as the application of psychoanalytic insights to education. This paper re-constructs some of the early debates around psychoanalysis and pedagogy that Anna Freud engaged with during the 1920s in Vienna, when the whole question of what…

  10. Miss Freud Returns to the Classroom: Toward Psychoanalytic Literacy among Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This essay is a call for a more psychoanalytically informed approach to educational psychology and teacher formation. To this end, the author gives an overview of a course in psychology that he recommends for inclusion in teacher education. This course is in two parts. The first part is an introduction to some important elements of psychoanalytic…

  11. Investigating Trauma in Narrating World War I: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Pat Barker's "Regeneration"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Bakhtiar; Esmkhani, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker's "Regeneration" in terms of Cathy Caruth's psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker's novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the…

  12. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  13. Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

  14. Black client, white therapist: working with race in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Zelda Gillian

    2013-02-01

    In post-apartheid South Africa we speak about race extensively. It permeates our workplace, weaves a thread through the fabric of our professional and personal lives, as well as our private conversations and public interactions with others. From within psychoanalytic theory, the thread weaves through the unknown content of our racialized unconscious. When there is a focus on race in the South African psychoanalytic context it largely takes the form of the struggle to articulate the complexities of working with difference, as Swartz notes, or the struggle to map out issues of race. Such struggles are not localized in South Africa, but strongly reflect a much broader struggle within the global psychoanalytic community, as mirrored in the expanding focus on race. Although the consulting rooms seem far removed from the ongoing political tensions that have recently emerged in South Africa, psychoanalytic psychotherapy remains a space of meaningful engagement with the other, and where the therapeutic dyad is one of racial difference it permits an encounter with our racialized unconscious. This article seeks to document the experience of my black client and my white response to her racial pain and struggle; in doing so, I describe the racial 'contact' between us and within us that triggers a racialized transference and countertransference dynamic, which contains the space for racial healing for both of us. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  15. Beyond Freud in psychoanalytic psychology of religion? On the discussion of religion as projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1907, Sigmund Freud initiated the psychoanalytic psychology of religion, until the present day the most important contributor to the psychology of religion literature in general, and the branch of psychological critique of religion best known outside of psychology circles (having drawn attention

  16. Desire, gender, power, language: a psychoanalytic reading of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kotze

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychoanalytic literary criticism has always had a particular fascination with texts dealing with the supernatural, the mysterious and the monstrous. Unfortunately such criticism, valuable and provocative though the insights it has provided have been, has all too often treated the text as a “symptom” by which to explain or analyse an essentially extratextual factor, such as the author's psychological disposition. Many interpretations of Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein provide typical examples of this approach. Much psychoanalytic (and also feminist criticism and interpretation of the novel have focused on the female psyche “behind” the text, showing how the psychoanalytic dynamics structuring Shelley’s own life have found precipitation in her novel. This article offers an alternative to this type of psychoanalytic reading by interpreting the novel in terms of a framework derived from Lacanian psychoanalysis, focusing on the text itself. This interpretation focuses primarily on the interrelated aspects of language, gender, desire and power as manifested in the novel, with the aim of highlighting some hitherto largely unexplored aspects of the text which may be useful in situating the text within the larger current discourse concerning issues of language and power.

  17. Between Trauma and Perpetration: Psychoanalytical and Social Psychological Perspectives on Difficult Histories in the Israeli Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tsafrir

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the applicability of psychoanalytic trauma-centered perspectives and social psychological intergroup comparison perspectives to difficult histories of the Israeli context. The study describes 2 test cases of difficult histories in the Jewish-Israeli context at the levels of curriculum policy, teachers, and learners. The first…

  18. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  19. On Whether to Convert from a Rhetorical to a Psychoanalytic Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Don J.

    2010-01-01

    Like psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic pedagogy is a particular way of paying attention, a way of paying attention that deflects attention away from other pedagogies' means and goals. Looking for what psychoanalysis deems the "root cause" of writing problems--intrapsychic conflict--foregrounds that kind of conflict, relegating to the background other…

  20. The effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic therapy: A systematic review of empirical studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, de S.; Jonghe, de F.; Schoevers, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a gap in the research literature on the effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic therapies (LPT). Aim: To present a systematic review of studies dealing with LPT effectiveness and published from 1970 onward. Methods: A systematic literature search for studies dealing with the

  1. Knee Confidence as It Relates to Self-reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time...... osteoarthritis (OA). Background Lack of knee confidence is a frequent symptom in patients with knee OA, but little is known of associations between knee confidence and other common correlates of knee OA. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA were applied in ordinal regression analyses, with knee.......21; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34), and general health (OR = 0.024; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.259) explained 19% of the variance in knee confidence (Pcorrelate of knee confidence, whereas...

  2. A fronto-parietal circuit for tactile object discrimination: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Weder, Bruno; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Shah, N Jon; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2003-07-01

    Previous studies of somatosensory object discrimination have been focused on the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortices. However, we expected the prefrontal cortex to also become involved in sequential tactile discrimination on the basis of its role in working memory and stimulus discrimination as established in other domains. To investigate the contributions of the different cerebral structures to tactile discrimination of sequentially presented objects, we obtained event-related functional magnetic resonance images from seven healthy volunteers. Our results show that right hand object exploration involved left sensorimotor cortices, bilateral premotor, parietal and temporal cortex, putamen, thalamus, and cerebellum. Tactile exploration of parallelepipeds for subsequent object discrimination activated further areas in the dorsal and ventral portions of the premotor cortex, as well as parietal, midtemporal, and occipital areas of both cerebral hemispheres. Discriminating a parallelepiped from the preceding one involved a bilateral prefrontal-anterior cingulate-superior temporal-posterior parietal circuit. While the prefrontal cortex was active with right hemisphere dominance during discrimination, there was left hemispheric prefrontal activation during the delay period between object presentations. Delay related activity was further seen in the anterior intraparietal area and the fusiform gyrus. The results reveal a prominent role of the human prefrontal cortex for somatosensory object discrimination in correspondence with recent models on stimulus discrimination and working memory.

  3. Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multi-objective characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the peak current is the most significant parameters affecting on multi-objective characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-objective characteristics.

  4. Developmental aspects of the interaction between narcissism, self-esteem and object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, C; Holder, A

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the history, within psycho-analysis, of narcissism and shows that it cannot be understood as a unitary concept. This is reflected in much of the extensive literature on the topic. The definition of narcissism solely in terms of the libidinal drive cathexis of the self representation is rejected. Instead, narcissism is defined as the sum of the positively-coloured feeling states attached to the self-representation. By pursuing a developmental investigation of narcissistic and opposing phenomena, the multiple sources which contribute to or detract from the overall level of self-esteem are demonstrated. Such an investigation clarifies the close relationship between the concepts of self-esteem, well-being and narcissism, and differentiating definitions are put forward. The term 'counter-narcissistic' is introduced to denote the negative contributions to self-esteem which detract from the narcissistic input. The interplay between the contributions to the overall quality of self-esteem, deriving on the one hand from somatic and instinctual drive sources, and on the other from object relationships, exemplifies the multiple origins of its qualities at any one time. This interplay is pursued through the sequential developmental phases from infancy to the oedipal level in order to show the complex epigenesis of narcissism, counter-narcissism and self-esteem.

  5. Objectives, definition and elaboration of technical scenarios for emergency drills relating to a french PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    1989-01-01

    The safety measures applied during the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants are such that the occurrence of an accident with unacceptable consequences for the public is a highly improbable event. Despite this low probability, a number of emergency plans have been drawn up to cater for the occurrence of events that might lead to such an accident: on-site emergency plan to protect plant personnel, terminate the accident and mitigate its consequences; short-and long-term emergency plans to protect the general public and prepare for a return to acceptable living conditions. To check that plans are appropriate and ready to be implemented, they must be regularly tested by means of drills. These drills may be directed solely at technical aspects of nuclear units, or they may concern all the players normally involved, i.e. the utility (EdF), all the specialized government departments concerned and stand-ins for the media. The paper describes some aspects of the procedure for choosing objectives and the preparation of drills, which are illustrated by examples from the national EPAULE exercise. From a technical standpoint, the drills demonstrated that current organizational structures are both effective and operational; however, they cannot determine how the public would actually react in the event of a nuclear accident, given the difficulty of assessing the emotional impact of exposure to a danger than cannot be perceived directly and to information reported by the media

  6. Nano-Objects and Ions in Liquid Crystals: Ion Trapping Effect and Related Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Garbovskiy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ions in liquid crystals is one of the grand challenges that hinder the application of liquid crystals in various devices, which include advanced 3-D and flexible displays, tunable lenses, etc. Not only do they compromise the overall performance of liquid crystal devices, ions are also responsible for slow response, image sticking, and image flickering, as well as many other negative effects. Even highly purified liquid crystal materials can get contaminated during the manufacturing process. Moreover, liquid crystals can degrade over time and generate ions. All of these factors raise the bar for their quality control, and increase the manufacturing cost of liquid crystal products. A decade of dedicated research has paved the way to the solution of the issues mentioned above through merging liquid crystals and nanotechnology. Nano-objects (guests that are embedded in the liquid crystals (hosts can trap ions, which decreases the ion concentration and electrical conductivity, and improves the electro-optical response of the host. In this paper, we (i review recently published works reporting the effects of nanoscale dopants on the electrical properties of liquid crystals; and (ii identify the most promising inorganic and organic nanomaterials suitable to capture ions in liquid crystals.

  7. Neighing, barking, and drumming horses-object related sounds help and hinder picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mädebach, Andreas; Wöhner, Stefan; Kieseler, Marie-Luise; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2017-09-01

    The study presented here investigated how environmental sounds influence picture naming. In a series of four experiments participants named pictures (e.g., the picture of a horse) while hearing task-irrelevant sounds (e.g., neighing, barking, or drumming). Experiments 1 and 2 established two findings, facilitation from congruent sounds (e.g., picture: horse, sound: neighing) and interference from semantically related sounds (e.g., sound: barking), both relative to unrelated sounds (e.g., sound: drumming). Experiment 3 replicated the effects in a situation in which participants were not familiarized with the sounds prior to the experiment. Experiment 4 replicated the congruency facilitation effect, but showed that semantic interference was not obtained with distractor sounds which were not associated with target pictures (i.e., were not part of the response set). The general pattern of facilitation from congruent sound distractors and interference from semantically related sound distractors resembles the pattern commonly observed with distractor words. This parallelism suggests that the underlying processes are not specific to either distractor words or distractor sounds but instead reflect general aspects of semantic-lexical selection in language production. The results indicate that language production theories need to include a competitive selection mechanism at either the lexical processing stage, or the prelexical processing stage, or both. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  9. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  10. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  11. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  12. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  13. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmerhorst Hendrik JF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument.

  14. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument. PMID:22938557

  15. Age-related differences in orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Cusimano, Madeline; Garami, Linda; Backer, Kristina C; Habelt, Bettina; Chan, Vanessa; Hasher, Lynn

    2018-02-09

    We examined the effect of age on listeners' ability to orient attention to an item in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) using high-density electroencephalography, while participants completed a delayed match-to-sample task. During the retention interval, an uninformative or an informative visual retro-cue guided attention to an item in ASTM. Informative cues speeded response times, but only for young adults. In young adults, informative retro-cues generated greater event-related potential amplitude between 450 and 650 ms at parietal sites, and an increased sustained potential over the left central scalp region, thought to index the deployment of attention and maintenance of the cued item in ASTM, respectively. Both modulations were reduced in older adults. Alpha and low beta oscillatory power suppression was greater when the retro-cue was informative than uninformative, especially in young adults. Our results point toward an age-related decline in orienting attention to the cued item in ASTM. Older adults may be dividing their attention between all items in working memory rather than selectively focusing attention on a single cued item. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PBL triggers in relation to students' generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students' inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students' generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Mean similarities score of students' generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers' skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development.

  17. The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects (Old and News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giovannelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review cataclysmic variables (CVs discussing several hot points about the renewing interest of today astrophysics about these sources. We will briefly discuss also about classical and recurrent novae, as well as the intriguing problem of progenitors of the Type Ia supernovae. This paper is an extended and updated version of the review by Giovannelli (2008. Because of limited length of the paper and our knowledge, this review does not pretend to be complete. However, we would like to demonstrate that the improvement on knowledge of the physics of our Universe is strictly related also with the multifrequency behaviour of CVs, which apparently in the recent past lost to have a leading position in modern astrophysics.

  18. Winnicott's splitting headache: considering the gap between Jungian and object relations concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Jeffrey Rubin

    2005-06-01

    This paper examines some difficulties inherent in the process of integration of potentially divergent theoretical positions. It is noted that there is an increasing tendency toward integration of Jungian theory with various models from psychoanalysis and other scientific disciplines. This trend can be understood as relating to the larger post-modern current operating in the scientific and cultural communities. As an element of the Zeitgeist, theory integration can proceed with a lack of critical stance on the process itself. An argument is developed on theoretical grounds for urging caution in the implementation of theory integration. The integrative process is examined using dream material from D. W. Winnicott in conjunction with his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Through this discussion, some implications are examined as to the viability of linking Jungian and developmental models.

  19. Object relations and interpersonal problems in sexually abused female patients: an empirical study with the SCORS and the IIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernhof, Karin; Kaufhold, Johannes; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined how retrospective reports of experiencing traumatic sexual abuse in childhood relates to both the development of self-representations and object representations and the occurrence of interpersonal problems. A total of 30 psychosomatic female patients who reported sexual abuse in childhood were compared with a corresponding number of eating-disordered patients and a nonclinical control group. The object relations technique (ORT; Phillipson, 1955), evaluated using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS; Westen, 1985, 1991b), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz, Rosenberg, Baer, & Ureno, 1988) were used to measure the groups. The patients reporting sexual abuse achieved significantly lower scores in the cognitive scales of the SCORS; in the affective scales, they differed from the control group but not from the patients with an eating disorder. Concerning interpersonal problems, the patients reporting childhood sexual abuse reported interpersonal conflicts more frequently. The results of the study support the influence of traumatic sexual abuse on the formation of self-representations and object representations and on the occurrence of interpersonal conflicts.

  20. UTILITY OF A SALIVARY BIOSENSOR FOR OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF SURGERY-RELATED STRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F.; Sharma, Rassilee; Park, Kwan-Soo; Harrell, Lauren; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the clinical utility of a salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) biosensor for assessing oral surgery-related stress responses and the differential effect of the personality trait of pain catastrophizing. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective, cohort study of 76 healthy subjects who underwent elective removal of their third molars. Along with subjects’ self-reports of anxiety and pain, biosensor-facilitated measurements of sAA levels were obtained at multiple time points during the preoperative consult, surgery, and post-surgical follow-up visits. Additionally, subjects completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale at baseline. Mixed-effect regression models examined change in sAA and self-report ratings within and across visits, and the contribution of pain catastrophizing. RESULTS sAA levels were lower during surgery and post-surgical follow-up compared to the consult visit (p surgery visit (p surgery visit (p surgery visit, and pain ratings were highest during the follow-up visit. CONCLUSION sAA did not show predicted elevations during the surgery visit compared to the consult and post-surgical follow-up visits, or increases during the surgery visit. However, individuals who reported responding to pain with helplessness had larger sAA levels in anticipation of surgery, providing proof of concept for the value of point-of-care assessments of surgery-induced stresses and the differential effect of personality traits. PMID:22677332

  1. Psychoanalytic training experience and postgraduate professional development - Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jorge; Wilkerson, Douglas; Solomon, Brenda; Perlman, Caryle; Duval, Denise; Shelby, Dennis; Witten, Molly

    2017-10-01

    This exploratory study looks at the training and postgraduate experience of the 2008-2014 graduates of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis. It follows our former study of all living graduates through the year 2007 (Schneider et al., 2014). The survey developed and used in the first study, with a few additional questions added to increase our understanding of the training experience, was sent to 38 graduates with a return rate of 58%. As with the first survey, graduates were invited to assess, among other training experiences, their training analysis, classroom work, and supervision, and to tell of their post-graduation involvement in teaching, supervising, study groups and other professional endeavors. They were also asked to rate their satisfaction with themselves as psychoanalysts and with their analytic career. The questions added to the previous survey related to the graduates' theoretical orientation, the influence on their training experiences of the change in gender distribution, and of the diversity of professions now represented in the analytic training program. They were also encouraged to provide spontaneous narrative data. The data from our second survey showed important differences when compared with our first. In the first survey male respondents were in the majority; in the second, women held the majority. Of the professions represented in the training program, psychiatry was the majority in the first survey, psychology and social work held the majority in the second. Most respondents claimed an object-relation theoretical orientation. Analytic immersion continues to decrease, with most respondents having two patients at the time of graduation and one at the time of the survey. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Functional connectivity in tactile object discrimination: a principal component analysis of an event related fMRI-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Susanne; Missimer, John H; Stoeckel, Cornelia; Abela, Eugenio; Shah, Jon; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Weder, Bruno J

    2008-01-01

    Tactile object discrimination is an essential human skill that relies on functional connectivity between the neural substrates of motor, somatosensory and supramodal areas. From a theoretical point of view, such distributed networks elude categorical analysis because subtraction methods are univariate. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the neural networks involved in somatosensory object discrimination using a voxel-based principal component analysis (PCA) of event-related functional magnetic resonance images. Seven healthy, right-handed subjects aged between 22 and 44 years were required to discriminate with their dominant hand the length differences between otherwise identical parallelepipeds in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Of the 34 principal components retained for analysis according to the 'bootstrapped' Kaiser-Guttman criterion, t-tests applied to the subject-condition expression coefficients showed significant mean differences between the object presentation and inter-stimulus phases in PC 1, 3, 26 and 32. Specifically, PC 1 reflected object exploration or manipulation, PC 3 somatosensory and short-term memory processes. PC 26 evinced the perception that certain parallelepipeds could not be distinguished, while PC 32 emerged in those choices when they could be. Among the cerebral regions evident in the PCs are the left posterior parietal lobe and premotor cortex in PC 1, the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the right cuneus in PC 3, the medial frontal and orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally in PC 26, and the right intraparietal sulcus, anterior SPL and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in PC 32. The analysis provides evidence for the concerted action of large-scale cortico-subcortical networks mediating tactile object discrimination. Parallel to activity in nodes processing object-related impulses we found activity in key cerebral regions responsible for subjective assessment and validation.

