WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychoanalysis gradually replaced

  1. Psychoanalysis today

    Science.gov (United States)

    FONAGY, PETER

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the precarious position of psychoanalysis, a therapeutic approach which historically has defined itself by freedom from constraint and counted treatment length not in terms of number of sessions but in terms of years, in today's era of empirically validated treatments and brief structured interventions. The evidence that exists for the effectiveness of psychoanalysis as a treatment for psychological disorder is reviewed. The evidence base is significant and growing, but less than might meet criteria for an empirically based therapy. The author goes on to argue that the absence of evidence may be symptomatic of the epistemic difficulties that psychoanalysis faces in the context of 21st century psychiatry, and examines some of the philosophical problems faced by psychoanalysis as a model of the mind. Finally some changes necessary in order to ensure a future for psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapies within psychiatry are suggested. PMID:16946899

  2. MEDITATIVE PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2016-03-01

    Psychoanalysis and meditation not only compensate for the other's blind spots, but also, when practiced together, can provide a richer experience than either discipline pursued alone. After considering the way meditation cultivates heightened attentiveness, refines sensory clarity, lessens self-criticism, and increases affect tolerance, thereby deepening psychoanalytic listening, I'll examine how psychoanalytic perspectives on unconscious communication and meaning illuminate and transform the nearsightedness of meditation, aiding therapists and clients in understanding troubling thoughts, feelings, and behavior. This helps therapists deepen their capacity to help those people with whom they work. The paper also attempts to illuminate how the therapeutic relationship, conceived of in a freer and more empathic way--as the vehicle for both validating a person's experience and providing opportunities for new forms of relatedness and self-transformation--provides a crucible in which old and dysfunctional ways of caring for oneself and relating to other people emerge and new patterns of self-care and intimacy can be established. In the concluding section, I will delineate meditative psychoanalysis, my own integration of meditation and psychoanalysis. Clinical material will illustrate my theoretical reflections.

  3. Freud's psychoanalysis: a moral cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan

    2014-08-01

    That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. YB-1 gene expression is kept constant during myocyte differentiation through replacement of different transcription factors and then falls gradually under the control of neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Toru; Moue, Masamitsu; Ohashi, Sachiyo; Nishikawa, Taishi

    2015-11-01

    We have previously reported that translation of acetylcholine receptor α-subunit (AChR α) mRNA in skeletal muscle cells is regulated by Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) in response to neural activity, and that in the postnatal mouse developmental changes in the amount of YB-1 mRNA are similar to those of AChR α mRNA, which is known to be regulated by myogenic transcription factors. Here, we examined transcriptional regulation of the YB-1 gene in mouse skeletal muscle and differentiating C2C12 myocytes. Although neither YB-1 nor AChR α was detected at either the mRNA or protein level in adult hind limb muscle, YB-1 expression was transiently activated in response to denervation of the sciatic nerve and completely paralleled that of AChR α, suggesting that these genes are regulated by the same transcription factors. However, during differentiation of C2C12 cells to myotubes, the level of YB-1 remained constant even though the level of AChR α increased markedly. Reporter gene, gel mobility shift and ChIP assays revealed that in the initial stage of myocyte differentiation, transcription of the YB-1 gene was regulated by E2F1 and Sp1, and was then gradually replaced under the control of both MyoD and myogenin through an E-box sequence in the proximal region of the YB-1 gene promoter. These results suggest that transcription factors for the YB-1 gene are exchanged during skeletal muscle cell differentiation, perhaps playing a role in translational control of mRNAs by YB-1 in both myotube formation and the response of skeletal muscle tissues to neural stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychoanalysis and creative living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2003-01-01

    Psychoanalysis is ambivalent about creativity and its own creative potential. On the one hand, psychoanalysis offers enormous resources for elucidating obstacles to creativity, that way of living, making and relating to self and others that is fresh, vital, unpredictable and open to feedback and evolution. On the other hand, when we analysts know too much beforehand about what a work of art really means or the fundamental and singular motives of creativity, then psychoanalysis unconsciously partakes of a perverse scenario in which the work of art serves as merely a means to the author's ends and is psychologically colonized. When psychoanalysis is The Discipline That Knows, then art has nothing new to teach psychoanalysts and our field is impoverished. "Psychoanalysis and Creative Living" attempts to elucidate how psychoanalysis could work through this tension between its creative and perverse possibilities and foster creative living.

  6. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  7. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  8. Sartre and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J

    1986-05-01

    Why read Sartre? Such is the question which is addressed in this article. In a series of publications, principally his monumental Being and Nothingness (1943), the French philosopher of existentialism challenged traditional psychoanalysis with his "existential psychoanalysis." It has remained a matter of debate whether Sartre's alternative approach to the analysis of human motivation and behavior has any value for the psychoanalytic therapist or theorist. In recent publications two clinicians, Charles Hanly (1979) and Richard Chessick (1984), who have read Sartre extensively, respond negatively, arguing that there is nothing productive in Sartre's challenge to Freudian psychoanalysis. In this article I would like to take issue with that point of view and argue that there is indeed much to be gained from reading Sartre, that the challenge which he poses to traditional psychoanalytic thinking with his "existential psychoanalysis" is in fact a productive one for the contemporary clinician and theorist.

  9. Anglicising psychoanalysis innocently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Harold

    2010-06-01

    Finding Freud not properly on his feet, Rycroft turned him upright. Not by producing yet another school of psychoanalysis, but by pseudo-innocently amending its German polysyllabic script radically into English, and so revealing too how humanity is distinctly and to the very depths a symbolising animal. The present study describes how he contrived both to achieve all this, along with eminence in English society, and perversely to remain unconsciously and steadfastly little known or audible in the world of psychoanalysis.

  10. The science of psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lacewing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    For psychoanalysis to qualify as scientific psychology, it needs to generate data that can evidentially support theoretical claims. Its methods, therefore, must at least be capable of correcting for biases produced in the data during the process of generating it; and we must be able to use the data in sound forms of inference and reasoning. Critics of psychoanalysis have claimed that it fails on both counts, and thus whatever warrant its claims have derive from other sources. In this article,...

  11. Should psychoanalysis become a science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    I wish to formulate in broad outline an approach to the conceptualization of psychoanalysis that is divested from theory. This view sees the core of psychoanalysis as a humanistic practice, first and foremost guided by the individuality of the dyadic encounter, rather than as a science. I will not argue for any particular view of psychoanalysis. Instead I marshal a series of considerations from the humanities, to frame a conceptualization of psychoanalysis as a clinically based interpretive discipline having a unique mission. Finally, I will present a futuristic hypothetical scenario whose aim is to show why psychoanalysis will remain a viable enterprise basically as conceived by Freud.

  12. Psychoanalysis in Crisis: The Danger of Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Arnold

    2015-06-01

    Psychoanalysis is in crisis. Its prestige with the public has plummeted, as well as its economic viability and even its population. There are fewer analytic candidates and fewer patients, less insurance coverage, less presence in departments of psychiatry, and less prestige among the traditional academic disciplines. Analysts are getting older, and there are fewer and fewer young ones to replace us. A once-fascinated public now distrusts analysts as unscientific, deluded, authoritarian, reactionary, arrogant, sexist, and/or passé. This paper examines some causes of this decline within psychoanalysis itself as well as possibilities for reform. The status of psychoanalysis as a science is in question, although Freud considered it as an empirical science, and modified his theories to fit new facts. In reality, however, transmission of psychoanalytic knowledge in the training analyst system has led to its perpetuation as an ideology, rather than a science, and to the formation of oligarchies in the structure of psychoanalytic organizations and some institutes. Psychoanalysis is nothing if not an exploratory endeavor, and it thrives in an open environment. Psychoanalytic theory becomes ideology when exploration, testing, and challenge are suppressed. There are many analysts for whom psychoanalysis is neither ideology or theology, but an intellectually stimulating and emotionally rewarding human and humane endeavor, where convention is enlivened by creative challenge, and innovation is disciplined by tradition. In that form, it is too valuable to lose. It is time for us to step back and reclaim our citizenship in the larger intellectual world of curiosity, creativity, and freedom.

  13. [Psychoanalysis is dying, psychoanalysis is dead, long live the RCMP!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraldi, F

    1981-01-01

    In this article the author is interested by psychoanalysis as a theoretical practice. He makes the connection between psychoanalysis and marxism, and shows us that Freud was not as far removed from marxism as some people think. His reflexions and experiences bring him to strongly criticize psychiatry which, in his view, is a repressive practice contributing to the murder of psychoanalysis as a practice which questions the truth of the subject.

  14. Psychoanalysis, psychobiology, and homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R C; Downey, J

    1993-01-01

    The potential role of biological influences in human sexual orientation was considered more seriously during the early phases of psychoanalysis than in the years since World War II. Recently studies of homosexuality and heterosexuality in the neurosciences have attracted widespread attention both in the scientific and lay communities. The salience of these new data for psychoanalytic theory and practice is just beginning to be explored. In this article, we review research on sexual orientation in the following areas: genetics, crosscultural studies, studies of development in individuals with abnormal prenatal hormone exposure, childhood play patterns, and brain studies in both nonhumans and humans. Differences between male and female homosexuality are explored. We propose that psychoanalytic theory can grow and profit from a careful consideration of new findings in the psychobiology of sexuality, and that the interaction between mind and body is the appropriate purview of psychoanalysis.

  15. Gombrich, Art and Psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Ferrari

    2014-01-01

    Ernst H. Gombrich has always shown particular attention to the psychology of art as psychology of representation (and enjoyment) of art. In addition, through his friendship with Ernst Kris, who had been a respected art historian in the staff of the Kunsthisthoriches Museum in Vienna before becoming an important psychoanalyst, Gombrich devoted some fundamental essays on the contribution of psychoanalysis to the study of art.The main novelty and the most original feature of his contribution to ...

  16. Psychoanalysis as poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M

    2013-12-01

    Like psychoanalysis, poetry is possible because of the nature of verbal language, particularly its potentials to evoke the sensations of lived experience. These potentials are vestiges of the personal relational context in which language is learned, without which there would be no poetry and no psychoanalysis. Such a view of language infuses psychoanalytic writings on poetry, yet has not been fully elaborated. To further that elaboration, a poem by Billy Collins is presented to illustrate the sensorial and imagistic potentials of words, after which the interpersonal processes of language development are explored in an attempt to elucidate the original nature of words as imbued with personal meaning, embodied resonance, and emotion. This view of language and the verbal form allows a fuller understanding of the therapeutic processes of speech and conversation at the heart of psychoanalysis, including the relational potentials of speech between present individuals, which are beyond the reach of poetry. In one sense, the work of the analyst is to create language that mobilizes the experiential, memorial, and relational potentials of words, and in so doing to make a poet out of the patient so that she too can create such language.

  17. On teaching psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2006-08-01

    Teaching psychoanalysis is no less an art than is the practice of psychoanalysis. As is true of the analytic experience, teaching psychoanalysis involves an effort to create clearances in which fresh forms of thinking and dreaming may emerge, with regard to both psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice. Drawing on his experience of leading two ongoing psychoanalytic seminars, each in its 25th year, the author offers observations concerning (1) teaching analytic texts by reading them aloud, line by line, in the seminar setting, with a focus on how the writer is thinking/writing and on how the reader is altered by the experience of reading; (2) treating clinical case presentations as experiences in collective dreaming in which the seminar members make use of their own waking dreaming to assist the presenter in dreaming aspects of his experience with the patient that the analytic pair has not previously been able to dream; (3) reading poetry and fiction as a way of enhancing the capacity of the seminar members to be aware of and alive to the effects created by the patient's and the analyst's use of language; and (4) learning to overcome what one thought one knew about conducting analytic work, i.e. learning to forget what one has learned.

  18. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  19. Technology-assisted psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Jill Savege

    2013-06-01

    Teleanalysis-remote psychoanalysis by telephone, voice over internet protocol (VoIP), or videoteleconference (VTC)-has been thought of as a distortion of the frame that cannot support authentic analytic process. Yet it can augment continuity, permit optimum frequency of analytic sessions for in-depth analytic work, and enable outreach to analysands in areas far from specialized psychoanalytic centers. Theoretical arguments against teleanalysis are presented and countered and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. Vignettes of analytic process from teleanalytic sessions are presented, and indications, contraindications, and ethical concerns are addressed. The aim is to provide material from which to judge the authenticity of analytic process supported by technology.

  20. Gombrich, Art and Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferrari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gombrich has always shown particular attention to the psychology of art as psychology of representation (and enjoyment of art. In addition, through his friendship with Ernst Kris, who had been a respected art historian in the staff of the Kunsthisthoriches Museum in Vienna before becoming an important psychoanalyst, Gombrich devoted some fundamental essays on the contribution of psychoanalysis to the study of art. The main novelty and the most original feature of his contribution to this field (and which cannot easily be differentiated in general theoretical terms from that of Kris lies in his focus on Freud’s theories on jokes and in his adherence to the concept of ‘controlled regression in the service of the ego’, introduced by so-called ego psychology . This allowed Gombrich not only to highlight a perfect relationship between Freud’s theoretical thinking and his conservative attitude in the field of aesthetics, but also to use psychoanalysis to underline the historical and cultural character of the processes of representation and enjoyment.

  1. Gombrich, Art and Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferrari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ernst H. Gombrich has always shown particular attention to the psychology of art as psychology of representation (and enjoyment of art. In addition, through his friendship with Ernst Kris, who had been a respected art historian in the staff of the Kunsthisthoriches Museum in Vienna before becoming an important psychoanalyst, Gombrich devoted some fundamental essays on the contribution of psychoanalysis to the study of art.The main novelty and the most original feature of his contribution to this field (and which cannot easily be differentiated in general theoretical terms from Kris’s one lies in his focus on Freud’s theories on jokes and in his adherence to the concept of “controlled regression in the service of the ego” introduced by so-called Ego Psychology This allowed Gombrich not only to highlight a perfect relationship between Freud’s theoretical thinking and his conservative attitude in the field of aesthetics, but also to use psychoanalysis to underline the historical and cultural  character of the processes of representation and enjoyment.

  2. Psychoanalysis at the millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    2000-01-01

    This article explains and discusses the immense complexity of the psychoanalytic process as it is becoming increasingly understood at the millennium, and offers the possibility that it can be viewed from at least five channels of psychoanalytic listening. The careful ongoing examination of the transference-countertransference interactions or enactments, and their "analytic third" (32) location in the transitional space is extremely important in psychoanalytic practice. We must be careful in our interpretations of the clinical data not to stray any farther from the fundamental concepts of Freud than is necessary, lest we end up with a set of conflicting speculative metaphysical systems and become a marginalized esoteric cult. Freud's work remains our basic paradigm, the core of psychoanalysis, even though his papers on technique and his emphasis on the curative power of interpretation are from a one-person psychology standpoint and his view of psychoanalysis as just another empirical 19th-century science requires proper understanding and emendation in the light of accumulated clinical experience since his time.

  3. Gradual collective wage bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Luttens, R.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative implementation of firm-level collective wage bargaining, where bargaining proceeds as a finite sequence of sessions between a firm and a union of variable size. We investigate the impact of such a 'gradual' union on the wage-employment contract in an economy with

  4. [Through entomology to psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, Rémy

    2007-01-01

    Vues analytiques sur la vie des abeilles et des termites (Analytical perspectives on the life of bees and termites) is a letter from L. R. Delves Broughton to Freud dated the 7th of August, 1927. The letter was translated into French by Marie Bonaparte (1882-1962) for the Revue Française de Psychanalyse (French Review of Psychoanalysis) in 1927. A German translation of the letter was done for the review Imago in 1928. In his letter Delves Broughton develops a captivating connection between Man's libidinal economy and that of certain social insects. His main argument is based on the readings of several works by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949). He proposes, as in the bioanalysis project of Sándor Ferenczi (1873-1933), the application of psychoanalytic knowledge on a specific area of the natural sciences: entomology.

  5. Psychoanalysis and the Hindi cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Gupta, Susham

    2009-06-01

    Psychoanalysis was developed in nineteenth-century Vienna and led to a major change in thinking about emotions and feelings, and entered common parlance. Psychoanalysis raises notions of individual's growth and development, and defence mechanisms are used to suppress anxiety and stress. Portrayal of psychoanalysis in modern Hindi cinema is rare. In this paper we look at two films released in the late 1960s which dealt directly with psychoanalysis. Using these films we illustrate the relationship between males and females and the interaction between mothers and sons in the Indian context. The role of nurses as nurturing maternal figures and the role of tradition and modernity related to gender and westernization are discussed. These films represent the emergent India and its relationship with modernity and traditional values.

  6. A thought experiment reconciling neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falissard, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Thought experiments have a long tradition in science. The thought experiment proposed in this article designs a brain that is compatible with a conceptual framework that integrates neuroscience and psychoanalysis. A connectionist model with emergent collective computational abilities is modified progressively and gradually to retrieve concepts such as the following: life instinct, the death instinct, the conscious, the preconscious, the unconscious, the free-association method, parapraxis, repetitive compulsion, repression, self, other, and "I". In this model, the process of memorisation is represented by a neural network with deep depressions, the bottoms of which correspond to learned configurations known as "attractors". This thought experiment could be helpful in suggesting new formulations of traditional psychoanalytic and neuroscientific constructs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Psychoanalysis and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomä, H

    1977-01-01

    In the history of psychoanalysis the problem of suggestion has been a central one. At first it involved the necessity to establish the psychoanalytic technique as independent scientific paradigm in contrast to persuasion and hypnosis. However, it was not only the symptom-oriented suggestion that had to be given up for scientific reasons and reasons of treatment technique. Since professional and human factors as well could have influenced the psychoanalytic situation to revert to the traditional "suggestion", Freud has given some technical considerations (e.g. the mirror-analogy), that were meant to counteract the confusion of the psychoanalytic technique with the persuasive one that had to come up to late. The discovery of the transference phenomena has further complicated the problem. It became obvious that the capacity of the analyst to exert an influence and to have impact, originated in very basic human categories and their specific psychogenetic developments and distortions. This understanding contributed to the development of psychoanalytic theories of suggestibility. Until the present day the discovery of the transference phenomena has determined the discussions of psychoanalytic technique in term of the relationship between the special and general therapeutic factors (i.e. interpretation versus relationship). The departure from the therapeutic mode of persuasive suggestion and the introduction of psychoanalytic technique signaled the revolutionary paradigm of Sigmund Freud, i.e. the active participation of the patient and the process of observation. Often scientific problems related to this pradigm and suggestion are discussed concurrently.

  8. Essential Psychoanalysis: Toward a Re-Appraisal of the Relationship between Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Bhaskar

    2015-09-01

    Freud stated that any line of investigation which recognizes transference and resistance, regardless of its results, was entitled to call itself psychoanalysis (Freud, 1914a, p. 16). Separately he wrote that psychoanalysis was the science of unconscious mental processes (Freud, 1925, p. 70). Combining these two ideas defines Essential Psychoanalysis: Any line of treatment, theory, or science which recognizes the facts of unconscious, transference, or resistance, and takes them as the starting point of its work, regardless of its results, is psychoanalysis. Freud formulated two conflicting definitions of psychoanalysis: Essential Psychoanalysis, applicable to all analysts regardless of their individuality and Extensive Psychoanalysis, modeled on his individuality. They differ in how psychoanalytic technique is viewed. For Essential Psychoanalysis, flexible recommendations constitute psychoanalytic technique, whereas for Extensive Psychoanalysis, rules constitute a key part of psychoanalytic technique.

  9. The therapeutic action of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusset, B

    2012-04-01

    Psychoanalysis does not seek to get rid of symptoms but to question them as witnesses of psychic functioning and as formations of the unconscious. Whatever their nature may be, it is a question of analysing their causes and their functions as they appear and develop during the course of the analytic process. The latter is activated by the transference relationship induced by the method within a specific setting. The aim is to bring about liberating psychic transformations. The extension of the indications and modifications in the expression of psychic suffering have led to the development of psychotherapies. Their relations with psychoanalysis proper have been evolving constantly since the first advances by Ferenczi. This long historical evolution has resulted in their redefinition. Psychoanalytic practices are currently considered to require, depending on the case, different settings and different modes of psychic involvement from the analyst. Contemporary psychoanalysis places emphasis on the internal setting of the analyst (thus his training), analysis of the countertransference, and the risk of anti-analytic aberrations. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Is Psychoanalysis a Folk Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879

  11. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  12. Tools, works of art, psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Stanley R

    2005-01-01

    The roots of psychoanalysis lie deep within the evolutionary history of human life and intelligence. In this article I will explore a set of evolving relationships between human beings and the artifacts they have created. The psychoanalytic treatment method is one such artifact, despite the apparent reluctance of many psychoanalysts to describe what they do in terms that might be interpreted to minimize the personal element in their work with their patients. But the personal element can be effectively understood only through the study of individual human beings interacting with their surroundings. Psychoanalysis is a lineal descendent of simpler and earlier interactions with a special group of artifacts, those that incorporate human meanings in a way that provides a continuous source of feedback information.

  13. Volition and will in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, W W

    2009-10-01

    To clarify the role and function of the will in psychoanalytic theory and praxis, the use and meaning of the concept of will are traced in the philosophical tradition influencing Freud, in Freud's own view of will, and in the subsequent history of psychoanalysis. Functions of the will relevant to psychoanalysis are described in terms of intellective preference and executive functioning. Operations of will as an executive function of the ego-self are analyzed, emphasizing will as efficient cause of motivated actions. The will functions to decide, choose, and initiate action directed to motivationally determined goals. The conclusion is drawn that will action is determined and directed by motivational influences, and that will decision and choice, while predominantly secondary process in organization, can operate consciously or unconsciously. Expressions of will action in psychopathology and in the analytic process are briefly discussed.

  14. On "action language" in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogeras, R C; Alston, T M

    1980-10-01

    The main tenets of action language are summarized in an attempt to discern the direction in which psychoanalysis might go if action language becomes the "new metapsychology." The principal roots of action language are traced to the different linguistic/language and personality-and-culture models of anthropology and to the neobehaviorist currents of academic psychology. The authors' findings support the hypothesis that action language is a form os psychoanalytic behaviorism having idealism, logical positivism, and radical empiricism as its philosophical underpinnings. Its adoption would confound the entire motivational aspect of psychoanalysis. Specifically, the authors suggest that action language falls under the aegis of Wittgenstein's family of language games. When the action language game is said to be brought to a successful resolution, the language game disappears and, supposedly, so do the patient's conflicts.

  15. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. THE DIALOGICAL SELF IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Felipe

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the shift that appears to be taking place in contemporary psychoanalysis, as reflected among intersubjective approaches, from a monological conception of the self to a dialogical one. The monological self emphasizes the separation between mind, body, and external world, focusing on the representational and descriptive/referential function of language. In contrast, the dialogical self emphasizes practices, the permeable nature of relationships between subjects, and the constitutive function of language. This paper attempts to explain the growing emphasis on the dialogical self, understood from a theoretical, metatheoretical, and technical point of view, using contemporary intersubjective approaches to illustrate this shift. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  17. Relational psychoanalysis: a historical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E

    1997-01-01

    The author hopes Relational Psychoanalysis, as a broad emphasis on Self and Other, will not develop into another constraining and dogmatic school. In studying its sources I wish to maintain a dialectical view, and avoid ancestor worship. For me, its roots can be found both in the inner contradictions of theorists, such as Freud and Klein, and in the intense and generative dyads they created, particularly Freud-Ferenczi and Klein-Winnicott, where the defiance of the older colleague's authority led the younger one toward better understanding of relational dynamics. While both Fairbairn and Sullivan failed to draw full clinical conclusions from their innovative theoretical models, their work-as well as the contributions of Balint, Guntrip, Racker, Kohut and others, and the growing dissatisfaction with the traditional drive-defense model-helped Greenberg and Mitchell formulate in the 1980s their new relational integration. These ideas are most fully expressed in the Relational Track of NYU's postdoctoral psychoanalytic program, and in the journal Psychoanalytic Dialogues. Among major issues debated by relational theorists are motivation (wish/need/drive), knowledge and truth in relationships (social constructivism), relational developmental models, the nature of intersubjectivity, the significance of feminism and postmodernism for psychoanalysis, and the implications of a relational approach for technique and for training.

  18. Relational psychoanalysis and anomalous communication : Continuities and discontinuities in psychoanalysis and telepathy

    OpenAIRE

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2017-01-01

    There has been consistent interest in telepathy within psychoanalysis from its start. Relational psychoanalysis, which is a relatively new development in psychoanalytic theory and practice, seems more receptive to experiences between patient and analyst that suggest ostensibly anomalous communicative capacities. To establish this openness to telepathic phenomena with relational approaches, a selection of papers recently published in leading academic journals in relational psychoanalysis is ex...

  19. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  20. Marion Milner, mysticism and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Janet

    2002-02-01

    It is unusual to combine mysticism and psychoanalysis. Marion Milner, however, achieved precisely this. Through her self-analysis and analytic work with children and adults--and using as an illustration her own and others' imaginative ideas, paintings, doodles, drawings and pictures--she drew attention to the potential for health and creativity of undoing the obstacles to mystical experience of oneness with what is beyond or other than the self, which she sometimes called God, the unconscious or the id. This article seeks to explain and highlight this aspect of her contribution to, and continuing importance for, psychoanalytic theory and practice--particularly that associated with Winnicott--through detailing her early life and diary-keeping experiments, some of her psychoanalytic case histories during and after the Second World War, her work as an artist, ending with her travels and her involvement during the 1980s and 1990s with the Squiggle Foundation and British Association of Art Therapists.

  1. The Rising Hermeneutic Value of Psychoanalysis Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Sigmund Freud and his theory of psychoanalysis have been going under the intensive scientific inquisitions for many decades and it appears that this will last for many decades to come. Providing a brief overview of the development of the psychoanalytic theory and the debates for and against it, this paper tries to bring attentions to the psychoanalysis as an interpretative enterprise. Drawing on tire recent trend in the Continental philosophy, it argues that even though it has lost its popula...

  2. Changes in Differentiation-Relatedness During Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamaras, Martha R; Reviere, Susan L; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine (a) if the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale of Self and Object Representations (D-RS), a coding model used with the Object Relations Inventory (Blatt, Wein, Chevron, & Quinlan, 1979 ) could be reliably applied to transcripts of psychoanalyses, and (b) if levels of differentiation-relatedness improve over the course of psychoanalysis. Participants were 4 creative writers who underwent psychoanalysis as part of a longitudinal research project focused on the processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis. Transcripts from the beginning and termination phases of psychoanalysis were coded by 2 independent raters for global, low, and high levels of self and other differentiation-relatedness and compared. There was good interrater agreement, suggesting that, like other forms of narrative material, psychoanalysis transcripts can be reliably rated for levels of object relations. Analysands showed an increase in global levels of differentiation-relatedness from a predominance of emergent ambivalent constancy (M = 6.2) at the beginning of analysis to consolidated, constant representations of self and other (M = 7.5) at the end of analysis. These preliminary findings contribute significantly to the empirical literature with regard to the measurement of self and object representations and change in these representations over the course of psychoanalysis.

  3. [On the use and abuse of the history of psychoanalysis for psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to stimulate reflection about the history and historiography of psychoanalysis. Starting from Nietzsche's distinction of "monumental", "antiquarian" and "critical" historiography, the author discusses typical approaches to the history of psychoanalysis and recommends taking the historian's subjective motivations into account. He discriminates between analysts engaging in historical research alongside their clinical work, and historians of psychoanalysis coming from other disciplines. None of the parties involved can do without self-reflection: Psychoanalysis and its institutions need their history as an agent of self-critical reference; analysts working historically need the disidentification from their clinical convictions; and "external" scholars need an enabling self-confidence that allows for a critical interpretation of the history of psychoanalysis.

  4. Privacy and disclosure in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Judy L

    2009-08-01

    The tension between privacy and disclosure in psychoanalysis operates in various ways in analyst, supervisee, and supervisor. Analysts need to maintain the privacy of their patients by keeping their material confidential; they also need to know and share their own internal conscious conflicts to be able to discover unconscious conflicts and their characterological ramifications. Clinical writing is one vehicle for the exploration, discovery, and communication of transference-countertransference issues and other conflicts stimulated by clinical work, but it does not provide the perspective that comes from sharing with another person. Telling a trusted colleague what we think and feel in relation to our patients and ourselves enables us to see our blind spots, as well as providing perspective and affect containment in our work. Mutuality in peer supervision tends to reduce the transference. The special problems of privacy and disclosure in psychoanalytic training are addressed, as are the ways the analyst's belief in maintaining privacy may affect the analytic process and therapeutic relationship.

  5. Catharsis: Psychoanalysis and the theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-01

    The notion of catharsis, in relation to tragedy, was introduced by Aristotle in his work Poetics. Over the centuries, Aristotle's innovative and enigmatic reference to this process has been widely commented on and given rise to intense controversy. In 1895, Freud and Breuer reconsidered this notion in their Studies on Hysteria, where they present the so-called cathartic therapeutic method. It is not, however, this aspect of psychoanalytical theory that the author of this article seeks to elucidate: drawing on a detailed study of the references to tragic catharsis in the work of Freud and Lacan, the author proposes to examine their implications for psychoanalytic treatment.With specific reference to Freud's article Psychopathic characters on the stage (1905) and Lacan's commentary on Sophocles' Antigone (1960), the author argues that catharsis is to be understood not so much as a mechanism of discharge linked to abreaction, but rather as the actual analytic process itself during which the Subject is 'unveiled' and thus faced with the enigma of his own desire. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. Psychoanalysis across civilizations: a personal journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alan

    2003-01-01

    This journey started in 1950 at Antioch College when I wrote a required Life Aims paper to make a comparative study of East and West in philosophy, religion, art, literature, and the social sciences. In 1977 I went to India on a grant for clinical psychoanalytic research to assess the psychological effects of Westernization on Indians, to ascertain differences in configurations of the self from American patients, and to reexamine psychoanalysis. Realizing I had a tiger by the tail, I had to do just what I had envisaged and completely forgotten about in my Life Aims paper, only now to focus on psychoanalysis. I went to Japan in 1982 for an inter-Asian psychological comparison, which had never been done. Returning home necessitated two more journeys: to understand the encounter of Asian patients with the radically different American cultural/psychological world; and to explore the dialogue psychoanalysts have had with the cultural roots of psychoanalysis in modern Western individualism.

  7. [Psychoanalysis and sexology: antagonism or synergy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Lorenzo

    2010-03-24

    Psychoanalysis and sexology are both int-rested in human sexuality but they do not share the same approach. Sexual medicine and sexotherapy aim to o-jectify sexuality and to treat sexual disorders whereas psychoanalysis is more interested in the discovery and the understanding of the subjective experienceoof sexuality. In psych-analysis, change arises rather from acceptance than modification. Evidence based medicine shows that the efficacy of sex therapy is limited and recommends the use of integrative approaches. Psychoanalysis is a necessary complement to sexology because of the links it forges between functional sexuality and psychosexuality, a sexuality with a psychological and emotional dimension, related to an individual's personal history and his identity.

  8. Psychoanalysis and the community mental health movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, L M

    1975-01-01

    Psychoanalysis and CMHM were once enemies. Psychoanalysis has made noteworthy advances toward the CMHM idea both in technique changes and in community involvement. It is possible that CMHM may finally reject all psychoanalytic contribution and face its future without a theory. If that takes place, the CMHM some day in its future may turn a corner and find itself face to face with the lonely, individual man, conscious of his past and fearful of the unexplained anxiety within him. It is then that the CMHM will find itself once again studying the works of Herbert Marcuse, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, and the psychoanalytic world.

  9. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature.

  10. Reflection in psychoanalysis: on symbols and metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enckell, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. What is conceptual research in psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne; Fischmann, Tamara

    2006-10-01

    The development of psychoanalysis as a science and clinical practice has always relied heavily on various forms of conceptual research. Thus, conceptual research has clarified, formulated and reformulated psychoanalytic concepts permitting to better shape the findings emerging in the clinical setting. By enhancing clarity and explicitness in concept usage it has facilitated the integration of existing psychoanalytic thinking as well as the development of new ways of looking at clinical and extraclinical data. Moreover, it has offered conceptual bridges to neighbouring disciplines particularly interested in psychoanalysis, e.g. philosophy, sociology, aesthetics, history of art and literature, and more recently cognitive science/neuroscience. In the present phase of psychoanalytic pluralism, of worldwide scientific communication among psychoanalysts irrespective of language differences and furthermore of an intensifying dialogue with other disciplines, the relevance of conceptual research is steadily increasing. Yet, it still often seems insufficiently clear how conceptual research can be differentiated from clinical and empirical research in psychoanalysis. Therefore, the Subcommittee for Conceptual Research of the IPA presents some of its considerations on the similarities and the differences between various forms of clinical and extraclinical research, their specific aims, quality criteria and thus their specific chances as well as their specific limitations in this paper. Examples taken from six issues of the International Journal of Psychoanalysis in 2002-3 serve as illustrations for seven different subtypes of conceptual research.

  12. Investigation of the Psychic Space in Psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    I M Kadyrov; O S Shirokova

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with different aspects of the psychic space in psychoanalysis. The authors suggest a classification of personality types which may be useful in a clinical-psychological research of the psychic space in patients with agora-claustrophobic disorders.

  13. [The role of biography in psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchenhoff, J

    1996-01-01

    The construction of biographical data by the analyst and the remembrance of the past by the patient were regarded as vital for the psychoanalytic cure by Freud. Today the working-through of the transference in the actual therapeutic relationship is regarded as much more important. Whether the past is constructed or reconstructed, whether past events can explain present experiences etc., these questions are discussed not only in psychoanalysis, but also in the historical sciences and in philosophy. The dialogue with these can offer new insights into the relation of past to present, the importance of narrativity etc. to psychoanalysis; at the same time by comparison psychoanalysis can define its proper and specific approach to biography more clearly. These specific methods include the intersubjectivity of psychoanalytic experience in general and of reconstruction of the past, particularly, and the psychoanalytic process of remembering that leads to a differentiation of presence and past. Psychoanalysis is no psychosynthesis; it de-constructs experience, whereas the synthesis of the past is left to the patient's synthetic functions.

  14. Psychoanalysis and culture: some contemporary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizirik, C L

    1997-08-01

    The evolution and current usage of the concept of culture is briefly discussed. Two divergent views on the initial relationship between psychoanalysis and culture are presented and the influence of the former on the latter illustrated, both in the previous decades and at present. Some general aspects of present-day western culture are then outlined, among them the great flood of information, the culture of narcissism, the temptations of conventionality, the ideology of visual media and the 'light culture', and five propositions that attempt to characterise 'post-modern sensibility'. Finally, four challenges faced today by psychoanalysis are discussed: the changing nature of philosophical and cultural cross-currents as it influences psychoanalysis as a discipline; the empiricist versus the hermeneutic approach; attacks on psychoanalysis as an elitist discipline and profession; and the movement away from the subjectivist and existential concerns and the focus on a more collectivist and pragmatic relationship to reality. The author suggests possible ways to face each of these challenges.

  15. Psychoanalysis, science and the seductive theory of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Don C; Harari, Edwin

    2005-06-01

    To present a critique of the ideas of Karl Popper, the philosopher of science, whose depiction of psychoanalysis as a pseudoscience is often used to justify attacks on psychoanalysis. Published sources are used to provide a brief intellectual biography of Popper, a summary of his concept of science and a summary of criticisms of Popper's view of science. His depiction of psychoanalysis and Freud's reply are presented. Clinical, experimental and neurobiological research which refutes Popper's view is summarized. There is a vast scholarly published work critical of Popper's falsifiability criterion of science. Less recognized is Popper's misunderstanding and misrepresentation of psychoanalysis; his argument against it is logically flawed and empirically false. Even if Popper's theory of science is accepted, there is considerable clinical, experimental and neurobiological research in psychoanalysis which meets Popper's criterion of science. Attacks on psychoanalysis based on Popper's theory of science are ill-founded and reflect inadequate scholarship.

  16. Sartre's Freud and the future of Sartrean psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, S C

    1998-01-01

    I describe Sartre's analysis of Freud as an exemplary case study in existential psychoanalysis, a kind of anti-psychiatric analysis; in addition Sartre's analysis of Freud is a practical critique of the latter's theory. Sartre's overall aim is revolutionary, not primarily concerned with healing people; his method transcends the traditional aims of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. The paper is divided into four sections: 1) Sartrean Existential Psychoanalysis: An explanation of the basic understandings of Sartre's Existentialism and Psychoanalysis. 2) Sartre and Anti-psychiatry: An analysis of the relation and influence of Sartre's philosophy on R.D. Laing's anti-psychiatry, and a review of the contemporary anti-psychiatric practice of the Philadelphia Association. 3) Sartre's Case-study of Freud: An exemplary application of Sartrean psychoanalysis and a critique of traditional psychoanalysis. 4) Transcending the Boundaries of Therapy: A proposal for a radical application of Sartre's philosophy that extends beyond the aims of clinical approaches.

  17. The incommensurability of psychoanalysis and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Joan W

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that, although psychoanalysis and history have different conceptions of time and causality, there can be a productive relationship between them. Psychoanalysis can force historians to question their certainty about facts, narrative, and cause; it introduces disturbing notions about unconscious motivation and the effects of fantasy on the making of history. This was not the case with the movement for psychohistory that began in the 1970s. Then the influence of American ego-psychology on history-writing promoted the idea of compatibility between the two disciplines in ways that undercut the critical possibilities of their interaction. The work of the French historian Michel de Certeau provides theoretical insight into the uses of incommensurability, while that of Lyndal Roper demonstrates both its limits and its value for enriching historical understanding.

  18. Psychoanalysis--a phenomenology of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupke, Christian

    2003-01-01

    It is often said that there is an unbridgeable gap between phenomenology and psychoanalysis. But this is only half the truth. Starting from Merleau-Ponty's proposal of an objectivistic and an idealistic divergence of Freud's enterprise the paper tries to reconstruct two possible movements: the objectivistic divergence of Husserl's enterprise as a phenomenological shift towards psychoanalysis and the idealistic divergence of Freud's enterprise as a psychoanalytical shift towards phenomenology. It is shown that this approach is possible on the field of language and semiotics where psychic life, as the essence of our subjectivity, may be rendered as a uniform phenomenon of an articulation in the world of signs. This thesis is elucidated at the end of the paper by discussing first (to the phenomenological side) a certain interpretation of the use of Husserl's reduction as a method of investigation in psychiatry and second (to the psychoanalytic side) the importance of Lacan's difference between repression and foreclosure for a psychopathological understanding of psychosis.

  19. The relationship between psychoanalysis and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard

    2003-02-01

    In this article, the author considers psychoanalysts' current attitudes towards schizophrenia. After early optimism of a psychoanalytic approach, interest has waned, other than in the field of first-onset psychosis. This was because of poor outcome figures and regarding schizophrenia as now having a biological, rather than psychological, base. The author argues that there is a paradox, because only psychoanalysis offers a framework for relating to psychotic patients in a way that helps them to make sense of their experiences. A framework is described, with clinical examples, to illustrate the application of analytic thinking to patients with schizophrenia. Psychoanalysis needs to revitalize its attitude to psychosis, as it has a significant contribution to make within general psychiatry, not least in the training of the next generation of psychiatrists.

  20. Unbinding critics: psychoanalysis and aesthetic thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Dionisio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to discuss the relationship between psychoanalysis and aesthetic thinking under the prism of the “unbinding” theory – earlier conceived by the psychoanalyst Andre Green –, linking it to some theories proposed by Hal Foster, art historian and art critic, where we can find the lacanian “real” as the linking concept. One could say, in this linkage made here, that both authors are dealing, in a very particular way, with a question that refers to the theory of the real (as it was conceived by Jacques Lacan, even in the case of Green it is not referred directly; Green’s theory, however, seems to discuss some kind of a regredience that could be linked to the death drive. Accessing the psychoanalytical dispositive, and using it as it is appropriated to the (art object to be interpreted, Foster, for example, advances in both the field of aesthetic reflection and in the more specific field of psychoanalysis. It should be noted that Foster’s reflection refers strictly to the post-pop images, observed mainly in the 1990’s photography. Thus, I think that this intersection between aesthetics and psychoanalysis might allow us to shed some light on a new art reading possibility towards a “non-applied” psychoanalytical paradigm, which, in my opinion, seems to be an appropriate way to understand some of the contemporary art production.

  1. Cognitive sciences and psychoanalysis: a possible convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbasciati, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares the psychoanalytic description of inner experience with that of the cognitive sciences, which see it in terms of information processing. The two observational standpoints relate to the same mental events. The author considers the possibility of bringing the two descriptions into line with each other and of their mutual translation. The "information" processed in the deep, unconscious, affective, internal experience of a relational context must be identified. This may be possible if a general theory of mental functioning that allows for the data of psychoanalytic observation in terms of semantics, memory, and communication can be formulated. The author examines the theoretical tradition of psychoanalysis, and draws attention to the uncertainties to which Freud's metapsychology gives rise. The energy/drive theory was not only descriptive and clinical in nature, but also had explanatory value, which put psychoanalysis in contact with the other mental sciences of the time. This explanatory value is no longer valid today, and psychoanalytic theories since Freud seem to have disregarded the aspect of "explanation," leaving a theoretical void that has isolated psychoanalysis from the other sciences of the mind. The author contends that object theories may be an appropriate starting point for the exploration of experience in terms of learning processes and of memory traces, and suggests a psychoanalytic cognitivism, coupled with a personal theory to explain the development of the mind.

  2. A dangerous movie? Hollywood does psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Donald R; Silverman, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    After the appearance of David Cronenberg's film A Dangerous Method in 2011, dealing with the relationships of Sigmund Freud, C. G. Jung and Sabina Spielrein, Dr. Donald Ferrell published: A Dangerous Method, A Film Directed by David Cronenberg: An Extended Review (Ferrell 2012) in the Journal of Religion and Health. Upon its publication, Dr. Ferrell's article was nominated for a Gradiva Award by the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. On November 1, 2013, the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society held its annual conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Dr. Billie Pivnick, a member at large of the Board of Directors of the APCS and also on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Religion and Health, persuaded the 2013 Conference Program Committee that Cronenberg's film would make an interesting subject for discussion for conference participants. To that end, Dr. Pivnick invited Dr. Ferrell, C. G. Jung Institute of New York, Dr. Steven Reisner, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, and Dr. Martin Silverman, Training and Supervising Analyst and Supervising Child Analyst at the Institute for Psychoanalytic Education, NYU College of Medicine, Training and Supervising Analyst at the Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis of New Jersey, and Associate Editor of The Psychoanalytic Quarterly to serve as panel members to discuss: A Dangerous Movie? Hollywood does Psychoanalysis. Presentations on Cronenberg's film and the early history of psychoanalysis were given by Drs. Ferrell and Reisner, followed by a response to their presentations by Dr. Silverman. Dr. Pivnick chaired the session. The articles presented here were given originally at the APCS conference by Dr. Ferrell and Dr. Silverman. Dr. Reisner declined the invitation to submit his presentation for publication. Dr. Silverman's remarks were based not only on the presentation given by Dr. Ferrell at the session on A Dangerous Movie?, but also on his close and

  3. Empirical tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Hayes, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Gradual Learning Algorithm (Boersma 1997) is a constraint ranking algorithm for learning Optimality-theoretic grammars. The purpose of this article is to assess the capabilities of the Gradual Learning Algorithm, particularly in comparison with the Constraint Demotion algorithm of Tesar and

  4. Empirical tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Hayes, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Gradual Learning Algorithm (Boersma 1997) is a constraint-ranking algorithm for learning optimality-theoretic grammars. The purpose of this article is to assess the capabilities of the Gradual Learning Algorithm, particularly in comparison with the Constraint Demotion algorithm of Tesar and

  5. A HISTORICAL REPRISE: SOME OBSERVATIONS ON PROGRESS IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Steven D

    2015-06-01

    The papers from the American Journal of Psychoanalysis 1956 and 1965 roundtables on what is effective in the therapeutic process are viewed through the lens of psychoanalysis' evolution over the past 50-60 years. With the passage of time, the contributions of the Interpersonal School to mainstream psychoanalysis have become clearer, especially with respect to mutative factors in the patient-analyst relationship. These papers from the 50s and 60s are also products of the internecine battles of the time, in which the different schools of psychoanalysis tried to claim absolute truth and assert hegemony in the field. The author argues that real progress in psychoanalysis has occurred through research and clinical/theoretical discovery, yielding an informed pluralism that mirrors the diversity and complexity of our work with patients.

  6. Strategic self-marginalization: the case of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jaap; Park, David W; Pietikainen, Petteri

    2005-01-01

    Marginality is an important concept in the history of science, though it is often used in a manner that presumes marginality to be a static designation. We contend that the dynamics of marginality are crucial to the history of psychoanalysis, a discipline that has moved between dominant and marginal positions. We address psychoanalytic marginality via three specific "cases": the marginalization among Freud and his followers when psychoanalysis was an emergent discipline; the marginality trope in Erich Fromm's popular psychoanalytic writing when psychoanalysis was orthodoxy in American academic psychiatry; and the rhetorical marginality of psychoanalysis in Sweden as psychoanalysis entered a decline within psychiatry. Our aim is to show that marginalization and self-marginalization serve interpersonal, social, and professional strategies. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Unconscious marks: graffiti, psychoanalysis and possible dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Azambuja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The smart city concept addresses socio-environmental, cultural, economic, artistic, technological issues, among others. Namely, the strategy for the innovative work that invests in intellectual capital is articulated to the creative processes in general and art in particular, and this is fundamentalin nowadays’ today's dynamic. This assay seeks elucidation of knowledge through the identification and interpretation of the characteristic local expression of graffiti art. For this purpose, it will be used psychoanalytic theory as epistemic foundation applied to the production of knowledge in general. It is proposed the joint between the graffiti and psychoanalysis in extension, that is to say, in the world, in the culture.

  8. Research into witchcraft in psychoanalysis and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Alf

    2011-01-01

    Witchcraft and witch-hunting have been a topic for numerous historical and psychoanalytical research projects. But until now, most of these projects have remained rather isolated from one from the other, each in their own context. In this article I shall attempt to set up a dialogue between psychoanalysis and history by way of the example of research into witchcraft. However, I make no claim to covering the different psychoanalytical and historical approaches in full. As a historical 'layman', my interest lies in picking out some of the approaches that seem to me particularly well suited to contribute to reciprocal enhancement.

  9. [Jervis and Timpanaro on psychoanalysis and materialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Jervis and Timpanaro have been two influential figures of the Italian culture in the second half of the Twentieth Century. They never met, although they talked to each other regularly at a distance, as they shared many interests, in particular on the topics of the scientific status of psychoanalysis and on a coherent definition of materialism. Their epistemological and ontological views are clearly connected to Italian '60s and '70s philosophical climate dominated by the discussion on Marxism, and for this reason they might seem obsolete. However, especially from Jervis' views, one can draw important suggestions for the philosophy of human sciences, in the direction of a non-reductionist "scientism".

