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Sample records for psychoactive substances alcohol

  1. Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

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    Bogstrand Stig

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p  Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.

  2. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part II: Country reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) aimed to combat the problem of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances by providing a solid scientific base for European policy makers. It brought together experienced organisations in Europe to assemble a coordina...

  3. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part I: General results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) aimed to combat the problem of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances by providing a solid scientific base for European policy makers. It brought together experienced organisations in Europe to assemble a coordina...

  4. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicines, in Spanish drivers: a roadside study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F

    2012-11-30

    Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population

  5. [Use and abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive substances among Polish university students].

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    Mellibruda, Jerzy; Nikodemska, Sabina; Fronczyk, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    The results of country-wide research on alcohol and psychoactive substances use among Polish students are presented. The survey was carried out in the year 2000 and included 9446 students from 8 major academic centres in Poland. Negative events linked with the use of alcohol and drugs were discovered - 40% of students (42% of men and 37% of women) during the last two weeks exceeded the limit of dangerous drinking. Large range of harmful consequences of binge drinking has been found - one in three men and one in four women committed acts under the influence of alcohol, which they regretted after. One in four men under influence of alcohol was involved in aggressive fights with peers and one in six has had serious trouble with studying and bad assessments. The scope of drug use was much smaller but also alarming. During the last 30 days 7% of the studied population reported use of marijuana and 1.5% amphetamine. Abuse of alcohol was correlated with use of drugs. This creates a serious risk of cross addiction and shows an important role of alcohol drinking as a gateway to drug use.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers: comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

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    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Verstraete, Alain G

    2012-07-10

    To compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May 2010 were included. Blood samples were taken and analysed for ethanol (with an enzymatic method) and 22 other psychoactive substances (UPLC-MS/MS or GC-MS). In total 535 injured drivers were included in the study (BE: 348; NL: 187). More drivers were found positive for alcohol and drugs in Belgium (52.6%) than in the Netherlands (33.9%). Alcohol (≥0.1 g/L) was the most prevalent substance in both countries (BE: 42.5%; NL: 29.6%). A similar prevalence was found for amphetamine (BE: 2.6%; NL: 2.2%) and cocaine (BE: 2.3%; NL: 2.1%). In the Netherlands almost no positive findings for cannabis were recorded (0.5%). No driver tested positive for benzodiazepines in the Netherlands compared to 7.3% in Belgium. More injured drivers tested positive for Z-drugs (BE: 1.8%; NL: 0.5%) and medicinal opioids (BE: 3.3%; NL: 0.5%) in Belgium. The prevalence of alcohol in seriously injured drivers was 12% higher found in Belgium than in the Netherlands. The prevalence of drugs was similar in both countries except for THC and medicinal drugs, particularly benzodiazepines, with a much higher prevalence in Belgium. In comparison to previous survey there were differences in the prevalence of THC, benzodiazepines and combinations of drugs. Possible explanations are the different matrix used, a bias in study population, or in case of illicit opiates and benzodiazepines a different consumption pattern in the two countries. Alcohol is still the most prevalent substance among the injured driver population and this increased the last 15 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychoactive substance and road traffic accident among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family support influence behaviour such as alcohol use and other psychoactive substances. However, few studies have reported on the relationship between family support and road traffic accidents. The present study was to examine whether perceived family support influence the prevalence of psychoactive substances ...

  8. Novel psychoactive substances of interest for psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Duccio Papanti, G; John M. Corkery

    2015-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in ...

  9. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers : comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrand, S.-A. Houwing, S. Hagenzieker, M. & Verstraete, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May

  10. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured and killed drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van der; Legrand, Sara-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The European Integrated Project DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) is a part of the 6th Framework Program, the European Community Framework Program for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration. The objective of DRUID is to give scientific support to t...

  11. Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated delinquents in Nigeria. ... substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse screening and treatment as part of their programmeme is advocated. Key Words: Substance use, delinquents, incarceration, ...

  12. Use of psychoactive substances in students at a public university

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    Meire Luci da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of psychoactive substances by the student population has been the object of various studies in Brazil. Objective: To determine the prevalence of substance use among students. Methods: Quantitative study with a closed questionnaire based on standardized assessment instruments was developed. It consists of questions related to types of psychoactive substance use, abuse, frequency and duration of use, self-criticism regarding the use, consequences of use in relation to health, and misdemeanors committed under the influence of psychoactive substances. The sample included the participation of 268 students. A total of 183 (68.3% questionnaires were analyzed, and only those with positive result for substance abuse at some point in life, the remainder, 85 (31% questionnaires, had negative responses to psychoactive substances. Results: Students’ responses to the two years surveyed indicated that the first psychoactive substance used was alcohol (77.9%, followed by tobacco use (10.9%, and marijuana (7.6%. Of the students surveyed, 145 (79.2% answered that still make use of psychoactive substances, and the current frequency of use varies from one or more times per week. When asked about the possibility of being or becoming drug addicts, 169 (92.3% responded that they are not or will not become dependent. Conclusion: The results indicate the high rate of substance use among college students surveyed, and point to their contradiction to consider such psychoactive substances harmful to their health.

  13. Perception of health risks among adolescents due to consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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    Pilav, A; Rudić, A; Branković, S; Djido, V

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the perception of health risks in adolescents due to the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH), as well as their observation of the behavior of their peers related to addictive behaviors. For the analysis was used a database from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) survey which was conducted in FBIH in 2011. The target population were students in the second grade of secondary schools in FBIH born in 1995 according to the ESPAD protocol. The total number of respondents from the cohort born in 1995 was 3813 students. The research results showed that the prevalence of risk perception due to the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances among adolescents in the FBIH is lower than the mean prevalence in countries which have implemented the ESPAD survey of 2011. PPreventive activities should be aimed at adolescent risk behaviours and empower them to make the right decisions that can have far reaching significance. Attention has to be paid to selective prevention that is directed towards individuals or subgroup of population where the risk of developing disorder is much higher than average. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental Guidance about Drinking: Relationship with Teenage Psychoactive Substance Use

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    Miller, Patrick; Plant, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Parental guidance concerning alcohol was explored using data from a 2007 survey of 2179 UK school students aged 15 and 16 years. Cluster analysis based on questions about parental advice was used to establish seven student groups. Associations between groups, other family background and psychoactive substance use variables were explored. Substance…

  15. Psychoactive substance intake and gender on crime | okediji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of psychoactive substance (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) intake and gender on crime. Three hundred and eighty participants (380) were randomly selected from inmates as models of prisons in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The participants comprised 314 males (82.63%) and 66 females ...

  16. Psychoactive substance intake and gender on crime | Okediji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of psychoactive substance (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) intake and gender on crime. Three hundred and eighty participants (380) were randomly selected from inmates as models of prisons in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The participants comprised 314 males (82.63%) and 66 females ...

  17. Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    Driving with alcohol and other psychoactive substances imposes an increased risk of severe injury accidents. In a population-based case-control design, the relative risks of severe driver injury (MAIS ≥ 2) by driving with ten substance groups were approximated by odds ratios (alcohol, amphetamines...... (N = 2490) were collected from severely injured drivers of passenger cars or vans in selected hospitals in various regions of the countries. Control samples (N = 15,832) were sampled in a uniform sampling scheme stratified according to country, time, road type and season. Relative risks were...... driver injury with increasing age. It is concluded that among psychoactive substances alcohol still poses the largest problem in terms of driver risk of getting injured. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review

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    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1–91.0%); amphetamines (0.2–82.5%), marijuana (0.2–29.9%), cocaine (0.1–8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions. PMID:24145953

  19. prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Conclusion: Road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists are a frequent occurrence in this part of the country. There is need for public awareness campaigns on road safety education and health consequences of psychoactive substance use among commercial motorcyclists. It is further recommended that law ...

  20. Determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substance among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis, Northwest Nigeria

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    M.O.Raji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance related disorder. Riding commercial motorcycle entails lot of risk, compounded by abuse of drugs, the scenario can only be worse. This study aimed to assess the determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substances among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis. Methods The study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in Sokoto metropolis, among Commercial motorcyclist, 253 respondents were recruited using multi stage sampling technique. Data was obtained using interviewer administered structured questionnaire containing 47‐item structured questions. Data was analysed using IBM statistical software package version 21, 5% was set as level of significance Result Majority of respondent believed that use of alcohol 214 (84.6, cannabis 147 (58.1 and codeine 171 (67.6 can lead to mental problems. Thirty percent of the respondents reported ever use of psychoactive substances. Most of the respondents (49.3% initiated use of Psychoactive substances between 16‐20 years of age. Respondents who had some formal education had less odds of ever using psychoactive substances (p=0.001, OR= 0.337. Respondents who had ever encouraged fellow commercial motorcyclist to use psychoactive substances had 22 times odds of ever having used psychoactive substances (p=0.000 Conclusion Substance abuse is prevalent among commercial motorcyclist. Despite good knowledge of psychoactive substances and the consequences associated with it, the use was still relatively high. The main predictor of ever use of psychoactive substances was willingness to be friends with someone who use psychoactive substance. There is need for continuous counselling and education of commercial motorcyclist, by road safety workers, on the dangers associated

  1. Experimentation with psychoactive substances by public school students

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    Maria Eliane de Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of exposure to psychoactive substances in public students of basic education and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from March to September 2015, involving 1,009 students of the basic and high school education in 20 public schools in the municipality of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The data have been compiled using questionnaires previously applied in national studies of the Brazilian Center for Psychotropic Drugs. The variables have been dichotomized for later logistic regression using the Chi-square test to analyze associations between experimentation with psychoactive substances and other sociodemographic variables; odds ratio and confidence intervals have also been calculated. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS We have identified that 69.6% of the students have experimented alcohol and 12.4% cigarettes. Age (≥ 15 years has shown a significant association with experimentation with alcohol (p < 0.001 and cigarettes (p = 0.02, acting as risk factor in both cases (OR = 2.34 and 1, 78, respectively, but it acted as a protective factor for the use of inhalants (p = 0.03 and OR = 0.58 and weight loss medication (p = 0.006 and OR = 0.44. Religious practice had a significant association with experimentation with alcohol (p = 0.01, functioning as a protective factor (OR = 0.56. CONCLUSIONS We have concluded that the psychoactive substance most experienced by students was alcohol, followed by cigarettes, and chance for experimentation increases after the age of 15. Religious practice, in turn, acts as a protective factor for experimentation with alcohol.

  2. Gateway Psychoactive Substances and Adolescent Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of gateway substances by adolescents usually precedes use of hard substances. Aims: Determine prevalence of use of gateway substances, age at first use and associated factors. Methods: Instruments consisting of sociodemographic variables and alcohol , tobacco, cannabis, stimulant use sections of ...

  3. Psychoactive Substance use among People living with HIV/AIDS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life time uses of psychoactive substances among the participants were: alcohol (84.8%), oral sedatives (21.03%), cannabis (3.64%), cocaine, inhalants and solvents (0.26%) while polysubstance use (alcohol, cannabis and nonprescription use of sedatives) was 0.8%. However, a combination of alcohol, cocaine and ...

  4. Prevalence and Behaviour Effects of Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychoactive substances can alter consciousness, mood and behaviour of an individual user. Objectives: To determine the pattern of psychoactive substance use and its mental and behavioural effects on university students in Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 422 ...