  3. Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ben; Turner, William

    2013-07-31

    The sexual abuse of children and adolescents is a significant worldwide problem. It is associated with a wide variety of negative psychological, social and physical consequences for the victims. These effects can often be seen immediately following sexual abuse, but they may manifest later on and sometimes only in adult life. There are a number of different interventions aimed at helping children and adolescents who have been sexually abused, and psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy has a long-established tradition of being used for such victims. In this review, we set out to find the evidence for its effectiveness specifically in children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. We searched the following databases in May 2013: CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science and Humanities, LILACS and WorldCat. We also searched three trials registers, checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted known experts. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy with treatment as usual or no treatment/waiting list control for children and adolescents up to age of 18 who had experienced sexual abuse at any time prior to the intervention. The review authors (BP and WT) independently screened search results to identify studies that met eligibility criteria. No studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria for this review. There are no randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compare psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapy with treatment as usual, no treatment or waiting list control for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. As a result, we cannot draw any conclusions as to the effectiveness of psychoanalytic

  4. The relation between crawling and 9-month-old infants' visual prediction abilities in spatial object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Claudia; Jovanovic, Bianca; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2017-06-01

    We examined whether 9-month-old infants' visual prediction abilities in the context of spatial object processing are related to their crawling ability. A total of 33 9-month-olds were tested; half of them crawled for 7.6weeks on average. A new visual prediction paradigm was developed during which a three-dimensional three-object array was presented in a live setting. During familiarization, the object array rotated back and forth along the vertical axis. While the array was moving, two target objects of it were briefly occluded from view and uncovered again as the array changed its direction of motion. During the test phase, the entire array was rotated around 90° and then rotated back and forth along the horizontal axis. The targets remained at the same position or were moved to a modified placement. We recorded infants' eye movements directed at the dynamically covered and uncovered target locations and analyzed infants' prediction rates. All infants showed higher prediction rates at test and when the targets' placement was modified. Most importantly, the results demonstrated that crawlers had higher prediction rates during test trials as compared with non-crawlers. Our study supports the assumption that crawling experience might enhance 9-month-old infants' ability to correctly predict complex object movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How we categorize objects is related to how we remember them: The shape bias as a memory bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A.

    2016-01-01

    The “shape bias” describes the phenomenon that, after a certain point in development, children and adults generalize object categories based upon shape to a greater degree than other perceptual features. The focus of research on the shape bias has been to examine the types of information that learners attend to in one moment in time. The current work takes a different approach by examining whether learners' categorical biases are related to their retention of information across time. In three experiments, children's (N = 72) and adults' (N = 240) memory performance for features of objects was examined in relation to their categorical biases. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the number of shape matches chosen during the shape bias task significantly predicted shape memory. Moreover, children and adults with a shape bias were more likely to remember the shape of objects than they were the color and size of objects. Taken together, this work suggests the development of a shape bias may engender better memory for shape information. PMID:27454236

  6. How we categorize objects is related to how we remember them: The shape bias as a memory bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A

    2016-12-01

    The "shape bias" describes the phenomenon that, after a certain point in development, children and adults generalize object categories based on shape to a greater degree than other perceptual features. The focus of research on the shape bias has been to examine the types of information that learners attend to in one moment in time. The current work takes a different approach by examining whether learners' categorical biases are related to their retention of information across time. In three experiments, children's (N=72) and adults' (N=240) memory performance for features of objects was examined in relation to their categorical biases. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the number of shape matches chosen during the shape bias task significantly predicted shape memory. Moreover, children and adults with a shape bias were more likely to remember the shape of objects than the color and size of objects. Taken together, this work suggests that the development of a shape bias may engender better memory for shape information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental health characteristics of patients assigned to long-term ambulatory psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevalkink, D.J.; Berghout, Caspar C

    The present study investigated mental health characteristics of 170 patients assigned to long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PP) versus psychoanalysis (PA) across treatment and studies. Both univariate and multivariate statistics showed that the main difference between treatments was found in

  8. The constitution of intelligence: a psychoanalytical approach / A constituição da inteligência: uma abordagem psicanalítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Orgler Sordi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss human intelligence in the psychoanalytical perspective, particularly considering the contribution of Silvia Bleichmar who explores how human mind develops the intellectual activity from the embryonic states. It is recognized the contribution of genetic epistemology developed by Jean Piaget which allows to understand the capacity to build symbolic systems from sensory-motor schemes. There is also pointed some convergence between the genetic psychology and the psychoanalytic thought. What is stressed in this article, however, is that the contribution of psychoanalysis about the origins of intelligence has been less studied, although it is of most interest both theoretically and clinically. The theoretical inspiration of the paper relies on Freud's theory but it is more definitely grounded on the French school of Jean Laplanche. It tries to show that to reach the objectivity of logical structures, characterized by the categories of the Aristotelian logic – classification, space, time, causality, denial – the psychism does an active work of mind connection which starts in the first inscriptions of the other sexualized human and has to implant the originary repression, the only one able to organize the logic of the secondary thought. It stresses, at the end, that the contribution about a theory of the origins of psychism, concerning the development of intelligence is of great help in the studies about learning disabilities, as it differentiates learning difficulties due to secondary causes of the disorders which address to the lack of constitution of the ego.

  9. Is It All about the Higher Dose? Why Psychoanalytic Therapy Is an Effective Treatment for Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Johannes; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Huber, Dorothea; Klug, Günther; Alhabbo, Sarah; Bock, Astrid; Benecke, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence for the effectiveness of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) in patients with mood disorders is growing. However, it is unclear whether the effectiveness of LTPP is due to distinctive features of psychodynamic/psychoanalytic techniques or to a higher number of sessions. We tested these rival hypotheses in a quasi-experimental study comparing psychoanalytic therapy (i.e., high-dose LTPP) with psychodynamic therapy (i.e., low-dose LTPP) and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression. Analyses were based on a subsample of 77 subjects, with 27 receiving psychoanalytic therapy, 26 receiving psychodynamic therapy and 24 receiving CBT. Depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems and introject affiliation were assessed prior to treatment, after treatment and at the 1-, 2- and 3-year follow-ups. Psychoanalytic techniques were assessed from three audiotaped middle sessions per treatment using the Psychotherapy Process Q-Set. Subjects receiving psychoanalytic therapy reported having fewer interpersonal problems, treated themselves in a more affiliative way directly after treatment and tended to improve in depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems during follow-up as compared with patients receiving psychodynamic therapy and/or CBT. Multilevel mediation analyses suggested that post-treatment differences in interpersonal problems and introject affiliation were mediated by the higher number of sessions, and follow-up differences in depressive symptoms were mediated by the more pronounced application of psychoanalytic techniques. We also found some evidence for indirect treatment effects via psychoanalytic techniques on changes in introject affiliation during follow-up. These results provide support for the prediction that both a high dose and the application of psychoanalytic techniques facilitate therapeutic change in patients with major depression. Psychoanalytic therapy is an effective treatment for major depression, especially in the

  10. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-re...

  11. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie eBoschloo; Lydia eKrabbendam; Sanne eDekker; Nikki C Lee; Renate ede Groot; Renate ede Groot; Renate ede Groot; Jelle eJolles

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...

  12. Self-concept and quality of object relations as predictors of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Olavi; Knekt, Paul; Heinonen, Erkki; Virtala, Esa

    2014-01-01

    Quality of object relations and self-concept reflect clinically relevant aspects of personality functioning, but their prediction as suitability factors for psychotherapies of different lengths has not been compared. This study compared their prediction on psychiatric symptoms and work ability in short- and long-term psychotherapy. Altogether 326 patients, 20-46 years of age, with mood and/or anxiety disorder, were randomized to short-term (solution-focused or short-term psychodynamic) psychotherapy and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The Quality of Object Relations Scale (QORS) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) self-concept questionnaire were measured at baseline, and their prediction on outcome during the 3-year follow-up was assessed by the Symptom Check List Global Severity Index and the Anxiety Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and by the Work Ability Index, Social Adjustment Scale work subscale and the Perceived Psychological Functioning scale. Negative self-concept strongly and self-controlling characteristics modestly predicted better 3-year outcomes in long-term therapy, after faster early gains in short-term therapy. Patients with a more positive or self-emancipating self-concept, or more mature object relations, experienced more extensive benefits after long-term psychotherapy. The importance of length vs. long-term therapy technique on the differences found is not known. Patients with mild to moderate personality pathology, indicated by poor self-concept, seem to benefit more from long-term than short-term psychotherapy, in reducing risk of depression. Long-term therapy may also be indicated for patients with relatively good psychological functioning. More research is needed on the relative importance of these characteristics in comparison with other patient-related factors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Psychoanalytic Concept of Jouissance and the Kindling Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorgos Dimitriadis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define the conceptual field of jouissance in Lacanian theory, and put forth the hypothesis of a relationship between certain neurophysiological mechanisms and specific clinical phenomena where jouissance is “kindled” and outside the control of the symbolic process. First, the author briefly introduces Lacan's notion of jouissance and the way it draws on Freud's theorization, and describes the preliminary stages of this conceptual field in Lacan's work. Then, the jouissance related to two other concepts: repetition, with its Freudian and Lacanian nuances, as well as the—exclusively—Lacanian concept of the object petit a. Lacan's later conceptualization of language as jouissance (the notion of lalangue is then discussed in relation to Freud's early ideas (“Letter 52” on the different kinds of inscriptions that help form the mental apparatus. Finally, the author tries to formulate a hypothesis regarding specific neurophysiological mechanisms, based on clinical situations where jouissance becomes “kindled” and escapes the control of the symbolic processes through the neurophysiological mechanisms of conditioning, “kindling-sensitization” and “excitotoxicity.” In these cases, jouissance can have a destructive effect on the body and can affect, among others organs, the brain—a process the author has previously described heuristically as the “psychosomatic diseases of the brain.” This would be a special mechanism of automatism that would be triggered under the specific conditions of the fragility of the signifying chain (foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father or solidification of the signifying chain in combination with biological factors, including genetic factors. In this process, signifiers are reduced to signals, which in turn may be reduced to stimuli, with a tendency toward self-perpetuation, while affects are reduced to emotions and moods. Thus, conditioning and kindling-sensitization could also

  14. The Psychoanalytic Concept of Jouissance and the Kindling Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Yorgos

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to define the conceptual field of jouissance in Lacanian theory, and put forth the hypothesis of a relationship between certain neurophysiological mechanisms and specific clinical phenomena where jouissance is "kindled" and outside the control of the symbolic process. First, the author briefly introduces Lacan's notion of jouissance and the way it draws on Freud's theorization, and describes the preliminary stages of this conceptual field in Lacan's work. Then, the jouissance related to two other concepts: repetition, with its Freudian and Lacanian nuances, as well as the-exclusively-Lacanian concept of the object petit a . Lacan's later conceptualization of language as jouissance (the notion of lalangue ) is then discussed in relation to Freud's early ideas ("Letter 52") on the different kinds of inscriptions that help form the mental apparatus. Finally, the author tries to formulate a hypothesis regarding specific neurophysiological mechanisms, based on clinical situations where jouissance becomes "kindled" and escapes the control of the symbolic processes through the neurophysiological mechanisms of conditioning, "kindling-sensitization" and "excitotoxicity." In these cases, jouissance can have a destructive effect on the body and can affect, among others organs, the brain-a process the author has previously described heuristically as the "psychosomatic diseases of the brain." This would be a special mechanism of automatism that would be triggered under the specific conditions of the fragility of the signifying chain (foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father or solidification of the signifying chain) in combination with biological factors, including genetic factors. In this process, signifiers are reduced to signals, which in turn may be reduced to stimuli, with a tendency toward self-perpetuation, while affects are reduced to emotions and moods. Thus, conditioning and kindling-sensitization could also be understood in terms of a "semiotic

  15. The Psychoanalytic Concept of Jouissance and the Kindling Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Yorgos

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to define the conceptual field of jouissance in Lacanian theory, and put forth the hypothesis of a relationship between certain neurophysiological mechanisms and specific clinical phenomena where jouissance is “kindled” and outside the control of the symbolic process. First, the author briefly introduces Lacan's notion of jouissance and the way it draws on Freud's theorization, and describes the preliminary stages of this conceptual field in Lacan's work. Then, the jouissance related to two other concepts: repetition, with its Freudian and Lacanian nuances, as well as the—exclusively—Lacanian concept of the object petit a. Lacan's later conceptualization of language as jouissance (the notion of lalangue) is then discussed in relation to Freud's early ideas (“Letter 52”) on the different kinds of inscriptions that help form the mental apparatus. Finally, the author tries to formulate a hypothesis regarding specific neurophysiological mechanisms, based on clinical situations where jouissance becomes “kindled” and escapes the control of the symbolic processes through the neurophysiological mechanisms of conditioning, “kindling-sensitization” and “excitotoxicity.” In these cases, jouissance can have a destructive effect on the body and can affect, among others organs, the brain—a process the author has previously described heuristically as the “psychosomatic diseases of the brain.” This would be a special mechanism of automatism that would be triggered under the specific conditions of the fragility of the signifying chain (foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father or solidification of the signifying chain) in combination with biological factors, including genetic factors. In this process, signifiers are reduced to signals, which in turn may be reduced to stimuli, with a tendency toward self-perpetuation, while affects are reduced to emotions and moods. Thus, conditioning and kindling-sensitization could also be understood in

  16. The language of empathy: an analysis of its constitution, development, and role in psychoanalytic listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragno, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Viewed from an epistemological perspective, empathy in psychoanalytic practice is described as that aspect of a specialized attentional stance that opens channels of interaction facilitating the formation of a trusting bond and enabling one to gain access to the emotional qualities of another's experience. A literature overview traces the origins of the concept in Freud and its role in psychoanalytic listening (including its controversial, divisive evolution in our field). Empathy is then examined from a semiotic-developmental framework. Its constitutional origins, differentiated forms, and distinctive purpose in clinical discourse are discussed. A developmental line is proposed, and clear distinctions are drawn between empathy in everyday life and its specialized technical application in clinical work.

  17. PARRHESIA, PHAEDRA, AND THE POLIS: ANTICIPATING PSYCHOANALYTIC FREE ASSOCIATION AS DEMOCRATIC PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Jill

    2015-07-01

    This essay explores the mostly unexamined analogy of psychoanalytic free association to democratic free speech. The author turns back to a time when free speech was a matter of considerable discussion: the classical period of the Athenian constitution and its experiment with parrhesia. Ordinarily translated into English as "free speech," parrhesia is startlingly relevant to psychoanalysis. The Athenian stage-in particular, Hippolytus (Euripides, 5th century BCE)-illustrates this point. Euripides's tragic tale anticipates Freud's inquiries, exploring the fundamental link between free speech and female embodiment. The author suggests that psychoanalysis should claim its own conception of a polis as a mediated and ethical space between private and public spheres, between body and mind, and between speaking and listening communities. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  18. The case of rat man: A psychoanalytic understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thapaliya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses case of Mr. Ernst Lanzer known as the “Rat Man” in the history of psychoanalysis. He was diagnosed as a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder by Sigmund Freud known as obsessional neurosis that time. The patient presented to Freud with number of distressing obsessions of which the main one was fear of a corporal punishment to his loved ones using rats. The patient underwent psychoanalytic treatment for his symptoms for 6 months following which he was declared cured. Freud has discussed the case in a published case note. Over the subsequent years, the case received wider attention from the psychoanalytic community and continues to be interpreted and discussed from different perspectives after nearly one century of his clinical interaction with Freud.

  19. The violent true believer as a "lone wolf" - psychoanalytic perspectives on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Yakeley, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The existing research on lone wolf terrorists and case experience are reviewed and interpreted through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. A number of characteristics of the lone wolf are enumerated: a personal grievance and moral outrage; the framing of an ideology; failure to affiliate with an extremist group; dependence on a virtual community found on the Internet; the thwarting of occupational goals; radicalization fueled by changes in thinking and emotion - including cognitive rigidity, clandestine excitement, contempt, and disgust - regardless of the particular ideology; the failure of sexual pair bonding and the sexualization of violence; the nexus of psychopathology and ideology; greater creativity and innovation than terrorist groups; and predatory violence sanctioned by moral (superego) authority. A concluding psychoanalytic formulation is offered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Objective Gait and Balance Impairments Relate to Balance Confidence and Perceived Mobility in People With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtze, Carolin; Nutt, John G; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2016-11-01

    Body-worn, inertial sensors can provide many objective measures of balance and gait. However, the objective measures that best reflect patient perception of mobility disability and clinician assessment of Parkinson disease (PD) are unknown. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine which objective measures of balance and gait are most related to patient perception of mobility disability and disease severity in people with PD and (2) to examine the effect of levodopa therapy on these correlates. This was an experimental correlation study. One hundred four people with idiopathic PD performed 3 trials of the Instrumented Stand and Walk Test (ISAW) in the "on" and "off" medication states. The ISAW consists of quiet standing (30 seconds), gait initiation, straight walking (7 m), and turning (180°), yielding 34 objective measures of mobility from body-worn inertial sensors. Patient perception of mobility disability was assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale and the mobility subscale of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Disease severity was assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (motor UPDRS). Spearman correlations were used to relate objective measures of mobility to patient perception and disease severity. Turning speed, gait speed, and stride length were most highly correlated to severity of disease and patient perception of mobility disability. The objective measures of mobility in the off-medication state were more indicative of patient perception of mobility disability and balance confidence compared with on-medication state measures. Causation is an inherent problem of correlation studies. Physical therapists should evaluate mobility in people with PD in the off-medication state because the off-medication state is more related to disease severity and patient perception of mobility disability than the on-medication state mobility. Assessment and treatment of mobility in people with PD

  1. ON THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOANALYTIC FIELD THEORY, PART 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Martin A

    2017-07-01

    Defining Psychoanalysis: Achieving a Vernacular Expression, by Ian Miller. London: Karnac, 2016. 116 pp. The Pioneers of Psychoanalysis in South America: An Essential Guide, edited by Nydia Lisman-Pieczanski and Alberto Pieczanski. London/New York: Routledge, 2015. 537 pp. Reading Italian Psychoanalysis, edited by Franco Borgogno, Alberto Luchetti, and Luisa Marino Coe. London/New York: Routledge, 2016. 738 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  2. Age-related Changes in Lateral Entorhinal and CA3 Neuron Allocation Predict Poor Performance on Object Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Maurer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related memory deficits correlate with dysfunction in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, which includes both hyperactivity and overly rigid activity patterns. While changes in intrinsic membrane currents and interneuron alterations are involved in this process, it is not known whether alterations in afferent input to CA3 also contribute. Neurons in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC project directly to CA3 through the perforant path, but no data are available regarding the effects of advanced age on LEC activity and whether these activity patterns update in response to environmental change. Furthermore, it is not known the extent to which age-related deficits in sensory discrimination relate to the inability of aged CA3 neurons to update in response to new environments. Young and aged rats were pre-characterized on a LEGO© object discrimination task, comparable to behavioral tests in humans in which CA3 hyperactivity has been linked to impairments. The cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the immediate-early gene Arc was then used to identify the principal cell populations that were active during two distinct epochs of random foraging in different environments. This approach enabled the extent to which rats could discriminate two similar objects to be related to the ability of CA3 neurons to update across different environments. In both young and aged rats, there were animals that performed poorly on the LEGO object discrimination task. In the aged rats only, however, the poor performers had a higher percent of CA3 neurons that were active during random foraging in a novel environment, but this is not related to the ability of CA3 neurons to remap when the environment changed. Afferent neurons to CA3 in LEC, as identified with the retrograde tracer choleratoxin B (CTB, also showed a higher percentage of cells that were positive for Arc mRNA in aged poor performing rats

  3. THE USE OF THE ANALYST AND THE SENSE OF BEING REAL: THE CLINICAL MEANING OF WINNICOTT'S "THE USE OF AN OBJECT".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabozzi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    "The Use of an Object and Relating through Identifications" (1968) represents Donald Winnicott's theoretical and clinical legacy. The author develops this concept from a clinical point of view, through the analysis of a woman with psychotic functioning. He reflects upon the dramatic quality of risks inherent in the processes linked to the use of the object with seriously disturbed patients. He explores different meanings of the analyst's survival, linking it to the analyst's response. The processes of the use of the object--that is, the encounter between the patient's potential destructiveness and the analyst's capacity to respond through his own judicious subjectivity--let the patient experience the analyst's capacity to keep his own subjectivity, authenticity, and creativity alive. It is starting from the traces of this live object that patients gradually form their own personal sense of being real. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  4. AN ARTISTIC AND PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH OF LEONARDO DA VINCI’S PAINTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Andreea STOLERIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the present paper is the work 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne', made by Leonardo da Vinci. The paper is based both on an artistic and psychoanalytic approach which opens new ways of interpretation due to the research of Sigmund Freud - 'Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood'. Freud claims that Leonardo had found the lost image of his mother in his works 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne' and 'Mona Lisa', thus justifying the artist’s direct attachment to these creations. Along with specific interpretations of the creative process, the psychoanalytic approach intends to explain and enrich the content of ideas of the present paper regarding one of the most valuable creations of Leonardo and also an artistic testament created towards the end of his life. Freud’s psychoanalytic approach brings specific interpretative content for the mentioned work of art. It is different from the artistic method, not contradicting various artistic studies, but complementing them in a harmonious way.