  10. Psychoanalysis: the sacred and the profane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Allan

    2014-06-01

    Colleagues from a variety of perspectives have written about the propensity to enshrine psychoanalytic theory. The meaning of the word "enshrine" is to cherish as sacred an idea or philosophy and protect it from change. In other words, the way we view psychoanalysis, our theories of mind and technique, become holy writ and we have divided the world of theory into the sacred and the profane. This is the kiss of death for theory, which must constantly evolve and change, but comforting for the analyst who believes he is on the side of the right, the sacred. In this paper I will discuss how our propensity to enshrine theory has had a debilitating effect on the development of psychoanalysis and, in particular, as a treatment for the most vulnerable people who seek our help. I also address the idea that movement away from enshrined positions allows us to construct different versions of reality. In this context, the notion of "action at a distance" is presented along with the attendant idea of psychoanalytic entanglement.

  11. What is 'applied' in 'applied' psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esman, A H

    1998-08-01

    The 'application' of psychoanalytic concepts and methods to the products of culture has occupied a somewhat ambiguous position, seen by some as a secondary, derivative, even dubious procedure, by others as a valuable and legitimate extrapolation of the basic principles. This paper argues that such 'applications' were integral to the early development of the field and that, indeed, many of Freud's basic ideas were derived from non-clinical (i.e. cultural) sources. The continuing impact of cultural forces on clinical concepts can be seen in the recent reformulations of our views on the psychology of women. Psychoanalysis is to be seen, therefore, as a constantly evolving system of propositions and hypotheses that are capable of 'application' and study in both clinical and extra-clinical settings. It is further argued that the continued development--even survival--of psychoanalysis requires the integration of its institutions and training facilities into the university system, permitting the free exchange of ideas across disciplines and a flexible educational structure that will encourage much-needed training in research as well as clinical methods. A brief illustration of the value of a psychoanalytic approach to the understanding of a specific work of art (Man Ray's painting 'Les Amoureux') is provided.

  12. Critical reflections on intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Hautmann, Gregorio; Maestro, Sandra

    2006-10-01

    The authors review the philosophical trend known as postmodernism and the way it has influenced a part of psychoanalytic thought, concluding with some comments on the qualities and shortcomings of the new developments. The authors consider the origins and the cultural and aesthetic-philosophical meaning of postmodernism, identifying some key concepts such as deconstructionism, the disappearance of the 'individual subject' and individual identity, and the rejection of 'in-depth' models of psychoanalysis. Then they examine various, wide-ranging developments in psychoanalytic thought and treatment. They review the intersubjective field in psychoanalysis, especially in the USA, and then explore whether the underlying lack of truth to be discovered, stressed by these 'new view' statements, or the fact that the 'truth' only exists in linguistic-narrative constructions is consistent with basic analytic concepts such as the unconscious, phantasy, transference and countertransference, which recall the tri-dimensional nature of inner psychic reality. The psychoanalytic process is a condition activated through a bond that is able to hold and contain the relationship of the analytic couple and the patient's unconscious world and not through hermeneutic or narrative constructions.

  13. Circumcising the Void: (de)contextualising in Complex Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grave, Dieter

    In contemporary psychoanalysis, the true origin of the science seems to be put aside to get it in vogue with the rest of the scientific framework and psychoanalytical thinking. Although this is a defendable position from which to approach psychoanalysis, it robs it of its core. In this paper, we take the hard-core themes of psychoanalysis such as death and sex, to heart and show how they can be linked to the other sciences, such as the theory of complexity, without censoring or rephrasing the concepts or the language itself.

  14. The psychoanalysis of art: some ends, some means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D M

    1988-01-01

    The psychoanalysis of art has been a lively activity for virtually a century, ever since Freud first likened certain findings of his self-analysis to certain turns of plot in Oedipus Rex and Hamlet. Yet over this time a lack of clarity has persisted with respect to the kind of knowledge applied psychoanalysis achieves and its means of justification. Starting with the observation that clinical and applied psychoanalysis are, in every respect, radically different endeavors, this paper goes on to identify some ends and means of the psychoanalytic study of art and to suggest a few criteria of adequacy for the outcomes of such study.

  15. Weaving child psychoanalysis: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinich, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Using the metaphor of a fabric woven from many threads, this paper describes nine of the many conceptual strands that have contributed to the development of child psychoanalysis over its first century. It notes the unfortunate isolation (sometimes self-imposed) of child analysis from related fields (including adult analysis) and argues that we must recognize both the strengths and weaknesses of our psychoanalytic tools if we are to collaborate with and profit from the work of nonanalytic colleagues. It closes with the suggestion that the continued weaving of child analysis will require the creation of new looms, structures that are able to support a new generation of child analysts and the continued elaboration of the field.

  16. Psychoanalysis traumatized: the legacy of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Psychoanalysis is a survivor of the Holocaust. It was founded and flourished in central European centers that would be destroyed by the Nazis. A core group of refugees who lived through persecution and exile were instrumental in rebuilding their movement on alien shores. They had no opportunity to mourn the loss of their culture or their leader, Freud, whose death was overshadowed by the cataclysmic upheaval around them. Though its trauma has been dissociated, it is represented in psychoanalytic ideas and enacted in institutions within the context of delayed or incomplete mourning. For example, authoritarianism in psychoanalytic institutions will be explored as a reliving of the trauma of both fascism and exile, and not merely typical group psychology. Further evidence of the impact of dissociated trauma includes the astonishing scotoma for actual events in treatment of Holocaust survivors; the extreme privileging of infantile fantasy over reality, and attention to childhood neurosis at the expense of adult catastrophic events.

  17. A history of homosexuality and organized psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Today the Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry welcomes its gay and lesbian members. Yet at the time of its 1956 founding, organized psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality could be reasonably characterized as hostile. First there was a transition from Freud's early views of homosexuality as immature to later neofreudian theories that pathologized same-sex attractions and behavior. Following the 1973 decision of the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the DSM, homosexuality is now more commonly regarded as a normal variant of human sexuality. The history of psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality reinforces the impression that psychoanalytic theories cannot be divorced from the political, cultural, and personal contexts in which they are formulated. This history also shows that analysts can take positions that either facilitate or obstruct tolerance and acceptance.

  18. Images of Psychoanalysis: A Phenomenological Study of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Phenomenological Study of Medical Students' Sense of Psychoanalysis. Before and After ... a four-week intensive course on Freud, Klein, Kohut and. Fairbairn and are ..... instead of blaming the mother, transference became the medium for ...

  19. The dream between neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, M

    2004-07-01

    The dream is tackled sometimes from the neurobiological viewpoint, sometimes from the neuropsychological angle, or from the positions of experimental and psychoanalytical psychology. Interest in dreams started with psychoanalysis in 1900, and 53 years later the discovery of REM sleep by Aserinski and Kleitman, and subsequent psychophysiological findings took the dream into the realm of biology. The dichotomous model of REM and non-REM sleep is described, as a basis for thought-like activity (non-REM sleep) and dreaming (REM sleep). This led to Hobson and McCarley's theory of activation-synthesis, suggesting that the mind while dreaming is simply the brain self-activated in REM sleep. Psychophysiological research has shown that people dream in all phases of sleep, from falling asleep to waking, but that the characteristics of the dreams may differ in the different phases. Bio-imaging studies indicate that during REM sleep there is activation of the pons, the amygdala bilaterally, and the anterior cingulate cortex, and disactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex. The images suggest there is a neuroanatomical frame within which dreams can be generated and then forgotten. Psychoanalysis studies the dream from a completely different angle. Freud believed it was the expression of hallucinatory satisfaction of repressed desires. Today it is interpreted as the expression of a representation of the transference in the hic et nunc of the session. At the same time it also has symbol-generating functions which provide an outlet by which affective experiences and fantasies and defences stored as parts of an unrepressed unconscious in the implicit memory can be represented in pictorial terms, then thought and rendered verbally. From the psychoanalytical point of view, the dream transcends neurobiological knowledge, and looks like a process of internal activation that is only apparently chaotic, but is actually rich in meanings, arising from the

  20. The contributions of Marcel Proust to psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Anne Elayne

    2005-01-01

    This article is about the major contribution of Marcel Proust to psychoanalysis in his seven-part novel, A La Rècherche Du Temps Perdu (translated as Rembrance of Things Past, 1934). This work spans two decades, from 1988, when Proust writing to 1927, when the last part was published 5 years after his death. Proust, a literary scholar whose knowledge dated to the early Greeks, knew nothing of Freud or psychoanalysis. His major contributions were to the emergence of memory, specifically the exquisite details of the descriptive unconscious, which we can now explain in cognitive neuroscientific terms. Freud wanted to do this for all mental processes in 'The Project'. Proust contributed to the projective aspects of passionate love. Kernberg has pointed out that although psychoanalysts knew about transference love, idealization, and sex, love has only been a subject for us in the 1900s. Proust also wrote of jealousy as a necessary concomitant of love. He proposed that all humans had pluripotential sexuality and recognized the psychodynamics of the perversions in a way that is closer to modern psychoanalysts like Chassuguet-Smirgel. Proust was himself psychologically disabled, with an illness his father called neurasthenia, adding somatic components and abulia, inability to make decisions. We would probably recognize him today as having a borderline personality disorder, with superior cognition, depression, somatization, obsessions, compulsions, phobias, and severe anxiety, which he understood was the result of his inability to separate from his mother. Proust's findings in all these areas are compared with the psychoanalytic literature--Freud, to the present.

  1. Finding the common ground: contemporary psychoanalysis and substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Debra; Gellman, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in psychoanalysis and substance abuse treatment are healing long-standing rifts that had kept these two fields apart. This article elaborates the historical positions that contributed to the schism and describes how the harm reduction model of substance abuse treatment and the relational orientation in psychoanalysis can bring them together. Three clinical examples illustrate how integrating these methods can offer an approach that is effective and comprehensive.

  2. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Gradually varied flow computation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Jahandar Malekabadi

    The article ''Gradually varied flow computation in channel networks by adaptive algorithm'' (DOI 10.1007/s12046- · 017-0640-x) which has been published online has been retracted by Chief Editor of the journal Sadhana as per the. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on redundant publication.

  3. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  4. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  5. FAROESTE CABOCLO: PSYCHOANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF THE SONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Teixeira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to integrate the psychoanalytic concepts of discontent, violence, aggressiveness and enemy with the acclaimed song “Faroeste Caboclo”, an important legacy of Brazilian Pop-Rock from the 1980s. The song narrates the saga of João de Santo Cristo, an orphan whose life story was characterized by uneasiness, racial discrimination, and difficulty to deal with authority figures, which turned him into a renowned drug dealer. With an ending marked by passional tragedy, culminating with the death of all the main characters, the plot is traversed by violence, aggressiveness and hate. This demonstrates how the story unfolds to the field of alterity through the emergence of friendship and enmity, allowing a thorough discussion and comprehension of João de Santo Cristo’s story. Assuming that music is both an individual form of expression and a form of apprehension and description of social reality, this study sought to comprehend the psychic dimensions demonstrated in the lyrics, which narrate a story that is very similar to real life stories of many adolescents involved in violent criminality in Brazil. The main objective was to discuss the possible meanings of these lyrics, hence promoting a constructive dialog between psychoanalysis and culture.

  6. Paediatrics and psychoanalysis--Miss Anna Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Miss Anna Freud died during the winter at the age of 86. She had been a pioneer in the understanding of children through psychoanalysis and a great champion of the rights of children. Her life began in Vienna as the youngest child of Sigmund Freud, and her early work with children was in Austria. In 1938, because of the Nazi régime and even though she was nursing her father during his terminal illness, she had to escape with him to London. Her work with homeless children and with those in residential nurseries in London during the second world war is well known, as is her work on child development and psychopathology in the postwar years. But one less well known aspect of her life that was of immense importance to a few fortunate British paediatricians was the 'paediatric group' that she ran for over a quarter of a century and which Dr Christine Cooper recalled at the memorial meeting in London earlier this year. PMID:6344806

  7. Frontline: the liberal arts of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradenburg, Aranye

    2011-01-01

    In terms of process, psychoanalysis is more closely related to the disciplines of the arts and humanities than those of the sciences, however much the latter have contributed to our knowledge of the mind and our discussions of technique. Will we, accordingly, assert our support for liberal arts education, at a time when it is under unprecedented attack? Neuroscience has made remarkable strides in establishing the importance of artistic and humanist training to the plasticity and connectedness of mental functioning. But these discoveries have sadly done nothing to protect the academic disciplines of the arts and humanities from budget cuts and closings. It is as if contemporary boosters of technical and scientific education had no interest in, or knew nothing about, the new knowledge of the brain that scientists are actually producing. Will psychiatrists and psychoanalysts, for the sake of the arts and the sciences, support liberal arts education, or will we distance ourselves from it, and thus abandon the well-being of the very minds we will later be trying to tend in our offices? Is it not our responsibility to speak for the importance of thriving, since surviving depends on it?

  8. [Hedonism and revolution. The reception of psychoanalysis in the Berlin student movement in the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The article takes hedonism and revolution as a vantage point to discuss the Kommune 2, an experiment in collective living, the anti-authoritarian kindergardens for the under-fives, and, last but not least, a speech in 1968 that spurred the women's movement in Western Germany. The author's interest is on the materials documenting how the Berlin student movement saw psychoanalysis: One point was that the pleasure principle should replace the reality principle for the sake of humankind, another that the authoritarian character structure has its roots in the denial of sexuality. Kindergarden children supposedly need "de-individualized identification" to develop ego-strength, when boys and girls differ in their superego organization. An important accomplishment was a group analysis conducted without an analyst, an experiment that worked amazingly well in the Kommune 2. In all, these various experiments in emancipation, with psychoanalysis a guide to interpersonal understanding, may be deemed spectacular when their aftereffects on everyday life in Germany have been tremendous.

  9. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  10. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  11. Psychoanalysis and Humanism: A Review and Critical Examination of Integrationist Efforts with Some Proposed Resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Critically reviews efforts at theoretical integration of psychoanalysis and humanism along the lines of F. Pine's (1990) four psychologies of psychoanalysis. Concludes that psychoanalysis and humanism have certain compatible features, but that they generally represent opposing vantage points in the study of subjectivity. Provides recommendations…

  12. Large gradual solar energetic particle events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Desai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solar energetic particles, or SEPs, from suprathermal (few keV up to relativistic ( $$\\sim $$ ∼ few GeV energies are accelerated near the Sun in at least two ways: (1 by magnetic reconnection-driven processes during solar flares resulting in impulsive SEPs, and (2 at fast coronal-mass-ejection-driven shock waves that produce large gradual SEP events. Large gradual SEP events are of particular interest because the accompanying high-energy ( $${>}10$$ > 10 s MeV protons pose serious radiation threats to human explorers living and working beyond low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. However, a complete understanding of these large SEP events has eluded us primarily because their properties, as observed in Earth orbit, are smeared due to mixing and contributions from many important physical effects. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge of these important phenomena, and summarizes some of the key questions that will be addressed by two upcoming missions—NASA’s Solar Probe Plus and ESA’s Solar Orbiter. Both of these missions are designed to directly and repeatedly sample the near-Sun environments where interplanetary scattering and transport effects are significantly reduced, allowing us to discriminate between different acceleration sites and mechanisms and to isolate the contributions of numerous physical processes occurring during large SEP events.

  13. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects.

  14. Freud's Jewish identity and psychoanalysis as a science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Arnold D

    2014-12-01

    Ludwik Fleck, the Polish philosopher of science, maintained that scientific discovery is influenced by social, political, historical, psychological, and personal factors. The determinants of Freud's Jewish identity are examined from this Fleckian perspective, as is the impact of that complex identity on his creation of psychoanalysis as a science. Three strands contributing to his Jewish identity are identified and explored: his commitment to the ideal of Bildung, the anti-Semitism of the times, and his "godlessness." Finally, the question is addressed of what it means that psychoanalysis was founded by a Jew. For Freud, psychoanalysis was a kind of liberation philosophy, an attempt to break free of his ethnic and religious inheritance. Yet it represented at the same time his ineradicable relationship with that inheritance. It encapsulated both the ambivalence of his Jewish identity and the creativity of his efforts to resolve it. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  15. The bridge between two worlds: psychoanalysis and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Stefano; Di Tizio, Laura; Dezi, Sira; Armuzzi, Silvia; Pelaccia, Simona; Valchera, Alessandro; Sepede, Gianna; Girinelli, Gabriella; De Berardis, Domenico; Martinotti, Giovanni; Gambi, Francesco; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, a connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience has been sought. The meeting point between these two branches is represented by neuropsychoanalysis. The goal of the relationship between psychoanalysis and neuroscience is to test psychoanalytic hypotheses in the human brain, using a scientific method. A literature search was conducted on May 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases were used to find studies for the inclusion in the systematic review. Common results of the studies investigated are represented by a reduction, a modulation, or a normalization of the activation patterns found after the psychoanalytic therapy. New findings in the possible and useful relationship between psychoanalysis and neuroscience could change the modalities of relating to patients for psychoanalysts and the way in which neuroscientists plan their research. Researchers should keep in mind that in any scientific research that has to do with people, neuroscience and a scientific method cannot avoid subjective interpretation.

  16. Psychoanalytic peregrinations. II: Psychoanalysis as science and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2002-01-01

    The foundations of psychoanalytic clinical practice involve the role of fantasy, creativity, and imagination as well as the natural science aspects of psychoanalysis. There is a common ground for psychoanalytic technique and we should not in a "politically correct" manner, as is so popular today, abandon the philosophical or Platonic foundationalism that lies at the basis of Freud's psychoanalytic practices. Although it is a "politically incorrect" view, a reasonable degree of objectivity and scientific validity is attainable by the relatively neutral psychoanalyst, using both natural science observations as well as introspection and hermeneutics. Furthermore, since psychoanalysis is fundamentally a creative activity, the roots of creativity require exploration and careful study. Subjective and first person methodologies such as Freud's psychoanalysis and phenomenology cannot be ignored in our search for the core of the self of each of our patients.

  17. The aim of psychoanalysis in theory and in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J

    1996-12-01

    The aims of psychoanalysis are reviewed in terms of theories of mental function and structure. The theory of mental conflict remains the central theory of classical psychoanalysis but has been deepened and supplemented by newer theories. In particular the theory of projective identification has radically altered our view of mental structure and function and has allowed us to reformulate the aims of psychoanalysis in terms of the re-acquisition and re-integration of projected parts of the self. The central role of mourning in this process is discussed, and some of the obstacles to progress are reviewed. It is suggested that oedipal resentments may play a central role in the creation of impasse.

  18. Innovative trends in recreation: aspects of psychoanalysis and art resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kostikova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the problem of updating the art features of psychoanalytic concepts in the perspective of innovations in the recreation. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and synthesis of domestic and foreign publications on the research problem. Results: analyzed current trends current research in the field of health and recreational activities. The paper considers the classical aspects of the art modification of psychoanalysis in the context of innovation strategies in recreation. Conclusions: theoretically probable positive effect of the implementation of the ideas of psychoanalysis and possibilities of art in productive innovation recreative process.

  19. Dante, psychoanalysis, and the (erotic) meaning of meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, E R

    1990-01-01

    The author observes a resemblance between (1) the "polysemous" technique of imputing meaning to reality practiced in medieval biblical studies and in Dante's writing and (2) the technique of interpretation in contemporary psychoanalysis. She explores the roots of this resemblance in the development of intellectual history and provides examples of polysemous meanings in Dante's Divine Comedy, which is in part an autobiographical journey of self-reflection and self-realization (like psychoanalysis). She then suggests some implications of this resemblance for contemporary psychiatry.

  20. The “natural alliance” between neuroscience and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio A. Merciai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The natural alliance between psychoanalysis and neuroscience has been advocated by some authors who committed themselves to the study of the biology of the mind, such as E. Kandel and A. Damasio, and the bridge between these two disciplines was the program of the so called neuropsychoanalysis (M. Solms and J. Panksepp. A critical review of the conceptual and epistemological issues involved in building the dialogue between them is presented in order to put into due evidence our sharing the thesis that neuroscience is astonishingly relevant to psychoanalysis

  1. [Historical research in psychoanalysis. On the method of historical research in psychoanalysis. Reflections of a psychoanalyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merendino, R

    1993-01-01

    Psychoanalysis, aside from being a therapeutic science, is a historical science: it is concerned not only with man himself, but also with his biography, the products of his intellect and of his hands. As historical research, it has adopted research methods proper to history: documents are collected and supplemented with biographical data, connections are woven together and processes are established. But it does not stop at this point: it seeks to understand, through the study of documentary material, the workings of the mind, beyond direct observation. Documents are treated as "signs" and "manifestations" of this world of representations, of fantasies and forces that constitute the ultimate matrix of subjective individual events and historical events. The research method is, at this level, the same that is used to decipher the unconscious world and dream messages: the recounted, experienced, or certified events are considered to be dreams or fragments of dreams, effects of condensation, moving, schisms, and fragmentations carried out by the thought process.

  2. Luella Cole, Sidney Pressey, and Educational Psychoanalysis, 1921-1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrina, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    In addition to contemporary boundaries and identities of educational psychology is the historiography of progressive education. Historians have too readily played into the hands of practitioners, accepting antagonisms between Freud and Thorndike, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, liberty and discipline. In its final analysis, this article embraces…

  3. A historical perspective on the collaboration between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvagnat, François; Wiss, Matthias; Clément, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience from a historical viewpoint. We start by examining how Sigmund Freud can be viewed as a pioneer in the interaction between these two fields. Freud was himself a neurologist and had maintained an interest in biology as he developed the key concepts of psychoanalysis. His ideas regarding psychosomatics are described. We will also explore how the concept of drive is essential to the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Then, we describe several key actors and historical events and characters at the interface of these two fields, namely Sándor Radó Lawrence S. Kubie and Mc Culloch, the debates that took place during the Macy conferences, as well as the positions of Jacques Lacan, George L. Engel, and Eric Kandel. Finally, we present a synthesis of the main fields in which the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience are already fruitful, and those where they should be developed: the classification of mental diseases, the link between the scientific and psychic dimensions, therapeutics, the organization of the body, intersubjectivity, the subjective division and ambivalence, as well as transferential effects like such as the placebo and nocebo effects. In the conclusion, we advocate several strategic alliances and underscore the complementarity between rigorous scientific experimentation and the individualized psychoanalytic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Between Psychoanalysis and Pedagogy: Scenes of Rapprochement and Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzman, Deborah P.

    2013-01-01

    With the question of what is between psychoanalysis and pedagogy, this essay presents a psychoanalytic frame for thinking about the study of uncertainty in teaching and learning from the vantage of the education of the author and her notion of "difficult knowledge." I review my body of research through these dilemmas to picture a theory of…

  5. Freudian Notion of Psychoanalysis: Its Implications in Contemporary Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Muhammad Afzal

    2017-01-01

    The author has engaged in a critical review of Frued's notion of psychoanalysis and its vitality in teaching. Illustrating from Freud's own assertions and through the interpretations of the later critics, the author has pointed out certain noticeable pitfalls and, or incapacities of contemporary teaching practices. The forces of aggression and sex…

  6. What Is Protest? Feminism, Psychoanalysis and Methods of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that feminism has recognised psychoanalysis to be a theory with direct application to the understanding of sexism for over 50 years, the application of psychoanalytic thinking to feminist activism has yet to be significantly realised. Using the work of Julia Kristeva, sexism is described as a symptom of an intolerable situation…

  7. Explanation of Freud's Psychoanalysis Theories on the Lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Its objective is to prove that a number of. Western European artist are governed by their unconscious mind. The method adopted to ascertain this fact is based on the theory of psychoanalysis. It is believed that this study would help to understudy the sub-conscious minds of artist as well as the impact this process has in the.

  8. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy: differences and similarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler-Schülein, Hemma; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalysis as well as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy derived from Psychoanalysis are efficient methods offered by the Austrian health care system in the treatment for anxiety, depression, personality disorders, neurotic and somatoform disorders. In both methods similar basic treatment techniques are applied. Therefore differentiation between both treatment options often is made pragmatically by the frequency of sessions or the use of the couch and seems to be vague in the light of empirical studies. This overview focuses a potential differentiation-the objective and subjective dimensions of the indication process. Concerning the latter it is to investigate, if reflective functioning and ego-integration can be enhanced in the patient during the interaction process between patient and psychoanalyst. Empirical data underline the necessity to investigate to which extent externalizing defence processes are used and to integrate such factors into the decision and indication process. Differing treatment aims display another possibility to differentiate psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims for example more at circumscribed problem-foci, the capability for self-reflexion is one of the most prominent treatment effects in psychoanalysis that results in on-going symptom reduction and resilience. The most prominent differentiation lies in the utilization of technical neutrality. Within Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy neutrality has sometimes to be suspended in order to stop severe acting out. Empirical evidence is given concerning the differentiation between psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, that treatment efficacy is not correlated with the duration of the treatment, but with the frequency of sessions. Results give support to the assumption that the dosage of specific and appropriate psychoanalytic techniques facilitates sustained therapeutic change.

  9. [Psychoanalysis is a precious thread, fragile but precious": Vittorio Benussi and the Inventory of psychoanalysis (1926-1927)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizzino, Antonino

    2008-01-01

    The lessons of psychoanalysis held by Vittorio Benussi in Padua between 1926 and 1927 reveal the other aspect of his interests: that which regards psychoanalysis and its method. These unpublished lessons, which we are printing here for the first time, are preserved in the historical Archives of Italian psychology of the Università di Milano-Bicocca. I have assigned to them the title of Inventario di psicanalisi (Inventory of Psychoanalysis) for their character, unprecedented in the Italy of the 1920s, of a first record of the lexical and theoretical world of psychoanalysis. Since they were not intended for publication, the lessons were written without the urgency of ordering facts and interpretations, and without resorting to the rhetoric of linguistic conventions. A reading of them makes evident how the Benussian attempt to integrate experimental psychology and analytic method is still unresolved. In these pages everything is shown in an incipient stage, in a contracted and intricate prose; while things are complicated by the hermetism of the style, the terminological oscillations, the theoretical density; and yet, these unpublished notes should be read like a palimpsest in which each word has been written, erased, and rewritten, in a work that remains unique in twentieth-century European psychology.

  10. Foucault and the 'Anti-Oedipus movement': psychoanalysis as disciplinary power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaure, Mauro

    2009-09-01

    What psychiatry was for the anti-psychiatry movement, psychoanalysis was for the French 'Anti-Oedipus movement' represented by Robert Castel, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Until now, the contribution of Foucault to this critical movement has been little known. In this paper I reconstruct in a systematic and exhaustive way Foucault's critique of psychoanalysis and, in particular, of the Oedipus-complex theory. I demonstrate that this critique presupposes a very specific epistemology and social theory. On an epistemological level, Foucault focuses on the power effects of psychoanalysis as a discourse of subjectivity. On a social-theoretical level, Foucault assumes a functionalist conception of society. These two aspects of Foucault's critique of psychoanalysis have not been adequately recognized in the discussion about his relationship to psychoanalysis (Derrida, Miller, Whitebook, among others). I argue that a fruitful dialogue between a Foucault-inspired critical social theory and psychoanalysis can take place only if these two distinct aspects are taken into account.

  11. Arte, escritura y psicoanálisis. // Art, writing, and psychoanalysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Gonzales Ceja.

    2008-01-01

    This text is addressed to those interested in psychoanalysis and its intertextual relation: psychoanalysis, in theory or into practice, in communication with literature. Basically, the aim is the identification of problems between the psychoanalysis and its transference. For this, I deal with the literature of Julio Cortázar and the Letter of Lacan as the paradigm of these problems, since they facilitate the reading of the psychoanalytic knowledge. // Este texto está dirigido a los interesado...

  12. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  13. Trauma and Contemporary Forms of Subjectivity: Contributions of Argentine Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volnovich, Juan Carlos

    2017-04-01

    This paper offers arguments to justify the relevance of psychoanalysis-psychoanalyses-in present-day Argentina and reflects on the stance taken by psychoanalysts with different theoretical perspectives in the face of the havoc wreaked by state terror (1976-1983). To this end, the author focuses on the pioneers' traits, the significance of the Argentine Psychoanalytic Association in the 1950s and 1960s, and the impact of the departure of the Plataforma Group in 1971. The establishment of the latter opened the way for the development of a psychoanalysis tied to popular movements, sensitive to social conflict, and close to human rights organizations. The author explores both on psychoanalysts' intervention to address the social trauma resulting from the theft of babies during the dictatorship, and on their relationship with Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo.

  14. Defenses and morality: Adam Smith, Sigmund Freud, and contemporary psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrinetti, Paul A; Özler, Sule

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we follow the development and transmission of moral learning from Adam Smith's impartial spectator to Sigmund Freud's superego and then to contemporary psychoanalysis. We argue that defenses are an integral component in the acquisition of any moral system. Elaborating on this argument, we assert that there is a progression from defensive systems that are "closed" to defensive systems that are "open," as defined in a recent work by Novick and Novick. The former system is "static, avoids reality, and is characterized by power dynamics, sadomasochism, and omnipotent defense." The latter, on the other hand, is a system that allows for "joy, creativity, spontaneity, love and it is attuned to reality." Furthermore, while Smith and Freud's systems are more one-person systems of defense, contemporary psychoanalysis has moved to more of a two-person system.

  15. Films from the Couch: Film Theory and Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sangro Colón

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available   Different disciplines have contributed to weaving a theory of psychoanalysis in the cinema: ranging from the loans from anthropology and experimental psychology, to proposals belonging to the specific sphere of film theory, such as Filmology, Text Analysis or Feminist Theory in films. In all cases, the aim is to establish a relationship between the significance structure that governs the cinema and psychology, so as to confirm that the cinema’s system of representation is modelled on our unconscious psychological apparatus, as was explained by the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, among others. The arrival of psychoanalysis in film thought forges the idea that considers the cinema as an auxiliary psychological device capable of making us subjects and submerging us in the emotions in play in the conflicts proposed by any audiovisual story.

  16. Psychoanalysis on the couch: can neuroscience provide the answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelli, Andrea

    2010-12-01

    Over a century after Freud's attempt to establish psychoanalysis as a natural science, there is renewed interest in the integration of psychoanalytic and neuroscientific findings within a single theoretical and experimental framework. However, it is important that any intellectual exchange is not motivated only by declining confidence in psychoanalytic theory and practice or awareness of the rising fortunes of the brain sciences. The present paper considers three possible ways in which psychoanalysis and neuroscience might be integrated. These include the investigation of the neurological organisation of psychoanalytically defined phenomena; the evaluation of psychoanalytic theories based on their neurobiological evidence; and the use of neuroimaging techniques to assess the progress and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment. The author argues that these exercises are unlikely to provide psychoanalysis with the "unlimited opportunities for overcoming its uncertainties and doubts" that some have anticipated. For instance, the argument that mapping psychoanalytically defined phenomena in the brain may provide biological validity to these phenomena should be considered an expression of logical confusion; the evaluation of psychoanalytic theories based on their biological evidence is critically dependent on speculative interpretation of what the theories predict at neuronal level; and the supposedly objective evaluation of the progress and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment on the basis of neurobiological data relies on the subjective reports of the patient and analyst. In light of this conclusion, there are a number of outstanding questions which remain to be addressed, including whether psychoanalysis should adhere to scientific canons and whether this would necessarily require an experimental methodology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Contribution of psychoanalysis to geriatric care for institutionalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charazac, Pierre-Marie

    2014-06-01

    The contribution of psychoanalysis to geriatric care in nursing home is discussed in three directions: its conception of care, specially on its negative sides; its implication in geriatric units, in their conception and in the analysis of their management of care; the holding of care-givers and nurses by making clear what we call transference and conter-transference and their reflection on their function.

  18. Letter to Freud: on the plight of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Dinah M

    2011-12-01

    In the form of a letter, the writer communicates to Freud her appreciation for the incomparable richness and complexity of the psychoanalytic enterprise in its century-long evolution from classical, Freudian origins to new developments in theory and technique. At the same time, concern is expressed about the continuity and survival of psychoanalysis in a cultural milieu that has absorbed its once radical ideas about sexuality and unconscious motivation while resisting its viability as a method of treatment.

  19. [Psychoanalysis and epistemology: mental development and formulation of theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysman, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at studying from a psychoanalytical perspective the relationship between the acquisition of knowledge, the formulation of theories based on the generalization of such knowledge, and, what we consider to be an antecedent, the infantile sexual theories (IST). Psychoanalysis is also a psychology of normal psychic processes, among them creative activity which includes scientific thought. This is of interest to psychoanalysts and to epistemologists and paves the way to necessary interdisciplinary endeavors.

  20. Is Fromm Relevant for Relational Approaches in Psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Mauricio

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of how Erich Fromm's work influenced contemporary relational and intersubjective approaches. It stresses Fromm's humanistic and existential sensibility, his explanation of how different socioeconomic and cultural contexts mold different character types, and how his center-to-center relatedness in clinical work all contribute to psychic change. The author shows how these dimensions intersect and add to current interests in relational psychoanalysis.

  1. The “natural alliance” between neuroscience and psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio A. Merciai; Beatrice Cannella

    2015-01-01

    The natural alliance between psychoanalysis and neuroscience has been advocated by some authors who committed themselves to the study of the biology of the mind, such as E. Kandel and A. Damasio, and the bridge between these two disciplines was the program of the so called neuropsychoanalysis (M. Solms and J. Panksepp). A critical review of the conceptual and epistemological issues involved in building the dialogue between them is presented in order to put into due evidence our sharing the th...

  2. [Psychoanalysis and criminology prior to the therapeutic community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    From its very beginning, psychoanalysis dealt with delinquency on a theoretical as well as on a clinical level. This paper deals with pioneer contributions, from Freud to Friedlander and Reiwald in the late 1940's, which stressed traumatic milieus in early childhood and the possibilities to correct this experience in treatment. In terms of clinical practice, they offered casuistic material, but also provided important suggestions for contemporary forensic treatment.

  3. What is medical about psychoanalysis--and what is psychoanalytic about medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2014-07-01

    Despite the birth of psychoanalysis in neurology, modern psychoanalysis and modern medicine seem to have drifted apart. The author explores how and why this has taken place and what its effects may be. Yet the core principles of both medicine and psychoanalysis remain intertwined and vital to both, and the future holds the promise of new possibilities. As American medicine and American psychoanalysis both confront critical stages in their existence, both professions would be well advised to be mindful of their common foundations in science and the ethical, professional bond with the patient.

  4. Jacques Lacan and the Other Side of Psychoanalysis: Reflections on Seminar XVII (Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzy Newman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of Justin Clemens and Russell Grigg (eds., Jacques Lacan and the Other Side of Psychoanalysis: Reflections on Seminar XVII, Duke University Press, 2006. ISBN: 0-8223-3719-3.A new book that brings together 16 essays, mostly all commentaries upon Lacan''s Seminar XVII, known as 'The other Side of Psychoanalysis'. Topics include the four discourses, the relation between psychoanalysis and contemporary social discourses, the question of social change, the relationship between psychoanalysis and politics, and the structuring function of the Oedipus complex.

  5. The first interview: Anxieties and research on initiating psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    A qualitative clinical study of preliminary interviews by the Working Party on Initiating Psychoanalysis (WPIP) of the European Psychoanalytic Federation suggests that the unconscious dynamics in first interviews are extraordinarily powerful and that they give rise to deep unconscious anxieties in both patient and analyst, with the corresponding defences against them. Furthermore, the group dynamics observed in the clinical workshops and in the research team doing the study suggest that both the anxieties and the defences are conveyed to these groups in the form of unelaborated 'session residues' provoking renewed anxieties and defences in them. These findings contribute to our understanding of what goes on in first interviews, but also raise interesting questions about the psychoanalytic research process in psychoanalysis and how confrontation with the unknown is dealt with in that context. Rather than as a means to avoid anxiety, method in clinical research can be seen as a way to help the research group to contain its reactions and to tolerate them until the group finds its way to further elaboration. These points are illustrated with a clinical case drawn from the study. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. Impact of Psychoanalysis in Nigeria: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebigbo Peter Onyekwere

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors set out to examine the impact of Psychoanalysis in Nigeria. In doing this they selected a significant stakeholder, who trained in Germany and returned to Nigeria as a case study. Examining the activities as he set out to indigenize psychotherapy in Nigeria, it was found that psychoanalytic thinking helped in the psychodynamic observations on the frequent somatic complaints of psychological origin which helped to make treatment possible. Family therapy based on psychoanalysis was modeled to treat patients classified as traditional, mixed and westernized. Dream analysis and hypnosis were also used for treatment in Nigeria with good results. Finally the harmony restoration theory was put forward whereby the African is healthy when he is at peace with his world of relationship (cosmos comprising endocosmos – mind body relationship, mesocosmos relationship with significant others and exocosmos relationship with spirits, ancestors, deities, gods, God. He/she is sick when there is a distortion in the person’s world of relationship. Treatment is restoration of harmony. In every one there is a yearning to reach out to others (cosmic expansion drive and an inclination to be interested in the self (cosmic reduction drive at the various levels of the cosmos. Eight personality types were worked out of the combination of expansion and reduction drives. The conclusion was that psychoanalysis has come to stay in Nigeria.

  7. GEORG GRODDECK: "THE PINCH OF PEPPER" OF PSYCHOANALYSIS(.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, Mark F; Hristeva, Galina; Giefer, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The life and works of Georg Groddeck are reviewed and placed in historical context as a physician and a pioneer of psychoanalysis, psychosomatic medicine, and an epistolary style of writing. His Das Es concept stimulated Freud to construct his tripartite model of the mind. Groddeck, however, used Das Es to facilitate receptivity to unconscious communication with his patients. His "maternal turn" transformed his treatment approach from an authoritarian position to a dialectical process. Groddeck was a generative influence on the development of Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, Erich Fromm, and Karen Horney. He was also the mid-wife of the late-life burst of creativity of his friend and patient Sándor Ferenczi. Together, Groddeck and Ferenczi provided the impetus for a paradigm shift in psychoanalysis that emphasized the maternal transference, child-like creativity, and a dialogue of the unconscious that foreshadowed contemporary interest in intersubjectivity and field theory. They were progenitors of the relational turn and tradition in psychoanalysis. Growing interest in interpsychic communication and field theory is bringing about a convergence of theorizing among pluralistic psychoanalytic schools that date back to 1923 when Freud appropriated Groddeck's Das Es and radically altered its meaning and use.

  8. Plying the steel: A reconsideration of surgical metaphors in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gavin

    2010-02-01

    Among the metaphors that Freud used to describe psychoanalysis, the surgical is possibly the most deplored. It is considered an anachronistic remnant of a dubious medical ideology that psychoanalysis has largely renounced. However, while analysts today avoid surgical analogies, their patients continue to produce surgical fantasies about analytic treatment. This fact alone requires a serious consideration of the meanings that surgical metaphors have for them. A second reason for reconsidering the role of the surgical metaphor, from the analyst's perspective, lies in its creative revival by W. R. Bion. Disregarding the shift away from surgical analogizing, Bion employed the metaphor to vividly portray various aspects of the analytic situation and the patient's experience of them. A brief historical overview of the surgical metaphor in psychoanalysis is provided, followed by an account of the reasons for its demise and by a review of the criticisms that continue to be leveled at it. Bion's use of surgical metaphors toward the end of his life is then explored. Finally, illustrations are given of the various ways in which patients use spontaneous surgical metaphors to depict transference and the analytic process. Though the analyst should not deliberately adopt surgical metaphors, it is important to remain open to these transference portrayals.

  9. The Hofgeismar lectures: a contemporary overview of Horneyan psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D H

    2001-06-01

    Part I of this paper describes Karen Horney's theory of neurosis. In the 1930s, Horney repudiated Freud's view of female developmental psychology. She argued that cultural factors rather than anatomy or innate biological drives were the primary determinants not only of female development but of personality, as well. When genetic and environmental circumstances together lead to basic anxiety early in life, she believed a deep inner conflict emerges in the individual leading to the need for elaborating layers of rigidified protective defenses. She called this the neurotic process. This process can result in discrete symptoms of mental disorder as well as the more generalized problems of alienation from the person's real self and reliance on neurotic solutions. In Part II, the practical application of Horney's theory to clinical work is demonstrated in a case presentation of a notably timid and perfectionistic man. Part III points up elaborations of Horney's theories by later workers of her school, the American Institute for Psychoanalysis, and provides a history of her school within the broader context of American psychoanalysis. The author's emphasis on postmodern and narrativist elements of Horneyan psychoanalysis are illuminated, as well.

  10. The contemporary failure of nerve and the crisis in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    2001-01-01

    The American Academy of Psychoanalysis is undergoing an identity crisis at this time, which is at least to a large extent a function of the whole current identity crisis in the field of psychoanalysis itself. In order to better understand this crisis, in this article I have first reviewed a similar situation which occurred in the history of classical Greece. Plato's famous Academy underwent a progressive deterioration and disintegration and fragmentation, until it ended up merely the handmaiden of another discipline, Christian theology, for a thousand years. I then propose that the identity crisis in psychoanalysis today has to do with our failure of nerve in the teeth of the abusive behavior of insurance companies regarding the payment for psychoanalysis and the current cultural ambience demanding "fast-fast-fast" relief. I call in this article for a return to Freud's basic principles as a focus for our identity. Of course we cannot ignore new discoveries in neurobiology if they are well established, or what we learn from the study of enactments in the here-and-how of the analytic procedure. Certainly the findings of Freud that are contradicted by firmly accepted empirical findings in neurobiology and other disciplines call for revision of some of his ideas, as do his mistaken views on the psychology of women and on certain other topics such as art, religion, and evolutionary biology. But this should not be permitted to blur our continuing focus on the fundamental principles of the clinical practice of psychoanalysis as Freud developed them over his lifetime. In this article I briefly reviewed those basic principles and proposed that we employ them as the basis for our identity as psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychiatrists. It represents a failure of nerve to drift this way and that with current fads and with the continuously deteriorating ambiance of our culture as the world slides into rampant global capitalism. Franz Alexander said years ago that

  11. Varieties of Castration Experience: Relevance to Contemporary Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graeme J

    2016-03-01

    Although Freud considered castration to be one of the two major anxieties of human life, the castration complex has been relatively neglected in contemporary psychoanalytic writing and is insufficiently discussed in presentations of clinical cases. This article discusses the relevance of the concept to contemporary psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy, in particular the important contributing role of castration conflicts in the pathogenesis of a wide range of clinical symptoms. The author begins by briefly reviewing some classical and contemporary psychoanalytic ideas about castration to show how the concept has broadened and is currently used not only to signify fear of damage to or loss of the genital, but also metaphorically to indicate a threat to or loss of any valued human characteristic or function. He outlines Brenner's distinction between castration anxiety and castration depression, and reviews the role of childhood trauma in intensifying castration conflicts. He then illustrates the clinical application of these ideas by describing aspects of his psychotherapeutic work with three male patients who presented with a variety of symptoms and distressing psychological experiences that were gradually resolved through the analysis of underlying castration anxiety and/or castration depression. Although castration anxiety is frequently intermingled with separation anxiety, the author concludes that with many traumatized patients castration conflicts are in the foreground and the therapist needs to focus on the patient's proneness to humiliation, powerlessness, and shame.

  12. [Habermas, Freud and rationality. Psychoanalysis as a focus of the theory of communicative interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, R

    1991-07-01

    In his Theory of Communicative Action (1981) Jürgen Habermas attempted to base the critique of society on a universalized pragmatics. Heim attempts to derive a new metatheory of psychoanalysis from the theory of communicative action. In doing so he concentrates on the actual models of interpretation in psychoanalysis (Lacan, Marcuse, Lorenzer).

  13. Freud in the media: A proposal for exploration of cinematic conception of Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Ramírez Muñoz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing the meetings and divergences between the Cinema and Psychoanalysis, then develop some notions of audiovisual analysis of film texts, a brief itinerary of Psychoanalysts and practices performed throughout the history of the film industry. Finally, a methodological and research proposal, designed to relieve some theory on mass media arises what would Psychoanalysis, through the study of film reconstruction of this.

  14. The Berlin tradition in Chicago: Franz Alexander and the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Erika S

    2010-01-01

    Freud considered Franz Alexander, the first graduate of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute and an assistant in the Berlin Polyclinic, to be "one of our strongest hopes for the future." Alexander went on to become the first director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis in 1932 and modeled some of the Chicago Institute's mission on his Berlin experiences. He was also a researcher in psychosomatic medicine, a prolific writer about psychoanalysis and prominent in psychoanalytic organizations. As he proposed modifications in psychoanalytic technique, he became a controversial figure, especially in the elaboration of his ideas about brief therapy and the corrective emotional experience. This paper puts Alexander's achievements in historical context, draws connections between the Berlin and Chicago Institutes and suggests that, despite his quarrels with traditional psychoanalysis, Alexander's legacy may be in his attitude towards psychoanalysis, characterized by a commitment to scientific study, a willingness to experiment, and a conviction about the role of psychoanalysis within the larger culture.

  15. Assessing the economic feasibility of the gradual decarbonization of a large electric power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco; Archer, Cristina; Noel, Lance Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The decarbonization of power systems is among the primary actions to fight air pollution and climate change. In this study, we evaluate the costs of a gradual transition towards a new power system in which the oldest coal plants are replaced with low-carbon power plants. We developed the Wind...... of coal. Different strategies to replace coal plants are evaluated: 1) installing only new, high-efficiency, natural-gas combined-cycle plants (control case), 2) installing new wind farms in combination with natural-gas combined-cycle plants used as spinning reserves (wind case), and 3) same as the wind...... of new natural-gas reserve capacity, is the most economic and the most environmentally responsible pathway to replace retiring coal-fired power plants in PJM....

  16. Theory and practice in psychoanalysis: psychoanalytic praxis. 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleger, José

    2012-08-01

    The author systematises and examines the relation between theory and practice in psychoanalysis in three directions: one, eminently epistemological, which is only mentioned because it pertains not only to psychoanalysis but to all the sciences; another, the relation between theory and technique; and the third, the relation between theory and the institutional organisation of psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts. All the problems described, especially the second and third points, together define psychoanalytic praxis. With regard to contradictions between theory and technique, the author points out that psychoanalytic theory is constructed fundamentally on the basis of an approach that is historico-genetic, dynamic and consistent with formal logic, whereas psychoanalytic practice occurs within a transference–countertransference relation, in a situation configured as an analytic field, a ‘here and now’, within a dramatic explanation and in a dialectic process. This triple diagnosis involves naturalistic and phenomenological approaches, the problem of objectivity and the role given to sexuality as a privileged parameter in psychoanalytic theory. In relation to the third direction mentioned above,the author refers briefly to the problem of psychoanalytic organisations, in the sense that they come into conflict with the development of psychoanalytic theory and the deepening of investigation. In reference to the latter, the author emphasises the need to widen the perspective of what constitutes psychoanalytic praxis. He points out that praxis is always replete with contradictions and that it is not a question of ignoring,denying or impeding these contradictions themselves (which would in any case be totally ineffective), but that by taking them into account, scientific development could be managed in a more planned way, less blindly; that is to say, less abandoned to spontaneity.

