Sample records for psychoanalytic diagnostic scale

  1. The depressed masochistic patient: diagnostic and management considerations--a contemporary psychoanalytic perspective. (United States)

    Friedman, R C


    This article considers the relationship between depression and characterological masochism from a contemporary psychoanalytic perspective. Nosology is discussed historically from Krafft-Ebing to the DSM-III-R category, self-defeating personality disorder. Masochistic character traits are conceptualized as attempts to cope with depressed helpless and hostile feelings that have become part of the core self-concept. Psychotherapeutic strategy for treatment of masochistic patients at different levels of characterological integration is discussed. Many questions about self-defeating personality disorder remain open at present. The need for psychoanalytically informed clinical research on characterological masochism and particularly the relationship between masochism and depression is stressed.

  2. Hamlet and psychoanalytic experience. (United States)

    Schwaber, Paul


    Hamlet draws us into its rendered world, enabling us to experience it with depth, awareness, and resonance, in a mode we recognize as aesthetic. By way of Shakespeare's play--primarily the first act--and a detailed case study, aesthetic and psychoanalytic experience are compared, to suggest that, for our own analytic discourse, we revalue Freud's unease that his case studies read like short stories.

  3. Psychoanalytic Schools in Historical Perspective


    Suzuki, Yuzuru


    This paper summarizes the historical evolution of major psychoanalytic schools. Because Sigmund Freud founded psychoanalysis, we start with the description of the Freudian model. Freud proposed his libido theory as an answer to the fundamental question in psychology, i.e. "What drives the human mind?" Many of the psychoanalytic schools came into existence from criticism of Freud's libido theory. Although they all disagree with the libido theory in one way or another, each school formulated a ...

  4. Psychoanalytic reality of prose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.


    Full Text Available Scientific methods of a particular field of knowledge can not be freely applied to a different field without any adjustments or reservations. Openness to a different approach is detrimental here. According to Nothrop Frye, psychonalysis in literature tends to 'blur the lines between methods' (Frye 1979: 383 thus increasing openness. Therefore, the anxiety that exists between the theory of psychonalysis and the practice of psychoanalytic therapy will follow the application of psychoanalysis to other scientific fields. Solid grasp of the theory of psychoanalysis is incomplete without understanding its practical implementation in the domain of pain as its priviledged source of truth. Even Jacques Lacan emphasized this by distinguishing between understanding and knowing Jacques Derrida's psychoanalysis. The interdisciplinary activity, valued today as an important aspect of research, cannot be accomplished by simple confrontations between various specialized branches of knowledge. According to Roland Barthes, interdisciplinary work is not a peaceful operation: it begins effectively when the solidarity of the old disciplines breaks down to the benefit of a new object and a new language, neither of which is in the domain of those branches of knowledge that one calmly sought to confront (Barthes 1986b:181. Mirjana Lončar Vujnović proposes, following Barthes logic, to substitute the term psychoanalysis with the term 'experimental mysticism' (Lončar Vujnović 2014: 46. Her proposition has no semantic justification (and not only for its failed attempt at oxymoron let alone scientific. The exploration of the unconscious psyche which is unknown and irrational - designated under certain circumstances as the exploration of the mystical as a hidden, secret part of a man's soul - was scrutinized in psychoanalysis by employing a rigorous scientific method in reverence to the methods of the natural sciences. Furthermore, due to the nomothetic-ideographic and

  5. Psychoanalytic Thoughts on the European Refugee Crisis and the Other. (United States)

    Volkan, Vamık D


    There are many aspects-political, economic, legal, medical, cultural, religious-of the present refugee crisis in Europe. Difficulties at border crossings, settlement programs, life-saving issues, and security measures come to mind immediately, but the refugee crisis also needs to be examined from a psychological angle. This paper outlines psychoanalytic findings on voluntary and forced immigration and human responses to the Other. Change in the twenty-first century is occurring at an unprecedented pace and scale. Globalization, incredible advances in communication technology, fast travel, recourse limitations, terrorist activities, and now the refugee crisis in Europe make psychoanalytic investigation of the Other a necessity.

  6. On psychoanalytic approaches to autism. (United States)

    Hobson, R P


    An analysis of the strengths and limitations of psychoanalytic approaches to autism serves to highlight the need for a theoretical scheme adequate to encompass social as well as cognitive development in autistic individuals. It is proposed that such a scheme will entail an account of normal development in which children's "object relations" feature prominently.

  7. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork (United States)

    Ramvi, Ellen


    This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

  8. The didactics of psychoanalytic education. (United States)

    Körner, Jürgen


    The author first discusses general didactic considerations regarding psychoanalytic education and the teacher-pupil relationship. He then demonstrates that psychoanalytic education is greatly influenced by the ideal of a liberal education, of which in Germany there is a strong tradition under the name 'Bildung'. The main characteristics of 'Bildung'--as opposed to professional training--are that the objectives remain undefined and there is no attempt to achieve defined and operationalisable professional qualifications. The relationship between teacher and pupil is characterised by authority and trust. A psychoanalytic education by means of a 'liberal education' is based upon the assumption that the student should be motivated and supported in achieving competence through a passionate study of the world of psychic reality. Today, however, psychoanalytic education must be seen within a contemporary context that forces us to abandon the ideals of a liberal education, to operationalise the subjects studied and to control the education itself with regard to efficiency and results. These modern demands are the result of a professionalisation which has reached all social professions and from which psychoanalysis also cannot escape. Because of this, it is especially important to reflect on our educational methods and objectives. The author makes several suggestions on this subject. It is to be hoped that psychoanalysis will find its own way, without, on the one hand, losing sight of the special nature of psychoanalytic competence through an over-hasty adaptation to the process of professionalisation and, on the other hand, without reverting to unquestioned and outdated ideas on education.

  9. Psychoanalytic interpretation and cognitive transformation. (United States)

    Basch, M F


    Psychoanalytic metapsychology should be recognized for what it is, namely a theory of cognition and affect that is not derived directly from clinical data but is advanced in order to provide the development background that will let us deal with the clinical findings of psychoanalysis as aberrations of and deviations from the normal and expected evolution of the thinking process. Its cornerstone is Freud's belief that thought depends on the forging of links between the sensory perception of objects and their appropriate verbal descriptions. He made no secret of his dissatisfaction with his metapsychology and repeatedly revised it in an attempt to encompass those clinical discoveries of psychoanalysis that outstripped the explanatory power of that metapsychology and demonstrated its shortcomings. Using what we now know about normal development in infancy and childhood through the work of Piaget, Vygotsky and other investigators, it is possible to formulate an explanatory theory that does justice to the varied and complex findings uncovered by the application of the psychoanalytic method. For example, the significance of Freud's postulated second censorship between the preconscious and consciousness, as well as the importance of the defence of disavowal that Freud emphasized in his writings after 1927, can now be accounted for with a theory of thought formation that was not available to the founder of psychoanalysis. The implications of this proposed reformulation for psychoanalytic interpretation and for the application of psychoanalysis to an increasingly wide range of psychopathology is discussed in some detail.

  10. On psychoanalytic supervision as signature pedagogy. (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward


    What is signature pedagogy in psychoanalytic education? This paper examines that question, considering why psychoanalytic supervision best deserves that designation. In focusing on supervision as signature pedagogy, I accentuate its role in building psychoanalytic habits of mind, habits of hand, and habits of heart, and transforming theory and self-knowledge into practical product. Other facets of supervision as signature pedagogy addressed in this paper include its features of engagement, uncertainty, formation, and pervasiveness, as well as levels of surface, deep, and implicit structure. Epistemological, ontological, and axiological in nature, psychoanalytic supervision engages trainees in learning to do, think, and value what psychoanalytic practitioners in the field do, think, and value: It is, most fundamentally, professional preparation for competent, "good work." In this paper, effort is made to shine a light on and celebrate the pivotal role of supervision in "making" or developing budding psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists. Now over a century old, psychoanalytic supervision remains unparalleled in (1) connecting and integrating conceptualization and practice, (2) transforming psychoanalytic theory and self-knowledge into an informed analyzing instrument, and (3) teaching, transmitting, and perpetuating the traditions, practice, and culture of psychoanalytic treatment.

  11. Radiative diagnostics for sub-Larmor scale magnetic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Sarah J


    Radiative diagnostics of high-energy density plasmas is addressed in this paper. We propose that the radiation produced by energetic particles in small-scale magnetic field turbulence, which can occur in laser-plasma experiments, collisionless shocks, and during magnetic reconnection, can be used to deduce some properties of the turbulent magnetic field. Particles propagating through such turbulence encounter locally strong magnetic fields, but over lengths much shorter than a particle gyroradius. Consequently, the particle is accelerated but not deviated substantially from a straight line path. We develop the general jitter radiation solutions for this case and show that the resulting radiation is directly dependent upon the spectral distribution of the magnetic field through which the particle propagates. We demonstrate the power of this approach in considering the radiation produced by particles moving through a region in which a (Weibel-like) filamentation instability grows magnetic fields randomly orient...

  12. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.


    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies ( to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725

  13. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies. (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D


    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies ( to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  14. [The ethics of psychoanalytic technique]. (United States)

    Treurniet, N


    The ethic of psychoanalytic technique which goes back to Freud and emphasizes the importance of anonymity, abstinence, neutrality and the central role of interpretation is subjected to a critical examination. The author traces the changes that have taken place since Freud and proposes a new ethic of psychoanalytic technique. Proceeding from the theory of object relations, Treurniet stresses the symmetrical relationship between analyst and analysand permitting both to assume a "meta-position" in order to reflect on the analysis material. The author further suggests that, beyond the projections of the analysand, the analyst should be open to his own subjectivity, as this openness is the key to the essential feature of analytic procedure, the enactment of countertransference. Finally, Treurniet reformulates his advocacy of a non-intrusive, affirmative attitude on the part of the analyst, a spontaneous willingness to "fall into the analysand's trap", an ability to oscillate between acting-out and introspection, to live out countertransference involuntarily and finally to incorporate the non-ideal into his conscience. These rules of technique must be controlled not only by the conscience and the countertransference of the analyst, but also--apart from intervision and consultation with collegues--by the analysand himself, whose opinion of the analytic situation the analyst should ask for.

  15. Psychoanalytic lexicography: notes from two "harmless drudges". (United States)

    Samberg, Eslee; Auchincloss, Elizabeth L


    The co-Editors in Chief of the American Psychoanalytic Association's new edition of Psychoanalytic Terms and Concepts (previously edited by Moore and Fine and last revised in 1990) recount their lexicographical adventures. Editing a dictionary at the turn of the twenty-first century is a daunting, some might say foolhardy, undertaking. The most obvious challenge faced by the editors was the growing pluralism within psychoanalysis. However, a more fundamental challenge was that the object of psychoanalytic study, the mind and its processes, can be known only by putting words to our observations, inferences, and interpretations. Psychoanalytic thinkers, starting with Freud, have wrestled with this challenge in ways that define the history of psychoanalysis itself. Long gone are the days when Freud could commend the "correctness" of Sterba's lexicographical efforts. Today postmodern critics, at the opposite extreme, argue that terms and concepts are best understood as "verbal gestures" in the "language-game" of psychoanalysis. Some go so far as to assert that dictionary-writing is obsolete. The co-Editors in Chief of Psychoanalytic Terms and Concepts have not succumbed to such nihilistic views, but have instead struggled to establish a reasonable stance within contemporary debates over the nature of psychoanalytic language.

  16. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Paez


    Full Text Available Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive and retrospective study analyzed the clinical records of 600 children treated in three institutions that offer graduate courses in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in Porto Alegre, Brazil.Results: The analysis of clinical records revealed that 24.2% of the child patients were discharged from treatment. Neurological assessment and treatment duration were predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Conclusion: The predictors of discharge and dropout may coincide, but they are not the same. In this sample, the construction of the therapeutic alliance and the understanding of the reasons why children need psychotherapy by their parents or guardians may explain our findings.




  18. Psychoanalytic attitudes towards homosexuality: an empirical research. (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Capozzi, Paola


    Homosexuality is a challenging subject for the psychoanalytic community, which is now rethinking some of its basic theoretical and institutional assumptions. In recent decades psychoanalytic theory has changed, and the classical psychosexual model has been challenged. After a short review of major psychoanalytical theories of homosexuality, the authors focus on the existence of contrasting attitudes towards homosexuality. This plurality of theories and their clinical and institutional consequences stimulated the authors to investigate the relationship between the individual analyst's theoretical model and his/her clinical practice. The authors present the results of empirical research conducted in the Italian psychoanalytic community on the attitude of psychoanalysts towards homosexuality and the implications for cultural, theoretical and institutional issues. A questionnaire was sent to 600 psychoanalysts (206 of which responded), members of the five main Italian psychoanalytic institutions. First, analysts' personal characteristics and preferred theoretical models were investigated. Second, the respondents responded to statements eliciting their theoretical and clinical approach towards homosexuality. Results indicate that: a) cultural and theoretical background influences the analysts' attitudes towards homosexuality more than gender; b) there is a discrepancy between analysts' theoretical position and their clinical practice; and c) IPA institutes are more discriminatory towards homosexual colleagues than are Jungian ones.

  19. The patient's experience of validation in psychoanalytic treatment. (United States)

    Schechter, Mark


    The importance of the patient's experience of validation is not a new one in psychoanalytic thinking, and can be traced throughout the literature. However, its role as an essential aspect of the psychoanalytic process, particularly in working with intrapsychic conflict, has traditionally been underappreciated. It is argued that validating interventions have an important role in psychoanalytic treatment, and that they often serve to open up, rather than foreclose, the analysis of transference. Marsha Linehan's conceptualization of the role of validation in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy provides a unifying framework for a more extensive psychoanalytic consideration of validation. After a review of the psychoanalytic literature, a number of conceptual issues are discussed that have complicated thinking about validation from a psychoanalytic perspective. Two clinical examples are presented, one from the author's psychoanalytic practice and one from his own analysis. Both illustrate how active validation by the analyst can play an essential facilitating role in the psychoanalytic process.

  20. Exploratory Study of the Diagnostic Abilities of the Baptista Depression Scale Adult Version (EBADEP-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makilim Nunes Baptista


    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to analyze the diagnostic capabilities of a depression screening scale. For that, this scale was administered along with two diagnostic instruments, namely, the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV (SCID-CV and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing depressive disorders. Participants were 22 subjects diagnosed by psychiatrists with Major Depressive Disorder. The EBADEP-A correctly identified cases of depression, showing a high correlation with the HAM-D, which indicates the scale correctly captures most depressive symptoms, even though it was initially used as a depression-screening tool.

  1. On the origins of psychoanalytic psychohistory. (United States)

    Pietikainen, Petteri; Ihanus, Juhani


    This article examines the origins and early development of psychoanalytically inspired psychohistory from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. It focuses on Erik H. Erikson, Bruce Mazlish, and Robert Jay Lifton and illustrates their contributions to psychoanalytic psychohistory. Erikson, Mazlish, and Lifton were core members of the Wellfleet group, a research project originally funded by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1965 to conceptualize the foundation of psychohistory. The article gives an account of the early history of the Wellfleet group and argues for specific historical reasons to explain why psychoanalytic psychohistory emerged on the East Coast of the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s. A critique of the Wellfleet group in unpublished correspondence of Erich Fromm and David Riesman is also discussed.

  2. The Diagnostic Apathia Scale predicts the ability to return to work following depression or anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lc; Eplov, Lf; Nordentoft, M


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a new apathy rating scale in predicting the ability to return to work (RTW) in patients with depression or anxiety a year after discharge from a psychiatric hospital. METHODS: We evaluated 56 patients with depression or anxiety, who...... participated in an on-going randomised clinical trial using RTW as primary outcome. The degree of apathy was measured by the Diagnostic Apathia Scale, which contains six items covering the following neuropsychological symptoms: concentration/memory problems, difficulties in decision making, lassitude...... severity of depression/anxiety symptoms, disability, and psychological well-being. RESULTS: The Diagnostic Apathia Scale displayed sufficient scalability, that is, the total score was a psychometrically valid measure of apathy. Only the Diagnostic Apathia Scale, and not the scales measuring severity...

  3. Encountering a cartwheeling princess: relational psychoanalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was conducted to demonstrate the use and process of contemporary relational psychoanalytic child therapy to address the interpersonal implications of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and interlinked insecure attachment processes. Method: This therapy case study explicates the seven-month ...

  4. A psychoanalytic study of Sophocles' Antigone. (United States)

    Almansi, R J


    This paper examines, in a detailed and comprehensive fashion, the unconscious motivations of the main protagonists of Sophocles' Antigone and the play's general structure as a psychoanalytically coherent whole. This examination helps to foster an understanding of the conceptual place of Antigone within the Oedipus Trilogy, its relationship to Oedipus Rex, and the complementary character of these two tragedies.

  5. [Bipolar disorder and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania]. (United States)

    Solimano, Alberto; Manfredi, Clelia


    The categorical diagnostic model of bipolar disorders (DSM IV) has brought about increasing questioning, since its use gains troubles related not only to clinical experience, but to epidemiological studies as well. Regarding this, other models have emerged, such as the bipolar spectrum by Akiskal that covers the classic bipolar disorder on one side to unipolar disorder on the other, including soft bipolar disorders as well. The authors start from this notion of bipolar spectrum to set out the relationship between bipolar disease and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania. They develop Freud's basic theories and those of the British School that constitute a strong and coherent theoretical structure. Psychoanalysis proposes a unitary psychopathological model that manifests itself as depression or maniac reaction as secondary defense, to account for both the clinical expression and the psychodynamic comprehension of mood disorders.

  6. Neuroscience in the residency curriculum: the psychoanalytic psychotherapy perspective. (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Michels, Robert


    Educators of future psychiatrists tend to teach an array of approaches to the mind and brain, including among them the neurobiologic perspective and the psychoanalytic perspective. These may be considered at opposite ends of many spectra, including the fact that psychoanalysis takes a large-scale and treatment-oriented perspective and has helped countless patients over the years, while neuroscience has tended to be reductionistic, focused on understanding, and has helped very few people. A tension, therefore, exists for the educator in teaching neuroscience: is it wise to spend valuable time and energy teaching this interesting but, thus far, impractical field to future practitioners? Here, we argue that neuroscience is re-orienting itself towards more psychoanalytically relevant questions and is likely, in future years, to give new insights into the nature of basic drives and social relations. We additionally argue for balance on the part of providers in both acknowledging biologic underpinnings for clinical phenomena and yet continuing to take a stance oriented towards appropriate change. Given the burgeoning new focus within neuroscience on topics directly relating to the human internal experience and the novel challenges in both understanding those advances and appropriately using them, we encourage educators to continue to give future psychiatrists the educational foundation they need to follow neuroscientific discoveries into the future.

  7. Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (United States)

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Thome, J; Schneider, M; Stieglitz, R-D; Falkai, P


    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional impairment, quality of life and comorbidity. In order to obtain a systematic database for the diagnosis and evaluation of the course ADHD rating scales can be very useful. This article reviews rating instruments that have found general acceptance. The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Childhood Symptoms Scale by Barkley and Murphy try to make a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms. The Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Current Symptoms Scales by Barkley and Murphy (CSS), the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS) by Adler et al. and Kessler et al. or the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Self Report Scale (ADHD-SR by Rösler et al.) are self report rating scales focusing mainly on the DSM-IV criteria. The CAARS and the CSS have other report forms too. The Brown ADD Rating Scale (Brown ADD-RS) and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Other Report Scale (ADHD-OR by Rösler et al.) are instruments for use by clinicians or significant others. Both self rating scales and observer report scales quantify the ADHD symptoms by use of a Likert scale mostly ranging from 0 to 3. This makes the instruments useful to follow the course of the disease quantitatively. Comprehensive diagnostic interviews not only evaluate diagnostic criteria, but also assess different psychopathological syndrome scores, functional disability measures, indices of pervasiveness and information about comorbid disorders. The most comprehensive procedures are the Brown ADD Diagnostic Form and the Adult Interview (AI) by Barkley and Murphy. An instrument of particular interest is the Wender Reimherr Interview (WRI

  8. Counselling University Students: A Psychoanalytic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Sommantico


    Full Text Available The authors describe a psychoanalytic approach to the counselling with university students, as it is proposed at the University of Naples Federico II. On one hand, the focus is on the specific evolution phase of counselling students, which is late adolescence; on the other hand, it is on the specific aspects of the approach at issue. The authors particularly carry out a description of three characteristics of psychoanalytic counselling with university students: the specific space-time of the setting, the functioning through the free association/freely floating attention, the transference/countertransference dynamic. The authors support their theses, by presenting the clinical case of a student, who consulted the Psychological Counselling Centre for University Students (CCPSU. Clinical excerpts of four counselling sessions are then briefly commented on the basis of the theoretical-clinical paradigm of reference.

  9. Writing about clinical theory and psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Glick, Robert Alan; Stern, Gloria Jean


    In the Senior Candidate Case Writing Seminar, the final component of the Writing as Pedagogy Program at the Columbia Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research, candidates write about one of their longer training cases, with attention to the ways they use clinical theory, particularly transference and countertransference, to deepen their understanding of psychoanalytic process and therapeutic action. Building on the previous four years of the writing program, this seminar teaches advanced candidates to recognize and integrate the lived experience of conducting an analysis, the micro- and macroprocesses, and the theories most relevant to an understanding of the analytic work. The seminar emphasizes the challenge of dealing with the power of the transference, unrecognized or unacknowledged countertransference, and the nature of therapeutic action. Pedagogical emphasis is placed on peer group discussions and group learning, and common problems in integrating theory and practice are described and illustrated.

  10. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychosis in institutions.


    Mackie, Belinda S.


    Psychoanalysis can provide a conceptual foundation for the treatment of psychosis and for understanding how institutions that care for patients with psychosis function. The research of this thesis aims to examine theoretic, therapeutic and institutional approaches to psychosis. What is of significance is the priority that psychoanalysis places on the individual patient's treatment, how it is conceived psychoanalytically and incorporated in the overall organisation of an institution. Psychoan...

  11. Mourning and psychosis: a psychoanalytic perspective. (United States)

    Tizón, Jorge L


    The author attempts to develop some of the basic models and concepts relating to mourning processes in psychotic patients on the assumption that situations of loss and mourning are key moments for psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and therapeutic approaches in general. Secondly, he reminds us that 'mourning processes in psychotics' are not always 'psychotic mourning processes', that is to say, that they do not necessarily occur within, or give rise to, a psychotic clinical picture. These ideas are illustrated by a number of sessions and vignettes concerning two psychotic patients in psychotherapeutic and psychoanalytic treatment. In theoretical terms, it seems vitally important in this context to combine a relationship-based approach within a framework of special psychoanalytic psychopathology with an updated view of processes of mourning and affective loss. A fundamental requirement at clinical level is to determine the role to be played by psychoanalytically based treatments in combined, integrated or global therapies when working with psychotic patients. For this purpose, the paper ends by outlining a set of principles and objectives for such treatments. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. [Changes in vocabulary in a psychoanalytic process]. (United States)

    Kächele, H; Thomä, H; Schaumburg, C


    This paper at first deals with some aspects of the relationship between psychoanalysis and linguistics. Freuds theory of parapraxis is interpreted in terms of Bühlers model of speech, whereby the entire verbal output of a speaker can be understood as an act of symptomatic behavior. The investigation of the vocabulary of nouns of a patient suffering from anxiety neurosis illustrates the fertility of this model. The frequency dispersion of all nouns taken from a specific sample of the patient's and analyst's speaking shows the stability of statistical properties of speech behavior. Following, the role of content-analytic techniques for the specific demands of research in pstchotherapy is discussed. A large part of content-analytic measures is rather far removed from the clinical description of the psychotherapeutic process, thus diminishing the validating relevance of these studies for psychoanalytic concepts. The final chapter describes the process of a psychoanalytic treatment by means of the content-analytic technique. The changes of the patient's verbal content show highly specific correlation to the clinical ratings of psychoanalytic concepts like transference and anxiety. As an initial study, these results are qualified to stimulate the development of content-analytic categories for research in psychotherapy.

  13. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse) (United States)

    Johnson, Brian


    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence ( The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments. PMID:22144975

  14. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse). (United States)

    Johnson, Brian


    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence ( The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  15. [Evaluation of diagnostic scales for appendicitis in patients with lower abdominal pain]. (United States)

    Sanabria, Alvaro; Domínguez, Luis Carlos; Bermúdez, Charles; Serna, Adriana


    Diagnosis of apendicitis is difficult; however several clinical scales have been developed that attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy. The operational characteristics of Alvarado and Fenyö scales were defined in patients with abdominal pain suggestive of appendicitis and were compare with clinical and pathological diagnoses. A prospective trial assessed the diagnostic tests. Sign, symptoms, and laboratory tests were included in scales selected. Surgeon decision was maintained independent from the results of the scales. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and positive and negative likelihood ratio for each scale was compared with the surgeon evaluation. The sample included 374 patients with approximately equal sexes. Of these 269 patients underwent surgery. Howeve, 16.9% of the male and 31.4% of female patients did not have appendicitis. For men, a diagnosis made by the surgeon had better sensitivity than scales (86.2% vs. 73% for Alvarado and 67.2% for Fenyö) without significant differences in specificity. For women, surgeon and Alvarado scale diagnoses were similar, and better than Fenyö scale (77.1% vs. 79.5% for Alvarado and 47% for Fenyö), but specificity was higher for Fenyö scale (92.9% vs. 71.4% for Alvarado and 75.9% for surgeon). Accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis increases with a higher Alvarado score. For men with abdominal pain on right lower quadrant, surgeon diagnosis is more accurate than scales. For women, Fenyö scale offers a better sensitivity. Alvarado score can facilitate decision-making in patients with these abdominal symptoms.


    Binswanger, Ralf


    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  17. Home, bitter sweet home. A psychoanalytic reading. (United States)

    Tylim, Isaac


    The paper offers a psychoanalytic reading of the popular TV series "Homeland." The series' manifest content centers on terrorism and counterterrorism. From a dynamic perspective, the viewer is invited to mistrust what is represented, and focus on the tension between what is projected on the screen and what remains hidden in the narrative's intriguing subtexts. These are: the choreography of internal and external reality, a recurrent theme of longing for the absent, idealized pre-Oedipal father, and attempts to transform memories of horror.

  18. A psychoanalytic consideration of Pasolini's Salo. (United States)

    Salvage, David


    Salo represented the culmination of Pier Paolo Pasolini's career as a filmmaker and engages several questions concerning the nature of perversion and the excitement with the negative. Through exploration of Pasolini's motives and techniques for creating this film, an analysis is offered of the creative process that does not seek to create an aesthetically pleasing compromise formation of psychic conflict, nor a form of erotizing sadomasochism. Rather, this film is explored as an example of a lucid and psychoanalytically informed artwork that speaks to the psychic fascination with what is purely negative--thanatos--which is not mediated by libido.

  19. Finding Educational Insights in Psychoanalytic Theory with Marcuse and Adorno (United States)

    Huhtala, Hanna-Maija


    This article seeks to clarify the potential that Herbert Marcuse's and Theodor W. Adorno's psychoanalytic accounts may have with respect to the philosophy of education today. Marcuse and Adorno both share the view that psychoanalytic theory enables a deeper understanding of the social and biological dynamics of consciousness. For both thinkers,…

  20. Psychoanalytic peregrinations I: Transference and transference neurosis revisited. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    The various meanings of transference and transference neurosis are reviewed with special attention to the various roles transference plays in the psychoanalytic process. A study of the provenance of transference is offered with some remarks on the crucial emphasis on understanding and interpreting the transference in psychoanalytic treatment. The danger of using other types of interventions as being manifestations of countertransference is suggested.

  1. Towards psychoanalytic contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. (United States)

    Caspi, Tair


    This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Alienating identifications and the psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Scariati, Giuseppe


    The transmission of psychic life from one generation to the next can result in unconscious, alienating identifications when the parents have not been able to elaborate a process of mourning for their own childhoods. In this article, the author describes the nature of these identifications, constructed around insufficiently symbolized experiences, as revealed during the psychoanalytic process. These unconscious, alienating identifications raise some arduous technical problems for the psychoanalyst as they lead the patient to carry out complex enactments that erase the normal transference markers. The psychoanalyst may then be tempted to resort to pejorative theoretical concepts, such as the death drive. And yet, unknown to the analysand, the insufficiently symbolized psychic elements contain a potential for transformation that may lead to reconstructions and dis-alienating interpretations. The author distinguishes between alienating identifications and fantasies of identification when the latter transiently appear during the psychoanalytic process. These identification fantasies symbolically register the emotional experience undergone during the analytic sessions and contribute to the integration of insufficiently symbolized psychic elements. These theoretical considerations are fully illustrated by the clinical report of some analytic sessions.

  3. Ethics education in psychoanalytic training: a survey. (United States)

    Ransohoff, Paul M


    Didactic education in psychoanalytic ethics is a relatively new phenomenon. Ethics courses were offered by few institutes before they were mandated and before publication of the first Ethics Case Book in 2001. As institutes have developed ethics training, the solutions they have arrived at-formats, length and placement of courses, and preferred readings- remain unknown to other educators and analysts. This survey was undertaken to gain an overview of the current state of ethics education. Twenty-nine of the thirty-one training institutes of the American Psychoanalytic Association (93%) responded to inquiries. Most institutes (79%) offered one course, and the average number of class sessions was 6.3. Of 258 different readings used, 61 (23.6%) were used by more than one institute and 37 (14.3%) by more than two. The most frequent topics were boundaries, confidentiality, and illness, and Dewald and Clark's Case Book (2008) and Gabbard and Lester (1995) were the most common readings. These findings should be useful to instructors, curriculum committees, and ethics committees in their ethics education planning, as well as to practicing analysts in their ethical self-education. This study may also serve as a model for analogous investigations into other areas of analytic education and as an impetus to further research and educational innovation.

  4. Repression and splitting in the psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Savvopoulos, Savvas; Manolopoulos, Sotiris; Beratis, Stavroula


    The authors examine the concepts of repression and splitting and their interplay during the psychoanalytic process. Initially, repression was introduced by the clinical phenomenon of resistance, leading to the formulation of the association between intrapsychic conflicts and neurotic symptoms. Later, repression was linked to normal development and to personality organization. Splitting, on the other hand, has been defined in quite diverse ways. The two main definitions are of splitting within the ego, and splitting of representations of the self, and of internal and external objects. Repression and splitting are compared developmentally, dynamically, and with respect to their relationship to psychic functioning and energic conditions. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a patient who presented with borderline personality organization and narcissistic features. During the initial phase of analysis, splitting associated with projection, projective identification and idealization were the main defence mechanisms. As the analysis progressed and the themes of omnipotence and mourning were explored with the simultaneous working through of drive derivatives expressed in the transference, repression gained ground over the more primitive defence mechanisms. The evolution of the case showed a gradual shift from splitting to repression and the association of repression with a more advanced psychic organization. This development reflected the dynamic movement from borderline to hysterical organization in psychoanalytic nosology. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona


    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  6. The JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised: measurement characteristics and diagnostic utility. (United States)

    Giacino, Joseph T; Kalmar, Kathleen; Whyte, John


    To determine the measurement properties and diagnostic utility of the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Analysis of interrater and test-retest reliability, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and diagnostic accuracy. Acute inpatient brain injury rehabilitation hospital. Convenience sample of 80 patients with severe acquired brain injury admitted to an inpatient Coma Intervention Program with a diagnosis of either vegetative state (VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS). Not applicable. The CRS-R, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS), and the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Interrater and test-retest reliability were high for CRS-R total scores. Subscale analysis showed moderate to high interrater and test-retest agreement although systematic differences in scoring were noted on the visual and oromotor/verbal subscales. CRS-R total scores correlated significantly with total scores on the CRS and DRS indicating acceptable concurrent validity. The CRS-R was able to distinguish 10 patients in an MCS who were otherwise misclassified as in a VS by the DRS. The CRS-R can be administered reliably by trained examiners and repeated measurements yield stable estimates of patient status. CRS-R subscale scores demonstrated good agreement across raters and ratings but should be used cautiously because some scores were underrepresented in the current study. The CRS-R appears capable of differentiating patients in an MCS from those in a VS.

  7. Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. (United States)

    Parker, Ben; Turner, William


    /psychodynamic psychotherapy for this population. This important gap emphasises the need for further research into the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy in this population. Such research should ideally be in the form of methodologically high-quality, large-scale randomised controlled trials. If these are not conducted, future systematic reviews on this subject may need to consider including other lower quality evidence in order to avoid overlooking important research.

  8. Perversion and pathology: a critique of psychoanalytic criticism in art

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    Lucille Holmes


    Full Text Available For over three decades, Jacques Lacan denounced ego psychology for its emphasis on a strong and well-adapted ego. This article recruits the principle of that critique to examine the use of psychoanalytic theories in contemporary art criticism, with specific focus on the subject of perversion, Freudo-Lacanian psychoanalysis, and the work of art critic Donald Kuspit. The discussion examines the main influences and concepts in Kuspit's psychoanalytic criticism, analyses specific differences between this psychoanalytic model and a Lacanian theory of perversion and desire, and considers the effect of these differences in the interpretation of art.

  9. Psychoanalytical Culture in the American Film Noir

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    Jose Luis Sánchez Noriega


    Full Text Available In the American Film Noir from the classic period (1930-1960, it is possible to perceive the influence of psychoanalytical culture and of Freud’s most widely read works. The theory of drives involves the consideration of the perpetrator of criminal activity as a sick person. This is reflected in the films, where morals are relegated to a secondary plane. The importance of sexuality is reflected in the figure of the “femme fatale” and in behaviours in which the principle of pleasure overarches that of reality. The conscious/unconscious duality and the place of dreams in psychoanalysis are the cornerstones of films addressing the split personality and nightmares that plague essentially decent people. The solution to certain criminal conflicts is not found through police work but through medicine: in such situations the therapist manages to solve the problem of the delinquent behaviour born of sick minds.

  10. A psychoanalytical perspective on nowadays depression

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    Érico Bruno Viana Campos


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of epidemic depression nowadays as a symptom of the socio-cultural setting of contemporary subjectivity, through a critique to the framework of psychiatric psychopathology from psychoanalysis. It shows the importance of taking depression as an expression of collusion in the removal of the subject in contemporary times, as the result of a movement of social medicalization. It also presents an overview of the understanding of depression in psychoanalytic psychopathology, highlighting its structural unspecificity and pointing out different trends about their fundamental position in the Lacanian and object relations traditions. It argues that the depressive problems must be taken in their different structural arrangements, as an expression of failure and fixings along the narcissistic-melancholy axis of subjectivity constitution as a relevant and comprising model for understanding the problem of depression in psychoanalysis.

  11. Promoting Behavioral Change in Psychoanalytic Treatments. (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N


    One of the shibboleths of psychoanalysis is that treatment should not target behavioral change, focusing instead on gaining insight and the therapeutic relationship (Freud, 1917; 1923; Gabbard, 2014; Greenson, 1967). Such an approach is believed to be accompanied by disruptions of exploration or problematic distortions of the transference (Freud, 1917; 1923; Gabbard, 2014; Greenson, 1967). However, ignoring behavioral change can put patients at increased risk for stalemates in treatment and persistent problematic behaviors that interfere with improvement and impair relationships. This article suggests that rather than being at odds or disruptive, efforts at behavioral change can be part of the development and employment of a psychodynamic formulation, and can be used to enhance self-understanding and exploration of the transference. Psychoanalytic approaches provide strategies for behavioral change not included in other psychotherapeutic treatments. This article describes a variety of ways in which efforts at behavioral change can be integrated with and enhanced by psychodynamic exploration.

  12. Diagnostic Performance of Gray-scale Sonographic Findings for the Detection of Acute Pyelonephritis

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    Lee, Hui Jin; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Hee Sun; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Hyoung Keun; Paick, Sung Hyun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Lho, Yong Soo; Jung, Sung Il [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of gray-scale renal sonographic findings for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) by using computed tomography as a reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed gray-scale renal sonographic findings of 48 patients for the detection of APN. All patients had clinical symptoms such as fever, flank pain, or dysuria and were confirmed as APN by contrast- enhanced CT. The presence of sonographic findings such as renal swelling, alteration of the parenchymal echogenicity, wall thickening of the renal pelvis, loss of the renal sinus fat echogenicity, and loss of the corticomedullary differentiation were evaluated. We also categorized all patients into mild APN or severe APN groups according to the volume of the morbid renal parenchyma on contrast-enhanced CT, and evaluated the aforementioned sonographic findings between the two groups. Overall diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gray-scale renal ultrasonography (US) for the detection of APN were 32.5%, 72.0%, and 58.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of each sonographic finding were measured for each group. Renal swelling sensitivity and specificity were 33.8% and 70.8% for the mild APN group, but 45.8% and 66.7% for the severe APN group. Sensitivity and specificity for alteration of the parenchymal echogenicity were 41.7% and 79.2% for the mild APN group, but 58.3% and 66.7% for the severe APN group. The sensitivity and specificity for wall thickening of the renal pelvis was 37.5% and 95.8% for the mild APN group, but 50.0% and 95.8% for the severe APN group. The sensitivity and specificity of loss of the renal sinus fat echogenicity were 12.5% and 83.3% for the mild APN group, but 12.5% and 91.7% for the severe APN group. The sensitivity and specificity of the loss of the corticomedullary differentiation were 12.5% and 95.8% for the mild APN group, but 20.8% and 75.0% for the severe APN group. There was no significant difference of gray-scale

  13. Psychosexual Pursuit: Enhancing Learning of Theoretical Psychoanalytic Constructs. (United States)

    Carlson, Janet F.


    Describes a board game used to facilitate the learning of theoretical principles associated with the psychoanalytic perspective on personality. Covers rules governing play and special advantages of this learning experience. Game board is reproduced. (Author/LS)

  14. Hamlet in Freud's Thoughts: Reinterpretations in the Psychoanalytic Literature. (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.


    Presents a selection of interpretations in the psychoanalytic literature of "Hamlet," by William Shakespeare, beginning with an extensive look at the role this literature played in Sigmund Freud's mind at the origins of psychoanalysis. Also examines later interpretations. (SR)

  15. [Diagnostic accuracy of Epworth sleepiness scale in the acute phase of myocardial infarction]. (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, H; Boussaid, H; Hamdi, I; Longo, S; Baccar, H; Boujnah, M R


    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is underdiagnosed in cardiologist daily practice, especially in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Its diagnosis is based on a polysomnography study. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) stands as a simple and rapid means to select patients for the sleep investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the ESS for screening OSAS in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction. We conducted a prospective study of 120 consecutive patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction, from April 2011 to March 2012. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the ESS, when patients were in the intensive care unit. All patients have undergone an overnight sleep study using a portable diagnostic device, in the 15 days following the acute coronary syndrome. The diagnostic of OSA was considered as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥5 events/hour, severe OSA was defined as AHI of ≥30. The study included 120 patients comprising 102 men and 18 women. The mean age was 58 ± 12 years. Smoking was the major cardiovascular risk factor with 72% of all patients; prevalence of diabetes was 40% and hypertension was found in 44% of the population. The prevalence of OSA was 79%. Severe OSA was diagnosed in 16% of all patients and mean AHI was 15.76 ± 14.93. Mean ESS was 2.2 ± 1.84 in the global population while it was 5.2 ± 1.2 in patients with severe OSAS. Multivariate analysis showed that ESS score ≥ 4 was an independent predictive factor for severe OSA (OR=28; 95% IC: 8-101; P<0.001). The prevalence of OSA in patients with acute myocardial infarction was very high. ESS score ≥ 4 was an independent predictive factor for severe OSA. Despite its subjective feature, the ESS seems to be an interesting score for screening patients to undergo polysomnography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Maladaptive eating behavior assessment among bariatric surgery candidates: Evaluation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hawkins, Misty A W; Duncan, Jennifer; Rummell, Christina M; Perkins, Shannon; Crowther, Janis H


    Eating pathology among bariatric surgery candidates is common and associated with adverse outcomes. However, its assessment is complicated by the inconsistent use of standardized measures. We addressed this by examining the use of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in a large bariatric sample (N = 343). To evaluate the EDDS among bariatric surgery candidates via examination of: (1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) and fifth edition (DSM-5) rates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and maladaptive eating behaviors, and (2) the relationship between response biases and self-reported eating disorder symptoms. Participants were bariatric surgery candidates at a large public hospital in the Midwest. As part of a larger preoperative evaluation, 343 patients seeking bariatric surgery completed the EDDS and measures of problematic response bias. Approximately 16% of the sample met full threshold criteria for binge eating disorder using DSM-5 criteria. Using the DSM-IV-TR, rates were lower but still substantial at 13%. Rates for bulimia nervosa were 8% (DSM-5) and 6% (DSM-IV-TR). The majority (66.1%) of participants reported at least one binge-eating episode per week. The most commonly used compensatory behavior was fasting (20.4%), followed by excessive exercise (11.7%), laxative use (5.6%), and vomiting (1.8%). An inverse relationship between severity of the eating symptomatology and problematic response bias emerged. The EDDS shows promise as a screening tool that uses diagnostic criteria to provide rates of binge eating and eating psychopathology among surgical candidates. Our findings suggest that subsequent validation studies of this measure are needed, should address potential response bias concerns, and should employ clear definitions of binge eating to promote standardization of eating pathology assessment in the bariatric population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric

  17. Diagnostics for stochastic genome-scale modeling via model slicing and debugging.

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    Kevin J Tsai

    Full Text Available Modeling of biological behavior has evolved from simple gene expression plots represented by mathematical equations to genome-scale systems biology networks. However, due to obstacles in complexity and scalability of creating genome-scale models, several biological modelers have turned to programming or scripting languages and away from modeling fundamentals. In doing so, they have traded the ability to have exchangeable, standardized model representation formats, while those that remain true to standardized model representation are faced with challenges in model complexity and analysis. We have developed a model diagnostic methodology inspired by program slicing and debugging and demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology on a genome-scale metabolic network model published in the BioModels database. The computer-aided identification revealed specific points of interest such as reversibility of reactions, initialization of species amounts, and parameter estimation that improved a candidate cell's adenosine triphosphate production. We then compared the advantages of our methodology over other modeling techniques such as model checking and model reduction. A software application that implements the methodology is available at

  18. Diagnostics for stochastic genome-scale modeling via model slicing and debugging. (United States)

    Tsai, Kevin J; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung


    Modeling of biological behavior has evolved from simple gene expression plots represented by mathematical equations to genome-scale systems biology networks. However, due to obstacles in complexity and scalability of creating genome-scale models, several biological modelers have turned to programming or scripting languages and away from modeling fundamentals. In doing so, they have traded the ability to have exchangeable, standardized model representation formats, while those that remain true to standardized model representation are faced with challenges in model complexity and analysis. We have developed a model diagnostic methodology inspired by program slicing and debugging and demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology on a genome-scale metabolic network model published in the BioModels database. The computer-aided identification revealed specific points of interest such as reversibility of reactions, initialization of species amounts, and parameter estimation that improved a candidate cell's adenosine triphosphate production. We then compared the advantages of our methodology over other modeling techniques such as model checking and model reduction. A software application that implements the methodology is available at

  19. Engineering integrated digital circuits with allosteric ribozymes for scaling up molecular computation and diagnostics. (United States)

    Penchovsky, Robert


    Here we describe molecular implementations of integrated digital circuits, including a three-input AND logic gate, a two-input multiplexer, and 1-to-2 decoder using allosteric ribozymes. Furthermore, we demonstrate a multiplexer-decoder circuit. The ribozymes are designed to seek-and-destroy specific RNAs with a certain length by a fully computerized procedure. The algorithm can accurately predict one base substitution that alters the ribozyme's logic function. The ability to sense the length of RNA molecules enables single ribozymes to be used as platforms for multiple interactions. These ribozymes can work as integrated circuits with the functionality of up to five logic gates. The ribozyme design is universal since the allosteric and substrate domains can be altered to sense different RNAs. In addition, the ribozymes can specifically cleave RNA molecules with triplet-repeat expansions observed in genetic disorders such as oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the designer ribozymes can be employed for scaling up computing and diagnostic networks in the fields of molecular computing and diagnostics and RNA synthetic biology.

  20. The validation of the Polish version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and its factor structure

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    Wojciech Ł. Dragan


    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS is a self-descriptive measure developed to provide information regarding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity. Objectives: The aim of this article is to report on the validation of the Polish version of PDS and to test its factor structure with reference to two models: an original three-factor model (Reexperiencing, Avoidance, and Arousal and alternative five-factor model (Reexperiencing, Avoidance, Numbing, Dysphoric Arousal, and Anxious Arousal. Method: The validation procedure included three studies conducted on samples of separate populations: university-level students (n=507, individuals who had experienced various traumas (n=320, and treatment-seeking survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVA (n=302. Various other measures of trauma-related psychopathology were administered to participants, as well as the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID in the case of MVA patients. Results: PDS showed high internal consistency and test–retest reliability, good diagnostic agreement with SCID, good sensitivity but relatively low specificity. The satisfactory convergent validity was supported by a large number of significant correlations with other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA generally confirmed both the three-factor structure and the alternative five-factor structure of the questionnaire. Conclusions: The results show generally good psychometric properties of the Polish version of PDS.

  1. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

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    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua


    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  2. Transferences in parent-infant psychoanalytic treatments. (United States)

    Salomonsson, Bjorn


    In parent-infant treatments, babies sometimes exhibit symptoms such as screaming, clinging, and fearful gaze avoidance of the analyst. The paper investigates if such phenomena may be regarded as transference manifestations, and if so, if they appear both in younger and older infants. Based on three case presentations, it is concluded that some babies are capable of forming both brief and enduring transferences. The term "indirect infant transference" refers to when a baby reacts emotionally to the analyst as long as the parent's transference remains unresolved. "Direct transference" refers to when a baby reacts in a non-mediated way to the analyst. The necessary tool of investigation for discovering these phenomena is a psychoanalytic method with an explicit, though not exclusive, focus on the baby. Discerning them in the clinical encounter may help us understand the baby's predicament and when and how to address the baby or the parent. These treatments constitute an empirical field awaiting more extensive clinical and theoretical investigation. Already now, they suggest that transference may be rooted in, and may appear during, very early developmental stages. The paper's positions are compared with those put forward by other parent-infant clinicians. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Use of extratransference interpretation in psychoanalytic psychotherapy

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    Jojić Boris R.


    Full Text Available Background. In psychoanalytic psychotherapy, the transference analysis takes the central position of the work. The work in the extratransference sphere and experience in a professional practice with extratransference interventions have not been reported much in the literature. Extratransference sphere includes less transferring relation to a psychotherapist, transference to other objects, or may refer to the external reality rather than the psychic reality or fantasy. Case report. We pointed out extratransference interventions. We demonstrated an application of a genetic interpretation and reconstruction, too, which could restore and establish the connections between the past and the present, in order to understand the influences of the current reality and the past, and helping us, further, to resolve the infantile conflicts. Conclusion. Interpretation of extratransference situations takes an important part of an analytical work and it is an essential category of the interpretation. Analytic understanding should include transference and extratransference spheres, fantasy and reality, past and present. Working with neurotic patterns and character resistance needs an optimal choice of intervention in the given moment of the analytic process. Extratransference interventions are an essential category of intervention, irreplaceable for its effectiveness in the analytic process.