  5. Psychoactive Substance Use among Medical/Health Faculty Undergraduate Students

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    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to explore the drug use practices of undergraduate students within the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Method: This study was a multicentre study carried out in Jamaica and six Latin American countries. The study utilized a cross-sectional design using a survey method of data collection. A list of compulsory classes for first- and second-year undergraduate students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences was retrieved by researchers and then cluster sampling was used to choose lectures to carry out data collection. The instrument utilized for the study was a self-report questionnaire which consisted of 58 questions which enquired about sociodemographic information, psychoactive substance use and associated consequences. Results: A total of 380 students (78 males, 302 females participated in the study; 115 (30.3% reported a past year prevalence of psychoactive substance use. Roughly half (50.8% reported that they first used substances when they were 15−19 years old. Students also reported a past month prevalence of alcohol use (16.6%, prescription drugs without a prescription (4.5%, tobacco (2.4% and cannabis (2.1% use. Conclusion: These preliminary results on substance use patterns among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences indicate urgent need for further research among this population. Such research should be used to inform prevention and treatment programmes that will directly target this student population.

  6. [The use of psychoactive substances among street teenagers in Ouagadougou].

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    Garanet, Franck; Bogono, Etienne; Ouédraogo, Ousmane; Mésenge, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the determinants of psychoactive substance use among street teenagers living in Ouagadougou.Methods: Qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study with street teenagers living on the Zogona campus in Ouagadougou, in September 2012. A focus group was then formed with eight members of the group.Results: The median age was 16 years (range: 12 to 20 years). The various psychotropic agents were tobacco, alcohol, gasoline, glue sniffing and cannabis. Seventeen of the 31 teenagers had already been admitted to a rehabilitation centre and none of them attended school at the time of data collection. However, 12 street teenagers had previously attended school. The main reasons for the presence of these teenagers in the street were “poverty in the family”, “death of the parents”, “Koranic school”. The main reasons reported by the teenagers for substance use were “to give oneself courage”, “to relieve hunger”, “to be like the others”, “to be accepted by the group”, “to protect oneself from the cold”. The main determinants of substance abuse were social exclusion, group membership, and group identification.Conclusion: Psychoactive substance use is an integral part of the life of street teenagers and is a major obstacle to social integration.

  7. Correlates of psychoactive substance use among Nigerian adolescents

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    Oluyemi O Akanni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The abuse of psychoactive substances which is one of the most important global public health problems begins in adolescence. Adolescents usually start by abusing the gateway substances. They suffer social, economic, physical, and legal consequences on account of use of substances, and this is very worrisome because of the increasing prevalence of use. Aims: The aim was to identify the characteristics of adolescents that use gateway substances. This knowledge shall be utilized in preventive programs. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study with secondary school adolescents as participants. Subjects and Methods: Multistage sampling technique was used to select 492 respondents and the questionnaire consisted of characteristics of the adolescents, their families and schools and the alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and stimulant use sections of the World Health Organisation questionnaire for student drug use surveys. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, and Chi-square statistics was used. Results: Having a friend who uses substance was significantly associated with tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine use while being a male, having a family member that uses substance were significantly associated with tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine use. Older age, lack of satisfaction with the relationship with the teacher and polygamous family background were significantly associated with tobacco use. And finally, lack of satisfaction with the relationship with parents/guardians and having parents or guardians who are not religious were significantly associated with alcohol use. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach is needed to prevent the use of substances; this should target individuals, schools, families, and religious institutions.

  8. Proficiency testing for psychoactive substances in Italy.

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    Ferrara, S D; Brusini, G; Maietti, S; Frison, G; Castagna, F; Allevi, S; Menegus, A M; Tedeschi, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the general design and main results of the Italian proficiency testing program for the analysis of psychoactive substances in urine, a long-term initiative created in 1995 on an educational basis and characterized by an innovative internet-based service for data exchange between laboratories and the organizing body. Batches of six urine samples, validated by reference laboratories, are sent every 3 months to participating laboratories, which may choose which classes of substances to test from those planned by the program panel and, within those classes, which type of analytical commitment to work on: identification of just one class (Option 1), identification of single substances (Option 2), or identification and quantification of single substances (Option 3). Comprehensive periodical reports and annual reports are provided to participants with evaluation of their performance and an annual workshop is organized to discuss technical-scientific topics related to clinical, forensic and analytical toxicology. About 200 laboratories currently participate in the program and a total of 67,059 analyses have been carried out since 1995. The mean percentage of correct results was 96.8%, with a yearly improvement of about 0.4%. The best average false positive and false negative rates were obtained for methadone (0.2% and 2.1% respectively) and cocaine (0.3% and 2.2%). The worst average false positive rates were obtained for amphetamines and opiates (3.2% and 5.0%) and worst average false negative rates for amphetamines, barbiturates and cannabinoids (17.4%, 30.7% and 19.9%).

  9. Capgras Syndrome associated with the use of psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Ezequiel N

    2011-04-01

    Capgras syndrome has originally been described as psychiatric syndrome. However, in the last few years reports of patients with this syndrome has significantly increased in patients with neurological, metabolic, and infectious diseases and those who consume alcohol. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the neurobiology of this very unusual symptom, such as changes in the dopamine circuit and specific dysfunctions in facial processing. In this work we present a new case of Capgras syndrome, associated with an acute cocaine overdose, which was transient and reversible. The neurobiological bases of this syndrome are analysed, along with their relationship with the changes induced by cocaine use. Thus, Capgras syndrome could be the expression of functional changes at frontal-temporal level, and the paralimbic region secondary to the consumption of psychoactive substances such as cocaine. Copyright © 2010 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequency and risk factors of the use of psychoactive substances among the young

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    Pavlović Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Socio-economic changes that occurred in the wake of dismemberment of former Yugoslavia resulted in the appearance of social pathology, one of which was the increase in the use of psychoactive substances. The over whole epidemiological research in the use of psychoactive substances has not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to establish the type and form of the use of psychoactive substances considering sex and age, as well as risk factors for the use of psychoactive substances among the children and adolescents. Methods. The research was carried out among 1011 elementary school children (seventh and eighth grades and secondary school children (all four grades in the area of Belgrade from October 2003 to January 2004. Out of the total number 457 (45.2% were elementary school pupils and 554 (54.8% secondary school pupils. There were 524 (51.8% boys and 487 (48.2% girls, aged from 12 to 18 years (the average age being 15.3 years. The method used was the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs Questionnaire. Chisquare test, Mann-Whitney, Student's t test and Logistic Regression test were used in statistical processing of the data. Results. Totally 14.2% examinees tried psychoactive substances. The most frequent drug used at the first contact was marijuana (10.8% at the age of 15 tried by 12.7% examinees, inhalants (4.4%, amphetamines (4.1%, sedatives (3.7%, alcohol combined with marijuana (3.9%, then cocaine (2.8%, heroine (2.3%, alcohol combined with sedatives (2.2%, and ecstasy (1.6%, followed by anabolic steroids, heroin, diethilamid lisergic acid (LSD and magic mushrooms. It was determined that going out in the evening, smoking and binge form drinking were directly connected with the use of psychoactive substances. Conclusion. Totally 14.2% of the examiners used psychoactive substances, mostly marijuana, followed by amphetamines and others. New tendencies of use characterized by the increase in the

  11. Assessment of the prevalence of taking psychoactive substances in secondary school students from the Silesia region

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    Mateusz Patyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to scrutinize the scale of a current problem of psychoactive substances taking by adolescents aged 13–16, including the level of their knowledge of that subject. The results obtained can help to create an educational program targeted at decreasing the number of students using drugs. Material and methods: The study was performed on a group of 197 secondary school students in 2013 with the use of selfdeveloped query based on ESPAD (The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs questionnaire. Results: 25% of the students showed their curiosity in trying some psychoactive substances, if those were legal. 19% declared that they already have had a contact with drugs. Teenagers are worried about the possible reaction of their parents and legal consequences of the use of psychoactive substances. At least every tenth of the respondents have had an opportunity to try marihuana. Conclusions: Despite the low average age the group of respondents has had contact with psychoactive substances. Every third person has been offered psychoactive substances. At least 40% of teenagers know about the possible ways where to take the drugs from. The outcome of the study is quite alarming because it shows a considerable interest in common drugs, as well as in some OTC medicaments.

  12. Use of psychoactive substances among commercial motorcyclists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly identified psychoactive substance/drugs used were: marijuana [Indian hemp] 25.8%, solution 24.5%, caffeine (Kola) 15.8%, and coffee 4.8%. ... It is further recommended that law enforcement agencies (NAFDAC, NDLEA and FRSC) need to work in tandem so as to curb the problem of substance abuse in our ...

  13. The prevalence of psychoactive substances use among secondary school students from selected cities of Upper Silesia

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    Maja Muszyńska-Graca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of psychoactive substances among teenagers in Poland has grown for several years. Statistics maintain at a lower level than in the western Europe, however it is necessary to conduct its permanent monitoring. The work presents results of the questionnaire study carried out in IOMEH in years 2010–11. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the scale of psychoactive substances prevalence among teenagers from Silesian cities. Materials and methods: The programme was carried out by use of modified questionnaire of the ESPAD study. Questions related to characteristics of the examined person, dissemination, accessibility, awareness of risk and problems associated with the use of psychoactive substances. 928 teenagers: students of IIIrd grade of secondary schools and Ist and IInd grades of high schools from Sosnowiec and Chorzów (62% boys and 38% girls participated in the study. Results: 86,9% girls and 89,8% boys confirmed contact with the alcohol at least once in the lifetime and it is the most widespread psychoactive substance in the study group. Out of the other substances, cannabis use was confirmed by 40,7% of students (34,7% girls and 44,3% boys, designer drugs use - by of 21,8% pupils (17,5% girls and 24,5% boys. The distribution within the limits of 10% has been observed in the case of soothing/sleeping pills (also together with alcohol, and amphetamine. The prevalence of contact with other substances was at the level *10%. Boys more often than girls used the respective psychoactive substances (statistically significant differences. Conclusions: Results of the study confirm observation concerning the entire country that drinking alcohol by the young adolescents is becoming the statistical norm. The frequency of other psychoactive substances use demonstrates also concerning levels. There is a need of systematic education among teenagers at school, with particular emphasis on issues related to addiction and

  14. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Movig, K.L.; Mathijssen, M.P.; Nagel, P.H.; van Egmond, T.; de Gier, J.J.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.

    The driving performance is easily impaired as a consequence of the use of alcohol and/or licit and illicit drugs. However, the role of drugs other than alcohol in motor vehicle accidents has not been well established. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between psychoactive

  15. Suicidal thoughts related to psychoactive substance abuse among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licanin, Ifeta; Music, Emina; Laslo, Erdes; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Masic, Izet; Redzic, Amira; Vejzagic, Anesa; Krosnjar, Sanja

    2003-01-01

    The enquiry of suicide is of particular importance. According to WHO statistics suicide in people aged from 15 to 24 years has shown the greatest increase of relative mortality. In the group of suicidal adolescents, depression, behavioural disorders, abuse of different substances and personality deviations are frequent factors in presence. The aim of our investigation was to determine the correlation between psychoactive substance abuse and the occurrence of suicidal thoughts in adolescents. The specific "Q 2000" test was used to question 600 adolescents, from Tuzla and Sarajevo Cantons, with the same gender and age distribution and rural-urban ambient. The more prevailing suicidal idea occurrence was observed in cannabis abusers (50.0%) and alcohol abusers (36.6%) in comparison to non-abusers regardless gender and/or living ambient (settlement types) (19.5% and 17.6% per each, x2 = 17.184 p = 0.00001). The augmentation in number of suicidal ideas was not observed in tobacco smokers.