  17. Freud, psychoanalysis, and the therapeutic effect of agapic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Eugene J

    2014-04-01

    Last year, when reading Freud's letters to Jung, I came across a most interesting passage in which Freud claimed that the "talking cure" (i.e., psychoanalysis) was the result of love--not transference, counter-transference, or another neologism of psychiatry. That is, Freud said to Jung, the cure in psychoanalysis is affected by love (McGuire, 1974 ). I meditated on this for a long while: It is interesting that Freud--whose wife was a bat kohen, daughter of a priest/rabbi--and Jung, the son and grandson of Protestant Christian ministers, would have such a soteriological dialog at the beginning of the psychoanalytic era. This remark on love was not just a one-off observation, either. The minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society affirm this line of thinking: "Our cures are cures of love" (Haynal, 1994, p. 24). Clearly, Freud and his contemporaries were talking about agape, the kind of love God has for humanity, not eros, a physical desire for another person. There is much written in contemporary psychiatric literature about fears of boundary crossing in mental health (Gabbard, 1995 ); Jung's documented erotic relationship with medical student and patient, Sabina Spielrein, may be the causa causans of this concern. But, these fears--correct concerns about untoward involvement in sexual relationships with patients--have obscured the real importance of what Freud and Jung were talking about back in the beginning of their movement. More than 100 years later, it may well be time to revisit the early dialogue of the founders of psychoanalysis and hear them in their own words once again.

  18. Psychopathia sexualis: sexuality in old and new psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, Louis

    2014-02-01

    The different conceptions of sexuality in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis are explored. Freud's misguided theories of sexual or libidinal drives and the Oedipus complex are shown to be defenses against his own traumatic attachment history. The evidence for this is found in a review of his childhood and self-analysis, and further illustrated with the cases reported in the Studies on Hysteria and elsewhere. Modern views of sex turn these old theories on their heads, demonstrating that sexual fantasies and actions are phenomena, unique to each individual, that are themselves in need of explanation. These radically different conceptions of sexuality are illustrated with 3 case histories. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Shoulder replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems Bleeding , blood clot , or infection Risks of shoulder replacement surgery are: Allergic reaction to the artificial joint Blood vessel damage during surgery Bone break during surgery Nerve damage during surgery Dislocation of the artificial joint Loosening of the implant ...

  20. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ankle replacement surgery are: Ankle weakness, stiffness, or instability Loosening of the artificial joint over time Skin ... Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  1. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  2. Freudian Notion of Psychoanalysis: Its Implications in Contemporary Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Afzal Awan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The author has engaged in a critical review of Frued's notion of psychoanalysis and its vitality in teaching.  Illustrating from Freud's own assertions and through the interpretations of the later critics, the author has pointed out certain noticeable pitfalls and, or incapacities of contemporary teaching practices. The forces of aggression and sex exert their influence through the unconscious drives to make teaching, holds Freud, one of the 'impossible' professions.  Impossibility of teaching does not imply an absolute failure of all what education stands for, but it refers to the challenges of the problematic nature of the profession. Teaching a child entails a tug of war between 'conscious self' and 'unconscious drives'. This tug of war is organized by ill-conceived notions of love, kindness, motherhood associated with teachers. On the contrary, the contemporary teaching practices are guided by coercive methods of subjugation, standardized tests and institutional control. None but the leaner suffers in this predicament. This is how more damage than the benefit is suspected from education. The author concludes that a more liberal environment can create a space for the leaner to appease the vulnerable impulses of sex and aggression without affecting the natural creativity which is probably the greatest intrinsic capital to invest for great gains. Frued's notion of psychoanalysis can be a means to an end but not an end in itself. It can defend teaching from failing in its pursuits; if the failure is predetermined, teachers may fail honorably rather than miserably.

  3. This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence.

  4. Se Faire Voir with Jung and the Ethics of Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gildersleeve

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is an important addition to my previous work of integrating Jungian and Lacanian psychoanalysis (see Complexes Tickling the $ubject. A main focus of this article is to use Zizek’s interpretation of Lacan’s writing on desire and drive in relation to my Heideggerian interpretation of Jung. As a result, this article is an important contribution to the literature because it shows the importance of the transcendent function; complexes and the Rosarium Philosophorum to elucidate the ethics of desire and drive. This article shows how Heidegger’s work in Being and Time and his interpretation of Nietzsche is important to detail the process of Lacanian psychoanalysis. Nietzsche’s books; Human All Too Human and The Gay Science will also be discussed as well as Sartre’s Being and Nothingness and Zizek’s writing on the cunning of reason; Kantian ethics; beyond the pleasure principle; Kierkegaard; Sisyphus; anxiety; Hitchcock; Gelassenheit; the Gospel of Matthew and error as a fundamental passage to truth.

  5. [Psychoanalysis and neuroscience: the end of a schism ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotstra, F

    2007-01-01

    For some neurobiologists, present biological descriptions of the brain may integrate the theoretical frame initiated by Freud. The recent acquisitions of neurobiology prove a plasticity of the neural network anabling the inscription of the experiment. The neuroplasticity constitutes the cornerstone of the reconciliation between the psychoanalysis and neurosciences. The brain must not be considered as a rigid organ, determined and determining but well as a dynamic structure, in constant rebuilding. Contrary to the genetic determinism, the plasticity involves diversity and singularity. The variations of the feasible offered by the plasticity are seducing but to what extent towards the constraint of genetics and the epigenetic ? Both concepts, plasticity and epigenesis are well distinct. An epigenetic phenomenon associated to a maternal behaviour seems to have been proved recently in the rat. Attachment and depression require reflection in the sight of epigenesis and plasticity. The Freud concepts are not always applied to biological patterns without any clumsiness. Demonstrating psychoanalysis from neurosciences or the contrary does not seem very realistic. On the other hand there should a good reason to give rise to exchange, to make a clear distinction between psychoanalytical unconsciousness and neurological unconsciousness, and put an end to the groundless opposition between mental and cerebral.

  6. Freud's 'thought-transference', repression, and the future of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D

    1983-01-01

    Psychoanalysts since Freud have largely neglected his important, paradigmatic ideas on the possibility of 'thought-transference' (telepathy) as an influence in mental life. A chance recording of two dreams which proved to coincide in some detail with distant reality events again suggests evidence in favour of the telepathy hypothesis. On interpretation, one of these dreams reveals even greater correspondence with the reality event and shows the mechanism of transformation of the repressed wish from latent dream content into manifest dream, utilizing a number of elements of the dream instigator, an apparently telepathically received day residue. Working with this material proceeded against very strong resistance, most evident in repeated forgetting of one or another bit of the clinical data. This has been the fate of ideas pertaining to the occult since Freud's first formulations, as is documented here by references to the early history of psychoanalysis. The issue now and for the future is whether psychoanalysis will continue to ignore the crucial question of validity in regard to the telepathy hypothesis. The psychoanalytic method is uniquely qualified to investigate so-called parapsychological phenomena and has the same obligation to do so as with other mental events. We need to examine the evidence in spite of the threat posed to our conventional understanding of the limits of the mind by the very act of acknowledging the question. If we can overcome our resistance to undertaking this task, we may find that, once again, Freud pointed the way towards discovery of a new paradigm in science.

  7. Child and adolescent psychoanalysis: research, practice and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J

    1997-06-01

    In the last fifteen years, there have been three major developments in child and adolescent psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically informed psychotherapy. After briefly reviewing what is clear and unclear about the nature of child psychoanalysis, the author describes and critiques three recent trends: (1) a greater differentiation of aetiological factors that involves an enhanced understanding about developmental influences and how they may be utilised therapeutically; (2) a shift in child analytic theory to a more equitable balance between internal and external factors, with more attention being paid to the external; and (3) a significant increase in the psychoanalytically informed, empirical study of development as well as the process and outcome of treatment. Changes in these three overlapping domains are examined and their relevance to clinical practice discussed. It is suggested that the increase in the systematic and empirical study of the child psychoanalytic process has been the most significant recent development in the field; it is this that has the greatest potential to minimise rhetoric, to support discovery and to clarify what is unique about psychoanalytically informed work with children and adolescents.

  8. Intergenerational work as an adjunct to psychoanalysis and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, S

    1995-01-01

    Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are opportunities for individuals to repair faulty aspects of their development that have resulted in symptoms or other difficulties in living. Although transference is the major therapeutic tool in this work, it is not the only one. The potential resources for healing that exist in family relationships is great, especially as these relationships go on long after therapy has ended. We are all living longer; families of three and four generations are no longer uncommon. There are many adult patients who have one or both parents alive and well. Intergenerational work can be a useful adjunct where there is no severe narcissistic pathology or psychosis in either patient or parent. It is especially helpful in cases where there is severe resistance and insight is not effective in promoting change. "By focusing constantly on the patient's transference distortions and ignoring reality elements we undermine self-esteem and make him feel he is always wrong, sick or crazy" (Greenson, 1978b,p. 434). The addition of intergenerational work in the course of psychoanalysis/psychotherapy can shorten the time of therapy and be another tool for dealing with resistance. This work has theoretical implications for the modification of the place that transference has in psychoanalytic therapy. By placing greater emphasis on the patient's real relationships in influencing intrapsychic change we pave the way to exciting clinical and theoretical possibilities.

  9. Group affective learning in training for psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Jill Savege; Scharff, David E

    2017-03-04

    This paper describes The Group Affective Model, a method for teaching psychoanalytic concepts and their clinical application, using multi-channel teaching, process and review in group settings, and learning from experience in an open systems learning community for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. This innovation arose in response to criticism of existing methods in psychoanalytic education that have subordinated the primary educational task to that of the training analysis. Noticing this split between education and training analysis, between cognition and affect, and between concepts of individual and group unconscious processes, we developed the Group Affective Model for teaching and learning psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in an open psychological space in which students and faculty experience individual and group processes of digestion, assimilation, and review, which demonstrate the concepts in action and make them available for internalization selectively. We discuss our philosophy and our educational stance. We describe our institution and our participants. We give examples of teaching situations that we have studied to provide some insight about assimilation and internalization of the concepts and clinical approaches being taught. We discuss the transferability of the Group Affective Model to other teaching settings and psychoanalytic training institutions and propose it as the fourth pillar of psychoanalytic training, next to analytic treatment, clinical supervision, and didactic seminars. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. On teaching psychoanalysis in antianalytic times: a polemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, N

    2000-12-01

    The author argues that in the current attitudinal climate, characterized by significant denigration of psychoanalysis coming from biologically oriented psychiatrists, academic psychologists, pharmaceutical firms, insurance companies, managed care organizations, anxious taxpayers, and revisionist critics of Freud, psychoanalysts need to adapt their training and supervisory practices to take into account the preconceptions of many of those seeking training as psychotherapists. Specifically, we need to appreciate the nature of the transferences toward analysts and analysis that exist in the wider mental health community and in the general public. These include assumptions that analysts are cold, arrogant, rigid, and worshipful toward Freud (who is himself seen as cold, arrogant, rigid, and narcissistic), and the prevalent misconception that psychoanalysis has been empirically discredited. Analysts need to find creative and honest ways, some of which are suggested by the author, to challenge the distortions in these stereotypes and to respond nondefensively and generatively to the grains of truth they contain. The essay concludes with some reminders of the legitimate strengths of the psychoanalytic tradition that suggest that its future is not as bleak as its disparagers have assumed.

  11. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Gradual Reliability Sensitivity Analysis of Mechanical Part Considering Preventive Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Li Changyou; Liu Haiyang; Guo Song; Zhang Yimin; Li Zhenyuan

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mechanical parts are subject to failure due to the deterioration. Usually the preventive maintenance is taken to ensure the safety and reliability. Therefore, it is very important to study the gradual reliability design of the mechanical part for improving the gradual reliability of the mechanical system under the condition of considering the preventive maintenance. Beta distribution is employed to describe the randomness of the mechanical part state after the preventive maintenance....

  13. Factors Affecting the Understanding and Use of Psychoanalysis in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busiol, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The majority of Western psychotherapies are known and practiced in Hong Kong, while psychoanalysis still has little resonance. A recent study finds that psychoanalysis is perceived neither as ineffective nor as necessarily in conflict with Hong Kong Chinese values. Nevertheless, Hong Kong Chinese culture influences how psychoanalysis is received and understood, when compared to Mainland China and Taiwan. It is argued that a better reception in the latter two was possible because of different social and historical backgrounds, different clinical backgrounds of those who receive training, and the more active role of Western psychoanalysts. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  14. The Rift of the Big Other. Psychoanalysis and Politics Starting from Lacan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavallari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to open the space for a dabate between political theory and psychoanalysis, by starting from the problematisation of some of the most fundamental concepts offered by the analytic theory of Jacques Lacan. Through the analysis of key-Lacanian categories like symbolic structure, big Other, object a, symptom, the article exposes the main misunderstandings that characterise the work of many contemporary political theorists and psychoanalysts who refer to adopt Lacanian psychoanalysis as an instrument for an hermeneutics of politics. Finally the article develops some guidelines for directing the application of Lacanian psychoanalysis toward the renewal of the conceptual apparatus of political theory.

  15. Gradual Rewarming with Gradual Increase in Pressure during Machine Perfusion after Cold Static Preservation Reduces Kidney Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Mahboub

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated whether gradual rewarming after the period of cold ischemia would improve organ quality in an Isolated Perfused Kidney Model. Left rat kidneys were statically cold stored in University of Wisconsin solution for 24 hours at 4°C. After cold storage kidneys were rewarmed in one of three ways: perfusion at body temperature (38°C, or rewarmed gradually from 10°C to 38°C with stabilization at 10°C for 30 min and rewarmed gradually from 10°C to 38°C with stabilization at 25°C for 30 min. In the gradual rewarming groups the pressure was increased stepwise to 40 mmHg at 10°C and 70 mmHg at 25°C to counteract for vasodilatation leading to low perfusate flows. Renal function parameters and injury biomarkers were measured in perfusate and urine samples. Increases in injury biomarkers such as aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase in the perfusate were lower in the gradual rewarming groups versus the control group. Sodium re-absorption was improved in the gradual rewarming groups and reached significance in the 25°C group after ninety minutes of perfusion. HSP-70, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 mRNA expressions were decreased in the 10°C and 25°C groups. Based on the data kidneys that underwent gradual rewarming suffered less renal parenchymal, tubular injury and showed better endothelial preservation. Renal function improved in the gradual rewarming groups versus the control group.

  16. [Psychoanalysis and the "Kinderladen" movement. A view on four projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Werder, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Along with the reception of Critical Theory in the student movement of the 1960s, psychoanalytically influenced social criticism was spread by the SDS and the Argument-Club. This had prac tical consequences, especially for the development of antiauthoritarian education, often practiced by psychoanalytical autodidacts. The public outrage caused by antiauthoritarian education was overwhelming. Throughout the media excited reactions to "wild analysis" and "pedagogic experiments" were expressed. Conservative psychoanalysts, politicians and educationalists condemned each new approach to education and alleged oedipal acting-out and danger to the safety of the state and democracy. The emancipatory educational reform on the ground broke under the pressure of conservatism. Now is the time to draw a reasonable balance of the four year alliance between psychoanalysis and the student movement, especially as it seems that this alliance has not only a past but also a future.

  17. What Psychoanalysis, Culture And Society Mean To Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews some ways that the social and psychic have been understood in psychoanalysis and argues that a model for understanding the relation between the psychic and the social must account both for the ways that we internalize oppressive norms as well as the ways we resist them. The author proposes that we build our identities in relation to other identities circulating in our culture and that cultural hierarchies of sexism, racism, classism push us to split off part of what it means to be human, thereby creating painful individual and relational repetition compulsions. These “normative unconscious processes” replicate the unjust social norms that cause psychic pain in the first place. The paper concludes with thoughts about contemporary US culture, in which the government has abdicated responsibility toward its most vulnerable citizens and has thus rendered vulnerability and dependence shameful states. PMID:22058628

  18. Medical semiotics; its influence on art, psychoanalysis and Sherlock Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-McCann, Brenda

    2016-11-01

    Semiotics is the analysis and interpretation of signs and the basis of medicine since antiquity. It is suggested that the growth of technology has led to the virtual eclipse of the clinical examination with consequent loss of skill, empathy and patient trust. This paper views the value of medical semiotics through the method of the 19th century Italian doctor, Giovanni Morelli, which has had a significant but little recognised impact on the early development of psychoanalysis, the detective novel and art connoisseurship. Semiotics and, specifically, the linguistic semiotics of Ferdinand Saussure have been influential in the fields of the visual arts, literature and the social sciences since the 20th century. With its roots in the medical treatises of antiquity, medical semiotics should again be brought to the forefront of medical practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The Logic of Appearance: Dennett, Phenomenology and Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyaerts, Jasper; Vanheule, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    In the present essay, we aim to develop and contrast three different positions toward Sellars’ distinction between the manifest and scientific images of man: Dennett’s philosophical reconstruction of neurocognitive science, contemporary phenomenology and psychoanalysis. We will suggest that these respective traditions and the substantial differences between them can be understood in terms of a ‘logic of appearance.’ Related to this are differing ideas about the rights and limits of the first-person perspective, the relation between conscious experience and belief, and the issue of naturalization. In the final part, we will try to specify, on the basis of a detailed reading of the disagreement between Dennett and phenomenology, in what way psychoanalytic theory could respond to these different issues. PMID:28878725

  20. Beyond pluralism: psychoanalysis and the workings of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Fred

    2011-10-01

    Subjects that Freud excluded or incompletely explored have been sites of theoretical expansion in over a century of observation: the role of the other, the self, the preoedipal period, action, the countertransference, limits to neutrality/anonymity/abstinence, the loci of the analytic drama, effects beyond interpretation, agency, and basic needs (versus wishes). These developments have led to conflicting theories and sect-like groupings within the field. Group psychological processes underlying this are discussed; and a broad and inclusive view of psychoanalysis is proposed under the heading of the study of the workings of mind. Additionally, substantial integrative proposals are offered with respect to the central tasks of individual development, theories of mind, the relational turn, and aspects of technique.

  1. Conflicts and missed signals in psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and Gestalt psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David J; Kilgour, Andrea R; Wasylkiw, Louise

    2000-04-01

    At the turn of the 20th century, European psychologists found themselves in conflict situations with respect to the role that private mental states should play in a scientific psychology. Out of this conflict arose 3 of the best-known schools of the 20th century: psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and Gestalt psychology. Each of these schools is discussed with respect to two characteristics. First, the authors discuss the attitude of each school on the meaning of the word unconscious as it was understood around 1900. Second, the authors discuss the influence of each school on the reception accorded to books written around 1900 espousing viewpoints that did not cohere with the school's beliefs. Such books may be considered "missed signals" in the history of psychology. "Hits" associated with each school are also highlighted.

  2. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE ARTS: THE SLIPPERY GROUND OF APPLIED ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Adela

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which today's psychoanalysts approach art closely follow the avenues opened by Freud a hundred years ago. Drawing mainly on Freud's studies on Jensen's Gradiva (1907) and on Leonardo da Vinci (1910a), the author examines the main paradigms he used in discussing artistic activity, including his doubts and hesitations. Present-day approaches to art are then examined via a discussion of the advantages and pitfalls of psychobiography, of the case study, and of textual approaches. The author makes a case for the type of interdisciplinary dialogue in which the goal is to establish a cross-fertilization between psychoanalysis and other fields of knowledge while striving to avoid hypersaturation of a work of art in order to foster expansion of the mind. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  3. The early history of boundary violations in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, G O

    1995-01-01

    The notion of professional boundaries is a relatively recent addition to psychoanalytic practice. Freud and his early disciples indulged in a good deal of trial and error as they evolved psychoanalytic technique. The study of these early boundary violations illuminates the study of the evolution of the concepts of transference and countertransference. The recent publication of the correspondence between Freud and Jung, between Freud and Ferenczi, and between Freud and Jones has provided us with extraordinary insights into the boundary transgressions that occurred in the early days of psychoanalysis. The boundary violations of the analytic pioneers have contributed to the legacy inherited by future generations of analysts. Institutional resistance to addressing these difficulties in contemporary psychoanalytic practice may relate in part to the ambiguities surrounding boundaries in the training analysis itself.

  4. Lewis Carroll and psychoanalysis: why nothing adds up in wonderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Each generation of psychoanalyst has found different things to value and sometimes to censure in Lewis Carroll's remarkable fiction and flights of fancy. But what does Carroll's almost 'surrealist' perspective in the Alice stories tell us about the rituals and symbols that govern life beyond Wonderland and Looking-Glass World? Arguing that Carroll's strong interest in meaning and nonsense in these and later works helps make the world strange to readers, the better to show it off-kilter, this essay focuses on Jacques Lacan's Carroll - the writer-logician who stressed, as Lacan did, the difficulty and price of adapting to the symbolic order. By reconsidering Lacan's 1966 homage to the eccentric Victorian, I argue that Carroll's insight into meaning and interpretation remains of key interest to psychoanalysts intent on hearing all that he had to say about psychic life. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. August Aichhorn: a different vision of psychoanalysis, children, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Galatzer-Levy, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Though August Aichhorn, in name, remains a significant figure in the history of psychoanalysis, his ideas have been all but abandoned in the modern clinical conception of the treatment of children and adolescents who act out. The current treatment of children and adolescents, so disturbed that their behavior demands treatment outside of their home environment, is currently rudderless and highly dependent on broad societal counter-transferential reactions to disturbed youth. We argue that not only does Aichhorn hold a distinguished position in the history of the treatment of youngsters, but that his ideas about the meaning of severely disruptive behavior as well as the techniques which align with those theories remain relevant and, if utilized, would improve the treatment of severely disturbed youth.

  6. The Logic of Appearance: Dennett, Phenomenology and Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyaerts, Jasper; Vanheule, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    In the present essay, we aim to develop and contrast three different positions toward Sellars' distinction between the manifest and scientific images of man: Dennett's philosophical reconstruction of neurocognitive science, contemporary phenomenology and psychoanalysis. We will suggest that these respective traditions and the substantial differences between them can be understood in terms of a 'logic of appearance.' Related to this are differing ideas about the rights and limits of the first-person perspective, the relation between conscious experience and belief, and the issue of naturalization. In the final part, we will try to specify, on the basis of a detailed reading of the disagreement between Dennett and phenomenology, in what way psychoanalytic theory could respond to these different issues.

  7. The dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience: what does philosophy of mind say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheniaux, Elie; Lyra, Carlos Eduardo de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    To briefly review how the main monist and dualist currents of philosophy of mind approach the mind-body problem and to describe their association with arguments for and against a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. The literature was reviewed for studies in the fields of psychology, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind. Some currents are incompatible with a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neurosciences: interactionism and psychophysical parallelism, because they do not account for current knowledge about the brain; epiphenomenalism, which claims that the mind is a mere byproduct of the brain; and analytical behaviorism, eliminative materialism, reductive materialism and functionalism, because they ignore subjective experiences. In contrast, emergentism claims that mental states are dependent on brain states, but have properties that go beyond the field of neurobiology. Only emergentism is compatible with a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

  8. THE EPISTEMOLOGY BEHIND THE CURTAIN: THOUGHTS ON THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brett H

    2017-07-01

    This essay is concerned with the epistemological complications of the interface between psychoanalysis and "scientific" disciplines and methodologies-in particular, with respect to theories of knowledge and conceptualizations of subjectivity appropriate to psychoanalysis. The author suggests that there is in such interface the potential for an untheorized scientism in empiricist prescriptions for the reform and rescue of psychoanalysis, and revisits the notion that subjectivity as conceived psychoanalytically, grounded in lived experience, is irreducible in ways that are unique and existentially abiding. The author explores the problem through the lens of philosophical hermeneutics and cautions against merging psychoanalysis, under the guise of a salutary pluralism, with disciplines guided by a systematized empiricism and its attendant epistemological commitments. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  9. The dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience: what does philosophy of mind say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Cheniaux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To briefly review how the main monist and dualist currents of philosophy of mind approach the mind-body problem and to describe their association with arguments for and against a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.Methods: The literature was reviewed for studies in the fields of psychology, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind.Results: Some currents are incompatible with a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neurosciences: interactionism and psychophysical parallelism, because they do not account for current knowledge about the brain; epiphenomenalism, which claims that the mind is a mere byproduct of the brain; and analytical behaviorism, eliminative materialism, reductive materialism and functionalism, because they ignore subjective experiences. In contrast, emergentism claims that mental states are dependent on brain states, but have properties that go beyond the field of neurobiology.Conclusions: Only emergentism is compatible with a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

  10. Why did Sigmund Freud refuse to see Pierre Janet? Origins of psychoanalysis: Janet, Freud or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Pierre Janet and Joseph Breuer were the true originators of psychoanalysis. Freud greatly elaborated on their findings. Freud initially admitted these facts but denied them in later life. Janet discovered the concept transference before Freud.

  11. [Hans Prinzhorn. His discussion of psychoanalysis in Dresden and Frankfurt (1922-1928)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Hans Prinzhorn, author of a classical work on the art of mentally ill patients, has almost been forgotten as a psychotherapist discussing psychoanalysis. For several years he worked in a sanatorium in Dresden where Frieda Fromm-Reichmann was one of his colleagues. He supported psychoanalysis at first, but later considered it too rationalistic and scientific. As testified by his writings, this resulted from an attitude which was basically aristocratic and was also responsible for his denigration of other promising approaches.

  12. Relational Dimension in Social Education: contributions of psychoanalysis to its understanding and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Junqueira Grandino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper rescues Social Education practices that emerged by the work of social educators in the 1980s, emphasizing the relational dimension considering the formation of bonds of trust and building horizontal relationships between educators and pupils. From this, the paper clarifies some processes in the light of Psychoanalysis and reflects on contributions of this subject to the field of Social EducationKey words: Social education; children and adolescentes; psychoanalysis

  13. A born global’s radical, gradual and nonlinear internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissak, Tiia; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2016-01-01

    a case of a Belarusian door producer that has invested to seven and exported to 11 more countries, we conclude that a home country’s political, economic environment can be a crucial ‘push’ factor for a firm’s fast internationalization but, thereafter, it can internationalize gradually due to lacking......This paper contributes to the literature on internationalization processes by showing that a born global can experience nonlinear internationalization (de-and re-internationalize) after radical, fast initial growth, and use some subsidiaries as bases for further gradual expansion. After studying...

  14. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this method, the energy and continuity equations are solved for steady, gradually varied flow by the Newton–Raphson method and the proposed methodology is applied to tree-type and looped-channel networks. An algorithm is presented to determine multiple critical depths in a compound channel. Modifications in ...

  15. Abrupt or gradual increases in photoperiod for broiler breeders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broiler breeders transferred from closed rearing to curtain-sided adult accommodation (similar to that in which a large proportion of broiler breeders are housed) respond similarly to abrupt and gradual increases in daylength as do birds maintained throughout in controlled environment accommodation, and modern ...

  16. Diurnal gradual heat stress affects antioxidant enzymes, proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though high temperatures significantly reduce both vegetative growth and yield in cotton, very little is known about the effects of heat stress on cotton antioxidant system. Thus, the effects of gradual heat stress on cotton growth in controlled conditions were investigated in the present study. At squaring stage, cotton ...

  17. Is synaesthesia really stable – or does it gradually consolidate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    is that the associations are stable over time. However, here we present the case of AR, a colour-grapheme synaesthete who clearly demonstrate synaesthesia, but also a gradual consolidation over time (Sørensen, Nordfang, & Ásgeirsson, accepted). Also, AR does not demonstrate some of the typical modulations of attention...

  18. Mathematical Modelling of the Gradual Aging of Systems using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical Modelling of the Gradual Aging of Systems using the weibull hazard function. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... This paper proposes a mathematical model for obtaining the shape and scale parameters, and the implication of these parameters in obtaining the aging coefficient of ...

  19. Gradual Rewarming with Gradual Increase in Pressure during Machine Perfusion after Cold Static Preservation Reduces Kidney Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahboub, Paria; Ottens, Petra; Seelen, Marc; 't Hart, Nails; van Goor, Harry; Ploeg, Rutger; Martins, Paulo; Leuvenink, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluated whether gradual rewarming after the period of cold ischemia would improve organ quality in an Isolated Perfused Kidney Model. Left rat kidneys were statically cold stored in University of Wisconsin solution for 24 hours at 4 degrees C. After cold storage kidneys were

  20. Sudden Death and Gradual Decay in Visual Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    General Douglas MacArthur famously remarked that “Old soldiers never die; they just fade away” (General Douglas MacArthur, April 19, 1951). For decades, researchers have concluded that visual working memories, like old soldiers, fade away gradually, becoming progressively less precise as they are retained for longer periods of time. However, these conclusions were based on threshold estimation procedures in which the complete termination of a memory could artifactually produce the appearance ...

  1. Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain’s resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state’ spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as “psychological structure.” Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes. PMID:22485098

  2. Psychoanalysis of maturescence (definition, metapsychology, and clinical practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Mag Guillermo Julio

    2015-12-01

    This article offers an entirely new way of addressing middle age or mid-life. It uses the neologism maturescence to denote this process's metapsychological feature, and it proposes a meta-psychology of maturescence in order to allow a 'direct understanding of maturescence' instead of the 'indirect understanding of maturescence', which psychoanalytic literature generally alludes to. The paper examines somatic processes specific to male and female climacterics and is focused on to the tension between the soma and the body. It examines the drive increase that Freud posed in climacterics and the somatic climacteric imbalance that begets specific drive activity demanding psychic work, with very different pathways depending on the individual's specific working-through activity. It discusses what happens to the individual when he/she is no longer able to procreate and begins to age; why this process is equivalent for individuals who had children and for others who could not or did not. This somatic event provides a universal constant from which it is possible to understand any individual variable. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Psychoanalysis and bioethics: a Lacanian approach to bioethical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2016-12-01

    This article aims to develop a Lacanian approach to bioethics. Point of departure is the fact that both psychoanalysis and bioethics are practices of language, combining diagnostics with therapy. Subsequently, I will point out how Lacanian linguistics may help us to elucidate the dynamics of both psychoanalytical and bioethical discourse, using the movie One flew over the Cuckoo's Nest and Sophocles' tragedy Antigone as key examples. Next, I will explain the 'topology' of the bioethical landscape with the help of Lacan's three dimensions: the imaginary, the symbolical and the real. This will culminate in an assessment of the dynamics of bioethical discourse with the help of Lacan's theorem of the four discourses. Bioethics, I will argue, is not a homogeneous discourse. Rather, four modalities of bioethical discourse can be distinguished, all of them displaying specific weaknesses and strengths, opportunities and threats. This will be elucidated with the help of two case studies, namely the debates on human reproductive technologies and on the use of animals as biomedical research models.

  4. [Towards the Files. Psychoanalysis and its publishing house strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windgätter, Christof

    2009-09-01

    The following case study deals with the Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, founded 1919 in Vienna by a group around Sigmund Freud and shut down in 1938 by the Gestapo. During that time the Verlag published the titles of the contemporary psychoanalytic movement, including the first psychoanalytic dictionary, the Almanach as a yearbook, the four authoritative journals, as well as the first complete edition of Freud's writings. A single publishing house became thus responsible for the appearance of an entire theory--a unique situation without historical comparison. My thesis here is that the Verlag initiated certain strategies of publicising (e.g. centralising the movement, enforcing the company's name, labelling its activities) that were, prior to arguments and contents, constitutive for the development of psychoanalysis as well as its implementation within the field of science. Consequently, these strategies cannot be found through interpretations of psychoanalytical texts, but in the genuine files and in view of the material products (books, journals, blurbs, advertisements etc.) that were passed down from the Verlag. As an opening step, this essay explores several of those Viennese files, showing that the Verlag not only struggled with monetary and personal problems but rather and foremost launched branding, marketing and public relation campaigns as key concepts to make sciences and its particular knowledge acceptable. As a result the Verlag changed from a commercial and distributive institution to an epistemic medium.

  5. Linking psychoanalysis with neuroscience: the concept of ego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Semi, Antonio Alberto; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2014-03-01

    Through his whole life Marc Jeannerod was fascinated by Freud's thinking. His interest in Freud is witnessed by several of his writings in which he expresses interest in building a bridge between psychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. Following Jeannerod's ideas we discuss here a fundamental point of Freud's construction, the concept of ego, from a neurophysiological point of view. We maintain that, in order both to act coherently and to have a basic, first person, understanding of the behavior of others, it is necessary to posit the existence of a neurophysiological "motor" ego similar to the "rider" of the Freudian metaphor. We review then a series of neurophysiological findings showing that the systems underlying the organization of action and conscious perception are both mediated by a cortical motor network formed by parieto-frontal circuits. In conclusion, we show that the activity of this network has strong similarities to that postulated by Freud for the conscious part of ego. We also propose that the default-mode network might represent that part of ego that is mostly involved in unconscious processes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [Hans von Hattingberg between psychoanalysis and National Socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifenheim, Katharina Eva

    2011-01-01

    Hans von Hattingberg (1879-1944) worked as a neurologist and psychoanalyst in Munich and Berlin from about 1910 to 1944. He was a prolific writer, but met with increasing disapproval from Freud and his circle. An advocate of the union of different psychotherapeutic schools, he was initially a marginal figure in the professional field. With Hitler's rise to power his career prospered: He was offered the position of a lecturer for psychotherapy and became head of the research department at the "Göring Institute". He came to prominence with his writings on the "Neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde" despite the fact that this was never his preferred topic. The main themes of his publications were marriage, love and female emancipation. Those works contain only little of the standard Nazi ideology of the time. Not only was Hattingberg never a member of the NSDAP (the ruling party), but in some respects he could conceivably be considered a member of the resistance. The article outlines the most important stages of Hattingberg's life and focuses on the question of how he positioned himself after 1933, when it became vital for him to reconcile psychoanalysis and National Socialism.

  7. Freud's Irma dream and the origins of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs, R

    1984-12-01

    This paper investigates Freud's Irma dream as a response, in part, to the publication of Studies on Hysteria (Breuer & Freud, 1893-1895). As such, Freud's dream and associations reveal a great deal regarding the origins of psychoanalysis. The preamble to the dream reflects Freud's concern with the ground rules and boundaries of the psychotherapeutic technique that he was in the process of developing. This paper cites evidence for Freud's concerns regarding the consequences of alterations in these basic tenets. The Irma dream and Freud's associations also convey a deep and apparently unconscious concern within Freud in respect to the concept of transference, which he may have realized on some level had been used to defensively deny disturbing inputs by the therapist into the treatment situation and patient. The dream may be understood also as reflecting a deep sense of concern regarding unrecognized harmful effects of psychoanalytic psychotherapy and Freud's concern that the treatment process might be more destructive than helpful. The curative aspects of psychotherapy are viewed in terms of action-discharge rather than insight. In all, this reanalysis of the Irma dream focuses on Freud's unconscious conflicts, fantasies, and anxieties at a time when he, along with Breuer, presented a burgeoning psychoanalytic treatment modality to the professional world.

  8. Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences: a topical debate on dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, M

    1999-12-01

    The author begins by pointing out that, whereas Freud first turned his attention to dreams in 1895, they became an object of neuroscientific interest only in the 1950s, after the discovery of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and the observation that a subject woken in an REM phase could remember and narrate them. He discusses the various brain structures found by the neuroscientists to be implicated in dreaming and the associated hypotheses about their involvement in the processes of remembering dreams, their spatial construction and semantic organisation, and the dreamer's emotional participation in and narration of dreams. Attention is drawn to recent psychophysiological research findings indicating that dreaming occurs in all sleep phases and not only in REM episodes. The cognitivist contribution is also discussed. The author goes on to demonstrate the difference between the neuroscientific and psychoanalytic approaches to dreams. Whereas the neuroscientists are interested in the structures involved in dream production and in dream organisation and narratability, psychoanalysis concentrates on the meaning of dreams and on placing them in the context of the analytic relationship in accordance with the affective history of the dreamer and the transference. The brain structures and functions of interest to the neurosciences, while constituting the physical and biological substrate of these aspects, are stated to be irrelevant to their psychoanalytic understanding.

  9. Slow magic: psychoanalysis and "the disenchantment of the world".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Freud's work can be situated in terms of the debate between Enlightenment and anti-Enlightenment thought. The attempts of both sides to claim Freud for their position have merit, but they miss the crucial point: namely, that the tension between its Enlightenment and anti-Enlightenment tendencies is what gives Freud's thinking much of its vitality and depth. The task that faces the interpreter is therefore to elucidate that tension and assess the alignment of forces between the two strands in his thought. An examination of the concept of magic in Freud's theory provides an opportunity to pursue this interpretive task. Although the Enlightenment position he often seems to embrace advocates the complete elimination of magic, many "magical" elements remain in his theory and clinical practice. Nor should this situation be deplored, for the ambition to completely exorcise "enchantment" from human experience is one of the misguided excesses of the Enlightenment. The question of an appropriate fate for magic in psychoanalysis is discussed in relation to the vicissitudes of the transference. Finally, the science versus hermenueutics debate is examined in the light of these considerations in an attempt to specify the unique nature of the psychoanalytic experience.

  10. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  11. Mimicry, Ekphrasis, Construction. «Reading» in Freudian Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Klammer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the concept of interpretation in Freudian psychoanalysis as an act of reading. Freud understands the appearance of dreams and unconscious phantasies in analogy to the structure of perceptual images. On the one hand, he conceives of the patients’ verbal accounts of those images as a specific kind of ekphrasis. On the other hand, the images themselves are regarded as distorted versions of an underlying »dream text« rendering the fundamental desire that the images express and conceal at the same time. The essay shows that the complex system of translations between different layers of text and image in Freud is based on the assumption that the dream images themselves can be analyzed as texts only mimicking the »natural« appearance of perceptions. Freud’s notion of the »rebus« is central to this discussion. The final part examines Freud’s reading of Michelangelo’s Moses statue in the church San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome. It demonstrates how the Freudian method of interpretation itself reduces the sculpture to a set of signs, making it perform a mimicry of textual systems.

  12. Freud's dreams of reason: the Kantian structure of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2009-10-01

    Freud (and later commentators) have failed to explain how the origins of psychoanalytical theory began with a positivist investment without recognizing a dual epistemological commitment: simply, Freud engaged positivism because he believed it generally equated with empiricism, which he valued, and he rejected "philosophy," and, more specifically, Kantianism, because of the associated transcendental qualities of its epistemology. But this simple dismissal belies a deep investment in Kant's formulation of human reason, in which rationality escapes natural cause and thereby bestows humans with cognitive and moral autonomy. Freud also segregated human rationality: he divided the mind between (1) an unconscious grounded in the biological and thus subject to its own laws, and (2) a faculty of autonomous reason, lodged in consciousness and free of natural forces to become the repository of interpretation and free will. Psychoanalysis thus rests upon a basic Kantian construction, whereby reason, through the aid of analytic techniques, provides a detached scrutiny of the natural world, i.e. the unconscious mental domain. Further, sovereign reason becomes the instrument of self-knowing in the pursuit of human perfection. Herein lies the philosophical foundation of psychoanalytic theory, a beguiling paradox in which natural cause and autonomous reason - determinism and freedom - are conjoined despite their apparent logical exclusion.

  13. Linking neuroscience and psychoanalysis from a developmental perspective: why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouss-Ryngaert, Lisa; Golse, Bernard

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims to develop the rational to support why and how we should link neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Many of these points are derived from child development and child psychiatry. Neuroscience investigates developmental questions in a different way than psychoanalysis, while psychoanalysis itself has shifted towards new developmental paradigms. The rapprochement between neuroscience and psychoanalysis allows a new understanding of some concepts, including embodiment of mind, consciousness and attachment. The "double reading" paradigm allows a better understanding of symptomatic configurations. Linking neuroscience and psychoanalysis may improve treatments and result in new experimental neuroscientific paradigms involving changing the research object, changing the state of the research object, and investigating the structural changes in the brain following psychotherapy. The last aim is to create an epistemology of the articulation between the theoretical frameworks through phenomenology, "complementarism" and neuropsychoanalysis. We argue that it is necessary for clinicians to be aware of the advancements in each field. This is not only an epistemological question; we assume that new findings in neuroscience will change the way psychoanalysts think and approach treatment of their patients. We hope the present research will contribute to change the way that neuroscientists think and will provide new options to their set of experimental paradigms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Neuropsychoanalytic Approach: Using Neuroscience as the Basic Science of Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian; Flores Mosri, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience was the basic science behind Freud's psychoanalytic theory and technique. He worked as a neurologist for 20 years before being aware that a new approach to understand complex diseases, namely the hysterias, was needed. Solms coined the term neuropsychoanalysis to affirm that neuroscience still belongs in psychoanalysis. The neuropsychoanalytic field has continued Freud's original ideas as stated in 1895. Developments in psychoanalysis that have been created or revised by the neuropsychoanalysis movement include pain/relatedness/opioids, drive, structural model, dreams, cathexis, and dynamic unconscious. Neuroscience has contributed to the development of new psychoanalytic theory, such as Bazan's (2011) description of anxiety driven by unconscious intentions or “phantoms.” Results of adopting the “dual aspect monism” approach of idiographic psychoanalytic clinical observation combined with nomothetic investigation of related human phenomena include clarification and revision of theory, restoration of the scientific base of psychoanalysis, and improvement of clinical treatments. By imbricating psychoanalytic thinking with neuroscience, psychoanalysts are also positioned to make contributions to neuroscience research. Freud's original Project for a Scientific Psychology/Psychology for Neurologists can be carried forward in a way that moves psychoanalysis into the twenty-first century as a core contemporary science (Kandel, 1999). Neuroscience as the basic science of psychoanalysis both improves the field, and enhances its scientific and cultural status. PMID:27790160

  15. Psychoanalysis, science, and art: aesthetics in the making of a psychoanalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayze-Pereira, João A

    2007-04-01

    This paper critically examines the relationship of psychoanalysis to science and art. Its point of departure is Michael Rustin's theorizing. Specifically, in considering the possibility of a psychoanalyst's having an aesthetic orientation, the author analyses: 1) the difficulty of there being any connection between psychoanalysis and science because science's necessarily presupposed subject-object dichotomy is incompatible with transference, which, beginning with Freud, is basic to psychoanalysis; 2) the complex relationship between psychoanalysis and aesthetics using Maurice Merleau-Ponty's philosophical perspective as well as Luigi Pareyson's theory of aesthetics; 3) the Kantian foundations of the psychoanalytic notion of art as the 'containing form of subjective experience'; 4) intersubjectivity, without which clinical practice would not be possible, especially considering matters of identity, difference, the body, and of sensory experience such as 'expressive form'; 5) the relationship of psychoanalysis and art, keeping in mind their possible convergence and divergence as well as some psychoanalysts' conceptual commitment to classicism and the need for contact with art in a psychoanalyst's mind set.

  16. 'Freud's speculations in ethnology': A reflection on anthropology's encounter with psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patrick S

    2017-06-01

    In the early 20th century, many analysts - Freud and Ernest Jones in particular - were confident that cultural anthropologists would demonstrate the universal nature of the Oedipus complex and other unconscious phenomena. Collaboration between the two disciplines, however, was undermined by a series of controversies surrounding the relationship between psychology and culture. This paper re-examines the three episodes that framed anthropology's early encounter with psychoanalysis, emphasizing the important works and their critical reception. Freud's Totem and Taboo began the interdisciplinary dialogue, but it was Bronislaw Malinowski's embrace of psychoanalysis - a development anticipated through a close reading of his personal diaries - that marked a turning point in relations between the two disciplines. Malinowski argued that an avuncular (rather than an Oedipal) complex existed in the Trobriand Islands. Ernest Jones' critical dismissal of this theory alienated Malinowski from psychoanalysis and ended ethnographers' serious exploration of Freudian thought. A subsequent ethnographic movement, 'culture and personality,' was erroneously seen by many anthropologists as a product of Freudian theory. When 'culture and personality' was abandoned, anthropologists believed that psychoanalysis had been discredited as well - a narrative that still informs the historiography of the discipline and its rejection of psychoanalytical theory. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  17. The Neuropsychoanalytic Approach: Using Neuroscience as the Basic Science of Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian; Flores Mosri, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience was the basic science behind Freud's psychoanalytic theory and technique. He worked as a neurologist for 20 years before being aware that a new approach to understand complex diseases, namely the hysterias, was needed. Solms coined the term neuropsychoanalysis to affirm that neuroscience still belongs in psychoanalysis. The neuropsychoanalytic field has continued Freud's original ideas as stated in 1895. Developments in psychoanalysis that have been created or revised by the neuropsychoanalysis movement include pain/relatedness/opioids, drive, structural model, dreams, cathexis, and dynamic unconscious. Neuroscience has contributed to the development of new psychoanalytic theory, such as Bazan's (2011) description of anxiety driven by unconscious intentions or "phantoms." Results of adopting the "dual aspect monism" approach of idiographic psychoanalytic clinical observation combined with nomothetic investigation of related human phenomena include clarification and revision of theory, restoration of the scientific base of psychoanalysis, and improvement of clinical treatments. By imbricating psychoanalytic thinking with neuroscience, psychoanalysts are also positioned to make contributions to neuroscience research. Freud's original Project for a Scientific Psychology/Psychology for Neurologists can be carried forward in a way that moves psychoanalysis into the twenty-first century as a core contemporary science (Kandel, 1999). Neuroscience as the basic science of psychoanalysis both improves the field, and enhances its scientific and cultural status.

  18. THE NEUROPSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH: USING NEUROSCIENCE AS THE BASIC SCIENCE OF PSYCHOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available NEUROSCIENCE AS THE BASIC SCIENCE OF PSYCHOANALYSISNeuroscience was the basic science behind Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and technique. He worked as a neurologist for 20 years before being aware that a new approach to understand complex diseases, namely the hysterias, was needed. Solms coined the term neuropsychoanalysis to affirm that neuroscience still belongs in psychoanalysis. The neuropsychoanalytic field has continued Freud’s original ideas as stated in 1895. Developments in psychoanalysis that have been created or revised by the neuropsychoanalysis movement include pain/relatedness/opioids, drive, structural model, dreams, cathexis, and dynamic unconscious. Neuroscience has contributed to the development of new psychoanalytic theory, such as Bazan’s (2011 description of anxiety driven by unconscious intentions or phantoms. Results of adopting the dual aspect monism approach of idiographic psychoanalytic clinical observation combined with nomothetic investigation of related human phenomena include clarification and revision of theory, restoration of the scientific base of psychoanalysis, and improvement of clinical treatments. By imbricating psychoanalytic thinking with neuroscience, psychoanalysts are also positioned to make contributions to neuroscience research. Freud’s original Project for a Scientific Psychology/Psychology for Neurologists can be carried forward in a way that moves psychoanalysis into the 21st century as a core contemporary science (Kandel 1999. Neuroscience as the basic science of psychoanalysis both improves the field, and enhances its scientific and cultural status.