  4. [Asomatognosia and oral drive: a psychoanalytical perspective]. (United States)

    Morin, C; Durand, E; Marchal, F; Timsit, S; Manai, R; Pradat-Diehl, P; Rancurel, G


    The psychoanalytic concept of specular image refers to the complex construction that associates the body image with the language coordinates of the individual, thus making him/her a human subject. The acquisition of this specular image implies the loss of corporeal exchanges between mother and child, i.e., the "neutralization" of those body parts or extensions where these exchanges take place. These conceptions of body image and subjectivity lead to the hypothesis that neurological disturbances of body schema may alter the patients' subjectivity and their relation to the lost "object" insofar as they alter body image. In the present paper, we present two patients aged under 50, with a unique first ever stroke due to ischemia in the right middle cerebral artery territory and asomatognosia. On one hand, Bisiach's protocol was used to assess hemiplegia, sensory troubles, visual troubles, hemineglect and anosognosia, and adapted to assess asomatognosia. On the other hand, subjective data were gathered during a semistructured interview and a self-portrait test. This showed that asomatognosia was accompanied by a destructuration of body image and aberrant oral manifestations involving the paralyzed hand. The psychological positive phenomena accompanying asomatognosia might correspond to the intrusion of the lost object in the patients' psychic reality, due to the alteration of body schema and body image.

  5. Theory and practice in psychoanalysis: psychoanalytic praxis. 1969. (United States)

    Bleger, José


    The author systematises and examines the relation between theory and practice in psychoanalysis in three directions: one, eminently epistemological, which is only mentioned because it pertains not only to psychoanalysis but to all the sciences; another, the relation between theory and technique; and the third, the relation between theory and the institutional organisation of psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts. All the problems described, especially the second and third points, together define psychoanalytic praxis. With regard to contradictions between theory and technique, the author points out that psychoanalytic theory is constructed fundamentally on the basis of an approach that is historico-genetic, dynamic and consistent with formal logic, whereas psychoanalytic practice occurs within a transference–countertransference relation, in a situation configured as an analytic field, a ‘here and now’, within a dramatic explanation and in a dialectic process. This triple diagnosis involves naturalistic and phenomenological approaches, the problem of objectivity and the role given to sexuality as a privileged parameter in psychoanalytic theory. In relation to the third direction mentioned above,the author refers briefly to the problem of psychoanalytic organisations, in the sense that they come into conflict with the development of psychoanalytic theory and the deepening of investigation. In reference to the latter, the author emphasises the need to widen the perspective of what constitutes psychoanalytic praxis. He points out that praxis is always replete with contradictions and that it is not a question of ignoring,denying or impeding these contradictions themselves (which would in any case be totally ineffective), but that by taking them into account, scientific development could be managed in a more planned way, less blindly; that is to say, less abandoned to spontaneity.

  6. Effects of a brief psychoanalytic intervention for perinatal depression. (United States)

    Nanzer, Nathalie; Sancho Rossignol, Ana; Righetti-Veltema, Marion; Knauer, Dora; Manzano, Juan; Palacio Espasa, Francisco


    This pilot study explores the effects of a brief individual psychoanalytic therapy on perinatal depressive symptoms. This intervention is based on the Geneva's mother-infant intervention model. A sample of 129 pregnant women was recruited in Geneva (Switzerland) and screened for depressive symptoms with two instruments: the 'Edinburgh postnatal depression scale' (EPDS) and the 'Dépistage anténatal de la dépression postnatale'. A group of 40 women presenting depressive symptoms (treatment group) participated in a four-session intervention called 'Psychotherapy centred on parenthood (PCP)'. It consists in two antenatal and two postnatal sessions and is focussed on changing problematic representations of parenthood. This treatment group was compared to a control group of 88 women without depressive symptoms and following the usual obstetrical care. The main outcome measure was EPDS at 3 and 6 months after delivery. The 'Global assessment functioning scale' was administered at the end of each therapeutic session. The 'Parent-infant relationship global assessment scale' was administered at the two postnatal sessions in order to explore if PCP was also effective in preventing the potential negative effects of depression on mother-infant relationship. Results show that in the treatment group (N = 31), EPDS scores dropped from 12.8 to 4.8; none of these women met the EPDS cut-off score of 12 at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Mother-infant relationship was well adapted for all 31 dyads at the end of the intervention. These results suggest that PCP is a promising intervention for treating perinatal depression and helping mothers engaging in parenting.

  7. Which are the most useful scales for predicting repeat self-harm? A systematic review evaluating risk scales using measures of diagnostic accuracy (United States)

    Quinlivan, L; Cooper, J; Davies, L; Hawton, K; Gunnell, D; Kapur, N


    Objectives The aims of this review were to calculate the diagnostic accuracy statistics of risk scales following self-harm and consider which might be the most useful scales in clinical practice. Design Systematic review. Methods We based our search terms on those used in the systematic reviews carried out for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence self-harm guidelines (2012) and evidence update (2013), and updated the searches through to February 2015 (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO). Methodological quality was assessed and three reviewers extracted data independently. We limited our analysis to cohort studies in adults using the outcome of repeat self-harm or attempted suicide. We calculated diagnostic accuracy statistics including measures of global accuracy. Statistical pooling was not possible due to heterogeneity. Results The eight papers included in the final analysis varied widely according to methodological quality and the content of scales employed. Overall, sensitivity of scales ranged from 6% (95% CI 5% to 6%) to 97% (CI 95% 94% to 98%). The positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 5% (95% CI 3% to 9%) to 84% (95% CI 80% to 87%). The diagnostic OR ranged from 1.01 (95% CI 0.434 to 2.5) to 16.3 (95%CI 12.5 to 21.4). Scales with high sensitivity tended to have low PPVs. Conclusions It is difficult to be certain which, if any, are the most useful scales for self-harm risk assessment. No scales perform sufficiently well so as to be recommended for routine clinical use. Further robust prospective studies are warranted to evaluate risk scales following an episode of self-harm. Diagnostic accuracy statistics should be considered in relation to the specific service needs, and scales should only be used as an adjunct to assessment. PMID:26873046

  8. Ultra-acute diagnostics for stroke: Large-scale implementation of prehospital biomarker sampling. (United States)

    Mattila, O S; Harve, H; Pihlasviita, S; Ritvonen, J; Sibolt, G; Pystynen, M; Strbian, D; Curtze, S; Kuisma, M; Tatlisumak, T; Lindsberg, P J


    Blood-based biomarkers could enable early and cost-effective diagnostics for acute stroke patients in the prehospital setting to support early initiation of treatments. To facilitate development of ultra-acute biomarkers, we set out to implement large-scale prehospital blood sampling and determine feasibility and diagnostic timesavings of this approach. Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel of the Helsinki metropolitan area were trained to collect prehospital blood samples from thrombolysis candidates using a cannula adapter technique. Time delays, sample quality, and logistics were investigated between May 20, 2013 and May 19, 2014. Prehospital blood sampling and study recruiting were successfully performed for 430 thrombolysis candidates, of which 50% had ischemic stroke, 14.4% TIA, 13.5% hemorrhagic stroke, and 22.1% stroke mimics. A total of 66.3% of all samples were collected during non-office hours. The median (interquartile range) emergency call to prehospital sample time was 33 minutes (25-41), and the median time from reported symptom onset or wake-up to prehospital sample was 53 minutes (38-85; n=394). Prehospital sampling was performed 31 minutes (25-42) earlier than hospital admission blood sampling and 37 minutes (30-47) earlier than admission neuroimaging. Hemolysis rate in serum and plasma samples was 6.5% and 9.3% for EMS samples, and 0.7% and 1.6% for admission samples. Prehospital biomarker sampling can be implemented in all EMS units and provides a median timesaving of more than 30 minutes to first blood sample. Large prehospital sample sets will enable development of novel ambulance biomarkers to improve early differential diagnosis and treatment of thrombolysis candidates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Silverman, Martin A


    Advances in Contemporary Psychoanalytic Field Theory: Concept and Further Development. Edited by S. Montana Katz, Roosevelt Cassorla, and Giuseppe Civitarese. London/New York: Routledge, 2017. 212 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of the Kampala Trauma Score using estimated Abbreviated Injury Scale scores and physician opinion. (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Forson, Paa Kobina; Oduro, George; Stewart, Barclay; Dike, Nkechi; Glover, Paul; Maio, Ronald F


    The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) has been proposed as a triage tool for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy of KTS in predicting emergency department outcomes using timely injury estimation with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score and physician opinion to calculate KTS scores. This was a diagnostic accuracy study of KTS among injured patients presenting to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital A&E, Ghana. South African Triage Scale (SATS); KTS component variables, including AIS scores and physician opinion for serious injury quantification; and ED disposition were collected. Agreement between estimated AIS score and physician opinion were analyzed with normal, linear weighted, and maximum kappa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of KTS-AIS and KTS-physician opinion was performed to evaluate each measure's ability to predict A&E mortality and need for hospital admission to the ward or theatre. A total of 1053 patients were sampled. There was moderate agreement between AIS criteria and physician opinion by normal (κ=0.41), weighted (κ lin =0.47), and maximum (κ max =0.53) kappa. A&E mortality ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.93, KTS-physician opinion 0.89, and SATS 0.88 with overlapping 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Hospital admission ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.73, KTS-physician opinion 0.79, and SATS 0.71 with statistical similarity. When evaluating only patients with serious injuries, KTS-AIS (ROC 0.88) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.88) performed similarly to SATS (ROC 0.78) in predicting A&E mortality. The ROC area for KTS-AIS (ROC 0.71; 95%CI 0.66-0.75) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.74; 95%CI 0.69-0.79) was significantly greater than SATS (ROC 0.57; 0.53-0.60) with regard to need for admission. KTS predicted mortality and need for admission from the ED well when early estimation of the number of serious injuries was used, regardless of method (i.e. AIS criteria or physician opinion

  11. Psychoanalytic peregrinations. II: Psychoanalysis as science and art. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    The foundations of psychoanalytic clinical practice involve the role of fantasy, creativity, and imagination as well as the natural science aspects of psychoanalysis. There is a common ground for psychoanalytic technique and we should not in a "politically correct" manner, as is so popular today, abandon the philosophical or Platonic foundationalism that lies at the basis of Freud's psychoanalytic practices. Although it is a "politically incorrect" view, a reasonable degree of objectivity and scientific validity is attainable by the relatively neutral psychoanalyst, using both natural science observations as well as introspection and hermeneutics. Furthermore, since psychoanalysis is fundamentally a creative activity, the roots of creativity require exploration and careful study. Subjective and first person methodologies such as Freud's psychoanalysis and phenomenology cannot be ignored in our search for the core of the self of each of our patients.

  12. The ambiguity of confidentiality in a psychoanalytic institute. (United States)

    Dulchin, J; Segal, A J


    Traditionally, psychoanalytic training institutes have used the knowledge which faculty gained in the psychoanalyses of their student patients to evaluate the progress of those students. The training institute that we shall call Eastern Institute regarded such a practice as unacceptable, and organized its program with the intention that analysis would exercise no power over their student patients' careers. The institute's commitment to the confidentiality of psychoanalytic relationships led to an ambiguous definition of confidentiality. This ambiguity meant that some faculty members violated the confidentiality of the analytic relationship even though they believed thye were sustaining it. This paper examines the ways in which confidential information was managed, the conditions under which it was compromised, and the significance of this paradoxical situation in the life of the Institute and in the wider psychoanalytic world.

  13. Dialectical thinking and therapeutic action in the psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Hoffman, I Z


    The therapeutic action of the psychoanalytic process depends upon a special kind of power with which the analyst is invested by the patient and by society, a power that is enhanced by adherence to psychoanalytic rituals, including the asymmetrical aspects of the arrangement. It is important, however, that the analyst also engage with the patient in a way that is sufficiently self-expressive and spontaneous so that a bond of mutual identification can develop between the participants. At the core of the generic "good object" is an element of uncertainty as the analyst struggles to find an optimal position relative to this dialetic between formal psychoanalytic authority and personal responsivity and self-expression. At the core of the generic "bad object" is an uncritical commitment to one side of the dialetic at the expense of the other. An extended clinical vignette illustrates how the analyst's struggle with this dialetic has great therapeutic potential.

  14. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy: differences and similarities]. (United States)

    Rössler-Schülein, Hemma; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette


    Psychoanalysis as well as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy derived from Psychoanalysis are efficient methods offered by the Austrian health care system in the treatment for anxiety, depression, personality disorders, neurotic and somatoform disorders. In both methods similar basic treatment techniques are applied. Therefore differentiation between both treatment options often is made pragmatically by the frequency of sessions or the use of the couch and seems to be vague in the light of empirical studies. This overview focuses a potential differentiation-the objective and subjective dimensions of the indication process. Concerning the latter it is to investigate, if reflective functioning and ego-integration can be enhanced in the patient during the interaction process between patient and psychoanalyst. Empirical data underline the necessity to investigate to which extent externalizing defence processes are used and to integrate such factors into the decision and indication process. Differing treatment aims display another possibility to differentiate psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims for example more at circumscribed problem-foci, the capability for self-reflexion is one of the most prominent treatment effects in psychoanalysis that results in on-going symptom reduction and resilience. The most prominent differentiation lies in the utilization of technical neutrality. Within Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy neutrality has sometimes to be suspended in order to stop severe acting out. Empirical evidence is given concerning the differentiation between psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, that treatment efficacy is not correlated with the duration of the treatment, but with the frequency of sessions. Results give support to the assumption that the dosage of specific and appropriate psychoanalytic techniques facilitates sustained therapeutic change.

  15. Diagnostic utility of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised in two samples of survivors of war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ehring, T.; Priebe, S.


    The study aimed at examining the diagnostic utility of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) as a screening tool for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of war. The IES-R was completed by two independent samples that had survived the war in the Balkans: a sample of randomly

  16. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia


    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW


    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of the haemoglobin colour scale in neonates and young infants in resource-poor countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, P. F.; de Moor, L. T. T.

    Due to the insidious nature of infant anaemia, this disorder frequently remains undetected and untreated by health-care workers in resource-poor settings. We assessed the accuracy of a low-cost and simple diagnostic tool, the haemoglobin colour scale (HCS), in estimating haemoglobin (Hb) values in

  19. Assessing diagnostic accuracy of Haemoglobin Colour Scale in real-life setting. (United States)

    Shah, Pankaj P; Desai, Shrey A; Modi, Dhiren K; Shah, Shobha P


    The study was undertaken to determine diagnostic accuracy of Haemoglobin Colour Scale (HCS) in hands of village-based community health workers (CHWs) in real-life community setting in India. Participants (501 women) were randomly selected from 8 villages belonging to a project area of SEWA-Rural, a voluntary organization located in India. After receiving a brief training, CHWs and a research assistant obtained haemoglobin readings using HCS and HemoCue (reference) respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive-values, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Bland-Altman plot was constructed. Mean haemoglobin value, using HCS and HemoCue were 11.02 g/dL (CI 10.9-11.2) and 11.07 g/dL (CI 10.9-11.2) respectively. Mean difference between haemoglobin readings was 0.95 g/dL. Sensitivity of HCS was 0.74 (CI 0.65-0.81) and 0.84 (CI 0.8-0.87) whereas specificity was 0.84 (CI:0.51-0.98) and 0.99 (CI:0.97-0.99) using haemoglobin cutoff limits of 10 g/dL and 7 g/dL respectively. CHWs can accurately diagnose severe and moderately-severe anaemia by using HCS in real-life field condition after a brief training.

  20. Improving Objective Measurement in Nursing Research: Rasch Model Analysis and Diagnostics of the Nursing Students' Clinical Stress Scale. (United States)

    Bourke, Mary; Wallace, Linda; Greskamp, Marlene; Tormoehlen, Lucy


    The purpose of this study is to use Rasch model diagnostics and analysis to understand survey item (questions) functioning of the Nursing Students' Clinical Stress Scale, a rating scale instrument developed by Whang (2002). A rating scale instrument originally written in Korean was translated into English and administered to a convenience sample of all junior (46) and senior (64) students at a large Midwest university. Rasch model analysis provided the empirical evidence to support that the survey items measured the latent variable, stress. Diagnostic results indicated the need for improved category labeling. It is imperative that nursing educators evaluate and facilitate inter- and intraprofessional relationships between students and staff/faculty as well as understand the student experience.

  1. Reliability and diagnostic characteristics of the JFK coma recovery scale-revised: exploring the influence of rater's level of experience. (United States)

    Løvstad, Marianne; Frøslie, Kathrine F; Giacino, Joseph T; Skandsen, Toril; Anke, Audny; Schanke, Anne-Kristine


    To confirm the reliability and diagnostic validity of the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) across raters with varying levels of experience. Thirty-one patients with disorders of consciousness were recruited from 6 Norwegian hospitals. CRS-R and the Disability Rating Scale. Reliability measures were good for the CRS-R total scores and moderate to good for its subscales. Diagnostic agreement among examiners was good. Raters' experience with the CRS-R favorably influenced reliability. Sensitivity and specificity analyses demonstrated better detection of patients in minimally conscious state on the CRS-R relative to the Disability Rating Scale. The CRS-R is a reliable tool for diagnosing vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Raters' level of experience influences the reliability of the CRS-R scores.

  2. Psychoanalytical Theories about Dance and Art | Akunna | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the recent trend of crossing academic boundaries and integrating the humanities with social and abstract sciences in contemporary times, this article focuses on the role of art in the school of psychoanalytical thought and by extension, modern medicine. In the process, it explores the relationship between Aristotle's ...

  3. The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interviewees also described adaptive responses to these contextual challenges. These responses are discussed as evidence of the usefulness of theoretical and technical eclecticism, when applied with psychoanalytic mindfulness, in developing the South African parent–infant/child psychotherapy field. Journal of Child ...

  4. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  5. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Volume XXIII. (United States)

    Eissler, Ruth S., Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-seven papers treat aspects of the psychoanalytic study of the child. Problems of psychopathology and therapy considered are the fantasy of the phallic woman, the use of child analysis, the background of perversions, variables in the production of neurotic disturbances, treatment of narcissistic personality disorders, and problems of the…

  6. What Is the Use of Theory? A Psychoanalytic Discussion (United States)

    Britzman, Deborah P.


    Freud asking whether psychoanalysis could be taught in the university, and then whether it could be learned, provides an occasion for asking about the emotional uses of theory. The paper draws from literature, clinical writing and pedagogy to build a psychoanalytic discussion of teaching and learning that takes seriously phantasies of knowledge…

  7. Minding the gap between positivism and hermeneutics in psychoanalytic research. (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J; Corveleyn, Jozef


    Two quite different cultures are to be found within psychoanalysis, one more clinical in orientation, more focused on meaning and interpretation, and relying primarily on the traditional case study method, the other more research-oriented, focused on cause-and-effect relationships, and relying primarily on methods borrowed from the natural and social sciences. The history of this divide is reviewed and arguments, pro and con, about the potential contributions of specific types of empirical investigation are discussed. Increasingly, it seems, criticisms concerning the scientific status of psychoanalysis are being responded to by empirical research. This has contributed to a growing recognition within the scientific community of the credibility of aspects of psychoanalytic theories and of the effectiveness of psychodynamic treatment. However, some segments of the psychoanalytic community are concerned that this increase in the quantity and quality of empirical research on psychoanalytic concepts risks creating an empirical one-sidedness, while other segments are concerned that not engaging in systematic empirical research can lead to intellectual isolation, fragmentation, stagnation, and orthodoxy. To counter this polarizing tendency, a recommendation is made for methodological pluralism. Adopting this stance could contribute to an enriched understanding of the clinical process and to the development of new research methodologies to investigate complex psychodynamic hypotheses, thus bridging the gap between the two psychoanalytic cultures, as well as the gap between research and clinical practice.

  8. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, C.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.


    Objectives: Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility

  9. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, D.J.; Hakkaart-Van Roijen, Leona

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility

  10. Observation of agoraphobic syndrome through the prism of psychoanalytic epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Aneta


    Full Text Available Focus of the text is on psychoanalytic epistemology of agoraphobic syndrome which is still not sufficiently clarified in psychodynamic parameters. Detailed theorethic study starts from the very origins, theoretical and practical suggestions of Sigmund Freud. Early psychoanalytic formulations include psychodynamic models of Karl Abraham, Helene Deutsch and Edoardo Weiss, as well as a number of other significant analysts who gave significant insight to the metapsychological formulations of agoraphobia in the beginning of XX century. After portraying crucial theoretic frames of dynamics of agoraphobia originating from French psychoanalysis, illustrated through the work of Maurice Bouvet and Jannine Chasseguet - Smirgle, author moves towards psychoanalytic models presented to the psychoanalytic community during the first and second decade of XXI century. This segment incorporates autistic objects of agoraphobic neurotic according to Donald Cartwright and synthesis of crucial traits of representations of self and representations of object according to Barbara Milrod. Leading us towards the conclusion author makes a resume of the actual psychoanalytic epistemology of the agoraphoic syndrome pointing out at the centrality of non adequately solved separation - individuation stage, as well as ego defects associated to he agoraphobic syndrome. Specificity of object relations of agoraphobic neurotic she illustrates pointing out at the nature of his relationship with the follower, that psychic fusion which provides the feeling of certainty outside the safety of ones own home. This detailed overview of severely insufficient published literature devoted to agoraphobia is resumed accenting the necessity for its further research, as well as clear notion that although neurotic disorder, agoraphobic syndrome by at least one of its pole gravitates towards nozologycal unit marking personality disorders.

  11. Comparison of diagnostic quality and accuracy in color-coded versus gray-scale DCE-MR imaging display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, A. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), School of Medical Science and Technology, Kharagpur (India); Knopp, M.V. [The Ohio State University, Department of Radiology, Columbus (United States); Zechmann, C.M.; Owsijewitsch, M.; Tengg-Kobligk, H. von; Zamecnik, P.; Kauczor, H.U. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Choyke, P.L. [National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Bethesda (United States); Giesel, F.L. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Bethesda (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value and tumor-vascular display properties (microcirculation) of two different functional MRI post-processing and display (color and gray-scale display) techniques used in oncology. The study protocol was approved by the IRB and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. 38 dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data sets of patients with malignant pleural-mesothelioma were acquired and post-processed. DCE-MRI was performed at 1.5 tesla with a T1-weighted 2D gradient-echo-sequence (TR 7.0 ms, TE 3.9 ms, 15 axial slices, 22 sequential repetitions), prior and during chemotherapy. Subtracting first image of contrast-enhanced-dynamic series from the last, produced gray-scale images. Color images were produced using a pharmacokinetic two-compartment model. Eight raters, blinded to diagnosis, by visual assessment of post-processed images evaluated both diagnostic quality of the images and vasculature of the tumor using a rating scale ranging from -5 to +5. The scores for vasculature were assessed by correlating with the maximum amplitude of the total-tumor-ROI for accuracy. Color coded images were rated as significantly higher in diagnostic quality and tumor vascular score than gray-scale images (p<0.001, 0.005). ROI signal amplitude analysis and vascular ratings on color coded images were better correlated compared to gray-scale images rating (p<0.05). Color coded images were shown to have higher diagnostic quality and accuracy with respect to tumor vasculature in DCE-MRI, therefore their implementation in clinical assessment and follow-up should be considered for wider application. (orig.)


    Busch, Fredric N.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Sandberg, Larry S.


    Systematic research on psychoanalytic treatments has been limited by several factors, including a belief that clinical experience can demonstrate the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, rendering systematic research unnecessary, the view that psychoanalytic research would be difficult or impossible to accomplish, and a concern that research would distort the treatment being delivered. In recent years, however, many psychoanalysts have recognized the necessity of research in order to obtain a more balanced assessment of the role of psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in a contemporary treatment armamentarium, as well as to allow appropriate evaluation and potentially greater acceptance by the broader mental health and medical communities. In this context, studies were conducted of a psychodynamic treatment, Panic-Focused Psycho-dynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP), initially in an open trial and then in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in comparison with a less active treatment, Applied Relaxation Training (ART; Cerny et al. 1984), for adults with primary DSM-IV panic disorder. The results of the RCT demonstrated the efficacy of PFPP in treating panic disorder, and also demonstrated that a psychoanalytic treatment can be systematically evaluated in a mode consistent with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Two specific features of the methodology, the development of the treatment manual and the operationalization of the adherence instrument, both core building blocks of contemporary psychotherapy outcome research, and their implications for psychoanalytic research are discussed in greater depth. The theoretical, clinical, and educational implications of the PFPP studies are elaborated, and suggestions are made for pursuing further outcome research of psychoanalytic treatments. PMID:19270248

  13. The splitting of the New York Psychoanalytic Society and the construction of psychoanalytic authority. (United States)

    Eisold, K


    The splitting apart of the New York Psychoanalytic Society, which began in 1941 with the expulsion of Karen Horney, is seen in the context of a concerted effort to establish the professional authority of psychoanalysis on unimpeachable foundations. On the one hand, a core group of young psychiatrists trained abroad, led by Kubie, sought to establish strict standards of training along orthodox lines; following in the footsteps of medical reformers who had established the professional authority of medicine with strict standards for training and credentialling, they opposed their more 'lax' elders as well as revisionists such as Horney and Rado. On the other hand, the refugee analysts fleeing Hitler sought to establish the security and conditions of orthodoxy they had enjoyed abroad, though they were forced to compromise on the issue of lay analysis. Together they expelled the deviants and sought to establish the professional authority of psychoanalysis on the twin foundations of medical standards and Freudian orthodoxy. Anxieties following the death of Freud contributed to this dynamic process. But contradictions between the conflicting demands of these two sources of authority undermined the stability of this alliance and, eventually, contributed to its collapse.

  14. Questions of technique following the psychoanalytic perspective of Erich Fromm. (United States)

    Biancoli, Romano


    To avoid dogma and ritual Erich Fromm chose not to write a book on psychoanalytic technique, leaving his teachings to the oral tradition of his pupils which advises us to treat each patient and each session as unique. The rules of technique are neither revoked nor denied but rather discussed and criticized. In the author's opinion the "question of technique" takes the place of technique, making the Frommian approach wholly current and in dialogue with interpersonal and relational orientations in psychoanalysis. On this dialectical line and assuming the analyst's awareness as point of view, the theme of the relationship between the here-and-now of the session and the there-and-then of the analysand's life is developed. A dialectical context is also offered between operations of objectivization and operations of alienation in the psychoanalytic process.

  15. Deepening psychoanalytic listening: the marriage of Buddha and Freud. (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B


    Freud (1912) delineated the ideal state of mind for therapists to listen, what he called "evenly hovering" or "evenly suspended attention." No one has ever offered positive recommendations for how to cultivate this elusive yet eminently trainable state of mind. This leaves an important gap in training and technique. What Buddhism terms meditation-non-judgmental attention to what is happening moment-to-moment-cultivates exactly the extraordinary, yet accessible, state of mind Freud was depicting. But genuine analytic listening requires one other quality: the capacity to decode or translate what we hear on the latent and metaphoric level-which meditation does not do. This is a crucial weakness of meditation. In this chapter I will draw on the best of the Western psychoanalytic and Eastern meditative traditions to illuminate how therapists could use meditation to cultivate "evenly hovering attention" and how a psychoanalytic understanding of the language and logic of the unconscious complements and enriches meditative attention.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Debieux Rosa


    Full Text Available This article addresses the dilemmas of the advancement of psychoanalysis when taking into account certain problems, such as social exclusion, racism and others. These issues emerge when the psychoanalyst offers his or her listening in the pólis: in health care, assistance or education institutions, in communities. Such clinical-political psychoanalytic practices find the limits of its field and encourage the necessary dialogue with other fields of knowledge. On the other hand, they encourage the deepening of concepts and the creation of clinical devices compatible with the sociopolitical dimension of suffering. In the first part of the article, we discuss present the way that Freud articulates clinical practice, theory and social issues. Since then, however, the theoretical advance of psychoanalysis in its interface with culture has privileged artistic and religious facts, at the expense of the political, economic and social dimension. In the second part, we present our conception of clinical-political psychoanalytic or implicated psychoanalysis.

  17. Testing the measurement invariance of the University of Washington Self-Efficacy Scale short form across four diagnostic subgroups. (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Jiseon; Park, Ryoungsun; Bamer, Alyssa M; Bocell, Fraser D; Amtmann, Dagmar


    The University of Washington Self-Efficacy Scale (UW-SES) was originally developed for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). This study evaluates the measurement invariance of the 6-item short form of the UW-SES across four disability subgroups. Evidence of measurement invariance would extend the UW-SES for use in two additional diagnostic groups: muscular dystrophy (MD) and post-polio syndrome (PPS). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate successive levels of measurement invariance of the 6-item short form, the UW-SES: (a) configural invariance, i.e., equivalent item-factor structures between groups; (b) metric invariance, i.e., equivalent unstandardized factor loadings between groups; and (c) scalar invariance, i.e., equivalent item intercepts between groups. Responses from the four groups with different diagnostic disorders were compared: MD (n = 172), MS (n = 868), PPS (n = 225), and SCI (n = 242). The results of this study support that the most rigorous form of invariance (i.e., scalar) holds for the 6-item short form of the UW-SES across the four diagnostic subgroups. The current study suggests that the 6-item short form of the UW-SES has the same meaning across the four diagnostic subgroups. Thus, the 6-item short form is validated for people with MD, MS, PPS, and SCI.

  18. Diagnostic Construct Validity of MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Scale Scores (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael; Kushner, Shauna; Quilty, Lena C.; Ayearst, Lindsay E.


    In the current investigation, the authors examined the diagnostic construct validity of the "Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form" (MMPI-2-RF) in a patient sample. All participants were diagnosed via the "Structured Clinical Interview" for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P). The data set used in this…

  19. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient. (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Salas, Christian E; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H


    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL's impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space - where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general - and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  20. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient (United States)

    Moore, Paul A.; Salas, Christian E.; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H.


    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change. PMID:28890703

  1. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore


    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  2. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke. (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie


    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of Clinical Dehydration Scale in identifying dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis: a systematic review. (United States)

    Falszewska, Anna; Dziechciarz, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania


    To systematically update diagnostic accuracy of the Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) in clinical recognition of dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis. Six databases were searched for diagnostic accuracy studies in which population were children aged 1 to 36 months with acute gastroenteritis; index test was the CDS; and reference test was post-illness weight gain. Three studies involving 360 children were included. Limited evidence showed that in high-income countries the CDS provides strong diagnostic accuracy for ruling in moderate and severe (>6%) dehydration (positive likelihood ratio 5.2-6.6), but has limited value for ruling it out (negative likelihood ratio 0.4-0.55). In low-income countries, the CDS has limited value either for ruling moderate or severe dehydration in or out. In both settings, the CDS had limited value for ruling in or out dehydration dehydration 3% to 6%. The CDS can help assess moderate to severe dehydration in high-income settings. Given the limited data, the evidence should be viewed with caution. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Psychometric Properties and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Iranian Women

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    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi


    Full Text Available Background: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS has been used as a reliable screening tool for postpartum depression in many countries. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the EPDS in a sample of Iranian women.Methods: Using stratified sampling 262 postpartum women (2 weeks-3 months after delivery were selected from urban and rural health center in the city of Isfahan. They were interviewed using EPDS and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS. Data were assessed using factor analysis, diagnosis analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: The age of then participants ranged 18-45 years (26.6±5.1. Based on a cut-off point of >13 for HDRS, 18.3% of the participants. The overall reliability (Cronbach's alpha of EPDS was 0.79. There was a significant correlation (r2=0.60, P value<0.01 between EPDS and HDRS. Two factor analysis showed that anhedonia and depression were two explanatory factors. At a cut-off point12 the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 78% (95% CI: 73%-83% and its specificity was 75% (95% CI: 72%-78%. Conclusion: The Persian version of the EPDS showed appropriate psychometric properties diagnostic accuracy index. It can be used by health system professionals for detection, assessment and treatment for mothers with post partum depression.

  5. Validity of a Diagnostic Scale for Acupuncture: Application of the Item Response Theory to the Five Viscera Score

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    Taro Tomura


    Full Text Available In acupuncture therapy, diagnosis, acupoints, and stimulation for patients with the same illness are often inconsistent among between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM practitioners. This is in part due to the paucity of evidence-based diagnostic methods in TCM. To solve this problem, establishment of validated diagnostic tool is inevitable. We first applied the Item Response Theory (IRT model to the Five Viscera Score (FVS to test its validity by evaluating the ability of the questionnaire items to identify an individual’s latent traits. Next, the health-related QOL scale (SF-36, a suitable instrument for evaluating acupuncture therapy, was administered to evaluate whether the FVS can be used to make a health-related diagnosis. All 20 items of the FVS had adequate item discrimination, and 13 items had high item discrimination power. Measurement accuracy was suited for application in a range of individuals, from healthy to symptomatic. When the FVS and SF-36 were administered to other subjects, a part of which overlap with the first subjects, we found an association between the two scales, and the same findings were obtained when symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects were compared regardless of age and sex. In conclusion, the FVS may be effective in clinical diagnosis.

  6. Combining item response theory and diagnostic classification models: a psychometric model for scaling ability and diagnosing misconceptions. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Laine; Templin, Jonathan


    Traditional testing procedures typically utilize unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to provide a single, continuous estimate of a student's overall ability. Advances in psychometrics have focused on measuring multiple dimensions of ability to provide more detailed feedback for students, teachers, and other stakeholders. Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) provide multidimensional feedback by using categorical latent variables that represent distinct skills underlying a test that students may or may not have mastered. The Scaling Individuals and Classifying Misconceptions (SICM) model is presented as a combination of a unidimensional IRT model and a DCM where the categorical latent variables represent misconceptions instead of skills. In addition to an estimate of ability along a latent continuum, the SICM model provides multidimensional, diagnostic feedback in the form of statistical estimates of probabilities that students have certain misconceptions. Through an empirical data analysis, we show how this additional feedback can be used by stakeholders to tailor instruction for students' needs. We also provide results from a simulation study that demonstrate that the SICM MCMC estimation algorithm yields reasonably accurate estimates under large-scale testing conditions.

  7. Comparison of grayscale and color-scale renderings of digital medical images for diagnostic interpretation. (United States)

    Ogura, Akio; Kamakura, Aoi; Kaneko, Youhei; Kitaoka, Tomoya; Hayashi, Norio; Taniguchi, Anna


    Medical images are increasingly being rendered as digital images that are displayed on a monitor to provide diagnoses. However, these images are often rendered in grayscale. In this context, we compare the detectability of low-contrast signals between digital grayscale images and color-scale images. Low-contrast phantom images were rendered with the use of five color tables (gray, blue, red, yellow, and green). The 32 acquired images sorted in random order were evaluated by nine observers, and their observations were subjected to receiver operating characteristic analysis. In addition, the evaluators' preferred color and their eye fatigue upon image observation were compared. The low-contrast resolutions of yellow and green color scales were superior to that of grayscale. The use of yellow resulted in the least eye fatigue, and importantly our results indicate that the interpretation of digital medical images can be improved when these images are rendered in a "yellow scale" rather than grayscale.

  8. The development of a hassle-based diagnostic scale for predicting burnout in call centres

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    Willie A. Visser


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a brief daily hassle diagnostic questionnaire that could be used to identify daily hassles for customer service representatives within a call centre environment, and to investigate the relationship between daily hassles and burnout. A crosssectional survey was used with an accidental sample (N = 394 taken from a service and sales call centre. An exploratory factor analysis of the data resulted in a six-factor model of daily hassles consisting of daily demands, continuous change, co-worker hassles, demotivating work environment, transportation hassles and personal concerns. The internal consistency of one factor, namely personal concerns, was low. Exhaustion was best predicted by four categories of daily hassles, namely daily demands, continuous change, a demotivating work environment, and transportation hassles.

  9. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: Adult ADHD Diagnostic Tool or Personality Index? (United States)

    Hill, B.D.; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Jones, Glenn N.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew


    Objective: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is used to retroactively assess ADHD symptoms. This study sought to determine whether the WURS actually functions as an index of dysfunctional personality traits. Method: Five hundred twenty-two adult participants completed the WURS and at least one of the following measures: Wechsler Adult…

  10. Diagnostic Efficiency of the Child and Parent Versions of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (United States)

    Villabo, Marianne; Gere, Martina; Torgersen, Svenn; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.


    The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometrics and clinical efficiency of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), which measures physical symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic. Using a sample of 190 treatment-seeking Norwegian youth (aged 7-13 years, M[subscript age] = 10.3 years, 62.1% male),…

  11. Healing after Columbine: reflections of psychoanalytic responders to community trauma. (United States)

    Levy, Mary Ann; Haglund, Pamela; Plaut, Linda; Emde, Robert; Stewart, Marguerite; Shaw, Ronnie; Ilvonen, Carol; Buirski, Cathy Krown; Singer, Mel; Hea, Rebecca; Edwards, William


    Following the shootings at Columbine High School on April 20, 1999, the Denver Psychoanalytic Society provided both immediate and long-term interventions to those closely impacted by the tragedy. In this effort, analytically trained volunteers faced many personal challenges and role adjustments. To address these issues a reflective study group was formed twenty months after the traumatic event. Group discussions revealed a surprising number of residual symptoms from secondary trauma, as well as opportunities for shared coping among analysts. Little has been written about the very human and subjective responses of analysts in such circumstances. These experiences may be helpful to others in today's world of terrorism and unexpected violent events.

  12. Transference regression and psychoanalytic technique with infantile personalities. (United States)

    Kernberg, O F


    This paper describes a particular form of 'silent' regression during the psychoanalytic treatment of infantile personalities (a type of character pathology related to the hysterical personality). This regression is characterized by the development of rapid interchange in the roles enacted in the transference and projected on to the analyst, an apparent 'disconnexion' of the transference material from that dominant when the patient is in non-regressed states, and the intensification of the analyst's counter-transference reactions. The diagnosis and management of these regressive transferences requires a particular interpretive style and strategy outlined in this paper and illustrated with two case vignettes.

  13. Sanctioned social violence: A psychoanalytic view--part I. (United States)

    Kernberg, Otto F


    This paper is the first of a series of two that present an effort to systematize the application of psychoanalytic theory of group processes to the outbreak of massive violence. It explores the origins and social amplification of primitive aggression by means of group psychology and mass psychology, and the combined influences of the regressive pull of ideologies, the personality features of social and political leadership, and the triggering impact of historical trauma and social crises. The paper describes a spectrum of narcissistic-paranoid mechanisms that provide a common matrix for the analysis of those aspects of social psychology that co-determine socially sanctioned violence.

  14. Human foibles and psychoanalytic technique: Freud, Ferenczi, and Gizella Palos. (United States)

    Kilborne, Benjamin


    This paper explores relations between human conundrums and psychoanalytic technique and theory through the relationship between Freud and Ferenczi. Rather than vilify (or lionize) either figure, the paper seeks to see into their struggles and conflicts, and to draw from correspondence and writings a portrait of a relationship. The paper describes not two dusty figures drawn from the closet of history but rather two live, flawed, and struggling human beings whose rational ideas about what they were doing could never keep step with their emotions. There is therefore much to be learned from their relationship: about transference and countertransference, about boundaries and friendship, about rivalry and despair, and about shame.

  15. The Psychoanalytic Interpretation of the Organizational Environment as a Management Tool for Sustainable Development

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    Khripko Elena


    Full Text Available The article exposes contemporary materials and structures for sustainable development of organizational environment. Psychoanalytic modeling of organizational behavior makes it possible to identify out reflection, unconscious tendencies in individual, group and corporate behavior. This enables to significantly increase the effectiveness of measures for personnel management. Organizational Environment Researches base on psychoanalytic theory of object relations.

  16. James Baldwin's Go Tell it on the Mountain and the Psychoanalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But how the psychoanalytic poetics features in the novel and the reason for its employment appears to be largely ignored. In this essay, I utilize some psychoanalytic concepts in the reading of the novel, and argue that Baldwin's characters' internal (psychological) and external (sociological) conflicts are inseparable since ...

  17. The beginnings of psychoanalytic supervision: the crucial role of Max Eitingon. (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward


    Psychoanalytic supervision is moving well into its 2nd century of theory, practice, and (to a limited extent) research. In this paper, I take a look at the pioneering first efforts to define psychoanalytic supervision and its importance to the psychoanalytic education process. Max Eitingon, the "almost forgotten man" of psychoanalysis, looms large in any such consideration. His writings or organizational reports were seemingly the first psychoanalytic published material to address the following supervision issues: rationale, screening, notes, responsibility, supervisee learning/personality issues, and the extent and length of supervision itself. Although Eitingon never wrote formally on supervision, his pioneering work in the area has continued to echo across the decades and can still be seen reflected in contemporary supervision practice. I also recognize the role of Karen Horney-one of the founders of the Berlin Institute and Poliklinik, friend of Eitingon, and active, vital participant in Eitingon's efforts-in contributing to and shaping the beginnings of psychoanalytic education.

  18. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: psychometric features within a clinical population and a cut-off point to differentiate clinical patients from healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, M.A.M.; Danner, U.N.; Larsen, J.K.; van der Veer, N.; van Elburg, A.A.; de Ridder, D.T.; Evers, C.; Stice, E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Research has provided evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale in non-clinical populations. Our study is the first to examine the

  19. Evaluating psychoanalytic papers. Towards the development of common editorial standards. (United States)

    Tuckett, D


    Psychoanalysis has insecure foundations. Many of its core theories and therapeutic principles are contested from both within and without the discipline. While it often has little difficulty embracing new ideas it has terrible trouble rejecting old ones. Typically those within the discipline have dealt with this situation by destructive rationalisation, denial, splitting and idealization. Foremost is the tendency to multiply schools and paradigms and to rely on rhetoric and argument by authority. It is argued that to counter such inevitably destructive processes we need to find a way of improving constructive engagement with each other and to achieve a discipline that can grow on the secure foundations of gradually accumulating knowledge. Giving examples, the author describes the ongoing development of a methodology for evaluating psychoanalytic papers according to a common standard. It is proposed that it is possible to conduct reasoned international and cross-cultural peer review. This means that we can in principle evaluate and reach agreement as to the merit of psychoanalytic papers even though their authors may have backgrounds in profoundly different local style and local traditions of argument. Moreover, it is suggested, this can be done without creating the monster of an internationally homogenised style that would numb creativity and original thought.

  20. Between paranoia and creativity: candidates' experience of psychoanalytic training. (United States)

    Ward, Anne; Gibson, Walter; Miqueu-Baz, Christine


    There is widespread concern regarding various aspects of psychoanalytic education. A recent paper by Patrick Casement, drawn widely from his long experience as a supervisor both in the U.K. and abroad, implied that the British Psychoanalytical Society is not exempt from these concerns. To investigate this, a semistructured, anonymous questionnaire was devised and sent to all candidates and all recently qualified analysts at the society. Overall there was a 58% response rate, with 77% of candidates and 39% of recently qualified analysts responding. Concerns were expressed about aspects of the training, but on the whole these were balanced by appreciation. Although strong criticism was expressed by a minority, it seems that when something goes wrong for a candidate, this experience is felt keenly by the peer group as well. The results are discussed in the context of the current training and ethos of the British Society, as well as in relation to a more widespread move toward "competency-based" education. The maturational tasks facing both candidates and trainers are also addressed.

  1. The symbolic and concrete: Psychotic adolescents in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Pestalozzi, Julia


    Unique disturbances in symbolisation are characteristic of the pathology of schizophrenia. Drawing on the case vignette of a psychotic adolescent, the author discusses theoretical problems in the symbolisation process in general and then in psychosis, in particular the relation between 'concretism' as a thought disorder and other psychotic defences. The ability to symbolise on the one hand and to maintain sufficiently stable ego boundaries on the other hand are examined in their relation. The author's clinical experience supports her hypothesis that there is a close relationship between the impairment of the symbolisation process in the adolescent or adult psychotic patient and his/her inability to engage in symbolic play as a child. Special attention is paid to the role of early trauma and consequent pathology of object relations for disturbances of symbolic play in childhood. Regression to concrete thinking is understood as the chance of the psychotic patient to give some meaning to reality in an unreal, delusional world and as his/her last chance to communicate at all. Conclusions are drawn for psychoanalytic techniques in the treatment of patients who are deeply regressed in this respect. Special attention is given to the particular circumstances and challenges of adolescence and to providing psychoanalytic psychotherapy to adolescent psychotic patients.

  2. Analysis of a Latent Class Model in Diagnostic Classification Scales Acute Coronary Syndrome


    Sprockel Díaz, John Jaime; Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud-Hospital de San José; Fontalvo, María Teresa; Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud-Hospital de San José; Araque, Carolina; Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud-Hospital de San José


    Introduction: Chest pain is one of the leading causes of visits to the emergency department, identifying situations that endanger life, especially acute coronary syndromes (ACS), becomes the priority. The Braunwald and TIMI scales are two of the approximations used in the initial classification of patients.Methodology: From a database obtained from a study of the application of critical paths in the diagnosis of ACS, consisting of patients with chest pain, we conducted an exploratory study in...

  3. French version of the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviour in the Elderly (F-RAGE: Psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy

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    Barry Adama

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aggressive behaviour is the most disturbing and distressing behaviour displayed by elderly people. The prevalence of aggressive behaviour is around 50% among psychogeriatric patients. Objective: This study sought to analyze the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the French version of the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviour in the Elderly (F-RAGE. Methods: The F-RAGE was administered to 79 patients hospitalized in a geriatric psychiatry department. A psychiatrist, who was blind to the subjects' RAGE scores, performed the diagnosis for aggressivity based on global clinical impression. The F-RAGE and MMSE were applied by a trained researcher blind to subjects' clinical diagnoses while the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and Neuropsychiatric Inventory were administered by medical and nursing staff. Internal consistency, reliability, cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity for F-RAGE were estimated. Results: F-RAGE showed satisfactory validity and reliability measurements. Regarding reliability, Cronbach's a coefficient was satisfactory with a value of 0.758. For diagnostic accuracy, a cut-off point of 8 points (sensitivity=74.19%; specificity=97.98% and area under curve of 0.960 were estimated to distinguish between aggressive patients and control subjects. Discussion: F-RAGE showed acceptable psychometric properties, supported by evidence of validity and reliability for its use in the diagnosis of aggressive behaviour in elderly.

  4. The reliability and validity of the Turkish version of fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and symptom severity scale. (United States)

    Yanmaz, Muyesser Nergiz; Atar, Sevgi; Biçer, Mualla


    The fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and severity scale (FSDC) is a self-reported version of 2010 preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). FSDC not only facilitates to diagnose FMS, it measures pain (the Widespread Pain Index (WPI)/FSDC Section 3), the Symptom Severity (SS)/FSDC Sections 1 and 2, and provides a score, polysymptomatic distress (PSD)/FSDC Total score in patients with FMS. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of Turkish version of FSDC in Turkish patients with FMS. The Turkish version FSDC was obtained by two forward translations of the instrument into Turkish by two bilingual Turkish individuals, one of them was a physician. They were then back translated into English by two different bilingual individuals; another Turkish physician and a backtranslator whose mother tongue was English. The original version of FSDC, the two Turkish forward translations, and English back translations were then reviewed by the individuals involved in translations, and the last experimental Turkish version was created. This last version of Turkish FSDC studied on patients with newly diagnosed FMS by using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1990 classification criteria. Patients filled validated Turkish revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (rFIQ), our nonvalidated experimental Turkish FSDC; marked Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain and the disease severity. In 7 to 15 days, they have filled the nonvalidated Turkish FSDC for the second time. In 132 patients, by the test to retest reliability analysis of nonvalidated Turkish FSDC, for the 25 single items, correlation coefficients ranged 0.383 to 0.818 (all pVAS pain (r= 0.443), VAS disease severity (r= 0.342) (all pvalid instrument in Turkish FMS patients. It is easily completed, simple to score providing valuable instrument to diagnose and follow FMS.

  5. Simple diagnostic approach to childhood fecal retention using the Leech score and Bristol stool form scale in medical practice. (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Shin, Jae Il; Chung, Ki Sup


    To assess fecal retention, plain abdominal radiography is frequently used to complement the clinical history and physical examination, and three scoring systems have been proposed by Barr, Blethyn, and Leech on a single abdominal radiography. The aim of the present study was to find simple and useful diagnostic tools for an approach to fecal retention by correlation of the three scoring systems with the clinical characteristics. This study included 76 children (5.6-15.4 years, male : female = 33:43) who presented with various gastrointestinal complaints and 20 healthy children from the years 2004-2008. Defecation characteristics, abdominal pain, anorexia and nausea, the Bristol stool form scale, and colonic transit time were studied. Plain abdominal radiographs were independently scored with the three scoring systems by a pediatrician and a radiologist. The k-value of the Leech score (0.912) between two of the observers was higher than the others (Barr 0.870 and Blethyn 0.670), and the correlation coefficients of the Leech scoring system by a pediatrician in relation to the colonic transit time (r = 0.861, P constipated children. Furthermore, there were statistically significant associations between the Leech scoring system and the defecation frequency per week (r = -0.569 and -0.625 in two observers) or abdominal pain (r = 0.574 and 0.567). The Leech score and the Bristol stool form scale may be simple and useful diagnostic tools for pediatricians to access childhood fecal loading in outpatient clinics along with a thorough clinical history.