  5. The "black hole" as the basic psychotic experience: some newer psychoanalytic and neuroscience perspectives on psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotstein, J S

    1990-01-01

    The psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic disorders has had a long and complicated history because of the historic preference of psychoanalysis for neurotics. Nevertheless, it has survived the prejudice of psychoanalysts and empirical psychiatrists and now enters an interdisciplinary phase in which psychotic psychopathology is understood as primarily an emotional disorder, but one that must also be considered from the point of view of neurobiology and neuropsychology as well as sociology. In this contribution, I offer the idea that perhaps the most important subtext in the psyche of the psychotic is what has been called the black hole. This massive deficit is ultimately attributable to a precocious abruption of the mother's physical and psychical presence from the infant, a phenomenon that has hereditary, congenital, perinatal, and continuing developmental reinterpretive elaborations. The psychoanalytic treatment of the psychotic consists of reversing the direction of his or her cataclysmic descent into the black hole and, at the same time, empathically loosening the control that the protective psychotic alterego has on the surviving self. Further, the psychoanalytic treatment of schizophrenia, in particular (as well as many of the other primitive mental disorders), now frequently involves both an interdisciplinary orientation and perspective and choices of interdisciplinary modalities extending across the whole biopsychosocial spectrum.

  6. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation.

  7. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level. Copyright © 2015 Seghier et al.

  8. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N; Goh, Joshua O; Park, Denise C

    2013-04-01

    In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded "living/nonliving" classification task with 3 repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidenced repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle, and inferior temporal cortex, and inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, and neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation and in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which might be a form of compensatory neural activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictive value of object relations for therapeutic alliance and outcome in psychotherapy for depression: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Henricus L; Hendriksen, Mariëlle; Schoevers, Robert A; Peen, Jaap; Abraham, Robert A; Dekker, Jack

    2008-09-01

    The concept of object relations has been shown to be relevant for the process and outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapies. However, little is known about its relevance for the psychotherapeutic treatment of depression. In this study, we explored the predictive value of object relational functioning (ORF) for the therapeutic alliance and outcome of short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in patients with mild to moderately severe depression. The ORF of 81 patients was rated by using the Developmental Profile. The overall maturity of ORF measured at baseline was higher in patients who showed a better treatment response. In multiple regression analysis, the adaptive level of individuation appeared to be specifically predictive of outcome. Patients with a recurrent depression showed less mature levels of ORF, lower adaptive levels and a higher score on the symbiotic level. No association was found between ORF and therapeutic alliance during treatment. In contrast to the single measure of alliance early in therapy, the growth of the alliance was related to outcome. The study indicated the relevance of ORF for depression and established that it is distinctive from the actual therapeutic alliance.

  10. A Freudian Dream: Interpretations of A Midsummer Night’s Dream by Psychoanalysts and Psychoanalytically Informed Literary Critics

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyses interpretations of A Midsummer Night’s Dream by Freudian and post-Freudian clinicians, and by literary critics influenced by psychoanalytic theory. The primary material is principally taken from the Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing database, and includes 37 papers or chapters by psychoanalysts and some by psychoanalytically informed literary critics, addressing aspects of the Dream. This considerable body of critical analysis of the play has largely been ignored by lit...

  11. Essentials of psychoanalytic process and change: How can we investigate the neural effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy in individualized neuro-imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz eBoeker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to remember, repeat and work through concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved it corresponds to neuronal transformation.Individualized neuro-imaging requires controlling and measuring of variables that must be defined. Two main methodological problems can be distinguished: The design problem addresses the issue of how to account for functionally related variables in an experimentally independent way. The translation problem raises the question of how to bridge the gaps between different levels of the concepts presupposed in individualized neuro-imaging (e.g. the personal level of the therapist and the client, the neural level of the brain.An overview of individualized paradigms, which have been used until now is given, including Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2 and the Maladaptive Interpersonal Patterns Q-Start (MIPQS. The development of a new paradigm that will be used in fMRI experiments, the Interpersonal Relationship Picture Set (IRPS, is described. Further perspectives and limitations of this new approach concerning the design and the translation problem are discussed.

  12. Essentials of psychoanalytic process and change: how can we investigate the neural effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy in individualized neuro-imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Heinz; Richter, André; Himmighoffen, Holger; Ernst, Jutta; Bohleber, Laura; Hofmann, Elena; Vetter, Johannes; Northoff, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to “remember, repeat, and work through” concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved it corresponds to neuronal transformation. Individualized neuro-imaging requires controlling and measuring of variables that must be defined. Two main methodological problems can be distinguished: the design problem addresses the issue of how to account for functionally related variables in an experimentally independent way. The translation problem raises the question of how to bridge the gaps between different levels of the concepts presupposed in individualized neuro-imaging (e.g., the personal level of the therapist and the client, the neural level of the brain). An overview of individualized paradigms, which have been used until now is given, including Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2) and the Maladaptive Interpersonal Patterns Q-Start (MIPQS). The development of a new paradigm that will be used in fMRI experiments, the “Interpersonal Relationship Picture Set” (IRPS), is described. Further perspectives and limitations of this new approach concerning the design and the translation problem are discussed. PMID:23935571

  13. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS

    CERN Document Server

    Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Peter Z; Gray, J; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Gray, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive is the first in a series of multi-Terabyte digital archives in Astronomy and other data-intensive sciences. To facilitate data mining in the SDSS archive, we adapted a commercial database engine and built specialized tools on top of it. Originally we chose an object-oriented database management system due to its data organization capabilities, platform independence, query performance and conceptual fit to the data. However, after using the object database for the first couple of years of the project, it soon began to fall short in terms of its query support and data mining performance. This was as much due to the inability of the database vendor to respond our demands for features and bug fixes as it was due to their failure to keep up with the rapid improvements in hardware performance, particularly faster RAID disk systems. In the end, we were forced to abandon the object database and migrate our data to a relational database. We describe below the technical issu...

  14. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  15. Event-related fast optical signal in a rapid object recognition task: improving detection by the independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei V; Kainerstorfer, Jana; Borisov, Sergey V; Barbour, Randall L; VanMeter, John

    2008-10-21

    Noninvasive recording of fast optical signals presumably reflecting neuronal activity is a challenging task because of a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. To improve detection of those signals in rapid object recognition tasks, we used the independent component analysis (ICA) to reduce "global interference" (heartbeat and contribution of superficial layers). We recorded optical signals from the left prefrontal cortex in 10 right-handed participants with a continuous-wave instrument (DYNOT, NIRx, Brooklyn, NY). Visual stimuli were pictures of urban, landscape and seashore scenes with various vehicles as targets (target-to-non-target ratio 1:6) presented at ISI=166 ms or 250 ms. Subjects mentally counted targets. Data were filtered at 2-30 Hz and artifactual components were identified visually (for heartbeat) and using the ICA weight matrix (for superficial layers). Optical signals were restored from the ICA components with artifactual components removed and then averaged over target and non-target epochs. After ICA processing, the event-related response was detected in 70%-100% of subjects. The refined signal showed a significant decrease from baseline within 200-300 ms after targets and a slight increase after non-targets. The temporal profile of the optical signal corresponded well to the profile of a "differential ERP response", the difference between targets and non-targets which peaks at 200 ms in similar object detection tasks. These results demonstrate that the detection of fast optical responses with continuous-wave instruments can be improved through the ICA method capable to remove noise, global interference and the activity of superficial layers. Fast optical signals may provide further information on brain processing during higher-order cognitive tasks such as rapid categorization of objects.

  16. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsin A Müller

    Full Text Available Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  17. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  18. Modern experimental prose through the prism of psychoanalytical theories

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    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance between the subjective and the objective perspectives in experimental prose must be accomplished in order to achieve the effect of intensive reflective and spiritual reality. Deleuze and Guattari take the method of William Burroughs and James Joyce as examples of the so- called 'butchered text method' which refers to the temporal-spatial perspective. Furthermore, they mention Nietzsche's interlocking of 'eternal return of the present as something that opinion does not know' and the theory of Stephen Mallarme, who combines well known, fragmented style with alchemical dream. According to him, the primary purpose of the modern text is to get closer to the reader so that any reader can interpret it in his own way. Trying to demystify scientific fantasy of objectivity, Lacan does not attribute impersonality and exteriority to art, but science and theory. According to him, a text without the influence of psychological factors, which make both life and characters more realistic, is not art. The connection between the external world and a man is expressed through a mirror, which Lacan tentatively calls 'imago'. Imago of the outside world or one's appearance is present in hallucinations or dreams, always reflecting the internal condition of the individual, its fragility (senility or its fair projection, thereby making this 'subjective-objective' relationship unbreakable.

  19. Clara Schumann: 'A woman's love and life': a psychoanalytic interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt-Freud, H C

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate how psychoanalysis can shed new light on a much studied life history. Clara's emotional life knew a sequence of losses and "prohibited" intimate relationships that created grave loyalty, identity, and identificatory conflicts for her. Since her early childhood, when her father forced her to give up her mother, she had been forced into a choice between the love objects most dear to her and the one on whom she depended for her emotional survival. This resulted in her later repetition compulsion to maneuver herself into the same conflict of loyalty and in her hesitation to decide when choosing one object meant losing the other. Clara had never known a normal separation, only loss and abandonment. She strove to combine the incompatible and succeeded in remaining loyal not only to her mother and father, but also to Robert Schumann, and eventually to Johannes Brahms. Clara Schumann's ideals were conflicted not only because she was educated by two men who were fighting each other, but also because her father, as well as Robert, had internally inconsistent and ambiguous ideas about women. Clara not only had to be obedient and creative, but self-sufficient at the same time. She was partially able to satisfy her own and her partner's needs and solve her deficiencies by projective identification, choosing taciturn men, more maternal than she.

  20. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

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    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  1. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

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    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%, and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75% and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%. As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1% had normal frequency 19 (43.2% presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7% thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8% experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  2. Objective and subjective financial burden and its associations with health-related quality of life among lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieling Elaine; Lou, Vivian Weiqun; Jian, Hong; Zhou, Zhen; Yan, Meiqiong; Zhu, Jingfen; Li, Guohong; He, Yaping

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of financial burden, using objective and subjective indicators, on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in lung cancer patients. A total of 227 patients diagnosed with lung cancer (from the inpatient unit of the department of internal medicine-chest oncology, in Shanghai Chest Hospital, China) participated in the study. Financial information was measured by direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, healthcare-cost-to-income ratio, and perceived financial difficulty. HRQOL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) scale. Catastrophic health spending, defined as a healthcare-cost-to-income ratio of more than 40%, was reported in 72.7% of the participants, whereas 37.0% reported that healthcare costs exceeded annual household income. Financial difficulty was perceived in 83.7% of the participants. Patients whose healthcare costs exceeded their annual household income and who perceived financial difficulty reported a clinically meaningful difference in overall HRQOL (> 6 points on the FACT-L) compared with participants without catastrophic health spending or perceived financial difficulty. Healthcare costs did not show a significant effect on HRQOL. Healthcare costs exceeding total annual household income and perceived financial difficulty are associated with poorer HRQOL in lung cancer patients. Subjective indicator of financial burden has a stronger effect on quality of life than objective indicators. Health-cost-to-income ratio and perceived financial difficulty can be implied as objective and subjective indicators of financial burden to identify the patients who may need additional assistance. Communication on deciding on cost-effective treatments can be facilitated.

  3. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

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    Brian Walitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog” is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ, a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks.

  4. Subjective facial skin type, based on the sebum related symptoms, can reflect the objective casual sebum level in acne patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C W; Choi, J W; Youn, S W

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between the subjective skin type and the casual sebum level was not fully clarified. To investigate the characteristics of subjective skin type and to find the relationship between the subjective skin types and the skin type-related symptoms, casual sebum level, along with the objective skin type. Seven hundred and nine patients, clinically diagnosed with acne, were included. The questionnaire and the casual sebum level measurement were performed. The determining symptoms of each subjective skin type were investigated. The 95% confidence interval of casual sebum level of each subjective skin type was calculated. The most frequent subjective skin type was the combination type. The dryness, tightness, and oiliness can be conclusive symptoms in determining the subjective skin type. The mean and the 95% confidence interval of the casual sebum level was highest in the oily skin type, followed by the combination, normal, and dry skin type. We found that the subjective skin type was determined by the skin type-related symptoms. The 95% confidence intervals of the casual sebum level of each subjective skin type were established. Based on the skin type-related symptoms, the casual sebum level of acne patients can be estimated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  6. Patterns of object relations and reality testing deficits in schizophrenia: clusters and their symptom and personality correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M D; Conway Greig, T; Bryson, G; Kaplan, E

    2001-12-01

    Bell Object Relations Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI) profile scores were used to cluster 222 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. An eight-cluster solution was subjected to replication analysis, and six clusters were found valid and replicable. These clusters were sorted into three pairs that were interpreted as follows: Residually Impaired consisted of Sealed-Over Recovery and Integrated Recovery; Socially Withdrawn consisted of Socially Withdrawn and Socially Withdrawn-Autistic; and Psychotically Egocentric consisted of Psychotically Egocentric and Psychotically Egocentric-Severe. Clusters were compared on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ratings and on subscales from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. MANOVAs indicated significant differences among clusters. These differences provided further interpretations of cluster membership. Implications for the use of BORRTI profiles for treatment and rehabilitation planning are discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. PAIRS AND GROUPS OF GENETICALLY RELATED LONG-PERIOD COMETS AND PROPOSED IDENTITY OF THE MYSTERIOUS LICK OBJECT OF 1921

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekanina, Zdenek [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kracht, Rainer, E-mail: Zdenek.Sekanina@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: R.Kracht@t-online.de [Ostlandring 53, D-25335 Elmshorn, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2016-05-20

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits, and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs considerably from member to member owing primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the enigmatic and as-yet-unidentified object discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7 happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it might be genetically related. Our search shows that the Lick object, which could not be a Kreutz sungrazer, was likely a companion to comet C/1847 C1 (Hind), whose perihelion distance was ∼9 R {sub ⊙} and true orbital period was approximately 8300 yr. The gap of 74.4 yr between their perihelion times is consistent with a separation velocity of ∼1 m s{sup −1} which sets the fragments apart following the parent's breakup in a general proximity of perihelion during the previous return to the Sun in the seventh millennium BCE.

  8. Climate-related Indicators and Data Provenance: Evaluating Coupled Boundary Objects for Science, Innovation, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, A.; Young, A.; Brody, C.; Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Lamoureux, A.; Rice, A.; Wolfinger, F.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary object theory focuses on the role of artifacts, such as indicator images, in translation and communication across the boundaries of social groups. We use this framework for understanding how data can communicate across contexts to answer the question: Can coupling climate-related indicators with data provenance support scientific innovation and science translation? To address this question we conducted a study to understand the features and capabilities necessary for indicators and data provenance for scientific uses, using the recently online-released U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Indicators and Global Change Information System (GCIS) as linked boundary objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional researchers in which we asked the researchers to explore and describe what they observed that was useful or frustrating for a subset of the USGCRP Indicators, related GCIS content, and other similar indicator and metadata websites. Participants found these sites' navigation and the labeling and description of their assets frustrating and confusing, but were able to clearly articulate the metadata and provenance information they needed to both understand and trust the indicators. In addition to identifying desired features that are likely to be specific to this audience (e.g., references or citations for indicators), scientists wanted clear, easier-to-access provenance information of the type usually recommended for documenting research data. Notably, they felt the information would be best presented in a fashion accessible to a broader audience, as those with more technical expertise should be able to infer additional contextual details given the provenance information that they had identified as key. Such results are useful for the improvement of indicator systems, such as the prototype released by USGCRP. We note in particular that the consistency of responses across the multi-disciplinary sample, which included scholars in

  9. Diagnóstico estrutural de personalidade em psicopatologia psicanalítica Structural diagnosis of personality in psychoanalytical psychopathology

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    Tânia Maria José Aiello Vaisberg

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o diagnóstico estrutural de personalidade como prática clínica fundamentada na Psicopatologia Psicanalítica Estrutural. As concepções de Bleger, Bergeret e Winnicott são articuladas visando oferecer subsídios teóricos para o estabelecimento de tal diagnóstico, cuja finalidade principal é orientar decisões clínicas quanto à escolha de técnicas e estratégias psicanalíticas adequadas ao tipo de psicopatologia envolvido em cada caso particular. Procedimentos Projetivos, utilizados transicionalmente nas entrevistas clínicas, são especialmente mencionados, uma vez que possibilitam o acesso, num contexto lúdico e criativo, aos determinantes lógico-emocionais subjacentes às condutas humanas.This article presents the structural diagnosis of personality, as a clinical practice based on Psychoanalytic Structural Psychopathology and established from Bleger, Bergeret and Winnicott’s theoretical conceptions. The aim of this diagnosis consists on guiding the psychoanalyst through clinical decisions about peculiar techniques and strategies, depending on the kind of psychopathology of each particular case. Projective Procedures, transitionally used on clinical interviews, are specially mentioned, once they provide the access, in a ludic and creative basis, to the latent logical-emotional determinants related to human manifestations.