  19. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  20. Assessing the economic feasibility of the gradual decarbonization of a large electric power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco; Archer, Cristina; Noel, Lance Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The decarbonization of power systems is among the primary actions to fight air pollution and climate change. In this study, we evaluate the costs of a gradual transition towards a new power system in which the oldest coal plants are replaced with low-carbon power plants. We developed the Wind...... Energy Integration Cost Advisor Model (WEICAM) to analyze different strategies for this energy transition and determine the most cost-effective roadmap, with and without externalities. The test case is the PJM Interconnection, one of the power systems in the United States with the largest fraction...... decommissioned and an increase in the levelized cost of electricity from 49.1 to 53.6 $/MWh (without externalities). In addition, selecting the windiest sites – even far away from the PJM region – is cheaper than selecting local but less windy sites. When externalities due to human health and environmental...

  1. The body as constitutive element phenomenology and psychoanalysis on our view of ourselves and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjaraz Fuentes, Paulina; Rojas Hernández, María Del Carmen; Santasilia, Stefano; Monjaraz Fuentes, Fernanda

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to highlight that from the phenomenology and psychoanalysis point of view, the meaning of the notion of the body is different from the medical biologicist discourse. In psychoanalysis, the body is an erogenized body. It is constituted as an object for another self. Similarly, in phenomenology, the body is an own body in first instance. It is the body of a self, rather than a living body and a material body. Both positions enable us to understand how this conceptualization of the body is essential in any human field. Especially in the clinic, the position of the subject before the other will lead to a specific form of intervention. From this understanding of the human body, both phenomenology and psychoanalysis confirm that the biologicist understanding of the body, presumed by all psychological and medical practices, is insufficient.

  2. Privatization and Psychoanalysis: The Impact of Neo-liberalism on Freud's Tool of Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybow, Scott; Eighmey, Jennifer; Fader, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines the historical links between psychoanalysis, social progressivism and the political Left. It then details the process by which those links were undone such that today psychoanalysis and mental health services in general are alienated from their radical roots. The paper posits this process of alienation is continued today via the neo-liberal phenomenon of privatization, which has profound implications for clients seeking mental health treatment especially those of minority status or who are economically oppressed. Today, access to effective mental health treatment is linked to one's economic status, and people of all class backgrounds seem less likely to receive mental health interventions that promote awareness of the oppressive political and economic forces they face. The paper includes two clinical vignettes illustrating the inequalities that are inherent to the privatized mental healthcare system. The paper calls for a return to the ideals and practices of the progressive psychoanalysis that defined the inter-war era of the last century.

  3. On psychobiology in psychoanalysis - salivary cortisol and secretory IgA as psychoanalytic process parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Sebastian; Schimpf, Heinrich; Hennig, Jürgen; Brosig, Burkhard

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the psychobiological impact of psychoanalysis in its four-hour setting. During a period of five weeks, 20 subsequent hours of psychoanalysis were evaluated, involving two patients and their analysts. Before and after each session, saliva samples were taken and analysed for cortisol (sCortisol) and secretory immunoglobuline A (sIgA). Four time-series (n=80 observations) resulted and were evaluated by "Pooled Time Series Analysis" (PTSA) for significant level changes and setting-mediated rhythms. Over all sessions, sCortisol levels were reduced and sIgA secretion augmented parallel to the analytic work. In one analytic dyad a significant rhythm within the four-hour setting was observed with an increase of sCortisol in sessions 2 and 3 of the week. Psychoanalysis may, therefore, have some psychobiological impact on patients and analysts alike and may modulate immunological and endocrinological processes. PMID:19742067

  4. The importance of being Ernst: a reassessment of E. H. Gombrich’s relationship with psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dedman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and counter the assumption that Prof. Ernst Gombrich was wary, and even dismissive, of psychoanalysis as a discipline. Though renowned for his interest in the psychology of viewing, new research suggests that, from his earliest career, Gombrich’s work was also crucially psychoanalytically-inflected. An unpublished dialogue from the 1980s, between Gombrich and Dr Joseph Sandler, a distinguished psychoanalyst, is considered here. Archival research reveals that Gombrich was for many years a member of the Imago Group – a monthly conference of psychoanalysts. Furthermore, Gombrich’s relationship with Ernst Kris, and the unpublished manuscript on caricature and regression they developed together, is reviewed alongside later works tracing a sustained interest in psychoanalytic issues. Ultimately, the article is an attempt to rehabilitate psychoanalysis into Gombrich’s reputation and prove that, though his engagement with psychoanalysis was not universally positive, it was sensitive, nuanced, consistent and, ultimately, underestimated.

  5. The concept of unconscious alliances as the curbstone of bound work on psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Carvalho Godoy Castanho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the Individual-society relationship is a challenge for human and social sciences in general and for psychoanalysis in particular. Our goal on this article is to present and sustain the contractual logic in psychoanalysis as the foundation for working with couples, families, groups and institutions. Starting from an attentive study of two of Freud’s “Social Texts”, we aim at characterizing the author’s notion of contract. We then present René Kaës’ concept of unconscious alliances as a possible development of such notion. We conclude upon the specificities and potentialities of the concept of unconscious alliances in contributing to the debate on the relationship between individual and society in general and about is pertinence and utility as the curbstone for bound work on psychoanalysis.

  6. Cognitive science, psychoanalysis and neuroscience: A Brief History of a current trend (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Imbasciati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For decades, cognitive sciences and psychoanalysis have been ignored each other for a mutual distrust, producing in scholars of both disciplines a progressive mutual ignorance and misunderstanding about their developments. The latest studies of cognitive sciences on the role of emotions have allowed a partial approach to psychoanalysis. But above all, recent studies in neuroscience on the emotional basis of all mental processes, about the formation of the subjectivity, about identity and sense of self (neuro psychoanalysis, are opening up a horizon of integration between the three different sciences. In this perspective the epigenetics is playing a fundamental role, that the Author hopes will produce significant developments from a social and anthropological point of view. 

  7. Cognitive science, psychoanalysis and neuroscience: A Brief History of a current trend (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Imbasciati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, cognitive sciences and psychoanalysis have been ignored each other for a mutual distrust, producing in scholars of both disciplines a progressive mutual ignorance and misunderstanding about their developments. The latest studies of cognitive sciences on the role of emotions have allowed a partial approach to psychoanalysis. But above all, recent studies in neuroscience on the emotional basis of all mental processes, about the formation of the subjectivity, about identity and sense of self (neuro psychoanalysis, are opening up a horizon of integration between the three different sciences. In this perspective the epigenetics is playing a fundamental role, that the Author hopes will produce significant developments from a social and anthropological point of view. 

  8. The canary in the mind: on the fate of dreams in psychoanalysis and in contemporary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Paul

    2006-06-01

    Dreams have been central in the birth and evolution of psychoanalysis. This paper explores the remarkable story of the relationship between dreams and psychoanalysis as a modern version of the long history of dreams in most healing traditions. But psychoanalysis seems to have turned away from dreams as central inspiration in a way parallel to the general culture's turn away from dreams and the reality of inner life. Yet modern postindustrial culture is transfixed by a version of "dream life" in ways just beginning to be understood (e.g., in the transformation of ancient interest in the inner screen to the external screen). Working with dreams in psychoanalytic psychotherapy was a creative and revolutionary act for our forebears. It is even more so today, in ways that are discussed in this paper.

  9. University discourse and the function of supervised stage in clinic-school: contributions from psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Zétola Lustoza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of Psychoanalysis at the university is questionable because there is a tension between the rules that governs the university discourse and analytic discourse. The article intends to point out some limits and possibilities of working with Psychoanalysis at the university. Initially features two discourses based on Lacanian theory. Following, it investigates the valuation model used in universities as a contemporary version of university discourse. In this model, the issues of subjectivity are silenced in favor of valuing quantity of knowledge. Finally, the article elects supervised stage as a privileged moment of the transmission of Psychoanalysis at the university. Despite the difficulties, we conclude that clinical experience acquired at clinical-school has a positive function because it requires that the intern be responsible for his/her practice.

  10. Selection of phytoplankton species in culture by gradual salinity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijstenbil, J. W.

    Continuous cultures of mixed phytoplankton populations were subjected to gradual salinity changes. The phytoplankton was exposed to defined regimes of high, low or fluctuating salinity, in artificial brackish media. In several experiments ammonium was the limiting nutrient. A rapid selection process was observed in natural phytoplankton assemblages. A gradual freshening caused the dominance of Chaetoceros mülleri at low salinity (S = 5). Skeletonema costatum became dominant at higher, constant or fluctuating salinities, accompanied by Ditylum brightwellii in low cell numbers. Ammonium limitation was not achieved in this experiment. Competition for ammonium was studied in a second experiment, using an inoculum of two species. At S = 18 D. brighwellii became the dominant species in this competition. A minor shift towards S = 15 reversed the affinities for ammonium, and S. costatum won the competition. At S = 8 S. costatum had the highest affinity for ammonium after a period of osmotic adjustment. Ammonium became limiting when salinities arrived at constant meso- or polyhaline levels. Both species were able to grow in fluctuating osmotic environments (S = 5 to 19). The growth of D. brightwellii decreased below S = 8 and after repeated variations of the salinity. These salinity fluctuations suppressed growth and ammonium uptake of both species, thus preventing ammonium limitation. These competition experiments indicate that unstable salinity may stimulate the mass development of S. costatum in brackish lakes.

  11. CONTEXTUAL APPROACH TO LITERARY CRITICISM: DOSTOEVSKY AND PSYCHOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kalashnikov

    2016-01-01

    of socio-cultural influences, and also macrocontext of perception and interpretation of works in culture and science. The critical view of psychoanalysis as the literary criticism tool in the Russian culture is presented. Through the systematization of complementary contexts and psychoanalytic interpretation the myth about F. M. Dostoyevsky’s epilepsy as a source of his creativity is discredited; though by recognition of the writer, personal problems and neuroses nevertheless were reflected in his works. The hypothesis of the opposite influence of creativity of F. M. Dostoyevsky on S. Freud’s concept, i.e. formation of psychoanalysis under impact of art creativity is made.Scientific novelty. Methods of engaging of an intertextual and socio-cultural environment are known in linguistics and literary criticism long ago. However, diverse environments of existence of the personality and works of the artist as the unified system of contexts psychological in essence have not been considered yet. The novelty of the proposed way of a research consists in systematicity of formation of a complex of contexts of the studied phenomenon that makes it possible to correlate the diversified information through its origin. As a result, the researcher receives a number of complementary descriptions in the spirit of «the principle of a complementarity» by N. Bohr that provides dimensions and completeness of perception of the studied phenomenon.Practical significance of the work lies in the hard proof of the prospects of the contextual approach to interdisciplinary psychological and literary research.

  12. Hallucinations in the psychotic state: Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco; Davalli, Cesare; Giustino, Gabriella; Pergami, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, which takes account of important findings in neuroscientific as well as psychoanalytic research, the authors explore the meaning of the deep-going distortions of psychic functioning occurring in hallucinatory phenomena. Neuroscientific studies have established that hallucinations distort the sense of reality owing to a complex alteration in the balance between top-down and bottom-up brain circuits. The present authors postulate that hallucinatory phenomena represent the outcome of a psychotic's distorted use of the mind over an extended period of time. In the hallucinatory state the psychotic part of the personality uses the mind to generate auto-induced sensations and to achieve a particular sort of regressive pleasure. In these cases, therefore, the mind is not used as an organ of knowledge or as an instrument for fostering relationships with others. The hallucinating psychotic decathects psychic (relational) reality and withdraws into a personal, bodily, and sensory space of his own. The opposing realities are not only external and internal but also psychic and sensory. Visual hallucinations could thus be said to originate from seeing with the 'eyes' of the mind, and auditory hallucinations from hearing with the mind's 'ears'. In these conditions, mental functioning is restricted, cutting out the more mature functions, which are thus no longer able to assign real meaning to the surrounding world and to the subject's psychic experience. The findings of the neurosciences facilitate understanding of how, in the psychotic hallucinatory process, the mind can modify the working of a somatic organ such as the brain. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Less Citation, Less Dissemination: The Case of French Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Potier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to inquiries about the visibility of globalized psychoanalytic research in the digital era (cf. Stepansky 2009 by adopting a comparative perspective on a specific geographic area of historical importance for psychoanalysis: France. The largely digital globalized psychoanalytic research field relies on standard bibliometric measures of journal quality (Impact Factor, SJR, etc.,which depend on the number and type of academic cites received by a journal. Thus, citing shapes academic publishing space by differentially valuing its component journals. Conversely, not to cite practically means not to engage with the field. Hence, we took citedness rate as a proxy for global visibility.By drawing on an original database created by one of us, we determined the global citational visibility of French vs. Anglo- American psychoanalytic productions (respective global outreach; and we related it to a first look at French vs. Anglo-American citation practices (geographic breakdown of article cites.We found that,on a 15 - year period,the global outreach(citedness rate of French articles is ten times smaller than that of Anglo - American articles;and that French articles are cited in Anglo - American journals five times more than Anglo - American articles in French journals– which in turn don’ t seem to cite their French peers very often.These specific French citation practices could be explained by the implicit modes of reference at work in clinical settings shaped by rich theoretical and clinical local legacies.We conclude by considering that this situation presents French psychoanalytic research with a formidable opportunityfor increased citational visibility.

  14. Sigmund Freud and hysteria: the etiology of psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Dieguez, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Sigmund Freud developed a specific interest in hysteria after his stay with Professor Jean-Martin Charcot during the winter of 1885-1886, although his previous activity mainly consisted of neuropathology and general medical practice. Most of his initial studies on hysteria (hysteria in men, influence of subconscious ideas, role of traumas, and psychological and sexual factors) were indeed 'borrowed' from Charcot and his immediate followers, such as Pierre Janet and Paul Richer. Subsequently, Freud developed with Breuer a theory of hysteria which encompassed a mixture of Janet's 'fixed subconscious ideas' with the 'pathological secret' concept of Moriz Benedikt. After their book Studies on Hysteria (1895), Freud interrupted his collaboration with Breuer and developed the concept of conversion of psychological problems into somatic manifestations, with a strong 'sexualization' of hysteria. Firstly, he believed that actual abuses had occurred in these patients (the 'seduction' theory), but then blamed them for having deceived him on that issue, so that he subsequently launched a 'fantasy' theory to explain the development of hysterical symptoms without the necessity of actual abuses. Like many of his contemporaries, and contrary to his claims, Freud did not follow a scientific process of verified experiments, but rather adapted his theories to the evolution of his own beliefs on psychological conditions, selectively emphasizing the aspects of his 'therapies' with patients which supported his emerging ideas, with often abrupt changes in theoretical interpretations. While it remains difficult to get a clear, synthetic vision of what was Freud's definite theory of hysteria, it is obvious that hysteria really was the origin of what would become Freud's psychoanalytical theory. Indeed, psychoanalysis appears to have been initially developed by him largely in order to absorb and explain his many changes in the interpretation of hysterical manifestations.

  15. An Italian peculiarity? Psychoanalysis, modernization and the sociology of consumption in 1960s Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    Psychoanalysis experienced a remarkable boom in 1960s Italy. One of the areas where psychoanalytic theory disseminated was the world of marketing and the sociology of consumption. Based on the case of the sociologist Francesco Alberoni, we can examine the impact of the theories of Melanie Klein for understanding the behavior of consumers. Similarly, Alberoni's work shows the concerns and uncertainties on the social modernization of Italy, and also raises questions on the specificities of the growing importance of psychoanalysis in Italy in the 1960s.

  16. On the Plagiarism in the Humanities, the Psychoanalysis and the Social exclusion in the Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Fratini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article carries some considerations on the problem of plagiarism and the social exclusion in the research in the humanities. The article highlights the contradictions around these issues, focusing in particular on the influence of pressure implicit in research by neoliberal policy in the western countries, and on the delicate issue of communication and transmission of knowledge in psychoanalysis. The article strongly supports a position on the role of psychoanalysis in favor of a defense honesty of his positions, that concern, in the world of today and in the current research field, more depth than with the original of wich an author can express and support.

  17. [Child psychoanalysis and child psychiatry in Russia, from Lenin to the present day].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchalov, Pavel V; Makouchkine, Eugène V; Potapova, Victoria A; Gourevitch, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Russian child psychiatry and psychoanalysis painfully recover after being brought under the subjection of "paedology", a synthetic so-called science, and enslaved to the utopian Soviet expectation of building a "new man" in 1920-1930. Later on, in 1940-1980, under the precarious shelter of Soviet social work, they could indulge in the psychodynamic viewpoint. Liberated in 1985-1991, Russian child psychiatry and psychoanalysis take up again with Western science to answer the urgent demand for care for the psychic sufferings of young Russians.

  18. "Psychoanalysis is good, synthesis is better": the German reception of Freud, 1930 and 1956.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauders, Anthony D

    2011-01-01

    Frankfurt's decision to award Freud the Goethe Prize in 1930 as well as the same city's decision to celebrate Freud's 100th birthday in 1956 will allow us to trace specific traditions in the German encounter with psychoanalysis. The diachronic approach will show that certain traditions survived well into the late 1950s, at a time when West Germany's intellectual landscape was otherwise changing on several fronts. Psychoanalysis remained anathema because it did not conform with the idealism and holism prevalent in the academic community. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. GRADUAL TRANSITION DETECTION FOR VIDEO PARTITIONING USING MORPHOLOGICAL OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Naranjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Temporal segmentation of video data for partitioning the sequence into shots is a prerequisite in many applications: automatic video indexing and editing, old flm restoration, perceptual coding, etc. The detection of abrupt transitions or cuts has been thoroughly studied in previous works. In this paper we present a scheme to identify the most common gradual transitions, i.e., dissolves and wipes, which relies on mathematical morphology operators. The approach is restricted to fast techniques which require low computation (without motion estimation and adapted to compressed sequences and are able to cope with random brightness variations (often occurring in old flms. The present study illustrates how the morphological operators can be used to analyze temporal series for detecting particular events, either working directly on the 1D signal or building an intermediate 2D image from the 1D signals to take advantage of the spatial operators.

  20. Sudden death and gradual decay in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J

    2009-04-01

    General Douglas MacArthur remarked that "old soldiers never die; they just fade away." For decades, researchers have concluded that visual working memories, like old soldiers, fade away gradually, becoming progressively less precise as they are retained for longer periods of time. However, these conclusions were based on threshold-estimation procedures in which the complete termination of a memory could artifactually produce the appearance of lower precision. Here, we use a recall-based visual working memory paradigm that provides separate measures of the probability that a memory is available and the precision of the memory when it is available. Using this paradigm, we demonstrate that visual working memory representations may be retained for several seconds with little or no loss of precision, but that they may terminate suddenly and completely during this period.

  1. What hath freud wrought? Current confusion and controversies about the clinical practice of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2014-12-01

    This article discusses the current state of psychoanalysis and the challenges to the fundamental premises of Freud's psychoanalysis by those who have shifted to relationship or so-called two-person psychologies in our field. The author begins by briefly describing a parallel to the recent history of psychoanalysis in the sudden rise and fall of scholastic philosophy in the 14th century. He then focuses on contemporary attacks on Freud's psychoanalysis as a science, based on the contention by two-person psychologists that free association by the patient and evenly hovering attention by the analyst are actually impossible. He reviews Freud's idea of psychoanalysis, discusses psychodynamic psychotherapy, both conceived as scientific treatment procedures, and describes the current assault on their metapsychological and epistemological foundations. Returning to the parallel between what happened to medieval scholasticism and what has happened to psychoanalysis, he examines why this happened, and the resulting fragmentation of psychoanalytic practice. The article concludes with suggestions for the integration of various schools of psychoanalysis, reminding us of Benjamin Franklin's warning: "We must, indeed, all hang together or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately."

  2. Psychoanalysis--on its way down a dead-end street? A concerned commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    The author discusses the problems when psychoanalysis not only neglects socio-critical issues, diversifies its concepts and sets about to define their common ground with the help of brain research findings and/or of infant observation, but also ignores the implications of attempts to legitimate its scientific status by verifying the outcome of its treatments via nomological and/or qualitative study designs. It is argued that if we reduce psychoanalysis to a mere psychotherapeutic measure we displace the factors essential to neurotic disorders into the blind spot of our field of vision, thus rendering psychoanalysis to be a pseudoscience based on appearances alone. Conceptual clarity, it is argued, cannot be gained from the findings of infant observation or those of brain research. Neither can psychoanalytic treatments be investigated in these manners as long as our current understanding of technical concepts remains highly contradictory. In the author's view present-day psychoanalysis gambles Freud's inheritance away and with it, probably, its own future.

  3. Why did Freud do it? A puzzling episode in the history of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitrin, Arthur

    2012-12-01

    This article is about the Freud-Frink-Brill relationship, certain events in the history of psychoanalysis in the United States in the years 1919 to 1925, and some speculative explanations for these events. It is not a critique of psychoanalytic theory or practice.

  4. PSYCHOANALYSIS IN CHINA: AN ESSAY ON THE RECENT LITERATURE IN ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, David E

    2016-10-01

    Using extensive quotation, the author reviews the introduction and current state of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy in China from the vantage point of recent publications in English. Psychoanalysis was briefly introduced to China before the Communist era, then forbidden, and has experienced an accelerated reintroduction since the late 1980s. The author briefly summarizes the cultural and historical background of China relevant to the introduction of psychoanalysis, the traumatic history of China, and the deep structure of thought and philosophical differences from Western culture that challenge a simple imposition of psychoanalytic ideas and practice, and some psychological effects of rapid cultural change throughout China. Training programs in China, the general enthusiasm for analysis among the Chinese, and a number of notable contributions by Western and Chinese authors are discussed. Also surveyed are the use of distance technology for training and treatment, the personal experience of Chinese senior and junior colleagues, and ongoing challenges to the continuing growth of psychoanalysis and analytic psychotherapy in China. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  5. Psycho-Analysis in Fiction and a Study of D. H. Lawrence's Sons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychoanalysis in fiction explores the innate conglomerate of the writer's personality as factors that contribute to his experience from birth to the period of writing a book. Fiction is seen as a manifestation of latent experiences which are repressed in the unconscious mind. The art of writing is approached from the patient's ...

  6. Disavowed Knowledge: Psychoanalysis, Education and Teaching. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Peter Maas

    2011-01-01

    This is the first and only book to detail the history of the century-long relationship between education and psychoanalysis. Relying on primary and secondary sources, it provides not only a historical context but also a psychoanalytically informed analysis. In considering what it means to think about teaching from a psychoanalytic perspective and…

  7. The dilemma of contemporary psychoanalysis: toward a "knowing" post-postmodernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govrin, Aner

    2006-01-01

    It is in the best interest of psychoanalysis that new schools of thought (earlier examples of which are the classical, Kleinian, and self psychological perspectives) evolve. Generating a new school of thought, however, is almost impossible in this postmodern era. The postmodern paradigm in psychoanalysis (intersubjectivity, dialectical constructivism, two-person psychology) does not strive to generate a "true" theory of mind that claims to fit reality, nor does it claim to be another school of thought. The creators of the classical, interpersonal, self psychological, ego psychological, Kleinian, Bionian, Fairbairnian, Winnicottian, and other schools cannot be postmodernists, for they all believed that their theories corresponded to reality and were therefore true. A shortage of analysts who "know the truth" today will make it extremely difficult for new schools of thought to arise in psychoanalysis, or for new and compelling theories and descriptions of the human psyche to be constructed. What is required is for pluralistic psychoanalytic institutions to empower analysts who are actively involved in the pursuit of new ideas and theories in psychoanalysis.

  8. Psychoanalysis and social cognitive neuroscience: a new framework for a dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieff, Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    The fields of psychoanalysis and neuroscience use different methods of description, analysis and comprehension of reality, and because each is based on a different methodology, each approach constructs a different representation of reality. Thus, psychoanalysis could contribute to a general psychology involving neuroscience to the extent that a "psychoanalytical psychology" (the theory of mental functioning that is extrapolated from psychoanalytical practice) defines natural objects of study (mind functions) for a multidisciplinary approach. However, the so called "naturalisation" of psychoanalytical concepts (metapsychology) does not imply the reduction of these concepts to biology; rather, it suggests a search for compatibility between psychoanalytical concepts and neuroscientific description. Such compatibility would mean the search for common objects that could be described from either a psychoanalytic or a neuroscientific point of view. We suggest that inter-subjectivity, empathy or "co-thinking" processes, from early development to the psychoanalytic relationship or the interaction between the patient and the analyst, could be such a common object for cognitive social neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Together, neuroscience and psychoanalysis could then contribute to a multidisciplinary approach of psychic inter- or co-activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The complex nature of exposure to early childhood trauma in the psychoanalysis of a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, Judith M

    2009-12-01

    When an intense transference relationship evolves during psychoanalysis, sensory and emotional experiences associated with trauma can arise spontaneously. Detailed clinical process material is presented from the psychoanalysis of a six-year-old boy whose severe trauma at age two and a half contributed to his conflicts about aggression and gender identity, impeding his development. A series of analytic sessions during which he spontaneously enacted fantasies, feelings, and defenses associated with the trauma in the immediacy of the transference relationship are used to illustrate how psychoanalysis provided him the safety to rework this overwhelming experience and its aftermath, thereby restoring progressive development. It is hypothesized that while work with trauma was only one feature in an otherwise complex treatment, psychoanalysis provided a sophisticated form of reexposure to developmentally primitive emotions, images, and fantasies that this child had not consciously connected with the trauma. Associated early childhood conflicts pertaining to aggression, separation, and gender identity, warded off with rigid defenses, had become intertwined with the trauma and its aftermath, rendering them otherwise inaccessible.

  10. Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder?a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.

    2013-01-01

    Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective...

  11. The three essays and the meaning of the infantile sexual in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfone, Dominique

    2014-04-01

    Freud's Three Essays on Sexual Theory (1905a) are still today highly significant because of their novel way of considering the human sexual dimension. The author intends to show that a close reading of the Essays, combined with the reintroduction of the seduction theory by Jean Laplanche, provides a specific and foundational sexual theory for psychoanalysis. © 2014 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  12. The current state of the empirical evidence for psychoanalysis: a meta-analytic approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maat, S.C.M.; de Jonghe, F.; de Kraker, R.; Leichsenring, F.; Abbass, A.; Luyten, P.; Barber, J.P.; Van, R.; Dekker, J.

    2013-01-01

    Learning Objectives: After participating in this educational activity, the reader should be better able to evaluate the empirical evidence for pre/post changes in psychoanalysis patients with complex mental disorders, and assess the limitations of the meta-analysis. Background: The effectiveness of

  13. Psicanálise e ciências sociais Psychoanalysis and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Enriquez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca apreciar as relações entre a psicanálise e as ciências sociais com um olhar crítico sobre os avanços referentes ao campo de estudos psicanalíticos ligado ao social, bem como aos estudos sociológicos permeados por um referencial psicanalítico, desde Freud até hoje em dia. O artigo se calca principalmente na defesa da abordagem psicanalítica no plano social, mostrando que não se trata de um uso inadequado da psicanálise, mas sim do fato de não ser possível pensar numa psicanálise fora daquele plano, uma vez que a constituição do sujeito se faz justamente pela entrada no social.This article attempts to research the relations between psychoanalysis and social sciences with a critical sight on the advances concerning the field of psychoanalytical studies related to social subjects as well as that of sociological studies influenced by psychoanalysis, since Freud until nowadays. The article is based specially on the defense of the psychoanalytical approach of the social field, showing that it's not about an inadequate use of the psychoanalysis, but the fact that it's not possible to think in a psychoanalysis outside that field once the constitution of the subject is made exactly by the entrance in the social field.

  14. [Personal recollections of the revival of psychoanalysis in West Germany during the first post-war decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitscherlich-Nielsen, M

    1992-03-01

    National Socialism destroyed the integrity and substance of Psychoanalysis in Germany for a long time to come. The author was among those responsible for the reintroduction of psychoanalytic knowledge and in the organization of psychoanalytic institutions. In this article she tells about the difficulties in reestablishing psychoanalysis in the new Federal Republic, where it met considerable resistance and obstacles. In particular the author gives credit to the significant contribution of German and Austrian emigrants as well as that of psychoanalysis in Anglosaxon countries, especially the London "Schools" of Anna Freud and Melanie Klein.

  15. From manual gesture to speech: a gradual transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Corballis, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of reasons to suppose that language evolved from manual gestures. We review evidence that the transition from primarily manual to primarily vocal language was a gradual process, and is best understood if it is supposed that speech itself a gestural system rather than an acoustic system, an idea captured by the motor theory of speech perception and articulatory phonology. Studies of primate premotor cortex, and, in particular, of the so-called "mirror system" suggest a double hand/mouth command system that may have evolved initially in the context of ingestion, and later formed a platform for combined manual and vocal communication. In humans, speech is typically accompanied by manual gesture, speech production itself is influenced by executing or observing hand movements, and manual actions also play an important role in the development of speech, from the babbling stage onwards. The final stage at which speech became relatively autonomous may have occurred late in hominid evolution, perhaps with a mutation of the FOXP2 gene around 100,000 years ago.

  16. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change. PMID:27077386

  17. The dual impact of Freud's death and Freud's death instinct theory on the history of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Martin S

    2011-10-01

    Since I have ranged over a rather large territory in this presentation I will summarize my main points. I claim that the very way Freud created psychoanalysis made it impossible for it to continue to grow and develop as a unified movement after his death. Unlike other sciences, psychoanalysis had no way of differentiating its basic findings from what is yet to be discovered. I then reintroduced my differentiation between heretics, modifiers, and extenders, claiming that after Freud’s death there was less opportunity for heretics and more space for modifiers. I assigned a crucial role to the fact that Anna Freud did not succeed in expelling the Kleinians. In the second part of the paper I presented the view of those who made use of Freud’s death instinct theory and those who opposed it. Many analysts preferred to ignore dealing with it rather than state their opposition. My presentation was biased in favor of those who chose to work with the death instinct as a clinical reality,highlighting Ferenczi’s construction. I made the claim, so far as I know never made before, that Freud’s death instinct theory had a traumatic impact on the psychoanalytic movement because it greatly limited the belief in the curative power of our therapeutic work. After his announcement of the dual-instinct theory Freud withdrew his interest in psychoanalysis as a method of cure. By doing so he inflicted a narcissistic wound on psychoanalysis. I believe that the creativity of psychoanalysis will improve if we face this difficult chapter in our history.

  18. Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities following total knee replacement include unlimited walking, swimming, golf, driving, light hiking, biking, ballroom dancing, and ... Total Knee Replacement cont. Preparing for Surgery Medical Evaluation If you decide to have total knee replacement ...

  19. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  20. Gradual reintroduction of oxygen reduces reperfusion injury in cat stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, M.A.; Wadhwa, S.S. (Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia))

    1988-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for a major portion of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the stomach. The oxygen radicals are produced during perfusion when oxygen delivery to the tissue increases. In the present study the authors investigate the effect on mucosal injury of regulating the rate of reintroduction of oxygen to the stomach after ischemia. Local gastric ischemia was achieved by reducing celiac artery pressure to 30 mmHg for 1 h. Ischemic injury was assessed by measuring the loss of {sup 51}Cr-labeled red blood cells across the gastric mucosa. Mucosal blood loss was negligible before and during the ischemia period but increased during reperfusion. When blood flow to the stomach was gradually returned to normal after ischemia, the mucosal blood loss was reduced. If the stomach was vascularly perfused with low Po{sub 2} blood for 1 h after ischemia before being returned to normal arterial perfusion, the mucosal blood loss was also reduced. When the stomach was made hypoxemic for 1 h rather than ischemic by perfusing the vasculature with low Po{sub 2} blood then reperfused with normoxic blood, there was very little mucosal bleeding. The data indicate that gastric mucosal bleeding after ischemia is reduced if the tissue is returned slowly to a normal Po{sub 2}. These findings support the concept that reperfusion injury is due largely to the production of oxygen radicals. The low level of injury produced by hypoxemia indicates that hypoxia per se makes only a minor contribution to reperfusion injury in the stomach.

  1. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeckman Bart P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  2. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Stijn; Willems, Maxime; Back, Patricia; Braeckman, Bart P; Borgonie, Gaetan

    2009-07-30

    Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria") are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 +/- 13 days (average +/- standard deviation [SD]) and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 +/- 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 +/- 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  3. [Psychoanalytically based and psychoanalysis in children and adolescents from the viewpoint of a child and adolescent psychotherapist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Inge

    2002-01-01

    The author, practitioner of psychoanalytic psychotherapy with children and adolescents, explains her point of view regarding psychotherapy versus psychoanalysis. Verbatim process notes illustrate the work and are used to plan the therapeutic method.

  4. Session-by-session report of low frequency Kleinian psychoanalysis: establishing analytic contact with a borderline patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waska, Robert

    2008-01-01

    There is virtually no literature regarding the psychoanalytic treatment of patients with less than three times a week frequency other than those articles that include the word psychotherapy in the title. Even though more lenient positions are taken in public forums and between colleagues, there is still a vast political distance between what is considered kosher psychoanalysis and "that other procedure." The leading publication for psychoanalysis worldwide, the International Journal of Psychoanalysis, now includes articles on psychoanalytic psychotherapy. It is remarkable, but never mentioned, to notice how the cases and clinical process written about are usually indistinguishable from the cases and clinical process in all the other articles concerning psychoanalysis. This author presents material based in the belief that if a consistent pattern of transference analysis has taken place along with regular exploration of phantasy and defense, then, regardless of frequency, analytic contact can take place. This treatment is then regarded as psychoanalysis. In other words, psychoanalysis becomes defined by clinical process rather than external criteria. This article examines the establishment of analytic contact with a borderline patient within a twice-a-week, on-the-couch, Kleinian framework.

  5. From the EEL to the EGO: psychoanalysis and the remnants of Freud's early scientific practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While numerous historiographical works have been written to shed light on Freud's early theoretical education in biology, physiology, and medicine and on the influence of that education on psychoanalysis, this paper approaches Freud's basic comprehension of science and methodology by focusing on his early research practice in physiology and neuranatomy. This practice, taking place in the specific context of Ernst Brücke's physiological laboratory in Vienna, was deeply concerned with problems of visuality and the revelation of hidden organic structures by use of proper preparation techniques and optical instruments. The paper explores the connection between such visualizing practices, shaped by a physiological context as they were, and Freud's later convictions of the scientific status of psychoanalysis and the function of its method as means to unveil the concealed structure of the "psychical apparatus". © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [From psychotherapy to psychoanalysis: Max Levy-Suhl (1876-1947)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, Ludger M; Schröter, Michael; Stroeken, Harry

    2014-01-01

    From psychotherapy to psychoanalysis: Max Levy-Suhl (1876-1947). Levy-Suhl can be considered one of the great practising psychotherapists in early 20th century Berlin. He was active in various fields, including ophthalmology, forensic adolescent psychiatry and hypnosis. Prominent among his publications were two handbooks of psychotherapeutic methods. His attitude towards psychoanalysis shifted from initial criticism to acceptance. Ca. 1930 he experienced some kind of conversion, resulting in his training at the Berlin Institute and becoming a member of the German Psychoanalytic Society. As a Jew being forced to emigrate in 1933, Levy-Suhl turned to the Netherlands where he had a psychoanalytic children's home in Amersfoort, followed by an analyst's practice in Amsterdam. He survived the German occupation, but apparently as a broken man. After the war he committed suicide.--The paper is complemented by an appendix, containing documents and an extensive bibliography.

  7. The historiography of psychoanalysis in Brazil: the case of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, Cristiana; De Castro, Rafael Dias

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the background of the historiography of psychoanalysis in Rio de Janeiro. Three different phases and approaches are analyzed, based on the viewpoints of different groups of authors. The first group features authors who displayed an early interest in the subject, in the 1920's-1930's. The second refers to psychiatrists/psychoanalysts who worked with mental health institutes and societies between the 1940's and 1970's, while the third perspective comes from the academic/university environment, from the end of the 70's to the present. This distinction was made not only to better define the timeframe of the arrival and dissemination of psychoanalysis in Rio de Janeiro, but also to provide a better understanding of the relation between the specific professional and intellectual interests of each group and the respective historical context.

  8. Flechsig and Freud: late 19th-century neurology and the emergence of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Eduardo

    2003-02-01

    The author analyzes the potential influences of Paul Flechsig's work on early Freudian theory, particularly on Sigmund Freud's 1966b/1895 Project for a Scientific Psychology. Gehirn und Seele, a discourse authored by Flechsig in 1894, is the focus of this analysis. The author believes that the links between the intellectual production of both German-speaking neurologists have been underrated to this day and attempts to establish that the early Freudian approach to many key issues in the history of psychoanalysis--dreams, unconscious processing, and drives, to name a few--was not unique but shared with some distinguished colleagues in neuropathology and psychiatry. Thus, he attempts to shed additional light on the transition from state-of-art neurology in the last decade of the 19th century to the creation of psychoanalysis as a discipline on its own.

  9. The fraternal complex between psychoanalysis and myth A literary example: Strange Shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Liotta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of siblings relationship, initially considered in psychoanalysis mostly in its interaction with the oedipal dynamics, knows today important developments so that the "fraternal complex" has achieved its own independence. The paper aims to investigate the “fraternal complex” both in psychoanalytic area , from the Freudian perspective to contemporary authors, and in myth and literature. It is traced the birth and development of this concept showing how its different facets had been largely anticipated by the myth, especially Jewish myth. The second part of the article focuses on a literary example, “Strange Shores" by A. Indriðason, that offers many ideas to explore some of the dynamics of the fraternal complex in its intersection with fundamental issues in the field of psychoanalysis as the symbol, the double, the shadow, the guilt and the mourning.  

  10. Therapist interventions using the Psychodynamic Interventions Rating Scale (PIRS) in dynamic therapy, psychoanalysis and CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banon, Elisabeth; Perry, John Christopher; Semeniuk, Trent; Bond, Michael; de Roten, Yves; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    One requirement for psychotherapy research is an accurate assessment of therapeutic interventions across studies. This study compared frequency and depth of therapist interventions from a dynamic perspective across four studies, conducted in four countries, including three treatment arms of psychodynamic psychotherapy, and one each of psychoanalysis and CBT. All studies used the Psychodynamic Intervention Rating Scales (PIRS) to identify 10 interventions from transcribed whole sessions early and later in treatment. The PIRS adequately categorized all interventions, except in CBT (only 91-93% categorized). As hypothesized, interpretations were present in all dynamic therapies and relatively absent in CBT. Proportions of interpretations increased over time. Defense interpretations were more common than transference interpretations, which were most prevalent in psychoanalysis. Depth of interpretations also increased over time. These data can serve as norms for measuring where on the supportive-interpretive continuum a dynamic treatment lies, as well as identify potentially mutative interventions for further process and outcome study.

  11. ['Exotic bird" or "grande dame" of psychoanalysis? The atypical professional career of Anna Kattrin Kemper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchtner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    A. K. Kemper's ascent from a life of poverty in Germany to a successful psychoanalytic practice in Brazil ran counter to all professional norms. With a minimum of formal training and a lot of willpower Kemper reached her professional goal, for which she felt she was destined because of her therapeutic talent. Her success was in no small measure due to the help of her husband, the psychoanalyst Werner Kemper, who had been invited to establish a psychoanalytic society in Rio de Janeiro. Some other German analysts also helped her to become an analyst and training analyst in a short period of time despite insufficient knowledge of psychoanalysis. However, her astonishing career caused considerable conflicts, which harmed her husband's reputation. While she remained controversial, she was respected by many and received numerous honours. The foundation of a social clinic for psychoanalysis counts among her most remarkable accomplishments.

  12. Psychoanalysis and analytic psychotherapy in the NHS--a problem for medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, G

    1986-01-01

    I question the place of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy in the National Health Service (NHS), with reference to published material; and, particularly, in relation to primary care, health economics and medical ethics. I argue that there are pressing clinical, research, economic, and ethical reasons in support of the contention that an urgent review of the extent and impact of psychoanalytic practices in the health service is called for. PMID:3735363

  13. Tausk’s influence machine within structuralist ideas in psychiatry and in psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, Georgios (Yorgos)

    2017-01-01

    With the advance of industrialization during the late 19th century, the occident watched its everyday life become submerged by all sorts of mechanical devices and technological innovations. Delusions followed that societal process: machines, instruments and media became part of the delusions’ content. The end of the century saw Freud discovering psychoanalysis and the birth of the psychoanalytic movement. In the aftermath of WWI, a crucial time for the movement’s expansion, an ambitious young...

  14. Extinction phenomena: A biologic perspective on how and why psychoanalysis works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda A.W. Brakel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the view that much of the success of classical psychoanalysis is centrally predicated on its biological potency; focusing not on neuropsychology, but on the biology of conditioning. The argument suggests that features of classic psychoanalytic technique--the couch, meetings several times per week with both parties present, and free association--uniquely facilitate intense transferences of various sorts, and that these in turn constitute the multiple and diverse extinction trials necessary to best approximate extinction.

  15. Extinction Phenomena: A Biologic Perspective on How and Why Psychoanalysis Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, Linda A. W.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the view that much of the success of classical psychoanalysis is centrally predicated on its biological potency; focusing not on neuropsychology, but on the biology of conditioning. The argument suggests that features of classic psychoanalytic technique – the couch, meetings several times per week with both parties present, and free association – uniquely facilitate intense transferences of various sorts, and that these in turn constitute the multiple and diverse extinction trials necessary to best approximate extinction. PMID:21927610

  16. The Neuropsychoanalytic Approach: Using Neuroscience as the Basic Science of Psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian; Flores Mosri, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    NEUROSCIENCE AS THE BASIC SCIENCE OF PSYCHOANALYSISNeuroscience was the basic science behind Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and technique. He worked as a neurologist for 20 years before being aware that a new approach to understand complex diseases, namely the hysterias, was needed. Solms coined the term neuropsychoanalysis to affirm that neuroscience still belongs in psychoanalysis. The neuropsychoanalytic field has continued Freud’s original ideas as stated in 1895. Developments in psychoana...

  17. The British Tradition of Psychoanalysis five Times a Week: Sacrament or Sacred Cow?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Coates Thummel

    2015-01-01

    The British Psychoanalytic Society (BPAS) is identified with the tradition of psychoanalysis five times a week. The paper discusses the history and evolution of this tradition in the BPAS and how this has been and continues to be supported by various institutional structures including training regulations and subsidies. More recent questioning about frequency is discussed as well as the factors both external and internal that make high frequency analytic work difficult to achieve. Clinical ma...

  18. Toward an Ethic of Listening, the Psychoanalysis Bet in Special Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Ramírez Escobar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The following paper seeks to explain the subjective effects brought by the majority of Psycho-pedagogical and clinical approaches on special education for children. Approaches founded on psychoanalysis and its connection to philosophy will be placed emphasis on to set out a new action mechanism. The notion of Ethics of Listening derives from those approaches from which a model of attention, opposite to that one used today within evaluation techniques at educational institutions, is proposed. 

  19. The Rift of the Big Other. Psychoanalysis and Politics Starting from Lacan

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cavallari

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to open the space for a dabate between political theory and psychoanalysis, by starting from the problematisation of some of the most fundamental concepts offered by the analytic theory of Jacques Lacan. Through the analysis of key-Lacanian categories like symbolic structure, big Other, object a, symptom, the article exposes the main misunderstandings that characterise the work of many contemporary political theorists and psychoanalysts who refer to adopt Lacanian psy...

  20. Turism and Psychology studies: genesis of pleasure in classical Freudian psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we intend to demonstrate the different treatments which the Psychology has made about the pleasure as well as the contributions or limitations that the psychoanalysis demonstrates in the matter. The pleasure is configured like a discharge generated by the encounter between the instincts of life (Eros and of death (Thanatos in conjunction with the exogenous excitement. In consequence, the principle of the transfer explains the displacement (tourist like a form of psychic balance.

  1. Trauma, dream, and psychic change in psychoanalyses: a dialog between psychoanalysis and the neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischmann, Tamara; Russ, Michael O.; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    To many psychoanalysts dreams are a central source of knowledge of the unconscious—the specific research object of psychoanalysis. The dialog with the neurosciences, devoted to the testing of hypotheses on human behavior and neurophysiology with objective methods, has added to psychoanalytic conceptualizations on emotion, memory, sleep and dreams, conflict and trauma. To psychoanalysts as well as neuroscientists, the neurological basis of psychic functioning, particularly concerning trauma, is of special interest. In this article, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between psychoanalytic findings and neuroscientific findings on trauma. We then attempt to merge both approaches in one experimental study devoted to the investigation of the neurophysiological changes (fMRI) associated with psychoanalytic treatment in chronically depressed patients. We also report on an attempt to quantify psychoanalysis-induced transformation in the manifest content of dreams. To do so, we used two independent methods. First, dreams reported during the cure of chronic depressed analysands were assessed by the treating psychoanalyst. Second, dreams reported in an experimental context were analyzed by an independent evaluator using a standardized method to quantify changes in dream content (Moser method). Single cases are presented. Preliminary results suggest that psychoanalysis-induced transformation can be assessed in an objective way. PMID:24381554

  2. Trauma, dream and psychic change in psychoanalyses: a dialogue between psychoanalysis and the neurosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eFischmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To many psychoanalysts dreams are a central source of knowledge of the unconscious – the specific research object of psychoanalysis. The dialogue with the neurosciences, devoted to the testing of hypotheses on human behaviour and neurophysiology with objective methods, has added to psychoanalytic conceptualizations on emotion, memory, sleep and dreams, conflict and trauma. To psychoanalysts as well as neuroscientists, the neurological basis of psychic functioning, particularly concerning trauma, is of special interest. In this article, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between psychoanalytic findings and neuroscientific findings on trauma. We then attempt to merge both approaches in one experimental study devoted to the investigation of the neurophysiological changes (fMRI associated with psychoanalytic treatment in chronically depressed patients. We also report on an attempt to quantify psychoanalysis-induced transformation in the manifest content of dreams. To do so, we used two independent methods. First, dreams reported during the cure of chronic depressed analysands were assessed by the treating psychoanalyst. Second, dreams reported in an experimental context were analysed by an independent evaluator using a standardized method to quantify changes in dream content (Moser method. Single cases are presented. Preliminary results suggest that psychoanalysis-induced transformation can be assessed in an objective way.

  3. A Historical Review of Diachrony and Semantic Dimensions of Trace in Neurosciences and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Escobar, Carolina

    2017-06-23

    Experience leaves a trace in the nervous system through plasticity. However, the exact meaning of the mnesic trace is poorly defined in current literature. This article provides a historical review of the term trace in neuroscience and psychoanalysis literature, to highlight two relevant aspects: the diachronic and the semantic dimensions. There has been a general interest in diachrony, or a form of evolution of the trace, but its indissociable semantic dimension remains partially disregarded. Although frequently implied, the diachronic and semantic dimensions of the trace are rarely clearly articulated. We situate this discussion into the classical opposition of syntax, or rules of inscription of the trace in the nervous system, and semantics, or the content of the trace, which takes into consideration the attempt of the human being to build coherence. A general observation is that the study of the term trace follows trends of the thought of the given epoch. This historical analysis also reveals the decay of the idea that the trace is reliable to the experience. From the articulation between neurosciences and psychoanalysis in a historical perspective, this review shows that the trend is to consider trace as a production of the subject, resulting in a permanent rewriting in an attempt to give meaning to the experience. This trend is becoming increasingly evident in light of recent research in neurosciences and psychoanalysis.