  6. German students' current choice of profession in the field of psychotherapy: Reasons for or against engaging in psychoanalytic training. (United States)

    Lebiger-Vogel, Judith


    The psychoanalytic societies in Germany as in many other countries are concerned by a decline in the number of candidates for full psychoanalytic training. While this situation is partly attributable to changes both in society and in educational and healthcare systems, it is questionable whether psychoanalytic training institutions have yet found adequate responses to it. Under the banner of 'evidence-based treatment', behaviour therapy has come to be widely disseminated, with major implications for the teaching of different psychotherapy paradigms at universities. To investigate the determinants of this trend in the specific German situation, a large-scale, multi-method exploratory study supported by IPA's DPPT programme was undertaken, focusing on the reasons given by a population (N = 679) of German psychology, medical, and education students for embarking on training in psychoanalysis or behaviour therapy. The results suggest that behaviour therapy is more compatible with the prevailing scientific understanding and with current societal and cultural trends, owing in part to inadequacies or bias in university teaching of the various paradigms of psychotherapy. While most of the psychology students expressed a preference for behavioural training, the psychotherapy option proved less attractive for their counterparts in the fields of medicine and education. Semi-standardized qualitative interviews were used to gain a deeper understanding of the students' decisions for or against training in a specific paradigm, and led to the identification of seven decision-making prototypes. Possible reasons for the students' decisions are discussed, and concrete proposals and recommendations are presented. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  7. Correlation of Social Network Attributes with Individuals’ Score on Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Momeni Boroujeni


    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar Spectrum Disorders include a variety of mood disorders from bipolar II disorder to conditions characterized by hyperthymic mood states. It has been suggested that psychosocial factors also play an important role in bipolar disorders, in this study we have used social network analysis in order to better understand the social positions of those affected by bipolar spectrum disorders. Methods: In this cross sectional study 90 individuals within a bounded network were included and studied by using a standard questionnaire for bipolar spectrum disorder scale (BSDS and a sociometric questionnaire for analyzing the social network of those individuals.Results: This study showed that BSDS score is signi.cantly correlated with the Bonacich power of the participants (P= 0.009 as well as with their Outdegree Strength (P= 0.013.Discussion: The results of this study show that there is interplay between social attributes and Bipolar Spectrum Disorders. This emphasizes the need for understanding the role of social networks and performing further research into quantifying social aspects of psychiatric disorders.

  8. Correlation of Social Network Attributes with Individuals’ Score on Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Momeni Boroujeni


    Full Text Available Bipolar Spectrum Disorders include a variety of mood disorders from bipolar II disorder to conditions characterized by hyperthymic mood states. It has been suggested that psychosocial factors also play an important role in bipolar disorders, in this study we have used social network analysis in order to better understand the social positions of those affected by bipolar spectrum disorders.Methods and Materials: In this cross sectional study 90 individuals within a bounded network were included and studied by using a standard questionnaire for bipolar spectrum disorder scale (BSDS and a sociometric questionnaire for analyzing the social network of those individuals.Results: This study showed that BSDS score is significantly correlated with the Bonacich power of the participants (P= 0.009 as well as with their Outdegree Strength (P= 0.013.Discussion:The results of this study show that there is interplay between social attributes and Bipolar Spectrum Disorders. This emphasizes the need for understanding the role of social networks and performing further research into quantifying social aspects of psychiatric disorders.

  9. Review Essay: Our Rules Leave a Backdoor Open—At the Heart of the Radically Incomplete Psychoanalytic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Langenbach


    Full Text Available Practical work in psychoanalytic practice is a core component of the enhancement of psychoanalytic knowledge. Despite its importance it is a rather dark chapter in the research history of psychoanalysis and empirical research into what actually happens in practice has been rare. The book by Andreas STRATKÖTTER reviewed here takes psychoanalytic practice as the empirical basis of an extensive qualitative study. The psychoanalysts interviewed by STRATKÖTTER describe the criteria they take to indicate the need for psychoanalytic treatment, the practical relevance of central psychoanalytic notions, and their professional development after psychoanalytic training. STRATKÖTTER's study can be taken as a reference for demands for improvements in the culture of psychoanalytic training and for further development of qualitative research approaches in psychoanalysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901173

  10. The seventh penis: towards effective psychoanalytic work with pre-surgical transsexuals. (United States)

    Withers, Robert


    The author reflects on his contrasting analytic work with two transsexual patients. He uses three previous psychoanalytic studies (Stoller, Morel and Lemma) to explore whether effective analytic work with the issues driving a person's determined wish for sex reassignment surgery (SRS) is possible. Particular consideration is given to how such work might navigate a path between traumatizing and pathologizing the patient on the one hand and avoiding important analytic material out of fear of so doing on the other. The author proceeds to ask whether it is possible to tell in advance, with any degree of reliability, who is and who is not likely to benefit from surgery. He considers certain diagnostic issues in relation to these questions. Illustrations are given of how, in practice, countertransference anxieties about psychopathologizing transsexual patients can contribute to significant difficulties in working clinically with them. It is argued that the understanding and containment of such anxieties could eventually lead to more effective analytic work, and that such work might be further facilitated by considering the contribution of mind-body dissociation to transsexualism. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Developing the Diagnostic Adherence to Medication Scale (the DAMS for use in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfield Sara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for an adherence measure, to monitor adherence services in clinical practice, which can distinguish between different types of non-adherence and measure changes over time. In order to be inclusive of all patients it needs to be able to be administered to both patients and carers and to be suitable for patients taking multiple medications for a range of clinical conditions. A systematic review found that no adherence measure met all these criteria. We therefore wished to develop a theory based adherence scale (the DAMS and establish its content, face and preliminary construct validity in a primary care population. Methods The DAMS (consisting of 6 questions was developed from theory by a multidisciplinary team and the questions were initially tested in small patient populations. Further to this, patients were recruited when attending a General Practice and interviewed using the DAMS and two other validated self-reported adherence measures, theMorisky-8 and Lu questionnaires. A semi-structured interview was used to explore acceptability and reasons for differences in responses between the DAMS and the other measures. Descriptive data were generated and Spearman rank correlation tests were used to identify associations between the DAMS and the other adherence measures. Results One hundred patients completed the DAMS in an average of 1 minute 28 seconds and reported finding it straightforward to complete. An adherence score could not be calculated for the 4(4% patients only taking ‘when required’ medication. Thirty six(37.5% of the remaining patients reported some non-adherence. Adherence ratings of the DAMS were significantly associated with levels of self reported adherence on all other measures Spearman Rho 0.348-0.719, (p  Conclusion The DAMS has been developed for routine monitoring of adherence in clinical practice. It was acceptable to patients taking single or multiple medication and valid when

  12. The relationship between formal operations cognition and suitability for psychoanalytic treatment. (United States)

    Fielder, J F


    Psychoanalytic practice can benefit from a coherent theory of cognition that is more comprehensive than, but which includes the related concepts of primary/secondary processes. For reasons not yet understood, cognition has not received the continuing attention it deserves in psychoanalytic theory. As demonstrated, Piaget's empirical studies of cognition can potentially help the practicing psychoanalyst to clinically differentiate those patients suitable for psychoanalytic treatment. It appears that Piaget's theory may hold greater utility for psychoanalysis than has been evidenced to date and analysts may be able to eventually describe defensive operations as well as other ego functions in terms of the cognitive functions delineated by Piaget.

  13. The verbal portrait: Erik H. Erikson's contribution to psychoanalytic discourse. (United States)

    Capps, Donald


    This article makes the case that Erik H. Erikson developed a form of psychoanalytic discourse-the verbal portrait-which, although not unprecedented, became a focal feature of his work, and the testing ground for the cogency of his major contribution to psychoanalysis (the concept of identity). It suggests that Erikson was inspired to develop the verbal portrait because he came to psychoanalysis from art and was, in fact, a portrait artist. Drawing especially on the work of Richard Brilliant, it presents the view that a portrait is a portrayal of the subject's identity and goes on to show how Erikson's memorial to the cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict is representative of the verbal portrait.

  14. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    This study concerns the systematic integration of qualitative research strategies in a psychoanalytic single case study of a child who had suffered early abuse and neglect. A systematic exploration of core features of the therapeutic relationship was carried out, possible links between such core...... with Interpretational Phenomenological Analysis were applied on recorded session notes and other case-file material from a concluded child psychotherapy case as well as on transcripts from follow-up interviews with the child’s birth and foster parents. The case material analyzed in three steps; principles...... for transparent selection developed: 1) Inductive exploration highlighting core object relationship themes in the first 24 therapy sessions. 2) Predefined manifestations of these themes systematically studied in case file reports from various informants about the child’s infancy, daily life, at end of therapy...

  15. The usual intolerance and present one: a psychoanalytic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Ribeiro de Santi


    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze the roots of intolerance from a psychoanalytic perspective, as well as the ways it has been taken in our politic life in the last years. At first, I expose a relation between intolerance and the Ego origin; in order to understand what changes in the measure of what is or isn’t tolerable in distinct contexts. After that, I analyze the psychosocial conditions for the tolerance of the Other, sustaining that a failure in the symbolic intermediation is an important issue in the contemporary forms of intolerance. From that failure, the relation with ideas and persons remains on an imaginary level, and the reflection ability in inhibited, as it is in a fetish. My conclusion is that a symbolic intermediation between the Ego and the other is a condition to a tolerant coexistence.

  16. Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. (United States)

    Geller, Jesse D


    This article is an effort to integrate contemporary psychoanalytic and existential perspectives on intentional therapist self-disclosure. It offers a two-stage decision-making model that considers self-disclosure from the vantage points of style and internalization. Clinical and research findings are presented to support the notion that the meanings a patient attributes to a particular self-disclosure, and its power to move him or her towards greater health, is the product of a fluctuating matrix of interpersonal and intrapsychic variables. Special consideration is given to the challenges that arise during the early and termination stages of treatment and to the psychotherapy of therapists. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Training and disillusion in counselling psychology: a psychoanalytic perspective. (United States)

    Rizq, Rosemary


    In this paper, I argue that Counselling Psychology's professional identification with pluralism poses significant emotional problems for trainees. An important factor in such problems may be the trainee's sense of disappointment and disillusion that the route to professional and personal self-transformation will not be achieved via a set of universal theoretical principles and established clinical 'rules'. I draw on recent psychoanalytic theory to suggest that the task facing trainees involves balancing pluralism, characterized as an 'external' third position, with an 'internal' third space indexing an awareness of subjectivity and intersubjectivity. Maintaining a dialogical-dialectical perspective on these two positions allows for a creative space in which the trainee may be transformed from lay helper into professional counselling psychologist via a personal engagement with theoretical, clinical and academic material presented during training.

  18. Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Treatment (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Della Rosa, Elena; Kegerreis, Sue


    This manuscript provides a review of the clinical case study within the field of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic treatment. The method has been contested for methodological reasons and because it would contribute to theoretical pluralism in the field. We summarize how the case study method is being applied in different schools of psychoanalysis, and we clarify the unique strengths of this method and areas for improvement. Finally, based on the literature and on our own experience with case study research, we come to formulate nine guidelines for future case study authors: (1) basic information to include, (2) clarification of the motivation to select a particular patient, (3) information about informed consent and disguise, (4) patient background and context of referral or self-referral, (5) patient's narrative, therapist's observations and interpretations, (6) interpretative heuristics, (7) reflexivity and counter-transference, (8) leaving room for interpretation, and (9) answering the research question, and comparison with other cases. PMID:28210235

  19. Special problems for the elderly psychoanalyst in the psychoanalytic process. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    The psychoanalytic process takes on a special ambience when the analyst is clearly elderly. The effects of this ambience on the the aging analyst's patients are discussed, and the sparse literature on the subject is reviewed. Clinical vignettes illustrate a number of these effects on the analytic process. Dealing with these special problems requires not only the analyst's awareness of their existence but a continual monitoring of the transference-countertransference in order to avoid a silent collusion of patient and analyst to pretend these problems do not exist. The dangerous consequences of being unaware of the situation, for both patient and analyst, are discussed. If the influence of the patient's perception of the analyst's aging is ignored, it may lead to destruction of the treatment either through massive acting out or by a hopeless stalemate with or without the development of an endless psychoanalysis.

  20. [Nationalism, hatred of foreigners and antisemitism. Psychoanalytic considerations]. (United States)

    Bohleber, W


    Widespread social crisis phenomena such as unemployment, shortage of housing or lack of prospects are not sufficient to explain aggressive nationalism and the revival of xenophobia in present-day Germany. While from a psychoanalytic viewpoint xenophobia and anti-Semitism have been extensively examined, the same can by no means be said of the phantasm of the "nation". With reference to a case study, the author demonstrates that the adoption of nationalist ideologies (which in Germany specifically are very much bound up with the traditional notion of the nation as a biological organism) can serve both to prevent the outbreak of neurosis at the individual level and to effect what Freud called the "spurious" healing of existing neuroses. Psychologically speaking, the phantasm of the "nation" provides scope for the realization of the desire for pre-ambivalent fusion with an object that has rid itself of everything heterogeneous, alien and autonomous.

  1. Being an adult: Psychoanalytic model and social model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cappelli


    Full Text Available The author uses two psychoanalytic models, namely Kernberg’s and Kohut’s conceptualizations, to delineate a possible prototype of adult from the point of view of psychoanalysis. The author believes that this process of modulation of narcissism primitive, both in an evolutionary context and therapeutic, is crucial to achieving an adult level of integration.The author traces also, with the help of two political philosophers, a model of a democratic society, in which you can complete evolution of the mind. The concepts of negative freedom and pluralism of values of Berlin and that of Rawls' justice as fairness are used to identify some key aspects of a modern liberal society.

  2. The predictive power of Horney's psychoanalytic approach: an empirical study. (United States)

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Segal, Daniel L; Benight, Charles C; Danielian, Jack


    This study investigated the construct validity of a measure of Karen Horney's (1945) psychoanalytic theory that postulated three neurotic trends: compliant, aggressive, and detached. Her theory was operationalized by the Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator (HCTI). One hundred seventy-two adults completed the HCTI and the short form of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, a measure of the three DSM-IV personality disorder clusters. Multiple regression and canonical correlation analyses revealed significant and differential patterns of the three HCTI dimensions with the three clusters. Because Paris (1994) has noted that Horney's neurotic trends may today be conceived of as personality disorders, one implication of the present findings is that Horney's dynamic theory can be valid and useful in the general understanding of personality disorders from a cluster perspective.

  3. Antigone’s Legacy: A Feminist psychoanalytic of an Other Sexual Difference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheila L. Cavanagh


    ...) in the Sophocles tragedy. In order to understand the magnitude of Antigone’s radical act in the play by the same name I engage the scholarship of Israeli feminist psychoanalytic scholar Bracha L. Ettinger...

  4. [Presumption of sleep apnea in a black African hypertensive population: Importance of the Epworth sleepiness scale in the diagnostic approach]. (United States)

    Konin, C; Boka, B; Adoubi, A; N'guetta, R; Coulibaly, I; N'djessan, J J; Koffi, J; Ekou, A; Yao, H; Angoran, I; Adoh, M


    Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is very little described in the hypertensive black African. To screen sleep apnea syndrome using the rating scale of Epworth daytime sleepiness, and to investigate the determinant factors and to infer therapeutic consequences. This is a retrospective and prospective study with descriptive and analytical purpose that focused on 200 hypertensive outpatients of the Cardiology Institute of Abidjan. The primary endpoint studied was the SAS. The diagnostic approach of SAS was performed using the rating scale of Epworth daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of sleep apnea was 45%. The average age of sleep apnea carriers was 56.1 years, with a male predominance (60%). The determinant factors of sleep apnea syndrome were male gender (60% versus 40%, P=0.021), obesity (77.8% versus 62.7%, P<0.0001), diabetes (26.7% versus 15.5%, P=0.5) and dyslipidemia (54.4% versus 27.3%, P=0.0009). Life in urban areas, occupation and smoking were not correlated with SAS in our series. The control of hypertension was better in non-apneic patients compared to apneic patients (63.6% versus 38.9%, P=0.04). The visceral impact of hypertension in apneic patients was highly significant (77.8% versus 41.7%, P=0.014). Therapeutically, it was noted the preferential prescription of combination therapy in apneic patients compared to non-apneic patients (82.3% versus 74.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The roots of violence: converging psychoanalytic explanatory models for power struggles and violence in schools. (United States)

    Twemlow, S W


    This paper demonstrates that several psychoanalytic models taken together converge to collectively explain school violence and power struggles better than each does alone. Using my own experience in doing psychoanalytically informed community intervention, I approach the problem of school violence from a combination of Adlerian, Stollerian, dialectical social systems, and Klein-Bion perspectives. This integrated model is then applied to the Columbine High School massacre in Littleton, Colorado.



    Dr. Ram Lalit


    Tracing the origin of psychoanalytical interpretation of the literary texts M.A.R. Habib writes: Critics, rhetoricians, and philosophers since Aristotle have examined the psychological dimensions of literature, ranging from an author’s motivation and intentions to the effect of texts and performances on an audience. The application of psychoanalytic principles to the study of literature, however, is a relatively recent phenomenon, initiated primarily by Freud and in other directions by Alfred...

  7. Developing Derrida’s Psychoanalytic Graphology: Diametric and Concentric Spatial Movements


    Downes, Paul


    Derrida’s work encompasses dynamic spatial dimensions to understanding as a pervasive theme, including the search for a ‘new psychoanalytic graphology’ in Writing and Difference. This preoccupation with a spatial text for repression also occurs later in Archive Fever. Building on Derrida, this paper seeks to develop key aspects of a new dynamic psychoanalytic graphology through diametric and concentric interactive spatial relation. These spatial movements emerge from a radical reconstruction ...

  8. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s]. (United States)

    Castro, Rafael Dias de


    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory.

  9. Fatores associados a abandono precoce do tratamento em psicoterapia de orientação analítica Factors related to early dropout in psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Hauck


    Report Questionnaire, Defensive Style Questionnaire, Scale of Defensive Functioning of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR and Global Assessment of Functioning, and followed for 3 months. RESULTS: Dropout rate was 12.5%. There was no difference between groups in respect to Global Assessment of Functioning, Self Report Questionnaire and Defensive Style Questionnaire scores. Dropout patients reported to be satisfied with their health, despite psychopathological severity, even when other variables were controlled (p < 0.0001. The group that remained in psychotherapy was better adjusted before treatment and had average or superior estimated intelligence (p < 0.05. More dropout patients presented lower levels of defensive style, by means of the Scale of Defensive Functioning of DSM-IV-TR. CONCLUSIONS: Psychopathology severity alone did not predict dropout. However, patients with lower levels of insight and immature defenses (especially narcissistic had higher dropout rates. Therefore, such aspects must be seriously considered, along with patients' expectations about the psychoanalytic method, and should be judiciously assessed before indication.

  10. Freedom and the psychoanalytic ontology of quantum physics. (United States)

    Gullatz, Stefan; Gildersleeve, Matthew


    Jung's paper 'Synchronicity - an acausal connecting principle', defining the phenomenon as a 'meaningful' coincidence depending on archetypal activation, was published in 1952, together with a conceptually related piece by physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli entitled, 'The influence of archetypal ideas on the scientific theories of Kepler'. Slavoj Žižek, in The Indivisible Remainder: On Schelling and Related Matters, suggests that, in contrast to any notion of a 'pre-modern Jungian harmony', the main lesson of quantum physics was that not only was the psychoanalytic, empty subject of the signifier constitutively out-of-joint with respect to the world, but that the Real in itself was already incomplete, out-of-joint, 'not-all'. Yet while Žižek frequently tries to separate Jung from his own ontology, this paper shows that his ontology is not as different as he suggests. Consistent with our earlier publications on Jung and Zizek, a closer investigation reveals an underlying congruence of both of their approaches. In this paper we show that this affinity lies in the rejection by both Jung and Žižek of the ideology of reductive materialism, a rejection that demonstrably draws on quantum physics in similar ways. While Jung posits an inherently meaningful universe, Žižek attempts to salvage the freedom of human subjectivity by opposing his Lacanian 'dialectical materialism' to reductive materialism. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Interaction, Transference, and Subjectivity: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundgaard Andersen


    Full Text Available Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further investigate through a case study how the psychoanalytical concepts of “transference” and “institutional transference” can provide insight into the dynamics of efficiency and democracy at a number of Danish human service organisations.

  12. The sense of solitude in the psychoanalytic encounter. (United States)

    Quinodoz, J M


    The author emphasises the importance of the sense of solitude for the integration of psychic life in both analysand and analyst. This complex affect is stated to accompany different levels of anxiety that can be worked through in the transference. While the normal sense of solitude is a manifestation of relative maturity, the author shows that it is not readily tolerated by some analysands when, in the form of a painful sense of loneliness, it signals the approach of the depressive position and of psychic integration. A discussion of the concept in the work of Freud, Klein and Winnicott is followed by a clinical sequence showing how a female patient uses projective identification to transfer intolerable transference separation feelings on to the analyst, who then experiences them as his own. When the analyst succeeds in distinguishing between the pathological aspect (depression) and the healthy side (psychic pain due to the prospect of integration) of these affects, he is able to interpret. The author draws attention to the dangers of acting out by both partners in the analysis if this is not possible. The author deems it important for the psychoanalyst to have acquired a well-developed sense of solitude and insists that particular consideration be devoted to its presence in prospective candidates for psychoanalytic training.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohara de Souza Coca


    Full Text Available The loving separation is lived as an experience of death in life in which the individual needs to go through the grieving process so the loss can make sense. This study aimed to understand and analyze the grieving process towards the loving separation under a psychoanalytic perspective, and as specific objectives, identify the type of object-choice(anaclitic/ narcissistic of individuals; check if there was some kind of support during the process and analyze existing feelings after loving separation. For this, six participants were submitted a semi-structured interview, with data analyzed using content analysis. As a result, we identified the presence of both object-choices, especially the narcissistic choice in younger; the grieving process made possible changes and transformations; we found family support, friends, spiritual and psychological; and participants had greater individuality after the breakup. We hypothesized that the suffering caused by the relationship generates a defense as a detachment of another that could become a new object of love. In the grief process it’s possible to internalize the good parts of the beloved object, which are integrated into the Ego. Therefore, the good aspects become part of the subject, which can accept the loss. We pointed out that more studies are needed on the specific theme.

  14. On the problem of the id in psychoanalytic theory. (United States)

    Shulman, M E


    The id per se has ceased being a topic for explicit speculation for some time in psychoanalysis. This paper first examines certain problems posed by the concept "id' via a close reading of a passage from Freud in which the complex and paradoxical interrelationship of ego and id is reviewed. Several aspects of the concept "id' are differentiated from each other. The implications of a dialectical relationship of ego and id are explored, as are the consequences for the understanding of the id of the anxieties imposed on the infant by its life situation and its "sensing' impulses and fleeing them before it can know them. The relationship of id impulse and infantile need to the concepts of intention and avowal is considered, and fundamental differences between the infant and adult human subject via-à-vis knowing and intending are clarified. These examinations pave the way for a critique of the recent work of Gill, Eagle, and especially, of Schafer, concerning metapsychology and the nature of psychoanalysis as a science. It is shown that some concept of id as a pre-intentional force operating in human lives and linking these lives to a nature beyond individual intending is necessarily implied in any adequate psychoanalytic science.

  15. Cultural function and psychological transformation in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa


    Cultural experience of silence and individual vicissitudes between talking and being silent influence the way individuals form an alliance and pursue the analytic process. This is of relevance both for the patient and for the psychoanalyst/therapist. The author describes a patient, whose silent phase occurred in the fifth and sixth year of intensive psychoanalytic psychotherapy. She suggests that a) the silence functioned as a protection of a space for the core self and promoted inner transformation and psychological development; b) the silence involved a transference-countertransference matrix with projective identifications of the patient's internalized mother- and father-related objects that caused a tenuous balance between maintaining and erasing the relationship between the patient and the author; c) the silence phase was highly influenced by the author's own cultural background and what she brought into the relationship of tolerance of being silent in the presence of another, and understanding of the many complex functions of silence. During the silent phase the patient moved from simply describing and naming her affects and inner experiences or expressing them as somatic processes, to being able to internally access and verbally convey her own affects and experiences in the therapeutic alliance. This process involved both affect desomatization, affect differentiation, and affect verbalization.

  16. The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany. (United States)

    Danto, E A


    After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education.

  17. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson


    Full Text Available AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence ( The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery.Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyacheslav Alekseevich Ermakov


    Full Text Available n this article the author reconstructed and generalized the religious and philosophical aspects of Christian criticism of psychoanalytic methodology of dreams interpretation. The research opens an occult specifics of a psychoanalytic oneurocritics. There is a consideration of a concept how such factors as «cocaine promotion» affects Freudian theory of dreams, a freemasonry and cabalism. The article reveals that Christian ekzegetics of dreams is essentially opposite to psychoanalytic interpretation of dreaming experience. The author makes a hypothesis of before-Freud unity of psychiatric and Christian approaches to interpretation of dreams and an orientation of psychoanalysis on destruction of this unity. The assumption of spiritual and psychological danger of application of psychoanalytic approach of dreams interpretation in psychological work is reasonable. The author comes to a conclusion that the Freudian methodology of dreams interpretation has been developed with the purposes of introduction of anti-Christian occult psychology in the theory and practice of medical and psychiatric activity and elimination of Christian vicarial psychotherapy.Purpose. The research objective consists of retrospective reconstruction of the main critical aspects of the psychoanalytic concept of dreams presented in Christian approach to ekzegetics of dreams.Methodology. Method of this research is a comparative analysis of Christian and psychoanalytic approaches of understanding the nature and essence of dreaming process and its interpretation.Results. Results of research can be used as in the scientific purposes of critical genera-lization and studying of the theoretical model of a dream developed by psychoanalysis and in educational activity where students can compare Christian and psychoanalytic approaches.Practical implementation: psychology, philosophy history, sociology, theological researches.

  19. Symptom screening scales for detecting major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of reliability, validity and diagnostic utility. (United States)

    Stockings, Emily; Degenhardt, Louisa; Lee, Yong Yi; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Liu, Angus; Hobbs, Megan; Patton, George


    Depression symptom screening scales are often used to determine a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) in prevention research. The aim of this review is to systematically examine the reliability, validity and diagnostic utility of commonly used screening scales in depression prevention research among children and adolescents. We conducted a systematic review of the electronic databases PsycINFO, PsycEXTRA and Medline examining the reliability, validity and diagnostic utility of four commonly used depression symptom rating scales among children and adolescents: the Children׳s Depression Inventory (CDI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS). We used univariate and bivariate random effects models to pool data and conducted metaregression to identify and explain causes of heterogeneity. We identified 54 studies (66 data points, 34,542 participants). Across the four scales, internal reliability was 'good' (pooled estimate: 0.89, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.86-0.92). Sensitivity and specificity were 'moderate' (sensitivity: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.76-0.84; specificity: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.74-0.83). For studies that used a diagnostic interview to determine a diagnosis of MDD, positive predictive power for identifying true cases was mostly poor. Psychometric properties did not differ on the basis of study quality, sample type (clinical vs. nonclinical) or sample age (child vs. adolescent). Some analyses may have been underpowered to identify conditions in which test performance may vary, due to low numbers of studies with adequate data. Commonly used depression symptom rating scales are reliable measures of depressive symptoms among adolescents; however, using cutoff scores to indicate clinical levels of depression may result in many false positives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Computation of large scale currents in the Arabian Sea during winter using a semi-diagnostic model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.

    A 3-dimensional, semi-diagnostic model with 331 levels in the vertical has been used for the computation of climatic circulation in the western tropical Indian Ocean. Model is driven with the seasonal mean data on wind stress, temperature...

  1. The psychoanalytic approach to the mass communication process modelling


    Косюк, Оксана Михайлівна; Kosiuk, O.M.


    У статті розглядається можливість введення додаткового (психоаналітичного) критерію для підтвердження функціонування чотирьох універсальних моделей у царині масової комунікації. The article considers the possibility of additional (psychoanalytic) criterion introduction for four universal models functioning confirmation in mass communication. В статье рассматривается возможность введения дополнительного (психоаналитического) критерия для подтверждения функционирования четырех уни...

  2. The validity of military screening for mental health problems: diagnostic accuracy of the PCL, K10 and AUDIT scales in an entire military population. (United States)

    Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander C; Davies, Christopher E; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Hodson, Stephanie E; Benassi, Helen; Steele, Nicole


    Depression, alcohol use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are serious issues among military personnel due to their impact on operational capability and individual well-being. Several military forces screen for these disorders using scales including the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL). However, it is unknown whether established cutoffs apply to military populations. This study is the first to test the diagnostic accuracy of these three scales in a population-based military cohort. A large sample of currently-serving Australian Defence Force (ADF) Navy, Army and Air Force personnel (n = 24,481) completed the K10, AUDIT and PCL-C (civilian version). Then, a stratified sub-sample (n = 1798) completed a structured diagnostic interview detecting 30-day disorder. Data were weighted to represent the ADF population (n = 50,049). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses suggested all three scales had acceptable sensitivity and specificity, with areas under the curve from 0.75 to 0.93. AUDIT and K10 screening cutoffs closely paralleled established cutoffs, whereas the PCL-C screening cutoff resembled that recommended for US military personnel. These self-report scales represent a cost-effective and clinically-useful means of screening personnel for disorder. Military populations may need lower cutoffs than civilians to screen for PTSD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A psychoanalytically oriented combined treatment approach for severely disturbed borderline patients: the Athens project. (United States)

    Vaslamatzis, Grigoris; Coccossis, Maria; Zervis, Christos; Panagiotopoulou, Victoria; Chatziandreou, Maria


    A psychoanalytically oriented combined treatment is considered beneficial for severely disturbed borderline patients, especially during an acute crisis. The proposed treatment comprises hospitalization and specialized psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment, individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy, and psychiatric management. It is important to take into account that during inpatient treatment, projective identifications and splitting mechanisms are activated, involving different members of the therapeutic personnel or other patients. The mental health team--the psychiatrist, the nurses, the assigned psychotherapist, and other members of the therapeutic personnel--should work together in the context of teamwork in order to explore transference and countertransference manifestations. This function promotes empathy and understanding of the patient's inner difficulties. A combined treatment approach can help the patient stabilize his or her condition and develop awareness and motivation for undertaking long-term treatment and individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy, with the prospect that therapy will be maintained after the patient's discharge.

  4. Two systems of self-regulation and the differential application of psychoanalytic technique. (United States)

    Novick, Kerry Kelly; Novick, Jack


    Out of our work over the years on child development, clinical technique, and sadomasochism, we have begun to formulate a model of development that describes two possible ways of responding to feelings of helplessness in the face of the challenges of internal and external experience. Any psychoanalytic model has implications for how we think about technique and can be tested on the basis of its utility in generating technical ideas and enhancing our therapeutic repertoire. At this juncture in the history of our field, it is crucial for us to demonstrate that psychoanalytic techniques are effective in helping people enter treatment, change, and finish in a way that consolidates their gains. In this paper we explore the utility of our two-systems model for expanding the discourse about psychoanalytic technique.

  5. Studium and Punctum in Psychoanalytic Writing: Reading Case Studies Through Roland Barthes. (United States)

    Amir, Dana


    This paper focuses on the link between Roland Barthes's reflection on photography and the essential characteristics of psychoanalytic case studies. The case study, like the photograph, seeks to take hold of something nearly intangible. It attempts to capture in time, space, and language something whose dynamic presence remains elusive. The attempt to capture this object often strips it of its essence. Case studies may be accurate on their face while giving us the unpleasant sense that they have "deadened" their object in the process. This paper attempts to clarify what is dropped from the picture that the psychoanalytic writing is trying to take. The relation between the "cultural context" (the Studium) and the freedom to puncture and undermine this context in psychoanalytic writing is discussed through a fresh reading of Georges Perec's "W, or the Memory of Childhood" and through clinical vignettes by Ronald Britton and Michael Eigen.

  6. Diagnostics of the Heat Sources and Sinks of the Asiatic Monsoon and the Thermally-Forced Planetary Scale Response. (United States)


    anticyclonic circulations. During the summer seasons other secondary source regions of energy occur over Brazil, the Carribean and Africa. This...AD-AIL9 755 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/6 4/2 DIAGNOSTICS OF THE HEAT SOURCES AND SINKS OF THE ASIATIC MONSOO-ETC(U) 1981 D R...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 81-35T / /- Al I.. 4. TITLE ( nd Subtitle) Diagnostics of the Heat Sources and S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Sinks of


    Blass, Rachel B


    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  8. Phantasm of Freud: Nandor Fodor and the psychoanalytic approach to the supernatural in interwar Britain. (United States)

    Timms, Joanna


    The paper examines the appearance of "psychoanalytic psychical research" in interwar Britain, notably in the work of Nandor Fodor, Harry Price and others, including R. W. Pickford and Sylvia Payne. The varying responses of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones to the area of research are discussed. These researches are placed in the context of the increasingly widespread use of psychoanalytic and psychological interpretations of psychical events in the period, which in turn reflects the penetration of psychoanalysis into popular culture. The saturation of psychical research activity with gender and sexuality and the general fascination with, and embarrassment about, psychical activity is explored.

  9. Observation of short time-scale spectral emissions at millimeter wavelengths with the new CTS diagnostic on the FTU tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruschi, A.; Alessi, E.; Bin, W.


    On the FTU tokamak, the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was renewed for investigating the possible excitation of parametric decay instabilities (PDI) by electron cyclotron (EC) or CTS probe beams in presence of magnetic islands and measure their effects on the EC power absorption...

  10. On decoding and rewriting genomes: a psychoanalytical reading of a scientific revolution. (United States)

    Zwart, Hub


    In various documents the view emerges that contemporary biotechnosciences are currently experiencing a scientific revolution: a massive increase of pace, scale and scope. A significant part of the research endeavours involved in this scientific upheaval is devoted to understanding and, if possible, ameliorating humankind: from our genomes up to our bodies and brains. New developments in contemporary technosciences, such as synthetic biology and other genomics and "post-genomics" fields, tend to blur the distinctions between prevention, therapy and enhancement. An important dimension of this development is "biomimesis": i.e. the tendency of novel technologies and materials to mimic or plagiarize nature on a molecular and microscopic level in order to optimise prospects for the embedding of technological artefacts in natural systems such as human bodies and brains. In this paper, these developments are read and assessed from a psychoanalytical perspective. Three key concepts from psychoanalysis are used to come to terms with what is happening in research laboratories today. After assessing the general profile of the current revolution in this manner, I will focus on a particular case study, a line of research that may serve as exemplification of the vicissitudes of contemporary technosciences, namely viral biomaterials. Viral life forms can be genetically modified (their genomes can be rewritten) in such a manner that they may be inserted in human bodies in order to produce substances at specific sites such as hormones (testosterone), neurotransmitters (dopamine), enzymes (insulin) or bone and muscle tissue. Notably, certain target groups such as top athletes, soldiers or patients suffering from degenerative diseases may become the pioneers serving as research subjects for novel applications. The same technologies can be used for various purposes ranging from therapy up to prevention and enhancement.

  11. On Whether to Convert from a Rhetorical to a Psychoanalytic Pedagogy (United States)

    Kraemer, Don J.


    Like psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic pedagogy is a particular way of paying attention, a way of paying attention that deflects attention away from other pedagogies' means and goals. Looking for what psychoanalysis deems the "root cause" of writing problems--intrapsychic conflict--foregrounds that kind of conflict, relegating to the background other…

  12. Investigating Trauma in Narrating World War I: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Pat Barker's "Regeneration" (United States)

    Sadjadi, Bakhtiar; Esmkhani, Farnaz


    The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker's "Regeneration" in terms of Cathy Caruth's psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker's novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the…

  13. Therapeutic Communications and the Process of Change in a Psychoanalytic Treatment (United States)

    Vegas, Monica


    This study looked at the interplay of the analyst verbal speech acts and the process of change in a psychoanalytic treatment. Using a single case design on the session transcripts of the well studied case of Mrs. C., following Halfon and Weinstein's (2013) methodology the study tracked linguistic patterns as represented by the interaction of…

  14. Civilisation on the Couch: Theorising Multi-Levelled Psychoanalytical Arts Practice (United States)

    Benjamin, Garfield


    This paper combines two psychological approaches to art to theorise a both subjective and cultural methodology for practice-based arts research. The first psychoanalytical approach will follow the work of Deleuze and Guattari's Schizoanalysis, considering the role of the artist in order to assess their work in relation to society from an…

  15. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Parker, Ben; Turner, William


    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Method: The Cochrane Collaboration's criteria for data synthesis and study quality assessment were used. Electronic bibliographic databases and web searches were used to identify randomized and…

  16. Beyond Freud in psychoanalytic psychology of religion? On the discussion of religion as projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.


    In 1907, Sigmund Freud initiated the psychoanalytic psychology of religion, until the present day the most important contributor to the psychology of religion literature in general, and the branch of psychological critique of religion best known outside of psychology circles (having drawn attention


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij


    Full Text Available Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  18. The "Matchbox School" (1927-1932): Anna Freud and the Idea of a "Psychoanalytically Informed Education" (United States)

    Midgley, Nick


    Of all the applications of psychoanalysis to various fields, perhaps none has been as important--or as fraught--as the application of psychoanalytic insights to education. This paper re-constructs some of the early debates around psychoanalysis and pedagogy that Anna Freud engaged with during the 1920s in Vienna, when the whole question of what…

  19. Miss Freud Returns to the Classroom: Toward Psychoanalytic Literacy among Educators (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel


    This essay is a call for a more psychoanalytically informed approach to educational psychology and teacher formation. To this end, the author gives an overview of a course in psychology that he recommends for inclusion in teacher education. This course is in two parts. The first part is an introduction to some important elements of psychoanalytic…



    N. I. Mushinskij


    Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  1. Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project (United States)

    Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue


    A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

  2. Between Trauma and Perpetration: Psychoanalytical and Social Psychological Perspectives on Difficult Histories in the Israeli Context (United States)

    Goldberg, Tsafrir


    This study explores the applicability of psychoanalytic trauma-centered perspectives and social psychological intergroup comparison perspectives to difficult histories of the Israeli context. The study describes 2 test cases of difficult histories in the Jewish-Israeli context at the levels of curriculum policy, teachers, and learners. The first…

  3. Spinsters, Schoolmarms, and Queers: Female Teacher Gender and Sexuality in Medicine and Psychoanalytic Theory and History (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sheila L.


    This paper examines the social construction of white, female, spinster teacher personality profiles in the first half of the 20th century. Focusing on the psychological, medical, and psychoanalytic literature, I provide an overview of how white unmarried female teacher personalities were understood in order to provide a historical context for…

  4. Development of a scale to measure problem use of short message service: the SMS Problem Use Diagnostic Questionnaire. (United States)

    Rutland, J Brian; Sheets, Tilman; Young, Tony


    This exploratory study examines a subset of mobile phone use, the compulsive use of short message service (SMS) text messaging. A measure of SMS use, the SMS Problem Use Diagnostic Questionnaire (SMS-PUDQ), was developed and found to possess acceptable reliability and validity when compared to other measures such as self-reports of time spent using SMS and scores on a survey of problem mobile phone use. Implications for the field of addiction research, technological and behavioral addictions in particular, are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.

  5. Adolescence and the reorganization of infant development: a neuro-psychoanalytic model. (United States)

    Stortelder, Frans; Ploegmakers-Burg, Marian


    The psychoanalytic view of adolescence as a phase of turbulence and reorganization occupied a central position in child and adolescent psychiatry until about 1980. The view of adolescence as a silent-transition phase then prevailed and diverged from the psychoanalytic perspective. This article reviews infant and adolescent development using an interdisciplinary, neuro-psychoanalytic model in which psychoanalytic, neurobiological, and developmental perspectives converge and complement each other. Recent empirical research focuses attention on adolescence as a phase in which a far-reaching neurobiological and psychological reorganization takes place. According to the ontogenetic principle of psychoanalysis, the development and organization of the basic psychic functions occur in the first five years of life, while a reorganization takes place in adolescence. Neurobiological research confirms that the basic growth and maturation of the brain occurs in the first five years of life, and that a substantial reorganization in brain development transpires in adolescence. Research also verifies the clinical psychoanalytic concept that neurobiological and psychological maturation in adolescence remain unfinished till approximately age 23. The long-term and late biopsychosocial maturation in adolescence implies that adequate monitoring by parents and school remains necessary. The view that adolescents need to separate, and discover their individuality and independence alone, is unsupported by recent findings. The adolescent must acquire his independence, personal identity, and self-agency ("scaffolding") step by step. It is important that the adolescent knows that his parents are in the background monitoring and intervening as necessary; that he is not entirely alone, adrift and at risk for potential fragmentation. The long-term plasticity of the brain in adolescence implies greater vulnerability for the development of psychopathology, but offers opportunity for

  6. [Diagnostics of the human sex from the somatometric features in the cases of large-scale catastrophes]. (United States)

    Grigor'eva, M A; Anushkina, E S


    The objective of the present study was to develop the models for sex diagnostics based on the results of measurement of the wrist and its separate parts. It was shown that the best results are obtained using the size of the palm and finger III (from 87.9 to 93% of correct results). The measurement of finger III makes it possible to correctly determine the sex in 90% of the cases. At the same time, the incorrect identification of the sequential number of this finger more frequently results in erroneous diagnostics. The measurement of finger V is of the lowest informative value (73.7% of the correct results). Therefore, the use of its measurements is of a tentative value. When the sequential number of fingers II or IV is uncertain, both models can be used on equal terms without an appreciable loss of accuracy of the classification. The verification of the above models by means of comparison of the data obtained with those from the control group has demonstrated the high accuracy of the classification similar with that of the theoretical model.

  7. Collectives of diagnostic biomarkers identify high-risk subpopulations of hematuria patients: exploiting heterogeneity in large-scale biomarker data (United States)


    Background Ineffective risk stratification can delay diagnosis of serious disease in patients with hematuria. We applied a systems biology approach to analyze clinical, demographic and biomarker measurements (n = 29) collected from 157 hematuric patients: 80 urothelial cancer (UC) and 77 controls with confounding pathologies. Methods On the basis of biomarkers, we conducted agglomerative hierarchical clustering to identify patient and biomarker clusters. We then explored the relationship between the patient clusters and clinical characteristics using Chi-square analyses. We determined classification errors and areas under the receiver operating curve of Random Forest Classifiers (RFC) for patient subpopulations using the biomarker clusters to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Results Agglomerative clustering identified five patient clusters and seven biomarker clusters. Final diagnoses categories were non-randomly distributed across the five patient clusters. In addition, two of the patient clusters were enriched with patients with 'low cancer-risk' characteristics. The biomarkers which contributed to the diagnostic classifiers for these two patient clusters were similar. In contrast, three of the patient clusters were significantly enriched with patients harboring 'high cancer-risk" characteristics including proteinuria, aggressive pathological stage and grade, and malignant cytology. Patients in these three clusters included controls, that is, patients with other serious disease and patients with cancers other than UC. Biomarkers which contributed to the diagnostic classifiers for the largest 'high cancer- risk' cluster were different than those contributing to the classifiers for the 'low cancer-risk' clusters. Biomarkers which contributed to subpopulations that were split according to smoking status, gender and medication were different. Conclusions The systems biology approach applied in this study allowed the hematuric patients to cluster naturally on

  8. Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Amponsah, C.; Visser, L.E.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Struik, P.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Stomph, T.J.


    Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by

  9. [Psychoanalytically based and psychoanalysis in children and adolescents from the viewpoint of a child and adolescent psychotherapist]. (United States)

    Berns, Inge


    The author, practitioner of psychoanalytic psychotherapy with children and adolescents, explains her point of view regarding psychotherapy versus psychoanalysis. Verbatim process notes illustrate the work and are used to plan the therapeutic method.

  10. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy. (United States)

    Leontjevas, Ruslan; Evers-Stephan, Alexandra; Smalbrugge, Martin; Pot, Anne Margriet; Thewissen, Viviane; Gerritsen, Debby L; Koopmans, Raymond T C M


    To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. Cross-sectional design. Nursing home. 100 residents of 4 dementia special care units (n = 58) and 3 somatic units (n = 42). Primary professional caregivers were interviewed to score the AES-10 and NPIa. The elderly care physician and the psychologist of each unit examined residents for clinical apathy using diagnostic criteria. The AES-10 and NPIa correlated moderately with each other (r(s) = 0.62, P AES-10 correlated weakly (r(s) = 0.27, P = .024) and the NPIa moderately (r(s) = 0.46, P = .001) with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.72 (P AES-10 and 0.67 (P AES-10 produced higher sums of sensitivity and negative predictive value than the NPIa. Explorative analyses revealed that both instruments produced higher scores in dementia independently of having an apathy diagnosis, whereas AUCs were significant in nondementia (AES-10: AUC = 0.88, P AES-10 and NPIa may be used to distinguish apathetic from nonapathetic residents in a heterogeneous sample with and without dementia, or in residents without dementia. The AES-10 may be preferable to the NPIa apathy subscale when ruling out or screening for apathy. The performance of the scales against diagnostic criteria of apathy in dementia need to be further examined. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Observation of short time-scale spectral emissions at millimeter wavelengths with the new CTS diagnostic on the FTU tokamak (United States)

    Bruschi, A.; Alessi, E.; Bin, W.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Baiocchi, B.; Belli, F.; Calabrò, G.; Casiraghi, I.; Cocilovo, V.; Figini, L.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Lontano, M.; Lubyako, L.; Mazzotta, C.; Mellera, V.; Moro, A.; Nielsen, S. K.; Orsitto, F.; Ramogida, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ricci, D.; Stejner, M.; Tartari, U.; FTU Team


    On the FTU tokamak, the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was renewed for investigating the possible excitation of parametric decay instabilities (PDI) by electron cyclotron (EC) or CTS probe beams in presence of magnetic islands and measure their effects on the EC power absorption. The experiments were performed launching a gyroton probe beam (140 GHz, 400 kW) and observing the scattered radiation in symmetric and asymmetric directions (with respect to the equatorial plane) in different conditions of plasma density and magnetic field (with or without the EC resonance in the plasma), and with magnetic islands generated by Neon injection. The acquisition with a fast digitizer allowed observing spectral features with very high time and frequency resolution. Shots were performed at 7.2 T, with the fundamental EC resonance out of the plasma region, at 4.7 T, with the resonance on the high field side of the plasma column, and at 3.6 T, in this last case with the plasma between the first and the second EC harmonics both lying outside the plasma volume. Several types of spectral features characterized by their frequency and their fast time evolution were identified in the observed signal after a proper treatment. The paper reports the observations in the different experimental cases and the correlation of the features with the existence of MHD modes as witnessed by magnetic probes signals and with macroscopic plasma parameters.