  16. The nicotine dependence associated with alcohol use and other psychoactive substance A dependência da nicotina associada ao uso de álcool e outras substâncias psicoativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Serra Bacchi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To examine an association between nicotine dependence with alcohol, other psychoactive use, and depressive disorder. Smokers were recruited from Centro de Referência de Abordagem e Tratamento do Tabagismo at the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (AHC/ UEL. All subjects were informed and gave then written consent for the research as approved by the Ethics Research Committee of Universidade Estadual de Londrina. The measures used were: structured questionnaire, alcohol, smoking, and psychoactive substance involvement screening test (ASSIST v 3.0, the Fagerström test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND, and the Diagnostic Interview for Research on Depressive disorder of the World Health Organization. Smokers presented the following socio-demographic characteristics: prevalence of the female sex and mean age of 47 years old with capacity for domestic activities and work. The mean age of onset of cigarette use for smokers was 16 years old. Fagerström’s test presented a medium punctuation of 6, so much for users of substances psicoativas, as for the ones that they don’t use them. Relationship between serious depression and the of psychoactive substances use was relevant for the research. This study evidenced an association among the use of the tobacco and other psychoactive substances, and depressive disorder. The health professional in smoking cessation intervention would be to identify subgroups of adult smokers, associated with depression, psychoactive substance use, and promote an intervention in both comorbidities and larger effectiveness of the smoking cessation. Analisar a associação entre a dependência de nicotina com o uso de álcool, outras substâncias psicoativas e transtorno depressivo. Os tabagistas foram recrutados a partir do Centro de Referência de Abordagem e Tratamento do Tabagismo no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (AHC/UEL. Todos os participantes foram informados e

  17. Pattern and practice of psychoactive substance abuse and risky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted by the administration of questionnaires to 399 street children who had been homeless for at least a month in three cities of Cameroon during 2015. Results. All 399 participants reported that they were using some psychoactive substance at the time of the survey.

  18. Prevalence of Psychoactive Substances in Dutch and Belgian Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Mathijssen, Rene; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Verstraete, Alain G.; Brookhuis, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of psychoactive substances in general traffic in The Netherlands and Belgium. Method: Randomly selected car drivers and drivers of small vans in six police regions in The Netherlands and five police regions in Belgium were included

  19. Pattern and practice of psychoactive substance abuse and risky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education, shelter, food, hygiene, healthcare and a loving family has been violated.[1] Street children ... drugs to minors is a crime punishable by law in most countries, implementation of the law is ... psychoactive substance abuse and the related behaviours among street children in Cameroon. The information is critical to ...

  20. A Comparative study of use of psychoactive substances amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, parents\\' marital status (p=0.05) was statistically significant in the use of Indian hemp, while family type (P=0.00), upbringing (P=0.03)was significant in cocaine. The findings of this study confirm the presence and use of psychoactive substances in varying proportions among students. Therefore, there is need to ...

  1. [Ethanol and other psychoactive substances in fatal road traffic accidents in the Czech Republic in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravcík, Viktor; Zábranský, Tomás; Vorel, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    To map the recent prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in deceased victims of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample consisted of individuals autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine who died during traffic accidents in 2008 and were toxicologically tested for one or more of the following substances: ethanol, volatile substances, cannabis, opiates, stimulants, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0.2 g/kg and higher; with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; from cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the positive cases only those where substances were not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. The sample consisted of 1,040 persons deceased in traffic accidents, of whom 582 (56.0%) were toxicologically tested for one or more of the substances listed above. The sample has been divided into two subsamples--one of 778 (74.8%) active participants of road traffic accidents (pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers) and other subsample consisting of 262 (25.4%) non-active participants. Ethanol was found in 38.3% of 381 tested and at least one of other psychoactive substances was found in 11.7% of 384 tested active participants--of those, stimulants (mostly methamphetamine) were found most frequently (6.5% of 337 tested), cannabis (5.9% of 203 tested) and benzodiazepines (3.9% of 363 tested active participants). Drivers were positive for ethanol in 29.2% cases, for one or more of other psychoactive substances except ethanol in 12.7% cases, most frequently for stimulants (9.2%) and cannabis (6.2%). Professional drivers were found negative for ethanol and other psychoactive substance except of one case of methamphetamine (6.7%). The study confirms high prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, especially stimulants

  2. Consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y expectativas hacia el alcohol en niños escolarizados entre 8 y 12 años Consumption of psychoactive substances and expectancies towards alcohol in school children between 8 and 12 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Grigoravicius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un proyecto de investigación UBACYT en curso (programación 2010/12 cuyo propósito es indagar la existencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas e identificar y analizar actitudes, valores y creencias hacia el uso y abuso de dichas sustancias en niños y niñas escolarizados entre 8 y 12 años de edad. Asimismo, se propone identificar y analizar las expectativas de los niños, específicamente hacia el alcohol. Se comparan una población clínica y una población no clínica de niños. Se propone continuar y profundizar indagaciones anteriores, incluyendo a niños de edades menores a las estudiadas tradicionalmente. La muestra de población clínica está conformada por los niños que reciben psicoterapia en una unidad de docencia en servicio de la Facultad de Psicología de la U.B.A. La muestra de población no-clínica está conformada por niños que concurren a diversas instituciones educativas. Se administran el CORIN, el CEA-N y un protocolo de datos sociodemográficos.The purpose of this proyect is to inquire into the existence of psychoactive substances consumption and to identify and analyse attitudes, values and believes regarding use and abuse of such substances in school children between 8 and 12 years old. Furthermore, identify and analyse children's expectancies, especially towards alcohol. Regarding the objective of this study, a comparison between a clinical and a non clinical sample of children will be done. The purpose is to continue and go deeply into previous investigations on this problem expanding the age range of the sample including younger children than the ones traditionally studied. The clinical sample will be composed of children who recieve psychotherapy in a Child Clinical Psychology Unit that depends on Facultad de Psicología, UBA. The non clinical sample will be composed of non consultant children that attend to different educational institutions. The CORIN, the CEA-N and sociodemographic data

  3. A "parliamentary inquiry" into alcohol and drugs: a survey of psychoactive substance use and gambling among members of the Dutch parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, V M; Garretsen, H F; van de Goor, L A

    1997-05-01

    In the fall of 1994 a survey was conducted on the use of alcohol and drugs and on gambling among members of the Dutch parliament. The survey indicated that almost two-thirds of the representatives sampled supported legalization of marijuana. A smaller majority (57%) was in favor of reducing the number of coffee shops selling marijuana. At least a quarter of the members of parliament had used marijuana themselves at one time or other. Alcohol consumption could be said to be "excessive" or "very excessive" for nearly 10% of the members of parliament. In general, the nature and extent of the parliamentarians' substance use was comparable to that in the Dutch general population.

  4. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris; Witten, Karen

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. In retrospect stakeholders questioned the decision to approve strong synthetic cannabinoid smoking products, noting their health risks because of product formulation, inconsistent manufacturing practices and smoking as the means of administration. Industry actors claimed the decision to approve synthetic cannabinoid smokeable products prevented potentially safer products from gaining market share. The system for withdrawing approved products which were subsequently found to be harmful was criticised for the poor quality of data available, limited engagement with health professionals and the slowness of product withdrawal. Many of the problems with the regime were attributed to the urgency under which the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act was established and implemented. The selection of 'safer' products, implementation of the product monitoring system, and engagement with health professionals may have benefited from more time and resources. An incremental approach to establishing the new market may have made the regulatory management of the new regime more workable. [Rychert M, Wilkins C, Witten K. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Novel Psychoactive Substances in Young Adults with and without Psychiatric Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martinotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Comorbidities between psychiatric diseases and consumption of traditional substances of abuse (alcohol, cannabis, opioids, and cocaine are common. Nevertheless, there is no data regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS in the psychiatric population. The purpose of this multicentre survey is to investigate the consumption of a wide variety of psychoactive substances in a young psychiatric sample and in a paired sample of healthy subjects. Methods. A questionnaire has been administered, in different Italian cities, to 206 psychiatric patients aged 18 to 26 years and to a sample of 2615 healthy subjects matched for sex, gender, and living status. Results. Alcohol consumption was more frequent in the healthy young population compared to age-matched subjects suffering from mental illness (79.5% versus 70.7%; P<0.003. Conversely, cocaine and NPS use was significantly more common in the psychiatric population (cocaine 8.7% versus 4.6%; P=0.002 (NPS 9.8% versus 3%; P<0.001. Conclusions. The use of novel psychoactive substances in a young psychiatric population appears to be a frequent phenomenon, probably still underestimated. Therefore, careful and constant monitoring and accurate evaluations of possible clinical effects related to their use are necessary.

  6. Psychoactive substance misuse among Nigerian adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Surveys suggest that in both in-and out-of-school adolescents, the socially acceptable drugs like alcohol and cigarettes are commonly used. The patients interviewed illustrate the important 'gateway\\' theory of drug progression. Psychological dynamics identified include peer pressure, experimentation and conduct ...

  7. Catastrophes et consommation des substances psychoactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapić Žilijeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Les catastrophes, les accidents, les stress, les traumatismes sont des expériences négatives de vie accompagnées de changements physiologiques, cognitifs, émotionnels et comportementaux. Les stratégies les plus courantes inefficaces à résoudre les expériences de vie négatives sont: l' agression - ouverte (physique et / ou verbale, passive et latente, le retrait social, le placage, la dépression, l'impuissance, l' isolement et l' abus de médicaments, en particulier de drogues. Les personnes se trouvant dans des situations stressantes essayent de s' aider elles-mêmes souvent en recourant à des substances qui procurent une amélioration de leur état et suppriment le malaise momentané. Cette 'thérapie par auto-thérapie' comporte de graves risques La personne qui, après une période de consommation de ces substances devenaient dépendante, manifeste des changements visibles au niveau physique et psychologique. Elle se dérobe à ses obligations, rompt avec les activités auxquelles elle prenait plaisir autrefois de même qu' avec ses loisirs et ses intérêts; elle change des amis, ses relations familiales et amicales deviennent pauvres et remplies de nombreux conflits; elle devient moins critique et plus manipulative, commence à mentir, trompe pour dissimuler sa toxicomanie, rejoint un groupe de ses semblables, se livre à des activités criminogènes, de plus en plus se dégrade physiquement. L' alcool qui, étant le plus accessible et par conséquent généralement 'la première mesure d' auto-thérapie', a un impact particulièrement dévastateur sur l' organisme sensible au point de vue psycho-physique. Nous assistons à de nombreuses difficultés et des problèmes qui, à la suite de la consommation d' alcool, aggravent ceux liés à des expériences des événements traumatisants. De même l' efficacité de certains comprimés de réduire les tensions ou d' améliorer l' état du patient conduit fréquemment