  4. Rescuing psychoanalysis from Freud: the common project of Stekel, Jung and Ferenczi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnytsky, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    This article offers an extended discussion of Wilhelm Stekel's "On the History of the Analytic Movement" (1926), published in English translation for the first time in "Psychoanalysis and History" 7(1) in 2005. It begins with a critique of the presentation of Stekel's text by Jaap Bos, who takes a purely rhetorical approach that seeks to exclude a psychological analysis of the author's motives. Bos's characterization of Stekel is likewise contested as unduly negative in crucial respects. The second section argues that it remains the task of the historian to search for truth. Attacks on the credibility of Jung by Harold Blum and Kurt Eissler are shown to reflect a bias that causes them to neglect the empirical evidence corroborating Jung's testimony concerning key events in his relationship to Freud. The third section lays out the numerous ways in which Stekel, Jung and Ferenczi independently arrived at remarkably similar judgements concerning Freud's character, and how his human failings exerted a harmful effect on the development of psychoanalysis. The final section moves to a discussion of how Stekel joins with Jung and Ferenczi in defining a common project of rescuing what is best in psychoanalysis from Freud's demands for personal loyalty and his attempts to subjugate his followers to intellectual tyranny.

  5. A Historical Review of Diachrony and Semantic Dimensions of Trace in Neurosciences and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Carolina; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2017-01-01

    Experience leaves a trace in the nervous system through plasticity. However, the exact meaning of the mnesic trace is poorly defined in current literature. This article provides a historical review of the term trace in neuroscience and psychoanalysis literature, to highlight two relevant aspects: the diachronic and the semantic dimensions. There has been a general interest in diachrony, or a form of evolution of the trace, but its indissociable semantic dimension remains partially disregarded. Although frequently implied, the diachronic and semantic dimensions of the trace are rarely clearly articulated. We situate this discussion into the classical opposition of syntax, or rules of inscription of the trace in the nervous system, and semantics, or the content of the trace, which takes into consideration the attempt of the human being to build coherence. A general observation is that the study of the term trace follows trends of the thought of the given epoch. This historical analysis also reveals the decay of the idea that the trace is reliable to the experience. From the articulation between neurosciences and psychoanalysis in a historical perspective, this review shows that the trend is to consider trace as a production of the subject, resulting in a permanent rewriting in an attempt to give meaning to the experience. This trend is becoming increasingly evident in light of recent research in neurosciences and psychoanalysis. PMID:28690553

  6. Approach to the notice of insanity. Symptom - mental health and clinical structures. Psychology and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Chacón-Afanador

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work of reflection proposes the approach of the concepts of clinical structures and mental health, starting from the position of psychoanalysis and the question is asked if it is possible to think the madness within them. To do this, it starts from an approach to training and symptom in psychoanalysis and psychology, pointing out the importance of differentiating the psychic from the organic, as well as the psychic from the mental. In this sense, the concept of mental health proposed by WHO is addressed and the place of psychology and psychoanalysis in this concept is questioned. In the same way a reflection is made around the questions: Is it possible to speak of madness in the XXI century, when psychiatry has tried to eradicate this term? To talk about crazy again is to return to a debate that has somehow been left out of the scientific debate? Is it possible to think nowadays the importance of elaborating a nosography that includes Insanity?

  7. Arte, escritura y psicoanálisis. // Art, writing, and psychoanalysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Gonzales Ceja.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This text is addressed to those interested in psychoanalysis and its intertextual relation: psychoanalysis, in theory or into practice, in communication with literature. Basically, the aim is the identification of problems between the psychoanalysis and its transference. For this, I deal with the literature of Julio Cortázar and the Letter of Lacan as the paradigm of these problems, since they facilitate the reading of the psychoanalytic knowledge. // Este texto está dirigido a los interesados en el psicoanálisis y su relación intertextual: psicoanálisis en su teoría o en su práctica en dialogo con la literatura. Básicamente, se intenta una problematización entre el psicoanálisis y su transmisión. Para ello, abordo como paradigma de esta problemática a la literatura de Julio Cortazar y la Letra de Jacques Lacan, por facilitar la lectura del saber del psicoanálisis.

  8. A Historical Review of Diachrony and Semantic Dimensions of Trace in Neurosciences and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Escobar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Experience leaves a trace in the nervous system through plasticity. However, the exact meaning of the mnesic trace is poorly defined in current literature. This article provides a historical review of the term trace in neuroscience and psychoanalysis literature, to highlight two relevant aspects: the diachronic and the semantic dimensions. There has been a general interest in diachrony, or a form of evolution of the trace, but its indissociable semantic dimension remains partially disregarded. Although frequently implied, the diachronic and semantic dimensions of the trace are rarely clearly articulated. We situate this discussion into the classical opposition of syntax, or rules of inscription of the trace in the nervous system, and semantics, or the content of the trace, which takes into consideration the attempt of the human being to build coherence. A general observation is that the study of the term trace follows trends of the thought of the given epoch. This historical analysis also reveals the decay of the idea that the trace is reliable to the experience. From the articulation between neurosciences and psychoanalysis in a historical perspective, this review shows that the trend is to consider trace as a production of the subject, resulting in a permanent rewriting in an attempt to give meaning to the experience. This trend is becoming increasingly evident in light of recent research in neurosciences and psychoanalysis.

  9. Child mental hygiene and psychoanalysis at the clinic of conduct, Santiago de Chile, 1936-1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Vetö

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking stance in a situated perspective, this article looks into one of the first Chilean state initiatives aimed at the study and care of child psyche. This institution that has not yet been explored by specialized literature: the Clinic of Conduct, founded in the city of Santiago in 1936 as part of the Special School of Development, which was created in the context of a the Educational Reform of 1928. The Clinic of Conduct launched a state managed mental hygiene programme that included psychoanalysis as its main reference at a time when psychoanalysis was not yet a regular reference in the local medical world. We are thus interested in analysing context in which this initiatives were created and the ways in which mental hygiene and psychoanalysis were appropriated and used in an institution in which the principal interest was not the defence or legitimation of a singular theory, but the approach to specific social problems such as child delinquency and education. Some characteristics of the history of psy knowledges in Chile emerge from this study, showing how they unfold on the scenario of social problems and how they relate to other disciplines and practices such as criminology and pedagogy.

  10. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the development of osteoarthritis. It is a common reason people have shoulder replacement surgery. Rheumatoid Arthritis This is ... severe fracture of the shoulder is another common reason people have shoulder replacements. When the head of the ...

  11. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  12. The partnership of psychoanalysis and psychiatry in the treatment of psychosis and borderline states: its evolution in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothane, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is about two hundred years old and that of psychoanalysis more than a hundred, with an important anniversary of the latter in 2011. Freud renewed and humanized psychiatry by enriching its static descriptive method with the new dynamic and interpretive discoveries of psychoanalysis. Freud's innovations, while developed in Europe, were integrated into psychiatry briefly by the Swiss School but mainly in the United States. After many years of fruitful collaboration psychiatry and psychoanalysis seemed to part company in the U.S. in the last few decades. However, the tradition of combining psychiatric care with dynamic principles is still considered valid in the treatment of psychoses and severe personality disorders.

  13. The Debate between Grunbaum and Ricoeur: The Hermeneutic Conception of Psychoanalysis and the Drive for Scientific Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Trotter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul Ricœur’s hermeneutic approach to psychoanalysis stresses the interpretation of meanings revealed via the narratives woven through the discursive exchanges between analyst and analysand. Despite the tremendous influence Ricœur’s interpretation enjoyed both in philosophy and in psychoanalysis, his approach has been subject to severe criticism by Adolf Grünbaum who argues that Freud modeled psychoanalysis on the natural sciences, and therefore it should be judged according to natural scientific standards. I argue that Grünbaum incorrectly downplays the importance of speech and language in psychoanalytic theory and practice, and moreover, that Ricœur’s approach offers important insights that deserve to be redeployed today.

  14. Psicanálise, saber e conhecimento Psychoanalysis, acquaintance and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cabral Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Em fins do século XIX ocorre, no plano da construção de conhecimentos, uma revolução: Freud, Marx e Nietzsche equivocam a certeza. Posteriormente, Göedel demonstra que, num sistema lógico, existe a possibilidade de contradição, um furo. A partir disto, este trabalho estuda as condições de produção do conhecimento em psicanálise, propondo uma dupla visada: lançar um olhar epistemológico sobre a psicanálise e pensar uma epistemologia a partir do que aquela possui de mais próprio e radical o Inconsciente. Acreditamos que o estudo desta relação é uma importante questão epistemológica, relevante para a compreensão da atividade científica como um todo.Towards the end of 19th century, a revolution takes place in the field of knowledge production: Freud, Marx and Nietzsche introduce the idea of a not totally guaranteed certainty. Afterwards, Gödel demonstrates the possibility of contradiction in a given logical system. Parting from these premises, this assay studies the knowledge production conditions in psychoanalysis and proposes a two way analysis: thinking psychoanalysis from an epistemological point of view, as well as thinking the contribution of psychoanalysis theory of Inconscient to an epistemology. We believe that the study of this relation is an important epistemological question, relevant to the comprehension of scientific activity as a whole.

  15. The reception of classical psychoanalysis in the Russian religious thought and the modern psychoanalytic theories of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Antonov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the principal moments of the understanding of religion in psychoanalysis as perceived by Russian thinkers of the first half and the middle of the 20th century. The author indicates the conditions and context of the perception of psychoanalysis in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the main contiguity points shared by the psychoanalytic understanding of religion and its treatment by the Russian symbolists, mainly by Vyacheslav Ivanov. He proceeds to consider the perception and criticism of psychoanalysis off ered by Russian thinkers of the fi rst half and the middle of the 20th century: Father P. Florensky, N. A. Berdyayev, S. L. Frank, B. P. Vysheslavtsev and S. A. Levitsky. The final part of the article contains conclusions bearing on the general meaning of this perception and its potential signifi cance for the Russian psychology of religion. Beyond any doubt, Russian philosophers have managed to enrich their understanding of religion by making use of the attainments of psychoanalysis. They have productively used even such ideas as had been conceived by the founder of psychoanalysis as instrumental in criticizing religion. Alongside repetition of the ideas common in the criticism of psychoanalysis, they have put forward a number of original arguments proceeding from an immanent analysis of psychoanalytical ideas indicative of the internal problems that exist in the psychoanalytical approach to religion. They have also outlined ways of overcoming them within the framework of Christian thought. In a number of cases they have evidently foreshadowed the interpretation of psychoanalytical doctrines in Western Christian thought.

  16. Psychoanalysis as a Philosophical Revolution: Freud's Divergence From the Philosophy of Kant, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jason

    2016-08-01

    In his classic, The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche described a philosophical worldview that has many similarities to Freudian metapsychology. This paper uses Freud's theories to analyze The Birth of Tragedy, discussing the similarities and differences between Nietzsche's philosophy and Freudian metapsychology. The author suggests that while psychoanalysis was born from the spirit of German philosophy, in that it based itself on a similar concept of the unconscious, Freud diverged from his predecessors to create a new worldview, based on the acceptance and integration of unconscious desire. This revolutionary theory provided a new approach to humanity's moral and existential issues.

  17. The Self-Organizing Psyche: Nonlinear and Neurobiological Contributions to Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    Sigmund Freud attempted to align nineteenth century biology (and the dynamically conservative, continuous, Newtonian mechanics that underlie it) with discontinuous conscious experience. His tactics both set the future course for psychoanalytic development and introduced seemingly intractable complications into its metapsychology. In large part, these arose from what we now recognize were biological errors and dynamical oversimplifications amid his physical assumptions. Their correction, brought about by integrating nonlinear dynamics and neuro-biological research findings with W. Bion's reading of metapsychology, fundamentally supports a psychoanalysis based upon D. W. Winnicott's ideas surrounding play within transitional space.

  18. Constance Pascal's Chagrins d'amour et psychoses (1935): a French psychiatrist's views on psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Felicia

    2015-03-01

    In 1935 Constance Pascal (1877-1937), France's first woman psychiatrist, published Chagrins d'amour et psychoses (The Sorrows of Love and Psychosis). My analysis of her monograph will consider: her major article leading up to Chagrins; Pascal's debts to her predecessors, particularly Morel and Kretschmer; her relationship to the French psychoanalytic movement; her co-option of psychoanalysis as a tool in her own therapeutic work with patients in the state psychiatric system; and her social/cultural interpretations of her woman patients. The literary and philosophic aspects of her work are emphasized as well as her contribution to French psychiatry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The British Tradition of Psychoanalysis five Times a Week: Sacrament or Sacred Cow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Coates Thummel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The British Psychoanalytic Society (BPAS is identified with the tradition of psychoanalysis five times a week. The paper discusses the history and evolution of this tradition in the BPAS and how this has been and continues to be supported by various institutional structures including training regulations and subsidies. More recent questioning about frequency is discussed as well as the factors both external and internal that make high frequency analytic work difficult to achieve. Clinical material and illustrations form the basis for discussion of some of the issues involved.

  20. Addressing, understanding and treating conduct disorders in adolescents through psychoanalysis and neuroscience: towards a disappearance of sex-differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Benjelloun, Amine; Rufo, Marcel; Simeoni, Marie-Claude

    2010-11-01

    Based on our findings showing that female adolescents in resident group homes exhibit externalized disorders at the same rate as male adolescents, explanatory hypotheses are developed from neuroscience (genetics and endocrinology) and from psychoanalysis (psychopathological and environmental approach). In particular, the place of the psychoanalytic approach in improving our understanding of such results is discussed with regard first to the clinical context and then to the research context. This article underlines that both approaches in psychoanalysis and neuroscience can, and maybe have to/should, coexist in child psychiatry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  2. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  3. Joint replacement in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJZ

    Penicillin allergy. 01. 02.0. Rheumatoid arthritis. 02. 03.9. TB. 01. 02.0. SCD. 01. 02.0. Fused lt. Hip. 01. 02.0. HIV +. 02. 03.9. Nil. 30. 58.7. Table 2. Distribution of operation related variables (n = 51). AVN = Avascular Necrosis. THR = Total Hip Replacement.TKR = Total Knee Replacement, C1 = Consultant 1.

  4. [Psychoanalysis during the Nazi era. Contemporary consequences of a historical controversy: the Wilhelm Reich "case"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, B

    1999-01-01

    The paper sheds light on the extent of collaboration between the pre-World War II German Psychoanalytic Society (DPG) and the Nazi regime. This is shown by the story of the expulsion of Wilhelm Reich from membership in the DPG, at Freud's own bid. A leading German psychoanalyst, Carl Müller-Braunschweig, published the paper "Psychoanalysis and Weltanschauung" in the fanatically "national" (so-called "völkisch") Nazi propaganda organ Reichswart in 1993 following consultations with officials of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) who endorsed these policies. This paper by Müller-Braunschweig was used both to prevent the possible outlawing of psychoanalysis by the Nazis and to deny official DPG support to Wilhelm Reich and the group of leftist-oriented IPA analysts who joined forces with him in opposing Nazi ideology. The paper concludes with examples from post-1945 historiography showing how the exclusion of Reich and the related DPG/IPA compromise and "appeasement" policy were either ignored or disclaimed.

  5. The Interface between Neuroscience and Neuro-Psychoanalysis: Focus on Brain Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salone, Anatolia; Di Giacinto, Alessandra; Lai, Carlo; De Berardis, Domenico; Iasevoli, Felice; Fornaro, Michele; De Risio, Luisa; Santacroce, Rita; Martinotti, Giovanni; Giannantonio, Massimo Di

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the advent of advanced techniques has significantly enhanced our knowledge on the brain. Yet, our understanding of the physiological and pathological functioning of the mind is still far from being exhaustive. Both the localizationist and the reductionist neuroscientific approaches to psychiatric disorders have proven to be largely unsatisfactory and are outdated. Accruing evidence suggests that psychoanalysis can engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue that may further our understanding of psychiatric disorders. In particular, advances in brain connectivity research have provided evidence supporting the convergence of neuroscientific findings and psychoanalysis and helped characterize the circuitry and mechanisms that underlie higher brain functions. In the present paper we discuss how knowledge on brain connectivity can impact neuropsychoanalysis, with a particular focus on schizophrenia. Brain connectivity studies in schizophrenic patients indicate complex alterations in brain functioning and circuitry, with particular emphasis on the role of cortical midline structures (CMS) and the default mode network (DMN). These networks seem to represent neural correlates of psychodynamic concepts central to the understanding of schizophrenia and of core psychopathological alterations of this disorder (i.e., ego disturbances and impaired primary process thinking). PMID:26869904

  6. Toward a general theory of unconscious processes in psychoanalysis and anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashour, George A

    2008-03-01

    Psychoanalysis and anesthesiology appear radically different in their clinical practice, yet they share a focus of inquiry: unconscious processes. Despite this common domain, there has been no exploration of the relationship between "the unconscious" as conceived by psychoanalysts and "surgical unconsciousness" as conceived by anesthesiologists. This is likely due to the fact that general anesthesia has been assumed to be a state in which the brain is simply "turned off." More recent neuroscientific data invalidate this assumption by demonstrating that the anesthetized brain is both cognitively dynamic and capable of implicit learning. Current perspectives on anesthetic mechanisms suggest that general anesthesia is characterized not simply by the absence of cognitive activity, but by the disintegration of cognitive activity. The cognitive unbinding paradigm of general anesthesia is discussed and its application to Wilfred Bion's theory of thinking, as well as his concept of attacks on linking, is elucidated. Based on the common structure and function of unconscious processes in psychoanalysis and anesthesiology, the foundation of a general theory is established.

  7. Anomalous Experiences, Trauma, and Symbolization Processes at the Frontiers between Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeyron, Thomas; Loose, Tianna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous or exceptional experiences are uncommon experiences which are usually interpreted as being paranormal by those who report them. These experiences have long remained difficult to explain, but current progress in cognitive neuroscience and psychoanalysis sheds light on the contexts in which they emerge, as well as on their underlying processes. Following a brief description of the different types of anomalous experiences, we underline how they can be better understood at the frontiers between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences. In this regard, three main lines of research are discussed and illustrated, alongside clinical cases which come from a clinical service specializing in anomalous experiences. First, we study the links between anomalous experiences and hallucinatory processes, by showing that anomalous experiences frequently occur as a specific reaction to negative life events, in which case they mainly take the form of non-pathological hallucinations. Next, we propose to analyze these experiences from the perspective of their traumatic aspects and the altered states of consciousness they often imply. Finally, these experiences are considered to be the consequence of a hypersensitivity that can be linked to an increase in psychic permeability. In conclusion, these different processes lead us to consider anomalous experiences as primary forms of symbolization and transformation of the subjective experience, especially during, or after traumatic situations. PMID:26732646

  8. Some key features in the evolution of self psychology and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosshage, James L

    2009-04-01

    Psychoanalysis, as every science and its application, has continued to evolve over the past century, especially accelerating over the last 30 years. Self psychology has played a constitutive role in that evolution and has continued to change itself. These movements have been supported and augmented by a wide range of emergent research and theory, especially that of cognitive psychology, infant and attachment research, rapid eye movement and dream research, psychotherapy research, and neuroscience. I present schematically some of what I consider to be the key features of the evolution of self psychology and their interconnection with that of psychoanalysis at large, including the revolutionary paradigm changes, the new epistemology, listening/experiencing perspectives, from narcissism to the development of the self, the new organization model of transference, the new organization model of dreams, and the implicit and explicit dimensions of analytic work. I conclude with a focus on the radical ongoing extension of the analyst's participation in the analytic relationship, using, as an example, the co-creation of analytic love, and providing several brief clinical illustrations. The leading edge question guiding my discussion is "How does analytic change occur?"

  9. Between Marxism and psychoanalysis: antifascism and antihomosexuality in the Frankfurt School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, R

    1995-01-01

    In their efforts to utilize individualist psychoanalysis as a tool for understanding mass behavior, the social theorists associated with the Frankfurt School increasingly came to rely on a static, essentializing construction of sexuality which ultimately led to an equation of fascism and homosexuality. Heretofore unexamined in studies of the Frankfurt School, this equation will here serve as the starting point for a fundamental critique of the concept of sexuality developed by this influential circle of Marxist thinkers. While directed at the concept of sexuality, such a critique more importantly opens up the underlying understanding of the social and psychological realms advanced by Critical Theory. Attending to the equation of homosexuality and fascism as the central point of concern, this essay will first trace the introduction of psychoanalysis into Critical Theory through Erich Fromm and then investigate the extent of Fromm's influence on the concept of sexuality propounded by his colleagues, especially Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno. Finally, it will take up a frequently overlooked essay by Herbert Marcuse which promoted a vision of sexuality radically different from that of his associates.

  10. Some thoughts on the diffusion of psychoanalysis: the group dimension, ethics and the sense of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Albert

    2011-12-01

    In this paper the author questions some of the ways in which psychoanalysis is passed on to the wider public, one of which is sometimes evocative of the sales promotion of a consumer product in contemporary society. This methodology does not give sufficiently deep prior thought to the eventual consequences of side effects. The detailed exposition of clinical cases, for example, raises sensitive ethical issues, even when anonymity is preserved. Although it is true that making information about Freud's theories more widely available may indeed encourage people to think about training as psychoanalysts, it is noticeable that this process is sometimes considered to be a form of training in itself. Some participants feel that acquiring a psychoanalytical vocabulary and reading clinical reports form a sufficient basis for practising thereafter as psychotherapists, both in institutional contexts and in private practice. The absence of group work on the part of the organizers might explain why closer study is not made of the methodologies of transmission and the different levels that it involves. This is sometimes due to the absence of a common object, formed within and by the group, and to the emergence of manic defences in the group. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. Anomalous experiences, trauma and symbolization processes at the frontier between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRabeyron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous or exceptional experiences are uncommon experiences which are usually interpreted as being paranormal by those who report them. These experiences have long remained difficult to explain, but current progress in cognitive neuroscience and psychoanalysis sheds light on the contexts in which they emerge, as well as on their underlying processes. Following a brief description of the different types of anomalous experiences, we underline how they can be better understood at the frontiers between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences. In this regard, three main lines of research are discussed and illustrated, alongside clinical cases which come from a clinical service specializing in anomalous experiences. First, we study the links between anomalous experiences and hallucinatory processes, by showing that anomalous experiences frequently occur as a specific reaction to negative life events, in which case they mainly take the form of non-pathological hallucinations. Next, we propose to analyze these experiences from the perspective of their traumatic aspects and the altered states of consciousness they often imply. Finally, these experiences are considered to be the consequence of a hypersensitivity that can be linked to an increase in psychic permeability. In conclusion, these different processes lead us to consider anomalous experiences as primary forms of symbolization and transformation of the subjective experience, especially during or after traumatic situations.

  12. Toward an ethics of psychoanalysis: a critical reading of Lacan's ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis A

    2012-12-01

    Lacan's seminar The Ethics of Psychoanalysis (1959-1960) pursues, from a Freudian perspective, a fundamental philosophical question classically addressed by Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics: How is human life best lived and fulfilled? Is there is an ethic of this type intrinsic to psychoanalysis? Lacan placed the problem of desire at the center of his Ethics. His notorious self-authorized freedom from convention and probable crossing of limits (see Roudinesco 1993) may have led mainstream analysts to ignore his admonition: "At every moment we need to know what our effective relationship is to the desire to do good, to the desire to cure" (Lacan 1959-1960, p. 219). This means that the analyst's desire, as well as the patient's, is always in play in his attempt to sustain an ethical position. An examination of Lacan's seminar highlights this link, but also points to a number of unresolved issues. The patient's desire is a complex matter, readily entangled in neurotic compromise, defense, and transference, and the analyst's commitment to it is also problematic because of the inevitable co-presence of his own desire. Lacan suggested that more emphasis be placed in training on the desire of the analyst, but beyond that a proposal is advanced for the institutionalization of a "third" as reviewer and interlocutor in routine analytic practice. Analysis may not be a discipline that can be limited to a dyadic treatment relationship.

  13. Gradual stiffness versus magnetic imaging-guided variable stiffness colonoscopes: A randomized noninferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garborg, Kjetil; Wiig, Håvard; Hasund, Audun; Matre, Jon; Holme, Øyvind; Noraberg, Geir; Løberg, Magnus; Kalager, Mette; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bretthauer, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Colonoscopes with gradual stiffness have recently been developed to enhance cecal intubation. We aimed to determine if the performance of gradual stiffness colonoscopes is noninferior to that of magnetic endoscopic imaging (MEI)-guided variable stiffness colonoscopes. Consecutive patients were randomized to screening colonoscopy with Fujifilm gradual stiffness or Olympus MEI-guided variable stiffness colonoscopes. The primary endpoint was cecal intubation rate (noninferiority limit 5%). Secondary endpoints included cecal intubation time. We estimated absolute risk differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We enrolled 475 patients: 222 randomized to the gradual stiffness instrument, and 253 to the MEI-guided variable stiffness instrument. Cecal intubation rate was 91.7% in the gradual stiffness group versus 95.6% in the variable stiffness group. The adjusted absolute risk for cecal intubation failure was 4.3% higher in the gradual stiffness group than in the variable stiffness group (upper CI border 8.1%). Median cecal intubation time was 13 minutes in the gradual stiffness group and 10 minutes in the variable stiffness group (p < 0.001). The study is inconclusive with regard to noninferiority because the 95% CI for the difference in cecal intubation rate between the groups crosses the noninferiority margin. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01895504).

  14. Dr Jekels' health resort in Bystra near Bielsko: the first treatment centre which adopted psychoanalysis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-29

    The paper sets out to present the history of a health resort and hydrotherapy centre in Bystra near Bielsko from 1898 to 1912. At that time Dr Ludwik Jekels, one of the Polish psychoanalysis forerunners, was the owner of the centre. Initially, Dr Jekels was very enthusiastic about climatic treatment and hydrotherapy, until 1905 when he got interested in psychoanalysis. Shortly afterwards he became its staunch supporter and adopted it as a curative procedure in his health resort. That was the first documented case of psychoanalysis use in Poland. This paper presents the development of the therapeutic centre in Bystra and the characteristic of typical patients receiving treatment there. It also briefly reports on medical histories of the conditions of patients who received psychoanalytic treatment. The paper also focuses on another significant area of Dr Jekels'contact with Sigmund Freud ranging from an accidental meeting in Vienna around 1898, through the summer of 1910 when Jekels looked after Freud's daughters in his spa, to 1912 which saw Jekels'receiving psychoanalytic treatment from Freud. It also presents a detailed analysis of hypotheses why Jekels decided to sell the health resort and move to Vienna. Finally, the significance of Jekels'currently underrated therapeutic work for the development of the Polish psychoanalysis is reiterated.

  15. Pichon Rivière's psychoanalytic contributions: Some comparisons with object relations and modern developments in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, David E; Losso, Roberto; Setton, Lea

    2017-02-01

    Enrique Pichon Rivière's work, fundamental to Latin American and European psychoanalytic development, is largely unknown in English-language psychoanalysis. Pichon's central contribution, the link (el vinculo), describes relational bonds in all dimensions. People are born into, live in, and relate through links. Psychic structure is built of links that then influence external interaction. Links, expressed in mind, body and external action, continuously join internal and external worlds. Links have two axes: vertical axis links connect generations through unconscious transgenerational transmission; horizontal axis links connect persons to life partners, family, community and society. For Pichon, treatment constitutes a spiral process through which interpretation disrupts existent structures, promoting new emergent organizations at successively deeper levels. Psychic and link structures evolve over time unless repetitive cycles stunt growth. For Pichon, transference is constituted in the here-and-now-with-me because of the analytic link. Pichon also undertook family and group psychoanalysis where individuals become spokespersons for unconscious links and family secrets. He developed operative groups that apply psychoanalysis to both analytic and non-analytic tasks. After describing Pichon's major contributions, the paper compares Pichon Rivière's ideas with those of Klein, Fairbairn, Bion, Winnicott and Bowlby, and contemporary writers including Ogden, Kaës, and Ferro whose works echo Pichon Rivière's thought. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Therapy and ideology: psychoanalysis and its vicissitudes in pre-state Israel (including some hitherto unpublished letters by Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolnik, Eran J

    2010-12-01

    Few chapters in the historiography of psychoanalysis are as densely packed with trans-cultural, ideological, institutional, and moral issues as the coming of psychoanalysis to Jewish Palestine--a geopolitical space which bears some of the deepest scars of twentieth-century European, and in particular German, history. From the historical as well as the critical perspective, this article reconstructs the intricate connections between migration, separation and loss, continuity and new beginning which resonate in the formative years of psychoanalysis in pre-state Israel.

  17. Analysis and asynchronous detection of gradually unfolding errors during monitoring tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omedes, Jason; Iturrate, Iñaki; Minguez, Javier; Montesano, Luis

    2015-10-01

    Human studies on cognitive control processes rely on tasks involving sudden-onset stimuli, which allow the analysis of these neural imprints to be time-locked and relative to the stimuli onset. Human perceptual decisions, however, comprise continuous processes where evidence accumulates until reaching a boundary. Surpassing the boundary leads to a decision where measured brain responses are associated to an internal, unknown onset. The lack of this onset for gradual stimuli hinders both the analyses of brain activity and the training of detectors. This paper studies electroencephalographic (EEG)-measurable signatures of human processing for sudden and gradual cognitive processes represented as a trajectory mismatch under a monitoring task. Time-locked potentials and brain-source analysis of the EEG of sudden mismatches revealed the typical components of event-related potentials and the involvement of brain structures related to cognitive control processing. For gradual mismatch events, time-locked analyses did not show any discernible EEG scalp pattern, despite related brain areas being, to a lesser extent, activated. However, and thanks to the use of non-linear pattern recognition algorithms, it is possible to train an asynchronous detector on sudden events and use it to detect gradual mismatches, as well as obtaining an estimate of their unknown onset. Post-hoc time-locked scalp and brain-source analyses revealed that the EEG patterns of detected gradual mismatches originated in brain areas related to cognitive control processing. This indicates that gradual events induce latency in the evaluation process but that similar brain mechanisms are present in sudden and gradual mismatch events. Furthermore, the proposed asynchronous detection model widens the scope of applications of brain-machine interfaces to other gradual processes.

  18. The Effect of Gradual Increase in Contextual Interference on Acquisition, Retention and Transfer of Volleyball Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pasand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A general viewpoint on contextual interference shows that a blocked practice schedule facilitates the acquisition of a skill while a random practice is more useful in the retention and transfer of that skill. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gradual increase in contextual interference upon acquisition, retention and transfer of volleyball skills. Methods: For this purpose, 45 participants were randomly selected from male students at Shiraz University-Iran. After pre-test, the participants were equally distributed in three experimental groups: blocked (low CI, random (high CI and percentile gradual increase. After nine training sessions and recording the scores, the students were tested for acquisition, retention and transfer. p≤0.05 was considered as significance level in all the tests. Results: There was significant difference between the groups in acquisition sessions in favor of the blocked group. Retention and transfer test results also showed a significant difference between the groups in favor of random training and gradual increase groups compared to blocked training group .However no significant difference was observed between random with gradual increase training groups. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, it can be concluded that random and gradual increase in contextual interference training methods may increase the performance of subjects in terms of volleyball skills in retention and transfer tests. Keywords: Gradual Increase of Contextual Interference, Blocked, Random, Volleyball, Acquisition, Retention, Transfer

  19. Parkinson’s Disease Differentially Affects Adaptation to Gradual as Compared to Sudden Visuomotor Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Banquet, Jean P.; Burnod, Yves; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have difficulties in movement adaptation to optimize performance in novel environmental contexts such as altered screen cursor-hand relationships. Prior studies have shown that the time course of the distortion differentially affects visuomotor adaptation to screen cursor rotations, suggesting separate mechanisms for gradual and sudden adaptation. Moreover, studies in human and non-human primates suggest that adaptation to sudden kinematic distortions may engage the basal ganglia, whereas adaptation to gradual kinematic distortions involves cerebellar structures. In the present studies, participants were patients with PD, who performed center-out pointing movements, using either a digitizer tablet and pen or a computer trackball, under normal or rotated screen cursor feedback conditions. The initial study tested patients with PD using a cross-over experimental design for adaptation to gradual as compared with sudden rotated hand-screen cursor relationships and revealed significant after-effects for the gradual adaptation task only. Consistent with these results, findings from a follow-up experiment using a trackball that required only small finger movements showed that patients with PD adapt better to gradual as against sudden perturbations, when compared to age-matched healthy controls. We conclude that Parkinson’s disease affects adaptation to sudden visuomotor distortions but spares adaptation to gradual distortions. PMID:21414678

  20. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  1. Total Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can occur after surgery. Avoiding Problems After Surgery Hip implant dislocation. Recognizing the Signs of a Blood Clot Follow ... Other Precautions To assure proper recovery and prevent dislocation of the ... your hip replacement. Prior to discharge from the hospital, your ...

  2. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  3. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a part of the pelvic bone called the acetabulum) The upper end of the thighbone (called the ... Other reasons for replacing the hip joint are: Fractures in the thigh bone. Older adults often have ...

  4. The child as a traumatic self-component in Ferenczi's later psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, Antal

    2015-03-01

    In the Ferenczi renaissance of the last few decades it has become more and more important to elaborate and reconstruct the general shape, the "Weltanschauung", of his psychoanalysis. The construct of his "psychoanalytic anthropology" is based on the relational nature of individual existence. Relationality pervades the life narrative through the concept and role of the trauma and is crucial to the understanding of Ferenczi's self-concept. He understood the human individual as essentially fragmented in a "preprimal" way, in which the split self contains the child, as an active, always present infantile component. Through powerful allegories like the "Orpha" or the "wise baby," Ferenczi suggested an essentially post-modern idea of self that can be connected and differentiated from Winnicott's True and False Self.

  5. Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder—a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.

    2013-01-01

    Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. Attention can play a crucial role in moderating fear and self-regulatory deficits, and the interaction between experience and emotion can be central for decision-making. In this review we will explore fear as a motivating factor in narcissistic personality functioning, and the impact fear may have on decision-making in people with pathological narcissism and NPD. Understanding the processes and neurological underpinnings of fear and decision-making can potentially influence both the diagnosis and treatment of NPD. PMID:24174893

  6. Psychoanalysis, religion and enculturation: reflections through the life of mother Teresa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Kaif

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the question of whether psychoanalysis can help those who adhere to a worldview that is non-psychoanalytic or even anti-psychoanalytic. It answers this question by comparing the psychoanalytic understanding of suffering with that of the Catholic faith, through the latter's idea of the 'dark night of the soul'. The life of Mother Teresa is taken as an illustration of the dark night and how it may be responded to by the faithful. Similarities and differences between the two approaches are pointed out. Finally, it is suggested that psychoanalytic perspectives may enrich the inner lives of those living by a religious worldview, without necessarily diluting that worldview. Further, religious counsellors too may benefit from an understanding of psychoanalytic perspectives.

  7. Psychoanalysis, Democracy, and Dialogism / Psicanálise, democracia e dialogismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Thomson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Psychoanalysis (theory and practice is alive and well in some parts of the world like France, Brazil, and Argentina, but in countries like Canada and the United States it struggles to surviveas it competes with other kinds of therapies. Psychoanalysts in these latter countries have been seeking to understand why psychoanalysis is "under siege" and to invent new, more relevant clinical and theoretical approaches. "What kind of psychoanalysis contributes best to the creation of a democratic mind?" is a (political question asked by some contemporary relational psychoanalysts. The objective of my article is to suggest some answers to this kind of question byexploring the lessons we might learn from the work of a few key thinkers: the members of the Bakhtin Circle, Freud, Derrida, and some relational psychoanalysts of today. Two underlying assumptions of my article are: 1 an agreement with Stephen Mitchell that the practice and theory of psychoanalysis should provide a better understanding of "the relational matrix that makes our individual consciousness possible"; 2 that the dialogic principle (as developed by Bakhtin, Tzvetan Todorov, and others can help achieve this goal. RESUMO: A Psicanálise (teoria e prática está viva e bem em algumas partes do mundo como, por exemplo, na França, Brasil e Argentina, mas em países tais como o Canadá e os Estados Unidos ela tem lutado para sobreviver uma vez que compete com outros tipos de terapias. Psicanalistas nesses últimos países têm procurado entender o porquê de a psicanálise encontrar-se 'sitiada' enquanto buscam formas novas e mais relevantes de abordagens clínicas e teóricas. "Que tipo de psicanálise contribui melhor para a criação de uma mente democrática?" é uma questão(política indagada por alguns psicanalistas relacionais contemporâneos. O objetivo do meuartigo é sugerir algumas respostas para este tipo de questão, através da exploração das lições que n

  8. Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder-a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R

    2013-06-01

    Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. Attention can play a crucial role in moderating fear and self-regulatory deficits, and the interaction between experience and emotion can be central for decision-making. In this review we will explore fear as a motivating factor in narcissistic personality functioning, and the impact fear may have on decision-making in people with pathological narcissism and NPD. Understanding the processes and neurological underpinnings of fear and decision-making can potentially influence both the diagnosis and treatment of NPD.

  9. The Oedipus complex: A confrontation at the central cross-roads of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartke, Raul

    2016-06-01

    The theory of the Oedipus complex as Freud formulated it rests on the following pillars: the child's characteristic sexual and aggressive impulses concerning the parents, phallic monism, and the castration complex. This paper reviews the context in which Freud discovered the Oedipus complex, as well as Freud's theory. It then examines the proposals of later authors whose general Oedipal theories differ from Freud's in an attempt to point out both their possible correlations and confrontations with Freud. It includes Klein's pre-genital Oedipal theory, Lacan's structuralist reinterpretation, Bion's reconception of the complex under the knowledge vertex, Green's generalized triangulation theory, Meltzer's notions of the aesthetic object and sexual mental states, and Chasseguet-Smirgel's archaic Oedipal matrix. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Silence in the Communication or Communicating through Silence: Silence in Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflection upon the meaning and importance of silence in the psychoanalytical relationship. Beginning with the silence in the “normal” relationship between people, we show how silence can be experienced as confortable or unconfortable, and how it can be used to achieve a bigger proximity or distance in the relationship with others. We show these same aspects in the psychoanalytical relationship, and the evolution of the regard towards silence along the development of psychoanalysis. We end, presenting the Nacht’s thinking about silence, who emphasizes its integrative and fundamental role in the psychoanalytical relationship. Thus, only through silence certain affects can be born, and silence allows the patient to internalize the analyst.

  11. Adolescence and rites of passage. A joint of postfreudian and lacanian psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Uribe Aramburo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is intended to perform an articulation of the theoretical developments on adolescence by postfreudianos, psychoanalytic authors such as e. Erickson and Lacanian, as j. Ubieto. This with the intention of showing that despite the theoretical and conceptual differences between authors is possible to establish a dialogue between these approaches, which can serve not only the psychoanalysts but also psychologists and professionals in the social sciences. The article shows that the theoretical developments of these authors are supported by the linkage of psychoanalysis with scientific disciplines such as psychology, sociology, among others. The article highlights the fact that to study teenage perspective Psychoanalytical is essential to analyze the phenomenon of the rites of passage or transition from childhood to adulthood, since both antiquity and modernity such rites are allowing to build the identity of adult and thereby promote or hinder entry into social. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.

  12. Blood, sweat, and tears: the effort of narrative change in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rona

    2008-01-01

    Facilitating change in psychoanalysis requires the analyst and analysand to understand the narrative that the patient has constructed of his life and then activate certain attitudes and actions directed against the finished narrative. The analyst has to not accept the story in order to destabilize psychic organization while also providing a new kind of attachment that the patient can use to construct a new narrative. Co-constructing a new narrative promotes the developmental process by providing more flexible regulatory systems for emotional and cognitive development, facilitating innovative views of people and relationships, and assisting in the organization of emerging structures necessary for progressive development. An analysis of a young man in his twenties is used to demonstrate how narrative change is used to destabilize arrested adolescent development and promote a developmental transformation to early adulthood.

  13. Remembrance, trauma and collective memory: the battle for memory in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohleber, Werner

    2007-04-01

    In contemporary clinical theory in psychoanalysis, remembering life-historical events and reconstructing the past have lost the central therapeutic function that they had for Freud. The author describes this development and demonstrates the way in which trauma and its remembrance resist it. He discusses the problem of the truth status of memories. Traumatic memories are not subject to transformation by the present when they are retrieved. They constitute a kind of foreign body in the psychic-associative network, but rather than forming an exact replica of the traumatic experience they undergo specific remodellings. The author describes some of the psychic processes in this encapsulated realm. Resolving its predominant dynamics and extricating phantasy from traumatic reality require a remembrance and reconstruction of the traumatic events in the analytic treatment. The author goes on to describe the vital importance of social discourse concerning historical truth for both the individual concerned and society in connection with disasters defined as man-made. A reluctance to know often sets in here that stems from the desire to avoid confronting the crimes, the horror and the victims' suffering. With the Holocaust in particular, the further problem arises of how to avoid its subjugation in historical description to defining categories that eliminate the horror and traumatic nature of the events. Remembering crimes unfolds a special set of dynamics. The author describes both these dynamics and their transgenerational effects on post-war German society. He concludes that, in order to confront the problems posed by a multifaceted traumatic reality, it is also necessary to battle to restore memory to an appropriate place in psychoanalysis.

  14. Psicanálise e ciência Psychoanalysis and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Calazans

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se as razões pelas quais tanto o pensamento científico quanto o pensamento psicanalítico recusam o realismo em todos os seus matizes para pensar o que estrutura uma experiência. Desta análise, extrai-se como conseqüência a irredutibilidade de qualquer tratamento do sujeito por meio de um processo de objetivação, demarcando assim o campo de atuação próprio aos problemas pensados e tratados pela psicanálise. Tira-se também como conseqüência que esta irredutibilidade da psicanálise a uma objetivação não torna a psicanálise incompatível com o mundo científico, ao contrário, esta disjunção se dá exatamente pela compatibilidade lógica entre o pensamento psicanalítico e o pensamento científico.This article shows the reasons through which the scientific thought as well as the psychoanalytic thought deny the realism in all its basis in order to think what structures an experience. The irreductability of any treatment of the subject through the means of an objective process is extracted from this analysis by the author; therefore, drawing the field of the problems which are thought and treated by psychoanalysis. Furthermore, this objective psychoanalytic process doesn't make psychoanalysis incompatible with the scientific world; in fact, this disjunction just happens through the logics between the psychoanalytic thought and the scientific thought.

  15. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  16. Cervical intervertebral disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Garrick W; Herkowitz, Harry N

    2013-02-06

    Symptomatic adjacent-level disease after cervical fusion has led to the development and testing of several disc-replacement prostheses. Randomized controlled trials of cervical disc replacement (CDR) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) have demonstrated at least equivalent clinical results for CDR with similar or lower complication rates. Biomechanical, kinematic, and radiographic studies of CDR reveal that the surgical level and adjacent vertebral level motion and center of rotation more closely mimic the native state. Lower intradiscal pressures adjacent to CDR may help decrease the incidence of adjacent spinal-level disease, but long-term follow-up is necessary to evaluate this theory.

  17. Abrupt strategy change underlies gradual performance change: Bayesian hierarchical models of component and aggregate strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynton, Sarah K A; Anglim, Jeromy

    2017-10-01

    While researchers have often sought to understand the learning curve in terms of multiple component processes, few studies have measured and mathematically modeled these processes on a complex task. In particular, there remains a need to reconcile how abrupt changes in strategy use can co-occur with gradual changes in task completion time. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the degree to which strategy change was abrupt or gradual, and whether strategy aggregation could partially explain gradual performance change. It also aimed to show how Bayesian methods could be used to model the effect of practice on strategy use. To achieve these aims, 162 participants completed 15 blocks of practice on a complex computer-based task-the Wynton-Anglim booking (WAB) task. The task allowed for multiple component strategies (i.e., memory retrieval, information reduction, and insight) that could also be aggregated to a global measure of strategy use. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to compare abrupt and gradual functions of component and aggregate strategy use. Task completion time was well-modeled by a power function, and global strategy use explained substantial variance in performance. Change in component strategy use tended to be abrupt, whereas change in global strategy use was gradual and well-modeled by a power function. Thus, differential timing of component strategy shifts leads to gradual changes in overall strategy efficiency, and this provides one reason for why smooth learning curves can co-occur with abrupt changes in strategy use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Gradually-varied flow profiles in open channels analytical solutions by using Gaussian hypergeometric function

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    2014-01-01

    Gradually-varied flow (GVF) is a steady non-uniform flow in an open channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation. The evaluation of GVF profiles under a specific flow discharge is very important in hydraulic engineering. This book proposes a novel approach to analytically solve the GVF profiles by using the direct integration and Gaussian hypergeometric function. Both normal-depth- and critical-depth-based dimensionless GVF profiles are presented. The novel approach has laid the foundation to compute at one sweep the GVF profiles in a series of sustaining and adverse channels, w

  19. Reflexiones respecto al problema de la constitución subjetiva: el psicoanálisis y las (otras) ciencias. // Thoughts on the issue of subjective constitution: psychoanalysis and the (oher) sciences.

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Andrpes Rojas.

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the link between psychoanalysis and sciences, a relationship that has been historically characterized by a fundamental disagreement. Science criticizes psychoanalysis and questions its value, methods and contributions, by considering that it is a theory without empirical or experimental basis. This is owing to the fact that some of the main theories in psychoanalysis resulting from readings, observation and scientific studies reviews are ignored. As an example of this...

  20. Emergency Heart Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Edward B.; Shumway, Norman E.

    1968-01-01

    Sixteen patients with terminal cardiac failure due to valvular heart disease had emergency operation for value replacement. Four patients did not survive, because of irreversible myocardial or secondary organ involvement. The remainder, however, had immediate reversal of heart failure after operation, and all became fully active following discharge. Recognition of refractory decompensation in valvular heart disease demands prompt consideration of surgical intervention. PMID:5724875

  1. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artificial discs are usually made of metal or plastic-like (biopolymer) materials, or a combination of the two. These materials have been used in the body for many years. Total disc replacements have been used in Europe since the late 1980s. The most commonly used ...