  12. A detection algorithm for drug-induced liver injury in medical information databases using the Japanese diagnostic scale and its comparison with the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences/the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale. (United States)

    Hanatani, Tadaaki; Sai, Kimie; Tohkin, Masahiro; Segawa, Katsunori; Kimura, Michio; Hori, Katsuhito; Kawakami, Junichi; Saito, Yoshiro


    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the primary targets for pharmacovigilance using medical information databases (MIDs). Because of diagnostic complexity, a standardized method for identifying DILI using MIDs has not yet been established. We applied the Digestive Disease Week Japan 2004 (DDW-J) scale, a Japanese clinical diagnostic criteria for DILI, to a DILI detection algorithm, and compared it with the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences/the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (CIOMS/RUCAM) scale to confirm its consistency. Characteristics of DILI cases identified by the DDW-J algorithm were examined in two Japanese MIDs. Using an MID from the Hamamatsu University Hospital, we constructed a DILI detection algorithm on the basis of the DDW-J scale. We then compared the findings between the DDW-J and CIOMS/RUCAM scales. We examined the characteristics of DILI after antibiotic treatment in the Hamamatsu population and a second population that included data from 124 hospitals, which was derived from an MID from the Medical Data Vision Co., Ltd. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the possible DILI risk factors. The concordance rate was 79.4% between DILI patients identified by the DDW-J and CIOMS/RUCAM; the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was 0.952 (P < 0.0001). Men showed a significantly higher risk for DILI after antibiotic treatments in both MID populations. The DDW-J and CIOMS/RUCAM algorithms were equivalent for identifying the DILI cases, confirming the utility of our DILI detection method using MIDs. This study provides evidence supporting the use of MID analyses to improve pharmacovigilance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The challenge of rapid diagnosis in oncology: Diagnostic accuracy and cost analysis of a large-scale one-stop breast clinic. (United States)

    Delaloge, Suzette; Bonastre, Julia; Borget, Isabelle; Garbay, Jean-Rémi; Fontenay, Rachel; Boinon, Diane; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Mazouni, Chafika; Rivera, Sofia; Uzan, Catherine; André, Fabrice; Dromain, Clarisse; Boyer, Bruno; Pistilli, Barbara; Azoulay, Sandy; Rimareix, Françoise; Bayou, El-Hadi; Sarfati, Benjamin; Caron, Hélène; Ghouadni, Amal; Leymarie, Nicolas; Canale, Sandra; Mons, Muriel; Arfi-Rouche, Julia; Arnedos, Monica; Suciu, Voichita; Vielh, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne


    Rapid diagnosis is a key issue in modern oncology, for which one-stop breast clinics are a model. We aimed to assess the diagnosis accuracy and procedure costs of a large-scale one-stop breast clinic. A total of 10,602 individuals with suspect breast lesions attended the Gustave Roussy's regional one-stop breast clinic between 2004 and 2012. The multidisciplinary clinic uses multimodal imaging together with ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration for masses and ultrasonography-guided and stereotactic biopsies as needed. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by comparing one-stop diagnosis to the consolidated diagnosis obtained after surgery or biopsy or long-term monitoring. The medical cost per patient of the care pathway was assessed from patient-level data collected prospectively. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had masses, while 31% had micro-calcifications or other non-mass lesions. In 75% of the cases (87% of masses), an exact diagnosis could be given on the same day. In the base-case analysis (i.e. considering only benign and malignant lesions at one-stop and at consolidated diagnoses), the sensitivity of the one-stop clinic was 98.4%, specificity 99.8%, positive and negative predictive values 99.7% and 99.0%. In the sensitivity analysis (reclassification of suspect, atypical and undetermined lesions), diagnostic sensitivity varied from 90.3% to 98.5% and specificity varied from 94.3% to 99.8%. The mean medical cost per patient of one-stop diagnostic procedure was €420. One-stop breast clinic can provide timely and cost-efficient delivery of highly accurate diagnoses and serve as models of care for multiple settings, including rapid screening-linked diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. German validation of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) II: reliability, validity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (United States)

    Christiansen, H; Kis, B; Hirsch, O; Matthies, S; Hebebrand, J; Uekermann, J; Abdel-Hamid, M; Kraemer, M; Wiltfang, J; Graf, E; Colla, M; Sobanski, E; Alm, B; Rösler, M; Jacob, C; Jans, T; Huss, M; Schimmelmann, B G; Philipsen, A


    The German version of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) has proven to show very high model fit in confirmative factor analyses with the established factors inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept in both large healthy control and ADHD patient samples. This study now presents data on the psychometric properties of the German CAARS-self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-report (CAARS-O) questionnaires. CAARS-S/O and questions on sociodemographic variables were filled out by 466 patients with ADHD, 847 healthy control subjects that already participated in two prior studies, and a total of 896 observer data sets were available. Cronbach's-alpha was calculated to obtain internal reliability coefficients. Pearson correlations were performed to assess test-retest reliability, and concurrent, criterion, and discriminant validity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC-analyses) were used to establish sensitivity and specificity for all subscales. Coefficient alphas ranged from .74 to .95, and test-retest reliability from .85 to .92 for the CAARS-S, and from .65 to .85 for the CAARS-O. All CAARS subscales, except problems with self-concept correlated significantly with the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), but not with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Criterion validity was established with ADHD subtype and diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were high for all four subscales. The reported results confirm our previous study and show that the German CAARS-S/O do indeed represent a reliable and cross-culturally valid measure of current ADHD symptoms in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The language of empathy: an analysis of its constitution, development, and role in psychoanalytic listening. (United States)

    Aragno, Anna


    Viewed from an epistemological perspective, empathy in psychoanalytic practice is described as that aspect of a specialized attentional stance that opens channels of interaction facilitating the formation of a trusting bond and enabling one to gain access to the emotional qualities of another's experience. A literature overview traces the origins of the concept in Freud and its role in psychoanalytic listening (including its controversial, divisive evolution in our field). Empathy is then examined from a semiotic-developmental framework. Its constitutional origins, differentiated forms, and distinctive purpose in clinical discourse are discussed. A developmental line is proposed, and clear distinctions are drawn between empathy in everyday life and its specialized technical application in clinical work.


    Gentile, Jill


    This essay explores the mostly unexamined analogy of psychoanalytic free association to democratic free speech. The author turns back to a time when free speech was a matter of considerable discussion: the classical period of the Athenian constitution and its experiment with parrhesia. Ordinarily translated into English as "free speech," parrhesia is startlingly relevant to psychoanalysis. The Athenian stage-in particular, Hippolytus (Euripides, 5th century BCE)-illustrates this point. Euripides's tragic tale anticipates Freud's inquiries, exploring the fundamental link between free speech and female embodiment. The author suggests that psychoanalysis should claim its own conception of a polis as a mediated and ethical space between private and public spheres, between body and mind, and between speaking and listening communities. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  17. Psychoanalytical interpretations of prejudices with emphasis on prejudices towards persons with disabilities

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    Dimoski Sanja


    Full Text Available This paper deals with interpretations of prejudices and specifically, prejudices towards people with disabilities, from the perspective of one of the many theoretical approaches. Psychoanalytic theoretical point of view interpret prejudices through the personality of the individual. The study and interpretation of prejudices towards people with disabilities is one of the major themes of modern social model of disability. Psychoanalytic interpretations determine prejudices, as well as prejudices towards people with disabilities, as a result of defense mechanisms, especially projection. This paper discusses the emotional component of attitude, based on its predominance in prejudices, as a extreme attitudes. In this analysis we have taken into account the emotional and unconscious reactions that can compose an emotional ambivalence in relation to the object of an attitude. Prejudice towards people with disabilities were brought in connection with the irrational and emotional reactions and unconscious fantasies related to the object of an attitude.

  18. ["... here I am entirely among patients now..": the psychoanalytical practice of Lou Andreas-Salomé]. (United States)

    Klemann, Manfred


    The aim of this article is to disprove the widespread prejudice depicting Andreas-Salomé merely as a femme fatale, or companion of a few famous contemporaries (Nietzsche, Rilke, and Freud), while suppressing her original intellectual and clinical-practical achievement as a psychoanalyst. An evaluation of both published and hitherto unpublished sources clearly confirms the broad and thorough foundations of her psychoanalytical training in theory as well as in practice. Between 1913 and 1933 Andreas-Salomé conducted a relatively large number of analyses, discussed some of them with Freud in a kind of "supervision" by correspondence and published several articles on central psychoanalytical issues. So far, however, many psychoanalysts seem to have been unaware of her status as a former accomplished colleague.

  19. Prisoners of liberation: a psychoanalytic perspective on disenchantment and burnout among career women lawyers. (United States)

    Berger, B


    Using a psychoanalytic perspective, this article addresses the roots and treatment of disillusionment and incipient burnout in female corporate lawyers. It suggests that one of the primary issues that needs to be addressed in therapy with this group is the tendency to be self-punishing, a characteristic that often may be traced back to insensitive parenting. This formulation, combined with the penchant of law firms to regard as "good and expected" the inclination of their workers (especially women) to work without respite and with little regard for their own needs, places individuals at high risk for burnout. A case example is used to illustrate this phenomenon. It is concluded that whereas psychoanalytic treatment greatly may help overstressed professionals, society at large must address the values that foster the attitude of high career achievement at any cost.

  20. The violent true believer as a "lone wolf" - psychoanalytic perspectives on terrorism. (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Yakeley, Jessica


    The existing research on lone wolf terrorists and case experience are reviewed and interpreted through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. A number of characteristics of the lone wolf are enumerated: a personal grievance and moral outrage; the framing of an ideology; failure to affiliate with an extremist group; dependence on a virtual community found on the Internet; the thwarting of occupational goals; radicalization fueled by changes in thinking and emotion - including cognitive rigidity, clandestine excitement, contempt, and disgust - regardless of the particular ideology; the failure of sexual pair bonding and the sexualization of violence; the nexus of psychopathology and ideology; greater creativity and innovation than terrorist groups; and predatory violence sanctioned by moral (superego) authority. A concluding psychoanalytic formulation is offered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the UK National Health Service: an historical analysis. (United States)

    Rous, Elizabeth; Clark, Andrew


    This review developed from a discussion with the late Professor Richard Harrington about interventions in Child and Adolescent Mental Health services (CAMHS) that lacked an evidence base. Our aim is to investigate the literature for signs that child psychoanalysis is a declining paradigm within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the United Kingdom (UK). We present the literature chronologically since the inception of the UK National Health Service. This study shows that there have been a number of threats to child psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but no significant consistent decline. The profession is beginning to develop the social profile of a scientific discipline. We conclude that child psychoanalytic psychotherapy does not consistently demonstrate features of a declining scientific paradigm.

  2. Adequate managment of patients with dystrophinopathies (muscular dystrophy Duchenne/Becker): objective scales and additional diagnostic methods


    A. S. Nosko; A. L. Kurenkov; S. S. Nikitin; V.P. Zykov


    There are still no guidlines on managment of Duchenne/Becker myodystrophy in domestic medical practice. It leads to decrease of quality of life and, what is more important, lifespan of patients. In this article we have described our Western coleagues lаst decade experience, including consensus guidelines published in 2010 on mаnаgment of Duchenne myodystrophy, supplemented with our practicle experience. We have described standardized motor development scale and muscle tone score for patients ...

  3. The 2010 American college of rheumatology fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and symptom severity scale is a valid and reliable tool in a French speaking fibromyalgia cohort

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    Fitzcharles Mary-Ann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI, and the Symptom Severity scale (SS measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0–31, measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated. Methods The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and a visual analogue scale (VAS for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated. Results Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p  Conclusions The French FSDC is a valid instrument in French FM patients with reliability and construct validity. It is easily completed, simple to score, and has the potential to become the standard for measurement of polysymptomatic distress in FM.

  4. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients (United States)


    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants were 78 consecutive female patients who were referred for evaluation of an eating disorder. All participants completed the mood and eating disorder sections of the SCID-I/P and the borderline personality disorder section of the SCID-II, in addition to the MDQ and BSDS. Predictive validity of the MDQ and BSDS was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis of the Area Under the Curve (AUC). Results Fifteen (19%) and twelve (15%) patients fulfilled criteria for bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, respectively. The AUCs for bipolar II disorder were 0.78 (MDQ) and 0.78 (BDSD), and the AUCs for borderline personality disorder were 0.75 (MDQ) and 0.79 (BSDS). Conclusions Among patients being evaluated for eating disorders, the MDQ and BSDS show promise as screening questionnaires for both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. PMID:23443034

  5. Transitioning glass-ceramic scintillators for diagnostic x-ray imaging from the laboratory to commercial scale (United States)

    Beckert, M. Brooke; Gallego, Sabrina; Elder, Eric; Nadler, Jason


    This study sought to mitigate risk in transitioning newly developed glass-ceramic scintillator technology from a laboratory concept to commercial product by identifying the most significant hurdles to increased scale. These included selection of cost effective raw material sources, investigation of process parameters with the most significant impact on performance, and synthesis steps that could see the greatest benefit from participation of an industry partner that specializes in glass or optical component manufacturing. Efforts focused on enhancing the performance of glass-ceramic nanocomposite scintillators developed specifically for medical imaging via composition and process modifications that ensured efficient capture of incident X-ray energy and emission of scintillation light. The use of cost effective raw materials and existing manufacturing methods demonstrated proof-of-concept for economical viable alternatives to existing benchmark materials, as well as possible disruptive applications afforded by novel geometries and comparatively lower cost per volume. The authors now seek the expertise of industry to effectively navigate the transition from laboratory demonstrations to pilot scale production and testing to evince the industry of the viability and usefulness of composite-based scintillators.

  6. When the Subconscious Goes to Steering - Psychoanalytic Subtexts in Thriller Cinema: The Example of Duel


    Erol, Volkan


    Fear, an inseparable part of humanity, manifests itself in art andliterature as a reflection of subconscious, also occupies cinema since itsbeginning. Images that reflected from gigantic screens in the darkness of movietheaters, manage to revive collective fears simultaneously unlike any othermedium. Horror, thriller and suspense films, which use subconscious fears as asource and more often than not, prefer to use metaphors while narrate them,prepare the ground for psychoanalytic film analysi...


    Silverman, Martin A


    Defining Psychoanalysis: Achieving a Vernacular Expression, by Ian Miller. London: Karnac, 2016. 116 pp. The Pioneers of Psychoanalysis in South America: An Essential Guide, edited by Nydia Lisman-Pieczanski and Alberto Pieczanski. London/New York: Routledge, 2015. 537 pp. Reading Italian Psychoanalysis, edited by Franco Borgogno, Alberto Luchetti, and Luisa Marino Coe. London/New York: Routledge, 2016. 738 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  8. Bingham Dai, Adolf Storfer, and the tentative beginnings of psychoanalytic culture in China, 1935-1941. (United States)

    Blowers, Geoffrey


    This paper looks at the work of two figures who, while marginal to theoretical developments within the history of psychoanalysis, each briefly played an important role in the dissemination of analytical ideas in China, contributing to an early psychoanalytic culture there. Bingham Dai, a native of China, while studying for a PhD in sociology at Chicago, received instruction from Harry Stack Sullivan and a psychoanalytic training under Karen Horney's supervision. However, the neo-Freudian outlook with which this experience imbued him had its roots in an earlier encounter with his experiments in personality education first conducted on students in a Tientsin high school, and later in Shantung under the direction of the conservative Confucian scholar and reformer, Liang Shu Ming. These experiences convinced him that a less orthodox psychoanalytic perspective was what Chinese patients with psychological problems required. He returned in 1935 to teach medical psychology to doctors at Peking Union Medical College, taking a few into analysis and treating some patients. However, the Sino-Japanese war brought these activities to a close and he left in 1939, just a few months after the former Freud publisher and Viennese émigré, Adolf Storfer, arrived. Storfer set about publishing "Gelbe Post," a German language periodical replete with articles on psychoanalysis, linguistics and Chinese culture. But limited finances, severe competition from a rival publisher, plus his own ill health, forced him to abandon this in spite of the support offered him through the many contributors in the international psychoanalytic community whose articles he published. The paper concludes by considering the relative historiographic fate of the men upon whom subsequent scholarship has been very unevenly focused.

  9. The rooting of the mind in the body: new links between attachment theory and psychoanalytic thought. (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Target, Mary


    The relationship between psychoanalysis and attachment theory is complex indeed. A brief review of the psychoanalytic literature as it concerns attachment theory and research, and of the attachment literature as it pertains to psychoanalytic ideas, demonstrates an increasing interest in attachment theory within psychoanalysis. Some of the difficulties that attachment theory faces in relation to psychoanalytic ideas are traced to its links to the now dated cognitive science of the 1960s and 1970s. Today, however, a second-generation cognitive neuroscience seeks neurobiologically plausible accounts in which links with brain and body are seen as shaping mind and consciousness, which increasingly are seen as "embodied", as emerging from or serving the needs of a physical being located in a specific time, place, and social context. This idea has also been at the core of much psychoanalytic thinking, which has historically affirmed the rootedness of symbolic thought in sensory, emotional, and enacted experience with objects. Now neurobiological advances supporting the concept of embodied cognition offer an opportunity to forge powerful links between the hitherto separate domains of attachment theory and psychoanalysis. Speculations about the nature of language are presented that emphasize the origin of internal working models (and of representations in general) in early sensorimotor and emotional experiences with a caregiver. It is argued that language and symbolic thought may be phylogenetically and ontogenetically embodied, built on a foundation of gestures and actions, and are thus profoundly influenced by the experience of early physical interaction with the primary object. Finally, the clinical and research implications of these ideas are discussed.

  10. Aprendizagem e método psicanalítico Learning and the psychoanalytical method

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    Marta Regina de Leão D'Agord


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo contribuir para a docência universitária e como origem a seguinte questão: se o método psicanalítico estabelece princípios para uma direção de tratamento, qual seria a contribuição do mesmo para os princípios de uma direção psicanalítica de aprendizagens (ou aprendizagem? na universidade? Trabalha-se com uma transposição do método psicanalítico, elaborado por Freud e Lacan, para o campo da aprendizagem, reconhecendo-se que o primeiro opera sobre o saber inconsciente, enquanto o segundo tem por objeto o conhecimento. As questões abordadas para a formulação de uma direção psicanalítica de aprendizagem são as seguintes: a relação entre saber e conhecimento; a relação entre o saber e o só-depois (Nachträglichkeit e a experiência dos cartéis nas instituições de formação psicanalítica.This work presents a contribution to university teaching. This study originates from the following question: if the psychoanalytical method establishes principles for a treatment direction, which would be the contribution of this method to the principles of a direction of learning in the university? This research works with a transposition of the psychoanalytical method to the field of learning, recognizing itself that the first one operates on unconscious knowing, as the second has for object knowledge. The relation between knowing and knowledge; the relation between knowing and the retroactivity (Nachträglichkeit, the experience of the institutions of psychoanalytical formation with the group called cartel are questions to a proposal of psychoanalytical direction of learning.

  11. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research. (United States)

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston


    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation.


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    Irina-Andreea STOLERIU


    Full Text Available The starting point of the present paper is the work 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne', made by Leonardo da Vinci. The paper is based both on an artistic and psychoanalytic approach which opens new ways of interpretation due to the research of Sigmund Freud - 'Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood'. Freud claims that Leonardo had found the lost image of his mother in his works 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne' and 'Mona Lisa', thus justifying the artist’s direct attachment to these creations. Along with specific interpretations of the creative process, the psychoanalytic approach intends to explain and enrich the content of ideas of the present paper regarding one of the most valuable creations of Leonardo and also an artistic testament created towards the end of his life. Freud’s psychoanalytic approach brings specific interpretative content for the mentioned work of art. It is different from the artistic method, not contradicting various artistic studies, but complementing them in a harmonious way.

  13. The "black hole" as the basic psychotic experience: some newer psychoanalytic and neuroscience perspectives on psychosis. (United States)

    Grotstein, J S


    The psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic disorders has had a long and complicated history because of the historic preference of psychoanalysis for neurotics. Nevertheless, it has survived the prejudice of psychoanalysts and empirical psychiatrists and now enters an interdisciplinary phase in which psychotic psychopathology is understood as primarily an emotional disorder, but one that must also be considered from the point of view of neurobiology and neuropsychology as well as sociology. In this contribution, I offer the idea that perhaps the most important subtext in the psyche of the psychotic is what has been called the black hole. This massive deficit is ultimately attributable to a precocious abruption of the mother's physical and psychical presence from the infant, a phenomenon that has hereditary, congenital, perinatal, and continuing developmental reinterpretive elaborations. The psychoanalytic treatment of the psychotic consists of reversing the direction of his or her cataclysmic descent into the black hole and, at the same time, empathically loosening the control that the protective psychotic alterego has on the surviving self. Further, the psychoanalytic treatment of schizophrenia, in particular (as well as many of the other primitive mental disorders), now frequently involves both an interdisciplinary orientation and perspective and choices of interdisciplinary modalities extending across the whole biopsychosocial spectrum.

  14. Recrimination in the analytic situation. A hypothesis about its influence on psychoanalytical groups. (United States)

    Gálvez, Manuel José; Maldonado, Jorge Luis


    This paper deals with certain distortions in communication generated by mutual recrimination that is the result of disturbances in the ideal agencies of both parties. Although the ideal ego, superego and ego ideal participate equally in reproach, it is the latter which is the most decisive. In clinical experience, recrimination may easily colour the analytic dialogue. In such cases, interpretation loses its sense of clarification and another type of dialogue replaces it. There, words are used to take possession of the other, for its autonomy is a threat to the static character of the pathology of mourning. The problem of recrimination has also tainted the development of psychoanalysis, to the point of disrupting the process of discovery itself. This paper deals with repercussions in the psychoanalytic movement and also in the elements that constitute its structure. Finally, different variations and disturbances in the psychoanalytic ideal are considered, as well as the involvement of the psychoanalytic institution in preserving or transforming the ideal. Here the importance of institutions and institutional ideals is emphasised. Finally, we suggest that ideals either encourage or hinder the working through of individual and collective mourning.

  15. [Lou Andreas-Salome (1861-1937)--psychoanalytical and feministic contribution to understanding her biography]. (United States)

    Bramness, J G


    Lou (Louise) Andreas-Salomé's life and work has preoccupied many biographers. The interest may have be sparked by her liaisons with many of the greatest men of her time. She had an intimate relationship with Friedrich Nietzsche in a period of great change for him. She was Rainer Marie Rilke's mistress for several years. And she pursued a close friendship and working relationship with Sigmund Freud in the latter part of her life. But her significance goes beyond these associations. She was a celebrated novelist and essayist in her own right, with ten novels and more than 50 essays, also on psychoanalytical subjects. She has been viewed as femme fatale, opportunist, feminist, radical, liberal, but also as a significant contributor to psychoanalytical thought. There have been two biographical approaches: a psychoanalytical approach focusing on her loss of father-figures and later difficult relationships with famous men, and a feministic approach accusing psychoanalysts of not contributing to insight, but belittling Salomé's legitimate position. A fuller understanding may be obtained by integrating these two views.

  16. Addiction as an attempt at self-regulation (contemporary psychoanalytic theories of addiction

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    Gregor Žvelc


    Full Text Available In the article author presents the development of psychoanalytic theory of addiction from early writings to contemporary ego, self psychological and theories of object relations. Classical psychoanalysis understood addiction as a regressive gratification of libidinal drives, whereas contemporary authors understand it as an attempt of adaptation to certain problems and worries. The neurotic conflict is not anymore in the foreground, but disturbances in ego, self and object relations. On the basis of a review of contemporary psychoanalytical theories, the author concludes that individuals prone to addiction have a disturbance in self-regulation. Because of that, they have problems in tolerating and coping with certain emotions. With the help of outer means they tend to re-establish internal balance, which they can't manage alone. This outer 'help' can be seen in various forms of addiction (drugs, food, relationships, sex .... So, the core problem of addicted people is a deficit of self-regulation, which is a consequence of a lack of internalisaton of regulatory functions of primary object. Contemporary psychoanalytical theories of addiction bring us greater insight in personality factors which influence the formation of addiction, thus giving us guidelines for adequate psychotherapy of addiction.

  17. Inner and Outer Life at Work. The Roots and Horizon of Psychoanalytically Informed Work Life Research

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    Linda Lundgaard Andersen


    Full Text Available The modern labour market has increasingly put the inner working life on the agenda. This stems from a number of societal changes: the knowledge society and its need of personalised competences and work investments in welfare services, the transformation from subject-object relationships to subject-subject relationships and the emergence of the "learning organisations" and reflexive leadership. All of this has been the subject of critical analyses tracing modern work life identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work—in a generic display of concepts, methods and epistemology. URN:

  18. Adequate managment of patients with dystrophinopathies (muscular dystrophy Duchenne/Becker: objective scales and additional diagnostic methods

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    A. S. Nosko


    Full Text Available There are still no guidlines on managment of Duchenne/Becker myodystrophy in domestic medical practice. It leads to decrease of quality of life and, what is more important, lifespan of patients. In this article we have described our Western coleagues lаst decade experience, including consensus guidelines published in 2010 on mаnаgment of Duchenne myodystrophy, supplemented with our practicle experience. We have described standardized motor development scale and muscle tone score for patients with MDD/MDB, and algorithm of multidiscipline care with focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of main disease and steroid therapy complications: cardiovascular, orthopedics, respirator etc. These recommendations not only improve quality of live and extend lifespan of MDD/MDB patients, but allow to take part in multicentre trials on searching of pathognomonic and symptomatic treatment.

  19. Impact of aerosols and cloud parameters on Indian summer monsoon rain at intraseasonal scale: a diagnostic study (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Thomas, Litty; Kumar, K. Kishore


    Aerosol and cloud parameters are known to be the influencing factors of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) variability at interannual and intraseasonal scales. In this study, we investigate the impact of remotely sensed aerosol optical depth and associated parameters (cloud fraction, cloud optical depth, cloud effective radii, cloud top pressure, and single-scattering albedo) on the individual active (break) spells of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) season. Active and break spells are identified using satellite-derived data sets over the central Indian (CI) region. The present analysis suggests that the CI region is loaded with higher aerosol concentration and that rainfall is significantly negatively correlated with aerosol optical depth (significant at 1 % significance level) over CI. Contrary to the composite-based previous studies, it has been observed that the aerosol loading and cloud properties are considerably different during the individual active and break events. For break events, composite representation shows that aerosols are stacked along the Himalayan region while all individual break events do not portray this type of aerosol dispensation. It appears from the present analysis that the aerosols may impact the intraseasonal variability of ISMR through its indirect effect by altering the cloud properties and consequently the rainfall. Therefore, aerosols are supposed to be a regional contributor in affecting the intraseasonal variability of summer monsoon rainfall.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of gray-scale ultrasonography for the detection of hepatic and splenic lymphoma in dogs. (United States)

    Crabtree, Amanda C; Spangler, Elizabeth; Beard, Debra; Smith, Annette


    Gray-scale ultrasonography is often used to screen for involvement of the liver and spleen in canine lymphoma patients but the utility of sonography for staging lymphoma has not been evaluated quantitatively. We performed abdominal sonography in 28 dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma. Needle aspirates were obtained for cytology from three separate sites in the liver and three sites in the spleen and the sonographic appearance was noted at each site. Our hypothesis was that in dogs newly diagnosed with lymphoma, abnormal appearance of the liver or spleen on ultrasound examination is an indication that lymphoma is present in that organ. Cytologic evaluation was used as the gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of hepatic and splenic abnormalities seen on ultrasound for diagnosis of lymphoma were 72.7%, 80.6%, 77.4%, 76.3%, and 76.8% for the liver, respectively, and 100%, 23.3%, 64.6%, 100%, and 68.1% for the spleen, respectively. Based on these results, we recommend that aspirates be performed for detection of lymphoma in the spleen of dogs only when the spleen appears abnormal ultrasonographically and that cytology of the liver be performed, regardless of ultrasonographic appearance, to determine the presence or absence of lymphoma.

  1. Diagnostic and prognostic role of MRI in spinal trauma, its comparison and correlation with clinical profile and neurological outcome, according to ASIA impairment scale

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    Umesh C Parashari


    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in patients with acute and chronic spinal trauma and to compare and correlate the MRI findings with those of patients′ clinical profile and neurological outcome according to ASIA impairment scale to assess prognostic and clinical value of MRI. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients of spinal trauma formed the study group in a prospective fashion. The patients undergoing MR imaging and magnetic resonance images were analyzed and correlated with findings on neurological examination according to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA impairment scale (AIS at the time of MRI examination and subsequently at sub-acute interval to assess neurological outcome. Statistical Analysis : Sample profile was described in terms of 95% confidence limit and proportion. To describe strength of association between extent of spinal cord injury and outcome, odd′s ratio, bivariate and multi variant analysis, was used. Pearson′s chi square (χ 2 statistics was applied to test the association between two categorical variables. Data were analyzed using statistical software package, STATA 9.2 and the difference was considered to be significant if ′P′ value was <0.05. Observation and Results: The cord edema without hemorrhage was the most common MR finding (41.5%. The others were sizable focus of hemorrhage within the cord (33%, epidural hematoma (5.0%, and normal cord (26%. Majority of MR findings correlated well with clinical profile of the patient according to ASIA impairment scale. This study demonstrated that patients with presence of sizable focus of haemorrhage had larger cord edema and more severe grade of initial ASIA impairment scale( AIS with poor recovery at follow up (P=0.032.Improvement in upper extremity was more than lower extremity. Severe cord compression was also associated with poor neurological outcome; however it was not

  2. Toward a tripartite vision of supervision for psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapies: alliance, transference-countertransference configuration, and real relationship. (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward


    The psychoanalytic supervision relationship is examined as a tripartite phenomenon, comprised of the supervisory alliance, transference-countertransference configuration, and real relationship. While most supervisory analysts would readily acknowledge that a real (or personal) relationship element exists in analytic supervision, that facet of the supervision relationship has not routinely been incorporated into considerations of psychoanalytic supervision. In this vision of supervision, real relationship, supervisory alliance, and transference-countertransference configuration are presented as integral and complementary constructs that define psychoanalytic supervision. Each of those three components is examined briefly with regard to its beginnings, evolution, and contemporary status; each component is also considered from an empirical perspective. While we have a growing quantitative and qualitative research foundation that supports psychoanalytic practice, psychoanalytic supervision has largely been ignored as a subject and object of scientific study. Supervisory alliance, transference-countertransference configuration, and real relationship are explored as research ready variables. Some clinical hypotheses--eminently testable and worthy of investigation--are proposed with regard to each component of the model, and some ideas--albeit tentative and preliminary--about how to initiate such inquiries are offered. © 2011 N.P.A.P.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Adult Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and its short scale in accordance with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. (United States)

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Kurita, Hiroshi


    We developed the Japanese version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and report its psychometric properties. The ASRS-J and other questionnaires were administered to 48 adults with ADHD, 46 adults with non-ADHD psychiatric disorders, 96 non-clinical adults, and 894 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5. The ASRS-J, its subscales, and the short form, all had Cronbach's α values of around 0.80. Total scores on the ASRS-J and the ASRS-J-6 were highly correlated with readministration after a two-week interval. The total and 18 individual item scores in the ASRS-J were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the other three groups. ASRS-J scores were correlated with scores on the Japanese version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report subscales (0.59≤r≤0.77), with one exception. ASRS-J scores were also correlated (albeit more weakly; r=0.38) with Beck Depression Inventory-II total scores. Employing optimal cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 are all above 0.69. The ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 showed acceptable psychometric properties, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The interaction of existential concerns and psychoanalytic insights in the treatment of contemporary patients. (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D


    Middle-aged and elderly patients have been shown to respond to psychoanalytic treatment, but they present certain characteristic problems not typical of young patients. I discuss these and offer a brief case presentation followed by a general discussion of the role of existential concerns and of their intertwining with psychoanalytic insights and interpretations in the treatment of older patients from our contemporary culture. The particular case of a relatively mild narcissistic personality disorder is used as an example of the kinds of difficulties contemporary psychoanalysts and psychodynamic psychiatrists run into in the current treatment of the aging patient population. The analyst's beliefs and personality are seen as more important than in classical Freudian psychoanalysis, and deliberate attention to the patient's existential concerns and cultural milieu cannot be avoided. A great deal of correction of what Gedo called "apraxias" is necessary, but I argue that in this situation each person must develop one's self in one's own way and without education and intrusion by the analyst. This self development in the face of one's inevitable future is seen as a vital aspect of contemporary psychoanalytic treatment of aging patients, regardless of which of the five orientation channels (that I have discussed elsewhere) are employed. The patient is seen as dealing both with his or her own infantile neurosis that is interfering with adult functioning and at the same time with universal existential human problems that become increasingly pressing as one ages. I contend that the current biological orientation of psychiatry is insufficient to address these difficulties, regardless of what advances we make in psychopharmacology and neurobiology. An exclusive neurobiological orientation can represent what existentialists label an "inauthentic choice" and a retreat from the spirit of humanism.

  5. Reality testing in place of interpretation: a phase in psychoanalytic work with descendants of Holocaust survivors. (United States)

    Grubrich-Simitis, Ilse


    Repetition of experience endured by the first generation has frequently been observed in descendants of Holocaust survivors. Such repetitions are associated with an erosion of the ability, in the area of the trauma, to distinguish more or less reliably between external and internal reality. This in turn results from the defensive need, in the affected families, to dissociate from such extreme traumatic experiences. Clinical material is presented to show that, at a certain phase in psychoanalytic work with patients belonging to subsequent generations, interpretive activity may need to be temporarily suspended in order to facilitate reality testing and the recognition of the Shoah as an objective historical fact.

  6. Psychoanalytic education in the twenty-first century: a syllabus for all seasons. (United States)

    Jacobs, Carl


    I am suggesting that psychoanalytic training facilities restructure their curriculum to include opposing views, in an effort to avoid the inevitable disintegration of the field at large. Without a sense of requirement for any particular viewpoint, I have suggested the model of class modules, usually based around three differing positions, be applied in as many classes as possible. This method enhances the very nature of psychoanalysis while it extends the educational provenance of each separate institute, and specifically each teacher of psychoanalysis. In so doing, candidates across the board will feel and think in a more collegial manner, and may find that learning psychoanalysis is to learn something new and exciting.

  7. For developmental period specific tasks in psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy: The case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik


    Full Text Available The patient – therapist relationship is always unique, depending from both personalities – the patient's and the therapist's one. Therefore the rules for therapeutic interventions are strict and rigid – they should give some objective frames for the therapy. In this article I present psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy, where I outrouled the rigidness of psychotherapeutic interventions.At deep pathology of personality structure, especially at ego and self pathology, it is sometimes advisable to overcame the therapeutic boundaries for a more active healing process of developmental deficits.


    Katz, S Montana


    The Bi-Personal Field: Experiences in Child Psychoanalysis. By Antonino Ferro. New York: Routledge, 1992 (1999). 232 pp. The Intimate Room: Theory and Technique of the Analytic Field. By Giuseppe Civitarese. New York: Routledge, 2008 (2010). 240 pp. The Necessary Dream: New Theories and Techniques of Interpretation in Psychoanalysis. By Giuseppe Civitarese; translated by Ian Harvey. London: Karnac, 2013 (2014). 246 pp. The Analytic Field and Its Transformations. By Antonino Ferro and Giuseppe Civitarese. London: Karnac, 2015. 224 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  9. Medicating patients in psychoanalytic therapy: implications for introjection, transference, and countertransference. (United States)

    Riccio, Dominick J


    If a patient comes for psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, why medicate him with psychotropic drugs? The answers to this question are explored and addressed from several points of view. The central hypothesis of this paper suggests that most of the reasons for medicating patients have to do with therapist's unresolved countertransference issues. Furthermore, medicating a patient may have deleterious effects on his introjected sense of self, and impacts the transference relationship in a significant way. The issues surrounding medication as adjunctive therapy are elucidated and clarified in terms of rationale, efficacy, and the impact on the psychotherapeutic relationship. Psychoanalytic solutions are offered and discussed.

  10. Beyond Death’s Dream Kingdom: modernity and the psychoanalytic Social Imaginary

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    Neil Turnbull


    Full Text Available The appearance on the historical stage of Western modernity is often understood as an “epochal event” that overturned an earlier pre-modern cultural condition that was premised on the dialectic of life and death and the attempt to forge a suitable balance or harmony between them. As such Western modernity is often viewed as the emergence as a new liberal political order based upon individualism, radical immanence and the emergence of a new calculating subjectivities and governmentalities in ways that led to the rejection of the transcendent, the metaphysical and the theological dimensions of human life. In this paper, using Hans Holbein’s famous painting The Ambassadors as a point of reference and adopting the oblique position in relation to the modern taken up by the artist in this painting, I suggest that in the 20th Century, largely as a result of an awareness of the metaphysical significance of the catastrophe of the First World War, that modern liberalism was thrown into crisis and the old pre-modern metaphysical problematic returned as new focus of social and political concern. With specific reference to the work of Sigmund Freud and later psychoanalytic thinkers who took Freud’s idea of the death drive as their theoretical point of departure, I show how in the 20th century psychoanalytically-informed practitioners attempted to resolve the ancient conflict between the forces of life and death through the creation of an enchanted phantasmagoria of mass consumable objects that were often specifically designed and marketed in order to eroticise the nascent thanatic dimensions of modern life, thereby rendering the latter manageable and ultimately liveable. Drawing on the work of social theorists of the imaginary such as Glibert Durand as well as famous propagandisers of Freud such as Edward Bernays and Ernst Dichter (who saw in Freud’s work the possibility of developing a political technology I will suggest that in the 20th century

  11. Through the storm: psychoanalytic theory in the psychotherapy of the anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Zerbe, K J


    Anxiety is one of the most ubiquitous problems facing human beings. The author summarizes the views of the major psychodynamic theorists who have contributed to a psychoanalytic understanding of anxiety: Freud's toxic and signal theories; the interpersonal schools of Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney, and Frieda Fromm-Reichmann; the object relations theorists; and the self-psychological perspective of Heinz Kohut. The author then describes how each of these schools provides a different way to appreciate and work with anxiety. She emphasizes the containing and soothing functions of therapy, which have their roots in several of the theories.

  12. Inner and Outer Life at Work. The Roots and Horizon of Psychoanalytically Informed Work Life Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda


    »‚Innen‘ – und ‚Außenleben‘ in der Arbeitswelt. Ursprünge und Potenziale einer psychoanalytisch informierten Arbeitsweltforschung«. The modern labour market has increasingly put the inner working life on the agenda. This stems from a number of societal changes: the knowledge society and its need...... identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research...

  13. Antigone’s Legacy: A Feminist psychoanalytic of an Other Sexual Difference


    Cavanagh, Sheila L.


    Much has been written about Antigone who buried her brother Polynices in Theban soil despite the prohibition issued by King Creon (her uncle) in the Sophocles tragedy. In order to understand the magnitude of Antigone’s radical act in the play by the same name I engage the scholarship of Israeli feminist psychoanalytic scholar Bracha L. Ettinger. By engaging Ettinger’s theory of the Other (Feminine) Sexual Difference, I consider how ways of being in the Feminine tap into the matrixial domain, ...


    Fulmer, Richard H


    The period during which grown children leave home and establish a new, self-supporting family is called emerging adulthood. This paper uses psychoanalytic concepts and family-life-cycle theory to analyze the film Rebel without a Cause () as a dramatic example of three families going through this phase. Freud's () rescue-motif of the child trying to save an endangered peer to repay his parents for having been nurtured is also characteristic of this period and is considered practice for parenting the next generation. Proximate conflict and support enable two of the film's families to continue the path to reproduce themselves. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  15. The evolution of psychoanalytic thought: a brief view through the lens of Western art and history: Freud and beyond. (United States)

    Stavovy, Tania


    The aim of this paper is to explore the diversity and progress in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy post-Sigmund Freud from the perspective of Western art. Since 1900 the shift from one-person psychology to the more contemporary two-person psychology is reflected in the creativity of artists, particularly in their depiction of the mother-infant relationship. An alternative perspective in understanding the evolution of Man's nature can be drawn from a discourse between art, history and psychoanalytic thought. Using art as evidence that reflects concurrent changes in psychoanalytic thought is a stimulating way to engage trainee psychiatrists and psychiatrists in their exploration of human nature.

  16. Cognitive behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy versus a brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial. (United States)

    Goodyer, Ian M; Reynolds, Shirley; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Dubicka, Bernadka; Hill, Jonathan; Holland, Fiona; Kelvin, Raphael; Midgley, Nick; Roberts, Chris; Senior, Rob; Target, Mary; Widmer, Barry; Wilkinson, Paul; Fonagy, Peter


    Psychological treatments for adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder are associated with diagnostic remission within 28 weeks in 65-70% of patients. We aimed to assess the medium-term effects and costs of psychological therapies on maintenance of reduced depression symptoms 12 months after treatment. We did this multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial (IMPACT) at 15 National Health Service child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinics in three regions in England. Adolescent patients (aged 11-17 years) with a diagnosis of DSM IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a web-based randomisation service, to receive cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychoanalytical therapy versus a reference brief psychological intervention. Randomisation was stochastically minimised by age, sex, self-reported depression sum score, and region. Patients and clinicians were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. Patients were followed up and reassessed at weeks 6, 12, 36, 52, and 86 post-randomisation. The primary outcome was self-reported depression symptoms at weeks 36, 52, and 86, as measured with the self-reported Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Because our aim was to compare the two psychological therapies with the brief psychosocial intervention, we first established whether CBT was inferior to short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the same outcome. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN83033550. Between June 29, 2010, and Jan 17, 2013, we randomly assigned 470 patients to receive the brief psychosocial intervention (n=158), CBT (n=155), or short-term psychoanalytical therapy (n=157); 465 patients comprised the intention-to-treat population. 392 (84%) patients had available data for primary analysis by the end of follow-up. Treatment fidelity and

  17. Avaliação de resultados da psicoterapia psicanalítica Assessment of psychoanalytic psychotherapy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Isabel Jung


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este artigo relata uma investigação de coorte retrospectiva que avaliou a efetividade da psicoterapia psicanalítica com pacientes adultos em um serviço de atendimento comunitário na cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil. MÉTODO: A amostra foi constituída por 34 pacientes divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1, 17 pacientes que realizaram tratamento por até 11 meses (média de 6,4 meses, e grupo 2, 17 pacientes com 1 ano ou mais de psicoterapia (média de 24,7 meses, contatados após o término de seu tratamento psicoterápico, em média 20,9 meses no grupo 1 e 29,9 meses no grupo 2. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista semi-estruturada, questionário de efetividade e escala de avaliação global do funcionamento. Experts independentes aplicaram a escala de avaliação global do funcionamento na entrevista inicial de tratamento (realizada pelo psicoterapeuta e encontrada no arquivo da instituição e de seguimento. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes melhoraram significativamente seu funcionamento global, comparando a avaliação inicial à de seguimento da psicoterapia (p INTRODUCTION: This article reports a retrospective cohort investigation, which assessed the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in adult patients at a community health center in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODs: The sample was composed of 34 patients, who were divided into two groups: group 1, 17 patients who underwent treatment for up to 11 months (mean 6.4 months and group 2, 17 patients who underwent psychotherapy for 1 year or longer (mean 24.7 months. The patients were contacted after their psychotherapeutic treatment was over, in average 20.9 months (group 1 and 29.9 months (group 2. Instruments used were semi-structured interview, effectiveness questionnaire and global assessment of functioning scale. Independent experts applied the global assessment of functioning scale in the initial interview (carried out by the psychotherapist and found in

  18. Aaron T. Beck's drawings and the psychoanalytic origin story of cognitive therapy. (United States)

    Rosner, Rachael I


    In this essay the author challenges the standard origin story of cognitive therapy, namely, that its founder Aaron T. Beck broke with psychoanalysis to pursue a more pragmatic, parsimonious, and experimentalist cognitive model. It is true that Beck broke with psychoanalysis in large measure as a result of his experimental disconfirmation of key psychoanalytic ideas. His new school of cognitive therapy brought the experimental ethos into every corner of psychological life, extending outward into the largest multisite randomized controlled studies of psychotherapy ever attempted and inward into the deepest recesses of our private worlds. But newly discovered hand-sketched drawings from 1964 of the schema, a conceptual centerpiece of cognitive therapy, as well as unpublished personal correspondence show that Beck continued to think psychoanalytically even after he broke with psychoanalysis. The drawings urge us to consider an origin story much more complex than the one of inherited tradition. This new, multifaceted origin story of cognitive therapy reaches beyond sectarian disagreements and speaks to a broader understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of cognitive therapy.

  19. Methodological problems in the psychoanalytic interpretation of literature: a review of studies on Sophocles' Antigone. (United States)

    Werman, D


    Through a critical review of several studies dealing with Sophocles' drama, the Antigone, I have explored some of the prominent methodological problems encountered in the psychoanalytic interpretation of literature. Foremost among these is the inherent difficulty that the interpretation of literature is unable to benefit from the process of the analytic situation. Divorced from the realities of the therapeutic process, the drama itself is often used to corroborate an author's theoretical bias or to advance some special interest, with consequent distortion or blurring of the text. Although data about the artist's life and sociocultural environment may be of crucial significance, it is the text itself that must be the ultimate object of study. Through a re-examination of the Antigone as an aesthetic totality I have sketched out what appears to be an alternative manner of approaching the drama, and suggested that works of art reach us on both unconscious and conscious levels. I have stressed the need to analyze our emotional response to a work as affording a valuable source of insight into the work itself. Throughout, I have drawn attention to the need for greater scholarly rigor and the value of interdisciplinary collaboration. An open recognition of the problems in the psychoanalytic study of literature should serve to minimize dilettantism and raise the level of scholarship.

  20. Psychoanalytic self psychology and its conceptual development in light of developmental psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience. (United States)

    Hartmann, Hans-Peter


    The chapter starts with a historical overview of the subject of narcissism in psychoanalysis. Some sociophilosophical definitions of narcissism are explained and the connection to self psychology is described. It is especially referred to Honneth's Struggle for Recognition, which is related to the need for selfobject experiences. An outline of different concepts concerning narcissism, especially in the European psychoanalytic tradition, follows and leads to a clearer understanding of Kohut's conception of the self and its selfobjects. Because self psychology can often be understood as applied developmental psychology, useful links to attachment research are described and the move to the level of representation by mentalization is clarified. Further development of self psychology in the direction of intersubjectivity helps to supply connections to systems theory. Recently developed theories of empathy with reference to neurobiological findings provide a dynamic perspective of the activation of empathy. Thus, empathy seems to be better understood as a sort of contagion on which cognitive cortical processes are superimposed. Finally, the therapeutic process in psychoanalytic self psychology is portrayed. This process implies a disruption and repair process by which transmuting internalization can take place. More current theories of self psychology view this process in its essence intersubjectively as a co-construction between patient and analyst. The paper concludes with some hints for a paradigm shift in the direction of a more holistic understanding of the self.