  8. Experimentation with psychoactive substances by public school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maria Eliane de; Santos, Igor Henrique Farias; Souza, Antônio Araújo Menezes de; Silva, Aliane Caroline Santos; Leite, Tatiane Dos Santos; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de

    2017-09-04

    To analyze the prevalence of exposure to psychoactive substances in public students of basic education and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from March to September 2015, involving 1,009 students of the basic and high school education in 20 public schools in the municipality of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The data have been compiled using questionnaires previously applied in national studies of the Brazilian Center for Psychotropic Drugs. The variables have been dichotomized for later logistic regression using the Chi-square test to analyze associations between experimentation with psychoactive substances and other sociodemographic variables; odds ratio and confidence intervals have also been calculated. The level of significance adopted was 5%. We have identified that 69.6% of the students have experimented alcohol and 12.4% cigarettes. Age (≥ 15 years) has shown a significant association with experimentation with alcohol (p Drogas Psicotrópicas. As variáveis foram dicotomizadas para posterior regressão logística com aplicação do teste Qui-quadrado para analisar associações entre a experimentação de substâncias psicoativas e outras variáveis sociodemográficas, e calculada a razão de chances e seus intervalos de confiança. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Identificamos que 69,6% dos estudantes têm experimentado álcool e 12,4% cigarro. A idade dos alunos (≥ 15 anos) mostrou associação significativa com a experimentação de álcool (p < 0,001) e cigarros (p = 0,02), atuando como fator de risco em ambos os casos (OR = 2,34 e 1,78, respectivamente), mas atuando como fator de proteção para o uso de inalantes (p = 0,03 e OR = 0,58) e remédios para emagrecer (p = 0,006 e OR = 0,44). A prática religiosa apresentou associação significativa com a experimentação de álcool (p = 0,01), funcionando como um fator de proteção (OR = 0,56). Conclui-se que a subst

  9. Challenges Posed by Novel Psychoactive Substances – Middle East Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej J. Bogusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are defined as substances of abuse, either in a pure form or a preparation, that are not controlled by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a public health threat. In this context, the term “new” does not necessarily refer to new inventions but to substances that have recently become available or popular in a given society or country. This definition indicates that the problem of NPS is not new; however, the availability of any information via new communication technologies in the 21st century has enabled the spread of unwanted and socially harmful information, like information on the commercial availability of various NPS, offered in rising amounts and brands.

  10. Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2012-01-18

    The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use.

  11. Prevalence of psychoactive substances use in a Lithuanian women's prison revisited after 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkauskaitė, Laura; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt; Venalis, Algirdas; Utkuvienė, Janina

    2010-11-01

    This paper re-examines the prevalence of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol, narcotic drugs) use among inmates in a Lithuanian women's prison. The main goal of this study was to determinate the changes in the use of the psychoactive substances in a women's prison in Lithuania. We accomplished the retesting of the first ever investigation of this kind, carried out in 2004, using the same questionnaire, in the only women's prison in Lithuania. In June 2009, 71 (27.8%) women of 255 inmates of the prison were given questionnaires with information about the aim of the study, stating that the study was voluntary and anonymous, and obtaining permission for release of information. The results were compared with the previous investigation. A statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Tobacco smokers comprised 85.3% of respondents.; the average age at which respondents started to smoke was 14±7.3 years; 57.7% of respondents had tried narcotic drugs at least once; 22.5% of respondents used drugs (in 2004 we had found no drug use in this women's prison); 18.3% of respondents indicated that they narcotic drugs were tried for the first time away, 4.2% - in a custodial establishment. Psychoactive substances are often used due to their psychological effect. inmates constitute a high-risk group of drug users and distributors of narcotic drugs. Intravenous narcotics stimulating dangerous behavior prevail in Lithuanian prisons. Women in prison are especially prone to smoking.

  12. New psychoactive substances: catalysing a shift in forensic science practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettey, Justice; Crean, Conor

    2015-08-05

    The analysis of substances of abuse remains one of the most matured areas in forensic science with a strong scientific basis, namely analytical chemistry. The current evolving drug markets, characterized by the global emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the need for forensic scientists to identify an unprecedented and ever-increasing number of NPS, presents a unique challenge to this discipline. This article looks at the current situation with NPS at the global level, and the challenges posed to the otherwise technically robust forensic science discipline of analysis of substances of abuse. It discusses the preparedness of forensic science to deal with the current situation and identifies the need for a shift in forensic science practice, especially one which embraces research and looks beyond normal casework in order to provide the much needed data for developing effective policy responses to the NPS problem. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. [Psychotherapy with Adjuvant use of Serotonergic Psychoactive Substances: Possibilities and Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majić, Tomislav; Jungaberle, Henrik; Schmidt, Timo T; Zeuch, Andrea; Hermle, Leo; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Background Recently, scientific interest in the therapeutic potential of serotonergic and psilocybin hallucinogens (psychedelics) such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and entactogens like 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) within the framework of psychotherapy has resumed. The present article provides an overview on the current evidence on substance-assisted psychotherapy with these substances. Method A selective search was carried out in the PubMed and Cochrane Library including studies investigating the clinical use of serotonergic psychoactive substances since 2000. Results Studies were found investigating the following indications: alcohol (LSD and psilocybin) and tobacco addiction (psilocybin), anxiety and depression in patients suffering from life-threatening somatic illness (LSD and psilocybin), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (psilocybin), treatment-resistant major depression (psilocybin), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (MDMA). Discussion Substance use disorders, PTSD and anxiety and depression in patients suffering from life-threatening somatic illness belong to the indications with the best evidence for substance-assisted psychotherapy with serotonergic psychoactive agents. To date, studies indicate efficacy and relatively good tolerability. Further studies are needed to determine whether these substances may represent suitable and effective treatment options for some treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. New psychoactive substances of natural origin: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yi Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS, which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of five common NPS of natural origin, i.e., khat, kratom, salvia, magic mushroom and mandrake. Through the review, we hope that professionals and general public alike can pay more attention to the potential problems caused by natural NPS, and suitable control measures will be taken.

  15. New psychoactive substances of natural origin: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ling-Yi; Battulga, Altansuvd; Han, Eunyoung; Chung, Heesun; Li, Jih-Heng

    2017-07-01

    Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of five common NPS of natural origin, i.e., khat, kratom, salvia, magic mushroom and mandrake. Through the review, we hope that professionals and general public alike can pay more attention to the potential problems caused by natural NPS, and suitable control measures will be taken. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. New psychoactive substances legislation in Ireland - Perspectives from academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of 'legal highs' or 'new psychoactive substances' (NPS) on the Irish market is reflective of their appearance in many countries, with some notable exceptions. The official response to the situation is examined here by looking at Irish controlled drugs legislation and drug enforcement policies as enacted in recent years and their effects on academic research on NPS. The philosophy and practice of outright bans of scheduled substances has not been effective in delivering the stated aims of illicit drug control, namely harm reduction. With these legislative changes, we have witnessed the removal of the 'legitimate' sale and open marketing of a number of NPS to the general public in commercial retail premises. However, as legislation was enacted, suppliers and vendors rapidly changed the contents of their legal high products from now controlled to non-controlled substances. We have found that it is administratively challenging to perform scientific research on controlled substances at academic institutions. It is desirable to gather analytical, pharmacological, and toxicological data on these substances as they emerge on the market but due to the restrictive nature of licensing requirements, once a substance or generic class of substances is controlled, this becomes more difficult. The facts that any quantity of substance, no matter how small, is controlled, the nomenclature used to describe compounds is not consistent within the enacted legislation and the use of catch-all classes of compounds with the intention of controlling many similar molecular structures, all create problematic issues for academic researchers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Oral lesions of 500 habitual psychoactive substance users in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Rao, Anita; Raman, Uma; Rajasekaran, Saraswathi T; Joshua, Elizabeth; R, Hemalatha; Kannan, Ranganathan

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of oral lesions among 500 psychoactive substance users in a hospital-based population. The study group consisted of 500 consecutive patients attending TTK Hospital, a non-governmental organisation involved in rehabilitation of substance users. Patient history was recorded in a pre-determined format and clinical findings were recorded by a trained physician and dental surgeons. Psychoactive substances used by the patients were alcohol (97%), tobacco (72%), arecanut (57.2%), narcotics (6.8%), cannabis (3.2%) and benzodiazipines (1.8%). Ninety-one percent of patients had one or more oral lesions: dental caries (39%), gingivitis (37.6%), extrinsic stains (24%), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) (8%), periodontitis (7.4%), leukoplakia (6.6%), melanosis (5.2%), nicotina palatini (2.2%) and erythroplakia (0.6%). For OSF, those using arecanut and alcohol had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.23-4.69, P=0.009], smokers using arecanut products and alcohol had an OR of 3.07 (95% CI 1.59-5.91, P=0.000), and smokers who chewed arecanut products and used drugs had an OR of 23.1 (95% CI 2.05-260, P=0.001) compared with the general population. Those who smoked and used alcohol, arecanut and drugs had a 20.67-fold higher risk of developing leukoplakia compared with those who did not engage in these habits. In conclusion, 91% of patients had one or more oral lesions that needed dental treatment, and most patients were not aware of their oral lesions. The high prevalence of OSF and leukoplakia in substance abusers compared with the general population emphasises the need for regular dental assessments in these patients.

  18. Evaluation of problematic psychoactive substances use in people placed in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérardin, Marie; Guigand, Gabriel; Wainstein, Laura; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Clément, Renaud

    2017-07-01

    In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances. Practitioners investigated desired effects for each substance, and characteristics of use, by means of the dependence criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Problematic use was assessed when at least 3 items of the DSM IV were positive. 604 questionnaires were examined. 90.7% of questionnaires reported tobacco use, 76.2% cannabis, 57.3% alcohol, 12.5% psychostimulants, 10.0% opiates and 0.7% benzodiazepines or Z-drugs. The frequency of problematic use was 74.6% for opiates, 44.9% for cocaine and 25.3% for cannabis. Compared to non-problematic users, problematic users were older, more likely to be jobless without financial means, more likely to have a medical history, including a greater likelihood of mental illness, and more chance of undergoing prescribed medical treatment. They included more women and more homeless people. These results show characteristics of psychoactive substance use in a sample of people in custody. Psychoactive substances mentioned by respondents are not different from those observed in the general population, but for certain users, the desired effects are far from the pharmacologically expected ones. For some, taking substances seems to be part of their way of life, for others it is a means to compensate for an underlying feeling of uneasiness. Furthermore, problematic users present severity criteria which

  19. Emerging psychoactive substance use among regular ecstasy users in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Raimondo; Matthews, Allison J; Dunn, Matthew; Alati, Rosa; McIlwraith, Fairlie; Hickey, Sophie; Burns, Lucy; Sindicich, Natasha