  2. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  3. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    C -1 D FLUORESCENT LAMP SPECIFICATION SHEETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D -1 E LED WAVES’ LED ...friendly products, advances in efficiency, and lower production costs for lamps . The conversion of fluorescent bulbs to LED technology has many benefits...repeatedly turned on and off. (5) LEDs can be used in existing fluorescent lighting fixtures using LED retrofit kits or replacement lamps . (6

  4. Aggression Replacement Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Barry; Goldstein, Arnold P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes aggression replacement training (ART), a multimodal, psychoeducational intervention for assaultive, hostile adolescents and children who are either institutionalized or pose severe, disruptive behaviors in communities. Presents the research evaluating ART efficacy, planned efforts in program development, and ART's relevance for…

  5. EL PSICOANÁLISIS FREUDIANO: UN ACONTECIMIENTO EN LA PSICOLOGÍA -- THE PSYCHOANALYSIS FREUDIANO: AN EVENT IN THE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO SALCEDO SERNA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this sumary is analized the repercusion that Foucault said have had the “supreme violence”, that Sigmund Freud developed in the psychology of XX century; The text is fundamentally based in the considerations performed for the french philosopher in his first texts publishied, specially in the articles from 1957 “Psychology from 1850 to 1950’’ and the “scientific investigation and the psychology”. It will notice that for Foucault, the transcendencia from psychoanalysis freudiano in the psychology is absolutely inquestionable and determining. In the last part of the text, is mentioned some of the tesis that Foucault developed for explain the power of the influence according to him, had the psychoanalysis freudiano, about psychological knowledge and the humanity sciences in general.

  6. Cyclones, bi-cycles, and psychoanalysis: the witch-of-us? complex and The Wizard of Oz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Works of applied psychoanalysis normally use psychoanalytic theory to reveal the secret meanings of works of art. An attempt is made to reverse the directionality of such analyses and see whether a work of art, The Wizard of Oz, has something to teach psychoanalysis about adolescent female psychosexual development. The author argues that the popularity and importance of the film is an effect of its symbolic representation of a girl's entry into menarche, and the meaning of this milestone for herself and for her mother. He addresses ideas about feminine castration fears (or what more recently have been called fears of genital injury), issues about menopause, and fantasies--both surprising and violent--around the meanings of menarche for both mother and daughter.

  7. Germany: of the nuclear energy expansion to the structure for their gradual abandonment; Alemania: de la expansion de la energia nuclear a la estructura para su abandono gradual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mez, L. [Frei Universitat Berlin, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Thielallee 47, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This work exposes a panorama of the German nuclear industry, where the investment in this sector began around the fifty, having great peak during the period 1968 at 1989. Causes like a poor electricity demand, the over capacity and a persistent controversy among the public opinion for the nuclear energy use, stop the expansion from this industry to the little time of established. In contrast with the legal situation in most of the countries, in Germany the operation licences were granted without it limits of time. Nevertheless, the operation expectation was estimated inside a range of 20 to 40 years, depending in particular on the service life of the renovation parts. Taking into account these data, seven nuclear power plants of those that have already operated for 20 years or more, are about to confront expensive reconstructions or the closing in the following five years; while other seven will be closed in the subsequent 10 or 15 years. While the federal politicians and their directive went favorable until recent time in general to the extended use of nuclear energy, some authorities of the states became more restrictive when interpreting the allowed forecasts, what has generated continuous differences and regulatory uncertainty. In consequence, the facilities in operation gradually have shown interest in reaching agreements with the government about the nuclear politics, by means of the regulations reestablishment and one calculus linked at the costs. In spite of the many and constant judgments of the public opinion, the federal nuclear politics was up to 1998 on the side of the alliance pro nuclear and back to the industry by means of multiple fiscal and regulatory privileges. This official position was reverted by first time after the federal elections of that year, when a new red-green federal government announcement the gradual retirement of the nuclear energy of Germany. That coalition pact among the Democratic Social parties (red) and green

  8. Quantifying short run cost-effectiveness during a gradual implementation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, G. van de; Woertman, W.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Adang, E.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the short run inefficiencies that arise during gradual implementation of a new cost-effective technology in healthcare. These inefficiencies arise when health gains associated with the new technology cannot be obtained immediately because the new technology does not yet supply

  9. Abrupt Strategy Change Underlies Gradual Performance Change: Bayesian Hierarchical Models of Component and Aggregate Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynton, Sarah K. A.; Anglim, Jeromy

    2017-01-01

    While researchers have often sought to understand the learning curve in terms of multiple component processes, few studies have measured and mathematically modeled these processes on a complex task. In particular, there remains a need to reconcile how abrupt changes in strategy use can co-occur with gradual changes in task completion time. Thus,…

  10. Is conscious perception gradual or dichotomous? A comparison of report methodologies during a visual task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, M; Rote, J; Mouridsen, K

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, [Sergent, C. & Dehaene, S. (2004). Is consciousness a gradual phenomenon? Evidence for an all-or-none bifurcation during the attentional blink, Psychological Science, 15(11), 720-729] claim to give experimental support to the thesis that there is a clear transition between...

  11. Gradually Adaptive Frameworks: Reasonable Disagreement and the Evolution of Evaluative Systems in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "gradually adaptive frameworks" is introduced as a model with the potential to describe the evolution of belief evaluative systems through the consideration of reasonable arguments and evidence. This concept is demonstrated through an analysis of specific points of disagreement between David Elliott's praxial…

  12. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Marjanovic, D.; Legendre, L.; Cubo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian

  13. Abrupt rather than gradual hormonal changes induce postpartum blues-like behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, Bennard; Fokkema, Dirk S.; Molhoek, Margo; Tanke, Marit A. C.; Postema, Folkert; Korf, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Postpartum blues is thought to be related to hormonal events accompanying delivery. We investigated whether blues-like symptoms depend on the rate of the decline of hormones, by comparing the behavioral consequences of an abrupt versus a gradual decline of gonadal hormones in an animal model.

  14. Responses of respiration and photosynthesis of Scenedesmus protuberans Fritsch to gradual and steep salinity increases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flameling, I.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of an increase in salinity on the physiology of the halotolerant chlorophyte Scenedesmus protuberans was studied in light-limited continuous cultures. It was observed that a gradual, as well as a steep increase in salinity resulted in lower biomass. However, the mechanisms by which this

  15. Modeling Effectiveness of Gradual Increases in Source Level to Mitigate Effects of Sonar on Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the

  16. Locating spare part warehouses using the concept of gradual coverage - A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In covering problems demand is usually covered by a facility, if it is less than a certain distance away., but if the distance is greater, none of the demand is covered. With gradual coverage, a fraction of the demand can be covered between an upper and lower distance. In this paper a case study ...

  17. A Cost-based Explanation of Gradual, Regional Internationalization of Multinationals on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines firm internationalization on social networking sites (SNS). It systematically examines costs faced by an internationalizing firm and how firms react to these costs according to “distance-dependent” (gradual and regional) and “distance-invariant” (born-global) explanations...

  18. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  19. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing...housings, plastic grates, old wiring) and the new LED technology (cardboard packaging) were broken down and separated into the appropriate container for... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  20. UCI knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanski, P M; Waugh, T R; Orofino, C F; Anzel, S H

    1976-10-01

    Between March 9, 1972 and December 31, 1973, a total of 103 UCI knee replacements were performed. Follow-up data are available on 83 knees with an average follow-up of 33 months. Patient evaluation of the end results indicates that 78.3 per cent were better, 9.6 per cent unchanged, and 12.1 per cent worse. Patient evaluation of their own knee function averaged 55 per cent preoperatively and 79 per cent postoperatively. Patients were also evaluated on a 100 point Modified Larson Analysis Form. The average preoperative score was 46, and the average postoperative score was 70. There were six (5.8%) biological complications in the 103 knee replacement. Biological complications included infections, wound healing problems and unexplained pain. Mechanical complications were seen in 18 (17.4%) knees, and included knee instability, tibial component loosening or deformation, and patellar problems. Additional surgery was required in 18 (17.4%) knees. Failure of the procedure eventually requiring removal of the prosthesis and fusion or amputation occurred in 4 (3.9%) knees. The intermediate-term results of UCI knee replacement have been clinically satisfactory. We currently recommend consideration of this procedure for patients with disabling arthritis of the knee.

  1. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  2. Evidence for Gradual External Reconnection Before Explosive Eruption of a Solar Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We observe a slowly evolving quiet-region solar eruption of 1999 April 18, using extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and soft X-ray images from the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. Using difference images, in which an early image is subtracted from later images, we examine dimmings and brightenings in the region for evidence of the eruption mechanism. A filament rose slowly at about 1 km/s for 6 hours before being rapidly ejected at about 16 km/s leaving flare brightenings and postflare loops in its wake. Magnetograms from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on SOHO show that the eruption occurred in a large quadrupolar magnetic region with the filament located on the neutral line of the quadrupole s central inner lobe between the inner two of the four polarity domains. In step with the slow rise, subtle EIT dimmings commence and gradually increase over the two polarity domains on one side of the filament, i.e., in some of the loops of one of the two sidelobes of the quadrupole. Concurrently, soft X-ray brightenings gradually increase in both sidelobes. Both of these effects suggest heating in the sidelobe magnetic arcades. which gradually increase over several hours before the fast eruption. Also, during the slow pre- eruption phase, SXT dimmings gradually increase in the feet and legs of the central lobe, indicating expansion of the central-lobe magnetic arcade enveloping the filament. During the rapid ejection. these dimmings rapidly grow in darkness and in area, especially in the ends of the sigmoid field that erupts with the filament. and flare brightenings begin underneath the fast-moving but still low-altitude filament. We consider two models for explaining the eruption: "breakout. which says that reconnection occurs high above the filament prior to eruption, and tether cutting, which says that the eruption is unleashed by reconnection beneath the filament. The pre

  3. Detecting gradual visual changes in colour and brightness agnosia: a double dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; te Pas, Susan F; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2011-03-09

    Two patients, one with colour agnosia and one with brightness agnosia, performed a task that required the detection of gradual temporal changes in colour and brightness. The results for these patients, who showed anaverage or an above-average performance on several tasks designed to test low-level colour and luminance (contrast) perception in the spatial domain, yielded a double dissociation; the brightness agnosic patient was within the normal range for the coloured stimuli, but much slower to detect brightness differences, whereas the colour agnosic patient was within the normal range for the achromatic stimuli, but much slower for the coloured stimuli. These results suggest that a modality-specific impairment in the detection of gradual temporal changes might be related to, if not underlie, the phenomenon of visual agnosia.

  4. Computational issues of solving the 1D steady gradually varied flow equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artichowicz Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a problem of multiple solutions of steady gradually varied flow equation in the form of the ordinary differential energy equation is discussed from the viewpoint of its numerical solution. Using the Lipschitz theorem dealing with the uniqueness of solution of an initial value problem for the ordinary differential equation it was shown that the steady gradually varied flow equation can have more than one solution. This fact implies that the nonlinear algebraic equation approximating the ordinary differential energy equation, which additionally coincides with the wellknown standard step method usually applied for computing of the flow profile, can have variable number of roots. Consequently, more than one alternative solution corresponding to the same initial condition can be provided. Using this property it is possible to compute the water flow profile passing through the critical stage.

  5. Estudio transcultural con la prueba de Bender: Sistema de puntuación gradual (Cross-Cultural Study with Bender Test- Gradual Scoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Javier Marín Rueda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar el desempeño en la Prueba Gestáltica Visomotriz de Bender - Sistema de Puntuación Gradual (B-SPG en un grupo de niños peruanos en función a los datos ofrecidos por el manual brasilero de la prueba. Participaron 82 niños, de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 8 y 10 años (M = 9.21, DT = 0.83. Los niños provenían de los distritos de Pueblo Libre (43.9% y Rímac (51.2%, de la provincia de Lima, así como también de Lima Metropolitana (4.9%. El B-SPG fue aplicado de forma colectiva. Los promedios de puntos obtenidos por los niños peruanos en el B-SPG fueron significativamente superiores a los obtenidos por los niños brasileros en cada una de las edades estudiadas. Se destaca la importancia de investigar evidencias de validez y de confiabilidad para que la prueba pueda ser usada de forma adecuada en el Perú, considerando las particularidades de desarrollo de los niños del país. ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to compare performance on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test - system of Gradual punctuation (B-SPG in a group of Peruvian children in connection with the data provided by the Brazilian manual of the test. In this research 82 Peruvian children were involved, both sexes, with ages between 8 and 10 years (M = 9.21, DT = 0.83. The hildren came from the districts of Pueblo Libre (43.9% and Rimac (51.2% in the province of Lima, as well as from metropolitan Lima (4.9%. The B-SPG was collectively applied in the children’s schools. The average points earned by the Peruvian children in the B-SPG were significantly higher than those obtained by Brazilian children in each one of the ages studied. It emphasizes the importance of investigating evidence of validity and reliability, so that, the test can be used appropriately in Peru, considering the peculiarities of the development of children in the country.

  6. Psicanálise baseada em evidências? Evidence-based psychoanalysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Albernaz de Melo Bastos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da discussão sobre a eficácia da psicanálise, a autora considera necessário o diálogo com as neurociências e a psicofarmacologia. Aponta como o critério de eficácia, entendido pela medicina baseada em evidências, apaga a dimensão da narratividade e, conseqüentemente, da subjetividade. Apresenta uma vinheta de um atendimento emergencial no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho como possibilidade de se manter a escuta psicanalítica no atendimento psiquiátrico.Based on the discussion concerning the efficacy of psychoanalysis, the author considers the need to engage in dialogue with the neurosciences and psychopharmacology. She indicates how the criterion of efficacy, as defined by evidence-based medicine, erases the dimension of the narrative and consequently that of subjectivity. She presents as a vignette an emergency case at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, illustrating the possibility of maintaining psychoanalytic listening in psychiatric treatment.

  7. Forerunner of the Science of Psychoanalysis? An Essay on the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The inquisitions in Spain and Portugual were state organs, rather than church-run enterprises; their purpose to modernize disparate jurisdictions during the final stages of Reconquista (return of Moorish areas to Christian administration) to ensure security and loyalty. So many Jews converted (under duress or willingly for strategic reasons) and inter-married with middle-class and aristocratic families, that their sincerity and loyalty was suspected, This meant going beyond traditional monitoring of ritual acts and social behaviour; there was a need to look below the surface, to interpret ambiguity, and to break codes of duplicity. Inquisitors developed techniques of a form of psychoanalysis before the discoveries of Freud: methods of questioning to bring out repressed beliefs and motivations, unriddling equivocational performance and speech-acts, and integrating fragments of information from family members, business associates and neighbours collected over many years. Torture, more threatened than actual, and lengthy incarceration punctuated by periods of exile and re-arrest after years quiet, provoked desperate confessions and specious denunciations, all of which had to be subject to intense scrutiny and analysis. The assumption was modern: a person's self was no longer equivalent to their words and actions; instead, a deep dark and traumatized inner self to be revealed.

  8. The Receding Animal: Theorizing Anxiety and Attachment in Psychoanalysis from Freud to Imre Hermann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Lydia; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Argument Animals played an important role in the formation of psychoanalysis as a theoretical and therapeutic enterprise. They are at the core of texts such as Freud's famous case histories of Little Hans, the Rat Man, or the Wolf Man. The infantile anxiety triggered by animals provided the essential link between the psychology of individual neuroses and the ambivalent status of the "totem" animal in so-called primitive societies in Freud's attempt to construct an anthropological basis for the Oedipus complex in Totem and Taboo. In the following, we attempt to track the status of animals as objects of indirect observation as they appear in Freud's classical texts, and in later revisionist accounts such as Otto Rank's Trauma of Birth and Imre Hermann's work on the clinging instinct. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Freudian conception of patients' animal phobias is substantially revised within Hermann's original psychoanalytic theory of instincts which draws heavily upon ethological observations of primates. Although such a reformulation remains grounded in the idea of "archaic" animal models for human development, it allows to a certain extent to empiricize the speculative elements of Freud's later instinct theory (notably the death instinct) and to come to a more embodied account of psychoanalytic practice.

  9. Enrique Pichon Rivière's conception of reality in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbiser, Samuel

    2017-02-01

    The author places the subject of his paper in the context of the original views of a school of Argentinian psychoanalysts that differed from traditional conceptions of man and his relationship with the sociocultural context - that is, with reality. These were the analysts who followed Enrique Pichon Rivière and further developed his ideas - namely, Madeleine and Willy Baranger, José Bleger, and David Liberman. The author begins his exposition with a discussion of Pichon Rivière and culture. He then offers an outline of Pichon Rivière's particular conception of man, followed by a section on the Internal Group as the nexus between the psyche and reality. Further sections address the idea of reality in the analytic situation as a dynamic field and the operative definition of the transference; the distinction between perceptual reality and the reading of reality, with a consideration of the notion of 'critical judgement'; and lastly the issue of health and illness in terms of adaptation to reality. In addition, on the basis of a quotation from Antonio Damasio, the author draws a parallel between these psychoanalytic thinkers' 'psychosocial' approach to man and the findings of contemporary neuroscience as presented by one of its paradigmatic protagonists. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. THE GRAMMAR OF PSYCHOANALYSIS A GRAMÁTICA DA PSICANÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José Rodrigues Lima de Almeida

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a defense of a philosophy of psychoanalysis with no interference whatever in the autonomy of the analyzed discipline. To comply with this objective, the Wittgensteinian philosophical method and its related concepts of grammar, grammatical description, and therapy, are being proposed. Such therapeutical objects of comparison are then applied to a case of use of psychoanalytic concepts in a text from Lacan's Seminar XV, to show a practical example of the kind of philosophy that we favor.    Este artigo faz a defesa de uma filosofia da psicanálise que não interfira na autonomia da disciplina que analisa. Para tanto, propõe o método filosófico wittgensteiniano e faz uma breve exposição dos conceitos de gramática, descrição gramatical e terapia em seu contexto literário original. A seguir, esses conceitos terapêuticos são aplicados a um caso de uso de conceitos psicanalíticos num texto do Seminário XV, de Lacan, para servir como exemplo prático para a proposta de um projeto de investigação filosófica do corpus textual lacaniano.

  11. Clinical wisdom in psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy: a philosophical and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Baicker, Cynthia; Sisti, Dominic A

    2012-01-01

    To precisely define wisdom has been an ongoing task of philosophers for millennia. Investigations into the psychological dimensions of wisdom have revealed several features that make exemplary persons "wise." Contemporary bioethicists took up this concept as they retrieved and adapted Aristotle's intellectual virtue of phronesis for applications in medical contexts. In this article, we build on scholarship in both psychology and medical ethics by providing an account of clinical wisdom qua phronesis in the context of the practice of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy. With the support of qualitative data, we argue that the concept of clinical wisdom in mental healthcare shares several of the key ethical dimensions offered by standard models of phronesis in medical ethics and serves as a useful, albeit overlooked, reference point for a broader development of virtue-based medical ethics. We propose that the features of clinical wisdom are pragmatic skills that include, but are not limited to, an awareness of balance, the acceptance of paradox, and a particular clinical manner that maintains a deep regard for the other. We offer several suggestions for refining training programs and redoubling efforts to provide long-term mentorship opportunities for trainees in clinical mental healthcare in order to cultivate clinical wisdom.

  12. Treatment preparatory to psychoanalysis: a reconsideration after twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Stephen B

    2010-02-01

    The author's initial article on treatment preparatory to psychoanalysis (1983) challenged the long-held belief that a therapy with the same analyst would contaminate a subsequent analytic transference. The current article reconsiders the original process of transition from therapy to analysis and describes methods that can further its effectiveness. Although specific noninterpretive interventions to enhance preparation for analysis are rarely written about, they are discussed among colleagues and in supervision. Levy (1987) has described a bias against the description of strategic or tactical choices in analysis. It is increasingly clear that some patients' fear of exposing shameful defectiveness underlies their resistance to entering analysis, as does the originally described fear of an uncontrolled regression. It is useful to delay interpretation until shame sensitivity can be assessed and modulated. In the past there was pressure to keep the preparatory therapy brief so that the analyst would not become too well known to the patient. Less concern about strict anonymity allows more time for the patient's resistances to abate before the recommendation is made. Methods are described and clinical illustrations show how a deepening process can be fostered, how indications of readiness for the transition can be assessed, and when and how the recommendation can be made.

  13. A girl's experience of congenital trauma: The healing function of psychoanalysis in the adolescent years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Silvia M

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the centrality of conflict in psychic trauma, as evidenced in the psychoanalytic treatment of an adolescent girl with a congenital life-threatening and disfiguring condition that necessitated multiple surgical procedures in early childhood. The focus is twofold: to elucidate certain characteristics of analysis in the adolescent phase that promote the integration of early trauma; and to shed light on the modes of therapeutic action of psychoanalysis. Case material is presented indicative of the psychic consequences of early medical traumata, including the impairment of the ego's capacity to utilize anxiety as a signal function that mobilizes defense, the failure of repetition to effect mastery of the trauma, the predominant use of aggression in the interest of defense, and distortions in self and object representations. The author offers evidence to show that conflicts over aggression and oedipal desires, characteristic of adolescent girls who have not been subject to trauma, were involved in the defensive function of her patient's pervasive sense of defectiveness. She postulates that the interpretation of conflict and defense is the analyst's attuned response to the mind of the patient, and points to the resulting increase in the capacity to observe and to exercise volitional control over heretofore unconscious, automatic mental processes as evidence of the mutative function of dynamic interpretation.

  14. Do Industries Lead the Stock Market? Gradual Diffusion of Information and Cross-Asset Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Harrison; Torous, Walter; Valkanov, Rossen

    2002-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the gradual diffusion of information across asset markets leads to cross-asset return predictability. Using thirty-four industry portfolios and the broad market index as our test assets, we establish several key results. First, a number of industries such as retail, services, commercial real estate, metal, and petroleum lead the stock market by up to two months. In contrast, the market, which is widely followed, only leads a few industries. Importantly, an industry...

  15. Impairment of gradual muscle adjustment during wrist circumduction in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M Toxopeus

    Full Text Available Purposeful movements are attained by gradually adjusted activity of opposite muscles, or synergists. This requires a motor system that adequately modulates initiation and inhibition of movement and selectively activates the appropriate muscles. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD initiation and inhibition of movements are impaired which may manifest itself in e.g. difficulty to start and stop walking. At single-joint level, impaired movement initiation is further accompanied by insufficient inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. As the motor symptoms in PD primarily result from cerebral dysfunction, quantitative investigation of gradually adjusted muscle activity during execution of purposeful movement is a first step to gain more insight in the link between impaired modulation of initiation and inhibition at the levels of (i cerebrally coded task performance and (ii final execution by the musculoskeletal system. To that end, the present study investigated changes in gradual adjustment of muscle synergists using a manipulandum that enabled standardized smooth movement by continuous wrist circumduction. Differences between PD patients (N = 15, off-medication and healthy subjects (N = 16 concerning the relation between muscle activity and movement performance in these groups were assessed using kinematic and electromyographic (EMG recordings. The variability in the extent to which a particular muscle was active during wrist circumduction--defined as muscle activity differentiation--was quantified by EMG. We demonstrated that more differentiated muscle activity indeed correlated positively with improved movement performance, i.e. higher movement speed and increased smoothness of movement. Additionally, patients employed a less differentiated muscle activity pattern than healthy subjects. These specific changes during wrist circumduction imply that patients have a decreased ability to gradually adjust muscles causing a decline in

  16. Molecular sieving action of the cell membrane during gradual osmotic hemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, R.D. II

    1977-05-01

    Rat erythrocytes were hemolyzed by controlled gradual osmotic hemolysis to study cell morphology and hemoglobin loss from individual cells. Results suggest that each increase in the rate of loss of a protein from the cells during the initial phases of controlled gradual osmotic hemolysis is caused by the passage of a previously impermeable species across the stressed membrane. Similarly, during the final stages of controlled gradual osmotic hemolysis, each sharp decrease in the rate of loss of a protein corresponds to the termination of a molecular flow. A theoretical model is described that predicts the molecular sieving of soluble globular proteins across the stressed red cell membrane. Hydrophobic interactions occur between the soluble proteins and the lipid bilayer portion of the cell membrane. A spectrin network subdivides the bilayer into domains that restrict the insertion of large molecules into the membrane. Other membrane proteins affect soluble protein access to the membrane. Changes in the loss curves caused by incubation of red cells are discussed in terms of the model.

  17. Gradually Increased Training Intensity Benefits Rehabilitation Outcome after Stroke by BDNF Upregulation and Stress Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n=15, low intensity (LG, n=15, gradually increased intensity (GIG, n=15, and high intensity (HG, n=15. Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P<0.05 recovered motor function and produced higher hippocampal BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g. GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp., which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than that (716.90 ± 156.48 nM/L of HG rats. Training with gradually increased intensity achieved better recovery with lower stress. Our observations indicate that a training protocol that includes gradually increasing training intensity should be considered in both animal and clinical studies for better stroke recovery.

  18. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, M; Gussekloo, S W S; Marjanović, D; Legendre, L; Cubo, J

    2012-02-01

    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian paradigm. Recently, Cubo proposed a method to test whether morphological data in extant ratites are more compatible with a gradual or with a speciational model (close to the punctuated equilibrium model). As shown by our simulations, a new method to test the mode of evolution of characters (involving regression of standardized contrasts on their expected standard deviation) is easier to implement and more powerful than the previously proposed method, but the Mesquite module comet (aimed at investigating evolutionary models using comparative data) performs better still. Uncertainties in branch length estimates are probably the largest source of potential error. Cubo hypothesized that heterochronic mechanisms may underlie morphological changes in bone shape during the evolution of ratites. He predicted that the outcome of these changes may be consistent with a speciational model of character evolution because heterochronic changes can be instantaneous in terms of geological time. Analysis of a more extensive data set confirms his prediction despite branch length uncertainties: evolution in ratites has been mostly speciational for shape-related characters. However, it has been mostly gradual for size-related ones. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Interacting Learning Processes during Skill Acquisition: Learning to control with gradually changing system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Nicolas; Giese, Martin A; Ilg, Winfried

    2017-10-16

    There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end. In the second group, subjects had to acquire the skill on the maximum, most difficult gravity level. We hypothesized that the gradual increase in gravity during skill acquisition supports learning despite the necessary adjustments to changes in cart-pole dynamics. We found that the gradual group benefits from the slow increment, although overall improvement was interrupted by the changes in gravity and resulting system dynamics, which caused short-term degradations in performance and timing of actions. In conclusion, our results deliver evidence for an interaction of reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation processes, which indicates the importance of both processes for the development of optimized skill acquisition schedules.

  20. Sudden or Gradual Sound Onset Differentially Affects Audiogenic Seizure Severity in Developmentally Primed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Zrull

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a rat model of reflex epilepsy, sound-induced or audiogenic seizures (AGS are initiated by and propagated though excessive activity of inferior colliculus neurons. Because more auditory system neurons respond to onset of sound rather than a continuing sound, we examined the effect of sudden (SO and gradual (GO onset intensity of seizure-triggering sound on AGS severity. Long-Evans rats were primed for AGS using loud sound when they were 18 days old and were tested for seizures using loud noise when 32 days old. SO and GO groups of 10 rats, matched for AGS severity, were then tested three times for AGS. Overall, rated seizure activity was 39% more severe in GO than SO rats (p<.05, and the duration of clonus for GO animals was 28% longer than for SO rats (p<.05. While latency to clonic seizures was 24% longer in GO than SO rats, this was an artifact of the sound gradually reaching AGS-inducing intensity for the GO group. Because sensory neurons respond to change, sudden onset sound may allow more adaptation of AGS-prone inferior colliculus neurons than a gradual onset seizure-inducing stimulus. Ramping to a maximum intensity sound may produce greater seizure severity due to a greater number of neurons remaining active.

  1. Sudden or gradual sound onset differentially effects audiogenic seizure severity in developmentally primed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dravland

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In a rat model of reflex epilepsy, sound-induced or audiogenic seizures (AGS are initiated by and propagated though excessive activity of inferior colliculus neurons. Because more auditory system neurons respond to onset of than a continuing sound, we examined the effect of sudden (SO and gradual (GO onset intensity of seizure-triggering sound on AGS severity. Long-Evans rats were primed for AGS using loud sound when they were 18 days old and were tested for seizures using loud noise when 32 days old. SO and GO groups of 10 rats, matched for AGS severity, were then tested 3 times for AGS. Overall, rated seizure activity was 39% more severe in GO than SO rats (p<.05, and the duration of clonus for GO animals was 28% longer than for SO rats (p<.05. While latency to clonic seizures was 24% longer in GO than SO rats, this was an artifact of the sound gradually reaching AGS-inducing intensity for the GO group. Because sensory neurons respond to change, sudden onset sound may allow more adaptation of AGSprone inferior colliculus neurons than a gradual onset seizure-inducing stimulus. Ramping to a maximum intensity sound may produce greater seizure severity due to a greater number of neurons remaining.

  2. Chronic environmental stress enhances tolerance to seasonal gradual warming in marine mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionan Marigómez

    Full Text Available In global climate change scenarios, seawater warming acts in concert with multiple stress sources, which may enhance the susceptibility of marine biota to thermal stress. Here, the responsiveness to seasonal gradual warming was investigated in temperate mussels from a chronically stressed population in comparison with a healthy one. Stressed and healthy mussels were subjected to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (1°C per day; fall: 16-24°C, winter: 12-20°C, summer: 20-28°C and kept at elevated temperature for 3 weeks. Healthy mussels experienced thermal stress and entered the time-limited survival period in the fall, became acclimated in winter and exhibited sublethal damage in summer. In stressed mussels, thermal stress and subsequent health deterioration were elicited in the fall but no transition into the critical period of time-limited survival was observed. Stressed mussels did not become acclimated to 20°C in winter, when they experienced low-to-moderate thermal stress, and did not experience sublethal damage at 28°C in summer, showing instead signs of metabolic rate depression. Overall, although the thermal threshold was lowered in chronically stressed mussels, they exhibited enhanced tolerance to seasonal gradual warming, especially in summer. These results challenge current assumptions on the susceptibility of marine biota to the interactive effects of seawater warming and pollution.

  3. Chronic environmental stress enhances tolerance to seasonal gradual warming in marine mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigómez, Ionan; Múgica, Maria; Izagirre, Urtzi; Sokolova, Inna M

    2017-01-01

    In global climate change scenarios, seawater warming acts in concert with multiple stress sources, which may enhance the susceptibility of marine biota to thermal stress. Here, the responsiveness to seasonal gradual warming was investigated in temperate mussels from a chronically stressed population in comparison with a healthy one. Stressed and healthy mussels were subjected to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (1°C per day; fall: 16-24°C, winter: 12-20°C, summer: 20-28°C) and kept at elevated temperature for 3 weeks. Healthy mussels experienced thermal stress and entered the time-limited survival period in the fall, became acclimated in winter and exhibited sublethal damage in summer. In stressed mussels, thermal stress and subsequent health deterioration were elicited in the fall but no transition into the critical period of time-limited survival was observed. Stressed mussels did not become acclimated to 20°C in winter, when they experienced low-to-moderate thermal stress, and did not experience sublethal damage at 28°C in summer, showing instead signs of metabolic rate depression. Overall, although the thermal threshold was lowered in chronically stressed mussels, they exhibited enhanced tolerance to seasonal gradual warming, especially in summer. These results challenge current assumptions on the susceptibility of marine biota to the interactive effects of seawater warming and pollution.

  4. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  5. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    , in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  6. Nicotine replacement therapy to aid gradual cessation in smokers with no intention to quit: Association between reduction quantity and later abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Tak Derek Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Greater percentage reduction by at least one-third and progressive reduction predicted abstinence in those who reduced smoking. Such new evidence can guide the improvement of clinical service for tobacco dependency treatment and support further studies on smoking reduction and cessation.

  7. Comparing contemporary revision burden among hip and knee joint replacement registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McGrory, MD, MS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Revision burden has gradually decreased for hip replacements and has remained relatively constant for knee replacements both for the last 4 years and compared to historic controls. Knee revision burden was lower than hip revision burden for each period examined. Revision burden is one measure that may be helpful in following the effect of changes in surgical technique and implant design over time in registry populations and may be a helpful way to compare overall results between registries.

  8. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  9. Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of pain reduction and functional improvement, and costing of total knee replacement (TKR) for people with osteoarthritis for whom less invasive treatments (such as physiotherapy, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular steroids, hyaluronic acids, and arthroscopic surgery) have failed. Clinical Need Osteoarthritis affects an estimated 10% to 12% of Canadian adults. The therapeutic goals of osteoarthritis treatment are to improve joint mobility and reduce pain. Stepwise treatment options include exercise, weight loss, physiotherapy, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular steroids and hyaluronic acids, arthroscopic surgery, and, in severe cases, total joint replacement with follow-up rehabilitation. These treatments are delivered by a range of health care professionals, including physiotherapists, occupational therapists, family physicians, internists, rheumatologists, and orthopedic surgeons. TKR is an end-of-line treatment for patients with severe pain and functional limitations. More women than men undergo knee replacement, and most patients are between 55 and 84 years old. The Technology TKR is a surgical procedure in which an artificial joint or prosthesis replaces a damaged knee joint. The primary indication for TKR is pain, followed by functional limitation. Usually, a person’s daily activities must be substantially affected by pain and functional limitations for him or her to be considered a candidate for TKR. There are 3 different types of knee replacement prostheses. Non-constrained prostheses use the patient’s ligaments and muscles to provide the stability for the prosthesis. Semi-constrained prostheses provide some stability for the knee and do not rely entirely on the patient’s ligaments and muscles to provide the stability. Constrained prostheses are for patients whose ligaments and muscles are not able to provide stability for

  10. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  11. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  12. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  13. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  14. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  15. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [The "return of the repressed": the role of sexuality in the reception of psychoanalysis in Chilean medical circles, 1910-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Mariano Ruperthuz

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the reception of psychoanalysis in Chilean medical circles from the decade of 1910 onwards. The findings make it possible to reconstruct how Freudianism was initially rejected by the incipient local psychiatric milieu, accusing it of being pansexualist. In the 1930s, this situation changed, and a reassessment of psychoanalysis was made at a local level, describing it precisely as a branch of knowledge specialized in sexuality. The highlighting of the "sublimation" mechanism, esteemed for its ability to transmute the danger of the "id" into culturally accepted products, is a milestone that marked this "return of the repressed" of the sexual factor of psychoanalysis in Chile. The possible social, political and economic variables that influenced this phenomenon are duly discussed.

  17. The ketogenic diet: initiation at goal calories versus gradual caloric advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Seema; Cramp, Laura; Blalock, Dan; Zelleke, Tesfaye; Carpenter, Jessica; Kao, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Inpatient initiation of the ketogenic diet has historically involved fasting followed by gradual advancement of calories and/or diet ratio. Complications during this initiation period are common. We sought to determine if the initiation of the diet at goal calories would reduce these complications while maintaining efficacy. Sixty patients were admitted to a tertiary care hospital for elective initiation of the ketogenic diet between October 2007 and January 2013. All patients were placed on a ketogenic diet initiation pathway. In 2010, the pathway was modified from gradual caloric advancement to initiation at goal calories. We selected 30 consecutive patients before and after the change for comparison. Each child's record was reviewed for the occurrence of hypoglycemia, number of days to reach full ketosis (defined as 4 + urine ketones), acidosis requiring commencement of sodium citrate, length of admission, and long-term efficacy. Both methods of initiation had similar rates of dehydration, vomiting, lethargy, and irritability. More patients initiated at goal received sodium citrate (P = 0.005); however, mean daily values of carbon dioxide were not significantly different. Onset of ketosis was slightly delayed (P = 0.009) in patients initiated at goal, but length of stay was not affected (P > 0.1). Hypoglycemia was uncommon and rates were similar between the groups. Efficacy at 3 months was better in patients initiated at full calories (P ketogenic diet full calories is a reasonable alternative to the current standard practice of gradual advancement of calories and/or diet ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An arterio-venous bridge for gradual weaning from adult veno-arterial extracorporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U D; Sharma, A S; Ganushchak, Y M; Delnoij, T S R; Donker, D W; Maessen, J G; Weerwind, P W

    2015-11-01

    Weaning from extracorporeal life support (ELS) is particularly challenging when cardiac recovery is slow, largely incomplete and hard to predict. Therefore, we describe an individualized gradual weaning strategy using an arterio-venous (AV) bridge incorporated into the circuit to facilitate weaning. Thirty adult patients weaned from veno-arterial ELS using an AV bridge were retrospectively analyzed. Serial echocardiography and hemodynamic monitoring were used to assess cardiac recovery and load responsiveness. Upon early signs of myocardial recovery, an AV bridge with an Hoffman clamp was added to the circuit and weaning was initiated. Support flow was reduced stepwise by 10-15% every 2 to 8 hours while the circuit flow was maintained at 3.5-4.5 L/min. The AV bridge facilitated gradual weaning in all 30 patients (median age: 66 [53-71] years; 21 males) over a median period of 25 [8-32] hours, with a median support duration of 96 [31-181] hours. During weaning, the median left ventricular ejection fraction was 25% [15-32] and the median velocity time integral of the aortic valve was 16 cm [10-23]. Through the weaning period, the mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at 70 mmHg and the activated partial thromboplastin time was 60 ± 10 seconds without additional systemic heparinization. Neither macroscopic thrombus formation in the ELS circuit during and after weaning nor clinically relevant thromboembolism was observed. Incorporation of an AV bridge for weaning from veno-arterial ELS is safe and feasible to gradually wean patients with functional cardiac recovery without compromising the circuit integrity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  20. Replaceable valve seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Raymond W.

    1992-01-01

    A valve with an O-ring, a disk seal, and a replaceable valve seat is presented. A groove in the bottom on the valve seat flange forms an inner and outer drip ledge with the inner and outer periphery of the flange. If leakage occurs at the valve seat O-ring, fluid droplets will form on the out drip ledge. If leakage occurs at the disk seal, fluid droplets will form on the inner drip ledge. A visual inspection of these drip ledges through an access port, or by a borescope placed in an inspection port, can discriminate between a leak which originates in the O-ring and a leak which originates in the disk seal. When conventional replaceable valve seats leak, fluid droplets form at the bottom on the valve seat. In the present invention, such a valve seat is modified by machining a groove on the bottom surface of the valve seat flange. This groove and the inner and outer surfaces of the flange intersect and form drip ledges. If leakage occurs at the valve seat seal, shown as an O-ring in the preferred embodiment, fluid droplets will form on the outer drip ledge. If leakage occurs at the valve disk seal, fluid droplets will form on the inner drip ledge. The drip ledges can be inspected either through an access port or by passing a borescope through a small inspection port in the valve case. Visual inspection of the bottom on the drip ledge will positively identify the required repair action.

  1. Causalidad y libertad en Psicoanálisis. (Causality and Freedom in Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D. Muñoz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este trabajo se presentan algunas conclusiones del proyecto de investigación UBACyT 2012-2014: "La libertad en psicoanálisis. Su incidencia en la concepción de sujeto y la causalidad en la obra de J. Lacan. Consecuencias clínicas y éticas", y del proyecto UBACyT (2014-2017: "Articulación de las conceptualizaciones de J. Lacan sobre la libertad con los conceptos fundamentales que estructuran la dirección de la cura: interpretación, transferencia, posición del analista, asociación libre y acto analítico", ambos dirigidos por el autor. La libertad no constituye un concepto propio del psicoanálisis, no obstante, encuentra en él ciertas articulaciones con algunos conceptos que delinean una noción peculiar de la libertad, que se distingue de las concepciones filosóficas y psicológicas. En este trabajo se discute la relación libertad-causalidad en psicoanálisis. Palabras clave: Libertad, causalidad, Lacan Abstract This article presents some conclusions of the research projects UBACyT 2012-2014: “Freedom in psychoanalysis. Its impact on the concepts of subject and causality in Lacan's work. Clinical and ethical implications", and UBACyT (2014-2017: "Articulation of Lacan's conceptualizations on freedom with the fundamental concepts that structure the direction of the treatment: interpretation, transference, analyst's position, free association, and analytic act" --both directed by the author. Freedom is not a psychoanalytic concept; nevertheless, it is found in certain psychoanalytic conceptualizations in relation with some concepts that delineate a peculiar notion of freedom, as distinguished from the philosophical and psychological ones. In this work we discuss the relation freedom- causality in psychoanalysis. Keywords: Freedom, causality, Lacan. Résumé Ce texte présente certaines conclusions de deux projets de recherche menés par l'auteur du présent article : UBACyT 2012-2014 : « La liberté en psychanalyse. Son

  2. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.

  3. Intergranular Corrosion of Σ9 Copper Bicrystal with Gradually Changed Misorientation in Young's Dislocation Etchant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Yuhei; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    The allowable deviation to preserve the "specialness" of a coincident site lattice (CSL) boundary was shown using a pure copper bicrystal which was designed to have gradually changed deviation around axis from near-ideal Σ9{221} to a random relation. The grain boundary preserved immunity to grain boundary corrosion in Young's dislocation etchant until the deviation reached the angle where the misfit dislocation spacing is supposed to decrease to CSL dimension. This underlies the common principle of the Brandon-type criteria of CSL.

  4. Gradual phase transition between the smectic- C* and smectic- CA* phases and the thresholdless antiferroelectricity

    OpenAIRE

    VIJ, JAGDISH; SONG, JANG-KUN; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED We have constructed the phase diagrams for a binary-mixture system of antiferroelectric and ferroelectric liquid-crystalline materials in both thick and thin cells. In the phase diagrams the boundary between the smectic-C* and smectic-CA * phases runs almost parallel to the temperature axis below from ca. 70 ?C down to at least ?25 ?C. The SmC*-SmCA * phase transition for a thin cell shows a large supercooling, and a gradual transition occurs near the boundary. ...

  5. Engineering web maps with gradual content zoom based on streaming vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lina; Meijers, Martijn; Šuba, Radan; van Oosterom, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Vario-scale data structures have been designed to support gradual content zoom and the progressive transfer of vector data, for use with arbitrary map scales. The focus to date has been on the server side, especially on how to convert geographic data into the proposed vario-scale structures by means of automated generalisation. This paper contributes to the ongoing vario-scale research by focusing on the client side and communication, particularly on how this works in a web-services setting. It is claimed that these functionalities are urgently needed, as many web-based applications, both desktop and mobile, require gradual content zoom, progressive transfer and a high performance level. The web-client prototypes developed in this paper make it possible to assess the behaviour of vario-scale data and to determine how users will actually see the interactions. Several different options of web-services communication architectures are possible in a vario-scale setting. These options are analysed and tested with various web-client prototypes, with respect to functionality, ease of implementation and performance (amount of transmitted data and response times). We show that the vario-scale data structure can fit in with current web-based architectures and efforts to standardise map distribution on the internet. However, to maximise the benefits of vario-scale data, a client needs to be aware of this structure. When a client needs a map to be refined (by means of a gradual content zoom operation), only the 'missing' data will be requested. This data will be sent incrementally to the client from a server. In this way, the amount of data transferred at one time is reduced, shortening the transmission time. In addition to these conceptual architecture aspects, there are many implementation and tooling design decisions at play. These will also be elaborated on in this paper. Based on the experiments conducted, we conclude that the vario-scale approach indeed supports gradual

  6. Empathy in Psychoanalysis and Medical Education - what can we learn from each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Datz, Felicitas; Parth, Karoline; Preusche, Ingrid; Bukowski, Xenia; Seidman, Charles

    2017-05-02

    Several research areas, including medical education (ME), focus on empathy as an important topic in interpersonal relationships. This focus is central to the use of communication skills related to empathy and even more crucial to provide information in a way that makes patients feel more involved in the treatment process. Psychoanalysis (PA) provides its initial concept of empathy based on affective aspects including findings from neuroscience and brain research. Enhancing cooperation between ME and PA can help to integrate both aspects of empathy into a longitudinal training program. The condition of psychoanalytic empathy definitions is the understanding of unconscious processes. It is important to primarily attend especially the dominant affects towards the patient before interpreting his or her behaviour, since in explaining the emerging affects, the analyst has to empathize with the patient to understand the (unconscious) reasons for its behaviour. A strong consideration of nonverbal communication, clinical perceptions, intuitive interaction, contagion-like processes and their implementation and empowerment in medical and therapeutic curricula is one way of beneficially using interdisciplinary approaches to yield empathy in clinical interaction. Established methods of PA, like training of containment, reflective functioning, affective holding and giving meaningful interpretations in accordance with countertransferential and transferential aspects may help to put a focus on the clinican-patient-interaction and the preservation of the physicians' (mental) health. In consequence of the discussion of various training methods that take the theoretical and practical concepts of empathy into account, we aim for an implementation of the named methods in the medical curricula.

  7. [Anxiety, nostalgia and melancholy. A few remarks on psychoanalysis and tango].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Jorge; Capello, Osvaldo Jorge; Caso de Leveratto, Beatriz; Neuman, Vera; Retondano, Rafael Alberto; Silvani de Capello, Stella Maris; Etchegoyen, R Horacio

    2004-01-01

    Our work is based on the application of psychoanalytic techniques, in order to unveil this cultural phenomenon called tango, related with sexuality and unconscious processes. As a way of introduction, it deals with a brief theory of the birth of tango, the possible terminological source of its name, its main creators and interpreters, as well as the chronological classification into the first wave tangos, Guardia Vieja, and the newer wave tangos, Guardia Nueva. The former ones were awash with festive themes of the centennial years, expressed in behaviors that denote sexuality and love, whereas the latter ones, expose the great bewilderment of the thirties' crisis, due to the imminent downfall of the country, the denunciation of materialism, the crumbling of ideas; which led up to feelings of utter pessimism, loneliness and abandonment. From this point onwards, through the use of techniques provided by psychoanalysis applied to tango lyrics, we are able to unravel the unconscious processes of the drama of its characters; the immigrant, hopeful and at same time nostalgic for the loss of his mother country; the porteno -urban man from Buenos Aires city- who, overwhelmed by immigrants, has to give way to the new compatriots; the inland inhabitant, who was dragged to the city because of the new conditions of rural work; and finally the conventillo, tenement house, as a melting pot that fulfilled the integration of these groups. Like in a painter's palette, which contains various colors and shades, the interpretations about nostalgia, grief and loneliness become apparent, along with the father-son rivalry, the conflict with the absent mother, the relationship between sexes, male chauvinism, infatuation, identity, the fear of death, the rebirth to a new life, the passage from gaucho to guapo, from a shrewd horseman to a daring, bullying braggart.

  8. Compatibilidade entre psicanálise e lógica Compatibility between psychoanalysis and logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Gonçalves dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar que entre a psicanálise e o pensamento científico podemos falar em compatibilidade. Para alcançar esse objetivo analisaremos, em um primeiro momento, como a lógica, ao se tornar matemática, se vale de um pensamento plural e não da ilusão de unidade da razão, que seria colocada na lógica clássica como uma conquista absoluta. Após, mostraremos como Freud, em A Interpretação dos Sonhos também coloca, com sua tese sobre o funcionamento do inconsciente, o primado da lógica clássica em questão, principalmente o princípio do terceiro-excluído, o princípio de não contradição e, principalmente, o princípio de identidade.The objective of this article is to demonstrate that between psychoanalysis and the scientific thought we could talk of compatibility. To reach this objective we analyze how logic, when becoming mathematics, takes advantage of a plural thought and no of an illusion of unity of reason, which would be placed in classical logic as an absolute achievement. Next, we will show how Freud, in "The interpretation of Dreams" also places, with his thesis about the functioning of the unconscious, the primacy of classical logic in question, mainly the principles of the third excluded, the non-contradiction, and the principle of identity.