  10. Oedipus the King: quest for self-knowledge--denial of reality. Sophocles' vision of man and psychoanalytic concept formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Anders

    2013-04-01

    In the Oedipus myth we find a dramatic representation of the child's passionate ties to its parents. In the play Oedipus the King, Sophocles relates the theme of the myth to the question of self-knowledge. This was the predominant reading in German 19th century thinking, and even as a student Freud was fascinated by Oedipus' character - not primarily as the protagonist of an oedipal drama, but as the solver of divine riddles and as an individual striving for self-knowledge. Inspired by Vellacott, Steiner has proposed an alternative reading of Oedipus the King as a play about a cover-up of the truth. The text supports both these arguments. The pivotal theme of the tragedy is Oedipus' conflict between his desire to know himself and his opposing wish to cover up the truth that will bring disaster. It is this complex character of Oedipus and the intensity of his conflict-ridden struggle for self-knowledge that has made the tragedy to a rich source of inspiration for psychoanalytic concept formation and understanding both of emotional and cognitive development up to our own time. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. AN ARTISTIC AND PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH OF LEONARDO DA VINCI’S PAINTINGS

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    Irina-Andreea STOLERIU

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of the present paper is the work 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne', made by Leonardo da Vinci. The paper is based both on an artistic and psychoanalytic approach which opens new ways of interpretation due to the research of Sigmund Freud - 'Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood'. Freud claims that Leonardo had found the lost image of his mother in his works 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne' and 'Mona Lisa', thus justifying the artist’s direct attachment ...

  12. Winnicott's 1968 visit to the New York Psychoanalytic Society and Institute: a contextual view.

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    Baudry, Francis

    2009-10-01

    As a prelude to describing the form and content of Winnicott's 1968(a) presentation to the New York Psychoanalytic Society and Institute, the author first outlines some crucial contextual background of that group and of the three psychoanalysts who discussed Winnicott's paper at that event. Summaries are presented of the paper itself and the discussants' responses. The author elaborates on Winnicott's highly idiosyncratic way of presenting his ideas, which may lead the unwary reader astray. In conclusion, some of Winnicott's most original contributions, both to theory and on their application to technique, are reviewed.

  13. POST-BIONIAN DEVELOPMENTS IN PSYCHOANALYTIC FIELD THEORY: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANTONINO FERRO AND GIUSEPPE CIVITARESE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, S Montana

    2017-04-01

    The Bi-Personal Field: Experiences in Child Psychoanalysis. By Antonino Ferro. New York: Routledge, 1992 (1999). 232 pp. The Intimate Room: Theory and Technique of the Analytic Field. By Giuseppe Civitarese. New York: Routledge, 2008 (2010). 240 pp. The Necessary Dream: New Theories and Techniques of Interpretation in Psychoanalysis. By Giuseppe Civitarese; translated by Ian Harvey. London: Karnac, 2013 (2014). 246 pp. The Analytic Field and Its Transformations. By Antonino Ferro and Giuseppe Civitarese. London: Karnac, 2015. 224 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  14. W. R. D. FAIRBAIRN AND THE PROBLEM OF HOMOSEXUALITY: A STUDY IN PSYCHOANALYTIC PREJUDICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Hilary J

    2016-10-01

    W. R. D. Fairbairn believed that the psychoanalyst's motivations and theories must ultimately be rooted in a need to resolve personal conflicts. His self-analytic and other records, now publicly available, indicate how his struggles with unacceptable sexual feelings and their symptomatic manifestations affected not only his theorizing, especially about sexuality, but also his clinical practice, as well as his personal and family life. Fairbairn's case affords a unique opportunity to document the effects of homophobia in a major psychoanalyst. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  15. Resumptive pronouns in wh-interrogatives and object relative clauses in L2 English: UG access or transfer?

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    Adela Simoiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether resumptive pronouns are attested in the English L2 of Romanian learners and whether their presence can be accounted for in terms of direct access to UG or in terms if transfer hypotheses. The results are also analysed in relation to the Interpretability Hypothesis (Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou 2007. Overall, the data provide evidence for transfer of resumptive pronoun use from L1 Romanian to L2 English in the case of object wh-interrogatives and relatives. Resumptives are accepted in the L2 in [d-linked] contexts that mirror the Romanian structures. However, resumptives are also accepted in [non-d-linked] contexts as well, in accordance with the target language. One possible account may be that there is an available position associated with resumptives in the verbal field which can be filled by resumptive material and this position remains available in the L2 as well. Learners have access to L1 and L2 parametric options at the same time, so they accept and produce both L1 and L2 structures. The Romanian data provide support in favour of the Interpretability Hypothesis i.e. there are animacy effects in the Romanian data. The subjects accepted more [-animate] than [+animate] resumptives.

  16. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

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    Annemarie eBoschloo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

  17. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness - "I feel sleepy during the first hours at school" - appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand - as a measure of (un)interrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up - predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents' sleep behavior.

  18. A PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH TO AFANASY FET’S WORK, “A DREAM” - AFANASİY FET’İN “RÜYA” ADLI ESERİNE PSİKANALİTİK YAKLAŞIM

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    Leyla KERİM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea that literature and psychology which are based on human and the issues related to human in all their historical process should be scientifically explored from each other’s perspective was first suggested by Sigmund Freud. Freud used the literary works as materials to examine their writers and protagonists better; consequently, his approach is known as the psychoanalytic criticism since he examined writers’ and protagonists’ earlier lives, dreams and psychologies through these literary works. In this respect, Afanasy Fet’s work ,“A Dream” could be considered as a very interesting study theme. Fet, who is not as well-known as L. N. Tolstoy and F. M. Dostoyevsky in Turkey, is one of the poets that belong to the literary approach known as the “Clean Art” in 19.th century Russian literature. The poem named “A Dream” has a special place among A. Fet’s works because of its subject matter and its being one of the “clean art” works. The work is about Lieutenant Losev’s vision he dreamt. The reason for us to choose this work which provided a basis for our study is that dreams have big importance regarding psychology, and they are directly connected to sub conscience. Due to the psychoanalytic approach, the works examined can be understood better, and the hidden factors can emerge. We recognize two different sub consciences in this work that is analyzed with psychoanalytic approach: first, a protagonist who is narrating his dream and feelings (Lieutenant Losev and then Afanasy Fet whose feelings and psychology are reflected on the work. As a result of our analysis, we could say that Afanasy Fet reflected on Lieutenant Losev with regard to the deductions we get through the methods of psychoanalytic criticism. Since the methods of psychoanalytic criticism have not been given enough place in the studies on Russian Literature in Turkey, we believe that our study will be useful in this field.

  19. Associations Between Parental SES and Children's Health-Related Quality of Life: The Role of Objective and Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kay W; Wallander, Jan L; Peskin, Melissa; Cuccaro, Paula; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    We examined (1) the relationship that parental objective social status (OSS) and subjective social status (SSS) have with children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL), (2) whether SSS mediates the association between OSS and HRQOL, and (3) whether these associations differ among Black, Latino, and White children. Data came from 4,824 Black, Latino, and White 5th graders in the Healthy PassagesTM study. OSS was measured as parent educational attainment and net equivalent household income. SSS was measured by parent rating of community and national standing on the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status. Child HRQOL was measured with child report on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) physical and psychosocial scales. Structural equation modeling path analysis was conducted using Mplus version 7.4. The data supported the hypothesized measurement and structural models. Whereas parental OSS was positively related to psychosocial HRQOL for all three racial/ethnic groups and to physical HRQOL for Latino children, parental SSS was not related to either for any of the racial/ethnic groups. Therefore, mediation by SSS was not supported for any group. OSS was confirmed to have stronger association with children's HRQOL than parental SSS. This is in contrast to some research on adults, raising the questions of how best to assess SSS relevant to children and at what point in development SSS may influence children's health and well-being. The persistent relationship found between parental OSS and child health suggests that efforts to improve low socioeconomic resources in families may contribute to improve children's health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. REBEL WITHOUT A CAUSE: A PSYCHOANALYTIC AND FAMILY-LIFE-CYCLE VIEW OF EMERGING ADULTHOOD IN THE FILM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Richard H

    2017-07-01

    The period during which grown children leave home and establish a new, self-supporting family is called emerging adulthood. This paper uses psychoanalytic concepts and family-life-cycle theory to analyze the film Rebel without a Cause () as a dramatic example of three families going through this phase. Freud's () rescue-motif of the child trying to save an endangered peer to repay his parents for having been nurtured is also characteristic of this period and is considered practice for parenting the next generation. Proximate conflict and support enable two of the film's families to continue the path to reproduce themselves. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  1. The evolution of psychoanalytic thought: a brief view through the lens of Western art and history: Freud and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavovy, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the diversity and progress in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy post-Sigmund Freud from the perspective of Western art. Since 1900 the shift from one-person psychology to the more contemporary two-person psychology is reflected in the creativity of artists, particularly in their depiction of the mother-infant relationship. An alternative perspective in understanding the evolution of Man's nature can be drawn from a discourse between art, history and psychoanalytic thought. Using art as evidence that reflects concurrent changes in psychoanalytic thought is a stimulating way to engage trainee psychiatrists and psychiatrists in their exploration of human nature.

  2. Eroticizing Marx, Revolutionizing Freud: Marcuse’s Psychoanalytic Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffry V. Ocay

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion arrived at in the article titled “Heidegger, Hegel, Marx: Marcuse and the Theory of Historicity,” which appeared in a previous issue of this journal, accounts for Herbert Marcuse’s view of the possibility of the individual to become disposed to radical action. Marcuse thus wants to suggest that there is still hope for the Enlightenment’s project of “emancipation,” and that there is still a revolutionary subject who can carry out this political struggle for liberation. The progression of consciousness which results in a historically conscious individual exemplified by the “consciousslave” in Hegel’s discussion of master-slave relation provided Marcuse the basis of his claim that the individual can be an active and dynamic political subject. Yet the slave who realizes via the notion of labor that it is himself and not the master who is truly free is, after all, still a slave. This means that individuals still need to fight for their freedom.

  3. Literature and its modality of love: a psychoanalytic approach

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    Ernesto Söhnle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychoanalysis has always needed art, in special literature, but also, visual and scenic art to reveal what theory cannot see, by representing structures and procedures of psychical and social functioning. In these terms, Lacan will read this primordial love, which is the love of his own reflection, under the sign of Narcissus myth, as well as the transferential love, themed by Freud, will be calledunder the sign of Symposium, being as an assumption of knowledge, that knows nothing beyond Alcibiades´ desire for Agathon, or as the master´s speech, for assigning the love philia in place of the seductive agalma. The psychoanalysis will also address the tragic love from Antigone´s lesson, the one who gave even what she did not have, in name of human dignity. Whereas the love-passion comes under the heading bovarysme, romantic expression of a loving desire that, in frustration, will end up on melancholy, as a prelude to death. The comic love, on Molière´s sentence, will be the love that degrades the Other, so that the individual does not require the death of love. The love for thinking comes in terms of the one who loves the love itself, whose model will be the Provencal courtly love. At last, on Lacan, Beatrice´s love will illuminate Dante´s sublimation path towards the empty meaning of eternal love. For that, Lacan will remind us, in his homage to Marguerite Duras, that the artist will always precede the psychoanalyst on unknown paths, both in relation to knowledge and love…

  4. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.

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    Denis eMellier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's 'protective shield' and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review:1 Freud's protective shield describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality.2 Anzieu's Skin-Ego is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. 3 Bick's psychic skin establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother’s containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant’s psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces.4 Stern's narrative envelope derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualise the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes.Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic and genetic and recommend further investigation.

  5. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's “protective shield” and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review: (1) Freud's “protective shield” describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality. (2) Anzieu's “Skin-Ego” is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. (3) Bick's “psychic skin” establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother's containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant's psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces. (4) Stern's “narrative envelope” derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualize the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes. Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic, and genetic) and recommend further investigation. PMID:25076924

  6. Role of Working Memory Storage and Attention Focus Switching in Children’s Comprehension of Spoken Object Relative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianisha C. Finney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated a two-mechanism memory model of the online auditory comprehension of object relative (OR sentences in 7–11-year-old typically developing children. Mechanisms of interest included working memory storage (WMS and attention focus switching. We predicted that both mechanisms would be important for comprehension. Forty-four children completed a listening span task indexing WMS, an auditory attention focus switching task, and an agent selection task indexing spoken sentence comprehension. Regression analyses indicated that WMS and attention focus switching accuracy each accounted for significant and unique variance in the children’s OR comprehension after accounting for age. Results were interpreted to suggest that WMS is important for OR comprehension by supporting children’s ability to retain both noun phrase 1 and noun phrase 2 prior to their reactivating noun phrase 1 from memory in order to integrate it into a developing structure. Attention focus switching was interpreted to be critical in supporting children’s noun phrase 1 reactivation, as they needed to switch their focus of attention momentarily away from ongoing language processing to memory retrieval.

  7. Aaron T. Beck's drawings and the psychoanalytic origin story of cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Rachael I

    2012-02-01

    In this essay the author challenges the standard origin story of cognitive therapy, namely, that its founder Aaron T. Beck broke with psychoanalysis to pursue a more pragmatic, parsimonious, and experimentalist cognitive model. It is true that Beck broke with psychoanalysis in large measure as a result of his experimental disconfirmation of key psychoanalytic ideas. His new school of cognitive therapy brought the experimental ethos into every corner of psychological life, extending outward into the largest multisite randomized controlled studies of psychotherapy ever attempted and inward into the deepest recesses of our private worlds. But newly discovered hand-sketched drawings from 1964 of the schema, a conceptual centerpiece of cognitive therapy, as well as unpublished personal correspondence show that Beck continued to think psychoanalytically even after he broke with psychoanalysis. The drawings urge us to consider an origin story much more complex than the one of inherited tradition. This new, multifaceted origin story of cognitive therapy reaches beyond sectarian disagreements and speaks to a broader understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of cognitive therapy.

  8. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... of the enlargement of the cult into individual behaviour....

  9. THE STUDY AND TREATMENT OF MOTHERS AND INFANTS, THEN AND NOW: MELANIE KLEIN'S "NOTES ON BABY" IN A CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOANALYTIC CONTEXT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Salomonsson, Björn

    2017-04-01

    This paper draws on Melanie Klein's (unpublished) observational notes of her infant grandson, written primarily in 1938 and 1939. Apart from moving glimpses into a young family's life, the notes contain astute observations of an infant's behavior and emotions. Compared with Klein's published writings, the style is less theoretical and polemical. Later, in his latency years, Klein's grandson was in analysis with Marion Milner, who in 1952 published a paper drawing on the treatment. The present paper focuses on (1) how observations and treatment of the same child and his family by clinicians in close relationships with each other (Klein, Milner, and Winnicott) fertilized reciprocal influence but also brought into question the validity of Klein's observations, and (2) the relative merits and contributions of various modalities in understanding the infant's psyche, including experimental research, direct observation, parent-infant psychotherapy, and reconstructions from older patients-as occurs, for example, in psychoanalysis. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  10. Does visual working memory represent the predicted locations of future target objects? An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2015-11-11

    During the maintenance of task-relevant objects in visual working memory, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) is elicited over the hemisphere opposite to the visual field where these objects are presented. The presence of this lateralised CDA component demonstrates the existence of position-dependent object representations in working memory. We employed a change detection task to investigate whether the represented object locations in visual working memory are shifted in preparation for the known location of upcoming comparison stimuli. On each trial, bilateral memory displays were followed after a delay period by bilateral test displays. Participants had to encode and maintain three visual objects on one side of the memory display, and to judge whether they were identical or different to three objects in the test display. Task-relevant memory and test stimuli were located in the same visual hemifield in the no-shift task, and on opposite sides in the horizontal shift task. CDA components of similar size were triggered contralateral to the memorized objects in both tasks. The absence of a polarity reversal of the CDA in the horizontal shift task demonstrated that there was no preparatory shift of memorized object location towards the side of the upcoming comparison stimuli. These results suggest that visual working memory represents the locations of visual objects during encoding, and that the matching of memorized and test objects at different locations is based on a comparison process that can bridge spatial translations between these objects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  12. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  13. Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Cognitive Styles in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Trajectories in Relation to Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazhenkova, Olesya; Becker, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report instrument, the Children's Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (C-OSIVQ), was designed to assess cognitive styles in younger populations (8-17 years old). The questionnaire was based on the previously developed adult version of the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ; Blazhenkova & Kozhevnikov,…

  14. Fast Mapping, Slow Learning: Disambiguation of Novel Word-Object Mappings in Relation to Vocabulary Learning at 18, 24, and 30 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Borovsky, Arielle; Fernald, Anne

    2013-01-01

    When hearing a novel name, children tend to select a novel object rather than a familiar one, a bias known as disambiguation. Using online processing measures with 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds, we investigate how the development of this bias relates to word learning. Children's proportion of looking time to a novel object after hearing a novel name…

  15. Validity of patient-reported swallowing and speech outcomes in relation to objectively measured oral function among patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, R.N.P.M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; de Bree, R.; Aaronson, N.K.; Leemans, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the construct validity of the patient-reported outcomes Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI) in relation to objectively measured oral function among patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer. The study

  16. Validity of Patient-Reported Swallowing and Speech Outcomes in Relation to Objectively Measured Oral Function Among Patients Treated for Oral or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, R. N P M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I. M.; de Bree, R.; Aaronson, N. K.; Leemans, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the construct validity of the patient-reported outcomes Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI) in relation to objectively measured oral function among patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer. The study

  17. Symptoms and personality problems before, during and after long-term psychoanalytic treatment: A multiple-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, C.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multiple cohort design, we compared symptoms and personality functioning (SCL-90, BDI-II, STAI, IIP-64, MMPI-2) of patients (N= 231) in different phases of long-term psychoanalytic treatment (before, during, end, follow-up). Our results confirmed findings from earlier meta-analyses that

  18. A beam of "chimeric" darkness: presence, interconnectedness, and transformation in the psychoanalytic treatment of a patient convicted of sex offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ofra

    2012-04-01

    The paper puts forward the dimension created by analytic presence and the ensuing patient-analyst interconnectedness in the process of psychoanalytic treatment and change, particularly with more disturbed patients. Working within this dimension, at a fundamental level of contact and impact, opens up new possibilities of extending the reach of psychoanalytic treatment. The analyst's "presencing" and interconnectedness with the patient forge a living therapeutic entity that is not a one-person or two-person psychology, but an emergent two-in-one new entity that goes beyond the confines of the separate subjectivities of patient and analyst and the simple summation of the two. The paper describes the kind of knowledge, experience, and powerful therapeutic potential that comes into being through analytic "presencing" and patient-analyst interconnectedness, and particularly focuses on the chimeric element, or quality, of this interconnectedness. The term "chimera/chimerism"-chosen here for its wealth of mythological, genetic, biological, biomedicinal (chimeric proteins), and psychoanalytical associations-is used in this paper to highlight the complex quality of patient-analyst interconnectedness, especially in difficult, psychotic, psychically foreclosed, dissociative and perverse states. The author offers an extensive clinical account of psychoanalytic treatment of a patient convicted of sex offenses in order to illustrate "presencing," interconnectedness, and the extent and intricate emotional meaning of the extreme chimerism that this kind of (difficult) treatment entailed.