    2012-07-01

    The past decade has seen the development of an array of emerging psychoactive substances (EPS), however, there is minimal information on the extent of their use outside Europe. This study aimed to determine the extent of use of EPS from stimulant (such as mephedrone) and psychedelic classes (such as 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine [5-MeO-DMT]) among an Australian sample of regular ecstasy users (REU). Further, to determine if consumers of these drugs represent a distinct subgroup of REU. Australian national cross-sectional surveys of 693 regular (at least monthly) ecstasy users conducted during 2010. More than one quarter (28%) of REU had used an EPS in the past six months, most commonly from the stimulant class (20%, typically mephedrone, 17%) rather than the psychedelic class (13%). Demographics and risk behaviours of REU that used stimulant EPS were largely no different from non-EPS consuming REU. Those using psychedelic EPS were distinct, initiating ecstasy use earlier, more frequently using multiple substances (cannabis, inhalants, GHB, ketamine) and more commonly experiencing legal, psychological and social problems. Psychedelic EPS use appears largely restricted to a distinct subset of REU with high-level non-injecting polydrug use, but use appears generally limited. The demographic similarity of stimulant EPS consumers with 'mainstream' REU, in conjunction with positive responses to the psychoactive effects of these drugs and declining ecstasy purity, suggests strong potential for stimulant EPS to expand further into ecstasy markets. Such drugs may have a greater public health impact than ecstasy, and merit careful monitoring into the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among Axum University students, Axum Town, North Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreslassie, Measho; Feleke, Amsalu; Melese, Tesfahun

    2013-07-30

    The use of substances such as alcohol, khat leaves and tobacco have long been recognized as one of the leading causes of human suffering and become one of the rising major public health and socio-economic problems worldwide. Even though substances use occurs in all segments of all societies, it is more spreading in an alarming rate among the young generation. This study aimed to establish the prevalence and associated factors of substances use among undergraduate students in Axum University. Institution based quantitative cross sectional study design was conducted among Axum University students in April 2012. A sample of 764 students was selected by using multi- stage sampling technique. Data were collected using pre- tested self- administered questionnaires. The data were cleaned, coded, entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.1 and transferred and analysed using SPSS computer soft ware package version 20. The lifetime prevalence of khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking among the study participants were 28.7%, 34.5% and 9.5% respectively. Similarly, the current prevalence of khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking were 27.9%, 32.8% and 9.3% respectively. The commonest reasons for khat, alcohol and cigarette using were to keep alert while reading 40.6%, for relaxation 65.5% and to relief stress 37.7% respectively. Having peer friends who chew khat was strongly and positively associated with khat use [AOR: 10.18, 95%CI: (5.59, 18.54)].Family members and peer friends alcohol use were strongly associated with alcohol drinking [AOR: 2.61, 95%CI: (1.56, 4.34) and [AOR: 14, 95%CI: (8.09, 24.24)] respectively. Ever alcohol use was strongly associated with cigarette smoking [AOR: 6.54, 95%CI: (2.66, 16.05)]. This study revealed that psychoactive substances use became an urgent problem among undergraduate university students. Universities need to monitor and teach their students with special focus on fresh man students, about the health risks and

  1. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among middle and high school students in the North Center of Morocco: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouq, B; Bendaou, B; El Asri, A; Achour, S; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R; Lyoussi, B; Khelafa, S; Bout, A; Berhili, N; Hlal, H; Najdi, A; Nejjari, C; El Rhazi, K

    2016-06-04

    Data on psychoactive substance (PAS) consumption among adolescents in the North Center of Morocco are not at all available. Therefore, the current study aimed at investigating the prevalence and the determinants of psychoactive substances use among middle and high school students in this region. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in public middle and high schools in the North Central Region of Morocco. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess psychoactive substances use among a representative sample of school students from the 7th to the 12th grade, aged 11-23 years, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. Factors associated with psychoactive substance use were identified using multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. A total of 3020 school students completed the questionnaires, 53.0 % of which were males. The overall lifetime smoking prevalence was 16.1 %. The lifetime, annual and past month rates of any psychoactive substance use among the study subjects were 9.3, 7.5, and 6.3 % respectively. Cannabis recorded the highest lifetime prevalence of 8.1 %, followed by alcohol 4.3 %, inhalants 1.7 %, psychotropic substances without medical prescription 1.0, cocaine 0.7, heroine 0.3, and amphetamine with only 0.2 %. Psychoactive substance use was associated with males more than females. The risk factors identified by multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were being male, studying in secondary school level, smoking tobacco, living with a family member who uses tobacco, and feeling insecure within the family. The prevalence among all school students reported by the current study was comparable to the national prevalence. Efforts to initiate psychoactive substance prevention programs among school students should be made by designing such programs based on the significant factors associated with psychoactive substance use identified in this study.

  2. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among middle and high school students in the North Center of Morocco: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zarrouq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on psychoactive substance (PAS consumption among adolescents in the North Center of Morocco are not at all available. Therefore, the current study aimed at investigating the prevalence and the determinants of psychoactive substances use among middle and high school students in this region. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in public middle and high schools in the North Central Region of Morocco. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess psychoactive substances use among a representative sample of school students from the 7th to the 12th grade, aged 11–23 years, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. Factors associated with psychoactive substance use were identified using multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 3020 school students completed the questionnaires, 53.0 % of which were males. The overall lifetime smoking prevalence was 16.1 %. The lifetime, annual and past month rates of any psychoactive substance use among the study subjects were 9.3, 7.5, and 6.3 % respectively. Cannabis recorded the highest lifetime prevalence of 8.1 %, followed by alcohol 4.3 %, inhalants 1.7 %, psychotropic substances without medical prescription 1.0, cocaine 0.7, heroine 0.3, and amphetamine with only 0.2 %. Psychoactive substance use was associated with males more than females. The risk factors identified by multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were being male, studying in secondary school level, smoking tobacco, living with a family member who uses tobacco, and feeling insecure within the family. Conclusions The prevalence among all school students reported by the current study was comparable to the national prevalence. Efforts to initiate psychoactive substance prevention programs among school students should be made by designing such programs based on the significant factors associated with psychoactive

  3. No349 - Consommation de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordean, Alice; Wong, Suzanne; Graves, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Accroître la sensibilisation à la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse et les connaissances à ce sujet, et formuler des recommandations factuelles relatives à la prise en charge de cet épineux problème clinique à l'intention de l'ensemble des fournisseurs de soins. La présente directive clinique analyse l'utilisation d'outils de dépistage, l'approche générale de soins et les recommandations pour la prise en charge clinique de la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse. Recommandations factuelles pour le dépistage et la prise en charge de la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse et l'allaitement. La littérature à jour a été obtenue au moyen de recherches dans Medline, PubMed et la Bibliothèque Cochrane visant les articles publiés entre 1996 et 2016, avec les mots clés suivants : « pregnancy », « electronic cigarettes », « tobacco use cessation products », « buprenorphine » et « methadone ». Les résultats ont d'abord été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux ECR et aux essais cliniques contrôlés. Ensuite, en raison de la rareté des ECR sur le sujet, des recherches d'études observationnelles ont également été menées. Les articles sélectionnés ont été limités aux études chez l'humain publiées en anglais, puis d'autres articles ont été trouvés manuellement, par l'analyse des listes de références. La qualité des données a été évaluée au moyen des critères énoncés dans le rapport du Groupe d'étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Les recommandations visant la pratique ont été classées conformément à la méthode décrite dans ce rapport. AVANTAGES, DéSAVANTAGES ET COûTS: La présente directive clinique a pour but d'améliorer les connaissances et le degré d'aisance des fournisseurs qui dispensent des soins aux femmes enceintes ayant un trouble de l'usage d'une substance

  4. Sleeping At The Wheel And Psychoactive Substance Use Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with high prevalence of sleeping at the wheel included long hours of driving =40 hours per week, types of substance use to prevent sleep, and previous use of alcohol. Conclusion: There would be need for policy formulation and implementation with regard to hours of sleep and rest by commercial drivers, ...

  5. Is dried paw-paw leaf a psychoactive substance | Olley | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While many studies have looked at the prevalence and pattern as well as effects of drug abuse and dependence among Nigerians, the use of dried paw-paw leaf as a psychoactive substance has not been investigated. This study examines the attitude and perception towards dried paw-paw leaf as a psychoactive ...

  6. [Factors Related With Psychoactive Substance Use in an Educational Institution in Jamundí Valle, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Soto, Katalina; Hernández Carrillo, Mauricio; Cassiani, Carlos Arturo; Cubides Munevar, Ángela M; Martínez Cardona, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of psychoactive substances (SPA) use in young people in an educational institution in Jamundí and possible related factors. Cross-sectional study, analytical approach that simulates cases and controls, was conducted in an educational institution in Jamundí-Valley. The sample was composed of 146 students selected through simple random probability sampling without replacement. Participants individually and anonymously completed a questionnaire to identify SPA consumption and associated factors, including APGAR scale to measure family functioning. The data extracted from the questionnaires were entered into a matrix in Microsoft Excel and processed in EpiInfo version 5.0 and Stata. Descriptive analysis was performed, and a multivariate analysis was performed using unconditional logistic regression. Current consumption of SPA, 35%; age of first use was 10 to 13 years; the prevalence of drug misuse by gender was 34% for girls and 37% in boys. The most consumed legal substance was alcohol 34%, and illegal 3%. The most significant associations with the use of psychoactive substances was; having severe family dysfunction (OR=7.32; 95%CI, 1.74-30.76), being enrolled in the 11th grade (OR=14.6; 95%CI, 2.37-89.74), and having friends who use (OR=3.12; 95%CI, 2.49-10.38). The results obtained in this study show a high percentage of SPA consumption, with a higher prevalence in males. In this population, the most commonly used legal substance is alcohol. Family dysfunction and school grade were significantly associated with drug misuse. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Systematic analytical characterization of new psychoactive substances: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Vicente, Joana; Chassaigne, Hubert; Holland, Margaret V; Reniero, Fabiano; Kolář, Kamil; Tirendi, Salvatore; Vandecasteele, Ine; Vinckier, Inge; Guillou, Claude

    2016-08-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthesized compounds that are not usually covered by European and/or international laws. With a slight alteration in the chemical structure of existing illegal substances registered in the European Union (EU), these NPS circumvent existing controls and are thus referred to as "legal highs". They are becoming increasingly available and can easily be purchased through both the internet and other means (smart shops). Thus, it is essential that the identification of NPS keeps up with this rapidly evolving market. In this case study, the Belgian Customs authorities apprehended a parcel, originating from China, containing two samples, declared as being "white pigments". For routine identification, the Belgian Customs Laboratory first analysed both samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The information obtained by these techniques is essential and can give an indication of the chemical structure of an unknown substance but not the complete identification of its structure. To bridge this gap, scientific and technical support is ensured by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to the European Commission Directorate General for Taxation and Customs Unions (DG TAXUD) and the Customs Laboratory European Network (CLEN) through an Administrative Arrangement for fast recognition of NPS and identification of unknown chemicals. The samples were sent to the JRC for a complete characterization using advanced techniques and chemoinformatic tools. The aim of this study was also to encourage the development of a science-based policy driven approach on NPS. These samples were fully characterized and identified as 5F-AMB and PX-3 using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution tandem mass-spectrometry (HR-MS/MS) and Raman spectroscopy. A chemoinformatic platform was used to manage, unify analytical data from multiple techniques and instruments, and combine it with chemical and

  8. [Psychoactive substance use among Espírito Santo Federal University odontology students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Frossard; Souza, Renata Santos de; Buaiz, Vitor; Siqueira, Marluce Miguel de

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to trace the psychoactive substance use profile among odontology college students from the Espírito Santo Federal University Health Sciences Center. It is an explorative, descriptive, transversal and quantitative study developed with first to last year college students of the odontology course. The instrument used for data collection was an adaptation of one proposed by WHO and developed by WHO - Research and Reporting Project on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Data were listed and analyzed through the Statistical Package Program for the Social Science. The results showed that 60.3% colleges student are female, 48.9% age between 20 and 22 years, 41.3% and 43.7% belong to A and B social class, respectively. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs use reported at least once in lifetime was 72.4% except for alcohol and tobacco; 25.9% used inhaled drugs, 13.2% marijuana, 10.9% amphetamines , 27% tobacco and 87.9% alcohol. It could be concluded that is necessary to prevent improper drug use among college students by inserting this subject on the college curriculum as well as establishing drug use prevention programs for students.