  1. The Bible as Transformational Object: The Psychoanalytic Theories of Christopher Bollas and Their Relevance for Religious Educators (United States)

    DeGear, Elizabeth Berne


    This article examines the psychoanalytic concepts of object-relations theorist Christopher Bollas, applying them to a view of the Bible as "transformational object." Emphasizing the connection between psychological process and religious experience, this article suggests that each person's innate ability to choose and use objects is a key…

  2. The current status of the psychoanalytic theory of instinctual drives. I: Drive concept, classification, and development. (United States)

    Compton, A


    The evolution of Freud's theory of instinctual drives, with the accompanying models of a mental apparatus, is remarkable for its tenacious adherence to addressing the fundamental problems of human psychology, here phrased as the problems of body-mind-environment relationships. The concept of instinctual drives continues to be one of the most pervasive concepts of psychoanalysis, weathering considerable attack over the last several decades, although losing some clarity in the process. I have cited and discussed as basic issues of the concept of instinctual drives: the relationship of observational data and theoretical constructs in psychology; whether our construct of drives is or should be or can be purely psychological; the problem of conceptualizing the ontogenetic origin of mind; the issues of the "force-meaning conjunction" and the problem of psychic energy in psychoanalytic constructs; and the relation of our concept of instinctual drives to the concept of instincts in general. It seems that progress with these fundamental issues might be made by utilizing models that are more homologous with present knowledge in related fields than is Freud's reflex arc model of the nervous system, in order to build a better drive construct within the framework of psychoanalysis. The classification of instinctual drives remains a problem. Clinically, aggression seems to be a factor in conflict, very much like sexuality. Despite widespread acceptance of the idea of aggression as simply parallel to sexuality in all respects, there are major discrepancies. Perhaps aggression cannot be viewed as a drive after all; perhaps our drive construct needs to be modified to accommodate aggression. Certainly, controversy in this area has interfered with the production of good clinical studies which could begin to increase our understanding of aggression and its place in the human personality. The psychoanalytic theory of drive development has probably undergone less change in the last

  3. Hierarchical Recursive Organization and the Free Energy Principle: From Biological Self-Organization to the Psychoanalytic Mind. (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick; van Deventer, Vasi


    The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis. Consequently, central psychoanalytic claims should be restated, in order to be located in their proper place within a hierarchical recursive organization of the (situated) organism. In light of the FEP the realization of the psychoanalytic mind by the brain should be seen in terms of the evolution of different levels of systematic organization where the concepts of psychoanalysis describe a level of hierarchical recursive organization superordinate to that of biological self-organization and the FEP. The implication of this formulation is that while "psychoanalytic" mental processes are fundamentally subject to the FEP, they nonetheless also add their own principles of process over and above that of the FEP. A model found in Grobbelaar (1989) offers a recursive bottom-up description of the self-organization of the psychoanalytic ego as dependent on the organization of language (and affect), which is itself founded upon the tendency toward autopoiesis (self-making) within the organism, which is in turn described as formally similar to the FEP. Meaningful consilience between Grobbelaar's model and the hierarchical recursive description available in Friston's (2010a) theory is described. The paper concludes that the valuable contribution of the FEP to psychoanalysis underscores the

  4. Structure and diagnosis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: analysis of expanded symptom criteria from the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale. (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Green, Jennifer Greif; Adler, Lenard A; Barkley, Russell A; Chatterji, Somnath; Faraone, Stephen V; Finkelman, Matthew; Greenhill, Laurence L; Gruber, Michael J; Jewell, Mark; Russo, Leo J; Sampson, Nancy A; Van Brunt, David L


    Controversy exists about the appropriate criteria for a diagnosis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To examine the structure and symptoms most predictive of DSM-IV adult ADHD. The data are from clinical interviews in enriched subsamples of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 131) and a survey of a large managed health care plan (n = 214). The physician-administered Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS) was used to assess childhood ADHD and expanded symptoms of current adult ADHD. Analyses examined the stability of symptoms from childhood to adulthood, the structure of adult ADHD, and the adult symptoms most predictive of current clinical diagnoses. The ACDS was administered telephonically by clinical research interviewers with extensive experience in the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. An enriched sample of community respondents. Diagnoses of DSM-IV /ACDS adult ADHD. Almost half of the respondents (45.7%) who had childhood ADHD continued to meet the full DSM-IV criteria for current adult ADHD, with 94.9% of these patients having current attention-deficit disorder and 34.6% having current hyperactivity disorder. Adult persistence was much greater for inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Additional respondents met the full criteria for current adult ADHD despite not having met the full childhood criteria. A 3-factor structure of adult symptoms included executive functioning (EF), inattention/hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Stepwise logistic regression found EF problems to be the most consistent and discriminating predictors of adult DSM-IV /ACDS ADHD. These findings document the greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood but also show that inattention is not specific to ADHD because it is strongly associated with other adult mental disorders. In comparison, EF problems are more specific and consistently important predictors of DSM-IV adult ADHD

  5. Shifting sexual cultures, the potential space of online relations, and the promise of psychoanalytic listening. (United States)

    Corbett, Ken


    How we listen to the potential space of online relations is rapidly becoming part of our daily work. Two treatments are examined where themes of sexual shame, repression, and relational difficulties were found and refound through online relating and hooking-up. Consideration is given to the ways in which online exploration opens a potential space that affords sexual practice and the reach of relationality. Moving with these patients into this potential space opened onto an intriguing and productive relational field. These cases help illuminate a shift in our modern social order, and how that shift has followed on a reconsideration of our psychoanalytic ideals about sexual well-being. We are now positioned to reflect not only on the evolution and revolution of our shifting sexual cultures, including the increasing role of technology in our modern relational world, but on how this new world finds its way into our consulting rooms.

  6. Eroticism in group psychotherapy: psychoanalytic reflections on desire, agony, and ecstasy. (United States)

    Tylim, Isaac


    To fully understand the complexities of eroticism in groups, it may be necessary to review a conceptual differentiation of desire and its allies: agony and ecstasy. This article suggests that psychoanalytic group psychotherapy is made for neither agony nor ecstasy. Sexual excitement maybe; eroticism and desire, yes; agony and ecstasy, no. While agony or ecstasy imply a threat to the survival of the group, eroticism and desire reaffirm its existence. In this manner the group may be converted into a theater where desire may be celebrated, while the threat of being dissolved in the depths or exaltation of agony and ecstasy is elaborated and worked through: "Desire is desire only if it succeeds in postponing something".

  7. Memory, Identity and Desire: A Psychoanalytic Reading of David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Akser


    Full Text Available This is a reading of David Mulholland Drive through psychoanalytic approach of Lacan from the perspective of formation of fantasy and shifting identities. Lynch constructs his films consciously choosing his themes from the sub(versive/conscious side of human mind. Previous attempts to read Lynch's films are fixed around the idea that Lynch is using film genres to create postmodern pastiches. Mulholland Drive has been analyzed several times from different approaches ranging from gender (Love, 2004, narratology (Lentzner, 2005; McGowan, 2004; Cook, 2011. Elements of film noir, musical, caper films can be identified in Lynch’s films. This detailed textual analysis intends to rationalize Lynch’s narrative structure through Lacanian terms in reference to Zizekian terminology.

  8. Paranoia and beating fantasy: an inquiry into the psychoanalytic theory of paranoia. (United States)

    Blum, H P


    Psychoanalytic contributions to the theory of paranoia are reviewed. As a primary problem underlying paranoia, this paper emphasizes the importance of beating fantasy associated with a fragile personality structure rather than the theory of repressed homosexuality. Castration anxiety and homosexual conflict may precipitate paranoia, but all levels of psychosexual development and their corresponding danger situations contribute to the transformed fantasy of persecution and punishment; early infantile narcissism, aggression, and sadomasochism are especially important. Severe preoedipal disturbance has contributed to deficient ego development and oedipal resolution. The failure to negotiate separation-individuation is associated with narcissistic arrest and impaired object relations and testing of reality. Ego integration, identity and sexual identity are unstable. Attempts at undoing, repair, or revenge of traumata and narcissistic injury and the maintenance of ego stability and (narcissistic) object relationship are more fundamental than homosexual object choice or the negative Oedipus complex in the understanding of paranoid psychopathology.

  9. Racism as a transference state: episodes of racial hostility in the psychoanalytic context. (United States)

    Hamer, Forrest M


    Episodes of racial prejudice emerging in the context of a psychoanalytic therapy suggest that racism can be thought of as a regressed state of transference, characterized by polarized representations of self and other, categorical thinking, and the predominance of splitting and projection as defenses. The author suggests that activation of racial hostility in the clinical situation occurs as a result of events and processes not atypical in an analytic process. Though such states occurring outside of the analytic context are more likely made conscious in certain situations and in certain persons, the author suggests that racism can be more generally described as an ever-potential state of mind for most people living in racialized contexts.

  10. Termination of psychotherapy: the journey of 10 psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapists. (United States)

    Fragkiadaki, Evangelia; Strauss, Susan M


    Literature on termination originates mainly from clinical and theoretical accounts as well as practitioners' autobiographical reports. There is, however, a paucity of psychological research on termination. The purpose of this study is to examine the process of termination of therapy based on therapists' narratives of experiences of endings with patients. Grounded Theory methodology has been applied in this study in order to conceptualize the process of termination from the therapist's perspective. Ten psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapists were interviewed for this study. Grounded Theory analysis of the data revealed five central categories: therapist as a person, therapist's awareness of termination, development of therapeutic relationship, working through termination, and the aftermath (post-termination phase). The results offer a Grounded Theory model of the therapist's journey through termination of therapy with patients. Subcategories and their relationships will be explored. Implications for clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research will be discussed. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. On hating in the first person plural: thinking psychoanalytically about racism, homophobia, and misogyny. (United States)

    Moss, D


    On the basis of personal, cultural, and clinical references, misogyny, homophobia, and racism are conceptualized as structured forms of hatred grounded in a defensive use of the first person plural voice. This use of hatred defends against dangers associated with desires linked to the first person singular. In these hatreds, "I want" is defensively transformed into "we hate." Disidentification from and hatred of the object appear where identification and yearning had been. Along with this defensive move into plurality, with these forms of hatred comes the use of what is conceptualized as the "hermeneutics of transparency." Here the hated qualities of the objects in question are sensed to be transparently obvious, a matter not of thought but of perception. The underlying premises of these hatreds are then contrasted with the underlying premises of psychoanalysis. Effective psychoanalytic work with these hatreds entails resisting the moral pressure to disidentify from them, while bearing the often profound discomfort linked with identifying with them.

  12. Analytic change: Assessing ways of being in a psychoanalytic follow-up interview. (United States)

    Stänicke, Erik; Strømme, Hanne; Killingmo, Bjørn; Gullestad, Siri Erika


    The article argues that the concepts of relational scenario, structuralized affect and actualized affect are proposed candidates for observation of changes in relational ways of being as it is expressed in transference. A psychoanalytic follow-up interview of a former analytic patient is presented in order to illustrate how change in relational ways of being may be registered and studied. By triangulating the patient's verbal report of change with nonverbal information and transference-countertransference dynamics, one may grasp qualitative changes in relational ways of being. The case presented illustrates a former patient's on-going process of working towards representing aggression in a more direct manner and how this process is made observable with the aid of the proposed concepts in the interview situation. The proposed concepts of relational scenario, structuralized and actualized affect discussed are compared to the concept of transference used in studies of core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT). Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Encountering Ehrenberg: tracing the development of psychoanalytic therapy at the intimate edge. (United States)

    Laidlaw, Christine; Heusser, Shelley


    This article illustrates the thinking-through processes and clinical applications of D.B. Ehrenberg's ideas within the therapeutic situation. During the last four decades, Ehrenberg has articulated that the psychoanalytic relationship is at its most compelling when it evolves at "the intimate edge" of the therapist's self and that of the patient. She invites us to explore and process the relational dynamics of the therapeutic dyad within the consulting room. In tribute to Ehrenberg's work, we reflect on two individuals closed up in their self-reliance, who start to break open to their desires for intimacy when their therapist opens up his own self within the uniquely meaningful space co-created in the analytic therapy.

  14. The interpretive process in the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of borderline personality pathology. (United States)

    Caligor, Eve; Diamond, Diana; Yeomans, Frank E; Kernberg, Otto F


    While all patients become more concrete in their psychological functioning in areas of conflict, especially in the setting of transference regression, in the treatment of patients with severe personality pathology this process poses a particular clinical challenge. In the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of patients with severe personality pathology in general, and borderline personality disorder in particular, the interpretive process serves multiple functions. This process comprises a series of steps or phases that can be viewed as moving the patient further away from a single, poorly elaborated, and concrete experience in the transference, which dominates and floods subjectivity, and toward more fully elaborated, complex, stable, and integrated representations of the analyst and of what he or she evokes in the patient's internal world.

  15. [The bell tolls for Ernest Hemingway. Somatic, psychiatric and psychoanalytical aspects of his life and work]. (United States)

    Bramness, J G


    This year, the centennial of Ernest Miller Hemingway's (1899-1961) birth is being celebrated. He committed suicide on July 2 1961, thus ending a crowded and turbulent life. He published seven novels and a number of short stories during his lifetime; four novels were published after his death. Millions of copies of his works have been sold and he is still one of the world most read authors. His simple, matter-of-fact and compressed style has had great influence on other authors. There has been enormous interest in the life and works of Hemingway. This paper addresses this interest and various aspects of Hemingway's life and tries to offer some explanations by looking at Hemingway's medical history, using some psychoanalytical approaches to his life and work.

  16. Towards a psychoanalytic understanding of Fascism and anti-Semitism: perceptions from the 1940s. (United States)

    Fisher, David James


    After selecting five representative European psychoanalytic thinkers, all of whom emigrated to the United States, this essay surveys their earliest perceptions and interpretations of the historical and psychological roots of Fascism, with particular emphasis on anti-Semitism. My samples almost all derive from the period before, during, and immediately after World War II. In examining the writings of Otto Fenichel, Ernst Simmel, Erik Homburger Erikson, Rudolf Loewenstein and Bruno Bettelheim, it discusses the various environmental and psychological dimensions of their understandings of racial prejudice. The paper argues that each thinker attempted to integrate historical, sociological, cultural and clinical factors into their psychodynamic formulations about the individual and group mind of the Fascist anti-Semite. This generation of psychoanalysts explained Fascist anti-Semitism by exploring the mechanisms of projection, the process of massive splitting mechanisms of the group mind, fantasies of delinquent adolescent aggrandizement in Hitler, sado-masochistic and perverse oedipal dynamics, and a macabre identification with the torturers on the part of Jewish inmates in the concentration camps, that obliterated the individual's sense of autonomy and capacity to respond morally. The paper points out the pronounced ambivalence of this generation of Jewish analysts and intellectuals toward their own Jewish backgrounds and sense of themselves as Jews. It also argues that this generation muted its left-wing and socialist political tendencies once they arrived in America, taking a turn against politics. It suggests that some of the features of this Jewish ambivalence can be seen in the exploration of a so-called "Jewish psychology," itself a disguised form of racism, a derivative of projection, which may have had rather negative and authoritarian consequences for the psychoanalytic movement in America.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Bulanova-Duvalko


    The purpose. The article analyzes the influence of the experience of motherhood on formation steady sexual arrangements and stereotypical models of femininity and masculinity in society in the context of the psychoanalytic feminism...

  18. Essentials of psychoanalytic process and change: how can we investigate the neural effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy in individualized neuro-imaging?


    Heinz eBoeker; André eRichter; Holger eHimmighoffen; Jutta eErnst; Laura eBohleber; Elena eHofmann; Johannes eVetter; Georg eNorthoff


    The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to “remember, repeat, and work through” concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved ...

  19. Review of Psychodynamic diagnostics manual (PDM). (United States)

    Moses, Ira


    Reviews the book, Psychodynamic diagnostics manual (PDM) by Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations (2006). This volume is divided into three major sections, Part 1--Classification of Adult Mental Heath Disorder, Part 2--Classification of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Disorder, and Part 3--Conceptual and Research Foundations for a Psychodynamically Based Classification System for Mental Health Disorders. Unlike the standard DSM which highlights the patient's presenting symptom (Axis I) with secondary consideration given to an underlying personality disorder (Axis II), the major thesis of classification scheme of this volume is that diagnostic evaluation should provide a more patient centered and a more clinically useful picture of the individual by understanding the symptom(s) through the essential dimensions of the patient's personality and mental functions (interpersonal and cognitive capacities). Part 3, which could stand on its own as a separate volume, is a thorough critique of psychotherapy outcome research in which the authors delineate how major design flaws have derived from "favoring what is measurable over what is meaningful." The authors cogently demonstrate that diagnostic assessment is a continuous effort toward providing individualized and clinically relevant evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. From playfulness and self-centredness via grand expectations to normalisation: a psychoanalytical rereading of the history of molecular genetics. (United States)

    Zwart, H A E


    In this paper, I will reread the history of molecular genetics from a psychoanalytical angle, analysing it as a case history. Building on the developmental theories of Freud and his followers, I will distinguish four stages, namely: (1) oedipal childhood, notably the epoch of model building (1943-1953); (2) the latency period, with a focus on the development of basic skills (1953-1989); (3) adolescence, exemplified by the Human Genome Project, with its fierce conflicts, great expectations and grandiose claims (1989-2003) and (4) adulthood (2003-present) during which revolutionary research areas such as molecular biology and genomics have achieved a certain level of normalcy--have evolved into a normal science. I will indicate how a psychoanalytical assessment conducted in this manner may help us to interpret and address some of the key normative issues that have been raised with regard to molecular genetics over the years, such as 'relevance', 'responsible innovation' and 'promise management'.

  1. [The Psychoanalytic-interactional Method (PIM): A Psychodynamic Treatment for Adolescents with Severe Disorders of Personality Functioning]. (United States)

    Cropp, Carola


    The Psychoanalytic-interactional Method (PIM): A Psychodynamic Treatment for Adolescents with Severe Disorders of Personality Functioning The psychoanalytic-interactional method (PIM) was developed as a psychodynamic treatment for adult patients with severe disorders of personality functioning (Streeck u. Leichsenring, 2015). However, it is also well suited for the treatment of adolescent patients because its techniques fit with specific conditions of adolescence. A modified version of the PIM for adolescents (Streeck-Fischer, Cropp, Streeck, Salzer, 2016) has proven to be efficacious. The paper describes the basic principles of the PIM and names aspects that have to be taken into account in the treatment of adolescents with severe disorders of personality functioning. Finally, previous empirical results regarding the PIM treatment in adolescence are presented.

  2. The reception of classical psychoanalysis in the Russian religious thought and the modern psychoanalytic theories of religion

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    Konstantin Antonov


    Full Text Available The author considers the principal moments of the understanding of religion in psychoanalysis as perceived by Russian thinkers of the first half and the middle of the 20th century. The author indicates the conditions and context of the perception of psychoanalysis in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the main contiguity points shared by the psychoanalytic understanding of religion and its treatment by the Russian symbolists, mainly by Vyacheslav Ivanov. He proceeds to consider the perception and criticism of psychoanalysis off ered by Russian thinkers of the fi rst half and the middle of the 20th century: Father P. Florensky, N. A. Berdyayev, S. L. Frank, B. P. Vysheslavtsev and S. A. Levitsky. The final part of the article contains conclusions bearing on the general meaning of this perception and its potential signifi cance for the Russian psychology of religion. Beyond any doubt, Russian philosophers have managed to enrich their understanding of religion by making use of the attainments of psychoanalysis. They have productively used even such ideas as had been conceived by the founder of psychoanalysis as instrumental in criticizing religion. Alongside repetition of the ideas common in the criticism of psychoanalysis, they have put forward a number of original arguments proceeding from an immanent analysis of psychoanalytical ideas indicative of the internal problems that exist in the psychoanalytical approach to religion. They have also outlined ways of overcoming them within the framework of Christian thought. In a number of cases they have evidently foreshadowed the interpretation of psychoanalytical doctrines in Western Christian thought.

  3. Hierarchical Recursive Organization and the Free Energy Principle: From Biological Self-Organization to the Psychoanalytic Mind (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick; van Deventer, Vasi


    The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis. Consequently, central psychoanalytic claims should be restated, in order to be located in their proper place within a hierarchical recursive organization of the (situated) organism. In light of the FEP the realization of the psychoanalytic mind by the brain should be seen in terms of the evolution of different levels of systematic organization where the concepts of psychoanalysis describe a level of hierarchical recursive organization superordinate to that of biological self-organization and the FEP. The implication of this formulation is that while “psychoanalytic” mental processes are fundamentally subject to the FEP, they nonetheless also add their own principles of process over and above that of the FEP. A model found in Grobbelaar (1989) offers a recursive bottom-up description of the self-organization of the psychoanalytic ego as dependent on the organization of language (and affect), which is itself founded upon the tendency toward autopoiesis (self-making) within the organism, which is in turn described as formally similar to the FEP. Meaningful consilience between Grobbelaar's model and the hierarchical recursive description available in Friston's (2010a) theory is described. The paper concludes that the valuable contribution of the FEP to psychoanalysis underscores the

  4. Psyche--the meeting of mind and soul: current psychoanalytic views on the mental representation of god. (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A


    The author presents an overview of two contemporary, related psychoanalytic perspectives on religious phenomena. Based on data from systematic interviews, Ana-Maria Rizzuto explores the way the human mind forms the idea of God as it evolves through the various stages of childhood and adult development. The object-representation of God is greatly influenced by the mental representations of mother, father, and other important adults in the child's life. Object relations theory and the writings of Winnicott play an important role in these concepts. William Meissner, a Jesuit priest as well as a psychoanalyst, addresses Freud's views of religious belief as an illusion, or when accepted with certainty as real, as a delusion. Instead, Meissner sees religious belief as a developmental process that resides in the mental realm of transitional phenomena where spirituality, creativity, appreciation of beauty, transcendental states, play, and the psychoanalytic process itself also take place. In psychoanalytic treatment, religious phenomena are not exempt from exploration and understanding, perhaps resulting in more mature development of object representations, ego functions, and the superego functions of conscience and ego ideal as well as more mature religious life.

  5. Agents of the Father's law in a society of brothers: A philosophic and psychoanalytic perspective on legitimate use of violence. (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri

    This paper explores subjective processes of "Agents of Law" - individuals who the state grants the authority to use violence - and the dissonance stemming from the contradictory demands posed on them as legitimate users of violence despite the societal taboo against violence. A conceptual model will be offered based on two theoretical legs, Lacanian psychoanalysis and political theories of legitimacy. Specifically, psychoanalytic ideas would serve to examine unconscious processes, subject position and various identifications related to the question of "self-legitimacy" of Agents of Law. A central link between psychoanalysis and political thought is found in the image of the father and in the triad ruler-God-Father, which calls for an oedipal analysis. A psychoanalytic reading of two philosophical schools that elaborated on the question of legitimacy will be presented, and yield two analytic poles of a model for the understanding of possible subject positions of agents of Law: identification with a "Living Father" vs. identification with a "Dead Father". The psychoanalytic reading will shed light on the limitations of the philosophical perspectives in reflecting on the various (im)possible psychological positions of agents of Law. Finally, then, it will be shown how psychoanalysis helps finding words to characterize different nuances in the coping of agents of Law with the contradictory demands posed on them in an age in which God is dead, the father was murdered and the king was beheaded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compassion and altruism in psychoanalytic theory: an evolutionary analysis of self psychology. (United States)

    Kriegman, D


    Freud's creation of psychoanalysis was, in part, a reaction to the societal, religious morality that denied the ubiquitous drivenness that repeatedly confronted him, the essential animal nature of homo sapiens as had been recently made clear by the theory of evolution. For example, Freud (1933) wrote an aggression, It is a general principle. . .that conflicts of interest between men are settled by the use of violence. This is true of the whole animal kingdom, from which men have no business to exclude themselves. Though evolutionary theory was in its infancy, incompletely understood even by its creator, Freud's commitment to facing its truths led to an unswerving stance in reaction to attempts to deny the narcissistic injury inherent in his psychoanalytic discoveries. He insisted on trying to reinterpret virtually all social behaviors in the light of his new theory, and he and his followers have stretched his drive/structure model to its limits. Yet, as we have seen, this evolutionary creation--the human psyche--cannot be fully accounted for utilizing the vicissitudes of Freud's two instincts. What we come to appreciate when we bring the perspective of the theory of evolution to the relational/structure versus drive/structure debate, is that the debate is about the two sides of the same coin. Like this metaphor, in the case of the selfish, yet social, human animal, you cannot have a one-sided coin. Both drives and relationships are biologically inherent and have their structuralizing effect upon the supraordinate self. A modern evolutionary biological, psychoanalytic conception of conflicts and drives may actually be closer to the adaptive/functional tone of aspects of the self psychological paradigm than to the traditional perspective. As human animals we are inherently in conflict over our irreducible biologically based driven, asocial needs (i.e., self-enhancing pleasure seeking and avoidance of unpleasure) and our irreducible biologically based needs for a self

  7. ["The most ill go into psychoanalytic treatment"? Critical comments on an article in Report Psychologie]. (United States)

    Richter, R; Hartmann, A; Meyer, A E; Rüger, U


    Thomas and Schmitz claim that they "deliver a proof for the effectiveness of humanistic methods" (p. 25) with their study. However, they did not or were not able to verify their claim due to several reasons: The authors did not say if and if so to what extent the treatments carried out within the framework of the TK-regulation were treatments using humanistic methods. The validity of the only criterium used by the authors, the average duration of the inability to work, must be questioned. The inferential statistical treatment of the data is insufficient; a non-parametrical evaluation is necessary. Especially missing are personal details concerning the treatment groups (age, sex, occupation, method, duration and frequency of therapy), which are indispensable for a differentiated interpretation. In addition there are numerous formal faults (wrong quotations, mistakes in tables, unclear terms etc.). In view of this criticism we come to the conclusion that the results are to a large degree worthless, at least until several of our objections have been refuted by further information and adequate inferential statistical methods. This study is especially unsuitable to prove a however defined "effectiveness of out-patient psychotherapies", therefore also not suitable to prove the effectiveness of those treatments conducted within the framework of the TK-regulation and especially not suitable to prove the superiority of humanistic methods in comparison with psychoanalytic methods and behavioural therapy.

  8. The reassembly of the body from parts: psychoanalytic reflections on death, resurrection, and cannibalism. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Richard M


    Terror of the dismemberment, disintegration, and decay of the body after death has been represented in ritual, myth, legend, art, and religious belief throughout the ages. So too has the wished-for triumph over these inevitable processes. Commonly, bodily experience after death is represented mentally in cannibalistic ideas of eating and being eaten, which are then countered by the wishful undoing of cannibalistic destruction through its reversal: swallowing as regurgitation, dismemberment as rememberment, disintegration as reassembly. Luca Signorelli's fresco The Resurrection of the Flesh is part of his celebrated group of decorations (1499-1504) of the Cappella Nuova in the cathedral at Orvieto. The doctrinal, iconographic, social, and political contexts of this admired and influential work are explored in order to illustrate how and why this painting represents our greatest fears, along with our triumph over them, as well as our most destructive urges and their reparative counterparts. The photographer Sally Mann has explored these same themes. In What Remains (2003), a series of pictures with accompanying text, Mann documents her exhumation and reassembly of the body of her beloved pet greyhound. Two clinical examples illustrate some ways these concerns (cannibalism and reassembly) may make their appearance in psychoanalytic work.

  9. Inside and outside the window: some fundamental elements in the theory of psychoanalytic technique. (United States)

    Tuckett, David


    The underlying concern of this paper is that psychoanalysis as practised today is in danger of losing its specificity and so losing its way. The author suggests this is possible for three reasons: the problem analysts face in responding to the strong emotional demands the great majority of patients necessarily place on them, the unintended consequences of the apparent success of 'here and now technique' and the absence of good clinical theory. The paper mainly discusses the author's ideas about some core elements of the clinical theory that all psychoanalysts must use when they are working and proposes (at the risk of being facile) some relatively simple heuristics related to them which are meant to be helpful. Recalling Kurt Lewin's maxim that 'there is nothing so practical as a good theory', he will suggest that continuous reflection on how one is using theory in daily practice is highly practical, if the theory is good enough. Theory in fact is a necessary 'third' in psychoanalytic practice which, if kept in sufficient working order close enough to clinical experience, provides an ongoing and very necessary check on our sense of reality. But, of course, as a third it can, like reality itself, be the focus of both love and hate with equally problematic consequences. The paper starts with a clinical example of a difficult but apparently successful analysis reaching its end, which will be used throughout the paper to illustrate and elaborate the theoretical ideas set out. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. On emergence: a neo-psychoanalytic essay on change and science. (United States)

    Whitehead, Clay C


    The neo-psychoanalytic paradigm re-establishes the connection between psychodynamics and evolution. This allows us to transcend the limitations of dualistic metapsychology, and to make seminal contributions to traditional science. The new paradigm employs the concept of emergence, the potential for change in the evolutionary and clinical process. Emergence is described as originating with the Big Bang, but also is reflected at much higher levels, for example, biochemistry, or the capacity of the evolved mind to produce insights in psychotherapy. The constraints of dualistic theories are examined. A neuron-based view of change illustrates the evolution of traditional science as well as the neuron, itself. The new mind paradigm recognizes individual, familial, communitarian, and global reciprocal influences mediated by culture and illustrated by the extended mind and the democratic spirit. Thus both traditional and psychodynamic sciences are undergoing revolutionary changes in their common efforts to better understand the mechanisms of knowledge, relationship and consciousness. The boundaries of the self and the consultation suite are also expanded in this view. Following a survey of invagination, the work is concluded by an application of emergence theory to the creationist controversy and Freud's views of religion.

  11. Some psychoanalytical meanings of the skin in the book of Job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van der Zwan


    Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been a tension between psychology and religion because of the Freudian critique of religion. This research intends to show that a deeper understanding of religion leading hopefully to an even deeper religiosity can be achieved by studying bodily features portrayed in a (religious text from a psychoanalytic perspective. Just as any literary character can be �psychoanalysed� to produce new perspectives on it and on the narrative as a whole, the personality of Job invites the postmodern reader to continue understanding this book on new levels. From this approach, it becomes clear that the protagonist struggles with boundaries and individuation because of his depressive tendencies experienced in issues with reality�s harsh touch, nakedness and distance. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Just as any literary character can be �psychoanalysed� to produce new perspectives on it and on the narrative as a whole, the personality of Job invites the postmodern reader to continue understanding this book on new levels. From this approach, it becomes clear that the protagonist struggles with boundaries and individuation because of his depressive tendencies experienced in issues with reality�s harsh touch, nakedness and distance.

  12. "Operation Pied Piper": a psychoanalytic narrative of authority in a time of war. (United States)

    Farley, Lisa


    The evacuation of British children during World War II is read alongside the legend of the "Pied Piper" after which the mass migration was officially named. While virtually every British account of World War II makes mention of the evacuation, most are silent on the question of its ominous title: "Operation Pied Piper." This paper traces the legend's key theme - on influencing and being influenced - as it surfaces in the writing of one child analyst and one social worker charged with the responsibility of leading a family of five hostels for British youth. At a time when Hitler's deadly regime reached unprecedented heights across the Channel, the legend of the "Pied Piper" becomes a highly suggestive metaphor for thinking about D. W. Winnicott and Clare Britton's writing on what authority could mean in the face of leadership gone terribly wrong. Quite another, profoundly intimate loss of leadership haunts their words as well: Sigmund Freud, in exile from Hitler's Europe and leader of the psychoanalytic movement, died in London just weeks after the first wave of Blitz evacuations. It is in this context that Winnicott and Britton articulated a theory of authority that could address the losses of history without at the same time demanding the loss of the mind.

  13. Lost objects: from the laboratories of hypnosis to the psychoanalytic setting. (United States)

    Mayer, Andreas


    The psychoanalytic setting counts today as one of the familiar therapeutic rituals of the Western world. Taking up some of the insights of the anthropology of science will allow us to account for both the social and the material arrangements from which Freud's invention emerged at the end of the nineteenth century out of the clinical laboratories and private consulting rooms of practitioners of hypnosis. The peculiar way of neglecting or forgetting the object world and the institution of the psychoanalyst as a "transference object" will be traced back to multiple reconfigurations in the history of hypnotism in France and in Germany. In this process, different practitioners tried to achieve a synthesis of clinical work and experimental psychology, with the aim of objectifying knowledge about human subjectivity. While Freud retained the claim of psychoanalysis performing an experimental situation, he set apart his own setting from the objectifying practices which were characteristic of this experimental psychology located in the clinic and the private consulting room.

  14. Development of Cultural Competence among Social Work Students: A Psychoanalytic Perspective. (United States)

    Levin-Keini, Noga; Ben Shlomo, Shirley


    This article addresses the development of attitudes toward the other and otherness in light of the classical psychoanalytical approach of Freud. Through this approach, the authors attempt to surmount the criticism that was raised in the literature in connection with the difficulty faced by students and professionals in the field of social work in achieving cultural competence. Based on this approach the authors suggest that cultural competence can develop provided two conditions exist: (1) interpersonal contact between lecturer and student, and (2) using the bond to help the student connect with the inner stranger within himself or herself, or as Freud put it, connecting with the "unconscious parts of the mind." With the help of two examples presented, the authors demonstrate how every meeting with strangeness is first and foremost a meeting with a concrete stranger-in the first case the meeting of Jewish students with an Arab student, and in the second case the meeting of a secular student with an ultra-Orthodox boy. Implications for social work practice and education are discussed. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  15. The invasion of reality (or of negotiation): The psychoanalytic ethic and extinction anxiety. (United States)

    Nociforo, Nicola


    Extinction anxiety is the expression used to describe a pervasive and ever more realistic sense of futurelessness. A group emotion characterized by terror of the extinction of the human race, the family, or professional or shared cultural group, it grips the individual with a sense of desperation and impotence through the internal groups present in the mind of every individual. The contribution presented here aims to demonstrate how extinction anxiety has also infected psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic institutions, thereby seriously weakening the ethics of psychoanalysis. The term ethics here should not be confused with morals, but is intended as the happiness that is derived from the capacity to be responsible for one's self and one's own professional identity. The contagion of extinction anxiety has, in fact, accentuated the crisis of psychoanalysts and their faith in psychoanalysis. The author relates a particularly tormented clinical experience in order to show how only the relationship with psychoanalysis and its capacity to interpret the manifestations of the unconscious, enables the recognition of the effects of what he defines as a true invasion of reality, thus restoring to thought the power to establish a deep, transformative, and fecund relationship between internal and external reality. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Investigating Trauma in Narrating World War I: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Pat Barker’s Regeneration

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    Bakhtiar Sadjadi


    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker’s Regeneration in terms of Cathy Caruth’s psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker’s novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the narrative of past history and, particularly, in the history of World War I. The present paper also demonstrates how Barker’s novel Regeneration acts as the narrative of trauma that vocalizes the silenced history of shell-shocked soldiers of World War I to represent British society, the history that has been concealed due to social and individual factors. The study thus investigates the dissociative disorders which are experienced by traumatized survivors of World War I as the aftermath of traumatic experiences of wartime. In addition, it argues how time moves for the traumatized victim and how the notion of latency in terms of Caruth’s theory is traceable in Barker’s novel. In Regeneration, the traumatized survivors are haunted with traumatic memory of past history; furthermore, past history constantly disrupts their present and the victims are in continuous shift from present time to past time. Time thus loses its linearity in the narrative of traumatized survivors. Keywords: Latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, trauma

  17. Aetiology of phenomenon of fair play in sport through psychoanalytic discourse

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    Roman Vodeb


    Full Text Available When discussing fair play, sports experts nowadays mostly talk about how to "be a sport" on a sport field. It means telling and preaching to athletes to obey all the written rules of sport's ethic and those not written as well. Here we want to explore the other meaning of the term "fair play". We want to really learn about it, because fair play certainly is a psychological category. Psychoanalytic logic teaches us that roots of fair play should be sought in the infantile period of child's development. It seems, that the events caused by the Oedipus complex and the building Superego have the most sufficient impact on someone's sports behavior. Theoretically speaking, fair play cannot be considered as something gained from culture - it is mainly a construct, a symptom of returning infantile repressions in the context of father as a sexual concurrent. "Turning to the opposite side" (reaction-formation is an ego-defense mechanism that in the etiology of fair play ought to be pointed out in particularly. As we are talking about men in sports, let us tell, it is the boy's relation towards his father at the time when he's arrogating the boy's mother to himself, the most crucial for feeling and performing fair play. Fantasies and repressions, which happened in the psychical reality of a child, have the main impact on fair play in sports as well as in other situations.

  18. Antigone’s Legacy: A Feminist psychoanalytic of an Other Sexual Difference

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    Sheila L. Cavanagh


    Full Text Available Much has been written about Antigone who buried her brother Polynices in Theban soil despite the prohibition issued by King Creon (her uncle in the Sophocles tragedy. In order to understand the magnitude of Antigone’s radical act in the play by the same name I engage the scholarship of Israeli feminist psychoanalytic scholar Bracha L. Ettinger. By engaging Ettinger’s theory of the Other (Feminine Sexual Difference, I consider how ways of being in the Feminine tap into the matrixial domain, thus expanding the bounds of what counts as subjective experience in psychoanalysis. I situate Ettinger’s theory of the matrixial in relation to Lacan’s analysis of Antigone in The Ethics of Psychoanalysis (Seminar VII. I also focus on Julia Kristeva’s concept of ‘debinding’ (2010 and Judith Butler’s (2002 writing on gender and kinship disorder in the tragedy. My objective is to build upon Ettinger’s analysis of Antigone to better understand how it is not death, exactly, that is at stake in the drama, but rather the status of the Feminine dimension in the Theban city-state. If Antigone’s transgression can be understood through a matrixial lens it behooves us as feminist scholars to more fully understand the affective landscape and maternal ethics of difference enacted in the play.

  19. Mourning, Memorials, and Religion: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on the Park51 Controversy

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    Nathan Carlin


    Full Text Available This article summarizes a version of the “mourning religion” thesis—derived from the work of Peter Homans and further developed and advanced by William Parsons, Diane Jonte-Pace, and Susan Henking—and then demonstrates how this thesis can shed light on the Park51 controversy. We argue that the Park51 controversy represents a case of incomplete cultural mourning of an aspect of American civil religion that manifests itself in melancholic rage by means of protests, threats to burn the Qur’an (as well as actual burnings of the Qur’an, and vandalism of mosques around the United States. We explore various losses—military, economic, and symbolic—and note that these losses remain ambiguous, therefore preventing closure and productive mourning. The fact that a permanent memorial still has not been built at Ground Zero reflects, and perhaps exacerbates, this incomplete cultural mourning. Also, the fact that Freedom Tower, the building to replace the Twin Towers, is to be 1776 feet tall reflects that the losses related to 9/11 are connected to American civil religion, as 1776 is a sacred year in American history. Setting aside the ethics and the politics related to this controversy, we attempt here to understand this controversy from a psychoanalytic perspective.

  20. The Impact of Theoretical Orientation and Training on Preference for Diagnostic Models of Personality Pathology. (United States)

    Paggeot, Amy; Nelson, Sharon; Huprich, Steven


    The role of theoretical orientation in determining preference for different methods of diagnosis has been largely unexplored. The goal of the present study was to explore ratings of the usefulness of 4 diagnostic methods after applying them to a patient: prototype ratings derived from the SWAP-II, the DSM-5 Section III specific personality disorders, the DSM-5 Section III trait model, and prototype ratings derived from the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM). Three hundred and twenty-nine trainees in APA-accredited doctoral programs and internships rated one of their current patients with each of the 4 diagnostic methods. Individuals who classified their theoretical orientation as "cognitive- behavioral" displayed a significantly greater preference for the proposed DSM-5 personality disorder prototypes when compared to individuals who classified their orientation as "psychodynamic/psychoanalytic," while individuals who considered themselves psychodynamic or psychoanalytic rated the PDM as significantly more useful than those who considered themselves cognitive-behavioral. Individuals who classified their graduate program as a PsyD program were also more likely to rate the DSM-5 Section III and PDM models as more useful diagnostic methods than individuals who classified their graduate program as a PhD program. Implications and future directions will be discussed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Evers-Stephan, A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Thewissen, V.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nursing home.


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    L. Bulanova-Duvalko


    Full Text Available The purpose. The article analyzes the influence of the experience of motherhood on formation steady sexual arrangements and stereotypical models of femininity and masculinity in society in the context of the psychoanalytic feminism. In particular, the importance of philosophical analysis of mother-child interrelations as the subjects of motherhood experience facilitates the understanding of mechanisms for construction and reproduction of the sexual arrangements and stereotyped gender roles is covered. Moreover, the influence of separation and individuation processes in the mother-child interrelations on the reproduction of patriarchy in social relations is considered. Research methodology. The basis of the research is a methodology of the psychoanalytic feminism as well as content analysis and a systematic method. Scientific novelty of the research lies in studying and systematizing the key theses of stereotypical manifestations of femininity theoretical substantiation from the perspective of psychoanalytic feminism that had not been presented within the national scientific thought. The research handles the following tasks: 1to define the main directions of polemics of the psychoanalytic feminism and psychoanalytic concepts of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Laca; 2 to highlight the major spheres of the psychoanalytic feminism scientific interest;3 to consider the features of theory about the influence of the human psyche development during the pre-oedipal stage on producing the constant sexual arrangements in the perspective of the Anglo-American tradition of the psychoanalytic feminism; 4 to describe the main aspects of the theory about constructing femininity in the French feminism studies; 5 to analyze different ways to overcome the patriarchal symbolic order suggested by the psychoanalytic feminism. Conclusions. The research found that despite the adherence to a particular psychoanalytic theory the scholars agree that the pre-oedipal stage of

  3. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

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    Verhaak Peter FM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS are able to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%, the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165. With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001. The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety

  4. Evaluating item endorsement rates for the MMPI-2-RF F-r and Fp-r scales across ethnic, gender, and diagnostic groups with a forensic inpatient sample. (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Jhawar, Amandeep; Burchett, Danielle; Tarescavage, Anthony M


    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) F(p) (Infrequency-Psychopathology) scale was developed to measure overreporting in a manner that was minimally confounded by genuine psychopathology, which was a problem with using the MMPI-2 F (Infrequency) scale among patients with severe mental illness. Although revised versions of both of these scales are included on the MMPI-2-Restructured Form and used in a forensic context, no item-level research has been conducted on their sensitivity to genuine psychopathology among forensic psychiatric inpatients. Therefore, we examined the psychometric properties of the scales in a sample of 438 criminally committed forensic psychiatric inpatients who were adjudicated as not guilty by reason of insanity and had no known incentive to overreport. We found that 20 of the 21 Fp-r items (95.2%) demonstrated endorsement rates ≤ 20%, with 14 of the items (66.7%) endorsed by less than 10% of the sample. Similar findings were observed across genders and across patients with mood and psychotic disorders. The one item endorsed by more than 20% of the sample had a 23.7% overall endorsement rate and significantly different endorsement rates across ethnic groups, with the highest endorsements occurring among Hispanic/Latino (43.3% endorsement rate) patients. Endorsement rates of F-r items were generally higher than for Fp-r items. At the scale level, we also examined correlations with the Restructured Clinical Scales and found that Fp-r demonstrated lower correlations than F-r, indicating that Fp-r is less associated with a broad range of psychopathology. Finally, we found that Fp-r demonstrated slightly higher specificity values than F-r at all T score cutoffs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Companion diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria


    . Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding...

  6. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

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    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S


    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  7. Cross-diagnostic validity of the SF-36 physical functioning scale in patients with stroke, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study using Rasch analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J.; de Groot, Vincent; Roorda, Leo D.; Schepers, Vera P. M.; Lindeman, Eline; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Beelen, Anita; Dekker, Joost


    The aim of this study was to investigate unidimensionality and differential item functioning of the SF-36 physical functioning scale (PF10) in patients with various neurological disorders. Patients: Patients post-stroke (n = 198), with multiple sclerosis (n = 151) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  8. The War on Women in Psychoanalytic Theory Building: Past to Present. (United States)

    Balsam, Rosemary H


    Psychoanalysis has both waged "hot" war on women overtly and "cold" war covertly over the years by colluding with cultural stereotypes offered as "theory," starting with Freud and his Viennese circle. True freedom of thinking, however, broke through in Freud's originality even then, and from time to time subsequently in the history of the movement only to keep retreating. Fritz Wittels's thesis on the "Child Woman" will exemplify Horneys (1924, 1926, 1933) and Jones's (1927) grounds for engaging in the "hot war" in the 1920s and challenging the unselfconscious inbuilt denigration of women. This skirmish had little impact, however, in the New World up till the 1970s. In the aftermath of the second wave of feminism, there were (and are) bursts of new thought about sex and gender that remain fragmented and unintegrated into general acceptance. The contemporary situation has been more like a "cold" war waged by ennui in the field. A sexed and agendered theories of mind as a "no man's land" absorb an intense focus away from the sexual and gender specificities that were alive, contentious, and unresolved in Freud's libido theory. The third sociocultural wave of feminism, since the 1990s, has refocused vitality on individuality, race, and varieties of sexual identity. I identify the latter as the psychoanalytic space for a potential renewed interest in theorizing the female body within heterosexual, homosexual, queer, or transgendered individuals. The "wars" have shown how fruitless for peace and new discovery is the compulsive (but still common) close comparison between males and females developmentally. Female development is as fresh and unsettled a theoretical question as it once was with Freud.

  9. Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Beutel Manfred E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite limited effectiveness of short-term psychotherapy for chronic depression, there is a lack of trials of long-term psychotherapy. Our study is the first to determine the effectiveness of controlled long-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral (CBT treatments and to assess the effects of preferential vs. randomized assessment. Methods/design Patients are assigned to treatment according to their preference or randomized (if they have no clear preference. Up to 80 sessions of psychodynamic or psychoanalytically oriented treatments (PAT or up to 60 sessions of CBT are offered during the first year in the study. After the first year, PAT can be continued according to the ‘naturalistic’ usual method of treating such patients within the system of German health care (normally from 240 up to 300 sessions over two to three years. CBT therapists may extend their treatment up to 80 sessions, but focus mainly maintenance and relapse prevention. We plan to recruit a total of 240 patients (60 per arm. A total of 11 assessments are conducted throughout treatment and up to three years after initiation of treatment. The primary outcome measures are the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS, independent clinician rating and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI after the first year. Discussion We combine a naturalistic approach with randomized controlled trials(RCTsto investigate how effectively chronic depression can be treated on an outpatient basis by the two forms of treatment reimbursed in the German healthcare system and we will determine the effects of treatment preference vs. randomization. Trial registration

  10. Instituições psicanalíticas: uma política de avestruz? Psychoanalytical Institutions: ostrich politics?

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    Paulina Schmidtbauer Rocha


    Full Text Available Este trabalho aponta questões que consideramos fundamentais para a constituição de instituições psicanalíticas mais democráticas e fraternas, capazes de sustentar a vocação crítica da psicanálise e sua marca de subversão em prol da humanidade. Refletimos sobre suas marcas históricas e seus desdobramentos políticos, destacando que não se trata mais de colocar a instituição como um mal necessário para a formação e transmissão da psicanálise. É necessário, ao contrário, vê-la como uma das possíveis escolhas para pensar o homem e suas circunstâncias na contemporaneidade. O que, por sua vez, implica em responsabilidades indelegáveis de cada um que se reconhece como psicanalista e quer pertencer à pólis psicanalítica.This paper points to questions considered fundamental for the constitution of more democratic and fraternal psychoanalytical institutions. These should be capable of preserving the critical vocation of psychoanalysis as well as its subversive character on behalf of humanity. The author reflects on the historical marks and political developments of the psychoanalytical institution, emphasizing that it should no longer be seen as a necessary evil for training psychoanalysts and transmitting psychoanalysis. Rather, it should be considered as one of several possible alternatives for thinking about man and his contemporary circumstances. This in turn implies non-delegable responsibilities that must be acknowledged by all psychoanalysts who wish to belong to the psychoanalytical polis.

  11. Hierarchical Recursive Organization and the Free Energy Principle: From Biological Self-Organization to the Psychoanalytic Mind

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    Patrick Connolly


    Full Text Available The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a Free Energy Principle (FEP for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis. Consequently, central psychoanalytic claims should be restated, in order to be located in their proper place within a hierarchical recursive organization of the (situated organism. In light of the FEP the realization of the psychoanalytic mind by the brain should be seen in terms of the evolution of different levels of systematic organization where the concepts of psychoanalysis describe a level of hierarchical recursive organization superordinate to that of biological self-organization and the FEP. The implication of this formulation is that while “psychoanalytic” mental processes are fundamentally subject to the FEP, they nonetheless also add their own principles of process over and above that of the FEP. A model found in Grobbelaar (1989 offers a recursive bottom-up description of the self-organization of the psychoanalytic ego as dependent on the organization of language (and affect, which is itself founded upon the tendency toward autopoiesis (self-making within the organism, which is in turn described as formally similar to the FEP. Meaningful consilience between Grobbelaar's model and the hierarchical recursive description available in Friston's (2010a theory is described. The paper concludes that the valuable contribution of the FEP to psychoanalysis

  12. A psychoanalytic understanding of the desire for knowledge as reflected in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B


    The author offers an understanding of the psychoanalytic notion of the desire for knowledge and the possibility of attaining it as it fi nds expression in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. This understanding has not been explicitly articulated by Freud but may be considered integral to psychoanalysis' Weltanschauung as shaped by Freud's legacy. It emerges through an attempt to explain basic shifts, contradictions, inconsistencies and tensions that become apparent from a close reading of the text of Leonardo. Articulating this implicit understanding of knowledge provides the grounds for a stance on epistemology that is integral to psychoanalysis and relevant to contemporary psychoanalytic concerns on this topic. This epistemology focuses on the necessary involvement of passion, rather than detachment, in the search for knowledge and views the psychoanalytic aim of self-knowledge as a derivative, and most immediate expression, of a broader and more basic human drive to know.