  19. Is it all grist to the mill? Wandering between indications for psychoanalytic treatment and the analytic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the indications and contraindications for psychoanalytic treatment seems crucial to achieve therapeutic success and improve treatment effectiveness. In reviewing the classic literature on the topic, aspects such as age, diagnosis, motivation for treatment, present moment in life, ability to gain insight, psychic suffering when seeking treatment, defensive behaviors, and frustration tolerance are clearly analyzed by therapists/analysts when indicating psychoanalytic treatments. However, traditionally, most criteria underlying such indications date back to a time when the therapeutic relationship was viewed merely as a therapist treating a patient, with no regard to the therapeutic relationship itself. The goal of this article was to critically review the relevance and current adequacy of indications for psychoanalytic treatment, in view of advancements in knowledge on the analytic field. Considering cases that do not evolve as expected according to the indications, patients who are better suited to certain therapists, and therapist-patient pairs that modify their interaction over the course of treatment, the main question remains on how to identify the necessary elements in evaluating a candidate patient for psychoanalytic treatment, as well as the significant elements of therapeutic action.

  20. On the Relation between Face and Object Recognition in Developmental Prosopagnosia: No Dissociation but a Systematic Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source...... of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 individuals with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests of visual...... object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive...

  1. [W. D. Winnicott and the transitional object in infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Orto, S; Caruso, E

    2003-01-01

    Donald Winnicott (1896-1971), specialist in children's diseases, psychology and psychotherapy, tried to put together his experience in all these fields. His theories can be put between the orthodox psychoanalytic thought and a "relational" paediatrics. He made his research on the "global reality" of child rather than being interested in the "internal objects". Both the orthodox analysts, who condemned his theories, and the specialists in children's diseases, who didn't recognize the scientific aspect of his genius, criticised and opposed Winnicott. Even if sometimes his theories have not an organic unity, they are the result of very detailed clinical observations, which are supported by a large experience with children at the Paddington Green Children Hospital and the Queen's Hospital for Children in London. With "transition", Winnicott means an intermediate development area between the psychic and external reality. There, we can find the "transitional object", which is the first element leading the child to face the external reality through the creation of symbols. Winnicott goes over the idea of the binomial mother-child, intended as instinctive development, and underlining the importance of real experiences. In his opinion, in the child development one has to stress the concept of "need" instead of that of "desire". A good environment and the empathic contact with "a fairly good mother", cause the passage from the primary narcissism to the object relationships. A fairly good mother must be able to perform holding, handling, and object presenting. Her duty is that of gradually undeceiving, and to do it she must give a sufficient opportunity of illusion. The mother, offering the right opportunity of illusion, puts the basis of symbols. Subsequently, she will go on a gradual disillusion. Winnicott disagrees Klein's ideas by stating that "playing is therapeutic in its own aspect", seeing it as a potential space between mother and child, which will become the place

  2. Eroticism in group psychotherapy: psychoanalytic reflections on desire, agony, and ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylim, Isaac

    2003-10-01

    To fully understand the complexities of eroticism in groups, it may be necessary to review a conceptual differentiation of desire and its allies: agony and ecstasy. This article suggests that psychoanalytic group psychotherapy is made for neither agony nor ecstasy. Sexual excitement maybe; eroticism and desire, yes; agony and ecstasy, no. While agony or ecstasy imply a threat to the survival of the group, eroticism and desire reaffirm its existence. In this manner the group may be converted into a theater where desire may be celebrated, while the threat of being dissolved in the depths or exaltation of agony and ecstasy is elaborated and worked through: "Desire is desire only if it succeeds in postponing something".

  3. Who Am I? The Self/Subject According to Psychoanalytic Theory

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    Alex Watson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that the importation into psychoanalytic theory of the terms “self” and “subject” is neither true to Freud’s intentions, nor necessary, nor helpful. Having observed how Freud undermined these concepts in both his Topographical Model and Structural Model, the article turns to the position of Ogden. Two of his contributions masterfully deconstruct the concept of “the subject” through a selection of positions advocated by Freud, Klein, and Winnicott. But he then revitalizes the concept in his own way, claiming it to be “central” and “irreducible.” This article argues for a more radical stance than Ogden’s; whereas Ogden is reductionist with regard to the subject, this article argues for eliminativism.

  4. [The bell tolls for Ernest Hemingway. Somatic, psychiatric and psychoanalytical aspects of his life and work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, J G

    1999-06-30

    This year, the centennial of Ernest Miller Hemingway's (1899-1961) birth is being celebrated. He committed suicide on July 2 1961, thus ending a crowded and turbulent life. He published seven novels and a number of short stories during his lifetime; four novels were published after his death. Millions of copies of his works have been sold and he is still one of the world most read authors. His simple, matter-of-fact and compressed style has had great influence on other authors. There has been enormous interest in the life and works of Hemingway. This paper addresses this interest and various aspects of Hemingway's life and tries to offer some explanations by looking at Hemingway's medical history, using some psychoanalytical approaches to his life and work.

  5. Agents of Law: Psychoanalytic Perspective on Parenthood Practices as Socially Accepted Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of parental authority from the vantage point of parental subjecthood, using a roughly Lacanian formulation of what it means to take a (parental) subject position. For Freud, the parental role involves the acceptance of social rules that may, at times, involve a socially acceptable degree of violence. Nevertheless, psychoanalytic discussions have disregarded the parents' subjective experience as agents of the Law and purveyors of threatening authority. The authors elaborate on Freud's and Lacan's ideas and delineate several prime types of parental identifications as agents of Law. The Lacanian theoretical constructs expanded in this discussion include two basic parental positions of authority, termed the Symbolic Father and the Imaginary Father, and one derivative position, called the Perverse Father, which are demonstrated through the story of Dr. Moritz Schreber. The paper discusses how these theoretical constructs bear upon the philosophical conceptualizations of law, violence, and legitimacy.

  6. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF MELITTA SCHMIDEBERG KLEIN. MORE THAN MELANIE KLEIN'S REBEL DAUGHTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassullo, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Compared to the impact of the work of Melanie Klein on the history of psychoanalysis, the contributions of her daughter, Melitta Schmideberg, passed almost unnoticed. At present, Schmideberg is solely remembered for having harshly attacked her mother at the start of the Controversial Discussions of the British Psycho-Analytical Society and for having coined the fitting expression "stable instability" in order to describe borderline and asocial personality disorders. However, the author discusses how the early groundbreaking discoveries of Klein with regards to primitive anxieties were the result of the joint work and thinking of Melanie and Melitta. Moreover, he argues that the conflict between the two, along with the subsequent polarization of their views, did not facilitate the development of psychoanalysis, neither did it help the analytic community to recognize the value of Melitta's contributions to psychoanalysis.

  7. The object of desire in lyric poetry: some considerations on sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giusti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sublimation is an idea often used to give a psychoanalytic interpretation of artistic creativity. Focusing on the lyric speaker within the poem and considering the text as a mise-en-scène of poetic creation, the paper intends to investigate why sublimation could not be the right key to understanding the phenomenon. The subject’s dynamics, in modern poetry, show themselves as a continuous failure in the repeated attempt to possess the object. The speaker’s affective and cognitive desire is produced and constantly renewed by the impossibility of possessing the object (above all in its representation. But it is only in such a gap that the subject can exists. In order to feel desire, there should be an illusion of possession and representation. Subject and object create each other in lyric poem, and the former comes to coincide with the desire for the latter, it does not exist outside that desire.  Since lyric poetry shows itself as the unfolding of a subject that voices itself and is always involved in an object relation, it can be a privileged field of investigation for this kind of phenomena. Two poets will be taken into consideration: Thibaut de Champagne, a late trouvère who summons up the Provençal tradition, and Charles Baudelaire, one of the modern poets that have most deeply investigated the reality lack of sense.

  8. Towards a psychoanalytic understanding of Fascism and anti-Semitism: perceptions from the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David James

    2004-01-01

    After selecting five representative European psychoanalytic thinkers, all of whom emigrated to the United States, this essay surveys their earliest perceptions and interpretations of the historical and psychological roots of Fascism, with particular emphasis on anti-Semitism. My samples almost all derive from the period before, during, and immediately after World War II. In examining the writings of Otto Fenichel, Ernst Simmel, Erik Homburger Erikson, Rudolf Loewenstein and Bruno Bettelheim, it discusses the various environmental and psychological dimensions of their understandings of racial prejudice. The paper argues that each thinker attempted to integrate historical, sociological, cultural and clinical factors into their psychodynamic formulations about the individual and group mind of the Fascist anti-Semite. This generation of psychoanalysts explained Fascist anti-Semitism by exploring the mechanisms of projection, the process of massive splitting mechanisms of the group mind, fantasies of delinquent adolescent aggrandizement in Hitler, sado-masochistic and perverse oedipal dynamics, and a macabre identification with the torturers on the part of Jewish inmates in the concentration camps, that obliterated the individual's sense of autonomy and capacity to respond morally. The paper points out the pronounced ambivalence of this generation of Jewish analysts and intellectuals toward their own Jewish backgrounds and sense of themselves as Jews. It also argues that this generation muted its left-wing and socialist political tendencies once they arrived in America, taking a turn against politics. It suggests that some of the features of this Jewish ambivalence can be seen in the exploration of a so-called "Jewish psychology," itself a disguised form of racism, a derivative of projection, which may have had rather negative and authoritarian consequences for the psychoanalytic movement in America.

  9. Gender on the modern-postmodern and classical-relational divide: untangling history and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorow, Nancy J

    2005-01-01

    This essay considers the historical periodization and epistemology of psychoanalytic thinking about gender. Overlapping historically with feminism itself, psychoanalytic thinking about gender has two periods of efflorescence, the 1920s and 1930s, and the contemporary period beginning in the 1970s. Two divides have characterized our gender thinking, the modern-postmodern and the classical-relational. From the early theorizing of the 1920s and 1930s until around the early 1990s, most psychoanalytic thinking about gender should be considered modernist, as it draws on traditional views of scientific evidence and holds more universalistic and dichotomized conceptions of men and women. In the contemporary period, although postmodernism tends to be associated with relational psychoanalysts and modernist thinking with classical analysts, the divisions overlap. The author argues that considering any psychoanalytic theory as "premodern" is misleading: from its inception, psychoanalysis formed part of modernism.

  10. APPLICATION OF THE GENERALISED OBJECT MODEL FOR THE TECHNICAL CREATION RELATED TO THE PRODUCTION OF WOODEN BRIQUETTES AND PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai OLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the usage of the generalised object model for the analysis of the production processes of biofuels from wooden biomass. The “imposed decision” technique is employed to analyse several alternative solutions in order to find out the optimum one, to be further developed and put into practice.

  11. Application of the Generalised Object Model for the Technical Creation Related to the Production of Wooden Briquettes and Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai OLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the usage of the generalised object model for the analysis of the production processes of biofuels from wooden biomass. The “imposed decision” technique is employed to analyse several alternative solutions in order to find out the optimum one, to be further developed and put into practice.

  12. The Mediating Roles of Perceived Stress and Health Behaviors in the Relation between Objective, Subjective, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Perceived Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. Purpose We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Methods Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. Results In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of: (a) SES on health through stress; and (b) SES on health through stress and health compromising behaviors. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. PMID:24648016

  13. Essentials of psychoanalytic process and change: How can we investigate the neural effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy in individualized neuro-imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz eBoeker; André eRichter; Holger eHimmighoffen; Jutta eErnst; Laura eBohleber; Elena eHofmann; Johannes eVetter; Georg eNorthoff

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to ?remember, repeat, and work through? concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved ...

  14. Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relation...

  15. Objectives, Extent and Organization of Radiological and Environmental Protection in Relation to the Nature and Size of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Radiological and environmental protection programs for nuclear facilities have similar goals and objectives, which are basically to protect people and the environment from adverse effects. To be effective, the programs must have organizational independence and a strong commitment from management. In return, the programs should ensure that the facility is operating in full compliance with law and good practice. The scope and elements of radiological environmental protection programs will vary according to facility type and size, with the larger and more complex facilities having a diversity of staff and functions. Examples of good and poor organization charts are given and discussed from the standpoint of program effectiveness along with a discussion of the role of the radiation protection committee. (author)

  16. [The Psychoanalytic-interactional Method (PIM): A Psychodynamic Treatment for Adolescents with Severe Disorders of Personality Functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Carola

    2017-07-01

    The Psychoanalytic-interactional Method (PIM): A Psychodynamic Treatment for Adolescents with Severe Disorders of Personality Functioning The psychoanalytic-interactional method (PIM) was developed as a psychodynamic treatment for adult patients with severe disorders of personality functioning (Streeck u. Leichsenring, 2015). However, it is also well suited for the treatment of adolescent patients because its techniques fit with specific conditions of adolescence. A modified version of the PIM for adolescents (Streeck-Fischer, Cropp, Streeck, Salzer, 2016) has proven to be efficacious. The paper describes the basic principles of the PIM and names aspects that have to be taken into account in the treatment of adolescents with severe disorders of personality functioning. Finally, previous empirical results regarding the PIM treatment in adolescence are presented.

  17. Hierarchical Recursive Organization and the Free Energy Principle: From Biological Self-Organization to the Psychoanalytic Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick; van Deventer, Vasi

    2017-01-01

    The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis. Consequently, central psychoanalytic claims should be restated, in order to be located in their proper place within a hierarchical recursive organization of the (situated) organism. In light of the FEP the realization of the psychoanalytic mind by the brain should be seen in terms of the evolution of different levels of systematic organization where the concepts of psychoanalysis describe a level of hierarchical recursive organization superordinate to that of biological self-organization and the FEP. The implication of this formulation is that while “psychoanalytic” mental processes are fundamentally subject to the FEP, they nonetheless also add their own principles of process over and above that of the FEP. A model found in Grobbelaar (1989) offers a recursive bottom-up description of the self-organization of the psychoanalytic ego as dependent on the organization of language (and affect), which is itself founded upon the tendency toward autopoiesis (self-making) within the organism, which is in turn described as formally similar to the FEP. Meaningful consilience between Grobbelaar's model and the hierarchical recursive description available in Friston's (2010a) theory is described. The paper concludes that the valuable contribution of the FEP to psychoanalysis underscores the

  18. The concept of sign in the work of Vygotsky, Winnicott and Bakhtin: further integration of object relations theory and activity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiman, M

    1992-09-01

    In a recent paper Ryle introduced the idea of integrating object relations theory and activity theory, a conceptual tradition originated by Vygotsky and developed by a number of Soviet psychologists during the previous decades. A specific aspect of this integrative perspective will be examined, implied in Ryle's paper but not elaborated by him. It is the issue of sign mediation which was Vygotsky's primary contribution to the methodological problems of modern psychology. The aim is to show that object relations theory, especially the work of Winnicott, may bring fresh understanding into Vygotsky's early notions. It is further claimed that, by introducing the contribution of Mikhail Bakhtin and his circle to the notion of sign mediation, the profundity in Winnicott's understanding of the transitional object and of the potential space may be more fully appreciated. At the same time the ideas of Winnicott and Bakhtin will jointly clarify the limitations in Vygotsky's sign conception.

  19. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  20. Clinical Significance of Umami Taste and Umami-Related Gene Expression Analysis for the Objective Assessment of Umami Taste Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Noriaki; Satoh-Ku Riwada, Shizuko; Sasano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of umami taste sensation affects quality of life and causes weight loss and health problems, particularly in the elderly. We recently expanded the use of the filter paper disc method to include assessment of umami taste sensitivity, using monosodium glutamate as the test solution. This test showed high diagnostic performance for discriminating between normal taste function and disorders in sensation of the umami taste, according to established cut-off values. The test also revealed: (1) some elderly patients suffered from specific loss of umami taste sensation with preservation of the other four taste sensations (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter); (2) umami taste disorder caused a loss of appetite and decline in weight, resulting in poor health; (3) appetite, weight and overall health improved after appropriate treatment for umami taste disorder. Because of the subjective nature of the test, however, it may not be useful for patients who cannot express which taste sensation is induced by a tastant, such as those with dementia. Most recently, using tissue samples collected from the tongue by scraping the foliate papillae, we showed that evaluation of umami taste receptor gene expression may be clinically useful for the objective genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders.