  9. [Prevalence and predictors of psychoactive substance use among men in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Sánchez, Francisco; Falcón Romero, María; Luna, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    The use of psychoactive substances among the prison population is an important public health issue because of its magnitude and health consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among the prison population and to analyse its association with sociodemographic and penitentiary factors, particularly the size of the prison. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire among 2,484 random male inmates in eight prisons of different sizes in Spain. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) during the last 6 months in prison were estimated. Prevalence ratios were used to estimate the association between psychoactive substance use and sociodemographic and penitentiary characteristics. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use in the past 6 months in prison was 59.9% (95% CI: 57.9-62.0). Notable among the sociodemographic variables associated with substance use were drug consumption prior to imprisonment (6.90; 95% CI: 5.51-8.65) and recidivism in prison (2.41; 95% CI: 2.04-2.85). The largest prisons showed a higher frequency of drug use than other prisons. A high prevalence of psychoactive substance use was found in prisons and significant differences were found according to delinquent profile and the size of the prison. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Normann, Per T; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Mørland, Jørg

    2011-05-01

    A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Readiness to Use Psychoactive Substances Among Second-Generation Adolescent Immigrants and Perceptions of Parental Immigration-Related Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviad-Wilchek, Yael; Levy, Inna; Ben-David, Sarah

    2017-10-15

    This research explores the relationship between parental immigration-related trauma and second-generation adolescent substance abuse. To examine this relationship, we focused on Ethiopian adolescents in Israel who are at risk for substance abuse. Many immigrants from Ethiopia experienced severe immigration trauma and research indicates the existence of transgenerational trauma transmission. The current research focuses on the connection between Ethiopian adolescents' perceptions of their parents' immigration trauma and their readiness to use psychoactive substances. Five hundred and ten second-generation Ethiopian adolescents (Israeli-born children of Ethiopian immigrants) filled out questionnaires examining socio-demographic characteristics, immigration impact and readiness to consume alcoholic beverages and use illegal drugs. Our findings show that readiness levels among Ethiopian adolescents to use psychoactive substances are relatively low, and that parental trauma only affects the readiness to consume alcohol. The levels of readiness to consume drugs were partially related to parental trauma. Conclusions/Importance: Transgenerational trauma transmission should be considered when implementing alcohol and substance abuse treatment and prevention policies among second generation immigrants. This should be done on all levels including personal, interpersonal and community levels.

  12. Quality of life of users of psychoactive substances, relatives, and non-users assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís de Campos Moreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is related to one of the basic human desires, which is to live well and feel good. The scope of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of psychoactive substance users and relatives, compared to non-users, analyzed by socioeconomic strata. A cross-sectional study with users of psychoactive substances, relatives, and other individuals who called the Information and Orientation Service regarding drug abuse. Data collection took place between November 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected from users, relatives, and non-users, including socioeconomic characteristics and data regarding substance consumption when appropriate. In addition to this the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was given to 347 individuals. Among the 138 users (70% used alcohol, 76 (39%, marijuana, 111 (57% tobacco, 78 (40% cocaine and 70 (36% crack. Control subjects had higher, scores than the relatives of users and users in all areas of the questionnaire (p < 0.05. Psychoactive substance users scored lower in almost all domains and overall score in the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire in comparison with the sample of non-drug users. These findings reflect poor quality of life of patients and their relatives.

  13. New psychoactive substances: Purchasing and supply patterns in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rachel; Bruno, Raimondo; Peacock, Amy; Dietze, Paul; Breen, Courtney; Burns, Lucinda; Barratt, Monica J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the purchasing and supply patterns of new psychoactive substance (NPS) consumers in Australia. Data were obtained from a self-selected sample of 296 past-year NPS consumers, with comparisons made across dimethyltryptamine (n = 104), 2C-x (n = 59), NBOMe (n = 27), and synthetic cannabinoid (n = 22) users. Most consumers (58%) nominated a friend as their main NPS source, and almost half (46%) reported that they had supplied NPS to others in the past year (predominantly "social supply"). However, when comparisons were made across NPS, NBOMe users were more likely to nominate a dealer (30%) or online marketplace (22%) as their main source and to report: supplying NPS to others (63%); supplying to strangers (29%) and acquaintances (24%); and supplying NPS for cash profit (29%). Similarly, NPS consumers who nominated online markets as their main NPS source (9%; n = 26) were more likely to have supplied NPS to others (risk ratio [RR] 1.57); supplied to strangers (RR 6.05) and acquaintances (RR 12.11); sold NPS for cash profit (RR 4.36); and to have exchanged NPS for something else (RR 3.27) than those who reported alternative primary sources. NBOMe consumers and those who nominated online markets as their main NPS source reported greater engagement with for-profit supply; it is unclear if these individuals have "drifted" into dealing or if they were already engaged in such activities. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Prevalence and factors determining psychoactive substance (PAS) use among Hawassa University (HU) undergraduate students, Hawassa Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Andargachew; Taddesse, Fiker; Yilma, Aweke

    2014-10-07

    Use of psychoactive substances (PAS) early in school age implies drug dependence in later life. Although no studies have been conducted on undergraduate students of Hawassa University, a few studies in Ethiopia have reported that alcohol, khat, and cigarette are the commonly abused PASs among young high school/undergraduate university students. Therefore, this study was designed to establish the prevalence of and predictors for PAS use among undergraduate HU Students. An institution-based quantitative cross-sectional study using the self-administered WHO Model Core Questionnaire to collect information on use of various Psychoactive Substances (PASs) was conducted from June to July 2011. A multistage stratified sampling method was employed to select a total of 586 undergraduate HU students as study participants. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were done to determine factors affecting PAS use. Lifetime, past 12 months, and current prevalence rate for overall PAS were 53.6%, 45.7%, and 35.5% respectively. The study depicted that in the past 12 months of the study period 40.8% used alcohol, 20.3% chewed khat, 11.9% smoked cigarettes, and 0.9% used marijuana. The prevalence of other illicit PASs such as Ecstasy, lysergic diethylamide (LSD), cocaine, crack, heroin, solvents or inhalants and un-prescribed psycho active medications was found zero percent (0%). Having family members who used PAS, peer influence, being male, and living alone during school age were found to be positively associated with overall PAS use in the past 12 months. The prevalence of PAS use among undergraduate HU students is high. Designing effective strategies to reduce PAS use should be everyone's priority.

  15. University of the Free State medical students' view of at-risk drinking behaviour and psychoactive substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Smit

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate undergraduate medical students' knowledge of at-risk drinking behaviour and their own patterns of alcohol intake. The use of non-alcoholic psychoactive substances was also investigated. Design: A cross-sectional study design was used. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was completed by participants. Questionnaires were designed using the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for identifying at-risk drinking. Setting: The School of Medicine, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein. Subjects: Participants included first-, fourth- and fifth-year medical students enrolled in 2006. Results: 371/408 (90.9% questionnaires were returned. 10% of students who repeated an academic year ascribed it to substance use. The majority of students conservatively estimated the maximum daily and weekly safe levels of alcohol consumption for both men and women as notably lower than recommended by the guidelines. Nevertheless, 32% of students admitted to alcohol intake exceeding these limits, and 55.3% were identified as at-risk drinkers. Marijuana was the most common non-alcoholic substance used by medical students (14.6% in the preceding three years. Alcohol or other substances was most frequently used during social activities with friends. Conclusions: Medical students' knowledge of levels of alcohol intake associated with increased risks and their own drinking patterns might influence their approach to patients with alcohol-related problems. Therefore, education regarding at-risk drinking behaviour requires to be addressed.

  16. What products are considered psychoactive under New Zealand's legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, 'legal highs')? Implications for law enforcement and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The problem of defining what psychoactive products and substances should be covered by legislation aimed at controlling new psychoactive substances (NPS; 'legal highs') is central to the current debate on designing new legislative responses to NPS. In New Zealand, implementation of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2013 (PSA) revealed uncertainties about which psychoactive products are covered by the new regime, with important implications for legal penalties. We reviewed five pieces of legislation which can cover substances with psychoactive properties: PSA, Misuse of Drugs Act (MODA), Food Act, Dietary Supplements Regulations and Medicines Act. Our analysis revealed that a number of psychoactive substances which are not MODA-scheduled may potentially fall under more than one regulatory regime, including kava, Salvia divinorum, nitrous oxide, 25I-NBOMe, and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA). For example, kava may be classified as a food, a dietary supplement, a herbal remedy, or a psychoactive substance, depending on how it is presented (including advertising and labelling). There are considerable differences in penalties and regulatory requirements between the different legislative regimes and these may result in unnecessary prosecutions or 'gaming' of the system. We discuss a number of ways to more clearly categorize products, including a public schedule of psychoactive substances and products, demarcation criteria based on the quantity of the active ingredient, and demarcation based on 'discernible intoxication'. Routine use of forensic testing is essential to ensure appropriate prosecutions and penalties. Robust safety standards are also required in legislative regimes exempted from psychoactive substances regime to prevent 'creative compliance'. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Familial Risk Analysis of the Association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Psychoactive Substance Use Disorder in Female Adolescents: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Clarke, Allison; Ten Haagen, Kristina; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A robust and bi-directional comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD, alcohol or drug abuse, or dependence) has been consistently reported in the literature. However, this literature has been based almost exclusively on male only samples and, therefore, the…

  18. Deep brain stimulation in addiction due to psychoactive substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens; Bührle, Christian P; Lenartz, Doris; Sturm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is one of the most challenging health problems. It is associated with enormous individual distress and tremendous socioeconomic consequences. Unfortunately, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and pharmacological, psychological, or social interventions often fail to achieve long-lasting remission. Next to genetic, social, and contextual factors, a substance-induced dysfunction of the brain's reward system is considered a decisive factor for the establishment and maintenance of addiction. Due to its successful application and approval for several neurological disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known as a powerful tool for modulating dysregulated networks and has also been considered for substance addiction. Initial promising case reports of DBS in alcohol and heroin addiction in humans have recently been published. Likewise, results from animal studies mimicking different kinds of substance addiction point in a similar direction. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on DBS in addiction, and to discuss whether these preliminary results justify further research, given the novelty of this treatment approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation between depressive symptoms and quality of life in users of psychoactive substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Reschetti Marcon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the presence of depressive symptoms and quality of life in users of psychoactive substances from Psychosocial Attention Centers in Mato Grosso. Method: A cross-sectional analytical study, conducted in Psychosocial Attention Centers, with 109 users. The instruments used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36, Beck Depression Inventory, socio-demographic variables and the use of psychoactive substances. A Tukey analysis and a Spearman correlation were conducted with a significance level of α<0,05. Results: The most affected domains of quality of life were emotional, social and mental health aspects, besides the strong correlation between depressive symptoms and quality of life. Conclusion: The use of psychoactive substances and the presence of symptoms significantly interfere in the life of users, which can compromise the motivation to the treatment, negatively affecting the quality of life in this population.