  9. Efectos analíticos del psicoanálisis Analytical effects of psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Mordoh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomamos como objeto de estudio los efectos analíticos específicos del psicoanálisis. Exploraremos sus propie-dades especialmente en el punto en el que muestran un límite a la sugestión directa y se constituyen por fuera y más allá de cualquier tipo de intervención directiva del analista. Los relacionaremos con la aparición del sujeto del inconsciente y con la posibilidad por parte de este de responsabilizarse del padecer subjetivo que lo aqueja. Estableceremos también relaciones entre estos efectos analíticos y los efectos terapéuticos característicos de la clínica psicoanalítica. Tomaremos algunas elaboraciones conceptuales de Freud y de Lacan y al final ilustraremos con un caso del Servicio de atención clínica de adultos del Programa Avellaneda de la Facultad de Psicología.Our aim is to study the analytical effects of psychoanalysis. We will explore their properties specially where they show a limit to direct suggestion and they appear beyond any type of directive intervention of the analyst. We will relate them with the appearance of the subject of the unconscious and its possibility of taking responsibility of its own subjective suffering. We will also establish a relationship between these analytical effects and therapeutic effects of the psychoanalytical clinic. We will take some Freud's and Lacan's elaborations and at the end we will illustrate with a case of the Service of clinical attention of adults at the Avellaneda Program of the Psychology Faculty.

  10. The saga of psychoanalysis in Eastern Europe: repression and rebirth in Hungary, and in former Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Mészáros

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper shortly presents the early roles of Budapest, Prague, and Belgrade in the development of psychoanalytic movement in Central-Europe before the Second World War. Mapping this historical heritage, it suggests how psychoanalysts of former Soviet Bloc countries could restore their own psychoanalytic communities. The study investigates the consequences of these dictatorial and authoritarian regimes for psychoanalysis and for psychoanalysts focusing on similarities and differences in Hungary, in former Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Furthermore, it emphasizes the contribution of the international professional organizations - the International Psychoanalytic Association, and the European Psychoanalytic Federation - for reintegration of Budapest, Prague, and Belgrade to the international psychoanalytic community.

  11. Framework for a new dialogue between psychoanalysis and neurosciences: is the combined neuro-psychoanalytic approach the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaslamatzis, Grigoris

    2007-01-01

    Freud's legacy deriving from his work The project for a scientific psychology (1895) could give a new impetus to the dialogue between psychoanalysis and neurosciences. A rapproachment phase is warrented. Based on the work of psychoanalysts who are themselves neuroscientists (such as Mauro Mancia, Martha Koukkou and Harold Shevrin) or have a long term dialogue with neuroscientists (Arnold Modell), three points of epistemological congruence are described: 1. dualism is no longer a satisfactory solution 2. cautions for the centrality of interpretation (hermeneutics) 3. the self-criticism of neuroscientists PMID:17976245

  12. History and Psychology—Oral History and Psychoanalysis. Development of a Problematic Relationship. Outline and Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Plato

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the relationship between two scientific fields—history and psychology—with a focus on their connections during the last 150 years and about the meaning of subjectivity in history. It addresses possibilities of cooperation, taking as an example the relationship of oral history and psychoanalysis. The article emphasizes the problems regarding unconscious elements in history as well as the perception and "digestion" of history by the individual and the collective memory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401181

  13. Eternal hate and conscience: on the filiation between Freudian psychoanalysis and sixteenth and early seventeenth century Protestant thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerink, Herman

    2011-01-01

    In his seminar on ethics Jacques Lacan suggests there exists a "filiation or cultural paternity" between Freudian psychoanalysis and a "new direction of thought" that starts with Luther's conceptualization of God's eternal hate of man, and is then futher continued in Calvinism. In this article this thesis is explored. The author argues that there is not only a familiarity between the Protestant doctrines of predestination and Freud's reconstruction of prehistoric events and primal scenes, but also that Lacan's views on conscience formation and his elaborations of the complexity of moral decisions resembles Calvinist thought on civil and spiritual conscience, and the longing for restoration of a lost image of God.

  14. An Alternative History of Psychoanalysis: Fact and Fiction in Irvin D. Yalom’s When Nietzsche Wept

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsson, Ebba

    2017-01-01

    This essay provides an analysis of the novel When Nietzsche Wept written by Irvin D. Yalom. The novel takes place during the late eighteen hundred century in Vienna and throughout this essay I explore how Yalom has created a setting, where he has placed some of most prominent philosophers of this time in his fictional world in order to educate the reader about the birth of psychoanalysis and give an alternative version to how it emerged. I argue that Yalom manages to implement different origi...

  15. The saga of psychoanalysis in Eastern Europe: repression and rebirth in Hungary, and in former Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Judit

    2017-11-01

    The paper shortly presents the early roles of Budapest, Prague, and Belgrade in the development of psychoanalytic movement in Central-Europe before the Second World War. Mapping this historical heritage, it suggests how psychoanalysts of former Soviet Bloc countries could restore their own psychoanalytic communities. The study investigates the consequences of these dictatorial and authoritarian regimes for psychoanalysis and for psychoanalysts focusing on similarities and differences in Hungary, in former Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Furthermore, it emphasizes the contribution of the international professional organizations - the International Psychoanalytic Association, and the European Psychoanalytic Federation - for reintegration of Budapest, Prague, and Belgrade to the international psychoanalytic community.

  16. Framework for a new dialogue between psychoanalysis and neurosciences: is the combined neuro-psychoanalytic approach the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaslamatzis Grigoris

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Freud's legacy deriving from his work The project for a scientific psychology (1895 could give a new impetus to the dialogue between psychoanalysis and neurosciences. A rapproachment phase is warrented. Based on the work of psychoanalysts who are themselves neuroscientists (such as Mauro Mancia, Martha Koukkou and Harold Shevrin or have a long term dialogue with neuroscientists (Arnold Modell, three points of epistemological congruence are described: 1. dualism is no longer a satisfactory solution 2. cautions for the centrality of interpretation (hermeneutics 3. the self-criticism of neuroscientists

  17. Love and/in psychoanalysis: a commentary on Lacan's reading of Plato's Symposium in Seminar VIII: Transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting. Can the analyst be characterized as a sort of modern-day Socrates?

  18. A self-psychological approach to the study of biography: the interplay of narratives in psychoanalysis and biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberg, Sandra G

    2009-04-01

    This chapter is an exploration of the psychoanalytic aspects of biography and the biographical aspects of psychoanalysis. The narratives that emerge from biography and psychoanalytic treatment incorporate elements of empathy, ideology (theory), and transference/countertransference and are co-constructed within an intersubjective field involving the subjectivities of both participants, the biographer and her subject and the analyst and her analysand. I will provide examples that demonstrate the way in which these processes play out in the biographical realm. Correspondingly, I will illustrate the way in which the analyst's biography and analysand's autobiography change in the course of the psychoanalytic treatment. Salient differences between biographical and psychoanalytic endeavors are also discussed.

  19. [Ideology and education (influence): notices on the pseudo-question on medical and non-medical psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, I A

    1979-01-01

    Argumentations pro or contra "medical" or "non-medical" psychoanalysis are rarely free from ideologies. Only in the stage of psychoanalytical self-cognition the question becomes another one. It must be differentiated between the educational background and training of the psychoanalyst. It is just the educational background (academica finally examination in medicine, psychologie, theologie etc.) which produces attitudes, which can form (influence) the training in a wrong way. Such discussions become easily a pseudo-question because of a narrow class-arrogance. The urgency of using psychoanalytical concepts and methods in the social field should help to reconcile contrasts.

  20. A homogenous CS/NaCMC/n-HA polyelectrolyte complex membrane prepared by gradual electrostatic assembling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zuo, Yi; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Hongli; Gu, Aiqun; Li, Yubao

    2011-02-01

    A homogenous membrane composed of chitosan (CS), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and nano hydroxyapatite (n-HA) was prepared by a gradual electrostatic assembling (GEA) method. The physical and chemical properties of the membranes with different n-HA contents and CS/NaCMC ratios were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and mechanical test. The schematic formation mechanism of the membrane was discussed. The results show that GEA is an effective method to prepare the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) membrane, in which oppositely charged CS-NaCMC polysaccharides can assemble mildly and gradually through electrostatic interaction to form the membrane framework, while the filled n-HA crystals can regulate the structure stability of the composite membrane. The optimum preparation condition for the PEC membrane can be fixed to a content of 60 wt% n-HA, an equivalent amount of CS to NaCMC and a drying temperature of 60°C. The PEC membrane may have good prospect for guided bone regeneration.

  1. Optimization of gradual hemolysis for isolation of hemoglobin from bovine erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravilović Radoslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe an optimized procedure based on gradual hemolysis for the isolation of hemoglobin derived from bovine slaughterhouse erythrocytes in a membrane bioreactor. The membrane bioreactor system provided high yields of hemoglobin (mainly oxyhemoglobin derivate and its separation from the empty erythrocyte membranes (ghosts. Ten different concentrations of hypotonic media were assessed from the aspect of the extent of hemolysis, hematocrit values of the erythrocyte suspensions, cell swelling and membrane deformations induced by decreased salt concentration. Effective gradual osmotic hemolysis with an extent of hemolysis of 83% was performed using 35 mM Na-phosphate/NaCl buffer of pH 7.2-7.4. Under these conditions most of the cell membranes presented the appearance of the normal ghosts under phase contrast microscope. The results show that isolation process yielded predominantly to oxyhemoglobin. Kinetic studies showed that maximal concentration of hemoglobin was reached after 40 min, but the process cycle at which recovery of 83% was achieved lasted for 90 min.

  2. Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, Marian; Aarts, Noelle; Verhoeven, Piet

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as 'course of exercise'. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Study on FPGA-Based Emulator for the Diagnosis of Gradual Degradation in Reciprocating Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Sun; Kim, Wooshik [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Yun; Chai, Jang Bom [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method for diagnosing the degree of gradual degradation of a reciprocating pump caused by continuous use as a water supply pump in a nuclear power plant. Normally, the progress of such degradation is too slow to be noticed. Hence, it is difficult to determine the degree of degradation using the existing diagnostic methods. In this paper, we propose a new method by which the normal state and the degraded state of the pump can be differentiated, so that the degree of degradation can be identified. First, an emulator was developed using FPGA by providing the parameters of the pump under normal state, so that the emulator generates the information of the pump in the healthy state. Then, by comparing this information with the parameters received from various output sensors of the emulator during the current state, it is possible to identify and measure the degree of gradual degradation. This paper presents some of the results obtained during the development process, and results that show how the emulator operates, by comparing the data collected from an actual pump.

  4. The Migration of Cancer Cells in Gradually Varying Chemical Gradients and Mechanical Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha M. N. Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel approach to study cell migration under physical stresses by utilizing established growth factor chemotaxis. This was achieved by studying cell migration in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF chemoattraction in a gradually tapered space, imposing mechanical stresses. The device consisted of two 5-mm-diameter chambers connected by ten 600 µm-long and 10 µm-high tapered microchannels. The taper region gradually changes the width of the channel. The channels tapered from 20 µm to 5 µm over a transition length of 50 µm at a distance of 250 µm from one of the chambers. The chemoattractant drove cell migration into the narrow confines of the tapered channels, while the mechanical gradient clearly altered the migration of cells. Cells traversing the channels from the wider to narrow-end and vice versa were observed using time-lapsed imaging. Our results indicated that the impact of physical stress on cell migration patterns may be cell type specific.

  5. Gradual edge enhancement in spiral phase contrast imaging with fractional vortex filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jikang; Zhang, Wuhong; Qi, Qianqian; Zheng, Shasha; Chen, Lixiang

    2015-10-29

    In the spiral phase contrast imaging, the integer spiral phase plate (SPP) are generally employed to perform the radial Hilbert transform on the object. Here we introduce fractional SPP filters, instead of the integer ones, to investigate the gradual formation of edge enhancement for pure phase objects. Two spatial light modulators are used in our experimental configuration. One is addressed to display the pure phase object of a five-pointed star, while the other serves as a dynamic filter of fractional topological charge Q. Of interest is the observation of the complete reversal of the edge and background brightness by gradually changing the fractional vortices from Q = 0 to 1. The experimental results were well interpreted based on the OAM spectra of fractional SPP, which indicates that the filtered output image can be considered as a coherent superposition of all possible images that are individually resulted from the integer OAM filtering. Besides, we show that the spiral phase contrast effect can still be observed in real time for a rotating three-leaf clover. Our results may find potential applications in the optical microscopic imaging.

  6. Electron–Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lun C., E-mail: ltan@umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron–ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  7. Stochastic seismic inversion based on an improved local gradual deformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuwei; Zhu, Peimin

    2017-12-01

    A new stochastic seismic inversion method based on the local gradual deformation method is proposed, which can incorporate seismic data, well data, geology and their spatial correlations into the inversion process. Geological information, such as sedimentary facies and structures, could provide significant a priori information to constrain an inversion and arrive at reasonable solutions. The local a priori conditional cumulative distributions at each node of model to be inverted are first established by indicator cokriging, which integrates well data as hard data and geological information as soft data. Probability field simulation is used to simulate different realizations consistent with the spatial correlations and local conditional cumulative distributions. The corresponding probability field is generated by the fast Fourier transform moving average method. Then, optimization is performed to match the seismic data via an improved local gradual deformation method. Two improved strategies are proposed to be suitable for seismic inversion. The first strategy is that we select and update local areas of bad fitting between synthetic seismic data and real seismic data. The second one is that we divide each seismic trace into several parts and obtain the optimal parameters for each part individually. The applications to a synthetic example and a real case study demonstrate that our approach can effectively find fine-scale acoustic impedance models and provide uncertainty estimations.

  8. Relationship between solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer and CT image features based on gradual clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between the medical characteristics of lung cancers and computer tomography (CT) images are explored so as to improve the early diagnosis rate of lung cancers. This research collected CT images of patients with solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer, and used gradual clustering methodology to classify them. Preliminary classifications were made, followed by continuous modification and iteration to determine the optimal condensation point, until iteration stability was achieved. Reasonable classification results were obtained. the clustering results fell into 3 categories. The first type of patients was mostly female, with ages between 50 and 65 years. CT images of solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer for this group contain complete lobulation and burr, with pleural indentation; The second type of patients was mostly male with ages between 50 and 80 years. CT images of solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer for this group contain complete lobulation and burr, but with no pleural indentation; The third type of patients was also mostly male with ages between 50 and 80 years. CT images for this group showed no abnormalities. the application of gradual clustering methodology can scientifically classify CT image features of patients with lung cancer in the initial lesion stage. These findings provide the basis for early detection and treatment of malignant lesions in patients with lung cancer.

  9. Reuse, replace, recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Michael A.; Thorner, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Septins are guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that form hetero-oligomeric complexes, which assemble into filaments and higher-order structures at sites of cell division and morphogenesis in eukaryotes. Dynamic changes in the organization of septin-containing structures occur concomitantly with progression through the mitotic cell cycle and during cell differentiation. Septins also undergo stage-specific post-translational modifications, which have been implicated in regulating their dynamics, in some cases via purported effects on septin turnover. In our recent study, the fate of two of the five septins expressed in mitotic cells of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was tracked using two complementary fluorescence-based methods for pulse-chase analysis. During mitotic growth, previously-made molecules of both septins (Cdc10 and Cdc12) persisted through multiple successive divisions and were incorporated equivalently with newly synthesized molecules into hetero-oligomers and higher-order structures. Similarly, in cells undergoing meiosis and the developmental program of sporulation, pre-existing copies of Cdc10 were incorporated into new structures. In marked contrast, Cdc12 was irreversibly excluded from septin complexes and replaced by another septin, Spr3. Here, we discuss the broader implications of these results and related findings with regard to how septin dynamics is coordinated with the mitotic cell cycle and in the yeast life cycle, and how these observations may relate to control of the dynamics of other complex multi-subunit assemblies. PMID:19164941

  10. Adaptation of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to gradual changes to a low-pH environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Si-Yin; Wang, Bao-Jie; Liu, Mei; Wang, Meng-Qiang; Jiang, Ke-Yong; Liu, Xin-Wei; Wang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    pH variation could cause a stress response in euryhaline penaeids, we evaluated the mortality, growth performance, osmoregulation gene expression, digestive enzyme activity, histology, and resistance against Vibrio parahemolyticus of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared under conditions of gradual changes to a low-pH environment (gradual-low pH, 6.65-8.20) or a high-pH environment (gradual-high pH, 8.20-9.81) versus a normal pH environment (8.14-8.31) during a 28-d experiment. Consequently, under gradual-high pH, the cumulative mortality rate (CMR) rose with time until 39.9% on days 28; the weight gain percentage (WGP) and length gain percentage (LGP) decreased continuously. However, under gradual-low pH, the CMR of shrimp stabilized at 6.67% during 7-28 d; the WGP and LGP decreased first and then returned to normal. These results indicated that L. vannamei displayed a moderate tolerance to gradual-low pH, compared with gradual-high pH. Under gradual-low pH, the Na+/K+-ATPase, cytoplasmic carbonic anydrase (CAc), and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked carbonic anhydrase (CAg) transcripts of shrimp increased continuously or then back to normal; the amylase, lipase, and trypsin activities decreased first and then returned to normal or increased; the hepatopancreases and midguts showed histopathological lesions first and then got remission. Thus, the major adaptation mechanism of shrimp to gradual-low pH might be its high osmoregulation ability, which made shrimp achieve a new, balanced steady-state, then promoted longer intestinal villi and recuperative hepatopancreases of shrimp with enhanced digestive enzyme activities to increase nutrient absorption after long-term exposure. Meanwhile, the enhanced resistance against V. parahemolyticus under gradual-low pH would probably inhibit disease outbreak in the shrimp farming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fasting versus gradual initiation of the ketogenic diet: a prospective, randomized clinical trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, A G Christina; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Cnaan, Avital; Stallings, Virginia A

    2005-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a 90% fat diet that is an effective treatment for intractable epilepsy. Rapid initiation of the KD requires hospital admission because of the complexity of the protocol and frequent mild and moderate adverse events. The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of a gradual KD initiation with the standard KD initiation preceded by a 24- to 48-h fast. Children ages 1 to 14 years with intractable epilepsy were randomized to a fasting initiation (FAST-KD) or gradual initiation (GRAD-KD). Baseline seizure activity was recorded daily for 28 days before admission and continued for the 3-month duration of the study. Effectiveness was measured in two ways: (a) the proportion of subjects with >50% reduction in target seizure type from baseline to 3-month evaluation, and (b) percentage reduction in the frequency of the target seizure type from baseline to 3-month evaluation. Blood glucose was assessed q4 to 6h, and weights, electrolytes, hydration status, vomiting, acid balance, need for interventions (citric acid and sodium citrates (Bicitra) and IV fluids) were assessed daily. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine the association between protocol and occurrence of adverse events, and longitudinal mixed-effects models were used to look for trends in tolerability data over time. Forty-eight subjects, 24 in each arm, were randomized. In the FAST-KD protocol, 58% of the children had >50% reduction in the target seizure type at 3 months, and 21% were seizure free. In the GRAD-KD protocol, 67% had a >50% reduction at 3 months, and 21% were seizure free. The two protocols were equivalent in efficacy (p = 0.033). At 3 months, the FAST-KD median percentage seizure reduction rate was 78% (ranging from 100% reduction to 73% increase in seizures per week) and was 94% (ranging from 100% reduction to 161% increase in seizures per week) for the GRAD-KD protocol. By using a logarithmic transformed percentage reduction rate and an equivalence limit

  12. Rhythm and Blues - Amalie's 152nd session: From psychoanalysis to conversation and metaphor analysis - and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz, Michael B; Spiekermann, Jane; Kächele, Horst

    2015-06-01

    Conversation analysis and psychotherapy process research is an evolving field promising new insights for therapeutic practice. As the specimen case of Amalie, especially her 152nd session, has been investigated using various methods - of which we give a short overview - we offer a new analysis of session 152 based on a new transcription which allows for more detailed listening to the prosodic properties of this analytic dyad. Our findings show a) how analyst and patient co-create their common conversational object called psychoanalysis; b) how a lot of up-to-now not described analytical tools are applied, that can be described as "practices"; c) how a "dance of insight" is enacted by both participants in a common creation making patterns of interaction visible from "both sides"; d) how participants create metaphors as conversational and cognitive tools to reduce the enormous complexity of the analytic exchange and for other purposes; e) that prosodic rhythmicity and other prosodic features are best integrated in a threefold model for analytic conversation consisting of "interaction engine", "talking to" and "talking about" the patient. The study is presented as hypothesis-generating research based on verbal, not statistical data. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Anna Freud: the Hampstead War Nurseries and the role of the direct observation of children for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2007-08-01

    The psychoanalytic tradition of direct observation of children has a long history, going back to the early 20th century, when psychoanalysis and the emerging field of 'child studies' came into fruitful contact in Freud's Vienna. As a leading figure in the attempted integration of direct observation with the new psychoanalytic knowledge emerging from the consulting room, Anna Freud played a crucial role in the emergence of this field. But her major contribution to the theory and practice of observing children came during the Second World War, when she founded the Hampstead War Nurseries. The author describes in detail this important period of Anna Freud's career, and discusses the impact it had on later work. He explores the theoretical contribution that Anna Freud made in the post-war years to the debate about the place of direct observation in psychoanalysis, and concludes that Anna Freud's 'double approach' (direct observation plus analytic reconstruction) still has a great deal to offer as a method of both psychoanalytic research and education.

  14. El sujeto y el lazo social en el psicoanálisis // Subject and social fabric in psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Peláez Jaramillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La psicología hace equivalentes las nociones de sujeto, persona, individuo y yo, y define su naturaleza en función de su condición gregaria; no existen diferencias formales y se usan indiscriminadamente estos términos. En el psicoanálisis hay una clara diferencia entre el yo y el sujeto, que corresponde a la definición freudiana de la descomposición de la personalidad psíquica, e interroga la concepción psicológica de unidad representativa de la personalidad. En el psicoanálisis el lazo social se define en términos de discurso y no diferencia entre sujeto individual y sujeto social, en tanto el discurso es el regulador del goce en todo lazo social donde está inscrito el sujeto. // Psychology becomes equivalent the notion of subject, person, individual, and the ego; and it defines its nature according to his/her gregarious condition: there are not any formal difference and its terms are used indiscriminately. There is a clear difference between the ego and the subject in psychoanalysis, this difference belongs to Freudian's definition of the decomposition of the psychical personality; it also questions the psychological notion of personality representative unit. Social fabric in psychoanalysis is defined on discursive terms and it does not make difference between individual subject and social subject, meanwhile the speech regulates the enjoyment in every social fabric where subject is registered.

  15. Joint replacement in Zambia: A review of Hip & Knee Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Incidence of major joint replacement surgery is on the rise in Africa but this trend has not been matched by proper audits in the form of National Joint Registries. Objective: This paper presents the short-term findings from a joint replacement register started at the Zambian-Italian Orthopaedic Hospital (ZIOH) in ...

  16. The learning of sciences: a gradual change in the way of learning. The case of vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Bravo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning the scientific way of knowledge implies a change in the most implicit principles that guide comprehension, interpretation and explanation of scientific phenomena as well as a change in the type of associated reasoning. With the aim of favouring this type of learning, a teaching programme was developed in relation to vision and implemented with a group of secondary school students. The way of learning of these students was observed at different teaching stages. Findings suggest that during the learning process the way students learn seems to change gradually and that students construct “intermediate” models (right but incomplete that become the basis for the construction of a systemic model proposed by school science.

  17. Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hooper, Andrew; Holohan, Eoghan P; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G; Cesca, Simone; Vogfjörd, Kristín S; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Jarosch, Alexander H; Jónasson, Kristján; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Bagnardi, Marco; Parks, Michelle M; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Pálsson, Finnur; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Heimann, Sebastian; Reynolds, Hannah I; Dumont, Stéphanie; Bali, Eniko; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H; Dahm, Torsten; Roberts, Matthew J; Hensch, Martin; Belart, Joaquín M C; Spaans, Karsten; Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur M; Drouin, Vincent; Dürig, Tobias; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Riishuus, Morten S; Pedersen, Gro B M; van Boeckel, Tayo; Oddsson, Björn; Pfeffer, Melissa A; Barsotti, Sara; Bergsson, Baldur; Donovan, Amy; Burton, Mike R; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2016-07-15

    Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption. We use multiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square-kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014-2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near-exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day-long eruption. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Finite element analysis of gradually and rapidly varied unsteady flow in open channel : II. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kun Yeun; Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Eul Rae [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-28

    Petrov-Galerkin finite element model for analyzing dynamic wave equation is applied to gradually and rapidly varied unsteady flow. The model is verified by applying to hydraulic jump, nonlinear disturbance propagation in frictionless horizontal channel and dam-break analysis. It shows stable and accurate results compared with analytical solutions for various cases. The model is applied to a surge propagation in a frictionless horizontal channel. Three-dimensional water surface profiles show that the computed result converges to the analytical one with sharp discontinuity. The model is also applied to the Taehwa River to analyze unsteady flood wave propagation. The computed results have good agreements with those of DWOPER model in terms of discharge and stage hydrographs. (author). 19 refs., 22 figs.

  19. Surface models and gradually peeled volume model to explore hand structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Kwon, Koojoo; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Chung, Min Suk

    2017-05-01

    This study was intended to confirm whether simultaneous examination of surface and volume models contributes to learning of hand structures. Outlines of the skin, muscles, and bones of the right hand were traced in sectioned images of a male cadaver to create surface models of the structures. After the outlines were filled with selected colors, the color-filled sectioned images were stacked to produce a volume model of the hand, from which the skin was gradually peeled. The surface models provided locational orientation of the hand structures such as extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles, while the peeled volume model revealed the depth of the individual hand structures. In addition, the characteristic appearances of the radial artery and the wrist joint were confirmed. The exploration of the volume model accompanied by equivalent surface models is synergistically helpful for understanding the morphological properties of hand structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Gradual Suppression of Transcytosis Governs Functional Blood-Retinal Barrier Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian Wai; Gu, Chenghua

    2017-03-22

    Blood-central nervous system (CNS) barriers partition neural tissues from the blood, providing a homeostatic environment for proper neural function. The endothelial cells that form blood-CNS barriers have specialized tight junctions and low rates of transcytosis to limit the flux of substances between blood and CNS. However, the relative contributions of these properties to CNS barrier permeability are unknown. Here, by studying functional blood-retinal barrier (BRB) formation in mice, we found that immature vessel leakage occurs entirely through transcytosis, as specialized tight junctions are functional as early as vessel entry into the CNS. A functional barrier forms only when transcytosis is gradually suppressed during development. Mutant mice with elevated or reduced levels of transcytosis have delayed or precocious sealing of the BRB, respectively. Therefore, the temporal regulation of transcytosis governs the development of a functional BRB, and suppression of transcytosis is a principal contributor for functional barrier formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gradual onset and recovery of the Younger Dryas abrupt climate event in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, J W; Quinn, T M; Shen, C-C; Okumura, Y; Cardenas, M B; Siringan, F P; Banner, J L; Lin, K; Hu, H-M; Taylor, F W

    2015-09-02

    Proxy records of temperature from the Atlantic clearly show that the Younger Dryas was an abrupt climate change event during the last deglaciation, but records of hydroclimate are underutilized in defining the event. Here we combine a new hydroclimate record from Palawan, Philippines, in the tropical Pacific, with previously published records to highlight a difference between hydroclimate and temperature responses to the Younger Dryas. Although the onset and termination are synchronous across the records, tropical hydroclimate changes are more gradual (>100 years) than the abrupt (10-100 years) temperature changes in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt recovery of Greenland temperatures likely reflects changes in regional sea ice extent. Proxy data and transient climate model simulations support the hypothesis that freshwater forced a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, thereby causing the Younger Dryas. However, changes in ocean overturning may not produce the same effects globally as in Greenland.

  2. SINTESIS BAHAN UBAHAN GRADUAL ALUMINUM TITANAT/KORUNDUM DARI ALUMINA TRANSISI DENGAN PENAMBAHAN MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sulhan Fauzi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of research on the use of transition alumina for improving the performance of ceramics. Synthesis has been made of gradual changes materials (Functionally Graded Materials, FGM aluminum titanate (AT / corundum based on transition alumina powders with the addition of MgO as a stabilizer of AT as much as 2 wt.%. Samples without the addition of MgO was also made for comparison. Transition alumina with and without the addition of MgO were calcined at a temperature of 1100C for 1 hour to become ?-alumina. The powder mixture was compacted at a pressure of 49.3 MPa and then prasintered at a temperature of 1100C for 1 hour, then repeatedly infiltrated with infiltrator TiCl3 solution (20% which prepared by dissolving the Ti metal powders into HCl. Furthermore, the material sintered at temperatures of 1500C with a holding time for 3 hours. Physical character of materials showed an increase in density and decrease in porosity of the material due to the addition of MgO. Phase identification results obtained from the content of AT and corundum phases which gradual in depth, indicating that FGM has been formed. These results were supported by analysis of x-ray diffraction pattern showing the formation of a solid solution Al2 (1-x + MgxTi1 xO5 which marked by the shifting of the peak of AT phase in FGM samples with the addition of MgO. Tulisan ini menjelaskan hasil penelitian tentang penggunaan alumina transisi untuk meningkatkan performa keramik. Telah dilakukan sintesis bahan ubahan gradual (Functionally Graded Material, FGM aluminum titanat (AT/korundum berbahan dasar serbuk alumina transisi dengan penambahan MgO sebagai penstabil AT sebanyak 2 wt.%. Sampel tanpa tambahan MgO juga dibuat sebagai pembanding. Alumina transisi dengan dan tanpa penambahan MgO dikalsinasi pada temperatur 1100C selama 1 jam sehingga menjadi ?-alumina. Serbuk campuran dikompaksi pada tekanan 49,3 MPa lalu diprasinter pada temperatur 1100C selama

  3. Compensatory smoking from gradual and immediate reduction in cigarette nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-02-01

    Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes by reducing their nicotine content can potentially have a profound impact on public health. Two different approaches to nicotine reduction have been proposed: gradual and immediate. To determine if either of these approaches results in significant compensatory smoking behavior, which might lead to safety concerns, we performed a secondary analysis of data from studies that have utilized these two approaches. The number of cigarettes smoked per day, carbon monoxide exposure, and cotinine levels in plasma or urine were assessed while participants smoked reduced nicotine content cigarettes and compared with when they smoked their usual brand cigarettes. The results showed that in general, these two approaches led to minimal compensatory smoking and reduced levels of cotinine over the course of the experimental period, suggesting that neither of these approaches poses a major safety concern. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Gradually varied flow in compound open channels; Flujo gradualmente variado en canales de seccion compuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotela Avila, Gilberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    The author shows that the computation of gradually-varied-flow profiles in prismatic compound channels involves the solution of the dynamic equation, but using the compound channel Froude number defined by Blalock and Sturm. The same equation is used for non-prismatic channels by dividing the channel into short reaches and carrying the computation step by step through an iterative process. [Spanish] El autor demuestra que los perfiles del flujo gradualmente variado en canales prismaticos de seccion compuesta se pueden determinar mediante la integracion de la llamada ecuacion dinamica, pero usando el numero de Froude definido por Blalock y Sturm para este tipo de canales. Cuando no son prismaticos, tambien se aplica la ecuacion de la energia por tramos y el calculo sigue un proceso iterativo una vez definidos los tirantes criticos multiples y la zona en que se desarrolla el perfil.

  5. Space-time variability of floods across Germany: Gradual trends, step changes and fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Schröter, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The space-time variability of flood magnitude and frequency across Germany at the interannual and decadal time scale is analyzed and interpreted. The analyses are based on flood time series of 68 catchments for a joint period of 74 years. The catchments are distributed across Germany and show different flood regimes. Different statistical tests are applied to investigate different types of flood changes: gradual trends, step changes and fluctuations. In addition, changes in the mean behavior and in the variability are studied. A focus is placed on the spatial stability of changes, i.e. answering the question to which extent flood changes are coherent across Germany. The joint analysis of changes for a large number of catchments allows interpreting the causes of the observed changes. For instance, climate-related flood changes are expected to show a different behavior than changes caused by river training or land-use change.

  6. An evolutionary perspective on gradual formation of superego in the primal horde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcu, Erdem

    2014-01-01

    Freud proposed that the processes which occurred in the primal horde are essential for understanding superego formation and therefore, the successful dissolution of the Oedipus complex. However, Freud theorized superego formation in the primal horde as if it is an instant, all-or-none achievement. The present paper proposes an alternative model aiming to explain gradual development of superego in the primitive man. The proposed model is built on knowledge from evolutionary and neural sciences as well as anthropology, and it particularly focuses on the evolutionary significance of the acquisition of fire by hominids in the Pleistocene period in the light of up-to-date archaeological findings. Acquisition of fire is discussed as a form of sublimation which might have helped Prehistoric man to maximize the utility of limited evolutionary biological resources, potentially contributing to the rate and extent of bodily evolution. The limitations of both Freud's original conceptualization and the present model are discussed accordingly in an interdisciplinary framework.

  7. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF LARGE GRADUAL SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS. I. FE, O, AND SEED MATERIAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, M. I.; Dayeh, M. A.; Ebert, R. W.; Mccomas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Mason, G. M. [Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Li, G. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35756 (United States); Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smith, C. W., E-mail: mdesai@swri.edu [Department of Physics and Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We have surveyed ∼0.1–100 MeV nucleon{sup −1} O and Fe fluence spectra during 46 isolated, large gradual SEP events observed at ACE during solar cycles 23 and 24. Most SEP spectra are well represented by the four-parameter Band function with a normalization constant, low-energy spectral slope, high-energy spectral slope, and break energy. The O and Fe spectral slopes are similar and most spectra steepen above the break energy, probably due to common acceleration and transport processes affecting different ion species. SEP spectra above the break energies depend on the origin of the seed population; larger contributions of suprathermal flare material result in higher Fe/O ratios and flatter spectra at higher energies. SEP events with steeper O spectra at low energies and higher break energies are associated with slower coronal mass ejections (CMEs), while those associated with fast (>2000 km s{sup −1}) CMEs and ground level enhancements have harder or flatter spectra at low and high energies, and O break energies between ∼1 and 10 MeV nucleon{sup −1}. The latter events are enriched in {sup 3}He and higher-energy Fe, and have Fe spectra that rollover at significantly lower energies compared with O, probably because Fe ions with smaller Q/M ratios can escape from the distant shock more easily than O ions with larger Q/M ratios. We conclude that SEP spectral properties result from many complex and competing effects, namely Q/M-dependent scattering, shock properties, and the origin of the seed populations, all of which must be taken into account to develop a comprehensive picture of CME-driven shock acceleration of large gradual SEP events.

  8. Swarm of bees and particles algorithms in the problem of gradual failure reliability assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Anop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probability-statistical framework of reliability theory uses models based on the chance failures analysis. These models are not functional and do not reflect relation of reliability characteristics to the object performance. At the same time, a significant part of the technical systems failures are gradual failures caused by degradation of the internal parameters of the system under the influence of various external factors.The paper shows how to provide the required level of reliability at the design stage using a functional model of a technical object. Paper describes the method for solving this problem under incomplete initial information, when there is no information about the patterns of technological deviations and degradation parameters, and the considered system model is a \\black box" one.To this end, we formulate the problem of optimal parametric synthesis. It lies in the choice of the nominal values of the system parameters to satisfy the requirements for its operation and take into account the unavoidable deviations of the parameters from their design values during operation. As an optimization criterion in this case we propose to use a deterministic geometric criterion \\reliability reserve", which is the minimum distance measured along the coordinate directions from the nominal parameter value to the acceptability region boundary rather than statistical values.The paper presents the results of the application of heuristic swarm intelligence methods to solve the formulated optimization problem. Efficiency of particle swarm algorithms and swarm of bees one compared with undirected random search algorithm in solving a number of test optimal parametric synthesis problems in three areas: reliability, convergence rate and operating time. The study suggests that the use of a swarm of bees method for solving the problem of the technical systems gradual failure reliability ensuring is preferred because of the greater flexibility of the

  9. Melatonin in the afternoons of a gradually advancing sleep schedule enhances the circadian rhythm phase advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2013-02-01

    We test methods to advance (shift earlier) circadian rhythms without producing misalignment between rhythms and sleep. We previously tested (1) a gradually advancing sleep/dark schedule plus morning bright light and afternoon/evening melatonin and (2) the same sleep schedule with only morning bright light. Now we report on the same sleep schedule with only afternoon/evening melatonin. This study aims to examine phase advances, sleepiness, and performance in response to melatonin compared to placebo. Twelve adults (five female individuals) aged 20-45 years (mean ± SD = 28.3 ± 7.3 years) completed this within-subjects placebo-controlled counterbalanced study. The participants slept on fixed 8-h sleep schedules for nine days. Then, sleep/dark was advanced by 1 h/day for three consecutive days of treatment. The participants took 3 mg of melatonin or placebo 11 h before baseline sleep midpoint (the optimal time to produce phase advances) on the first treatment day and 1 h earlier on each subsequent day. We measured the dim light melatonin onset before and after treatment. The participants rated subjective symptoms throughout the study. They completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task and rated sleepiness from 1 h before pill ingestion until bedtime on each treatment day. Melatonin produced significantly larger advances (1.3 ± 0.7 h) compared to placebo (0.7 ± 0.7 h); however, in the hours between melatonin ingestion and bed, melatonin caused sleepiness and performance decrements. Adding afternoon/evening melatonin to the gradually advancing sleep schedule increased the phase advance, but given the side effects, like sleepiness, it is better to use morning bright light and perhaps a lower dose of melatonin.

  10. Some Properties of p-Curves, With an Application to Gradual Publication Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2017-04-20

    p-curves provide a useful window for peeking into the file drawer in a way that might reveal p-hacking (Simonsohn, Nelson, & Simmons, 2014a). The properties of p-curves are commonly investigated by computer simulations. On the basis of these simulations, it has been proposed that the skewness of this curve can be used as a diagnostic tool to decide whether the significant p values within a certain domain of research suggest the presence of p-hacking or actually demonstrate that there is a true effect. Here we introduce a rigorous mathematical approach that allows the properties of p-curves to be examined without simulations. This approach allows the computation of a p-curve for any statistic whose sampling distribution is known and thereby allows a thorough evaluation of its properties. For example, it shows under which conditions p-curves would exhibit the shape of a monotone decreasing function. In addition, we used weighted distribution functions to analyze how 2 different types of publication bias (i.e., cliff effects and gradual publication bias) influence the shapes of p-curves. The results of 2 survey experiments with more than 1,000 participants support the existence of a cliff effect at p = .05 and also suggest that researchers tend to be more likely to recommend submission of an article as the level of statistical significance increases beyond this p level. This gradual bias produces right-skewed p-curves mimicking the existence of real effects even when no such effects are actually present. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [From reflex arc to psychic apparatus: neurology and psychoanalysis around 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Erik

    2009-03-01

    As a disciple of Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke and Theodor Meynert, Sigmund Freud was familiar with 19th century physiology and neurology. He started his career with laboratory work and began later on, when being a young medic to develop an explicit psychological method for curating hysterics. These cases of hysteria ask riddles to the established medical discourse and practice. Freud's long time unpublished Entwurf einer Psychologie (1895) makes the attempt of a "psychology for the neurologist". He tried to give a sufficient theory of the psychic apparatus on the basis of natural science. At the same time he (together with Josef Breuer) published his Studies on Hysteria, which--in addition to his earlier essay on Aphasia (1891)--argued, that there is no clear cut relation between body and soul. Despite the dubious, non-reductive character of the soma-psyche-relation, Freud gave reason to search for a complex field of interrelations between the physiological and psychological knowledge, beyond the divide of natural sciences and humanities. Not until his groundbreaking Traumdeutung (1900) Freud gave up the claim of reintegrating psychological knowledge into the neuroscientific field for now. But up to his latest work he always adheres to the principal project of unifying the natural and the psychical being of the subject. In the gap between the two spheres, for long occupied by the discursive figure of the 'psycho-physical parallelism', Freud situated the Unconscious. In the passage to a psychoanalytical theory of psychic events Freud took up the model of the reflex arc well known from neurology. The transmission into psychoanalysis complexifies the unilinearity of reflexes, so that the psychic apparatus can be analysed as a cybernetic mechanism 'avant la lettre'. It is interesting enough that inhibition as well as consciousness play a key role in the regulation of the psychic apparatus. In this context Freud stresses the importance of speech and language within the

  12. Further evidence for the case against neuropsychoanalysis: How Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou's response to our critique confirms the irrelevance and harmfulness to psychoanalysis of the contemporary neuroscientific trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B; Carmeli, Zvi

    2015-12-01

    In their paper "The case for neuropsychoanalysis" Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou (2015) respond to our critique of neuropsychoanalysis (Blass & Carmeli, 2007), setting forth evidence and arguments which, they claim, demonstrate why neuroscience is relevant and important for psychoanalysis and hence why dialogue between the fields is necessary. In the present paper we carefully examine their evidence and arguments and demonstrate how and why their claim is completely mistaken. In fact, Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou's paper only confirms our position on the irrelevance and harmfulness to psychoanalysis of the contemporary neuroscientific trend. We show how this trend perverts the essential nature of psychoanalysis and of how it is practiced. The clinical impact and its detrimental nature is highlighted by discussion of clinical material presented by Yovell et al (2015). In the light of this we argue that the debate over neuropsychoanalysis should be of interest to all psychoanalysts, not only those concerned with biology or interdisciplinary dialogue. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Negotiation and Psychoanalysis: If I'd Wanted to Learn About Feelings I Wouldn't Have Gone to Law School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Melissa L.

    1996-01-01

    Psychoanalysis, which focuses on unconscious mental processes, in contrast with the aggressive rational, linear, and goal-oriented nature of legal thinking, is used as a framework for understanding the art of negotiation in legal work. It is argued that a psychoanalytic approach can help people understand how they may help or hinder themselves in…

  14. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...

  15. Miserable case of total hip replacement caused by postirradiation necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Fumitoshi; Okue, Akira; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Ohzuma, Masakazu; Wada, Fumio (Saga Prefectural Hospital (Japan))

    1983-06-01

    We experienced a miserable case of postirradiation femoral head necrosis. Osteomyelitis due to a screw penetration into the cecum was followed by total hip replacement. The patient is a sixty seven years old woman. As she was injured by inoperable uterus cancer at fifty one years old, /sup 60/Co irradiation therapy was done. As postirradiation necrosis occurred 5 years after irradiation, total hip replacement (Mckee-Farrar type) was done. However, bone necrosis area in iliac bone due to irradiation progressed gradually, and anchoring screw migrated proximally into the cecum. Then the fistula formed at the region of right major trochanter. In fistulography, contrast medium leaked out into the cecum. So after iliocecectomy and anastomosis of colon, removal of prosthesis and local continuous suction irrigation was done twice. Since then, there has been no recurrence.

  16. Studies on scintigraphic findings after femoral head replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Tetsuo [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-03-01

    Femoral head replacement was performed for femoral neck fracture or femoral head necrosis on 36 hips of 34 patients on whom Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy was done for analysis of radioisotope uptake around the prosthesis. In the cases with satisfactory clinical course after replacement surgery the uptake was high in the area between the prosthesis and the trochanter, in the area of the stem tip of the prosthesis and in the acetabular area. The high uptake decreased gradually and reached a normal level by 8 months after surgery. The cases with no decrease of high uptake by 8 months after surgery were considered to have had an eventful postoperative course associated with some complication such as infection, fracture, loosening etc. Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy was useful for early detection of complications and to evaluate progress of the operated patients. (author)

  17. Subjekt fantastičnog: transformacije fantastičnog u književnosti, psihoanalizi i na filmu / The Subject of Fantastic: Transformation of Fantastic in Literature, Psychoanalysis and Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Prišing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how, in the 20th century, both themes and social function that previously belonged to fantastic literature are taken over, firstly, by psychoanalysis and then, secondly, by film. We will show the way in which transformations of appearances and functions of the fantastic are in close relation to specific form of expression that fantastic must have in order to be able to appear inside of formal structures of literature, psychoanalysis and, especially, film. Also, we will show the way in which these formal transformations are being reflected on the level of the content in fantastic literature, psychoanalysis and fantastic film.

  18. Investigation of pitch and angle in the gradual-triangle lenticular lens for point-blank LED fog lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Yang, Chi-Hao

    2014-05-10

    The effects of different pitch and angle of gradual-triangle lenticular lens for the point-blank LED fog lamp were investigated under the standard of ECE R19. The novel LED fog lamp was assembled from a point-blank LED light source, a parabolic reflector, and a gradual-triangle lenticular lens. Light tracing analysis was used for the design of the gradual-triangle lenticular lens. The pitch, which varied from 1 to 6 mm, and the apex angle, which changed from 5 to 32 deg, were both investigated in regard to the gradual-triangle lenticular lens. The optimum pitch was 5 mm, and the efficiency of the lamp system and lenticular lens could reach 93% and 98.1% by simulation, respectively. The results of experiment had over 94%, which is similar to that of simulation by normalized cross correlation (NCC) for the light intensity.

  19. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  20. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish

    2015-10-01

    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  1. Charge state distributions of iron in gradual solar energetic particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostryakov, V. M.; Stovpyuk, M. F.

    1999-11-01

    The energy and charge spectra of Fe ions accelerated in gradual events are calculated numerically. Our results are compared with the available observations. Stripping of Fe ions by thermal electrons and protons during ion acceleration in the solar corona results in the dependence of mean charge \\barq_Fe on energy. We consider the influence of varying plasma parameters (temperature T, number density N, and spectral index of turbulence S) on the charge distribution of iron. Our calculations indicate T~10^6 K and N~(0.5-1)x10^10 cm^-3 at the accelerating site, provided the characteristic acceleration time is about 1 s. The calculated charge spectra for S>2 and S<2 turn out to be different, but some theoretical and experimental uncertainties do not yet allow this parameter to be extracted from observational data. The theoretically obtained charge distributions of Fe could be important in the light of ACE spacecraft data which are currently available for analysis.

  2. Research on Social Stability Mechanisms Based on Activation Energy and Gradual Activation Reaction Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Miao; Gu, Jifa

    This paper draws a comparison between social stability and chemical reaction process, and brings forward the concept of “social temperature” and “activation energy of social agent”. It is considered that social temperature turns out to be the macro symptom of social average energy, and its unceasing up-climbing roots in the energy accumulation of “inferiorization” process of social system; that “activation energy of social agent” stands for the social energy or temperature where individuals or groups reach the limit of their psychological bearing ability. This paper, basing on above concepts, elaborates on and demonstrates the gradual activation reaction mechanisms of social stability by a lot of concrete examples. It is thought that there is a threshold value for social stability, and the society will be unstable if social temperature goes higher than this value; that the larger the social average activation energy is, the higher the temperature threshold value of social stability will be; and considering that different groups have different activation energy, those fragile groups with low activation energy are often the risk source which might pose a threat to social stability.