  1. A psychoanalytically informed conversation with a woman and her husband following major surgery for cancer of her neck and torso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A

    2001-08-01

    This paper explores psychoanalytic ideas of containment as described by Wilfred Bion and applies them understanding the concerns of a woman with serious illness and her husband. A case vignette shows psychoanalytic thinking in context. The paper explores verbatim exchanges that took place in a room just off a hospital ward and offers a psychoanalytically informed analysis. This discussion suggests that the impact of physical illness is such that there is potential for the seriously ill to saturate health workers in anxiety and raw feelings. To protect themselves, nurses and other health workers could sometimes unconsciously overlook the emotional care of people in favour of routines, physical aspects of care and other demonstrable methods of treatment. Drawing on the work of Isabel Menzies Lyth, the discussion concludes by recommending that environments are needed in which a person with serious illness or family member can be helped to make sense of his or her experiences and so integrate them into a meaningful life continuum. Similar conditions are perhaps needed for nurses or other health workers. Appropriate methods of work discussions in clinical supervision might conceivably provide these important requirements.

  2. Children's Comprehension of Object Relative Sentences: It's Extant Language Knowledge That Matters, Not Domain-General Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Yazmin Ahmad; Montgomery, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether extant language (lexical) knowledge or domain-general working memory is the better predictor of comprehension of object relative sentences for children with typical development. We hypothesized that extant language knowledge, not domain-general working memory, is the better predictor. Method:…

  3. Relate it! Objective and subjective evaluation of mediator-based strategies for improving source memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Beatrice G; Touron, Dayna R

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined younger and older adults' ability to improve their source memory for different types of sources through imaginal and verbal (sentence) mediators. Younger (18-29 years) and older (60-75 years) adults' strategy use and source memory for either text-type (bold vs italic) or person (woman vs man) sources was assessed; strategy use was either spontaneous or the generation of imaginal mediators was instructed before encoding. Younger and older adults did not differ in spontaneous use of mediator-based strategies; however, older adults generated more images but fewer verbal mediators than younger adults. Participants were able to increase mediator generation when instructed to, resulting in substantial increases in both item and source memory for the instructed conditions in both age groups. Use of verbal mediators was more likely for the more concrete person sources for which source memory was generally better. Importantly, these objective benefits of mediator-based strategies translated into subjective benefits for both younger and older adults: Increased use of either mediator type was correlated with lower experienced task difficulty; the instructions to use imaginal mediators resulted in a significant decrease in difficulty ratings on the group level. Participants were generally able to monitor mediator benefits to both item and source memory and accurately judged mediator strategies (especially imagery) as more effective than repetition; older adults, however, rated all strategies as less effective than younger adults. Implications of these findings, especially for neuropsychological studies on source monitoring, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abandono de tratamento na psicoterapia psicanalítica: em busca de definição Treatment dropout in psychoanalytical psychotherapy: searching for definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar as definições de abandono de tratamento encontradas na literatura sobre psicoterapia, problematizar a dificuldade de definir abandono nas diversas abordagens psicoterapêuticas, refletir sobre os critérios utilizados nas diferentes definições e propor uma definição de abandono para a psicoterapia psicanalítica. MÉTODO: Realizou-se revisão de artigos sobre abandono de tratamento envolvendo diferentes modalidades psicoterapêuticas, encontrados nas seguintes bases de dados: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline e PsycINFO. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Definições de abandono de tratamento são apresentadas em três quadros, divididos pelo referencial teórico do processo psicoterapêutico. Os critérios utilizados nas definições são discutidos. CONCLUSÃO: A fim de construir uma definição padronizada de abandono para psicoterapia psicanalítica, propõe-se três categorias de definição para término de psicoterapia, com base na discussão crítica da literatura revisada.OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review the definitions of treatment dropout in psychotherapy literature, discuss the difficulty of defining dropout in various psychotherapeutic approaches, reflect on the criteria used in different definitions and propose a dropout definition for psychoanalytical psychotherapy. METHOD: A review of articles on treatment dropout involving different psychotherapeutic modalities was conducted in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline and PsycINFO. RESULTS AND DISCUSS: Definitions of treatment dropout are presented in three figures and divided by the theoretical framework of the psychotherapeutic process. Criteria used in definitions are discussed. CONCLUSION: In order to build a standardized definition of psychoanalytical psychotherapy dropout, three definition categories for termination of psychotherapy are proposed, based on the critical discussion of the reviewed literature.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of laser cutting for flash memory modules with special shapes using grey relational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hao; Tsai, Ming-Jong

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a novel effective method for optimizing laser cutting of specially shaped electronic printed circuit board (PCB) carrier substrates of advanced integrated circuit (IC) back-end packages that have multiple performance characteristics identified using grey relational analysis (GRA). Laser cutting parameters, including laser beam parameters (average laser power and Q-switch frequency), focusing parameters (laser beam focusing spot size), and machine parameters (laser cutting speed), were optimized based on multiple performance characteristics. Some characteristics of the specially shaped flash memory module for IC packages, such as smart disk (SD) cards are verified. The characteristics of interest are the average surface roughness on a PCB substrate cross-section, and the maximum width of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Eight experiments were conducted using GRA to optimize the settings for laser beam cutting parameters to generate various quality characteristics. Analysis of the grey relational grade indicates that parameter significance and the optimal parameter combination for the laser cutting process are identified. The analytical results from two confirmation experiments using the optimal parameters confirm that laser cutting technology can be effectively applied to cut substrates into special shapes.

  6. Between-monitor differences in step counts are related to body size: implications for objective physical activity measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Pomeroy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of the relationships between walking and health requires that walking is measured accurately. We correlated different measures of step accumulation to body size, overall physical activity level, and glucose regulation.Participants were 25 men and 25 women American Indians without diabetes (Age: 20-34 years in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. We assessed steps/day during 7 days of free living, simultaneously with three different monitors (Accusplit-AX120, MTI-ActiGraph, and Dynastream-AMP. We assessed total physical activity during free-living with doubly labeled water combined with resting metabolic rate measured by expired gas indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance was determined during an oral glucose tolerance test.Based on observed counts in the laboratory, the AMP was the most accurate device, followed by the MTI and the AX120, respectively. The estimated energy cost of 1000 steps per day was lower in the AX120 than the MTI or AMP. The correlation between AX120-assessed steps/day and waist circumference was significantly higher than the correlation between AMP steps and waist circumference. The difference in steps per day between the AX120 and both the AMP and the MTI were significantly related to waist circumference.Between-monitor differences in step counts influence the observed relationship between walking and obesity-related traits.

  7. Average extinction curves and relative abundances for quasi-stellar object absorption-line systems at 1 <=zabs < 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Donald G.; Khare, Pushpa; Vanden Berk, Daniel; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Lauroesch, James T.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Welty, Daniel E.; Alsayyad, Yusra; Kumar, Abhishek; Lundgren, Britt; Shanidze, Natela; Smith, Tristan; Vanlandingham, Johnny; Baugher, Britt; Hall, Patrick B.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Menard, Brice; Rao, Sandhya; Tumlinson, Jason; Turnshek, David; Yip, Ching-Wa; Brinkmann, Jon

    2006-04-01

    We have studied a sample of 809 MgII absorption systems with 1.0 <=zabs<= 1.86 in the spectra of Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), with the aim of understanding the nature and abundance of the dust and the chemical abundances in the intervening absorbers. Normalized, composite spectra were derived, for abundance measurements, for the full sample and several subsamples, chosen on the basis of the line strengths and other absorber and QSO properties. Average extinction curves were obtained for the subsamples by comparing their geometric mean spectra with those of matching samples of QSOs without absorbers in their spectra. There is clear evidence for the presence of dust in the intervening absorbers. The 2175-Å feature is not present in the extinction curves, for any of the subsamples. The extinction curves are similar to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) extinction curve with a rising ultraviolet (UV) extinction below 2200 Å. The absorber rest-frame colour excess, E(B-V), derived from the extinction curves, depends on the absorber properties and ranges from <0.001 to 0.085 for various subsamples. The column densities of MgII, AlII, SiII, CaII, TiII, CrII, MnII, FeII, CoII, NiII and ZnII do not show such a correspondingly large variation. The overall depletions in the high E(B-V) samples are consistent with those found for individual damped Lyman α systems, the depletion pattern being similar to halo clouds in the Galaxy. Assuming an SMC gas-to-dust ratio, we find a trend of increasing abundance with decreasing extinction; systems with NHI~ 1020cm-2 show solar abundance of Zn. The large velocity spread of strong MgII systems seems to be mimicked by weak lines of other elements. The ionization of the absorbers, in general appears to be low: the ratio of the column densities of AlIII to AlII is always less than 1/2. QSOs with absorbers are, in general, at least three times as likely to have highly reddened spectra as compared to QSOs without any

  8. The music of containment: Addressing the participants in mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Björn

    2011-11-01

    The author discusses the psychoanalyst's approach in mother-infant treatments. Emphasis is given to the infant as an important, though often neglected, addressee. A clinical example is used in which a telephone call during a prior session triggered fretting in a 3-month-old girl and distress in her mother. It is suggested that in the session, nonverbal levels of the interventions reached the girl and contained her, and that this containment worked along similar lines as the communicative musicality between mother and baby. In the discussion, the psychoanalytic concept of containment (Bion, 1962) is linked with the concept of communicative musicality (Trevarthen & Aitken, 2001). The mother's need for containment also is emphasized, and the therapist must be on alert when it is essential to focus on either participant in the therapy room. This choice is guided both by explicit deliberations and by the unconscious countertransference. However, the therapist's wish to grasp the countertransference is countered by his or her unwillingness of being reminded of feelings of infantile helplessness. Similarly, when the mother's conscious and unconscious messages diverge, the baby's ability to receive her caretaking is compromised. In the article's clinical case, this happened when the mother tried to soothe her daughter while being preoccupied with anger at the therapist to an extent to which she was not fully aware. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. On emergence: a neo-psychoanalytic essay on change and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clay C

    2011-01-01

    The neo-psychoanalytic paradigm re-establishes the connection between psychodynamics and evolution. This allows us to transcend the limitations of dualistic metapsychology, and to make seminal contributions to traditional science. The new paradigm employs the concept of emergence, the potential for change in the evolutionary and clinical process. Emergence is described as originating with the Big Bang, but also is reflected at much higher levels, for example, biochemistry, or the capacity of the evolved mind to produce insights in psychotherapy. The constraints of dualistic theories are examined. A neuron-based view of change illustrates the evolution of traditional science as well as the neuron, itself. The new mind paradigm recognizes individual, familial, communitarian, and global reciprocal influences mediated by culture and illustrated by the extended mind and the democratic spirit. Thus both traditional and psychodynamic sciences are undergoing revolutionary changes in their common efforts to better understand the mechanisms of knowledge, relationship and consciousness. The boundaries of the self and the consultation suite are also expanded in this view. Following a survey of invagination, the work is concluded by an application of emergence theory to the creationist controversy and Freud's views of religion.

  10. A study on therapeutic teams in psychoanalytical hospital treatment. Diversity and agreement within the team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, R

    2000-10-01

    The author evaluates the group function of therapeutic teams in psychoanalytical inpatient treatment, by examining the association between perception of factors which affect treatment in 4 groups comprising the therapeutic team: the patients, attending physicians, supervisors, and nurses. The survey was conducted prospectively following the course of hospitalization on 98 patients and staff groups using 8 rating scales. The following findings were obtained: 1) The only significant correlation between all 4 groups was in evaluations on treatment progress upon discharge and one item pertaining to collaboration. 2) Among the many factors examined, the patient having clear therapeutic goals and striving for their attainment, difficulty of treatment, and certain negative emotions were the only items for which significant correlation was seen between all 3 staff groups. 3) No evidence was found of splitting in the patient's view of different staff. These findings indicated that disagreement in perception within the therapeutic team may be a phenomenon peculiar to team therapy. As such, the need for open discussion on disparities in perception, difficulty in treatment, and negative emotions among staff, the sharing of clear treatment goals between patients and staff, and recognition of staff and team meetings as therapeutic means were emphasized.

  11. "Operation Pied Piper": a psychoanalytic narrative of authority in a time of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The evacuation of British children during World War II is read alongside the legend of the "Pied Piper" after which the mass migration was officially named. While virtually every British account of World War II makes mention of the evacuation, most are silent on the question of its ominous title: "Operation Pied Piper." This paper traces the legend's key theme - on influencing and being influenced - as it surfaces in the writing of one child analyst and one social worker charged with the responsibility of leading a family of five hostels for British youth. At a time when Hitler's deadly regime reached unprecedented heights across the Channel, the legend of the "Pied Piper" becomes a highly suggestive metaphor for thinking about D. W. Winnicott and Clare Britton's writing on what authority could mean in the face of leadership gone terribly wrong. Quite another, profoundly intimate loss of leadership haunts their words as well: Sigmund Freud, in exile from Hitler's Europe and leader of the psychoanalytic movement, died in London just weeks after the first wave of Blitz evacuations. It is in this context that Winnicott and Britton articulated a theory of authority that could address the losses of history without at the same time demanding the loss of the mind.

  12. Beginning and end of treatment of patients who dropped out of psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Simone Isabel; Serralta, Fernanda Barcellos; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet; Eizirik, Cláudio Laks

    2013-01-01

    Even though it is expected that patients and therapist will agree on when to terminate psychotherapy, quite often patients discontinue treatment on their own. This study aims to better understand dropout in psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PP). Baseline and post-treatment interviews were conducted with six adult women classified by their therapists as dropout patients at a PP outpatient clinic. Results were analyzed using Bardin's content analysis. Content analysis generated five categories (reasons for treatment, goals, readiness to change, previous treatment, transference) for the baseline interviews and three categories (change process, results, interruption) for post-treatment interviews. Unclear treatment goals, low readiness to change, early signs of negative transference and resistance, and absence of recognition of their own participation in problems emerged in baseline interviews. In most cases, the patient's evaluation of the therapeutic relationship was not determinant of dropout. Therapeutic gains, dissatisfaction, and resistance during the psychotherapeutic process seemed to be associated with noncompliance. Decisions to initiate, continue, or quit PP depend on multiple factors, such as initial goals, readiness to change, insight capacity, awareness of personal problems, resistance, and transference. However, these factors should be considered in view of the methodological limitations of this study. Further investigation of PP dropout is still necessary.

  13. Beginning and end of treatment of patients who dropped out of psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Isabel Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Even though it is expected that patients and therapist will agree on when to terminate psychotherapy, quite often patients discontinue treatment on their own. This study aims to better understand dropout in psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PP. Method: Baseline and post-treatment interviews were conducted with six adult women classified by their therapists as dropout patients at a PP outpatient clinic. Results were analyzed using Bardin's content analysis. Results: Content analysis generated five categories (reasons for treatment, goals, readiness to change, previous treatment, transference for the baseline interviews and three categories (change process, results, interruption for post-treatment interviews. Unclear treatment goals, low readiness to change, early signs of negative transference and resistance, and absence of recognition of their own participation in problems emerged in baseline interviews. In most cases, the patient's evaluation of the therapeutic relationship was not determinant of dropout. Therapeutic gains, dissatisfaction, and resistance during the psychotherapeutic process seemed to be associated with noncompliance. Conclusions: Decisions to initiate, continue, or quit PP depend on multiple factors, such as initial goals, readiness to change, insight capacity, awareness of personal problems, resistance, and transference. However, these factors should be considered in view of the methodological limitations of this study. Further investigation of PP dropout is still necessary.

  14. Investigating Trauma in Narrating World War I: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Pat Barker’s Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Sadjadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker’s Regeneration in terms of Cathy Caruth’s psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker’s novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the narrative of past history and, particularly, in the history of World War I. The present paper also demonstrates how Barker’s novel Regeneration acts as the narrative of trauma that vocalizes the silenced history of shell-shocked soldiers of World War I to represent British society, the history that has been concealed due to social and individual factors. The study thus investigates the dissociative disorders which are experienced by traumatized survivors of World War I as the aftermath of traumatic experiences of wartime. In addition, it argues how time moves for the traumatized victim and how the notion of latency in terms of Caruth’s theory is traceable in Barker’s novel. In Regeneration, the traumatized survivors are haunted with traumatic memory of past history; furthermore, past history constantly disrupts their present and the victims are in continuous shift from present time to past time. Time thus loses its linearity in the narrative of traumatized survivors. Keywords: Latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, trauma

  15. Child Sexual Abuse, Baby Gender, and Intergenerational Psychic Transmission: An Exploratory, Projective Psychoanalytic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tychey, Claude; Vandelet, Elena; Laurent, Mélanie; Lighezzolo-Alnot, Joelle; Prudent, Cécile; Evrard, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article is to present a French psychoanalytic model of how and to what extent the sequellae of sexual abuse by a male during a girl's childhood are transmitted to the next generation, as a function of the gender of the abused mother's children. The authors conducted a qualitative exploratory study based on the longitudinal follow-up of a woman who had two boys and a girl. They focused on the impact of two general sequellae: separation anxiety and negativity-disqualification of the paternal and/or male figures. From the methodological standpoint, they used a clinical interview to assess the mother, and a projective tool, a storytelling test, to assess the child's personality using content analysis. The results confirm both the merits of the theoretical framework and the relevance of the projective methodology for grasping sequellae transmitted to the child. The sequellae turned out to be markedly different for the two baby genders: rejection for the male, overprotection and ghostly encryption for the female. Avenues for using this tool and model in future quantitative, comparative studies are suggested.

  16. A obra poética de Pablo Neruda: um estudo psicanalítico The Pablo Neruda’s poetic work: a psychoanalytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Pereira de Siqueira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se uma leitura da obra poética de Pablo Neruda, conforme os pressupostos teóricos de Freud e Lacan. A preocupação inicial foi a de elaborar um esquema teórico que fornecesse subsídios ao estudo. Num segundo momento foi realizada uma leitura das principais obras que marcam os três períodos literários de Pablo Neruda, tentando-se interpretar psicanaliticamente a rede simbólica encontrada nessas obras. Com base nas análises realizadas, pôde-se observar que a poesia de Pablo Neruda parece possuir um papel de figura objetal, possibilitando ao autor religar-se às suas figuras parentais, nas quais projeta os seus desejos e frustrações.In this work a reading of Pablo Neruda’s poetic work was done, according to a Freud’s and Lacan’s theoretical presuppositions. The first concern was to elaborate a theoretical schema to supply subsidies to this study. After, a reading of the most important works of Pablo Neruda’s three literary periods was done, trying to interpret psychoanalytically the symbolic net of these works. Based on the these analysis, it was observed that Pablo Neruda’s poetry seems to have an object figure role, causing the author to link again to his parents figures on whom he projects his desires and frustrations.