  20. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, R S

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  1. Psychoactive Substance Consumption in Recreational Settings among University Students in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Irene

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of psychoactive substances (PAS is a public health problem in Colombia andworldwide. The people who consume such substances are becoming younger, and their effectsare potentially harmful and may affect all areas of adjustment of the individual. Although it hasbeen conceived that way, the use of PAS is not always associated with personal problems or highdegrees of stress. There may be other motivations associated. Objective: The objectives of thisarticle are to present: (a the relative frequency of consumption of PAS among college students,(b which are the PAS consumed most by college students and differences in their consumptionby sex and by age, (3 the relationship between the consumption of PAS and contexts of diversion.Materials and methods: This is a descriptive correlational study derived from an Italian researchproject, in which the sample were 226 college students from four undergraduate programs ofa private university in Bogotá DC, selected using a stratified random sampling procedure withproportional allocation. Participants filled out a questionnaire. Results: The PAS with the highestconsumption were alcohol, nicotine and marijuana. Males predominantly showed an increasedconsumption. The results are consistent with the national trend. Conclusion: The consumptionof SPA among college students is high and some recreational contexts are closely associated withthis behaviour.

  2. Correlates for psycho-active substance use among boarding secondary school adolescents in Enugu, South East, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Chinawa, Awoere T; Obu, Herbert A; Nwokocha, Ada R C; Odetunde, Odutola I

    2016-01-01

    ...; the substances involved and the extent of the problem in this locale. This is a cross-sectional study that assesses the pattern of psychoactive substance use among secondary school adolescents in Enugu, south East, Nigeria...

  3. Exploring the Attractiveness of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) among Experienced Drug Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, J.G.C.; Nabben, T.; Keiman, D.; Haanschoten, G.; Korf, D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) appear yearly on the European market (81 for the first time in 2013, adding to a total of over 350 NPS). Using semi-structured interviews with 25 Dutch experienced recreational drug users, the role of the Internet and friends in gathering and

  4. Psychoactive Substance Use and School Performance among Adolescents in Public Secondary Schools in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Aloysius; Kibanja, Grace; Steffens, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Psychoactive substance use among adolescents influences behavioral and cognitive processes and is associated with adolescents' performance in school. We therefore sought to investigate association of PASU with adolescents' school performance. Methods: We employed quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. To test the…

  5. Family Characterization of Young Experimental Consumers of Psychoactive Substances Seen in the Toxicology Department at Colsubsidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olarte-Olarte María Francisca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation characterized families of adolescents experimenting with psychoactive substances(PAS consumption. Materials and methods: For this purpose, a qualitative study witha hermeneutical emphasis was conducted among a population of adolescents between the agesof 12 and 17 who have experimented with PAS. Semi-structured interviews were conductedwith patients and their families employing a flexible protocol of 14 categories. Results: The findingsshowed low levels of family cohesion and sense of family identity, inconsistency betweeneducational patterns followed by the parents, as well as deficient parental support. Similarly,the findings indicate significant peer influence during the first stages of consumption of illegalsubstances. In this regard, the findings suggest that more than providing physical satisfaction,consumption represents a form of acquiring prestige and social position while granting a sensationof psychological, emotional and social well-being. Conclusions: Parental influence wasalso found considerable in regarding the consumption of legal PAS, like alcohol and tobacco. Thestudy identified as a high-priority need to promote and incorporate communication and conflictresolution skills within the family dynamics by means of prevention and monitoring programs.Those skills and programs would be aimed at providing parents of adolescents experimentingwith PAS consumption with new educational tools to orientate new raising guidelines so as torespond appropriately to the problems identified in this study.

  6. Risk of driving when positive for psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Driving with alcohol imposes an increased risk of injury, but the knowledge about other drugs is limited. Aims This paper aims to assess the risk of driving with alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines in various European countries. Method The risk of getting seriously injured or killed...

  7. Social representations as a subjective production on the use of psychoactive substances in four young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Caicedo-Castaño

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is approached from a historical-cultural perspective, which places as central axis the representations as subjective productions from Fernando González Rey's Theory of subjectivity. The objective is centered on investigating social representations as a subjective production about the consumption of psychoactive substances in four young people. In this, identify the emotional and symbolic dimensions that have four young people regarding the consumption of substances. Method: Comprehensive, interpretive, constructive, interpretive, qualitative study, completing phrases, compositions and inducers not written as films in a group of four young people. Results: The social representations constructed by young people who have used psychoactive substances are involved both symbolic and emotional dimensions that converge as elements of subjective senses in social and individual instances.

  8. Parachuting: a dangerous trend in recreational psychoactive substance delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, David; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Guerlais, Marylène; Le Roux, Gael; Spiers, Andrew; Gerardin, Marie; Lomenech, Hélène; Bretaudeau-Deguigne, Marie; Daveluy, Amélie; Turcant, Alain; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Medicine diversion for recreational use is a constant concern for health authorities. Parachuting, also refered to as bombing, is used in order to increase the expected effect, to accelerate time-to-onset and to create mixtures of medicines and substances. Aeras covered: Firstly, we analyzed all available scientific literature (PRISMA) and internet forums without any limiting timeframe. Secondly, we collected cases of parachuting reported in the west of France by the addictovigilance and poison control centres. Our study confirms the reality of this emerging issue associated with a higher medical risk (60% of intoxication cases were moderate-to-severe in our study). The substances involved in parachuting were primarily stimulants, with a majority of MDMA, although the use of diverted medication and psychotropes is also of concern. Expert opinion: Parachuting is a dangerous way of using substances and of diverting medicines. This type of administration gives users a certain pharmacokinetic latitude to 'play' with respect to substances and medicines. Medicine abuse deterrent formulations do not seem to be sufficient in preventing diversions. This dangerous method of using substances and of diverting medicines should drive pharmaceutical companies to innovate in the interest of public health and safety.

  9. 'Designer drugs': update on the management of novel psychoactive substance misuse in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher D; Robert, Stefanie

    2014-08-01

    The use of novel psychoactive substances ('legal highs' or 'designer drugs') is increasing worldwide. Patients misusing such substances have been reported to experience severe or prolonged side effects requiring admission to acute or critical care wards. These complications can be life threatening if misdiagnosed or mismanaged. As physicians have traditionally had less involvement with the management of such patients compared with their colleagues in emergency departments an update in the management of such patients is indicated. Here we present a summary of the management of those novel substances with the potential for serious complications based on a review of current literature. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  10. Psychoactive Substance Use Among Long Distance Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15.9%). Except for cigrattes, the other substances were used mainly for instrumental purposes. Only about 50% of the respondents had ever attended a health talk on drug abuse. High level of religiousity was less likely to be associated with ...

  11. Psychoactive substance use/abuse among students in Igbinedion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This confirmed the verbal and unofficial report of the abuse of such medicament. Other substances of abuse were cannabis 9 (2.8%), cigarette 7 (2.2%), heroine and cocaine (0.003%). In all instances of abuse, (except for heroine which was even) males predominated. The law enforcement agencies like the Nigeria Police ...

  12. Homicide and Psychoactive Substance use among Offenders in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , cannabis and stimulants with rates of 34.6%, 15.2% and 1.5% respectively. During imprisonment, lower rates of use were reported for these substances. These were 6.1% 1.5% and 6.1% respectively. The consolidated drug use rate among ...

  13. Prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the college students in Chitwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar Pradhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives:Students of colleges may be vulnerable to consume tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drugs due to various factors. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the bachelor level college students of Chitwan.Materials & Methods:This is a descriptive cross sectional study among the 132 bachelor level students at various colleges of Bharatpur, Chitwan district of Nepal. The students were chosen by purposive sampling. A standard pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the data.Results:A total of 90 (68.2% were males and 42 (31.8% were females. The mean age was 22.2 ± 1.7 years. Seventy four (56.06% responded that they had never consumed tobacco in any form.The number of cigarette smoked ranged from one to 20, with a mean of 7.85± 4.94 years. Forty eight (36.36% never consumed alcohol and (87.87% had never used psychoactive drugs.The most common motivator of the use of smoking, tobacco and psychoactive drugs was curiosity.Conclusion:The prevalence of smoking among the bachelor level students participating in our study was 43.94%, alcohol consumption was 63.63% and psychoactive drugs use was 12.12%. 

  14. Running away experience and psychoactive substance use among adolescents in Taiwan: multi-city street outreach survey

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    Lew-Ting Chih-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine: 1 the relationship between being a runaway and the time since the first absconding event and adolescent substance use; 2 whether different kinds of psychoactive substances have a different temporal relationship to the first absconding event; and 3 whether the various reasons for the first absconding event are associated with different risks of substance use. Methods Participants were drawn from the 2004-2006 nationwide outreach programs across 26 cities/towns in Taiwan. A total of 17,133 participants, age 12-18 years, who completed an anonymous questionnaire on their experience of running away and substances use and who were now living with their families, were included in the analysis. Results The lifetime risk of tobacco, alcohol, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use increased steadily from adolescents who had experienced a trial runaway episode (one time lasting ≤ 1 day, to those with extended runaway experience (≥ 2 times or lasting > 1 day, when compared to those who had never ran away. Adolescents who had their first running away experience > 6 months previously had a greater risk of betel nut or illegal drug/inhalant use over the past 6-months than those with a similar experience within the last 6 months. Both alcohol and tobacco use were most frequently initiated before the first running away, whereas both betel nut and illegal drug/inhalant use were most frequently initiated after this event. When adolescents who were fleeing an unsatisfactory home life were compared to those who ran away for excitement, the risk of alcohol use was similar but the former tended to have a higher risk of tobacco, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use. Conclusions More significant running away and a longer time since the first absconding experience were associated with more advanced substance involvement among adolescents now living in a family setting. Once adolescents had left home, they

  15. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected...

  16. A Profile Of Adolescents' Psychoactive Substance Users' Socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is against the backdrop of numerous surveys globally, without the consequent impact on the education of a volatile sample of the population – adolescents. ... students is alcohol, and the significant source of push to use and stay on drugs is the peer group or friends, family type like divorce does determine drug use.

  17. Modern representations about differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to psychoactive substance use

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chugunov; I. F. Pirogov

    2014-01-01

    In recent years in the world there is a tendency of quantity of persons who use drugs increase. Free availability of drugs of different groups for population is the main cause. Another trend associated with the consumption of drugs. All these factors led to the increased frequency of psychosis occurrence among consumers of psychoactive substances. In structure of such psychosis there are a variety of symptoms and syndromes. And since the number of drug users is quite broad in its structur...