  13. A Diagnostic-Predictive Framework for Assessing Drought Risk in the Susquehanna River Basin in Response to Large-Scale Circulation Anomalies (United States)

    Carter, E.; Steinschneider, S.


    The 2016 drought in the Northeast US led to widespread water use restrictions and agricultural losses, as summertime streamflows approached 100 year lows. Recent research has suggested a possible oceanic forcing in the North Atlantic of past droughts in the region, such as those in the 1960s and 1990's, but others have suggested that at least a subset of these droughts are the result of natural atmospheric variability. This study presents a diagnostic-predictive framework to examine the prevailing atmospheric and oceanic conditions of the 2016 drought in the context of past droughts (1950-2015) and with a specific focus on the Susquehanna River Basin, the longest river on the U.S. east coast draining into the Atlantic. We first assess basin-wide hydroclimatic conditions (streamflow, precipitation, temperature, incident radiation, and relative humidity) during past droughts and determine whether the characteristics of these hydroclimatic variables cluster into distinct drought typologies. Prevailing features of atmospheric circulation (geopotential height and wind vector fields) and oceanic forcing (sea surface temperature anomalies) are identified during different drought types. We then present a hierarchical Bayesian modeling framework that formally links ocean forcing to atmospheric circulation to regional drought impacts and accounts for potential differences in the ocean-atmosphere-regional climate causal chain under varying drought typologies. Potential applications for seasonal drought forecasting in the Susquehanna River Basin, as well as in the causal analysis of relevant climatic processes across dynamical models used for climate reconstruction and climate changes projections, are discussed.

  14. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests. (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C; Katokele, Stark; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Balfour, Lexi; Reiff, Mark; Lancaster, Warren; Noden, Bruce H; Bock, Ronnie; Stothard, J Russell


    Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia. This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools) at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped) and very quickly (28 working days). All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, Pmaps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively) performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%. This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are recommended.

  15. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

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    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia.This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped and very quickly (28 working days. All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001 and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001 or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001. Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001. Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%.This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are

  16. The challenge of professional identity for Chinese clinicians in the process of learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy: the discussion on the frame of Chinese culture. (United States)

    Yang, Yunping


    One important element in psychoanalysis, which is derived from Western culture, is individualization: the independency and autonomy of an individual are highly valued. However, one of the significant essences in Chinese culture is that the collective interests transcend the individual interests and the interests of social groups are more important than those of families. Therefore, when learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy, Chinese clinicians inevitably experience conflicts derived from this difference of cultural values. This article attempts to use a historical perspective to discuss the current challenges of professional identity for Chinese clinicians learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  17. The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war

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    Rosner Rita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.

  18. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and vulnerability to the development of alcoholism: use of the Wender-Utah Rating Scale for retrospective diagnostic of ADHD in the childhood of alcoholic patients]. (United States)

    Ponce Alfaro, G; Rodríguez-Jiménez Caumel, R; Pérez Rojo, J A; Monasor Sánchez, R; Rubio Valladolid, G; Jiménez Arriero, M A; Palomo Alvarez, T


    In the last years, it has been accumulated data about an important association between addictions and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both disorders share clinic aspects and relevant biological markers, and for both it has been postulated alterations in the same cerebral systems. To evaluate the rate of possible ADHD in the early ages of adult alcoholic patients, in contrast with controls. It was realized an adaptation of Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and it was analyzed its psychometric characteristics. It was administered to 117 alcoholic patients and to 52 controls. The mean score of WURS is significatively higher in alcoholic group than in the control one (32.26 vs. 16.55, prates of ADHD in early ages. It was discused the clinic and etiopathogenetics implications, and the convenience of advancing in the developemnt of diagnostic tools.

  19. [Psychoanalytic psychotherapy and the ADHD-triad (impulsivity, hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder)]. (United States)

    Bürgin, Dieter; Steck, Barbara


    A brief survey of the psychoanalytically oriented literature regarding the symptom triad of ADHD is followed by the discussion of frequently found disturbances in infantile development, attachment, object relations (regulation of drives and affects, ego functions) of the role of infantile trauma (object loss) and psychic conflict. In the analytic-psychotherapeutic process with a child, the ADHD-symptom-triad may manifest itself e.g. as intrapsychic conflict on the level of the self-representation or of the representation of central self-object-relations (characterized by an insufficient containing-/holding-function), as impairment of self-regulative functions, as inconsistent symbolizing capacity or as deficient regulating and controlling capacity of the ego. The multitude of factors involved does not allow a generalisation of neither the etiology or the pathogenesis of this symptom triad. This is particularly evident in a therapeutic procedure which is relation oriented. In a first interview the authors illustrate the capacity of a ten year old boy (diagnosed as ADHD patient) to make use of the analytic therapeutic dialogue and to present his intrapsychic experiences and problems in a figurative and narrative performance. Finally some specific technical features of low or high frequent analytic psychotherapy with ADHD children are shown: according to the foremost pregenital form of relations--manifested mostly by intensive self esteem problems, narcissistic aggressiveness and motor impulsivity--the transference and counter-transference movements proceed predominantly by projective and introjective identifications. Containment of the difficulties by the therapist is often paralleled for a long period of time by assistance in regulation and by limit setting for the child. Translation of action into language and transformation of intrapsychic processes within the psyche of the therapist into helpful interventions for the child require a continuous adjustment to the

  20. Algunas puntualizaciones psicoanalíticas sobre Durkheim Some psychoanalytical views about Durkheim

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    Osvaldo Umérez


    Full Text Available Es el objetivo del siguiente trabajo realizar una lectura psicoanalítica de los aportes de Emile Durkheim al entendimiento de la crisis de los lazos sociales producto de la "sociedad industrial", centrándonos en las nociones de "anomia" y "mal de lo infinito"que dicho autor utilizara para dar cuenta del descontento del hombre en la sociedad de tales características. Sostenemos la vigencia de su pensamiento en el acercamiento a lo actual y realizamos un retorno a dicho autor mediante conceptualizaciones freudianas y lacanianas. Desde Freud, se aborda la perspectiva propuesta en relación al malestar en la cultura y la imposibilidad del hombre para llevar a cabo el programa del principio del placer. Desde Lacan, se trabaja la noción de Superyó en tanto imperativo de goce , la resignificación del concepto de castración y la cuestión de la femeneidad. Esta última trabajada por los tres autores mencionados como excepción a la ley universal.The aim of the following paper is to make a psychoanalytical approach to the contributions of Emile Durkheim to the understanding of the social relationship crisis produced by the "industrial society", highlighting the notions of "anomy" and "infinite evil" which that author used to show the discontent of the man in a society with those characteristics. His standing thought is supported as a way of approaching the present time and a return to the ideas of the author is made through concepts from Freud and Lacan. From Freud, the perspective proposed in connection to the cultural malaise is studied as well as the impossibility of the man to carry out the pleasure principle programme. From Lacan, the notion of the Superego as an imperative of enjoyment, the reappraisal of the concept of castration and the femineity matter are considered. This last issue has been elaborated by the three authors mentioned as an exception to the universal law.

  1. Beyond Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalysis: A Review of Psychoanalytic Empirical Single Case Studies Published in ISI-Ranked Journals

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    Reitske Meganck


    Full Text Available Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation.

  2. Opening to the otherwise: The discipline of listening and the necessity of free-association for psychoanalytic praxis. (United States)

    Barratt, Barnaby B


    It is argued that only free-association methodically opens the discourse of self-consciousness (the representations available to reflective awareness) to the voicing of the repressed. The method is key to Freud's originality and the sine qua non of any genuinely psychoanalytic process. Clinical procedures which do not prioritize a steadfast and ongoing commitment to this method (instead emphasizing either interpretative formulations, as decisive acts that appear to fix and finalize the meaning of a particular lived experience, or the vicissitudes of transference-countertransference in the immediate treatment situation) all too readily entrap the treatment, limiting its capacity to divulge the power of unconscious processes. Influenced by Laplanche, Freud's 1920 principles of lifefulness and deathfulness (the binding and unbinding of psychic energy in representations) facilitate an understanding of the unique significance of free-associative discourse in opening the representational textuality of self-consciousness to the voicing of that which is otherwise than representationality and reason. The 'otherwise' is intimated as the returning force of the repressed, as the 'unfathomable navel' of 'thing-presentations,' experienced and expressed within the text of awareness, yet not translatable into the law and order of its logical and rhetorical reflections. Free-associative discourse thus affects self-consciousness in a way that is radically different from other creative procedures ('psychosynthetic' or integratively interpretive). In this respect, the status of free-associative praxis as necessary for a genuinely psychoanalytic process is justified. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Beyond Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalysis: A Review of Psychoanalytic Empirical Single Case Studies Published in ISI-Ranked Journals (United States)

    Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Krivzov, Juri; Notaerts, Liza


    Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization) over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation. PMID:29046660

  4. 'For Beauty is nothing but the barely endurable onset of Terror': Outline of a general psychoanalytic aesthetics. (United States)

    Leikert, Sebastian


    Even close to 80 years after Freud's words that psychoanalysis "has scarcely anything to say about beauty" (Freud, Civilization and its Discontents, SE 21, p. 82) the question of a specific psychoanalytic aesthetic is still faced with a deficit in theory. Since aesthetics is related to Aisthesis, the Greek word for 'perception', a psychoanalytic aesthetic can solely emerge from a psychoanalysis of perceptive structures. The term 'kinaesthetic semantic' is introduced in order to exemplify via music how perceptive experiences must be structured for them to be experienced as beautiful. The basic mechanisms - repetition of form (rhythm, unification) and seduction (deviation, surprise) - are defined. With the help of these mechanisms an intensive contact between perceiving object and kinetic subject, the physical self, is established. The intensive relatedness is a requirement for the creative process in art and also for psychic growth on the subject's level. The described basic mechanisms of the aesthetic process in music can also be encountered in painting and poetry. By the means of a self-portrait by Bacon it will be examined how, in art, terror and traumatization are represented via targeted disorganization of beauty endowing mechanisms, hence finding an enabling form of confrontation and integration of fended contents. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Cognitive development, memory, trauma, treatment: An integration of psychoanalytic and behavioral concepts in light of current neuroscience research. (United States)

    Hutterer, Jeffrey; Liss, Miriam


    The goal of Freud's Project was to place all psychological functioning on a neurological foundation; however, the resources of his time were inadequate for the task. This article attempts to link basic psychoanalytic and behavioral constructs to current neuroscience, specifically the memory paradigm of multiple trace theory. We propose that Freud's theory of early cognitive development, in which primary process is succeeded by secondary process, corresponds to the progression from a noncontextual taxon-based memory system to a locale system (mediated by hippocampal and cortical structures) in which memories are formed within space/time contexts. The effects of trauma within these models is then examined by noting how Freud's views of repression and regression parallel neuropsychological hypotheses about the ways in which traumatic experience impacts specific brain areas. Finally, the treatment implications of this theoretical synthesis are explored. We posit that transference resembles the learning theory construct of generalization, and the non-contextualized coding of the taxon system. In conclusion, we suggest that orthodox psychoanalytic approaches may have overestimated the efficacy of words and intellectual vectors in effecting therapeutic change. Nonverbal strategies may be required to reach material that is stored in early developing brain areas that may be inaccessible to words.

  6. Phantastic objects and the financial market's sense of reality: a psychoanalytic contribution to the understanding of stock market instability. (United States)

    Tuckett, David; Taffler, Richard


    This paper sets out to explore if standard psychoanalytic thinking based on clinical experience can illuminate instability in financial markets and its widespread human consequences. Buying, holding or selling financial assets in conditions of inherent uncertainty and ambiguity, it is argued, necessarily implies an ambivalent emotional and phantasy relationship to them. Based on the evidence of historical accounts, supplemented by some interviewing, the authors suggest a psychoanalytic approach focusing on unconscious phantasy relationships, states of mind, and unconscious group functioning can explain some outstanding questions about financial bubbles which cannot be explained with mainstream economic theories. The authors also suggest some institutional features of financial markets which may ordinarily increase or decrease the likelihood that financial decisions result from splitting off those thoughts which give rise to painful emotions. Splitting would increase the future risk of financial instability and in this respect the theory with which economic agents in such markets approach their work is important. An interdisciplinary theory recognizing and making possible the integration of emotional experience may be more useful to economic agents than the present mainstream theories which contrast rational and irrational decision-making and model them as making consistent decisions on the basis of reasoning alone.

  7. The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Form for assessing ADHD: evaluating diagnostic accuracy and determining optimal thresholds using ROC analysis. (United States)

    Thompson, Trevor; Lloyd, Andrew; Joseph, Alain; Weiss, Margaret


    The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Form (WFIRS-P) is a 50-item scale that assesses functional impairment on six clinically relevant domains typically affected in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As functional impairment is central to ADHD, the WFIRS-P offers potential as a tool for assessing functional impairment in ADHD. These analyses were designed to examine the overall performance of WFIRS-P in differentiating ADHD and non-ADHD cases using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. This is the first attempt to empirically determine the level of functional impairment that differentiates ADHD children from normal controls. This observational study comprised 5-19-year-olds with physician-diagnosed ADHD (n = 476) and non-ADHD controls (n = 202). ROC analysis evaluated the ability of WFIRS-P to discriminate between ADHD and non-ADHD, and identified a WFIRS-P cut-off score that optimises correct classification. Data were analysed for the complete sample, for males versus females and for participants in two age groups (5-12 versus 13-19 years). Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.93) for the overall WFIRS-P score, suggesting highly accurate classification of ADHD distinct from non-ADHD. Sensitivity (0.83) and specificity (0.85) were maximal for a mean overall WFIRS-P score of 0.65, suggesting that this is an appropriate threshold for differentiation. DeLong's test found no significant differences in AUCs for males versus females or 5-12 versus 13-19 years, suggesting that WFIRS-P is an accurate classifier of ADHD across gender and age. When assessing function, WFIRS-P appears to provide a simple and effective basis for differentiating between individuals with/without ADHD in terms of functional impairment. Disease-specific applications of QOL research.

  8. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.


    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  9. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang


    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  10. EFG Technology and Diagnostic R&D for Large-Scale PV Manufacturing; Final Subcontract Report, 1 March 2002 - 31 March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalejs, J.; Aurora, P.; Bathey, B.; Cao, J.; Doedderlein, J.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kubasti, J.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, S.; Xavier, G.


    The objective of this subcontract was to carry out R&D to advance the technology, processes, and performance of RWE Schott-Solar's wafer, cell, and module manufacturing lines, and help configure these lines for scaling up of edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) ribbon technology to the 50-100 MW PV factory level. EFG ribbon manufacturing continued to expand during this subcontract period and now has reached a capacity of 40 MW. EFG wafer products were diversified over this time period. In addition to 10 cm x 10 cm and 10 cm x 15 cm wafer areas, which were the standard products at the beginning of this program, R&D has focused on new EFG technology to extend production to 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm EFG wafers. Cell and module production also has continued to expand in Billerica. A new 12-MW cell line was installed and brought on line in 2003. R&D on this subcontract improved cell yield and throughput, and optimized the cell performance, with special emphasis on work to speed up wafer transfer, hence enhancing throughput. Improvements of wafer transfer processes during this program have raised cell line capacity from 12 MW to over 18 MW. Optimization of module manufacturing processes was carried out on new equipment installed during a manufacturing upgrade in Billerica to a 12-MW capacity to improve yield and reliability of products.

  11. The relationship between job-anxiety and trait-anxiety--a differential diagnostic investigation with the Job-Anxiety-Scale and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael; Olbrich, Dieter


    Job-related anxiety, in contrast to general trait-anxiety, is by its very nature associated with problems of participation at work. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between general trait-anxiety and specific job-related anxiety and to examine whether job-anxiety and trait-anxiety are differently associated with sick leave. 190 inpatients of a psychosomatic and orthopaedic rehabilitation center with mental and somatic disorders filled in the Job-Anxiety-Scale (JAS) and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI-T). Additionally, informations on age, gender, the current duration of sick leave in weeks, employment status, duration of unemployment, and position at the workplace were collected. Highest scores of job-anxiety were found for the JAS-dimensions "job-related worries" and "health anxieties", followed by "cognitions of insufficiency," "stimulus-related anxieties," and "social anxieties." JAS and STAI-T were significantly correlated. Job-anxiety, in contrast to trait-anxiety, was significantly related to duration of sick leave. Women showed higher scores on the STAI-T but not on the JAS. It can be concluded that job-anxiety is related to but not identical with trait-anxiety. Job-anxiety is important to understand sick leave and appears as a multidimensional and clinically important phenomenon. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of d-3He proton spectroscopy as a diagnostic of shell rho r in capsule implosion experiments with approximately 0.2 NIF scale high temperature Hohlraums at Omega. (United States)

    Delamater, N D; Wilson, D C; Kyrala, G A; Seifter, A; Hoffman, N M; Dodd, E; Singleton, R; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C; Li, C K; Petrasso, R; Frenje, J


    We present the calculations and preliminary results from experiments on the Omega laser facility using d-(3)He filled plastic capsule implosions in gold Hohlraums. These experiments aim to develop a technique to measure shell rho r and capsule unablated mass with proton spectroscopy and will be applied to future National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments with ignition scale capsules. The Omega Hohlraums are 1900 microm length x 1200 microm diameter and have a 70% laser entrance hole. This is approximately a 0.2 NIF scale ignition Hohlraum and reaches temperatures of 265-275 eV similar to those during the peak of the NIF drive. These capsules can be used as a diagnostic of shell rho r, since the d-(3)He gas fill produces 14.7 MeV protons in the implosion, which escape through the shell and produce a proton spectrum that depends on the integrated rho r of the remaining shell mass. The neutron yield, proton yield, and spectra change with capsule shell thickness as the unablated mass or remaining capsule rho r changes. Proton stopping models are used to infer shell unablated mass and shell rho r from the proton spectra measured with different filter thicknesses. The experiment is well modeled with respect to Hohlraum energetics, neutron yields, and x-ray imploded core image size, but there are discrepancies between the observed and simulated proton spectra.

  13. The conversation group: using group psychoanalytic techniques to resolve resistances of recently immigrated Chinese students to learning English in a high school setting. (United States)

    Zaretsky, Sheila


    Does group psychoanalytic theory and technique have an application in an ordinary high school classroom? In this article, the writer describes a research project in which she attempts to answer this question by applying the techniques with a group of recently immigrated Chinese students who wished to improve their spoken English.

  14. Glaucoma diagnostics. (United States)

    Geimer, Sabina Andersson


    This thesis addresses several aspects of glaucoma diagnostics from both a clinical and a screening perspective. New instruments for diagnosing glaucoma have been developed over the past years, but little information is available regarding their performance as screening methods and their usefulness in ordinary clinical practice. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH UNDERLYING THIS THESIS:  The objectives of this research were as follows: to compare the accuracy of results of analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) achieved by computerized imaging using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) and by subjective assessment performed by physicians with different degrees of experience of glaucoma (paper III); to evaluate the effect of a continuous medical education (CME) lecture on subjective assessment of the ONH for diagnosis of glaucoma (paper II); to investigate subjective assessment of perimetric test results by physicians with varying knowledge of glaucoma with a trained artificial neural network (ANN) and to compare the certainty of the classifications (paper IV); and to compare the diagnostic performance of time-domain Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) with that of spectral-domain Cirrus OCT (paper I), frequency doubling technology (FDT) screening perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry with the GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) in a random population-based sample and in patients with glaucoma of varying disease severity.   In evaluation of the ONH, use of the HRT statistical tools, Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and the Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS) was compared with subjective assessment performed by 45 physicians. Optic nerve head images and photographs from 138 healthy and 97 glaucoma subjects were included. The sensitivity of MRA was higher (87-94%) than that of the average physician (62-82%), considerably greater than that of ophthalmologists with subspecialties other than glaucoma (53-77%) and non-significantly better than that of glaucoma

  15. From somatic pain to psychic pain: The body in the psychoanalytic field. (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; Steinbrecher, Michael


    The integration of psyche and soma begins with a baby's earliest contact with his or her parents. With the help of maternal empathy and reverie, β-elements are transformed into α-elements. While we understand this to be the case, we would like to enquire what actually happens to those parts of the affect which have not been transformed? For the most part they may be dealt with by evacuation, but they can also remain within the body, subsequently contributing to psychosomatic symptoms. This paper describes how the body serves as an intermediate store between the psychic (inner) and outer reality. The authors focuses on the unconscious communicative process between the analyst and the analysand, and in particular on how psychosomatic symptoms can spread to the analyst's body. The latter may become sensitive to the analysand's psychosomatic symptoms in order to better understand the psychoanalytical process. Sensory processes (visual and auditory) and psychic mechanisms such as projective identification can serve as a means for this communication. One of the first analysts to deal with this topic was Wilhelm Reich. He described one kind of psychosomatic defence like a shell, the character armour, comparing the armour formed by muscle tension with another, more psychical type of armour. This concept can be linked to Winnicott's contribution of the false self and later on to Feldman's concept of compliance as a defence. The authors links further details of the clinical material with theoretical concepts from Joyce McDougall, Piera Aulagnier, and Ricardo Rodulfo and Marilia Aisenstein. With the aid of the complex concept of projective identification, as described by Heinz Weiss, the authors discusses the important question of how the analyst gets in touch with the patient's current psychosomatic state, and describes a specific communication between the body of the psychoanalyst and the body of the patient. A vignette illustrates in greater detail the relationship

  16. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran


    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  17. What does "brief" mean? A theoretical critique of the concept of brief therapy from a psychoanalytic viewpoint. (United States)

    Migone, Paolo


    The concept of "brief therapy" contains internal contradictions. The techniques suggested by brief therapists are the same techniques that have been discussed historically in debates on theory of technique, both within and without psychoanalysis (e.g., the experiential factor at the center of the Freud-Ferenczi confrontation is also an important aspect of Gestalt therapy). A time limit is the only operational criterion that allows a rigorous definition of brief therapy; without this criterion it is impossible to discriminate between "brief" and simply "good" therapies (i.e., those in which patients are successfully treated in a short time). An important question is why, with a given patient, a therapist should decide, a priori, to terminate a treatment within a set time. Two clinical examples are presented, illustrating the usefulness of Eissler's concept of parameters as a heuristic framework to identify the potentially defensive nature of both "brief" and "long-term" therapy. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  18. Connection and Disconnection: Value of the Analyst’s Subjectivity in Elucidating Meaning in a Psychoanalytic Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hueso


    Full Text Available This article reflects on pivotal concepts of psychoanalytic practice and theory, applied to a single case study to create new meanings. Drawing from the concepts of transference, countertransference, and projective identification, the author presents the notion that the researcher’s subjective reactions are created and induced by the subject of study precisely because this is one, and sometimes the only way available to the subject to communicate something that is out of its full awareness. In essence, some unconscious material can be expressed nonverbally by the subject by means of provoking visceral and bodily reactions in the researcher, or in some cases, psychic imagery such as dreams or fantasies. The material can be meaningfully interpreted by the researcher by receiving, containing, and sorting through these inchoate emotional reactions within self.

  19. [Psychoanalytic study of social withdrawal: grandiose narcissism and passive aggression due to insufficient maternal containing in childhood]. (United States)

    Ogawa, Toyoaki


    Two different types of pathology can cause social withdrawal: the narcissistic--schizoid personality organization (NSPO) type and the mild Asperger's syndrome (mild developmental disorders) type. Only the former type can be treated by psychoanalytic psychotherapy. In the childhood of both types, one may find traumatic family environments which will result in social withdrawal (Hikikomori). In the infancy of the NSPO type, the mother fails to function as a sufficient container of the child's emotion, which encourages formation of a schizoid personality organization i.e. the psychic withdrawal (or "psychic retreat" by Steiner, J.). With only a little failure in life events, this may turn into a physical withdrawal for a long time. And in this type of pathology their aggression takes a passive form that hardens their social withdrawal situation. Moreover, the social withdrawal itself serves to reinforce the pathological narcissism.

  20. What Is Diagnostic Testing? (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Diagnostic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Diagnostic Testing? Diagnostic genetic testing can usually work out if ...

  1. Modern aspects of thyroid nodules diagnostic: radial diagnostic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Borsukov


    Full Text Available In a discussion paper a number of Russian proposals in the draft Recommendations for the diagnosis of nodular goiter is proposed by the position of radiological diagnostics specialist. The ultrasound diagnostic section introduces the concept of an integrated ultrasound, which assesses not only the gray-scale features, but also color Doppler mapping and vascular elastography of the focus and organ. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is proposed to carry out only under ultrasound navigation and multifocally. The problem of calcitonin should be considered from the perspective of false-positive and false-negative data and its optimal results after fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multidimensional scaling, binary hierarchical cluster tree and selected diagnostic masses improves species identification of Neolithic keratin sequences from furs of the Tyrolean Iceman Oetzi. (United States)

    Hollemeyer, Klaus; Altmeyer, Wolfgang; Heinzle, Elmar; Pitra, Christian


    The identification of fur origins from the 5300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman's accoutrement is not yet complete, although definite identification is essential for the socio-cultural context of his epoch. Neither have all potential samples been identified so far, nor there has a consensus been reached on the species identified using the classical methods. Archaeological hair often lacks analyzable hair scale patterns in microscopic analyses and polymer chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are often inapplicable due to the lack of amplifiable ancient DNA. To overcome these drawbacks, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method was used exclusively based on hair keratins. Thirteen fur specimens from his accoutrement were analyzed after tryptic digest of native hair. Peptide mass fingerprints (pmfs) from ancient samples and from reference species mostly occurring in the Alpine surroundings at his lifetime were compared to each other using multidimensional scaling and binary hierarchical cluster tree analysis. Both statistical methods highly reflect spectral similarities among pmfs as close zoological relationships. While multidimensional scaling was useful to discriminate specimens on the zoological order level, binary hierarchical cluster tree reached the family or subfamily level. Additionally, the presence and/or absence of order, family and/or species-specific diagnostic masses in their pmfs allowed the identification of mammals mostly down to single species level. Red deer was found in his shoe vamp, goat in the leggings, cattle in his shoe sole and at his quiver's closing flap as well as sheep and chamois in his coat. Canid species, like grey wolf, domestic dog or European red fox, were discovered in his leggings for the first time, but could not be differentiated to species level. This is widening the spectrum of processed fur-bearing species to at least one member of the Canidae family. His fur cap was

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of the Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses. (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D; Benedetti, Andrea; Kloda, Lorie A; Levis, Brooke; Azar, Marleine; Riehm, Kira E; Saadat, Nazanin; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Loiselle, Carmen G; Henry, Melissa; Ismail, Zahinoor; Mitchell, Nicholas; Tonelli, Marcello


    The Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) has been recommended for depression screening in medically ill patients. Many existing HADS-D studies have used exploratory methods to select optimal cut-offs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cut-off thresholds; cut-offs with more favourable accuracy results are more likely to be reported than others with worse accuracy estimates. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, selective reporting may generate biased summary estimates. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by estimating accuracy with data from all studies for all relevant cut-off scores. In addition, a predictive algorithm can be generated to estimate the probability that a patient has depression based on a HADS-D score and clinical characteristics rather than dichotomous screening classification alone. The primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the HADS-D to detect major depression among adults across all potentially relevant cut-off scores and to generate a predictive algorithm for individual patients. We are already aware of over 100 eligible studies, and more may be identified with our comprehensive search. Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Eligible studies will have datasets where patients are assessed for major depression based on a validated structured or semistructured clinical interview and complete the HADS-D within 2 weeks (before or after). Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cut-off values, and a predictive algorithm for individual patients will be generated. The findings of this study will be of interest to stakeholders involved in research, clinical practice and policy

  4. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression: the Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS). (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Rost, Felicitas; Carlyle, Jo-Anne; McPherson, Susan; Thomas, Rachel; Pasco Fearon, R M; Goldberg, David; Taylor, David


    This pragmatic randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (LTPP) as an adjunct to treatment-as-usual according to UK national guidelines (TAU), compared to TAU alone, in patients with long-standing major depression who had failed at least two different treatments and were considered to have treatment-resistant depression. Patients (N=129) were recruited from primary care and randomly allocated to the two treatment conditions. They were assessed at 6-monthly intervals during the 18 months of treatment and at 24, 30 and 42 months during follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), with complete remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤8, and partial remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤12. Secondary outcome measures included self-reported depression as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory - II, social functioning as evaluated by the Global Assessment of Functioning, subjective wellbeing as rated by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure, and satisfaction with general activities as assessed by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. Complete remission was infrequent in both groups at the end of treatment (9.4% in the LTPP group vs. 6.5% in the control group) as well as at 42-month follow-up (14.9% vs. 4.4%). Partial remission was not significantly more likely in the LTPP than in the control group at the end of treatment (32.1% vs. 23.9%, p=0.37), but significant differences emerged during follow-up (24 months: 38.8% vs. 19.2%, p=0.03; 30 months: 34.7% vs. 12.2%, p=0.008; 42 months: 30.0% vs. 4.4%, p=0.001). Both observer-based and self-reported depression scores showed steeper declines in the LTPP group, alongside greater improvements on measures of social adjustment. These data suggest that LTPP can be useful in improving the long-term outcome of treatment-resistant depression. End

  5. In the Intimacy of My "Enactlon": Modeling Kohut's "Bipolar Self" as an Autopoietic System: A Dialectic Approach to Phenomenological Research in Contemporary Psychoanalytic Self Psychology. (United States)

    Prendergast, Claire Nicole


    This paper demonstrates that Kohut's definitional system of the "bipolar self" within psychoanalytic self psychology can be modeled as a biological autopoietic system, both in terms of its structure and dynamics, in a way that accounts for the phenomenological aspects of experiential living. Based on this finding, the author argues that a nonreductionist definitional system of this type is an integral component of any pragmatic methodology, such as Kohut's "empathic-introspective" method of treatment, which aims to enable the analyst, as observer, to gain access to the phenomenological world of the analysand within the analytic setting. The dialectic approach undertaken in this preliminary exploration of the "bipolar self" as an autopoietic system has proven fruitful in excavating some of the theoretical features of psychoanalytic self psychology, the weighted importance of which can now be reevaluated in contemporary practice.

  6. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy versus brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depression (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Goodyer, Ian M; Reynolds, Shirley; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Dubicka, Bernadka; Hill, Jonathan; Holland, Fiona; Kelvin, Raphael; Midgley, Nick; Roberts, Chris; Senior, Rob; Target, Mary; Widmer, Barry; Wilkinson, Paul; Fonagy, Peter


    Although there are effective psychological treatments for unipolar major depression in adolescents, whether or not one or more of the available therapies maintain reduced depressive symptoms 1 year after the end of treatment is not known. This is a non-trivial issue because maintaining lowered depressive symptoms below a clinical threshold level reduces the risk for diagnostic relapse into the adult years. To determine whether or not either of two specialist psychological treatments, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (STPP), is more effective than a reference brief psychosocial intervention (BPI) in maintaining reduction of depression symptoms in the year after treatment. Observer-blind, parallel-group, pragmatic superiority randomised controlled trial. A total of 15 outpatient NHS clinics in the UK from East Anglia, north-west England and North London. Adolescents aged 11-17 years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -Fourth Edition major depression including those with suicidality, depressive psychosis and conduct disorder. Patients were randomised using stochastic minimisation controlling for age, sex and self-reported depression sum score; 470 patients were randomised and 465 were included in the analyses. In total, 154 adolescents received CBT, 156 received STPP and 155 received BPI. The trial lasted 86 weeks and study treatments were delivered in the first 36 weeks, with 52 weeks of follow-up. Mean sum score on self-reported depressive symptoms (primary outcome) at final study assessment (nominally 86 weeks, at least 52 weeks after end of treatment). Secondary measures were change in mean sum scores on self-reported anxiety symptoms and researcher-rated Health of the Nation scales for children and adolescents measuring psychosocial function. Following baseline assessment, there were a further five planned follow-up reassessments at nominal time points of 6, 12, 52 and 86 weeks post

  7. Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS): a randomised controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory forms of depression


    Taylor, D.; Carlyle, J. A.; McPherson, S.; Rost, F.; Thomas, R.; Fonagy, P.


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Long-term forms of depression represent a significant mental health problem for which there is a lack of effective evidence-based treatment. This study aims to produce findings about the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory depression and to deepen the understanding of this complex form of depression. METHODS: INDEX GROUP: Patients with treatment resistant/treatment refractory depression. DEFINITION & INC...

  8. O excesso de transferência na pesquisa em psicanálise The excess of transference in psychoanalytic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Beividas


    Full Text Available Toda reflexão sobre a pesquisa em psicanálise se concentra em geral: (a na mútua implicação que se espera aí entre a dimensão teórica e a clínica; (b num debate entre a pesquisa psicanalítica e a pesquisa «científica», onde a psicanálise é levada a confrontar-se com a ciência cartesiana, experimental, positivista ou neo-positivista, e assim adiante… O presente estudo quer abordar uma região menos explorada nesse debate; quer demonstrar que a psicanálise freudiana, sobretudo com Lacan e após Lacan, acabou sendo levada a uma «submissão pânica» ao a priori da enunciação do fundador (Freud ou do re-fundador (Lacan. A pesquisa ficou embaraçada numa teia excessivamente «transferencial», sob o regime de um dixit Lacan sobreposto a um dixit Freud. O autor defende uma saída para isso: conceber a pesquisa psicanalítica como uma conceituação estruturante do inconsciente com Lacan e Freud, e não sob Lacan e Freud.Reflection about research in psychoanalysis generally focus on: (a the mutual implications supposed to exist between the theoretical and clinical dimensions; (b the discussion between psychoanalytical and "scientific" research, in which psychoanalysis in confronted with Cartesian, Experimentalist, Positivist, or Neo-Positivis models, among others. The present study intended to approach a field that has been poorly explored on this debate, aiming to demonstrate that Freudian psychoanalysis, specially with and beyond Lacan, was led to a "panicky surrender" to he a priori enunciation of the founder (Freud or to the re-founder (Lacan. Research got entrapped on a web of excessive transference regulated by a Lacan dixit over a Freud dixit. I suggest that the way out of this puzzle is to conceptualize psychoanalytical research as a "structuring conceptualization" of the unconscious with Lacan and Freud rather than under Lacan and Freud.

  9. The question of representation in the psychoanalytical and cognitive-behavioural approaches. Some theoretical aspects and therapy considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eDe Timary


    Full Text Available This paper compares the cognitive-behavioural and psychoanalytical approaches with respect to the way in which each of them conceives of representation and deals with the issues that this involves. In both of them conscious and latent (unconscious representations play a crucial role. Highlighting similarities and differences facilitate communication on a theoretical level but also prove helpful to the clinical practitioners involved. We try to put forward an attempt at comparison, with the idea of going beyond the -- obviously important -- differences in vocabulary. In this attempt at comparison, we have successively compared the definitions of representation and the respective therapeutic interventions proposed by each approach. There are no doubt many overlapping elements in the way in which the workings of the mind are conceived of in these approaches, particularly as regards their links with affects. We next developed the implications of representation deficits in pathology, suggesting the important role played by elements that are avoided, suppressed from memory or repressed, and with respect to the need to treat such material in a specific manner so as to ensure some progress as to the symptoms presented. We finally summarized common and distinct aspects of the two perspectives. The very fact that two approaches that follow very distinct methodologies reach the same conclusion concerning the importance of distortions and failures of representation in generating mental distress strengthens, in our view, the epistemological reliability of the role of representation in psychopathology.

  10. Pichon Rivière's psychoanalytic contributions: Some comparisons with object relations and modern developments in psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Scharff, David E; Losso, Roberto; Setton, Lea


    Enrique Pichon Rivière's work, fundamental to Latin American and European psychoanalytic development, is largely unknown in English-language psychoanalysis. Pichon's central contribution, the link (el vinculo), describes relational bonds in all dimensions. People are born into, live in, and relate through links. Psychic structure is built of links that then influence external interaction. Links, expressed in mind, body and external action, continuously join internal and external worlds. Links have two axes: vertical axis links connect generations through unconscious transgenerational transmission; horizontal axis links connect persons to life partners, family, community and society. For Pichon, treatment constitutes a spiral process through which interpretation disrupts existent structures, promoting new emergent organizations at successively deeper levels. Psychic and link structures evolve over time unless repetitive cycles stunt growth. For Pichon, transference is constituted in the here-and-now-with-me because of the analytic link. Pichon also undertook family and group psychoanalysis where individuals become spokespersons for unconscious links and family secrets. He developed operative groups that apply psychoanalysis to both analytic and non-analytic tasks. After describing Pichon's major contributions, the paper compares Pichon Rivière's ideas with those of Klein, Fairbairn, Bion, Winnicott and Bowlby, and contemporary writers including Ogden, Kaës, and Ferro whose works echo Pichon Rivière's thought. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. A psychoanalytic appreciation of Giotto's mode of artistic representation and its implications for Renaissance art and science. (United States)

    Blatt, S J


    This paper applies developmental psychoanalytic and cognitive psychological principles to an evaluation of Giotto's Padua frescoes as pivotal in the transition from a medieval to a Renaissance mode of thought. The formulation stresses the importance of the emergence of triadic or operational thinking involving the coordination of multiple dimensions and the capacity for transforming them with reversibility, reciprocity, and conservation. This developmental achievement also results in an expanded sense of time and space. These concepts provide a basis for appreciating more fully the transition from the dyadic classical and medieval artistic representations to the triadic representations of Renaissance art, especially the contributions of Giotto's Padua frescoes to the development of the concept of infinity in nature, a concept central to both Renaissance art and science. The development of this concept in Renaissance thought raises a question about the relation of art and science. Two major modes of encoding or representing experiences are discussed--a sequential lexical and a nonsequential nonverbal mode (or word and thing representations). These formulations lead to the identification of a process that suggests that developments in art often precede those in science and thereby contribute to a fuller appreciation of Giotto's Padua frescoes as a landmark contribution with implications for the entirety of Renaissance thought.

  12. Oedipus the King: quest for self-knowledge--denial of reality. Sophocles' vision of man and psychoanalytic concept formation. (United States)

    Zachrisson, Anders


    In the Oedipus myth we find a dramatic representation of the child's passionate ties to its parents. In the play Oedipus the King, Sophocles relates the theme of the myth to the question of self-knowledge. This was the predominant reading in German 19th century thinking, and even as a student Freud was fascinated by Oedipus' character - not primarily as the protagonist of an oedipal drama, but as the solver of divine riddles and as an individual striving for self-knowledge. Inspired by Vellacott, Steiner has proposed an alternative reading of Oedipus the King as a play about a cover-up of the truth. The text supports both these arguments. The pivotal theme of the tragedy is Oedipus' conflict between his desire to know himself and his opposing wish to cover up the truth that will bring disaster. It is this complex character of Oedipus and the intensity of his conflict-ridden struggle for self-knowledge that has made the tragedy to a rich source of inspiration for psychoanalytic concept formation and understanding both of emotional and cognitive development up to our own time. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Making unformulated experience real through painting: Painting and psychoanalytic psychotherapy practice as two ways of making sense. (United States)

    Schwartz, Karen M


    I contend that painting, like psychoanalytic psychotherapy, is an intersubjective process able to connect hearts and minds of painters and viewers alike, because the creative process of making a painting brings painters into more complex and more animated relationship with themselves. My own painting process is largely nonverbal. Interactions between me and my evolving artwork-in-process reveal experiences, thoughts, and feelings not yet formulated in words, and so, not available explicitly to conscious awareness until visual representation allows questions of meaning and intention to be thought about and elaborated in the usual, verbal sense. I describe how my particular painting practice provides an experiential frame for the creative process of self-articulation that goes on in psychotherapy, as well as how the physical and mostly nonverbal dialogue experienced in the painting studio served as a source of listening attitudes and self-regulation in my work with a patient's inhibited self-expression and thwarted artistic ambitions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The myth and history of some psychoanalytic concepts. Thoughts inspired by a reading of Orange et al., Working intersubjectively. (United States)

    Goretti, G R


    In this paper the author gives her reactions to a book on the intersubjective approach that deals with major issues such as the analyst's role in the psychoanalytic process, neutrality, technique and self-disclosure. Noting that the book often adopts an antagonistic and innovative stance towards Freud, she draws attention to aspects of his theories that deal with concepts deemed by the intersubjective school to be of fundamental importance. Chief among these is the influence of the analyst on the analytic process, in terms both of his 'defects' and of his individuality in general. In opposition to the 'myth of the isolated mind' attributed by the book to Freud, the author presents some selected passages from his works that emphasise the structuring function of the object and the influence of various groups on the individual. The aim of the paper is not only to counter the oversimplified view of Freud that emerges from the book but also to put forward a theoretical position with respect to a school that is exerting an increasingly powerful attraction on both sides of the Atlantic. The author's argument is based mainly on a discussion of the detailed clinical sequences featuring in the book. She also considers some possible cultural and social determinants of the development of the intersubjective trend.

  15. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ164, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  16. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  17. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking (United States)

    Poll, Scott


    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  18. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel


    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of the edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) for detecting major depression in pregnant and postnatal women: Protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, B.D; Benedetti, A.; Kloda, L.A.; Levis, B.; Riehm, K.E.; Azar, M.; Cuijpers, P.; Gilbody, S; Loannidis, J.P.A.; McMillan, D.; Patten, S.B.; Shrier, I.; Steele, R.J.; Ziegelstein, R.C.; Tonelli, M.; Mitchell, N.; Comeau, L.; Schinazi, J.; Vigod, S.


    Introduction: Studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools often used data-driven methods to select optimal cut-offs. Typically, these studies report results from a small range of cut-off points around whatever cut-off score is identified as most accurate. When published data are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor “Monju”. The techniques are (1 estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2 a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine, (3 a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4 a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  1. Essentials of psychoanalytic process and change: How can we investigate the neural effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy in individualized neuro-imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz eBoeker


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to remember, repeat and work through concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved it corresponds to neuronal transformation.Individualized neuro-imaging requires controlling and measuring of variables that must be defined. Two main methodological problems can be distinguished: The design problem addresses the issue of how to account for functionally related variables in an experimentally independent way. The translation problem raises the question of how to bridge the gaps between different levels of the concepts presupposed in individualized neuro-imaging (e.g. the personal level of the therapist and the client, the neural level of the brain.An overview of individualized paradigms, which have been used until now is given, including Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2 and the Maladaptive Interpersonal Patterns Q-Start (MIPQS. The development of a new paradigm that will be used in fMRI experiments, the Interpersonal Relationship Picture Set (IRPS, is described. Further perspectives and limitations of this new approach concerning the design and the translation problem are discussed.

  2. The constitution of intelligence: a psychoanalytical approach / A constituição da inteligência: uma abordagem psicanalítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Orgler Sordi


    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss human intelligence in the psychoanalytical perspective, particularly considering the contribution of Silvia Bleichmar who explores how human mind develops the intellectual activity from the embryonic states. It is recognized the contribution of genetic epistemology developed by Jean Piaget which allows to understand the capacity to build symbolic systems from sensory-motor schemes. There is also pointed some convergence between the genetic psychology and the psychoanalytic thought. What is stressed in this article, however, is that the contribution of psychoanalysis about the origins of intelligence has been less studied, although it is of most interest both theoretically and clinically. The theoretical inspiration of the paper relies on Freud's theory but it is more definitely grounded on the French school of Jean Laplanche. It tries to show that to reach the objectivity of logical structures, characterized by the categories of the Aristotelian logic – classification, space, time, causality, denial – the psychism does an active work of mind connection which starts in the first inscriptions of the other sexualized human and has to implant the originary repression, the only one able to organize the logic of the secondary thought. It stresses, at the end, that the contribution about a theory of the origins of psychism, concerning the development of intelligence is of great help in the studies about learning disabilities, as it differentiates learning difficulties due to secondary causes of the disorders which address to the lack of constitution of the ego.


    Salomonsson, Majlis Winberg; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Salomonsson, Björn


    An earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared 80 mother-infant dyads in a Stockholm sample. One had received mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment [mother-infant psychoanalytic therapies (MIP) group], and the other received Child Health Center care (CHCC group). Effects were found on mother-reported depression and expert-rated mother-infant relationship qualities and maternal sensitivity. When the children were 412 years, the dyads were followed up with assessments of the children's attachment representations, social and emotional development, and global functioning, and the mothers' psychological well-being and representations of the child as well as the mother-child interactions. We gathered data from 66 cases approximately 312 years' posttreatment. All scores involving the mothers had now approached community levels. We found effects on maternal depression in favor of MIP, but no other between-group differences. The MIP treatments seemed to have helped the mothers to recover more quickly on personal well-being, to become more sensitive to their babies' suffering, and to better support and appreciate their children throughout infancy and toddlerhood. If so, this would explain why the MIP children had a better global functioning and were more often "OK" and less often "Troubled" at 412 years. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, A.


    The future e{sup -}e{sup +} 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)

  5. El lugar del objeto (a en la dirección de la cura psicoanalítica // The place of object a in the directon of psychoanalytical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Marín Calderón


    Full Text Available El objeto (a ocupa un lugar lógico y topológico en la dirección de la cura. Para que aparezca haciendo sus efectos, el psicoanalista debe aceptar hacer semblante de él. El analista puede encarnar al objeto (a no solamente por medio de su presencia, sino a través de su interpretación, su docta ignorancia, su silencio y la escansión que puntúa en cada sesión de análisis. Gracias a la transferencia que se instaura, el analista "inventará" maneras lógicas de hacer advenir a (a con el fin de que el goce del sujeto sea interpelado en la escala invertida del deseo. De esta manera, el presente ensayo propone rastrear, desde las mismas fuentes lacanianas, y concentrándonos en lo que el mismo Lacan creó y elaboró al respecto, este concepto fundamental para la teoría y la técnica psicoanalíticas. // Objet a occupies a logical and topological place in the direction of the psychoanalytic treatment. In order to ponder its effects, the psychoanalyst must accept making a semblance of it. The analyst could embody objet a not only by means of her/his presence, but also through her/his interpretation, her/his learned ignorance, her/his silence as well as through the scansion she/he points out in each analytic session. Thanks to the transference that has been installed, the analyst could be capable of "inventing" logical ways to make a appear so that the subject's jouissance can be questioned in the inverted scale of desire. In this way, this essay pretends to track, from the Lacanian foundations proper and concentrating in what he created and developed, the conceptualization of this fundamental concept in the analytic theory and technique.

  6. Evaluating diagnostic tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Appraising the predictive abilities of diagnostic tests can be surprisingly difficult. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to the principles underlying the objective evaluation of diagnostic tests. Starting from basic concepts about probability,. Bayes' theorem will be introduced and an explanation given as to.

  7. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer (United States)


    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  8. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott


    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. The Turkish Adaptation of the Burnout Measure-Short Version (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Version (CBMS) and the Relationship between Career and Couple Burnout Based on Psychoanalytic-Existential Perspective (United States)

    Capri, Burhan


    The purpose of this research is to carry out the Turkish adaptation, validity, and reliability studies of Burnout Measure-Short Form (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Form (CBMS) and also to analyze the correlation between the careers and couple burnout scores of the participants from the psychoanalytic-existential perspective. This research…

  10. Social Psychoanalytic Disability Studies (United States)

    Goodley, Dan


    This paper explores connections and tensions between psychoanalysis and disability studies. The first part of the paper considers contemporaneous engagements with the psyche by a number of disability studies writers. These scholars have remained accountable to a politicised disability studies but have pushed for critical encounters with the…

  11. Diagnostics in critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of research: improvement of quality of diagnostics at the patients in a critical condition in intensive care unit. Material and methods. In total have analyzed 1957 medical cards of the patients who have died in ICU»s. At the first stage studied the factors influencing on diagnostics of critically ill patients (medical cards of 1557 patients; at the second stage investigated influence of the diagnostic standards in ICU»s practice on improvement of quality of diag- nostics of critically ill patients (400 medical cards of the patients who have died. Entry criterions were standards and algorithm of diagnostics. Techniques of research: average bed-day in groups, first-day lethality, quantity of the carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores. Results. Quality of diagnostics depend on carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II score. The conclusion. The laboratory tests and tool methods of research conforming to the standards of diagnostics are necessary for improvement of quality of diagnostics, it is necessary to take into account an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow come score and severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores

  12. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.