  17. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = - 0.01; 95% CI: - 0.01 to - 0.004; P sedentary behavior (βadjusted = - 0.0003; 95% CI: - 0.001-0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = - 0.02; 95% CI: - 0.03 to - 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  18. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used (N = 5,536. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = −0.01; 95% CI: −0.01 to −0.004; P < 0.001, but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = −0.0003; 95% CI: −0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37, was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥487.5 min/day level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = −0.02; 95% CI: −0.03 to −0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769. The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  19. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  20. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  1. El dibujo y la simbolización en algunos casos de maltrato infantil. // Drawing and symbolization in some cases of child maltreatment. A psychoanalytical look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Uribe Aramburo.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes part of a research carried out within the framework of the Master in Psychoanalytical Research, which comes up from the analysis of clinical material obtained from psychotherapeutic work developed during more than three years with children coming to a psychology service of a non-profit institution located in one of Medellin's communes, mainly because of problems related to child maltreatment. In order to obtain such analysis material, we started from the psychoanalytical thesis of psychic determinism and the neutrality of the therapist. For that reason we invited some kids to draw and associate freely, expecting what they showed would be related to their maltreatment experiences. Consequently, the methodology used consisted not only in handing over to children but in leading them to use drawing. // Este artículo es parte de una investigación llevada a cabo en el marco de la Maestría en Investigación psicoanalítica, que surge del análisis del material clínico obtenido en el trabajo psicoterapéutico realizado por más de tres años con población infantil que acudía a un servicio de psicología de una institución sin ánimo de lucro ubicada en una de las comunas de la ciudad de Medellín, principalmente por problemáticas asociadas al maltrato infantil. Para obtener dicho material de análisis partimos de las tesis psicoanalíticas del determinismo psíquico y la neutralidad del terapeuta, razón por la cual invitamos a los niños a dibujar y asociar libremente con la expectativa que de que aquello que exteriorizaran tendría una relación con sus vivencias de maltrato. En consecuencia, la metodología utilizada no sólo consistió en darles la palabra a los niños, sino que también implicó inducirlos a usar el dibujo.

  2. An objective measure to identify pediatric liver transplant recipients at risk for late allograft rejection related to non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Veena L; Nick, Todd G; Wang, Yu; Bucuvalas, John C

    2008-02-01

    Non-adherence to a prescribed immunosuppressive regimen increases risk for late allograft rejection (LAR). We implemented a protocol for immunosuppression management which decreased variation in calcineurin inhibitor blood levels in pediatric liver transplant recipients by controlling for confounders such as physician practice variability. We hypothesized that patients with increased variation in tacrolimus blood levels despite implementation of the immunosuppression management protocol were at increased risk for LAR. We conducted a single center retrospective cohort study of 101 pediatric liver transplant recipients who were at least one year post liver transplantation and receiving tacrolimus for immunosuppression. The primary outcome variable was biopsy proven allograft rejection. Primary candidate predictor variables were the standard deviation (SD) of tacrolimus blood levels (a marker of drug level variability), mean tacrolimus blood level, age, and insurance type. SD of tacrolimus blood levels was determined for each patient from a minimum of four outpatient levels during the study period. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to determine the prognostic value of candidate predictors. The median and interquartile range of the SD of tacrolimus blood levels was 1.6 (1.1, 2.1). Eleven episodes of LAR occurred during the study period. Ten of the 11 episodes occurred in patients with tacrolimus blood level SD > 2. Insurance type, mean tacrolimus blood level and SD of tacrolimus blood levels were significantly related to LAR in the unadjusted analyses (ptype, mean and SD of tacrolimus blood levels was significantly associated with LAR (validated C-statistic = 0.88, p = 0.012). The adjusted odds of rejection for a one unit increase in the SD of tacrolimus blood level was 3.49 (95% CI 1.31 to 9.29). Effects of age and insurance status on LAR did not provide independent prognostic value after controlling for SD. Variation in tacrolimus blood

  3. Self-perceived, but not objective lymphoedema is associated with decreased long-term health-related quality of life after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackey, H; Johansson, H; Sandelin, K; Liljegren, Göran; MacLean, G; Frisell, J; Brandberg, Y

    2015-04-01

    The primary aim was to compare long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone versus axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), with or without axillary metastases. Secondary aims were to a) investigate agreement between objectively measured and self-reported lymphoedema and b) compare, with respect to HRQoL, women with objective arm lymphoedema without subjective ratings and those with no objective but subjective ratings of arm lymphoedema. The three study groups were defined by axillary surgery: 1) SLNB alone (N = 140), 2) ALND in patients without axillary metastases (N = 125) and 3) ALND in patients with axillary metastases (N = 155). Preoperatively, one and three years postoperatively arm volume was measured and questionnaires regarding self-perceived symptoms of arm lymphoedema and HRQoL were completed (The Swedish Short Form-36 Health Survey, SF-36). Out of the original 516 who had axillary surgery, 420 (81%) completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences in HRQoL between the three study groups. No statistically significant agreement was found between self-perceived and objectively measured arm lymphoedema. Women without self-perceived arm lymphoedema, regardless of objective arm lymphoedema or not, scored higher on all eight SF-36 domains than those who reported self-perceived arm lymphoedema. Women reporting self-perceived arm lymphoedema, regardless of objective lymphoedema or not, have a decreased long-term health-related quality of life. This indicates that more attention should be given to the subjective reports of symptom in order to better help these women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    mathematics program. Ir this study he measured mathenatics skills, mathematics application, ard student attitudes. Ne used the Stanford Achievement...34most vague" (5). Means and variances were computed for each Item on the questionnaire, Correlations were then ccinputed between and among the...between subjects’ ratings of objectives with direct objects and objectives containing "x" and "y." This is reflected in tests computed separately for

  5. Location, Location, Location: Alterations in the Functional Topography of Face- but not Object- or Place-Related Cortex in Adolescents with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Luna, Beatriz; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) and matched typically developing (TD) controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while u...

  6. Efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (BORM) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podaras, A.; Moravec, J.; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2012), s. 86-88 ISSN 1804-7890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Business process requirement Analysis * UCBTA Algorithm * UCBTA Transition Rules * Use Case Main Success Scenario Steps * BORM Diagrams Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (borm) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.pdf

  7. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  8. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  9. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN Adult Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Lars B; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Davey, Rachel; Troelsen, Jens; van Dyck, Delfien; Mitáš, Josef; Schofield, Grant; Sugiyama, Takemi; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo; Adams, Marc; Frank, Larry; Sallis, James F

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling. This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18-66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated. Associations of built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling variables were estimated using generalized additive mixed models, and were tested for curvilinearity and study site moderation. We found positive associations of walking for transport with all the environmental attributes, but also found that the relationships was only linear for land use mix, but not for residential density, intersection density, and the number of parks. Our findings suggest that there may be optimum values in these attributes, beyond which higher densities or number of parks could have minor or even negative impact. Cycling for transport was associated linearly with residential density, intersection density (only for any cycling), and land use mix, but not with the number of parks. Across 14 diverse cities and countries, living in more densely populated areas, having a well-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all built environment variables had curvilinear

  10. Serendipidade e situação psicanalítica de pesquisa no contexto da apresentação psicanalítica de pacientes Serendipity and psychoanalytical research situation in the context of psychoanalytical presentation of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Caon

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor distingue e confronta a escuta clínica psicanalítica e a escuta cotidiana social. Toma, como modelo, a noção de "azimute" e a expressão "em todos os azimutes" para ilustrar que, em psicanálise, a observação clínica do pesquisador psicanalítico se realiza a partir de uma escuta eqüiflutuante, em todos os azimutes, isto é, em todos os sentidos e em todas as direções. Recorre, também, à noção freudiana de "Nachträglichkeit", traduzida pelos psicanalistas franceses por "après-coup" e pelos psicanalistas lusófonos brasileiros por "só-depois" (Magno, 1983 e "no relance", (Caon, 1996. Em consonância com o método - psicanalítico de observação, o autor resgata inequivocamente uma noção do termo inglês "serendipity", serendipidade, apresentada insuficientemente em alguns manuais de metodologia da pesquisa psicológica. (Bachrach, 1974, p. 5-6 e 8-14; McGuigan, 1976, p. 56 O autor propõe a serendipidade como atitude e dispositivo fundamentais para a sltuação psicanalítica de pesquisa e reafirma a cientificidade do método psicanalítico.The author characterizes and opposes psychoanalytic clinical listening and everyday socia listening. He takes, as a model, the notion of "azimuth" and the expression "in every azimuth" in order to illustrate that, in the field of psychoanalysis, the clinical observation of the researcher is carried out through an evenly suspended listening, "in every azimuth", i. e., in every means and in every direction. The author also utilizes the Freudian notion of "Nachträglichkeit", translated by French psychoanalysts by "aprèscoup" and by Brazilian as "só-depois" (Magno, 1983 and "no relance" (Caon, 1996. In accordance to the psychoanalytic method of observation, the author rescues unequivocally a notion from the word "serendipity", presented timidly in several handbooks of methodology of psychological research. (Bachrach, 1974, p.5-6 e 8-14 and McGuigan, 1976, p. 56 The author proposes

  11. Impact of gingivitis treatment for diabetic patients on quality of life related to periodontal objective parameters: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelli, Sheila C; Costa, Fernando O; Gargioni-Filho, Antonio; Aquino, Davi R; Cota, Luis O M; Scherma, Alexandre P; Miranda, Taís B; Cortelli, Jose R

    2018-02-01

    Patients with diabetes have a poor oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). It is not clear if this situation could be changed with effective periodontal treatment. This study examined both patients with diabetes and systemically healthy individuals to discover the impact of a gingivitis treatment protocol on OHRQoL and its relation to objective periodontal parameters. After ultrasonic debridement, patients were randomly assigned to an essential-oils (EO) or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline and 3 months, OHRQoL was assessed with the Oral Health and Quality of Life-United Kingdom questionnaire (OHQoL-UK) along with clinical, halitometric, microbiological and inflammatory objective parameters. The primary outcome was a change in OHQoL-UK scores. A factor analysis was performed and the impact of the extracted quality of life factor (QLF) and its interactions with diabetes, treatment, and time on the objective parameters, were tested by multiple linear regression models (p oral health status on quality of life increased in EO groups but not in placebo groups. Question I (self-confidence) showed the greatest factorial weight, while Question A (food intake) showed the lowest factorial weight. All patients who showed OHRQoL improvements and used the EO rinse showed the lowest plaque and gingival indices and lower levels of bacteria and volatile sulfur compounds. OHRQoL positively changed overtime. Most effective treatment protocols would provide better improvements in OHRQoL which is related to periodontal objective measures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The War on Women in Psychoanalytic Theory Building: Past to Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2015-01-01

    Psychoanalysis has both waged "hot" war on women overtly and "cold" war covertly over the years by colluding with cultural stereotypes offered as "theory," starting with Freud and his Viennese circle. True freedom of thinking, however, broke through in Freud's originality even then, and from time to time subsequently in the history of the movement only to keep retreating. Fritz Wittels's thesis on the "Child Woman" will exemplify Horneys (1924, 1926, 1933) and Jones's (1927) grounds for engaging in the "hot war" in the 1920s and challenging the unselfconscious inbuilt denigration of women. This skirmish had little impact, however, in the New World up till the 1970s. In the aftermath of the second wave of feminism, there were (and are) bursts of new thought about sex and gender that remain fragmented and unintegrated into general acceptance. The contemporary situation has been more like a "cold" war waged by ennui in the field. A sexed and agendered theories of mind as a "no man's land" absorb an intense focus away from the sexual and gender specificities that were alive, contentious, and unresolved in Freud's libido theory. The third sociocultural wave of feminism, since the 1990s, has refocused vitality on individuality, race, and varieties of sexual identity. I identify the latter as the psychoanalytic space for a potential renewed interest in theorizing the female body within heterosexual, homosexual, queer, or transgendered individuals. The "wars" have shown how fruitless for peace and new discovery is the compulsive (but still common) close comparison between males and females developmentally. Female development is as fresh and unsettled a theoretical question as it once was with Freud.

  13. Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT: a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suckling John

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine

  14. Hierarchical Recursive Organization and the Free Energy Principle: From Biological Self-Organization to the Psychoanalytic Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Connolly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a Free Energy Principle (FEP for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis. Consequently, central psychoanalytic claims should be restated, in order to be located in their proper place within a hierarchical recursive organization of the (situated organism. In light of the FEP the realization of the psychoanalytic mind by the brain should be seen in terms of the evolution of different levels of systematic organization where the concepts of psychoanalysis describe a level of hierarchical recursive organization superordinate to that of biological self-organization and the FEP. The implication of this formulation is that while “psychoanalytic” mental processes are fundamentally subject to the FEP, they nonetheless also add their own principles of process over and above that of the FEP. A model found in Grobbelaar (1989 offers a recursive bottom-up description of the self-organization of the psychoanalytic ego as dependent on the organization of language (and affect, which is itself founded upon the tendency toward autopoiesis (self-making within the organism, which is in turn described as formally similar to the FEP. Meaningful consilience between Grobbelaar's model and the hierarchical recursive description available in Friston's (2010a theory is described. The paper concludes that the valuable contribution of the FEP to psychoanalysis

  15. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  16. Objective and subjective psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an investigation of the relative importance of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-06-01

    People with bipolar disorder (BD) experience significant psychosocial impairment. Understandings of the nature and causes of such impairment is limited by the lack of research exploring the extent to which subjectively reported functioning should be valued as an indicator of objective dysfunction, or examining the relative influence of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation on these important, but different aspects of psychosocial functioning in the context of mania and depression symptoms. This study aimed to address this paucity of research by conducting a comprehensive investigation of psychosocial functioning in a well characterised group of BD patients. Fifty-one BD patients were compared to 52 healthy controls on objectively and subjectively assessed psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between current mood symptoms, psychosocial function and neurocognitive, social cognitive and emotion regulation measures were also examined in the patient group. Patients had significantly worse scores on the global objective and subjective functioning measures relative to controls. In the patient group, although these scores were correlated, regression analyses showed that variance in each of the measures was explained by different predictors. Depressive symptomatology was the most important predictor of global subjective functioning, and neurocognition had a concurrent and important influence with depressive symptoms on objective psychosocial function. Emotion regulation also had an indirect effect on psychosocial functioning via its influence on depressive symptomatology. As this study was cross-sectional in nature, we are unable to draw precise conclusions regarding contributing pathways involved in psychosocial functioning in BD. These results suggest that patients' own evaluations of their subjective functioning represent important indicators of the extent to which their observable function is impaired. They also highlight the importance of

  17. A psychoanalytic understanding of the desire for knowledge as reflected in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2006-10-01

    The author offers an understanding of the psychoanalytic notion of the desire for knowledge and the possibility of attaining it as it fi nds expression in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. This understanding has not been explicitly articulated by Freud but may be considered integral to psychoanalysis' Weltanschauung as shaped by Freud's legacy. It emerges through an attempt to explain basic shifts, contradictions, inconsistencies and tensions that become apparent from a close reading of the text of Leonardo. Articulating this implicit understanding of knowledge provides the grounds for a stance on epistemology that is integral to psychoanalysis and relevant to contemporary psychoanalytic concerns on this topic. This epistemology focuses on the necessary involvement of passion, rather than detachment, in the search for knowledge and views the psychoanalytic aim of self-knowledge as a derivative, and most immediate expression, of a broader and more basic human drive to know.

  18. SU-E-I-29: Generalized Relative Object Detectability (G-ROD): A Metric for Comparing X-Ray Imaging Detector Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative task-specific performance of two x-ray imaging detectors including the effect of other components of the imaging chain. Methods: The relative object detectability (ROD) was defined as the ratio of the integral of the detective-quantum efficiency (DQE) of a detector weighted by the square of the Fourier Transform (or frequency spectrum) of the object to the same integral for a second detector. The generalized ROD (G-ROD) is calculated by replacing DQE by the generalized DQE (GDQE) which includes geometric unsharpness and scatter to evaluate the total imaging chain. The G-ROD was calculated for the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) relative to a flat-panel detector (FPD) for low (1.05) and high (1.2) magnifications with two focal-spot sizes, small (0.3 mm) and medium (0.5 mm), and for the same value of scatter fraction. Solid spheres from 50 to 600 microns were simulated as the objects for this evaluation. The G-ROD results were compared with those of the ROD which considers the detectors alone. Results: For 50-micron spheres, the ROD is 7.93 and, for the small [medium] focus, the G-ROD is 6.74 [5.22] at low magnification and 3.03 [1.66] at high magnification, indicating superior performance of the MAF particularly at low magnification. Both ROD and G-ROD decrease monotonically with size and remain around one above 400-microns. The G-ROD decreases more dramatically with low compared to high magnification for both focal spots. Conclusion: In all cases, the MAF performs better than the FPD and the decreasing trend of the G-ROD indicates that the performance of both detectors becomes similar as the object size increases and becomes nearly equal above 400-micron diameter sphere size. Finally, increased magnification and focal-spot size decrease the G-ROD, indicting that they degrade the performance of the MAF more than that of the FPD for a small-object viewing task. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from

  19. Context-specific activation of hippocampus and SN/VTA by reward is related to enhanced long-term memory for embedded objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eleanor; Kumaran, Dharshan; Koster, Raphael; Berron, David; Dolan, Ray; Duzel, Emrah

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies indicate that hippocampal representations of environmental context modulate reward-related processing in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), a major origin of dopamine in the brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, we investigated the neural specificity of context-reward associations under conditions where the presence of perceptually similar neutral contexts imposed high demands on a putative hippocampal function, pattern separation. The design also allowed us to investigate how contextual reward enhances long-term memory for embedded neutral objects. SN/VTA activity underpinned specific context-reward associations in the face of perceptual similarity. A reward-related enhancement of long-term memory was restricted to the condition where the rewarding and the neutral contexts were perceptually similar, and in turn was linked to co-activation of the hippocampus (subfield DG/CA3) and SN/VTA. Thus, an ability of contextual reward to enhance memory for focal objects is closely linked to context-related engagement of hippocampal-SN/VTA circuitry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adding some notes to the "Music of Containment". Discussion of paper: "The Music of Containment: Addressing the participants in mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggio, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Thinking about the psychoanalytical process in parent-infant psychotherapy is the purpose of Björn Salomonsson's article. He proposes to consider that containment is the core of the treatment and that musicality is his main vehicle. His thought is linked with the research on primary intersubjectivity and is so exciting for all the parent-infant therapists. For myself, I emphasize the use of the psychoanalytical concept of affects rather than emotions, and I present my understanding of the transference phenomena with the part of the infantile sexuality of all the participants. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. The challenge of professional identity for Chinese clinicians in the process of learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy: the discussion on the frame of Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunping

    2011-06-01

    One important element in psychoanalysis, which is derived from Western culture, is individualization: the independency and autonomy of an individual are highly valued. However, one of the significant essences in Chinese culture is that the collective interests transcend the individual interests and the interests of social groups are more important than those of families. Therefore, when learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy, Chinese clinicians inevitably experience conflicts derived from this difference of cultural values. This article attempts to use a historical perspective to discuss the current challenges of professional identity for Chinese clinicians learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Health-related quality of life in children with objectively diagnosed staple food allergy assessed with a disease-specific questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protudjer, J L P; Jansson, S-A; Östblom, E; Arnlind, M Heibert; Bengtsson, U; Dahlén, S-E; Kallström-Bengtsson, I; Marklund, B; Middelveld, R J M; Rentzos, G; Sundqvist, A C; Åkerström, J; Ahlstedt, S

    2015-10-01

    Among Swedish children of 0-12 years old, we investigated various food allergy-related exposures associated with health-related quality of life using a food allergy-specific questionnaire among children allergic to the staple foods cow's milk, hen's egg and/or wheat, and contextualised worse food allergy-associated health-related quality of life using a generic questionnaire versus controls. In total, 85 children with objectively diagnosed allergy to the staple foods were included as cases, and 94 children matched for age and sex were included as controls. We administered a food allergy-specific parent-completed questionnaire originally developed by EuroPrevall to cases only, and a generic health-related quality of life questionnaire (EuroQol Health Questionnaire, 5 Dimensions; EQ 5-D); to both cases and controls. Hen's egg was the most common offending staple food, affecting 76% of cases. Approximately 7% of cases were allergic to all three staple foods. Parent-reported respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms were associated with worse health-related quality of life. Elements of disease severity [previous anaphylaxis (p quality of life. Cases had worse health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D compared to controls (p foods cow's milk, hen's egg and/or wheat is associated with worse health-related quality of life. The use of a generic questionnaire confirmed that cases have worse health-related quality of life than controls. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  4. Algunas puntualizaciones psicoanalíticas sobre Durkheim Some psychoanalytical views about Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Umérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Es el objetivo del siguiente trabajo realizar una lectura psicoanalítica de los aportes de Emile Durkheim al entendimiento de la crisis de los lazos sociales producto de la "sociedad industrial", centrándonos en las nociones de "anomia" y "mal de lo infinito"que dicho autor utilizara para dar cuenta del descontento del hombre en la sociedad de tales características. Sostenemos la vigencia de su pensamiento en el acercamiento a lo actual y realizamos un retorno a dicho autor mediante conceptualizaciones freudianas y lacanianas. Desde Freud, se aborda la perspectiva propuesta en relación al malestar en la cultura y la imposibilidad del hombre para llevar a cabo el programa del principio del placer. Desde Lacan, se trabaja la noción de Superyó en tanto imperativo de goce , la resignificación del concepto de castración y la cuestión de la femeneidad. Esta última trabajada por los tres autores mencionados como excepción a la ley universal.The aim of the following paper is to make a psychoanalytical approach to the contributions of Emile Durkheim to the understanding of the social relationship crisis produced by the "industrial society", highlighting the notions of "anomy" and "infinite evil" which that author used to show the discontent of the man in a society with those characteristics. His standing thought is supported as a way of approaching the present time and a return to the ideas of the author is made through concepts from Freud and Lacan. From Freud, the perspective proposed in connection to the cultural malaise is studied as well as the impossibility of the man to carry out the pleasure principle programme. From Lacan, the notion of the Superego as an imperative of enjoyment, the reappraisal of the concept of castration and the femineity matter are considered. This last issue has been elaborated by the three authors mentioned as an exception to the universal law.

  5. Correlates of objective and subjective measures of caregiver burden among dementia caregivers: influence of unmet patient and caregiver dementia-related care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Travonia B; Black, Betty S; Albert, Marilyn; Gitlin, Laura N; Johnson, Deirdre M; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Samus, Quincy M

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the relationship of unmet dementia-related care needs of community-dwelling persons, and their caregivers (CGs), to measures of caregiver burden. Cross-sectional baseline data were analyzed from participants in a dementia care coordination trial of community-residing persons with dementia (PWD) (n = 254) and their caregivers (n = 246). Participants were recruited from Northwest Baltimore, Maryland. The Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI) was used to measure subjective caregiver burden. Objective burden was measured by estimating the total hours per week spent doing things for the PWD and/or how many hours CGs missed paid work in the prior month due to caregiving responsibilities. The Johns Hopkins Dementia Care Needs Assessment was used to identify unmet dementia-related care needs. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions examined the relationship of unmet needs, demographic, clinical, or functional characteristics with caregiver burden measures. In adjusted multivariable models, patient neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver unmet emotional needs explained 22% of the variance in ZBI scores. In adjusted multivariable models, caregiver need for respite, patient functional dependency, and caregiver unmet specialty medical needs explained 26% of the variance in the hours per week spent caregiving. PWD's level of functional dependency was the sole correlate of missed time at work, explaining 11% of the variance. Addressing potentially modifiable unmet caregiver needs may reduce subjective and objective caregiver burden.

  6. Beyond Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalysis: A Review of Psychoanalytic Empirical Single Case Studies Published in ISI-Ranked Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Krivzov, Juri; Notaerts, Liza

    2017-01-01

    Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization) over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation. PMID:29046660

  7. Self-efficacy for exercise, more than disease-related factors, is associated with objectively assessed exercise time and sedentary behaviour in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, K M; Pieper, C F; Hall, K S; St Clair, E W; Kraus, W E

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, reports of physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were limited to self-report methods and/or leisure-time physical activity. Our objectives were to assess, determine correlates of, and compare to well-matched controls both exercise and sedentary time in a typical clinical cohort of RA. Persons with established RA (seropositive or radiographic erosions; n = 41) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease underwent assessments of traditional and disease-specific correlates of physical activity and 7 days of triaxial accelerometry. Twenty-seven age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls were assessed. For persons with RA, objectively measured median (25th-75th percentile) exercise time was 3 (1-11) min/day; only 10% (n = 4) of participants exercised for ≥ 30 min/day. Time spent in sedentary activities was 92% (89-95%). Exercise time was not related to pain but was inversely related to disease activity (r = -0.3, p self-efficacy for endurance activity (r = 0.4, p activity was related only to self-efficacy for endurance activity (r = -0.4, p self-efficacy for physical activity but similar amounts of exercise and sedentary time. For persons with RA and without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, time spent in exercise was well below established guidelines and activity patterns were predominantly sedentary. For optimal care in RA, in addition to promoting exercise, clinicians should consider assessing sedentary behaviour and self-efficacy for exercise. Future interventions might determine whether increased self-efficacy can increase physical activity in RA.

  8. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

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    Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  9. Characteristics of objective daytime sleep among individuals with earthquake-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A pilot community-based polysomnographic and multiple sleep latency test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Yun; Zhu, Hongru; Cui, Haofei; Qiu, Changjian; Tang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the objective sleep characteristics of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examines the association between PTSD symptom severity and objective daytime sleep characteristics measured using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) in therapy-naïve patients with earthquake-related PTSD. A total of 23 PTSD patients and 13 trauma-exposed non-PTSD (TEN-PTSD) subjects completed one-night in-lab polysomnography (PSG) followed by a standard MSLT. 8 of the 23 PTSD patients received paroxetine treatment. Compared to the TEN-PTSD subjects, no significant nighttime sleep disturbances were detected by PSG in the subjects with PTSD; however, a shorter mean MSLT value was found in the subjects with PTSD. After adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index, PTSD symptoms, particularly hyperarousal, were found to be independently associated with a shorter MSLT value. Further, the mean MSLT value increased significantly after therapy in PTSD subjects. A shorter MSLT value may be a reliable index of the medical severity of PTSD, while an improvement in MSLT values might also be a reliable marker for evaluating therapeutic efficacy in PTSD patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. A surface electromyography based objective method to identify patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, presenting a flexion related movement control impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Benedicte; Stevens, Veerle; Perneel, Christiaan; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Neyens, Ellen; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Moerman, Luc; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    Movement control impairments (MCI) are often present in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP). Therefore, movement control exercises are widely used to rehabilitate patients. However, the objective assessment remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistical model, based on logistic regression analysis, to differentiate patients with NS-CLBP presenting a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. This model is based on trunk muscle activation patterns measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), during movement control exercises. Sixty-three healthy male subjects and 36 male patients with a flexion-related MCI participated in this study. Muscle activity of the internal obliques, the external obliques, the lumbar multifidus and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis was registered. Ratios of deep stabilizing to superficial torque producing muscle activity were calculated to examine trunk muscle recruitment patterns during 6 different exercises. Logistic regression analyses were performed (1) to define the ratios and exercises that were most discriminating between patients and non-patients, (2) to make a predictive model. K-Fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the predictive model. This study demonstrated that sEMG trunk muscle recruitment patterns during movement control tests, allows differentiating NSCLBP patients with a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing Preference Toward Object-Extracted Relative Clauses in Mandarin Chinese by L1 and L2 Speakers: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tu, Jung-Yueh; Cha, Jih-Ho; Wu, Ming-Da

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed an eye-movement technique with an attempt to explore the reading patterns for the two types of Chinese relative clauses, subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) and object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs), by native speakers (L1), and Japanese learners (L2) of Chinese. The data were analyzed in terms of gaze duration, regression path duration, and regression rate on the two critical regions, head noun, and embedded verb. The results indicated that both the L1 and L2 participants spent less time on the head nouns in ORCs than in SRCs. Also, the L2 participants spent less time on the embedded verbs in ORCs than in SRCs and their regression rate for embedded verbs was generally lower in ORCs than in SRC. The findings showed that the participants experienced less processing difficulty in ORCs than SRCs. These results suggest an ORC preference in L1 and L2 speakers of Chinese, which provides evidence in support of linear distance hypothesis and implies that the syntactic nature of Chinese is at play in the RC processing.

  12. ["... why is it that I see everything so differently ..?" A letter to Theodor Reik about psychoanalytic technique (Berlin, February 7th, 1933)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Paula

    2005-01-01

    A letter by Paula Heimann to her training analyst Th. Reik, written shortly before her emigration to London, sheds light on some controversies, centering in particular around Wilhelm Reich, which shaped continental psychoanalytic clinical discourse in the early 1930's as well as on Heimann's own future development as a clinician.

  13. A constituição da inteligência: uma abordagem psicanalítica The constitution of intelligence: a psychoanalytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Orgler Sordi

    2005-12-01

    embryonic states. It is recognized the contribution of genetic epistemology developed by Jean Piaget which allows to understand the capacity to build symbolic systems from sensory-motor schemes. There is also pointed some convergence between the genetic psychology and the psychoanalytic thought. What is stressed in this article, however, is that the contribution of psychoanalysis about the origins of intelligence has been less studied, although it is of most interest both theoretically and clinically. The theoretical inspiration of the paper relies on Freud's theory but it is more definitely grounded on the French school of Jean Laplanche. It tries to show that to reach the objectivity of logical structures, characterized by the categories of the Aristotelian logic - classification, space, time, causality, denial - the psychism does an active work of mind connection which starts in the first inscriptions of the other sexualized human and has to implant the originary repression, the only one able to organize the logic of the secondary thought. It stresses, at the end, that the contribution about a theory of the origins of psychism, concerning the development of intelligence is of great help in the studies about learning disabilities, as it differentiates learning difficulties due to secondary causes of the disorders which address to the lack of constitution of the ego.

  14. From somatic pain to psychic pain: The body in the psychoanalytic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; Steinbrecher, Michael

    2017-03-24

    The integration of psyche and soma begins with a baby's earliest contact with his or her parents. With the help of maternal empathy and reverie, β-elements are transformed into α-elements. While we understand this to be the case, we would like to enquire what actually happens to those parts of the affect which have not been transformed? For the most part they may be dealt with by evacuation, but they can also remain within the body, subsequently contributing to psychosomatic symptoms. This paper describes how the body serves as an intermediate store between the psychic (inner) and outer reality. The authors focuses on the unconscious communicative process between the analyst and the analysand, and in particular on how psychosomatic symptoms can spread to the analyst's body. The latter may become sensitive to the analysand's psychosomatic symptoms in order to better understand the psychoanalytical process. Sensory processes (visual and auditory) and psychic mechanisms such as projective identification can serve as a means for this communication. One of the first analysts to deal with this topic was Wilhelm Reich. He described one kind of psychosomatic defence like a shell, the character armour, comparing the armour formed by muscle tension with another, more psychical type of armour. This concept can be linked to Winnicott's contribution of the false self and later on to Feldman's concept of compliance as a defence. The authors links further details of the clinical material with theoretical concepts from Joyce McDougall, Piera Aulagnier, and Ricardo Rodulfo and Marilia Aisenstein. With the aid of the complex concept of projective identification, as described by Heinz Weiss, the authors discusses the important question of how the analyst gets in touch with the patient's current psychosomatic state, and describes a specific communication between the body of the psychoanalyst and the body of the patient. A vignette illustrates in greater detail the relationship

  15. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  16. Neural correlates of face and object perception in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes examined by scalp-surface event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural system of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, is a topic of increasing research interest. However, electrophysiological examinations of neural activity during visual processing in awake chimpanzees are currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of faces and objects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, human faces and stimuli composed of scrambled face images were displayed. In Experiment 2, three types of pictures (faces, flowers, and cars were presented. The waveforms evoked by face stimuli were distinguished from other stimulus types, as reflected by an enhanced early positivity appearing before 200 ms post stimulus, and an enhanced late negativity after 200 ms, around posterior and occipito-temporal sites. Face-sensitive activity was clearly observed in both experiments. However, in contrast to the robustly observed face-evoked N170 component in humans, we found that faces did not elicit a peak in the latency range of 150-200 ms in either experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this pilot study examined a single subject and requires further examination, the observed scalp voltage patterns suggest that selective processing of faces in the chimpanzee brain can be detected by recording surface ERPs. In addition, this non-invasive method for examining an awake chimpanzee can be used to extend our knowledge of the characteristics of visual cognition in other primate species.

  17. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  18. Do objective neighbourhood characteristics relate to residents' preferences for certain sports locations? A cross-sectional study using a discrete choice modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelen, Ineke; Jansen, Marijke; Dogterom, Nico J; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Ettema, Dick

    2017-12-11

    The number of sports facilities, sports clubs, or city parks in a residential neighbourhood may affect the likelihood that people participate in sports and their preferences for a certain sports location. This study aimed to assess whether objective physical and socio-spatial neighbourhood characteristics relate to sports participation and preferences for sports locations. Data from Dutch adults (N = 1201) on sports participation, their most-used sports location, and socio-demographic characteristics were collected using an online survey. Objective land-use data and the number of sports facilities were gathered for each participant using a 2000-m buffer around their home locations, whereas socio-spatial neighbourhood characteristics (i.e., density, socio-economic status, and safety) were determined at the neighbourhood level. A discrete choice-modelling framework (multinomial probit model) was used to model the associations between neighbourhood characteristics and sports participation and location. Higher proportions of green space, blue space, and the number of sports facilities were positively associated with sports participation in public space, at sports clubs, and at other sports facilities. Higher degrees of urbanization were negatively associated with sports participation at public spaces, sports clubs, and other sports facilities. Those with more green space, blue space or sports facilities in their residential neighbourhood were more likely to participate in sports, but these factors did not affect their preference for a certain sports location. Longitudinal study designs are necessary to assess causality: do active people choose to live in sports-facilitating neighbourhoods, or do neighbourhood characteristics affect sports participation?

  19. Health-related quality of life and pelvic floor dysfunction in advanced-stage ovarian cancer survivors: associations with objective activity behaviors and physiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Christelle; Newton, Robert U; Cohen, Paul A; Galvão, Daniel A; McVeigh, Joanne A; Mohan, Ganendra R; Tan, Jason; Salfinger, Stuart G; Straker, Leon M; Peddle-McIntyre, Carolyn J

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), and modifiable lifestyle and physiological factors for ovarian cancer survivors (OCS). The primary aim of the study was to compare post-treatment advanced-stage OCS with age-matched controls on measures of HRQoL and PFD. The secondary aim was to examine associations between HRQoL, PFD, objective activity behaviors, physical function, and body composition in OCS. Twenty advanced-stage OCS and 20 controls completed questionnaires assessing HRQoL (SF-36) and PFD (Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire), and underwent objective assessments of activity behavior (7-day accelerometry), physical function (400-m walk, repeated chair rise, 6-m usual-pace walk, one-repetition maximum chest press, and single-leg extension), and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry). Compared to controls, OCS had worse physical HRQoL (- 4.3 median difference, p = 0.013), but equivalent self-reported PFD, indicated by combined bladder, bowel, and pelvic organ prolapse symptoms (0.89 mean difference, p = 0.277). In OCS, physical HRQoL was significantly negatively associated with PFD (r = 0.468, p = 0.043). Decreased physical HRQoL and increased PFD were significantly associated with less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in ≥ 10-min bouts (ρ = 0.627, p = 0.003; ρ = - 0.457, p = 0.049), more sedentary time (r = - 0.449, p = 0.047; r = 0.479, p = 0.038), and slower 400-m walk time (ρ = - 0.565, p = 0.022; ρ = 0.504, p = 0.028). Post-treatment advanced-stage OCS have decreased physical HRQoL, which is associated with modifiable factors such as worse PFD, less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, more sedentary time, and decreased objective physical function. This highlights the need for ongoing supportive care and multidisciplinary interventions after first-line ovarian cancer

  20. [Between "aryanization" and liquidation. The fate of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Association after the "Anschluss" in March 1938].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothländer, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    The "Anschluss" of Austria into Hitler-Germany was the temporary end of the Vienna Association (WPV). It was closed by the Gestapo, Hans Ehlich from the SD becoming the special commissioner and the chemist Anton Sauerwald the provisional administrator. The WPV's only chance to avoid losing all its property was to ask their colleagues of the German Psychoanalytic Society (DPG) for help. They were to take over the trusteeship of the WPV and incorporate it into the so-called Goring Institute. Carl Müller-Braunschweig was sent to Vienna as a representative of the DPG. This attempt failed because of the resistance of Rudolf Ramm, head of the Austrian Medical Association, of psychiatrist Heinrich von Kogerer and of Ehlich. In April 1938 Ehlich and Ramm decided on the liquidation of the WPV.