  3. The Plasmodium falciparum-specific human memory B cell compartment expands gradually with repeated malaria infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta E Weiss

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf malaria is only acquired after years of repeated infections and wanes rapidly without ongoing parasite exposure. Antibodies are central to malaria immunity, yet little is known about the B-cell biology that underlies the inefficient acquisition of Pf-specific humoral immunity. This year-long prospective study in Mali of 185 individuals aged 2 to 25 years shows that Pf-specific memory B-cells and antibodies are acquired gradually in a stepwise fashion over years of repeated Pf exposure. Both Pf-specific memory B cells and antibody titers increased after acute malaria and then, after six months of decreased Pf exposure, contracted to a point slightly higher than pre-infection levels. This inefficient, stepwise expansion of both the Pf-specific memory B-cell and long-lived antibody compartments depends on Pf exposure rather than age, based on the comparator response to tetanus vaccination that was efficient and stable. These observations lend new insights into the cellular basis of the delayed acquisition of malaria immunity.

  4. Method for modeling the gradual physical degradation of a porous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-20

    Cementitious and other engineered porous materials encountered in waste disposals may degrade over time due to one or more mechanisms. Physical degradation may take the form of cracking (fracturing) and/or altered (e.g. increased) porosity, depending on the material and underlying degradation mechanism. In most cases, the hydraulic properties of degrading materials are expected to evolve due to physical changes occurring over roughly the pore to decimeter scale, which is conducive to calculating equivalent or effective material properties. The exact morphology of a degrading material in its end-state may or may not be known. In the latter case, the fully-degraded condition can be assumed to be similar to a more-permeable material in the surrounding environment, such as backfill soil. Then the fully-degraded waste form or barrier material is hydraulically neutral with respect to its surroundings, constituting neither a barrier to nor conduit for moisture flow and solute transport. Unless the degradation mechanism is abrupt, a gradual transition between the intact initial and fully-degraded final states is desired. Linear interpolation through time is one method for smoothly blending hydraulic properties between those of an intact matrix and those of a soil or other surrogate for the end-state.

  5. Modeling and the Gradual Release of Responsibility: What Does It Look Like in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Maynes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent professional development efforts in literacy have highlighted the role of the teacher as a model for students using direct instruction.  Direct instruction is a lesson methodology taught to teacher candidates. We developed a schematic to represent the confluence of evidence found in the research and analysis of several lesson planning templates in order to create a visual representation of the elements of instruction that could be used to plan lessons. Previous research has demonstrated that modeling was not used frequently in classrooms. We were interested in determining if teachers were still using modeling infrequently. To investigate this, we identified three questions we would pursue through action research and mixed methods of analysis in local classrooms. These questions focused on determining the amount of time spent modeling in classrooms and the actions used after modeling to determine the extent these actions were reflected in the research literature. We found that teachers are using modeling much more frequently than was found to be the case in the previous study, but that the instructional actions following modeling are often inconsistent with research literature conceptions.   Key Words: direct instruction, modeling, gradual release of responsibility, models for teaching

  6. Gradual extinction prevents the return of fear: Implications for the discovery of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fear memories are notoriously difficult to erase, often recovering over time. The longstanding explanation for this finding is that, in extinction training, a new memory is formed that competes with the old one for expression but does not otherwise modify it. This explanation is at odds with traditional models of learning such as Rescorla-Wagner and reinforcement learning. A possible reconciliation that was recently suggested is that extinction training leads to the inference of a new state that is different from the state that was in effect in the original training. This solution, however, raises a new question: under what conditions are new states, or new memories formed? Theoretical accounts implicate persistent large prediction errors in this process. As a test of this idea, we reasoned that careful design of the reinforcement schedule during extinction training could reduce these prediction errors enough to prevent the formation of a new memory, while still decreasing reinforcement sufficiently to drive modification of the old fear memory. In two Pavlovian fear-conditioning experiments, we show that gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli, rather than eliminating them abruptly, prevents the recovery of fear. This finding has important implications for theories of state discovery in reinforcement learning.

  7. Modeling effectiveness of gradual increases in source level to mitigate effects of sonar on marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures in reducing the area within which changes in hearing thresholds can occur. We modeled the level of sound killer whales (Orcinus orca) were exposed to from a generic sonar operation preceded by different ramp-up schemes. In our model, ramp-up procedures reduced the risk of killer whales receiving sounds of sufficient intensity to affect their hearing. The effectiveness of the ramp-up procedure depended strongly on the assumed response threshold and differed with ramp-up duration, although extending the duration of the ramp up beyond 5 min did not add much to its predicted mitigating effect. The main factors that limited effectiveness of ramp up in a typical antisubmarine warfare scenario were high source level, rapid moving sonar source, and long silences between consecutive sonar transmissions. Our exposure modeling approach can be used to evaluate and optimize mitigation procedures. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Sobre a classificação gradual das preposições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou-Ann Kepla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo está ancorado na Neurolinguística de orientação enunciativo-discursiva. A demanda por uma proposta de classificação gradual (em oposição à tradicional classificação categorial das preposições surgiu quando nos propusemos a tarefa de descrever o funcionamento das preposições na fala de sujeitos que apresentam uma linguagem heterogênea. Nestes casos, as classificações correntes das preposições não se mostraram satisfatórias. Os motivos pelos quais preferimos uma classificação que dispõe as preposições numa escala de acordo com os seus graus de gramaticalização serão dispostos depois de feita uma revisão da literatura sobre as classificações das preposições. As classificações propostas por diferentes gramáticos são analisadas juntamente com aquelas adotadas por linguistas preocupados em descrever a linguagem agramática de sujeitos com afasia de produção.

  9. Oxidation mechanism of micron-sized aluminum particles in Al-CO2 gradually heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Ren, H.; Jiao, Q. J.

    2017-10-01

    Micron-sized aluminum powders were heated in carbon dioxide atmosphere through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method in this work. Aluminum powders were oxidized into four distinct stages from room temperature to 1500°C. Stage I, amorphous alumina shell turns to γ-Al2O3 phase from room temperature to 620°C. Stage II, accompany with the aluminum core melting, alumina shell becomes thicker and fragile at the temperature around 667°C which is the melting point of aluminum. Stage III, in the temperature range of 690-1150°C, alumina shell was broken partially because of the inside pressure. Liquid aluminum spurts out through the weak point which becomes cracks on the surface just like volcano eruption and then oxidized by CO2 while the temperature increased from 700°C to 900°C. Stage IV, alumina changes to stable α-Al2O3. From what was presented above, a mechanism of micron-sized aluminum particle oxidation in CO2 under gradually increasing temperature condition was proposed as “eruption model”.

  10. Gradual Diffusion and Punctuated Phase Space Density Enhancements of Highly Relativistic Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.

  11. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  12. INNOPLANT Total Hip Replacement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Tisha A M

    2017-07-01

    Total hip replacement is a salvage procedure that is done to alleviate discomfort secondary to osteoarthritis in the hip, which is most often a result of hip dysplasia. Commercially available total hip replacement implants for small animal patients are classified as cemented or cementless. The INNOPLANT Total Hip Replacement system includes modular, screw-in cementless components that were developed to improve implant stability by maintaining as much normal anatomic structure, and by extension biomechanics of the coxofemoral joint, as possible. As a newer system, there are few data and no long-term studies available in the veterinary literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Absurdity and being-in-itself. The third phase of phenomenology: Jean-Paul Sartre and existential psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A

    2001-08-01

    Existentialism and phenomenology are closely linked philosophies. Existentialism preceded phenomenology and is not considered a single philosophy but several schools of thought, both theist and atheist in thinking, which grew out of a reaction to traditional philosophy. The development of phenomenology is divided into three separate phases ultimately merging with existentialism. Following Second World War, the phenomenological movement gained momentum in France and encompassed many of the ideas of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. Gabriel Marcel, Maurice Merlieu-Ponty and, notably, Jean-Paul Sartre established a 'third phase' of phenomenology. This paper explores some of Sartre's ideas related to being and later applications through Medard Boss and R.D. Laing, and offers a short illustrative case vignette that shows the concepts as they might apply to nursing practice. Consideration is finally given to existential psychoanalysis as an applied research methodology

  14. [An enigma named Agostino Gemelli: Catholicism, fascism and psychoanalysis in Italy during the inter-war period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The Franciscan friar Agostino Gemelli has been the subject of much research and debate. This is due to his important political profile and, above all, to the role he played in mediating between the Catholic world and fascism in Italy during the inter-war period. Gemelli was also a central figure in Italian psychology, especially during the 1930s and 1940s. This article is structured to focus in particular on the way that his connections with political and ecclesiastic powers allowed him to become increasingly significant within Italian psychology. Using the example of Gemelli's relationship with psychoanalysis, this study highlights the tension between his relatively open-minded stance and his links to authoritarian, dogmatic ideologies and institutions.

  15. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  16. Cuerpo y performatividad: una revisión crítica desde la perspectiva del psicoanálisis/Body and Performativity: a critical review from the point of view of psychoanalysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Cecilia González

    2014-01-01

    .... In this paper I face this task from a particular angle, that of the tension with psychoanalysis -specially the works by Freud and Lacan- which appears as a constant in the work of the queer theorist...

  17. El psicoanálisis como envés de la ley // Psychoanalysis as the underside of the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Winkler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El psicoanálisis se ocupa del sujeto. El restituir al sujeto en su decir verdad a partir del inconsciente (y de la palabra aparece, desde el inicio, epistemológicamente, como el envés de la ley. La ley se debe a lo público y aquél a lo privado. La distinción entre "público" y "privado" deviene, reglada, desde el Derecho Romano —primer Digesto jurídico—. Pero la praxis analítica, como política institucional, al recomponer el lazo social y presentificar la tensión entre el sujeto y el derecho, permite que el sujeto aborde lo real "haciendo uso" de la norma y que se ubique, además así, en la dimensión simbólica social de la ley. // Psychoanalysis deals with the subject. The return to the subject in saying truth as from the unconscious (and the word appears, from the beginning, as the epistemological reverse of the law. This latter is due to the public whereas psychoanalysis is due to the private. The distinction between "public" and "private" becomes, regulated, from the Roman law - first-Legal Digest. Yet, the analytical practice as an institutional policy, while rebuilding the social ties and materializing tension between the subject and the rule of law, allows the subject to dwell into the the real thing "making use" of the rule of law and placing it also in the social/ symbolic dimension of the law

  18. A neuroscientific perspective on dreaming : collaboration between neuroscience and psychoanalysis is needed to progress in dream research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Marie RUBY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dreaming is still a mystery of human cognition though it has been studied at the experimental level since more than one century. Experimental psychology first investigated dream content and frequency. Then, the neuroscientific approach to dreaming arose at the end of the fifties and rapidly proposed a physiological substrate of dreaming : rapid eye movement sleep (REM. Fifty years later, this hypothesis was challenged because it could not explain all the characteristics of dream reports. The neurophysiological correlates of dreaming, as its functions, remain thus unclear and many questions are left unresolved. Do the representations constituting the dream emerge randomly from the brain or do they surface according to certain parameters? Is the organisation of the dream’s representations chaotic or is it determined by rules? Does dreaming have a meaning? Psychoanalysis provides hypotheses to answer these questions. Until now theses hypotheses have been barely considered in cognitive neuroscience, but the recent creation of neuropsychoanalysis brings new hopes of discussion between the two fields. Considering the psychoanalytical perspective in cognitive neuroscience would provide new directions/leads for dream research and would help to achieve a comprehensive understanding of dreaming. Notably, several subjective issues at the core of psychoanalytic approach, such as the concept of personal meaning, the concept of unconscious episodic memory and the subjects’ history are not addressed or considered in cognitive neuroscience. This paper argues that the expertise of psychoanalysis in singularity and personal meaning is needed to succeed in addressing these issues in cognitive neuroscience and to progress in the understanding of dreaming and psyche.

  19. A psicanálise e o dispositivo diferença sexual Psychoanalysis and the sexual difference device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da nova cartografia das relações entre gêneros e das sexualidades na cultura contemporânea, pretendemos discutir em que medida a psicanálise se apresenta como mais um dispositivo da sexualidade tal como concebido por Foucault, o qual procura reinstaurar o modelo tradicional da diferença sexual, através da reiteração da norma heterossexual da dominação masculina. Além disso, indagamos ainda em que medida a psicanálise pode permanecer como uma teoria crítica e uma prática clínica que permita uma relação produtiva com as novas configurações de gênero no contemporâneo, abrindo brechas para a concepção de novas formas de subjetivação. Com esse objetivo analisaremos o debate psicanalítico sobre 1 os deslocamentos do feminino e a positivação da feminilidade; 2 o casamento homossexual e a homoparentalidade e 3 a clínica da transexualidadeBefore the new cartography of gender relationships and sexualities in contemporary culture, we intend to discuss in which way psychoanalysis presents itself as one of the devices of sexuality as conceived by Foucault, which tries to reinstate the traditional model of sexual difference trough the reiteration of the heterosexual norm of male domination. Furthermore, we inquire how psychoanalysis can remain a critical theory and a clinical practice that allow a productive relationship with the new configurations of gender, which disclose the conception of new forms of subjectivity. With this aim, we will analyze the psychoanalytical debate on (1 the displacements of feminine and the positiveness of femininity; (2 the homosexual marriage and the homoparentality; and (3 the clinics of transsexuality

  20. Gradually softening hydrogels for modeling hepatic stellate cell behavior during fibrosis regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Steven R; Perepelyuk, Maryna; Soulas, Elizabeth M; Lee, Gi Yun; Wells, Rebecca G; Burdick, Jason A

    2016-06-13

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) presents an evolving set of mechanical cues to resident cells. We developed methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogels containing both stable and hydrolytically degradable crosslinks to provide cells with a gradually softening (but not fully degradable) milieu, mimicking physiological events such as fibrosis regression. To demonstrate the utility of this cell culture system, we studied the phenotype of rat hepatic stellate cells, the major liver precursors of fibrogenic myofibroblasts, within this softening environment. Stellate cells that were mechanically primed on tissue culture plastic attained a myofibroblast phenotype, which persisted when seeded onto stiff (∼20 kPa) hydrogels. However, mechanically primed stellate cells on stiff-to-soft (∼20 to ∼3 kPa) hydrogels showed reversion of the myofibroblast phenotype over 14 days, with reductions in cell area, expression of the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and Yes-associated protein/Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (YAP/TAZ) nuclear localization when compared to stellate cells on stiff hydrogels. Cells on stiff-to-soft hydrogels did not fully revert, however. They displayed reduced expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and underwent abnormally rapid re-activation to myofibroblasts in response to re-stiffening of the hydrogels through introduction of additional crosslinks. These features are typical of stellate cells with an intermediate phenotype, reported to occur in vivo with fibrosis regression and re-injury. Together, these data suggest that mechanics play an important role in fibrosis regression and that integrating dynamic mechanical cues into model systems helps capture cell behaviors observed in vivo.

  1. Renal Denervation in a Real Life Setting: A Gradual Decrease in Home Blood Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine M A Beeftink

    Full Text Available To investigate the blood pressure dynamics after renal denervation through monthly home blood pressure measurements throughout the first 12 months.A cohort of 70 patients performed highly standardized monthly home blood pressure monitoring during the first year after denervation according to the European Society of Hypertension guidelines. At baseline and 12 months follow-up, office and ambulatory blood pressure as well as routine physical and laboratory assessment was performed.Home blood pressure decreased with a rate of 0.53 mmHg/month (95% CI 0.20 to 0.86 systolic and 0.26 mmHg/month (95% CI 0.08 to 0.44 diastolic throughout 12 months of follow-up, while the use of antihypertensive medication remained stable (+0.03 daily defined doses/month, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.08. On average, a 12 month reduction of 8.1 mmHg (95% CI 4.2 to 12.0 was achieved in home systolic blood pressure, 9.3 mmHg (95% CI -14.2 to -4.4 as measured by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 15.9 mmHg (95% CI -23.8 to -7.9 on office measurements.Blood pressure reduction after renal denervation occurs as a gradual decrease that extends to at least one-year follow-up. Home monitoring seems a suitable alternative for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after renal denervation.

  2. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: Direct simulation from laminar through gradual transition to fully developed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.; Baltzer, Jon R.

    2015-01-01

    The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody’s correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition. PMID:26080447

  3. Gradual enhancement of ethyl acetate production through promoter engineering in chinese liquor yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Hong, Kun-Qiang; Hao, Ai-Li; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Fu, Xiao-Meng; Wang, Peng-Fei; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2018-01-05

    As content and proportion of ethyl acetate is critical to the flavor and quality of beverages, the concise regulation of the ethyl acetate metabolism is a major issue in beverage fermentations. In this study, for ethyl acetate yield regulation, we finely modulated the expression of ATF1 through precise and seamless insertion of serially truncated PGK1 promoter from the 3' end by 100bp steps in the Chinese liquor yeast, CLy12a. The three engineered promoters carrying 100-, 200-, and 300-bp truncations exhibited reduced promoter strength but unaffected growth. These three promoters were integrated into the CLy12a strain, generating strains CLy12a-P-100, CLy12a-P-200, and CLy12a-P-300, respectively. The transcription levels of CLy12a-P-100, CLy12a-P-200, and CLy12a-P-300 were 20%, 17%, and 10% of that of CLy12a-P, respectively. The AATase (alcohol acetyl transferases, encoded by the ATF1 gene) activity of three engineered strains were 36%, 56%, and 62% of that of CLy12a-P. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate at 30°C, the concentration of ethyl acetate in CLy12a-P-100, CLy12a-P-200, and CLy12a-P-300 were reduced by 28%, 30%, and 42%, respectively, compared to CLy12a-P. These results verifying that the ethyl acetate yield could be gradually enhanced by finely modulating the expression of ATF1. The engineered strain CLy12a-P-200 produced the ethyl acetate concentration with the best sensorial quality compared to the other engineered yeast strains. The method proposed in this work supplies a practical proposal for breeding Chinese liquor yeast strains with finely modulated ethyl acetate yield. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Gradual decline in mobility with the adoption of food production in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher B; Holt, Brigitte; Niskanen, Markku; Sladek, Vladimir; Berner, Margit; Garofalo, Evan; Garvin, Heather M; Hora, Martin; Junno, Juho-Antti; Schuplerova, Eliska; Vilkama, Rosa; Whittey, Erin

    2015-06-09

    Increased sedentism during the Holocene has been proposed as a major cause of decreased skeletal robusticity (bone strength relative to body size) in modern humans. When and why declining mobility occurred has profound implications for reconstructing past population history and health, but it has proven difficult to characterize archaeologically. In this study we evaluate temporal trends in relative strength of the upper and lower limb bones in a sample of 1,842 individuals from across Europe extending from the Upper Paleolithic [11,000-33,000 calibrated years (Cal y) B.P.] through the 20th century. A large decline in anteroposterior bending strength of the femur and tibia occurs beginning in the Neolithic (∼ 4,000-7,000 Cal y B.P.) and continues through the Iron/Roman period (∼ 2,000 Cal y B.P.), with no subsequent directional change. Declines in mediolateral bending strength of the lower limb bones and strength of the humerus are much smaller and less consistent. Together these results strongly implicate declining mobility as the specific behavioral factor underlying these changes. Mobility levels first declined at the onset of food production, but the transition to a more sedentary lifestyle was gradual, extending through later agricultural intensification. This finding only partially supports models that tie increased sedentism to a relatively abrupt Neolithic Demographic Transition in Europe. The lack of subsequent change in relative bone strength indicates that increasing mechanization and urbanization had only relatively small effects on skeletal robusticity, suggesting that moderate changes in activity level are not sufficient stimuli for bone deposition or resorption.

  5. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: Direct simulation from laminar through gradual transition to fully developed turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J; Baltzer, Jon R

    2015-06-30

    The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody's correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition.

  6. DESCRIPCIÓN DE UNA EXPERIENCIA DE INVESTIGACIÓN EN PSICOANÁLISIS CON LA PSICOSIS ESQUIZOFRENICA - DESCRIPTION OF A RESEARCH EXPERIENCE WITHIN PSYCHOANALYSIS TOGETHER WITH THE SCHIZOPHRENIC PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    JAIRO BÁEZ; ANGéLICA MARÍA GONZÁLEZ JIMENEZ

    2010-01-01

    As emergent product of the replication of the research project entitled “Results from the intervention of psychoanalysis in the problem of psychosis and social inclusion” Baez (2009) presented this document which outlines an intervention and research experience in psychoanalysis within a Program Mental Health in Bogotá, with reference to the subject specifically the so-called schizophrenic psychotic, who since his speech unveiling a way to bond socially. This will rescue elements of meeting t...

  7. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no ... menopausal women. Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in ...

  8. Effect of hypovolemia, infusion, and oral rehydration on gradual onset +Gz acceleration tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Haines, R. F.; Rositano, S. A.; Montgomery, L. D.; Keil, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood withdrawal, blood infusion, and oral fluid intake on +Gz tolerance at an acceleration rate of 0.5 G/min. Six healthy men aged 21-27 yr were centrifuged after the withdrawal of 400 ml of blood (hypovolemia) from each man; they were centrifuged again following blood infusion (Phase I). Three weeks later the men were accelerated after similar hypovolemia and again after consuming 800 ml of an isotonic NaCl drink (Phase II). Phase I hypovolemia resulted in a reduction in tolerance in all subjects from a mean control level of 6.42 + or - 0.35 min to 5.45 + or - 0.17 min (-15.1%, p less than 0.05). Both infusion and drinking returned tolerances to control levels. During acceleration there were significant (p less than 0.05) increases in plasma vasopressin levels to 35 pg/ml; these were not influenced appreciably by infusion or drinking. In all acceleration runs there was an obligatory shift (loss) of plasma volume and electrolytes, especially potassium, regardless of the experimental treatments. Oral rehydration is shown to be as effective as blood replacement in restoring +Gz acceleration tolerance decrements due to hypovolemia.

  9. Mechanical Valve Replacement: Early Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Cakir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Valve diseases in developing countries like Turkey which often occur as a complication of rheumatic fever are a serious disease. Surgical treatment of valve diseases should be done before irreversible damage to the myocardium occurred. In this study, we aimed to present the early results of mechanical valve replacement operations. Method: A hundred patients with mechanical valve replacement surgery were retrospectively evaluated in Seyhan Application Center attached to our clinic between July 2007 and August 2011. Results: Fifty patients were male and 50 were women. The mean age of patients was 47.88 (18-78. Isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR was performed to 23 patients, isolated mitral valve replacement (MVR was 32, double valve replacement (AVR + MVR was 12, MVR + aortic valve valvuloplasty was 1, AVR + mitral kommissurotomi was 1, AVR + coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG was 17, MVR + CABG was 8, MVR + atrial septal defect closure was 2 and Bentall procedure.was 4 patients. In addition, ablation procedure was performed to 5 patients intraoperatively because of preoperative atrial fibrillation. Two patients (2 % died in early postoperative period. Conclusion: Mechanical prosthetic valves are used for surgical treatment of valve disease with low mortality and morbidity in a large group of patients like women that not to think to get pregnant, non advanced age group and patients have less risky for anticoagulation drug in our clinic. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 49-54

  10. Psychoanalysis and Translation: A Literature Review (Psicoanálisis y traducción: análisis bibliográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Serrano Tristán

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mutual implication of psychoanalysis with translation has produced a significant body of works that address the issue of subjectivity in the practice and teaching of translation. This paper traces this implication to the early beginnings of psychoanalysis, and reviews some of the most recent literature produced within translation studies. La mutua implicación entre psicoanálisis y traducción ha llevado a un diálogo productivo que trata el problema de la subjetividad en la práctica y la enseñanza de la traducción. Este estudio analiza el origen de esta relación desde los inicios del psicoanálisis hasta la producción académica más reciente en el campo de la traductología.

  11. Molecular replacement: tricks and treats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abergel, Chantal, E-mail: chantal.abergel@igs.cnrs-mrs.fr [IGS UMR 7256, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, IMM, FR3479, 163 Avenue de Luminy – case 934, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 09 (France)

    2013-11-01

    To be successful, molecular replacement relies on the quality of the model and of the crystallographic data. Some tricks that could be applied to the models or to the crystal to increase the success rate of MR are discussed here. Molecular replacement is the method of choice for X-ray crystallographic structure determination provided that suitable structural homologues are available in the PDB. Presently, there are ∼80 000 structures in the PDB (8074 were deposited in the year 2012 alone), of which ∼70% have been solved by molecular replacement. For successful molecular replacement the model must cover at least 50% of the total structure and the C{sub α} r.m.s.d. between the core model and the structure to be solved must be less than 2 Å. Here, an approach originally implemented in the CaspR server (http://www.igs.cnrs-mrs.fr/Caspr2/index.cgi) based on homology modelling to search for a molecular-replacement solution is discussed. How the use of as much information as possible from different sources can improve the model(s) is briefly described. The combination of structural information with distantly related sequences is crucial to optimize the multiple alignment that will define the boundaries of the core domains. PDB clusters (sequences with ≥30% identical residues) can also provide information on the eventual changes in conformation and will help to explore the relative orientations assumed by protein subdomains. Normal-mode analysis can also help in generating series of conformational models in the search for a molecular-replacement solution. Of course, finding a correct solution is only the first step and the accuracy of the identified solution is as important as the data quality to proceed through refinement. Here, some possible reasons for failure are discussed and solutions are proposed using a set of successful examples.

  12. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  13. Enhanced microalgal biomass and lipid production from a consortium of indigenous microalgae and bacteria present in municipal wastewater under gradually mixotrophic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Park, Jong Moon

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the influences of gradually mixotrophic culture conditions on microalgal biomass and lipid production by a consortium of indigenous microalgae and bacteria present in raw municipal wastewater. Lab-scale photobioreactors containing the consortium were operated in repeated batch mode. Initial cultivation (phase I) was performed using only the municipal wastewater, then 10% and 25% of the reactor volumes were replaced with the effluent from a sewage sludge fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids (SSFV) at the beginnings of phase II and phase III, respectively. The highest biomass productivity (117.1±2.7mg/L/d) was attained during phase II, but the lipid productivity (17.2±0.2mg/L/d) was attained during phase III. The increase in the effluent from the SSFV influenced microalgal diversity with a preference for Chlorella sp., but bacterial diversity increased significantly during phase III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  15. A simple mathematical model of gradual Darwinian evolution: emergence of a Gaussian trait distribution in adaptation along a fitness gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktashev, Vadim N

    2014-04-01

    We consider a simple mathematical model of gradual Darwinian evolution in continuous time and continuous trait space, due to intraspecific competition for common resource in an asexually reproducing population in constant environment, while far from evolutionary stable equilibrium. The model admits exact analytical solution. In particular, Gaussian distribution of the trait emerges from generic initial conditions.

  16. Psicanálise modernista no Brasil: um recorte histórico Modernist psychoanalysis in Brazil: a historical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Facchinetti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo partiu do pressuposto de que o discurso psicanalítico é sempre apropriado por um intérprete que se filia a uma tradição histórica e cultural. Nesta perspectiva, a produção de subjetividade, que tem lugar na clínica psicanalítica, será marcada por essa tradição privilegiada pelo analista. Assim, julgou-se de grande relevância a investigação das vias discursivas de entrada da psicanálise no Brasil, indicando os pontos de ancoragem da mesma na cultura e na história locais. Com este intuito, traçou-se o processo de urbanização e modernização do Brasil no início do século XX e a entrada da psicanálise em um campo de forças divergentes. Encontrou-se um embate pela hegemonia discursiva entre duas leituras que se constituíram como antagônicas e inconciliáveis, e que levaram a dois modos distintos de uso instrumental da psicanálise: de um lado, o discurso psiquiátrico-higienista, com sua leitura reformista e universalizante da psicanálise; de outro, o discurso da vanguarda modernista, com a leitura da subversão dos códigos estabelecidos e da busca de singularidade. Ambos se constituíram no rastro da busca de forjar o brasileiro que se desejava. Este trabalho percorre o viés da psicanálise modernista, com sua utilização singular para a análise da cultura e das subjetividades, bem como sua função de construção de novos mundos.The current article's basic premise is that psychoanalytic discourse is always appropriated by an interpreter thereof who belongs to a historical and cultural tradition. From this perspective, the production of subjectivity in psychoanalytic practice is marked by the analyst's prime tradition. Thus the major relevance of investigating the discursive routes by which psychoanalysis entered Brazil, identifying its anchoring points in local culture and history. The article thus outlines the urbanization and modernization process in early 20th-century Brazil, together with the

  17. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the ...

  18. Gradual cessation of milking reduces milk leakage and motivation to be milked in dairy cows at dry-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, G; Leslie, K; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-08-01

    The effects of gradual versus abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off in dairy cows are not well understood, but gradually reducing milk production in human mothers is known to reduce discomfort and milk leakage. This study compared the effects of abrupt versus gradual cessation of milking on milk leakage and dairy cow behavior. Holstein dairy cows were housed in groups of 6 and randomly assigned to either abrupt milk cessation (i.e., dry-off on d 0) or gradual milk cessation (i.e., skipped milkings beginning on d 0; dry-off on d 5). Four replicates were performed over time, for a total of 24 cows (mean ± SD; parity=2.3±1.2; milk production the day before d 0=24±5 kg/d). Intramammary antibiotic, internal teat sealer, and external teat sealant were administered at dry-off. Measurements were taken from d -3 to 8 relative to dry-off. Three periods were identified for behavior data: baseline (d -3 to 1), period 1 (abrupt cows dry, gradual cows milking; d 0-4), and period 2 (all cows dry; d 5-8). Lying time was recorded with data loggers. Video scan samples (5-min intervals) were used to measure feeding time and motivation to be milked (i.e., standing at the pen's exit gate). Milk leakage was monitored every 20 min during the 2-h period following the milking times of 0500 and 1500 h after complete cessation of milking (period 1 for abrupt vs. period 2 for gradual). Composite milk samples were taken before dry-off (d -1, 0, and 5) and at the start of the next lactation (colostrum, 24h and 7-10 d postcalving) to determine somatic cell score (SCS) and conduct bacteriological examinations in clinical mastitis cases. Regardless of treatment, dry-off resulted in reduced lying time [14.1 vs. 13.2h/d; standard error of the difference (SED)=0.2], reduced lying bouts (10.7 vs. 8.3 bouts/d; SED=0.2), increased lying bout duration (1.4 vs. 1.7h/bout; SED=0.03) and increased feeding time (5.0 vs. 5.9h/d; SED=0.2). Compared with baseline, the odds of standing at the gate increased

  19. Bonding over Dentin Replacement Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraji, Naghmeh; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-08-01

    Dentin replacement materials are necessary in large cavities to protect the pulp and reduce the bulk of filling material. These materials are layered with a composite resin restorative material. Microleakage caused by poor bonding of composite resin to underlying dentin replacement material will result in pulp damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the interface between dentin replacement materials and composite resin and to measure the shear bond strength after dynamic aging. Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), Theracal LC (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL), and Fuji IX (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were used as dentin replacement materials. They were then overlaid with a total-etch and bonding agent or a self-etch primer and composite resin or a glass ionomer cement. All combinations were thermocycled for 3000 cycles. The interface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Furthermore, the shear bond strength was assessed. The Biodentine surface was modified by etching. The Theracal LC and Fuji IX microstructure was unchanged upon the application of acid etch. The Biodentine and glass ionomer interface showed an evident wide open space, and glass particles from the glass ionomer adhered to the Biodentine surface. Elemental migration was shown with aluminum, barium, fluorine, and ytterbium present in Biodentine from the overlying composite resin. Calcium was more stable. The bond strength between Theracal LC and composite using a total-etch technique followed by self-etch primer achieved the best bond strength values. Biodentine exhibited the weakest bond with complete failure of bonding shown after demolding and thermocycling. Dynamic aging is necessary to have clinically valid data. Bonding composite resin to water-based dentin replacement materials is still challenging, and further alternatives for restoration of teeth using such materials need to be developed. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  20. Gradual Warming in the North Atlantic during D-O Events Synchronous with Antarctic and Southern Hemisphere Warmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T. L.; Thomsen, E.; Moros, M.

    2016-12-01

    The climate of the last glacial period was interrupted by about 25 rapid oscillations, called Dansgaard-Oeschger events. In the Greenland ice cores, the events consist of an abrupt warming to warm interstadial conditions followed by a more gradual return to cold stadial conditions. Similar abrupt warmings are seen in paleoceanographic proxies from the Nordic seas, and the shifts are apparently linked to perturbations in the ocean thermohaline circulation. The events also occur in the Antarctic ice cores, but the amplitudes here are smaller and the warmings are more gradual and initiated earlier than in the north. The out-of-phase relationship between the north and south is often referred to as the `Bipolar seesaw'. We have studied core SO2 from the Reykjanes Ridge in the central northernmost Atlantic. The results are compared with previously published records from the North Atlantic and correlated with the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. By means of transfer function analysis and δ18O values from planktic and benthic foraminifera we show that surface and bottom water temperatures in SO2 increased gradually during the Greenland stadials to a maximum at the beginning of the interstadials. The warmings in SO2 follow the timing and gradual warmings observed in the Antarctic ice cores and they are clearly out of phase with the abrupt, delayed warmings over Greenland. Apparently, the surface and intermediate water over most of the Atlantic from the Antarctica to the Scotland-Greenland Ridge warmed and pressed northward at a time when the atmospheric temperatures over Greenland were at minimum and the convection in the Nordic seas stopped. The system appears to function more as a `push-and-pull' system than as a seesaw with a `pull' during the warm interstadials, when convection in the Nordic seas was active and a `push' during the cold stadials, when warm water from the south-central Atlantic pushed northward gradually warming the northernmost Atlantic and Nordic

  1. Patients Unicondylar Knee Replacement vs. Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedra Eskander

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to analyse the clinical effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR compared to unicondylar knee replacement (UKR on patients. In terms of survival rates, revision rates and postoperative complications. The keywords used were: knee arthroplasty. Nearly three thousand articles were found on 25 August 2016. Of those, only twenty-five were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic of this article. Compared with those who have TKR, patients who undergo UKR have higher revision rates at 5, 10 and 15 years. The reported overall risk of postoperative complications for patients undergoing TKR is 11%, compared with 4.3% for patients undergoing UKR. In conclusion, UKR have higher revision rates than TKR. However, an increased risk of postoperative complications after TKR.

  2. Parameter changes during gradual flooding of a PEM fuel cell through EIS studies; Cambio en parametros de una celda de combustible PEM durante inundacion gradual mediante estudios de EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Cruz Manzo, Samuel; Arriaga Hurtado, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ortiz, Alondra; Orozco, German [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C. (CIDETEQ) (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The gradual flooding of a single PEM fuel cell was produced and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were realized in order to follow changes of the fuel cell impedance parameters. These changes were followed by using two equivalent circuit models: one simple model of the Randles type accounting for cathode and anode interfaces and a more complex model based on distributed elements, more suitable for porous electrodes in order to include protonic resistance of the catalyst layers. [Spanish] La inundacion gradual de una monocelda de combustible tipo PEM fue estudiada empleando espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica (EIS), con el proposito de seguir cambios en los parametros de impedancia de la celda. Estos cambios fueron estudiados utilizando dos circuitos equivalentes: un modelo simple de tipo Randles, el cual considerara las interfaces del catodo y del anodo, y un modelo mas complejo basado en elementos distribuidos, el cual fuera adecuado para electrodos porosos, a fin de incluir la resistencia protonica de las capas catalizadoras.

  3. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  4. Beyond Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalysis: A Review of Psychoanalytic Empirical Single Case Studies Published in ISI-Ranked Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reitske Meganck

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation.

  5. Therapists' professional and personal characteristics as predictors of outcome in long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, E; Knekt, P; Jääskeläinen, T; Lindfors, O

    2014-06-01

    Whether long-term psychodynamic therapy (LPP) and psychoanalysis (PA) differ from each other and require different therapist qualities has been debated extensively, but rarely investigated empirically. In a quasi-experimental design, LPP was provided for 128 and PA for 41 outpatients, aged 20-46 years and suffering from mood or anxiety disorder, with a 5-year follow-up from start of treatment. Therapies were provided by 58 experienced therapists. Therapist characteristics, measured pre-treatment, were assessed with the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ). General psychiatric symptoms were assessed as the main outcome measure at baseline and yearly after start of treatment with the Symptom Check List, Global Severity Index (SCL-90-GSI). Professionally less affirming and personally more forceful and less aloof therapists predicted less symptoms in PA than in LPP at the end of the follow-up. A faster symptom reduction in LPP was predicted by a more moderate relational style and work experiences of both skillfulness and difficulties, indicating differences between PA and LPP in the therapy process. Results challenge the benefit of a classically "neutral" psychoanalyst in PA. They also indicate closer examinations of therapy processes within and between the two treatments, which may benefit training and supervision of therapists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalysis: A Review of Psychoanalytic Empirical Single Case Studies Published in ISI-Ranked Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Krivzov, Juri; Notaerts, Liza

    2017-01-01

    Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization) over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation. PMID:29046660

  7. ‘Speaking Kleinian’: Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-01-01

    How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885–1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as ‘Ursula Wise’, answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs’ important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs’ powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child’s perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to ‘speak Kleinian’, translating Klein’s intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse. PMID:28901872

  8. Men in (Shell-Shock: Masculinity, Trauma, and Psychoanalysis in Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Kavka

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes to read Rebecca West's first novel, The Return of the Soldier (1918, as a critical exploration of masculine trauma on the one hand and an ambivalent engagement with Freudian psychoanalysis on the other. The novel proves interesting as a site in which two shifting cultural contexts intersect: the wartime culture of England facing the "shell shock" of its men, and the contemporaneous infusion of English intellectual culture with psychoanalytic ideas. Though the effects of new war technology and "a newer kind of doctor," West challenge existing notions of stable masculinity, West maintains that masculinity has all along been simply a construct, a shell built around inarticulable trauma. The fact that in this novel West, despite her early pugnaciously feminist journalism, remains as much within the masculine order as critical of it forces us to expand our notions of the forms feminist narrative can take. This paper argues that the novel is a feminist narrative in the sense that it positions masculine trauma as a mark of adherence to the social order for both men and women.

  9. The German Replacement Army (Ersatzheer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-04-01

    Erziehungs - und 13ildungswesens des Heeres, In EB), who is responsible to him. Training in the Replacement Army is conducted in training units...These schools are controlled by the Army Inspector of Training and Education (Inspekteur des Erziehungs - und Bildungswesens des Heeres). (3...letters Ue> on their shoulder straps. These schools are likewise controlled by the Army Inspector of Training and Education (In.spekteur des Erziehungs

  10. Mitral valve repair versus replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavamurthy, Suresh; Gillinov, A. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative, ischemic, rheumatic and infectious (endocarditis) processes are responsible for mitral valve disease in adults. Mitral valve repair has been widely regarded as the optimal surgical procedure to treat mitral valve dysfunction of all etiologies. The supporting evidence for repair over replacement is strongest in degenerative mitral regurgitation. The aim of the present review is to summarize the data in each category of mitral insufficiency and to provide recommendations based upon this data. PMID:26309824

  11. Replacing magnets at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    LHC, LSI2, Point 4

    2013-01-01

    CERN engineers have been working through the night this week to move the final replacement dipole magnets into position on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Though there are several still to go, the teams expect to have completed the task by the end of this month. Dipole magnets bend the paths of particles as they travel around the circular accelerator. Of the LHC's 1232 dipoles – each 15 metres long and weighing 35 tonnes – 15 are being replaced as part of the long shutdown of CERN's accelerator complex. These 15 magnets suffered wear and tear during the LHC's first 4-year run. Three quadrupole-magnet assemblies – which help to focus particles into a tight beam – have also been replaced. Moving such heavy magnets requires specially adapted cranes and trailers both above and below ground. There are several access points on the LHC. Some, such as the 100-metre vertical access shaft down to the ALICE experiment, are equipped with lifts to allow technical personnel and visitors down to the caverns. Other ...

  12. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  13. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  14. An extension of the transfer matrix method to analyzing acoustic resonators with gradually varying cross-sectional area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qi; He, Wan-Quan; Wang, Quan-Biao; Tian, Jia-Jin

    2016-11-01

    The transfer matrix method was used to analyze the acoustical properties of stepped acoustic resonator in the previous paper. The present paper extends the application of the transfer matrix method to analyzing acoustic resonators with gradually varying cross-sectional area. The transfer matrices and the resonant conditions are derived for acoustic resonators with four different kinds of gradually varying geometric shape: tapered, trigonometric, exponential and hyperbolic. Based on the derived transfer matrices, the acoustic properties of these resonators are derived, including the resonant frequency, phase and radiation impedance. Compared with other analytical methods based on the wave equation and boundary conditions, the transfer matrix method is simple to implement and convenient for computation.

  15. A 3-step gradual dilation method: a new safe technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for obstructive esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Uesato, Masaya; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Shiratori, Toru; Kono, Tsuguaki; Akutsu, Yasunori; Hoshino, Isamu; Horibe, Daisuke; Narushima, Kazuo; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Semba, Yoshihide; Toyozumi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2014-08-01

    Although percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the preferred method to provide enteral nutrition for a longer time period, in obstructive esophageal cancer, we cannot safely perform endoscopic access to the stomach even with the ultrathin endoscope. We experienced 1 fatal case due to esophageal perforation caused by balloon dilation, and hence, we developed a safer method. We treated 4 patients with obstructive esophageal cancer using a 3-step gradual dilation method with nasogastric tubes (from 8 to 16 Fr). After about 2 weeks of initial dilation, we could safely perform endoscopic access to the stomach with the ultrathin endoscope and PEG placement using the introducer technique. The 3-step gradual dilation method is a safe and easy procedure for endoscopic access to the stomach. It can be used to provide enteral access as a palliative treatment for patients with obstructive esophageal cancer that is not suitable for conventional PEG placement.

  16. After 20 years of status quo: the failure of gradualism in Slovenia’s post-socialist transition

    OpenAIRE

    Spruk, Rok

    2012-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the Slovenia has been praised as the richest former socialist country, having accomplished the advancement from borrower into donor status at the World Bank and having entered the European Monetary Union as the first country from former socialist block. In the due course of transition to market, Slovenia adopted the gradualist approach to economic reform, emphasizing gradual privatization, excessive regulation of the labor market and financial sector as well as the slow ...

  17. Erythrocyte membranes from slaughterhouse blood as potential drug vehicles: Isolation by gradual hypotonic hemolysis and biochemical and morphological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Ivana T; Ilić, Vesna Lj; Đorđević, Verica B; Bukara, Katarina M; Mojsilović, Slavko B; Nedović, Viktor A; Bugarski, Diana S; Veljović, Đorđe N; Mišić, Danijela M; Bugarski, Branko M

    2014-10-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of isolation process-gradual hypotonic hemolysis on chosen parameters of the erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) originating from bovine and porcine slaughterhouse blood. The estimation of the gradual hypotonic hemolysis as a drug loading procedure for the erythrocyte ghosts was performed as well. Based on the results derived from analysis of the osmotic properties of the erythrocytes, the gradual hemolysis was performed with high volume of erythrocytes and 35mM hypotonic sodium-phosphate/NaCl, enabling >90% of hemolysis for both types of erythrocytes. Detailed insight into ghosts' morphology by field emission-scanning electron microscopy revealed a distortion from erythrocyte shape and an altered surface texture with increased bilayer curvature for both samples. Compared to erythrocytes, an average diameter of ghosts from both type of erythrocytes decreased for only about 10%. The reported unidispersity of the isolated ghosts is of great importance for their potential application as vehicles of active compounds. Gradual hemolysis did not lead to substantial loss of cholesterol and membrane/cytoskeleton proteins. This result indicated the ghosts' possibility to mimic the chemical and structural anisotropic environment of in vivo cell membranes, which is of significance for drug diffusion and partition coefficients. Induced shift of phosphatidylserine to external surface of the ghosts demonstrated their potential application as vehicles for targeted drug delivery to cells of reticuloendothelial system. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of a drug model - dexamethasone-sodium phosphate, and its interaction with structural components in both types of erythrocyte ghosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Switching to Clozapine Using Immediate Versus Gradual Antipsychotic Discontinuation: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Jimmy; Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2017-02-01

    To examine effects of different antipsychotic discontinuation strategies on clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia undergoing a switch to clozapine. This pilot, 8-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted from May 1999 to July 2004. Outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and eligible for a switch to clozapine were included. Participants were randomly assigned to the immediate discontinuation (prior antipsychotics were discontinued at baseline) or gradual discontinuation (prior antipsychotics were reduced by 25% each week) group. For each group, clozapine was gradually increased to 300 mg/d at day 12, with this dose maintained for 3 weeks and thereafter adjusted as needed. Clinical outcome measures included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), UKU Side Effect Rating Scale, and extrapyramidal symptoms scales. Thirty-three patients were enrolled; 15 and 18 patients were assigned to the immediate and gradual discontinuation groups, respectively. While significant improvements were observed in BPRS total scores after the switch to clozapine in both groups (P values clozapine in patients with schizophrenia; however, due to the small sample size, larger-scale trials are needed to confirm these results. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02640300.

  19. Superando o falicismo: sofrimento materno na psicanálise de crianças Superando el falicismo: sufrimiento materno en el psicoanálisis de niños Beyond phallicism: maternal suffering in child psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriqueta Lúcia Arcoverde de Melo

    2012-09-01

    paternal function are not necessarily present in the origins of the psychosis. Far from being his mother's phallus, the boy received a role to replace a hated object in a traumatic scene lived precociously by his mother, during her childhood, when she received intrusive sexual messages related to birth and death, relived imaginarily by her during the boy's psychoanalysis.

  20. Robotically assisted mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changqing; Yang, Ming; Xiao, Cangsong; Wang, Gang; Wu, Yang; Wang, Jiali; Li, Jiachun

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, we determined the safety and efficacy of robotic mitral valve replacement using robotic technology. From January 2007 through March 2011, more than 400 patients underwent various types of robotic cardiac surgery in our department. Of these, 22 consecutive patients underwent robotically assisted mitral valve replacement. Of the 22 patients with isolated rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (9 men and 13 women), the mean age was 44.7 ± 19.8 years (range, 32-65). Preoperatively, all patients underwent a complete workup, including coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography. Of the 22 patients, 15 had concomitant atrial fibrillation. The surgical approach was through 4 right-side chest ports with femoral perfusion. Aortic occlusion was performed with a Chitwood crossclamp, and antegrade cardioplegia was administered directly by way of the anterior chest. Using 3 port incisions in the right side of the chest and a 2.5- to 3.0-cm working port, all the procedures were completed with the da Vinci S robot. All patients underwent successful robotic surgery. Of the 22 patients, 16 received a mechanical valve and 6 a tissue valve. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic crossclamp time was 137.1 ± 21.9 minutes (range, 105-168) and 99.3 ± 17.9 minutes (range, 80-133), respectively. No operative deaths, stroke, or other complications occurred, and no incisional conversions were required. After surgery, all the patients were followed up echocardiographically. Robotically assisted mitral valve replacement can be performed safely in patients with isolated mitral valve stenosis, and surgical results are excellent. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.