    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  13. Diagnostic Sex-role Bias: How Can We Measure It? (United States)

    Chasen, Barbara; Weinberg, Sharon L.


    The Chasen Diagnostic Sex Role Bias Scale was developed to measure sex role bias toward children. The scale was composed of case histories focusing on active or passive behaviors attributed to non-sex identified children. With the use of this scale with school psychologists, variations were found among scores. (DEP)

  14. Rotorcraft Diagnostics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR program, Ridgetop will introduce the first low-cost, low-power, and lightweight data monitoring solution for rotorcraft diagnostics. The solution is...

  15. National Convective Weather Diagnostic (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  16. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable...

  17. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle


    Evers, Ellen R. K.; Daniel eLakens


    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977 Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived sim...

  18. Molecular diagnostics of periodontitis


    Izabela Korona-Głowniak; Radosław Siwiec; Marcin Berger; Anna Malm; Jolanta Szymańska


    The microorganisms that form dental plaque are the main cause of periodontitis. Their identification and the understanding of the complex relationships and interactions that involve these microorganisms, environmental factors and the host’s health status enable improvement in diagnostics and targeted therapy in patients with periodontitis. To this end, molecular diagnostics techniques (both techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction and those involving nucleic acid analysis via hybridi...

  19. [Diagnostics in osteology]. (United States)

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C


    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution.

  20. 20/20 Hindsight: A 25-year programme at the Anna Freud Centre of efficacy and effectiveness research on child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Target, Mary


    This paper describes the evolution of methods of enquiry-through 25 years of work, with Professor Peter Fonagy and many other colleagues-of research and theorizing about child and adolescent therapy outcomes. The work has focused on measuring psychoanalytic outcomes, but with an increasing interest in discovering therapeutic elements across treatment modalities. Headline findings are described, with lessons from the ups and downs of developing (a) retrospective, follow-up, and prospective outcome studies, and (b) measures of child and family functioning. Issues of manualizing and measuring treatment process are discussed, together with the fruitfulness of mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) process and outcome research with young people and families. Using the dilemmas, experiences, and findings ‌‌of our group as examples, growing points and well as growing pains for the field are suggested.

  1. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)


    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  2. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  3. Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS): a randomised controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory forms of depression. (United States)

    Taylor, David; Carlyle, Jo-anne; McPherson, Susan; Rost, Felicitas; Thomas, Rachel; Fonagy, Peter


    Long-term forms of depression represent a significant mental health problem for which there is a lack of effective evidence-based treatment. This study aims to produce findings about the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory depression and to deepen the understanding of this complex form of depression. Patients with treatment resistant/treatment refractory depression. Current major depressive disorder, 2 years history of depression, a minimum of two failed treatment attempts, ≥14 on the HRSD or ≥21 on the BDI-II, plus complex personality and/or psycho-social difficulties. Moderate or severe learning disability, psychotic illness, bipolar disorder, substance dependency or receipt of test intervention in the previous two years. Pragmatic, randomised controlled trial with qualitative and clinical components. 18 months of weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy, manualised and fidelity-assessed using the Psychotherapy Process Q-Sort. Treatment as usual, managed by the referring practitioner. GP referrals from primary care. HRSD (with ≤14 as remission). depression severity (BDI-II), degree of co-morbid disorders Axis-I and Axis-II (SCID-I and SCID-II-PQ), quality of life and functioning (GAF, CORE, Q-les-Q), object relations (PROQ2a), Cost-effectiveness analysis (CSRI and GP medical records). 2 years. Plus: a). Qualitative study of participants' and therapists' problem formulation, experience of treatment and of participation in trial. (b) Narrative data from semi-structured pre/post psychodynamic interviews to produce prototypes of responders and non-responders. (c) Clinical case-studies of sub-types of TRD and of change. TRD needs complex, long-term intervention and extended research follow-up for the proper evaluation of treatment outcome. This pushes at the limits of the design of randomised therapeutic trials. We discuss some of the consequent problems and suggest how they may be mitigated. Current

  4. Instrumentation for localized superconducting cavity diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, Z. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Physics Division; Ge, M. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Iwashita, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)


    Superconducting accelerator cavities are now routinely operated at levels approaching the theoretical limit of niobium. To achieve these operating levels more information than is available from the RF excitation signal is required to characterize and determine fixes for the sources of performance limitations. This information is obtained using diagnostic techniques which complement the analysis of the RF signal. In this paper we describe the operation and select results from three of these diagnostic techniques: the use of large scale thermometer arrays, second sound wave defect location and high precision cavity imaging with the Kyoto camera.

  5. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle. (United States)

    Evers, Ellen R K; Lakens, Daniël


    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity.

  6. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology


    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  7. Diagnostic tools in ocular allergy. (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Doan, S; Fauquert, J L; Bozkurt, B; Allegri, P; Marmouz, F; Rondon, C; Jedrzejczak, M; Hellings, P; Delgado, L; Calder, V


    Ocular allergy (OA) includes a group of common and less frequent hypersensitivity disorders frequently misdiagnosed and not properly managed. The diagnosis of OA is usually based on clinical history and signs and symptoms, with the support of in vivo and in vitro tests when identification of the specific allergen is required. To date, no specific test is available for the diagnosis of the whole spectrum of the different forms of OA. The lack of recommendations on diagnosis of OA is considered a medical need not only for allergists but also for ophthalmologists. This position paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available tools for diagnosing OA to promote a common nomenclature and procedures to be used by different specialists. Questionnaires, sign and symptom grading scales, tests, and potential biomarkers for OA are reviewed. We also identified several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools to generate interest, increase understanding, and inspire further investigations. Tools, recommendations, and algorithms for the diagnosis of OA are proposed for use by both allergists and ophthalmologists. Several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools should be further improved by specific clinical research in OA. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  8. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.


    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  9. Metabolomics for laboratory diagnostics. (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman


    Metabolomics is an emerging approach in a systems biology field. Due to continuous development in advanced analytical techniques and in bioinformatics, metabolomics has been extensively applied as a novel, holistic diagnostic tool in clinical and biomedical studies. Metabolome's measurement, as a chemical reflection of a current phenotype of a particular biological system, is nowadays frequently implemented to understand pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression as well as to search for new diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of various organism's disorders. In this review, we discussed the research strategies and analytical platforms commonly applied in the metabolomics studies. The applications of the metabolomics in laboratory diagnostics in the last 5 years were also reviewed according to the type of biological sample used in the metabolome's analysis. We also discussed some limitations and further improvements which should be considered taking in mind potential applications of metabolomic research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics]. (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K


    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  11. Scale-up of home-based management of malaria based on rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy in a resource-poor country: results in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiam Sylla


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective case management of malaria requires prompt diagnosis and treatment within 24 hours. Home-based management of malaria (HMM improves access to treatment for populations with limited access to health facilities. In Senegal, an HMM pilot study in 2008 demonstrated the feasibility of integrated use of RDTs and ACT in remote villages by volunteer Home Care Providers (HCP. Scale-up of the strategy began in 2009, reaching 408 villages in 2009 and 861 villages in 2010. This paper reports the results of the scale-up in the targeted communities and the impact of the strategy on malaria in the formal health sector. Methods Data reported by the HCPs were used to assess their performance in 2009 and 2010, while routine malaria morbidity and mortality data were used to assess the impact of the HMM programme. Two high transmission regions where HMM was not implemented until 2010 were used as a comparison. Results and discussion From July 2009 through May 2010, 12582 suspected cases were managed by HCPs, 93% (11672 of whom were tested with an RDT. Among those tested, 37% (4270 had a positive RDT, 97% (4126 of whom were reported treated and cured. Home care providers referred 6871 patients to health posts for management: 6486 with a negative RDT, 119 infants  Conclusion Home-based management of malaria including diagnosis with RDT and treatment based on test results is a promising strategy to improve the access of remote populations to prompt and effective management of uncomplicated malaria and to decrease mortality due to malaria. When scaled-up to serve remote village communities in the regions of Senegal with the highest malaria prevalence, home care providers demonstrated excellent adherence to guidelines, potentially contributing to a decrease in hospital deaths attributed to malaria.

  12. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles. (United States)

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A


    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic Imaging for Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M Mallya


    Full Text Available Dental implants are a popular modality for permanent tooth replacement. The key to successful implant placement, its subsequent osseointegration and the final prosthetic rehabilitation is proper preoperative assessment. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the pre- and post-surgical evaluation process. Imaging is used to evaluate suitability of implant sites, aid in selection of appropriate implants, and finally evaluate implant placement and osseointegration. This article reviews the role of diagnostic imaging in the various phases and the advantages and limitations of the numerous imaging modalities.

  14. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott


    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  15. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  16. SDQ: Discriminative validity and diagnostic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaysa Brinck Fernandes Silva


    Full Text Available The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was designed to screen for behavioral problems in youths based on cutoff points that favor the instrument’s diagnostic sensitivity. The present study aimed to analyze the discriminative validity of the SDQ to identify behavioral difficulties and prosocial resources in school-age children compared with the diagnostic data collected by the corresponding sections of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA. In addition, new cutoff points that value specificity were defined for the SDQ scales, exploring its diagnostic potential. This study was conducted in Brazil and assessed a community convenience sample that consisted of 120 children aged 6 to 12 years who were not under psychological/psychiatric treatment. The mothers of the participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to clinically characterize the sample. A ROC curve was used to assess the discriminant validity of the SDQ, and new cutoff points were established to maximize the instrument’s specificity. The new cutoff points enabled a significant increase in specificity without a significant loss of sensitivity, which favors approaches based on measures of screening and diagnosis yet does not damage the instrument’s screening capacity. The following increases were observed: 100% for the depressive disorder scale (cutoff point=7, 95.1% for the generalized anxiety disorder scale (cutoff point=7, 46.6% for the conduct disorder scale (cutoff point=6, 19.2% for the hyperactive disorder scale (cutoff point=8, and 27.6% for the antisocial personality disorder scale (cutoff point=6. A cutoff point of 8 was applied to the prosocial behavior scale, which exhibited a 62.1% increase in specificity. The use of more specific cutoff points generated more accurate results and favored SDQ's use, particularly in contexts of care that require more precise and faster procedures for identification of

  17. Diagnostic Errors Study Findings (United States)

    ... these efforts are focusing on other settings of care such as ambulatory settings, where many types of health conditions or ... AHRQ recently published a toolkit to help doctors, nurses and medical office ... of primary care office visits involve some type of diagnostic medical ...

  18. Diagnosing Diagnostic Language Assessment (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Won


    Diagnostic language assessment (DLA) is gaining a lot of attention from language teachers, testers, and applied linguists. With a recent surge of interest in DLA, there seems to be an urgent need to assess where the field of DLA stands at the moment and develop a general sense of where it should be moving in the future. The current article, as the…

  19. Beam Diagnostics for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Heribert


    This introductory course aims at a reasonably complete coverage of beam diagnostic devices used in linear and circular accelerators and in primary beam lines. The weight is on the concepts and the indication of variants, while for technical details the reader is referred to the literature. The present updated version replaces those from previous General Accelerator Physics Courses.

  20. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models (United States)

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo


    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  1. Diagnostic Algorithm for Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Diagnostic algorithm for initial evaluation of encephalitis in children is proposed with a consensus statement from the International Encephalitis Consortium, a committee begun in 2010 to serve as a practical aid to clinicians evaluating patients with suspected encephalitis.

  2. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie


    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  3. TIGA-CUB - manualised psychoanalytic child psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant conduct disorders and their primary carers: study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial. (United States)

    Edginton, Elizabeth; Walwyn, Rebecca; Burton, Kayleigh; Cicero, Robert; Graham, Liz; Reed, Sadie; Tubeuf, Sandy; Twiddy, Maureen; Wright-Hughes, Alex; Ellis, Lynda; Evans, Dot; Hughes, Tom; Midgley, Nick; Wallis, Paul; Cottrell, David


    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends evidence-based parenting programmes as a first-line intervention for conduct disorders (CD) in children aged 5-11 years. As these are not effective in 25-33% of cases, NICE has requested research into second-line interventions. Child and Adolescent Psychotherapists (CAPTs) address highly complex problems where first-line treatments have failed and there have been small-scale studies of Psychoanalytic Child Psychotherapy (PCP) for CD. A feasibility trial is needed to determine whether a confirmatory trial of manualised PCP (mPCP) versus Treatment as Usual (TaU) for CD is practicable or needs refinement. The aim of this paper is to publish the abridged protocol of this feasibility trial. TIGA-CUB (Trial on improving Inter-Generational Attachment for Children Undergoing Behaviour problems) is a two-arm, pragmatic, parallel-group, multicentre, individually randomised (1:1) controlled feasibility trial (target n = 60) with blinded outcome assessment (at 4 and 8 months), which aims to develop an optimum practicable protocol for a confirmatory, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT) (primary outcome: child's behaviour; secondary outcomes: parental reflective functioning and mental health, child and parent quality of life), comparing mPCP and TaU as second-line treatments for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant CD and inter-generational attachment difficulties, and for their primary carers. Child-primary carer dyads will be recruited following a referral to, or re-referral within, National Health Service (NHS) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) after an unsuccessful first-line parenting intervention. PCP will be delivered by qualified CAPTs working in routine NHS clinical practice, using a trial-specific PCP manual (a brief version of established PCP clinical practice). Outcomes are: (1) feasibility of recruitment methods, (2) uptake and follow-up rates, (3

  4. La Adicción a Sustancias Químicas: ¿Puede ser Efectivo un Abordaje Psicoanalítico? Substance Addiction: Can a Psychoanalytical Approach be Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián López


    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la posibilidad de usar una aproximación psicoanalítica para el tratamiento de pacientes con adicción. Los conceptos centrales de los llamados "clásicos" son analizados, discutiendo si la adicción puede ser considerada un síntoma psicoanalítico, una expresión de conflictos inconscientes. Se distinguen tres etapas en el proceso que lleva al desarrollo de una adicción. Se presenta el concepto de "rectificación subjetiva" de Lacan, con el fin de discutir el proceso de entrada a tratamiento desde una aproximación psicoanalítica. Se discute la necesidad de abstinencia. Se realiza una propuesta para establecer una aproximación técnicamente flexible a partir de la cual se puedan incluir las instancias y elementos terapéuticos requeridos sin renunciar al punto de vista psicoanalítico.This article discusses how possible it is to use a psychoanalytical approach to treat patients with drug addiction. Main concepts of the so called "classics" are analysed discussing if drug addiction can be considered a psychoanalytical sympton, an expression of unconscious conflicts. Three steps of the process leading to an addiction are distinguished. The concept of "subjective rectification" of Lacan is presented, aiming to discuss the entrance process to a treatment from a psychoanalytical point of view. The need of abstinence is discussed. A proposal is made to set a technically flexible approach, in order to include all the therapeutic instances and elements required without giving up a psychoanalytical point of view.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Ovsyannikov


    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to the problem of differential diagnosis of infectious exanthemas in children. Information about differential-diagnostic sings of infectious and non-infectious exanthemas is present. Differential diagnosis is proposed on the basis of morphological elements identified in objective research. Presents possible infectious and non-infectious causes of rashes which are characterized by different primary (spot, papula, blister, knob, knot, bubble, abscess, bladder and secondary (scale, erosion, ulcer morphological elements.

  6. [Dementia--distribution and diagnostic criteria]. (United States)

    Torbus, Magdalena; Ksol, Marek; Mazur, Bogdan


    The ageing of the population makes the health problems of elderly people a major issue in the work of various specialists. More and more people show cognitive functions disorders from minor to considerable ones. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. The diagnostic criteria of dementia in the course of Alzheimer's disease or the criteria of vascular dementia are described in this article. Although we mention the scales focused on cognitive functions disorders.

  7. Nonintrusive Diagnostic Strategies for Arcjet Stream Characterization (United States)


    Emission Measurements in Large-Scale Arc- on whether the diatomic molecule is heteronuclear or jet Facilities homonuclear . With the aid of these...Various noz- After a brief review of the important features of arcjet zle sections can be used to provide expansion ratios flows, the topic of...while for molecules the upper and lower state energies are comprised of 1.2 Nonintrusive Diagnostics electronic, vibrational, and rotational terms

  8. The Implication of Diagnostic Errors. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Raghav


    Diagnostic errors are mistakes in the diagnostic process that lead to a misdiagnosis, a missed diagnosis, or a delayed diagnosis. While the past decade's impetus to improve patient safety has focused on medication errors, health care-associated infections, and postsurgical complications, diagnostic errors have received comparatively less attention. Diagnostic errors will continue to play a major role in the patient safety and quality improvement movement because of their burden on care and their financial burden. Developing a patient-partnered diagnostic approach with self-reflection and awareness of cognitive biases is the key to minimizing the impact of diagnostic errors.

  9. Comparing Diagnostic Tools in Personality Disorders

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    Full Text Available Personality Disorder is defined as; continually self experience and behavioral pattern which has great variations of individual cultural normal expectations. Several diagnostic tools were developed for diagnosing personality disorders. In our study consistency of different diagnostic tools used for thhe diagnosis of personality disorders were evaluated. 39 inpatients diagnosed as personality disorder from Dýþkapý Yýldýrým Beyazýt Traning and Reseach Hospital were recruited into the study. Psychotic patients are excluded from the study. Sociodemographic Information Form, MMPI and PBQ scales were given all the patients. Both PBQ personality subscales and MMPI PD scales were compared with semi-structured SCID-II interview diagnoses. Findings suggest less correlation than expected. Relatively higher correlation was found between PBQ personality subscales and MMPI-PD. Most common psychiatric comorbid disorder was depression. These findings suggest that further studies are needed for the development of diagnostic tools which take the differences of self report scales and clinical evalution into consideration. Beside, the differences of the categorical and dimensional classification of personality disorders should be bear in mind in evaluation of this patient group. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 22-27

  10. El dibujo y la simbolización en algunos casos de maltrato infantil. // Drawing and symbolization in some cases of child maltreatment. A psychoanalytical look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Uribe Aramburo.


    Full Text Available This article makes part of a research carried out within the framework of the Master in Psychoanalytical Research, which comes up from the analysis of clinical material obtained from psychotherapeutic work developed during more than three years with children coming to a psychology service of a non-profit institution located in one of Medellin's communes, mainly because of problems related to child maltreatment. In order to obtain such analysis material, we started from the psychoanalytical thesis of psychic determinism and the neutrality of the therapist. For that reason we invited some kids to draw and associate freely, expecting what they showed would be related to their maltreatment experiences. Consequently, the methodology used consisted not only in handing over to children but in leading them to use drawing. // Este artículo es parte de una investigación llevada a cabo en el marco de la Maestría en Investigación psicoanalítica, que surge del análisis del material clínico obtenido en el trabajo psicoterapéutico realizado por más de tres años con población infantil que acudía a un servicio de psicología de una institución sin ánimo de lucro ubicada en una de las comunas de la ciudad de Medellín, principalmente por problemáticas asociadas al maltrato infantil. Para obtener dicho material de análisis partimos de las tesis psicoanalíticas del determinismo psíquico y la neutralidad del terapeuta, razón por la cual invitamos a los niños a dibujar y asociar libremente con la expectativa que de que aquello que exteriorizaran tendría una relación con sus vivencias de maltrato. En consecuencia, la metodología utilizada no sólo consistió en darles la palabra a los niños, sino que también implicó inducirlos a usar el dibujo.

  11. Os sonhos: integrando as visões psicanalítica e neurocientífica Dreams: integrating psychoanalytic and neuroscientific views

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    Elie Cheniaux


    Full Text Available É realizada uma ampla revisão dos estudos psicanalíticos e das mais recentes pesquisas neurocientíficas sobre os sonhos. Segundo Freud, os sonhos constituem "uma realização (disfarçada de um desejo (reprimido". Para muitos neurocientistas, eles são formados a partir de estímulos aleatórios originados na ponte e não possuem qualquer significado. Contudo, diversos estudos associam as emoções experimentadas durante a vigília e o conteúdo dos sonhos. A hipótese de que o sistema dopaminérgico mesolímbico-mesocortical, relacionado aos estados motivacionais, é essencial para a formação dos sonhos dá algum respaldo à teoria freudiana. Todavia, não há dados empíricos que apóiem a existência de uma instância censora que deturpe os sonhos. É possível que os sonhos exerçam um papel na elaboração psíquica de lembranças traumáticas. Na nossa opinião, as visões psicanalítica e neurocientífica sobre os sonhos podem ser complementares e mutuamente enriquecedoras.A comprehensive review was carried out about psychoanalytic studies and the most recent neuroscientific researches about dreams. According to Freud, dreams represent "a (disguised fulfillment of a (repressed wish." For several neuroscientists, they are formed based on random stimuli originated from the brainstem and do not have any meaning. However, several studies associate the emotions experienced during waking with the content of dreams. The hypothesis that the dopaminergic mesolimbic-mesocortical system, which is associated with instinctual appetitive craving states, is essential to the formation of dreams brings some endorsement to Freudian theory. Nevertheless, there is no empirical data to support the existence of an instance of censorship that distorts the dreams. It is possible that the dreams play a role in psychological working-through of traumatic memories. In our opinion, psychoanalytic and neuroscientific views about dreams can be complementary and

  12. Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS: a randomised controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory forms of depression

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    Taylor David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term forms of depression represent a significant mental health problem for which there is a lack of effective evidence-based treatment. This study aims to produce findings about the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant/treatment-refractory depression and to deepen the understanding of this complex form of depression. Methods/Design INDEX GROUP: Patients with treatment resistant/treatment refractory depression. DEFINITION & INCLUSION CRITERIA: Current major depressive disorder, 2 years history of depression, a minimum of two failed treatment attempts, ≥14 on the HRSD or ≥21 on the BDI-II, plus complex personality and/or psycho-social difficulties. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Moderate or severe learning disability, psychotic illness, bipolar disorder, substance dependency or receipt of test intervention in the previous two years. DESIGN: Pragmatic, randomised controlled trial with qualitative and clinical components. TEST INTERVENTION: 18 months of weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy, manualised and fidelity-assessed using the Psychotherapy Process Q-Sort. CONTROL CONDITION: Treatment as usual, managed by the referring practitioner. RECRUITMENT: GP referrals from primary care. RCT MAIN OUTCOME: HRSD (with ≤14 as remission. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: depression severity (BDI-II, degree of co-morbid disorders Axis-I and Axis-II (SCID-I and SCID-II-PQ, quality of life and functioning (GAF, CORE, Q-les-Q, object relations (PROQ2a, Cost-effectiveness analysis (CSRI and GP medical records. FOLLOW-UP: 2 years. Plus: a. Qualitative study of participants’ and therapists’ problem formulation, experience of treatment and of participation in trial. (b Narrative data from semi-structured pre/post psychodynamic interviews to produce prototypes of responders and non-responders. (c Clinical case-studies of sub-types of TRD and of change. Discussion TRD needs complex, long-term intervention and

  13. Abandono de tratamento na psicoterapia psicanalítica: em busca de definição Treatment dropout in psychoanalytical psychotherapy: searching for definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar as definições de abandono de tratamento encontradas na literatura sobre psicoterapia, problematizar a dificuldade de definir abandono nas diversas abordagens psicoterapêuticas, refletir sobre os critérios utilizados nas diferentes definições e propor uma definição de abandono para a psicoterapia psicanalítica. MÉTODO: Realizou-se revisão de artigos sobre abandono de tratamento envolvendo diferentes modalidades psicoterapêuticas, encontrados nas seguintes bases de dados: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline e PsycINFO. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Definições de abandono de tratamento são apresentadas em três quadros, divididos pelo referencial teórico do processo psicoterapêutico. Os critérios utilizados nas definições são discutidos. CONCLUSÃO: A fim de construir uma definição padronizada de abandono para psicoterapia psicanalítica, propõe-se três categorias de definição para término de psicoterapia, com base na discussão crítica da literatura revisada.OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review the definitions of treatment dropout in psychotherapy literature, discuss the difficulty of defining dropout in various psychotherapeutic approaches, reflect on the criteria used in different definitions and propose a dropout definition for psychoanalytical psychotherapy. METHOD: A review of articles on treatment dropout involving different psychotherapeutic modalities was conducted in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline and PsycINFO. RESULTS AND DISCUSS: Definitions of treatment dropout are presented in three figures and divided by the theoretical framework of the psychotherapeutic process. Criteria used in definitions are discussed. CONCLUSION: In order to build a standardized definition of psychoanalytical psychotherapy dropout, three definition categories for termination of psychotherapy are proposed, based on the critical discussion of the reviewed literature.

  14. Diagnostics of solar flare reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karlický


    Full Text Available We present new diagnostics of the solar flare reconnection, mainly based on the plasma radio emission. We propose that the high-frequency (600-2000 MHz slowly drifting pulsating structures map the flare magnetic field reconnection. These structures correspond to the radio emission from plasmoids which are formed in the extended current sheet due to tearing and coalescence processes. An increase of the frequency drift of the drifting structures is interpreted as an increase of the reconnection rate. Using this model, time scales of slowly drifting pulsating structure observed during the 12 April 2001 flare by the Trieste radiopolarimeter with high time resolution (1 ms are interpreted as a radio manifestation of electron beams accelerated in the multi-scale reconnection process. For short periods Fourier spectra of the observed structure have a power-law form with power-law indices in the 1.3-1.6 range. For comparison the 2-D MHD numerical modeling of the multi-scale reconnection is made and it is shown that Fourier spectrum of the reconnection dissipation power has also a power-law form, but with power-law index 2. Furthermore, we compute a time evolution of plasma parameters (density, magnetic field etc in the 2-D MHD model of the reconnection. Then assuming a plasma radio emission from locations, where the 'double-resonance' instability generates the upper-hybrid waves due to unstable distribution function of suprathermal electrons, we model radio spectra. Effects of the MHD turbulence are included. The resulting spectra are compared with those observed. It is found, that depending on model parameters the lace bursts and the decimetric spikes can be reproduced. Thus, it is shown that the model can be used for diagnostics of the flare reconnection process. We also point out possible radio signatures of reconnection outflow termination shocks. They are detected as type II-like herringbone structures in the 200-700 MHz frequency range. Finally

  15. Nanobiosensors in diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chamorro-Garcia


    Full Text Available Medical diagnosis has been greatly improved thanks to the development of new techniques capable of performing very sensitive detection and quantifying certain parameters. These parameters can be correlated with the presence of specific molecules and their quantity. Unfortunately, these techniques are demanding, expensive, and often complicated. On the other side, progress in other fields of science and technology has contributed to the rapid growth of nanotechnology. Although being an emerging discipline, nanotechnology has raised huge interest and expectations. Most of the enthusiasm comes from new possibilities and properties of nanomaterials. Biosensors (simple, robust, sensitive, cost-effective combined with nanomaterials, also called nanobiosensors, are serving as bridge between advanced detection/diagnostics and daily/routine tests. Here we review some of the latest applications of nanobiosensors in diagnostics field.

  16. [Genetic diagnostics for cardiomyopathies]. (United States)

    Czepluch, Frauke; Wollnik, Bernd; Hasenfuß, Gerd


    Cardiomyopathies often have a genetic etiology. New genetic diagnostic strategies based on next generation sequencing (NGS)-approaches will continuously increase our knowledge about the genetic basis of cardiomyopathies within the following years. Diagnostics and therapy of rare, genetically-induced cardiac diseases increasingly require special cardiac and genetic knowledge. Interestingly, mutations in the same gene or even identical gene mutations can be associated with different cardiomyopathy phenotypes and can exhibit incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In the future, the correct interpretation and classification of novel gene variants identified in patients with inherited cardiomyopathy forms will represent a great challenge. Genetic counselling and - if appropriate - subsequent genetic testing for cardiomyopathy patients and their asymptomatic relatives is essential for an early diagnosis of the disease, a prognostic evaluation and possibly for the start of preventive or therapeutic measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Obesitiy and Diagnostic Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce


    Full Text Available Use of medical imaging depending upon the comorbidity diseases and bariatric diseased for obese people has increased along with the increase at obesity prevalence. Due to large body structure and increased fatty tissue in obese patients, it is hard to carry out radiological studies and obtain images on diagnostic quality. Moreover, obese patients and #8217; subjecting to more radiation dose in examinations including ionizing radiation is another disadvantage. In order to perform diagnostic imaging process in obese patients, imaging equipment in accordance with the patient weight and diameter and examination rooms should be provided; and examination parameters should be organized according to the patient in a way that can be obtained the best imaging quality. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 218-226

  18. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  19. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide


    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of

  20. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE (United States)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.


    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  1. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics Maria Flatau Naval...quantitative skill metrics to assess the advancements in the Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC). This work will also implement automated...indicates the lack of skilled forecasts beyond 10 days. Lin et al. (2005, 2009) indicates that the skill of polar mode forecasts depends on MJO amplitude

  2. [Diagnostic means for tuberculosis]. (United States)

    Jabri, H; Lakhdar, N; El Khattabi, W; Afif, H


    Tuberculosis is a public health problem. In recent years, there is a change in the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on clinical and radiological arguments but confirmation is bacteriological and/or histological. Culture remains the gold standard. Technological progress especially in molecular biology provides the clinician now new means of tuberculosis diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan


    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  4. Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology. (United States)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Dance, David R; McLean, Donald; Kramer, Hans-Michael


    Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Molecular diagnostics of periodontitis. (United States)

    Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Siwiec, Radosław; Berger, Marcin; Malm, Anna; Szymańska, Jolanta


    The microorganisms that form dental plaque are the main cause of periodontitis. Their identification and the understanding of the complex relationships and interactions that involve these microorganisms, environmental factors and the host's health status enable improvement in diagnostics and targeted therapy in patients with periodontitis. To this end, molecular diagnostics techniques (both techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction and those involving nucleic acid analysis via hybridization) come increasingly into use. On the basis of a literature review, the following methods are presented: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing, checkerboard and reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization, microarrays, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and next generation sequencing (NGS). The advantages and drawbacks of each method in the examination of periopathogens are indicated. The techniques listed above allow fast detection of even small quantities of pathogen present in diagnostic material and prove particularly useful to detect microorganisms that are difficult or impossible to grow in a laboratory.

  6. Molecular diagnostics of periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Korona-Głowniak


    Full Text Available The microorganisms that form dental plaque are the main cause of periodontitis. Their identification and the understanding of the complex relationships and interactions that involve these microorganisms, environmental factors and the host’s health status enable improvement in diagnostics and targeted therapy in patients with periodontitis. To this end, molecular diagnostics techniques (both techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction and those involving nucleic acid analysis via hybridization come increasingly into use. On the basis of a literature review, the following methods are presented: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing, checkerboard and reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization, microarrays, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE, as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP and next generation sequencing (NGS. The advantages and drawbacks of each method in the examination of periopathogens are indicated. The techniques listed above allow fast detection of even small quantities of pathogen present in diagnostic material and prove particularly useful to detect microorganisms that are difficult or impossible to grow in a laboratory.

  7. An Ecological Diagnostic Classification Plan. (United States)

    Hurst, James C.; McKinley, Donna L.


    Discusses the value of diagnostic classification systems to counseling professionals. Describes the Ecological Diagnostic Classification Plan, an approach to diagnosis that includes the environment as a possible cause of pathology and target of intervention. (Author/KS)

  8. On-board Diagnostics Framework


    Olsson, Patrik


    For as long as complex machines have been around there has also been a need for accurate diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. Over the last decades there have been many attempts to develop and implement systems with various degrees of diagnostic and prognostic abilities, some successful some not. This master thesis presents a software architecture that is used to implement an on-board diagnostic framework capable of advanced diagnostics and prognostics in industrial vehicles. The presented...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla KERİM


    Full Text Available The idea that literature and psychology which are based on human and the issues related to human in all their historical process should be scientifically explored from each other’s perspective was first suggested by Sigmund Freud. Freud used the literary works as materials to examine their writers and protagonists better; consequently, his approach is known as the psychoanalytic criticism since he examined writers’ and protagonists’ earlier lives, dreams and psychologies through these literary works. In this respect, Afanasy Fet’s work ,“A Dream” could be considered as a very interesting study theme. Fet, who is not as well-known as L. N. Tolstoy and F. M. Dostoyevsky in Turkey, is one of the poets that belong to the literary approach known as the “Clean Art” in century Russian literature. The poem named “A Dream” has a special place among A. Fet’s works because of its subject matter and its being one of the “clean art” works. The work is about Lieutenant Losev’s vision he dreamt. The reason for us to choose this work which provided a basis for our study is that dreams have big importance regarding psychology, and they are directly connected to sub conscience. Due to the psychoanalytic approach, the works examined can be understood better, and the hidden factors can emerge. We recognize two different sub consciences in this work that is analyzed with psychoanalytic approach: first, a protagonist who is narrating his dream and feelings (Lieutenant Losev and then Afanasy Fet whose feelings and psychology are reflected on the work. As a result of our analysis, we could say that Afanasy Fet reflected on Lieutenant Losev with regard to the deductions we get through the methods of psychoanalytic criticism. Since the methods of psychoanalytic criticism have not been given enough place in the studies on Russian Literature in Turkey, we believe that our study will be useful in this field.

  10. A obra poética de Pablo Neruda: um estudo psicanalítico The Pablo Neruda’s poetic work: a psychoanalytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Pereira de Siqueira


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se uma leitura da obra poética de Pablo Neruda, conforme os pressupostos teóricos de Freud e Lacan. A preocupação inicial foi a de elaborar um esquema teórico que fornecesse subsídios ao estudo. Num segundo momento foi realizada uma leitura das principais obras que marcam os três períodos literários de Pablo Neruda, tentando-se interpretar psicanaliticamente a rede simbólica encontrada nessas obras. Com base nas análises realizadas, pôde-se observar que a poesia de Pablo Neruda parece possuir um papel de figura objetal, possibilitando ao autor religar-se às suas figuras parentais, nas quais projeta os seus desejos e frustrações.In this work a reading of Pablo Neruda’s poetic work was done, according to a Freud’s and Lacan’s theoretical presuppositions. The first concern was to elaborate a theoretical schema to supply subsidies to this study. After, a reading of the most important works of Pablo Neruda’s three literary periods was done, trying to interpret psychoanalytically the symbolic net of these works. Based on the these analysis, it was observed that Pablo Neruda’s poetry seems to have an object figure role, causing the author to link again to his parents figures on whom he projects his desires and frustrations.

  11. Debilidade mental: o patinho feio da clínica psicanalítica Mental debility: the ugly duckling of the psychoanalytical clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rosa Sanches


    Full Text Available A debilidade mental permanece com etiologia obscura, e hoje em dia é definida pela psiquiatria como o grau mais leve de todos os retardos mentais (QI entre 50 e 70. Além desta classificação métrica, a Clínica Psicanalítica define a Debilidade Mental como uma posição psíquica encontrada tanto em indivíduos saudáveis biologicamente quanto em portadores de alguma deficiência neurológica. Por esta concepção, a psicanálise pode contribuir ao debate do tema.Nowadays the origin of Mental Debility is not clear. Mental Debility is defined by psychiatry as the lowest level of all Mental Retardations (IQ ranging from 50 to 70. Besides this metric assessment, the psychoanalytic clinic defines Mental Debility as a psychic position established in both biologically healthy individuals as well as in individuals with some kind of neurologic deficiency. Therefore, psychoanalysis may have a contribution to this discussion.

  12. A Comparison of Psychoanalytic Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety (Panic/Agoraphobia) and Personality Disorders (APD Study): Presentation of the RCT Study Design. (United States)

    Benecke, Cord; Huber, Dorothea; Staats, Hermann; Zimmermann, Johannes; Henkel, Miriam; Deserno, Heinrich; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Schauenburg, Henning


    Anxiety disorders, most notably panic disorders and agoraphobia, are common mental disorders, and there is a high comorbidity with personality disorders. Randomized controlled trails addressing this highly relevant group of patients are missing. The multicenter Anxiety and Personality Disorders (APD) study investigates 200 patients with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia with comorbid personality disorder in a randomized control-group comparison of psychoanalytic therapy (PT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), including 100 patients in each group. Each patient will be examined over a period of six years, regardless of the duration of the individual treatment. The main issues that are addressed in this study are the comparison of the efficacy of PT and CBT in this special patient population, the comparison of the sustainability of the effects of PT and CBT, the comparison of the long-term cost-benefit-ratios of PT and CBT as well as the investigation of prescriptive patient characteristics for individualized treatment recommendations (differential indication). The APD study compares efficacy, sustainability, and cost-benefit-ratios of CBT and PT for anxiety plus personality disorders in a randomized controlled trail. The study design meets the requirements for an efficacy study for PT, which were recently defined. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12449681.

  13. Development of PETAL diagnostics: PETAPhys project (United States)

    Raffestin, D.; Boutoux, G.; Baggio, J.; Batani, D.; Blanchot, N.; Bretheau, D.; Hulin, S.; D'Humieres, E.; Granet, F.; Longhi, Th.; Meyer, Ch.; Moreno, Q.; Nuter, R.; Rault, J.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Universite de Bordeaux/Celia Team; CEA. DAM/Cesta Team


    Beginning of autumn 2017, PETAL, a Petawatt laser beam, will be operated for experiments on the LMJ facility at the CEA/ Cesta research center. The PETAPhys project provides a support to the qualification phase of the PETAL laser operation. Within the PETAPhys project, we are developing two simple and robust diagnostics permitting both to characterize the focal spot of the PETAL beam and to measure the hard X-ray spectrum at each shot. The first diagnostic consists in optical imaging of the PETAL beam focal spot in the spectral range of the second and third harmonic radiation emitted from the target. The second diagnostic is a hard X-ray dosimeter consisting in a stack of imaging plates (IP) and filters, either placed inside a re-entrant tube or inserted close to target. Numerical simulations as well as experiments on small scale facilities have been performed to design these diagnostics. If available, preliminary results from PETAL experiments will be discussed. We acknowledge the financial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) in the framework of ``the investments for the future'' Programme IdEx Bordeaux-LAPHIA (ANR-10-IDEX-03-02).

  14. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.


    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  15. NIO1 diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniol, B., E-mail:; Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, v.le dell' Università 2, I-35020, Legnaro (PD) Italy (Italy); De Muri, M. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); INFN-LNL, v.le dell' Università 2, I-35020, Legnaro (PD) Italy (Italy); Mimo, A. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy)


    The radio frequency ion source NIO1, jointly developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, will generate a 60kV-135mA hydrogen negative ion beam, composed of 9 beamlets over an area of about 40 × 40 mm{sup 2}. This experiment will operate in continuous mode and in conditions similar to those foreseen for the larger ion sources of the Neutral Beam Injectors for ITER. The modular design of NIO1 is convenient to address the several still open important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and performance optimization. To this purpose a set of diagnostics is being implemented. Electric and water cooling plant related measurements will allow monitoring current, pressure, flow, and temperature. The plasma in the source will be characterized by emission spectroscopy, cavity ring-down and laser absorption spectroscopy. The accelerated beam will be analyzed with a fast emittance scanner, its intensity profile and divergence with beam emission spectroscopy and visible tomography. The power distribution of the beam on the calorimeter will be monitored by thermocouples and by an infrared camera. This contribution presents the implementation and initial operation of some of these diagnostics in the commissioning phase of the experiment, in particular the cooling water calorimetry and emission spectroscopy.

  16. Diagnostic Technologies in Practice (United States)

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark


    Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

  17. Radiation hardening of diagnostics (United States)

    Siemon, R. E.

    The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10(exp 16) neutrons per second because of spallation'reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop.

  18. Reflectometry diagnostics on TCV (United States)

    Molina Cabrera, Pedro; Coda, Stefano; Porte, Laurie; Offeddu, Nicola; Tcv Team


    Both profile reflectometer and Doppler back-scattering (DBS) diagnostics are being developed for the TCV Tokamak using a steerable quasi-optical launcher and universal polarizers. First results will be presented. A pulse reflectometer is being developed to complement Thomson Scattering measurements of electron density, greatly increasing temporal resolution and also effectively enabling fluctuation measurements. Pulse reflectometry consists of sending short pulses of varying frequency and measuring the roundtrip group-delay with precise chronometers. A fast arbitrary waveform generator is used as a pulse source feeding frequency multipliers that bring the pulses to V-band. A DBS diagnostic is currently operational in TCV. DBS may be used to infer the perpendicular velocity and wave number spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the 3-15 cm-1 wave-number range. Off-the-shelf transceiver modules, originally used for VNA measurements, are being used in a Doppler radar configuration. See author list of S. Coda et al., 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 102011.

  19. Magnetic Diagnostics for Ignitor (United States)

    Alladio, F.


    All the electromagnetic diagnostics commonly used in present experiments to measure plasma parameters such as current, loop voltage, horizontal and vertical position, plasma beta, toroidal and poloidal modes, etc., are adopted for Ignitor. The moderate neutron fluence and very intense neutron flux expected in Ignitor demand the use of fully inorganic insulating materials, for which permanent radiation damage should be limited, but transient, reversible effects cannot be excluded. More data is needed to verify the sensitivity of the chosen materials to the radiation background, but in the meantime, an R&D program has started with the purpose of selecting insulator materials, testing impregnation techniques, verification of installation feasibility for all types of magnetic diagnostic coils. Full size prototypes are being manufactured. The magnetic coils system must be closely integrated with the plasma chamber as it requires early installation. While the initial positioning of the in-vessel components should be possible with relative ease (before the welding of the individual sectors of the plasma chamber), their replacement and maintenance in the course of the experimental life of the machine can be problematic. Therefore, an adequate level of redundancy is being considered.

  20. Beam Diagnostics of the Small Isochronous Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix Marti; Eduard Pozdeyev


    The purpose of this paper is to describe the beam diagnostic systems in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) developed and built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU). SIR is a small-scale experiment that simulates the dynamics of intense beams in large accelerators. A 20 to 30 keV hydrogen or deuterium ion bunch is injected in the ring, extracted after a variable number of turns and its longitudinal profile is studied. Some of the diagnostic tools available in SIR include an emittance measurement system in the injection line, scanning wires in different sections of the ring, phosphor screens at the injection and extraction points and a fast Faraday cup in the extraction line. The design of these systems and the kind of beam information they provide are discussed in detail.

  1. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale...

  2. A constituição da inteligência: uma abordagem psicanalítica The constitution of intelligence: a psychoanalytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Orgler Sordi


    Full Text Available O artigo procura situar o tema da inteligência humana na perspectiva psicanalítica, em especial, da contribuição de Silvia Bleichmar, explorando como a mente humana desenvolve a atividade intelectual a partir de seus estados embrionários. É reconhecida a contribuição da epistemologia genética desenvolvida por Jean Piaget que nos permite compreender a capacidade de construir sistemas simbólicos a partir de esquematismos sensório-motores. São também salientadas algumas convergências entre o pensamento piagetiano e o pensamento psicanalítico. O que é enfatizado neste artigo, entretanto, é que a contribuição psicanalítica sobre os primórdios da inteligência tem sido bem menos estudada, embora de grande interesse teórico e clínico. A inspiração teórica deste artigo, a partir dos estudos de Bleichmar, apoia-se fortemente em Freud, mas fundamenta-se de forma mais decisiva na orientação da escola francesa de Jean Laplanche. O artigo procura mostrar que, para alcançar a objetividade das estruturas lógicas, caracterizadas pelas categorias da lógica aristotélica - classificação, espaço, tempo, causalidade e negação - o psiquismo realiza um ativo trabalho de ligação dentro da mente que se inicia nas primeiras inscrições do outro humano sexualizado e que necessita implantar a repressão originária, única operação capaz de organizar a lógica do pensamento secundário. Enfatiza, ao final, que a contribuição sobre uma teoria das origens do psiquismo, no que concerne ao desenvolvimento da inteligência, permite ajudar nos estudos sobre os problemas de aprendizagem, diferenciando as dificuldades secundárias à construção do conhecimento dos transtornos que remetem ao não constituído do ego.This paper aims to discuss human intelligence in the psychoanalytical perspective, particularly considering the contribution of Silvia Bleichmar who explores how human mind develops the intellectual activity from the

  3. Diagnostic Challenges at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A


    The Spallation Neutron Source now being built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, accelerates an H- ion beam to 1000 MeV with an average power of 1.4 MW. The H- beam is then stripped to H+, compressed in a storage ring to a pulse length of 695 ns, and then directed onto a mercury neutron spallation target. Most of the acceleration is accomplished with superconducting rf cavities. The presence of these cavities, the high average beam power, and the large range of beam intensity in the storage ring, provide unique challenges to the beam diagnostics systems. In this talk we will discuss these challenges and some of our solutions, including the laser profile monitor system, the residual gas ionization profile monitors, and network attached devices. Measurements performed using prototype instrumentation will also be presented.

  4. Small-scale Magnetic Field Diagnostics outside Sunspots ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Ludmany, A., Mezo, Gy. 1999,. Proc. 9th Europ. Meeting on Solar Physics. Florence, Italy: ESA Sp-448, 853. Lozitsky, V. G., Baranovsky, E. A., Lozitska, N. I., Leiko, U. M. 2000, Solar Phys., 191, 171. Lozitsky, V. G., Lozitsky, V. V. 2002, Izv. Krimsk. Astrofiz. Obs., 98, 202. Lozitsky, V. G., Tsap, T. T. 1989, Kinematika i Fizika ...

  5. Small-scale Magnetic Field Diagnostics outside Sunspots ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. D. N. Rachkovsky1 T. T. Tsap1 V. G. Lozitsky2. Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Crimea, UA-98409, Ukraine. Kyiv University Astronomical Observatory, Observatorna St. 3, Kyiv, UA-04053, Ukraine.

  6. Diagnostic criteria of dementia. (United States)

    Bouchard, Rémi W


    In the past two decades there has been a tremendous effort among clinicians and searchers to improve the diagnostic criteria of the dementias on the basis of the differential neurological and neuropsychological profiles. This was an obligatory requirement for clinical trials and the development of treatments. Over the years it became rapidly evident that the cohorts of patients in studies had some degree of heterogeneity, making it difficult to interpret the results of some studies, particularly in the vascular dementias and the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group. For example, many sub-types of the vascular group were included in clinical trials, such as the cortical strokes, the lacunar states and the diffuse white matter disease cases, and some of the patients might have had also mixed pathology. In addition, the standard DSM IV criteria for dementia no longer represent our present knowledge of the clinical profile of some of the dementias such as vascular dementia (VaD) and fronto-temporal dementia where the memory impairment is not necessarily the first requirement. To improve the validity of clinical trials and eventually help developing more appropriate treatments, we revised the present diagnostic criteria and made recommendations for some changes in the context of the 2nd Canadian Conference on the Development of Antidementia Therapies, held in 2004 and reviewed in the light of the recent literature as of early 2006. It is expected that in the near future, these dementia criteria for clinical trials will have to be revised again in order to include specific subtypes of the dementias as well as biomarkers, structural and functional imaging.

  7. Psychoanalytic-Interactional Therapy versus Psychodynamic Therapy by Experts for Personality Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy-Effectiveness Study in Cluster B Personality Disorders. (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Masuhr, Oliver; Jaeger, Ulrich; Rabung, Sven; Dally, Andreas; Dümpelmann, Michael; Fricke-Neef, Christian; Steinert, Christiane; Streeck, Ulrich


    With regard to cluster B personality disorders, most psychotherapeutic treatments focus on borderline personality disorder. Evidence-based treatments for patients with other cluster B personality disorders are not yet available. Psychoanalytic-interactional therapy (PIT) represents a transdiagnostic treatment for severe personality disorders. PIT has been applied in clinical practice for many years and has proven effective in open studies. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared manual-guided PIT to nonmanualized pychodynamic therapy by experts in personality disorders (E-PDT) in patients with cluster B personality disorders. In an inpatient setting, patients with cluster B personality disorders were randomly assigned to manual-guided PIT (n = 64) or nonmanualized E-PDT (n = 58). In addition, a quasi-experimental control condition was used (n = 46) including both patients receiving treatment as usual and patients waiting for treatment. Primary outcomes were level of personality organization and overall psychological distress. As secondary outcomes, depression, anxiety and interpersonal problems were examined. No significant improvements were found in the control patients. Both PIT and E-PDT achieved significant improvements in all outcome measures and were superior to the control condition. No differences were found between PIT and E-PDT in any outcome measure at the end of treatment. The type of cluster B personality disorder had no impact on the results. In an inpatient setting, both PIT and E-PDT proved to be superior to a control condition in cluster B personality disorders. In a head-to-head comparison, both treatments appeared to be equally effective. Further research on the treatment of cluster B personality disorders is required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David Lester


    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  9. Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)


    Kwon, Min; Lee, Joon-Yeop; Won, Wang-Youn; Park, Jae-Woo; Min, Jung-Ah; Hahn, Changtae; Gu, Xinyu; Choi, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dai-Jin


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Inter...

  10. Condiciones de inicio de la clínica psicoanalítica en Argentina (1930-1942 An outline of the conditions at the onset of psychoanalytic practice in Argentina (1930-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Falcone


    Full Text Available En este trabajo nos proponemos dar cuenta de la utilización de conceptos psicoanalíticos y sus primeras aplicaciones en el ámbito de la psicoterapia en Argentina.¿Qué lugar ocupó el psicoanálisis en el período estudiado?¿qué conceptos se tomaron y de donde provenían?¿a qué problemas se los aplico y de qué modo?¿Quiénes fueron los pioneros en esta tarea?. La respuesta a estos interrogantes se ha buscado en los momentos previos a la fundación de la Asociación Psicoanalítica Argentina y en torno a la práctica en instituciones hospitalarias. El funcionamiento de la A.P.A. desde su fundación en 1942, al reglamentar el ejercicio profesional del Psicoanálisis y destinarlo en exclusividad al ámbito de la práctica privada, opacará los momentos inaugurales en que los primeros conceptos psicoanalíticos se incluyeron en el ámbito de las instituciones públicas.This paper deals with the use of psychoanalytic concepts and their application in the realm of psychotherapy in Argentina. What was the role of psychoanalysis in the period reviewed? What concepts were used and where did they come from? To what problems were these concepts applied and in what way? Who were the pioneers in this field? The answers to these questions were sought in the times prior to the foundation of the Argentine Psychoanalytic Association and the practice in hospitals. Such practices were never consolidated into a theoretical framework for psychoanalysis. The foundation of the Argentina Psychoanalytic Association in 1942 regulates the professional practice of Psychoanalysis and restrains it to the realm of private practice, thus casting a shadow upon the first times when the psychoanalytic concepts were included in the public institutions.

  11. Concepts of scale and scaling (United States)

    Jianguo Wu; Harbin Li


    The relationship between pattern and process is of great interest in all natural and social sciences, and scale is an integral part of this relationship. It is now well documented that biophysical and socioeconomic patterns and processes operate on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the scale multiplicity and scale dependence of pattern,...

  12. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors (United States)

    Norman, Geoff


    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  13. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback (United States)

    Doe, Christine


    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  14. Motor neurone disease: diagnostic pitfalls. (United States)

    Williams, Timothy L


    The misdiagnosis of MND (particularly of the ALS phenotype), is uncommon. Atypical presentations, particularly of focal onset and with pure LMN or UMN signs, present a more difficult diagnostic challenge, although perhaps reassuringly, treatable mimics are rare. A working knowledge of potential alternative conditions and MND diagnostic pitfalls should help to reduce the misdiagnosis rate, particularly if the key points are considered.

  15. Molecular diagnostics in genodermatoses. (United States)

    Schaffer, Julie V


    In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the molecular bases of genodermatoses. The interface between genetics and dermatology has broadened with the identification of "new" heritable disorders, improved recognition of phenotypic spectrums, and integration of molecular and clinical data to simplify disease categorization and highlight relationships between conditions. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other technological advances, dermatologists have promising new tools for diagnosis of genodermatoses. This article first addresses phenotypic characterization and classification with the use of online databases, considering concepts of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Indications for genetic testing related to medical care and patient/family decision making are discussed. Standard genetic testing is reviewed, including resources for finding specialized laboratories, methods of gene analysis, and patient/family counseling. The benefits and challenges associated with multigene panels, array-based analysis (eg, copy number variation, linkage, and homozygosity), and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing are then examined. Specific issues relating to molecular analysis of mosaic skin conditions and prenatal/preimplantation diagnosis are also presented. Use of the modern molecular diagnostics described herein enhance our ability to counsel, monitor, and treat patients and families affected by genodermatoses, with broader benefits of providing insights into cutaneous physiology and multifactorial skin disorders. Copyright © 2012 Frontline Medical Communications. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging (United States)

    Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kułakowska, Alina; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzyńska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wiesław


    Summary Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients. PMID:22802820

  17. Gonorrhoea diagnostics: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Verma


    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gonorrhoea is an ongoing challenge. The organism is fastidious requiring meticulous collection and transport for successful cultivation. Asymptomatic infections are common which go undetected by conventional methods thereby leading to continued transmission and the risk of complications. The nucleic acid amplification tests, now increasingly used in developed countries, offer improved sensitivity compared to bacterial culture. However, these continue to suffer sequence related problems leading to false positive and false negative results. Further, these cannot be used for generation of data on antibiotic susceptibility because genetic markers of antibiotic resistance to recommended therapies have not been fully characterised. They are unaffordable in a setting like ours where reliance is placed on syndromic approach for sexually transmitted infection (STI management. The use of syndromic approach has resulted in a considerable decline in the number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates that have been cultured for diagnostic purposes. Many laboratories formerly doing so are no longer performing culture for gonococci, and the basic skills have been lost. There is a need to not only revive this skill but also adopt newer technologies that can aid in accurate diagnosis in a cost-effective manner. There is room for innovation that can facilitate the development of a point-of-care test for this bacterial STI.

  18. [Diagnostic imaging of lying]. (United States)

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka


    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Scales for Diagnosing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (SCALES) (United States)

    Ryser, Gail R.; Campbell, Hilary L.; Miller, Brian K.


    The diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have evolved over time with current versions of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual", (4th edition), text revision, ("DSM-IV-TR") suggesting that two constellations of symptoms may be present alone or in combination. The SCALES instrument for diagnosing attention deficit…

  20. Nanophotonics for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Conde


    Full Text Available Light has always fascinated mankind and since the beginning of recorded history it has been both a subject of research and a tool for investigation of other phenomena. Today, with the advent of nanotechnology, the use of light has reached its own dimension where light-matter interactions take place at wavelength and subwavelength scales and where the physical/chemical nature of nanostructures controls the interactions. This is the field of nanophotonics which allows for the exploration and manipulation of light in and around nanostructures, single molecules, and molecular complexes. What is more is the use of nanophotonics in biomolecular interactions—nanobiophotonics—has prompt for a plethora of molecular diagnostics and therapeutics making use of the remarkable nanoscale properties. In this paper, we shall focus on the uses of nanobiophotonics for molecular diagnostics involving specific sequence characterization of nucleic acids and for gene delivery systems of relevance for therapy strategies. The use of nanobiophotonics for the combined diagnostics/therapeutics (theranostics will also be addressed, with particular focus on those systems enabling the development of safer, more efficient, and specific platforms. Finally, the translation of nanophotonics for theranostics into the clinical setting will be discussed.

  1. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando


    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  2. Quantitative diagnostics of stratospheric mixing (United States)

    Sobel, Adam Harrison


    This thesis addresses the planetary-scale mixing of tracers along isentropic surfaces in the extratropical winter stratosphere. The primary goal is a more fully quantitative understanding of the mixing than is available at present. The general problem of representing eddy mixing in a one- dimensional mean representation of a two-dimensional flow is discussed. The limitations of the eddy diffusion model are reviewed, and alternatives explored. The stratosphere may, for some purposes, be viewed as consisting of relatively well-mixed regions separated by moving, internal transport barriers. Methods for diagnosing transport across moving surfaces, such as tracer isosurfaces, from given flow and tracer fields are reviewed. The central results of the thesis involve diagnostic studies of output from a shallow water model of the stratosphere. It is first proved that in an inviscid shallow water atmosphere subject to mass sources and sinks, if the mass enclosed by a potential vorticity (PV) contour is steady in time, then the integral of the mass source over the area enclosed by the contour must be zero. Next, two different approaches are used to diagnose the time-averaged transport across PV contours in the model simulations. The first is the modified Lagrangian mean (MLM) approach, which relates the transport across PV contours to PV sources and sinks. The second is called 'local gradient reversal' (LGR), and is similar to contour advection with surgery. The model includes a sixth-order hyperdiffusion on the vorticity field. Except in a thin outer 'entrainment zone', the hyperdiffusion term has only a very weak effect on the MLM mass budget of the polar vortex edge. In the entrainment zone, the hyperdiffusion term has a significant effect. The LGR results capture this behavior, providing good quantitative estimates of the hyperdiffusion term, which is equivalent to the degree of radiative disequilibrium at a PV contour. This agreement shows that the main role of the

  3. Nemogućnosti metajezičkog položaja u tekstualnom procesu: kritičko-komparativna analiza psihoanalitičkog i poststrukturalističkog diskursa / The Impossibility of Metalanguage Position in Textual Process: Critical -comparative Analysis of Deconstruction and Psychoanalytic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Matejić


    Full Text Available In this article I have dealt with critical comparation between Lacanian psychoanalytic and Derrida’s poststructuralist thesis on the impossibility of metalanguage in the textual production. The aim of the article is to show that the potentiality of their political intervention quality may be effective successfully both with aspect of the ideological theory, based on the psychoanalytic model, and from the positon of the deconstruction theory, depending on the mode and context in which the given process is taking place. The thesis of this paper is that the procedure of deconstruction does not necessarily exclude, but only pushes the critical potentialities of political and ideological theories to the margins.

  4. Diagnostic Challenges in AIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Taghavi Ardakani


    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic hepatitis that occurs in children and adults of all ages. Diagnosis is based upon characteristic serologic and histologic findings and the exclusion of other forms of chronic liver disease. Guidelines issued by the AASLD suggest the following diagnostic considerations: The diagnosis should be made in patients with compatible clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities. Other conditions that can cause chronic hepatitis should be excluded. In unclear cases a standardized scoring system should be used in the assessment. In those who are negative for conventional autoantibodies, additional autoantibodies should be sought. All patients with autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory bowel disease should undergo cholangiographic studies to exclude primary sclerosing cholangitis.   Scoring systems- A scoring system developed and subsequently revised by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group to standardize the diagnosis with using simplified criteria based upon titers of autoantibodies, IgG levels, liver histology, and the exclusion of viral hepatitis. Autoantibodies: assign one point if the ANA or SMA are 1:40 OR assign two points if the ANA or SMA are ≥1:80 (OR if the LKM ≥1:40 OR if the SLA is positive. IgG: assign one point if the IgG is > the upper limit of normal OR assign two points if the IgG is >1.10 times the upper limit of normal. Liver histology: assign one point if the histological features are compatible with autoimmune hepatitis OR two points if the histological features are typical of autoimmune hepatitis. Absence of viral hepatitis A probable diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis is made if the total points are six, while a definite diagnosis is made if the total points are ≥seven.  

  5. Fundamentals of diagnostic ultrasonography. (United States)

    Noce, J P


    Diagnostic ultrasonography uses acoustical waves in the frequency range of 1 to 20 MHz. These waves obey Snell's law of reflection and refraction, which are rules ordinary to wave behavior. In ultrasound, the analogy to momentum is acoustic impedance. The acoustic impedance, Z, is equal to the density, p, times velocity, v. The ultrasound transducer converts electrical energy into ultrasound energy and vice versa. The transducer usually consists of a piezoelectric crystal composed of such ceramic materials as barium titanate, lead titanate, zirconate, or lead metaniobate. Five basic ultrasonic scanning modes play the major roles in clinical applications. A-mode, or amplitude-mode, scanning measures the tissue discontinuity along the scan axis. B-mode scanning produces a two-dimensional image of the tissue under study by combining A-mode signals from various directions through mechanical transducer scanning. M-mode, or time motion scanning, is an extension of the A-mode approach in which a single stationary transducer is used. The depth of the echo is displayed on the vertical axis; the brightness of the oscilloscope display is modulated by the echo amplitude. Real-time scanning, or rapid B-scanning, techniques provide continuous data acquisition at a rate sufficient to give the impression of the instantaneous motion of moving structures. Doppler scanning relies on the presence of motion. The Doppler effect occurs when there is relative motion between the source of sound and the receiver of the sound, causing a change in the detected frequency of the sound source.

  6. Psychometric Properties of an Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Kollins, Scott H.


    Although research has been conducted to support the psychometric properties of rating scales used to assess ADHD in adults, little work has been published examining semi-structured interviews to assess ADHD in adults. The present study examined the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for…

  7. Artificial intelligence system for technical diagnostics of photomasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozin A. A.


    Full Text Available The developed artificial intelligence system has a high level of noise immunity, so its inclusion in the hardware and software for technical diagnostics of photomasks will reduce the hardware requirements for its execution, and thereby reduce the cost of the complex. As a result it will allow to make a small-scale production profitable.

  8. Artificial intelligence system for technical diagnostics of photomasks


    Kozin A. A.; Kozina Yu. Yu.


    The developed artificial intelligence system has a high level of noise immunity, so its inclusion in the hardware and software for technical diagnostics of photomasks will reduce the hardware requirements for its execution, and thereby reduce the cost of the complex. As a result it will allow to make a small-scale production profitable.

  9. A comparison of Solar proxy-magnetometry diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaarts, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837946; Rutten, R.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074143662; Carlsson, M.; Uitenbroek, H.


    Aims. We test various proxy-magnetometry diagnostics, i.e., brightness signatures of small-scale magnetic elements, for studying magnetic field structures in the solar photosphere. Methods. Images are numerically synthesized from a 3D solar magneto-convection simulation for, respectively, the G band

  10. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, P. E.; Sanchez, J.


    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: Magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Scattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma. (Author) 451 refs.

  11. Wilfred Own Re-Visited: A Psychoanalytic Reading of War, Memory, and Crisis of Identity in Wilfred Owen’s Poem Mental Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Güneş


    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon the psychoanalytic reading of Wilfred Owen’s poem Mental Cases. In so doing, first, the paper examines how the disturbing experiences and feelings of a tragic event such as a war, torture, rape or murder, which the surviving  victims, civilians and veteran soldiers store in the realm of their unconscious in the Freudian sense, start annoying their feelings after a while. That is, these memories of the past event continuously come later on in life under the troubling influence of recurring flashbacks of the traumatic events, nightmares, irritability, anxiety, and social withdrawal. Eventually these undesirable traumatic past experiences and memories repressed in the unconscious obviously causes individuals to have a kind of psychological disorder which powerfully affects their daily behaviour, life and identity. Secondly, the paper explores this relationship between conscious and unconscious aspect of life, along with the perception of identity, in Owen’s poem Mental Cases, in which the shell-shocked, war-torn veteran soldiers, who experienced and witnessed the shock of World War I and the death of their fellow soldiers, constantly remember the soldiers and innocent civilians who were brutally killed or whom they brutally killed in World War I. Now, these veteran soldiers call back those unhappy times, along with the death of soldiers and civilians, and then suffer in their psyche with a sense of guilt and disappointment: that is, recalling their shocking traumatic war experiences and their killing of many innocent people apparently cripple their vision of life and shatter their identities in the present. Through his representation of these veteran soldiers in such a way, Owen, as in his other poems, artistically and forcefully shows his own reaction, anger and dissatisfaction about the war and its distressing outcome in Mental Cases. Finally, the paper also examines how Owen’s critical view of war and its traumatic

  12. A supervisão na formação do analista e do psicoterapeuta psicanalítico The supervision in the training of psychoanalytical psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Alvim Saraiva


    Full Text Available Este artigo consiste na revisão sistemática da literatura brasileira sobre supervisão em psicanálise e psicoterapia psicanalítica, em periódicos científicos referenciados entre 2001 e 2006 nas bases de dados eletrônicas Lilacs, Scielo, Pepsic e Indexpsi, e localizada a partir do descritor supervisão psic$. A busca resultou em 64 artigos, posteriormente reduzidos para 13, em função de criteriosa leitura e descarte daqueles que não abordavam diretamente o tema. Os treze artigos foram lidos novamente e submetidos à análise de conteúdo, configurando 11 categorias de discussão. Concluiu-se que: poucos estudos que tratam do tema da supervisão assumem o formato de pesquisas empíricas; artigos não discutem os passos que supervisor e supervisionando devem seguir para atingir os objetivos desejados; as patologias na atualidade são discutidas, mas não há sugestões de mudanças na técnica e na estratégia da supervisão; poucos artigos trazem como foco o aspecto controle da supervisão; artigos com exemplos de casos não mencionam consentimento informado do paciente.The present paper is a systematic review of the Brazilian literature regarding supervision in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytical psychotherapy, in scientific journals indexed between 2001 and 2006 in the electronic databases Lilacs, Scielo, Pepsic, Indexpsi. The descriptor supervisão psic$ led to 64 articles which were reduced for 13, after a careful examination that disregarded those in which the theme was not approached directly. The articles were reread and categorized per content analysis method. Eleven categories of discussion emerged. Results show: few studies that focused supervision were empirical researches; articles do not mention the steps that supervisor and supervisee need to follow to reach the desirable objectives; new pathologies are mentioned but there are no suggestions about technical changes in supervision strategies to deal with them; few articles

  13. Diferenças: os grupos na escola numa perspectiva psicanalítica/Differences: the groups at school in a psychoanalytic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Baracat De Grande


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é resultado de observações feitas em uma escola pública estadual como parte das atividades práticas da disciplina EL 511 Psicologia e Educação, ministrada pela professora Dra. Regina Maria de Souza, na Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. A partir da observação de duas classes do primeiro ano do Ensino Médio, notamos a diferença - que fabricaram para si - de dois grupos sócio-culturais, chamados, nesse trabalho, de nerds e descolados. Tal diferença é analisada pela perspectiva psicanalítica, ao considerar que os alunos reforçam as diferenças entre o grupo ao qual pertencem em relação ao outro grupo a partir do processo de identificação. A identificação envolve a formação do eu, que passa necessariamente pela imagem do outro. Sustentamos que a diferença entre esses grupos influencia na dinâmica da interação em sala de aula e, por isso, deve ser considerada e discutida no âmbito educacional. Nesse trabalho, também salienta-se a questão da identificação das professoras observadas com um grupo em detrimento do outro. This paper work is the result of the observations made in a state public school as a part of the practice activities of the subject EL 511 Psycology and Education teached by professor Dr. Regina Maria de Souza, in Campinas State University (UNICAMP. From the observation of two first year High School classrooms, we noteced a difference that segregates the students in two social-cultural groups named, in this paper work, nerds and populars. This difference is analysed by the psychoanalytic perspective by considering the differences between the group which they belong in relation to the other group inside a identification process. The identification involves the “I” formation that passes necessary by the image of the other. We defend that the difference between those groups influences the dynamic of the classes iteration and, therefore, must be considered and discussed in the

  14. Produção científica no contexto psicanalítico (2002-2009 Scientific production in the psychoanalytic context (2002-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Zétola Lustoza


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo analisar a produção científica no contexto psicanalítico em 229 artigos (2002 a 2009, seis periódicos científicos indexados. A análise baseou-se em alguns critérios da metaciência, a saber, autoria, temática, discurso e análise dos tipos de recursos. Os resultados evidenciaram que em alguns periódicos há maior concentração de publicações sobre a temática, acentuada nos últimos anos. A participação feminina foi predominante na autoria dos artigos, e detectou-se ampla diversificação nos propósitos e contextos nos quais a psicanálise tem sido aplicada. Conclui-se que a produção divulgada no período revela o amadurecimento da área, mas aponta para alguns aspectos que poderão ser mais explorados em futuras publicações. Sugere-se que outros estudos similares sejam realizados, visando monitorar a expansão da área no Brasil.This paper analyzes the scientific production in the psychoanalytic context published in 229 articles (2002 to 2009 from six scientific indexed periodicals. The analysis was carried out according to some metascientific criteria such as: authorship, thematic, discourse, and exam of the different types of resources. Results evinced not only a greater concentration of publications regarding psychoanalysis in certain journals, but also an increase of these types of studies recently. It was also found that most of the authors were females and the psychoanalysis were used both in a variety of contexts and with diverse purposes. It was concluded that the divulged production in the period reveals the matureness of the area, but points out some aspects that might be explored in future publications. It is recommended that similar studies be conducted in order to better monitor the expanding area in Brazil.

  15. Resistência do texto: o método psicanalítico entre a literalização e a contingência Text resistance: the psychoanalytical method between literalization and contingence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéferson Machado Pinto


    Full Text Available Argumenta-se aqui que a descrição e o próprio uso do método psicanalítico em uma pesquisa devem ser coerentes com a formalização da clínica. Essa formalização tem revelado que as articulações significantes podem ser colocadas logicamente na modalidade do necessário (interpretação. Por outro lado, a quantidade de investimento libidinal que elas podem atrair escapa da possibilidade de cálculo e é melhor caracterizada como contingente (ato. Essa divisão do sujeito é o obstáculo para que o método seja descrito dentro dos padrões acadêmicos de pesquisa mas é, também, o que define o campo psicanalítico.The paper argues that the description and the application of the psychoanalytical method in a research must be coherent with clinical formalization. Such formalization has revealed that significant articulations can be logically described in terms of the necessary modality (interpretation. On the other hand, the amount of libidinal investment they can attract is impossible to calculate and is better described as contingent (act. This subject splitting constitutes the obstacle to the full description of the method in academic patterns but, at the same time, constitutes the psychoanalytical field itself.

  16. The efficacy of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-revised as a diagnostic screening instrument in an anxiety disorder group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, CJM; Luteijn, F; Scholing, A; van Hout, WJPJ; Emmelkamp, PMG


    The efficacy of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire - Revised (PDQ-R) as a screening instrument was examined in a sample of 137 anxious outpatients. The SCID-II was used as the criterion. The PDQ-R cut-offs were adjusted until the maximum kappa agreement for each scale was reached. The results


    Schattner, Ami


    Diagnostic errors remain an important target in improving the quality of care and achieving better health outcomes. With a relatively steady rate estimated at 10-15% in many settings, research aiming to elucidate mechanisms of error is highly important. Results indicate that not only cognitive mistakes but a number of factors acting together often culminate in a diagnostic error. Far from being 'unpreventable', several methods and techniques are suggested that may show promise in minimizing diagnostic errors. These measures should be further investigated and incorporated into all phases of medical education.

  18. Various approaches to the modelling of large scale 3-dimensional circulation in the Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.

    In this paper, the three different approaches to the modelling of large scale 3-dimensional flow in the ocean such as the diagnostic, semi-diagnostic (adaptation) and the prognostic are discussed in detail. Three-dimensional solutions are obtained...

  19. Electron beam welding complex diagnostics automated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. В. Нікітенко


    Full Text Available The structure of the system of technical diagnostics is investigated. The algorithm of technical diagnostic of electron beam welding complex, which serves as the basis for creation of automated system for technical diagnostics, is proposed

  20. Functional diagnostic parameters for arteriovenous fistula. (United States)

    Rajabi-Jagahrgh, Ehsan; Banerjee, Rupak K


    The inability to detect the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) dysfunction in a timely manner under the current surveillance programs, which are based on either diameter (d), flow rate (Q), or pressure (p) measurements, is one of the major challenges of dialysis treatment. Thus, our aim is to introduce new functional diagnostic parameters that can better predict AVF functionality status. Six AVFs were created between the femoral arteries and veins of three pigs, each pig having two AVFs on either limb. Flow fields and pressure drop (Δp) in AVFs were obtained via numerical analysis utilizing the CT scan and Doppler ultrasound data at 2D (D: days), 7D, and 28D postsurgery. The dataset included 16 (two pigs [four AVFs] for three time points, and one pig [two AVFs] for two time points) repeated measurements over time, and the statistical analysis was done using a mixed model. To evaluate the nature of pressure drop-flow relationships in AVFs, the Δp was correlated with the average velocity at proximal artery (v) and also the corresponding scaled velocity (v*) by the curvature ratio of anastomotic segment. Based on these relationships, two new functional diagnostic parameters, including the nonlinear pressure drop coefficient (Cp ; pressure drop divided by dynamic pressure at proximal artery) and the linear resistance index (R; pressure drop divided by velocity at proximal artery), were introduced. The diagnostic parameters that were calculated based on scaled velocity are represented as R* and Cp *. A marginal (P = 0.1) increase in d from 2D (5.4 ± 0.7 mm) to 7D (6.8 ± 0.7 mm), along with a significant increase in Q (2D: 967 ± 273 mL/min; 7D: 1943 ± 273 mL/min), was accompanied by an almost unchanged Δp over this time period (2D: 16.42 ± 4.6 mm Hg; 7D: 16.40 ± 4.6 mm Hg). However, the insignificant increase in d and Q from 7D to 28D (d = 7.8 ± 0.8 mm; Q = 2181 ± 378 mL/min) was accompanied by the elevation in Δp (24.6 ± 6.5 mm Hg). The functional diagnostic

  1. Neurological Diagnostic Tests and Procedures (United States)

    ... of diagnostic imaging techniques and chemical and metabolic analyses to detect, manage, and treat neurological disease. Some ... performed in a doctor’s office or at a clinic. Fluoroscopy is a type of x-ray that ...

  2. Optical diagnostics of intermittent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    image velocimetry, frequently give erroneous results, especially for the transition flow and developed nonstationary flow. However, their combined use in diagnostics of unsteady (intermittent) flows significantly improves both the temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Such a complex approach...

  3. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.


    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  4. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael


    tumour stage and whether there is distant spread of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Ultrasound Diagnostics is non-unionized and less costly than MDCT, MRI and PET/CT. Although MRI in recent years has gained ground in diagnostics in Denmark, there are still patients who have contraindications to MRI...... or are non-compliant. Also, patient movement during the MRI sequence acquisition degrades image quality on MRI and decreases accuracy. Over the last years, the ultrasound technique has improved further by Power Doppler, intravenous contrast enhancement, and elastography. Ultrasound diagnostics has...... the potential to contribute to the staging of colorectal cancer. The purpose of these studies was to determine the usefulness of ultrasound diagnostics in patients with colorectal cancer.The purpose of the TRUS studies was to compare staging of rectal carcinomas using digital rectal exploration...

  5. Diagnostic biases in translational bioinformatics. (United States)

    Han, Henry


    With the surge of translational medicine and computational omics research, complex disease diagnosis is more and more relying on massive omics data-driven molecular signature detection. However, how to detect and prevent possible diagnostic biases in translational bioinformatics remains an unsolved problem despite its importance in the coming era of personalized medicine. In this study, we comprehensively investigate the diagnostic bias problem by analyzing benchmark gene array, protein array, RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq data under the framework of support vector machines for different model selection methods. We further categorize the diagnostic biases into different types by conducting rigorous kernel matrix analysis and provide effective machine learning methods to conquer the diagnostic biases. In this study, we comprehensively investigate the diagnostic bias problem by analyzing benchmark gene array, protein array, RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq data under the framework of support vector machines. We have found that the diagnostic biases happen for data with different distributions and SVM with different kernels. Moreover, we identify total three types of diagnostic biases: overfitting bias, label skewness bias, and underfitting bias in SVM diagnostics, and present corresponding reasons through rigorous analysis. Compared with the overfitting and underfitting biases, the label skewness bias is more challenging to detect and conquer because it can be easily confused as a normal diagnostic case from its deceptive accuracy. To tackle this problem, we propose a derivative component analysis based support vector machines to conquer the label skewness bias by achieving the rivaling clinical diagnostic results. Our studies demonstrate that the diagnostic biases are mainly caused by the three major factors, i.e. kernel selection, signal amplification mechanism in high-throughput profiling, and training data label distribution. Moreover, the proposed DCA-SVM diagnosis provides a

  6. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. (United States)

    Malamud, Daniel


    Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. In this article the author critically reviews the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring, and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid


    Malamud, Daniel; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.


    Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Here, we critically review the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed.

  8. Psychological impact of diagnostic exams


    Grilo, Ana Monteiro; Lucena, Filipa; Abreu, Carla de; Marques, Paulo; Lança, Luís


    Introduction: Anxiety is a common problem in primary care and specialty medical settings. Treating an anxious patient takes more time and adds stress to staff. Unrecognized anxiety may lead to exam repetition, and impedance of exam performance. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the anxiety levels of patients who are to undergo diagnostic exams related to cancer diagnostic: PET/CT and mammography. Methods: Two hundred and thirty two patients who undergo PET/CT and one hundred thir...

  9. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  10. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases (United States)


    Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Menière's disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research. PMID:20973968

  11. Novel uses of detonator diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, John R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilde, Zakary Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tasker, Douglas George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Francois, Elizabeth Green [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nakamoto, Teagan Kanakanui Junichi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Dalton Kay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A novel combination of diagnostics is being used to research the physics of detonator initiation. The explosive PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate) commonly used in detonators, is also a piezo-electric material that, when sufficiently shocked, emits an electromagnetic field in the radio frequency (RF) range, along crystal fracture planes. In an effort to capture this RF signal, a new diagnostic was created. A copper foil, used as an RF antenna, was wrapped around a foam fixture encompassing a PETN pellet. Rogowski coils were used to obtain the change in current with respect to time (di/dt) the detonator circuit, in and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) stress sensors were used to capture shockwave arrival time. The goal of these experiments is to use these diagnostics to study the reaction response of a PETN pellet of known particle size to shock loading with various diagnostics including an antenna to capture RF emissions. Our hypothesis is that RF feedback may signify the rate of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) or lack thereof. The new diagnostics and methods will be used to determine the timing of start of current, bridge burst, detonator breakout timing and RF generated from detonation. These data will be compared to those of currently used diagnostics in order to validate the accuracy of these new methods. Future experiments will incorporate other methods of validation including dynamic radiography, optical initiation and use of magnetic field sensors.

  12. Psychoanalytic supervision: the intersubjective development. (United States)

    Berman, E


    The author argues that an intersubjective perspective on the analytic process makes the notion of purely didactic supervision, avoiding countertransference issues, untenable and that countertransference is both a clue to the analysand's psychic reality and a factor in its evolution. Supervision is seen as a highly personal learning process for both supervisor and supervisee and its emotional climate as a crucial factor in its evolution into a transitional space, generating new meanings. Supervision is portrayed as the crossroads of a matrix of object relations of three persons, of a complex network of transference/countertransference patterns. The avoidance or denial of the supervisor's subjective role in it, maintaining 'a myth of the supervisory situation', may make supervision stilted or even oppressive and stand in the way of resolving supervisory crises and stalemates. It is argued that several factors contribute to the conflictuality of supervision for all partners (often including the analysand): the continuous process of mutual evaluation, the reciprocal fears of exposing one's weaknesses, the impact of the institute as a setting and the transferences it arouses and the inherent conflicts of loyalty for each participant in the analytic/supervisory triad. The resulting dynamics and relational patterns could become a legitimate and freeing topic in supervisory discourse.

  13. Plenoptic Imaging for Three-Dimensional Particle Field Diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hall, Elise Munz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Plenoptic imaging is a promising emerging technology for single-camera, 3D diagnostics of particle fields. In this work, recent developments towards quantitative measurements of particle size, positions, and velocities are discussed. First, the technique is proven viable with measurements of the particle field generated by the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water. Next, well cont rolled experiments are used to verify diagnostic uncertainty. Finally, an example is presented of 3D plenoptic imaging of a laboratory scale, explosively generated fragment field.

  14. Pharmacometabolomics Informs Quantitative Radiomics for Glioblastoma Diagnostic Innovation. (United States)

    Katsila, Theodora; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Patrinos, George P; Kardamakis, Dimitrios


    Applications of omics systems biology technologies have enormous promise for radiology and diagnostics in surgical fields. In this context, the emerging fields of radiomics (a systems scale approach to radiology using a host of technologies, including omics) and pharmacometabolomics (use of metabolomics for patient and disease stratification and guiding precision medicine) offer much synergy for diagnostic innovation in surgery, particularly in neurosurgery. This synthesis of omics fields and applications is timely because diagnostic accuracy in central nervous system tumors still challenges decision-making. Considering the vast heterogeneity in brain tumors, disease phenotypes, and interindividual variability in surgical and chemotherapy outcomes, we believe that diagnostic accuracy can be markedly improved by quantitative radiomics coupled to pharmacometabolomics and related health information technologies while optimizing economic costs of traditional diagnostics. In this expert review, we present an innovation analysis on a systems-level multi-omics approach toward diagnostic accuracy in central nervous system tumors. For this, we suggest that glioblastomas serve as a useful application paradigm. We performed a literature search on PubMed for articles published in English between 2006 and 2016. We used the search terms "radiomics," "glioblastoma," "biomarkers," "pharmacogenomics," "pharmacometabolomics," "pharmacometabonomics/pharmacometabolomics," "collaborative informatics," and "precision medicine." A list of the top 4 insights we derived from this literature analysis is presented in this study. For example, we found that (i) tumor grading needs to be better refined, (ii) diagnostic precision should be improved, (iii) standardization in radiomics is lacking, and (iv) quantitative radiomics needs to prove clinical implementation. We conclude with an interdisciplinary call to the metabolomics, pharmacy/pharmacology, radiology, and surgery communities that

  15. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.


    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  16. Maslowian Scale. (United States)

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  17. Helicity scalings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plunian, F [ISTerre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Lessinnes, T; Carati, D [Physique Statistique et Plasmas, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Stepanov, R, E-mail: [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science, Perm (Russian Federation)


    Using a helical shell model of turbulence, Chen et al. (2003) showed that both helicity and energy dissipate at the Kolmogorov scale, independently from any helicity input. This is in contradiction with a previous paper by Ditlevsen and Giuliani (2001) in which, using a GOY shell model of turbulence, they found that helicity dissipates at a scale larger than the Kolmogorov scale, and does depend on the helicity input. In a recent paper by Lessinnes et al. (2011), we showed that this discrepancy is due to the fact that in the GOY shell model only one helical mode (+ or -) is present at each scale instead of both modes in the helical shell model. Then, using the GOY model, the near cancellation of the helicity flux between the + and - modes cannot occur at small scales, as it should be in true turbulence. We review the main results with a focus on the numerical procedure needed to obtain accurate statistics.

  18. Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT: a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suckling John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine

  19. Saliva as a diagnostic medium. (United States)

    Pink, Richard; Simek, Jiri; Vondrakova, Jana; Faber, Edgar; Michl, Petr; Pazdera, Jindrich; Indrak, Karel


    This is a review of current knowledge on the use of saliva, gingival cervical fluid and mucosal transudate in the detection of some oral and systemic diseases as well as drugs. Oral fluid is a diagnostic medium that can be easily collected and with minimal invasion but it has been neglected in the past. Today, saliva is being used more often to diagnose: HIV virus, oro-facial and systemic tumors, cardiovascular disease and in detecting addictive substances. Neutropil levels in saliva may also indicate successful bone marrow transplant. Oral fluid is now systematically being researched and oral fluid analysis is being compared with the analysis of other diagnostic media such as blood and urine. A number of recent studies have focused on oncogenic marker detection and its monitoring in saliva. The latest clinical and laboratory findings on diagnostic markers of oropharyngeal carcinoma in oral fluid could be the beginning of their wider use as a diagnostic medium. Oral fluid can also be also used to diagnose other malignancies such as breast cancer which was one of the first malignant tumors to be detected using genetic protein biomarkers. Raised levels of CA15-3 and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor have been found in patients with breast cancer and elevated levels of CA 125 and the glycoprotein complex in the saliva of ovarian cancer patients. Doubtless, the diagnostic value of saliva, aided by current technological development will increase rapidly in the near future.

  20. Embedded diagnostics in combat systems (United States)

    Miles, Christopher; Bankowski, Elena N.


    Diagnostics capability of combat systems shall be compatible with the Army Diagnostic Improvement Program. Present systems are capable of performing health monitoring and health checks using internal embedded resources. They employ standard sensors and data busses that monitor data signals and built-in test (BIT). These devices provide a comprehensive source of data to accomplish an accurate system level diagnostics and fault isolation at line replaceable unit (LRU) level. Prognostics routines provide capability to identify the cause of predicted failure and corrective action to prevent unscheduled maintenance action. Combat system"s health status and prognostic information are displayed to operator, crew, and maintenance personnel. Present systems use common data/information interchange network in accordance with standards defined in the Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) to provide access to vehicle"s health data. The technologies utilized in present systems include embedded diagnostics, combat maintainer, schematic viewer, etc. Implementation of these technologies significantly reduced maintenance hours of combat systems. Health monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics of future systems will utilize federated software and probes approach. Gauges will determine if the system operates within acceptable performance bands by monitoring data provided by the probes. Health monitoring system will use models of missions to make intelligent choices considering tasks criticality.

  1. Laser diagnostics for small rockets (United States)

    Zupanc, Frank J.; Degroot, Wilhelmus A.


    Two nonintrusive flowfield diagnostics based on spectrally-resolved elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Raman) laser light scattering were developed for obtaining local flowfield measurements in low-thrust gaseous H2/O2 rocket engines. The objective is to provide an improved understanding of phenomena occurring in small chemical rockets in order to facilitate the development and validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for analyzing engine performance. The laser Raman scattering diagnostic was developed to measure major polyatomic species number densities and rotational temperatures in the high-density flowfield region extending from the injector through the chamber throat. Initial application of the Raman scattering diagnostic provided O2 number density and rotational temperature measurements in the exit plane of a low area-ratio nozzle and in the combustion chamber of a two-dimensional, optically-accessible rocket engine. In the low-density nozzle exit plane region where the Raman signal is too weak, a Doppler-resolved laser Rayleigh scattering diagnostic was developed to obtain axial and radial mean gas velocities, and in certain cases, H2O translational temperature and number density. The results from these measurements were compared with theoretical predictions from the RPLUS CFD code for analyzing rocket engine performance. Initial conclusions indicate that a detailed and rigorous modeling of the injector is required in order to make direct comparisons between laser diagnostic measurements and CFD predictions at the local level.

  2. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis (United States)

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven


    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  3. Status of the CNESM diagnostic for SPIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, A., E-mail: [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Croci, G. [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Albani, G. [University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Claps, G. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, Frascati (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell’Università 2, Legnaro (Italy); Grosso, G. [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Palma, M. Dalla; Fincato, M. [RFX Consortium, Corso Stati uniti 4, Padova (Italy); Murtas, F. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, Frascati (Italy); Pasqualotto, R. [RFX Consortium, Corso Stati uniti 4, Padova (Italy); Cippo, E. Perelli [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Rebai, M. [University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Tollin, M. [RFX Consortium, Corso Stati uniti 4, Padova (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Gorini, G. [University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy)


    Highlights: • We have finished the design of the detector box of the CNESM diagnostic for SPIDER. • We have constructed the GEM detector of the CNESM detector for SPIDER. • We have tested the detector under fast neutron irradiation. - Abstract: The ITER neutral beam test facility under construction in Padova will host two experimental devices: SPIDER, a 100 kV negative H/D RF source, and MITICA, a full scale, 1 MeV deuterium beam injector. A detection system called close-contact neutron emission surface mapping (CNESM) is under development with the aim to resolve the horizontal beam intensity profile in MITICA and one of the eight beamlet groups in SPIDER, with a spatial resolution of 1.5 and 2.5 cm respectively. This is achieved by the evaluation of the map of the neutron emission due to interaction of the deuterium beam with the deuterons implanted in the beam dump surface. CNESM uses nGEM detectors, i.e. GEM detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron–proton converter foil. The diagnostic will be placed right behind the SPIDER and MITICA beam dump, i.e. in an UHV environment, but the nGEM detectors need to operate at atmospheric pressure: in order to maintain the detector at atmospheric pressure, a vacuum sealed box, that will be mounted inside the vacuum, has been designed. The box design was driven by the need to minimize the neutron attenuation and the distance between the beam dump surface and the detector active area. This paper presents the status of the CNESM diagnostic describing the design of the detector, the design of the sealed box and reporting the results obtained with the first full-size prototype under fast neutron irradiation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr H. Kolhatin


    Full Text Available Realisation of the pedagogical assessment functions at using of automated pedagogical diagnostics systems in university instruction process is considered. Pedagogical diagnostics software requirements are determined on the base of automated pedagogical diagnostics systems classifications analysis according to didactical aim of the diagnostics.

  5. Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.


    This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development.

  6. Advancing the diagnostic analysis of environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cox


    Full Text Available Social-ecological systems exhibit patterns across multiple levels along spatial, temporal, and functional scales. The outcomes that are produced in these systems result from complex, non-additive interactions between different types of social and biophysical components, some of which are common to many systems, and some of which are relatively unique to a particular system. These properties, along with the mostly non-experimental nature of the analysis, make it difficult to construct theories regarding the sustainability of social-ecological systems. This paper builds on previous work that has initiated a diagnostic approach to the analysis of these systems. The process of diagnosis involves asking a series of questions of a system at increasing levels of specificity based on the answers to previous questions. The answer to each question further unpacks the complexity of a system, allowing an analyst to explore patterns of interactions that produce outcomes. An important feature of this approach is the use of multilevel analysis. This paper explores this concept and introduces another – multilevel causation – to further develop the diagnostic approach. It demonstrates that these concepts can be used to analyze a diversity of environmental problems.

  7. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.


    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  8. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.


    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... diagnostic accuracy of dermatopathologists and pathologists using photomicrographs vs. digitized images, through a self-assessment examination, and to elucidate assessment of virtual dermatopathology. Methods Forty-five dermatopathologists and pathologists received a randomized combination of 15 virtual...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...

  9. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics. (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A


    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  10. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha eAgrawal


    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington’s disease, and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Primary myelofibrosis: own experience and news from diagnostic and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdulkadyrov


    Full Text Available The newest advances in primary myelofibrosis (PMF pathogenesis study, diagnostic and treatment approaches are presented in this article. The JAK-STAT signal pathway activation now recognized as main pathogenesis mechanism of PMF, it caused by JAK2, CALR, MPL genes mutations. Authors demonstrate their own data about epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnostic and treatment results of 315 PMF patients. The most frequent clinical symptoms are: anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms. Diagnostic criteria, prognostic scales (including cytogenetic and molecular features issues are reviewed. Intermediate-1 risk grade is in the most proportion of patients. Therecommended PMF treatment algorithm is listed. The treatment methods, target drugs (Janus kinases inhibitors trials results are discussed.

  12. Primary myelofibrosis: own experience and news from diagnostic and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdulkadyrov


    Full Text Available The newest advances in primary myelofibrosis (PMF pathogenesis study, diagnostic and treatment approaches are presented in this article. The JAK-STAT signal pathway activation now recognized as main pathogenesis mechanism of PMF, it caused by JAK2, CALR, MPL genes mutations. Authors demonstrate their own data about epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnostic and treatment results of 315 PMF patients. The most frequent clinical symptoms are: anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms. Diagnostic criteria, prognostic scales (including cytogenetic and molecular features issues are reviewed. Intermediate-1 risk grade is in the most proportion of patients. Therecommended PMF treatment algorithm is listed. The treatment methods, target drugs (Janus kinases inhibitors trials results are discussed.

  13. Receiver operating characteristic curve in diagnostic test assessment. (United States)

    Mandrekar, Jayawant N


    The performance of a diagnostic test in the case of a binary predictor can be evaluated using the measures of sensitivity and specificity. However, in many instances, we encounter predictors that are measured on a continuous or ordinal scale. In such cases, it is desirable to assess performance of a diagnostic test over the range of possible cutpoints for the predictor variable. This is achieved by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve that includes all the possible decision thresholds from a diagnostic test result. In this brief report, we discuss the salient features of the ROC curve, as well as discuss and interpret the area under the ROC curve, and its utility in comparing two different tests or predictor variables of interest.

  14. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus (United States)

    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.


    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were: • inability to handle: - multiple diseases coexistent in the patient - partially described diseases - extraneous input symptoms - quantitative signs along with symptoms • inflexible and non-extendible prototype models • lack of inclusive physician-approved data banks The use of computer techniques developed for large scale wargaming has allowed the construction of an extendable prototype model. The hierarchical searching techniques used provided the necessary partial matching solution to the above set of computational problems. An active physician-analyst dialogue permitted the avoidance of the last problem, since the actual data and diagnostic logic was physician input.

  15. Viewpoint TB diagnostics: what does the world really need? (United States)

    Weyer, Karin; Carai, Susanne; Nunn, Paul


    Stagnant tuberculosis (TB) case detection and rising TB drug resistance are in part the result of historically neglected laboratory services, slow technology transfer, and a lack of new TB diagnostic tools. The last decade has, however, seen the diagnostic pipeline grow rapidly, with research and investment prompted by concerns about the global spread of drug resistance and transmission in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) settings. The drawbacks of conventional microbiological methods for TB diagnosis and resistance detection have largely been overcome by modern molecular technologies; however, the much needed point-of-care TB test will remain elusive if expectations stay unrealistic and research and funding strategies are not changed. Development of new technologies, better use of existing tools, and adequate treatment capacity to care for the increasing numbers of cases that will be diagnosed with scale-up of TB diagnostics all need to be addressed simultaneously.

  16. [Hereditary ichthyosis: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge]. (United States)

    Vega Almendra, Nadia; Aranibar Duran, Ligia


    Hereditary ichthyoses are a group of genetic disorders of cornification, which are characterised by hyperkeratosis and scaling. The new classification identifies 36 types of ichthyosis, which are subdivided according to their frequency, pattern of inheritance and extracutaneous involvement. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical features, since genetic studies are not available in our setting. Treatment is symptomatic and management should be performed by a multidisciplinary team. In this article, the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of different types of ichthyosis are reviewed, taking into account the nomenclature and modifications presented in the new classification. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic and analytical applications of protein microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufva, Hans Martin; Christensen, C.B.V.


    -linked immunosorbent assay, mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography-based assays. However, for protein and antibody arrays to be successfully introduced into diagnostics, the biochemistry of immunomicroarrays must be better characterized and simplified, they must be validated in a clinical setting......DNA microarrays have changed the field of biomedical sciences over the past 10 years. For several reasons, antibody and other protein microarrays have not developed at the same rate. However, protein and antibody arrays have emerged as a powerful tool to complement DNA microarrays during the post 5...... years. A genome-scale protein microarray has been demonstrated for identifying protein-protein interactions as well as for rapid identification of protein binding to a particular drug. Furthermore, protein microarrays have been shown as an efficient tool in cancer profiling, detection of bacteria...

  18. Exome sequencing for syndrome diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Elsebet; Risom, Lotte; Ek, Jakob


    The majority of rare congenital disorders and syndromes have a genetic cause, but the diagnostic rate using standard workup is only around 50%. Whole exome and whole genome sequencing methods have improved the genetic diagnosis of syndromes during the latest few years. This article is a presentat......The majority of rare congenital disorders and syndromes have a genetic cause, but the diagnostic rate using standard workup is only around 50%. Whole exome and whole genome sequencing methods have improved the genetic diagnosis of syndromes during the latest few years. This article...

  19. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C


    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  20. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics. (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian


    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.