  18. Quantifying reinforcement value and demand for psychoactive substances in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Lilje, Todd C; Kassel, Jon D; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-12-01

    Behavioral economics is an emerging cross-disciplinary field that is providing an exciting new contextual framework for researchers to study addictive processes. New initiatives to study addiction under a behavioral economic rubric have yielded variable terminology and differing methods and theoretical approaches that are consistent with the multidimensional nature of addiction. The present article is intended to provide an integrative overview of the behavioral economic nomenclature and to describe relevant theoretical models, principles and concepts. Additionally, we present measures derived from behavioral economic theories that quantify demand for substances and assess decision making processes surrounding substance use. The sensitivity of these measures to different contextual elements (e.g., drug use status, acute drug effects, deprivation) is also addressed. The review concludes with discussion of the validity of these approaches and their potential for clinical application and highlights areas that warrant further research. Overall, behavioral economics offers a compelling framework to help explicate complex addictive processes and it is likely to provide a translational platform for clinical intervention.

  19. Attitudes and Beliefs About New Psychoactive Substance Use Among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Acosta, Patricia; Cleland, Charles M

    2018-02-23

    Attitudes and beliefs about drug use have been shown to be robust correlates of use of drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; however, little is known regarding attitudes or beliefs about new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to examine attitudes and beliefs about NPS and how they relate to self-reported use in a high-risk population-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. 1,048 individuals (age 18-40) were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City in 2016. We queried lifetime use and attitudes and beliefs specific to NBOMe, 2C series drugs, "bath salts" (synthetic cathinones), tryptamines, dissociative NPS, and synthetic cannabinoids. More than half the sample reported being unfamiliar with NPS other than "bath salts" and synthetic cannabinoids. "Bath salts" received the highest ratings of strong disapproval (34.3%), followed by synthetic cannabinoids (23.3%), compared to other NPS (10-14%). "Bath salts" were perceived to be a great risk by 43.1% of the sample, followed by synthetic cannabinoids (27.0%), and other NPS (12-16%). "Bath salts" were reportedly least likely to be used if offered (2.9%). In multivariable models, reporting no disapproval towards use was associated with increased odds of reporting use of 2C drugs, "bath salts", and tryptamines. Having friends who use and reporting intent to use or willingness to use if offered were also associated with use of various NPS classes. This study delineated attitudinal and belief-related correlates of use of various NPS classes. Results can inform prevention effects as NPS continue to emerge.

  20. Mental health professional perception of the embracement towards psychoactive substance user in CAPSad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bernardoni Salles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to chemical dependency treatment is still a great challenge for both, users and health care professionals. Currently, public healthcare policy is a tool to assist in the development of a humanized care model, which advocates for the practice of user inclusion. Objective: Investigate the perception of professionals who work in the mental health field, to understand the inclusion offered to users of psychoactive substances in Psychosocial Care Centers for alcohol and drug users (CAPSad. Method: A descriptive and exploratory study conducted at the CAPSad in São Paulo. Active professionals in the mental health field working at the CAPSad participated in the present study. For data collection a semi-structured questionnaire was used with 27 self-report questions, 15 closed questions, analyzed through statistics and 12 open questions, with speech analysis. Results: The questionnaires of six professionals with a mean of 14.3 years working at the CAPSad, revealed that they had no prior training about inclusion. Five participants responded that they carried out inclusion in the presence of the family, four responded without the presence of family and just one responded according to user choice (each participant could choose more than one option. The results show ambiguity regarding the concept of user inclusion, as all reported that inclusion hampers user reception, qualified listening, guidance and making necessary referrals. Conclusion: The need to create formal spaces for knowledge exchange, case discussion, and encourage professional training, promoting the identity of the service and improving user adherence to treatment was highlighted.

  1. Medical complications of psychoactive substances with abuse risks: Detection and assessment by the network of French addictovigilance centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrière, Hélène; Eiden, Céline; Mallaret, Michel; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    The use of psychoactive substances, whether occasional or regular, can induce a large number of clinical and/or biological complications. These complications may be related to the effects of the active substance itself and/or adulterants, but also to the modalities for use (administrations route, contexts of use). The detection and evaluation of these potentially severe complications are a public health issue. Beyond the assessment of the potential for abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances, the collection and evaluation of complications related to the use of the substances are one of the roles of addictovigilance centres. In this article, the expertise of the French addictovigilance centres in the detection and assessment of medical complications related to psychoactive substances, adulterants or route of administration of substances is advanced through a few recent examples. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Legal high industry business and lobbying strategies under a legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, 'legal highs') in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2016-11-01

    The establishment of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, 'legal highs') under New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) 2013 created a new commercial sector for psychoactive products, previously limited to alcohol and tobacco. To explore how the newly-recognised 'legal high' industry (LHI) viewed and responded to the changing regulatory and market environment. In-depth interviews with six key informants (KI) from the LHI: a leading entrepreneur, chemist, industry spokesperson, retailer, product buyer and a researcher commissioned by the LHI - were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. Formative work for the study included review of official LHI documents (websites, public submissions, self-regulation documents). The LHI stakeholders espoused an idealistic mission of shifting recreational users of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs towards "safer alternatives". Passage of the PSA was viewed as a success after years of lobbying led by pioneering LHI actors. The growth and professionalisation of the LHI resulted in an increasingly commercial market which challenged idealistic views of the original operators. LHI KI reported the targeting of young and low income customers, price cutting and increasing the strength of products as business strategies. Attempts by the LHI to self-regulate did not prevent escalation in the strength of products and fall in retail prices. The LHI reported outsourcing of manufacturing and exporting of their products to other countries, demonstrating an international business model. There was a tension between profit and idealistic motivations within the LHI and this increased as the sector became more commercialised. While the LHI distanced itself from both alcohol and tobacco, they reported the use of similar marketing, business and political lobbying strategies. Rules for engagement with new 'addictive consumption industries' are required to clarify the role they are permitted to play in the

  3. [Psychoactive substance abuse, behavioral disorder and depression during adolescence.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, F; Rorive, M; Zoccolillo, M; Romano, E; Tremblay, R E

    2001-01-01

    This article examines coocurrence of three types of problems of adaptation during adolescence : abuse of psychotropic drugs, behavioral disorder (oppositional and behavioral disorders) and feelings of depression (depression and dysthymia). The study also examines behavioral, social as well as family characteristics which, during childhood, distinguish youths with many adaptation problems from those with only one or no problem. More than 1600 youths from all regions of Quebec participated in the study. These youths were around 15,7 years old when they completed an interview aiming at determining the possible presence of abusive use of psychotropic drugs, behavioral problems and feelings of depression. Their behavioral and sociofamilial characteristics had been previously evaluated (between the ages of 6 and 12) with questionnaires answered by parents and teachers. Results reveal that almost 10 % of youths experience two or three adaptation problems. These youths distinguish themselves from those with only one problem on various personal and sociofamilial dimensions in the course of childhood. Those with one problem represent a little more than 25 % of the sample. They also distinguish themselves from the group of youth with no problem on several variables. However, the group of youths with a problem of substance abuse only, is an exception. The discussion underlines the importance of knowing if there is simultaneous presence of several problems and proposes to intervene in a preventive fashion with youths who risk experiencing many problems.

  4. Use of psychoactive substances and health care in response to anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Carmona, Elodie; Sapinho, David; Messiah, Antoine

    2009-03-01

    The use of psychoactive substances in response to psychological distress is not well documented in the general population and has never been studied in combination with health care use. This study estimated the frequency of health care and substance use in response to anxiety or depressive disorders and determined factors associated with these behaviors. From a large survey of adults from four French regions, the authors selected those with a 12-month probable anxiety or depressive disorder without a substance use disorder (N=4,071). These disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form, and participants were asked whether they used substances or health care in response to each disorder. The use of substances in response to anxiety or depressive disorders was 12.9% among men and 5.2% among women. Compared with those who used health care only, those who used substances (with or without health care) were more likely to be men, single, and young. Those who used both substances and health care were also less likely to have a depressive disorder. This study shows that a sizeable portion of the general population uses substances in response to anxiety or depressive disorders. It also shows that these substance users have distinctive sociodemographic characteristics and can thus be targeted by prevention programs. Strategies to reach substance users with depressive or anxiety disorders who do not use health care remain to be elaborated.

  5. Epidemiological aspects of illicit psychoactive substance dependents the interned in psychiatric institution of Criciúma-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunei Votri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is about a descriptive study of quantitative boarding, developed in October of 2008 in the Psychiatric Hospital of the city of Criciúma-SC, with the objective to identify to the aspects epidemiologists of the illicit psychoactive substance dependents. The specific objectives of the study had been: to identify illicit psychoactive substance dependents interned through handbooks of the institution; to inquire the number of psychiatric readmissions in the studied population; to identify the types of more common illicit psychoactive substances, To identify to aspects epidemiologists of the psychoactive substance dependents from dependent 0 variable: sex, age, age group, level of instruction, race, civil state, number of children, religion, profession and origin; e changeable independent: type of used substance, time of use, number of internments and clinical patology associates. The interest for the research subject appeared from the comment in field of work for presenting great number of patients interned for abuse or dependence of psychoactive substances and its social repercussion. 193 handbooks had been inquired, being that 13 had been identified with illicit psychoactive substance diagnosis in the period of the collection of data, having the prevalence in the masculine sex (9, of the white race (11, the majority single (7, with a young age group, on average 35 years. The majority interned involuntarily (8 and the number of readmissions was equivalent 50% of patients and others 50% having its first internment. How much to the types of used illicit psychoactive substances more, the most cited they had been marijuana (20%, crack (17% and cocaine (17%. The half of the sample almost possess clinical illnesses associates, as cardiopathy, diabetes, hepatitis C, arterial hypertension and HIV (Virus of the Immunodeficiency Human being. From these results one sees it importance of clarification and organization of preventive programs in

  6. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC-QTOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz-Lomba, J A; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-03-31

    The quantification of illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in sewage has been shown to be a valuable tool that complements existing approaches in monitoring the patterns and trends of drug use. The present work delineates the development of a novel analytical tool and dynamic workflow for the analysis of a wide range of substances in sewage-based samples. The validated method can simultaneously quantify 51 target psychoactive substances and pharmaceuticals in sewage-based samples using an off-line automated solid phase extraction (SPE-DEX) method, using Oasis HLB disks, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) in MS(e). Quantification and matrix effect corrections were overcome with the use of 25 isotopic labeled internal standards (ILIS). Recoveries were generally greater than 60% and the limits of quantification were in the low nanogram-per-liter range (0.4-187 ng L(-1)). The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug scene poses a specific analytical challenge since their market is highly dynamic with new compounds continuously entering the market. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) simultaneously allowed the unequivocal identification of NPS based on a mass accuracy criteria of 5 ppm (of the molecular ion and at least two fragments) and retention time (2.5% tolerance) using the UNIFI screening platform. Applying MS(e) data against a suspect screening database of over 1000 drugs and metabolites, this method becomes a broad and reliable tool to detect and confirm NPS occurrence. This was demonstrated through the HRMS analysis of three different sewage-based sample types; influent wastewater, passive sampler extracts and pooled urine samples resulting in the concurrent quantification of known psychoactive substances and the identification of NPS and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Self-Reported consumption of illegal psychoactive substances in a street inhabitant population from Cali, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Carrillo, Mauricio; Álvarez-Claros, Katherine E; Osorio-Sabogal, Iván Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of self-reported use of illegal psychoactive substances in a homeless population of the city of Cali. Method Descriptive study of prevalence of period. The target population was 763 homeless people registered during 2010 in the database provided by a temporary shelter facility in the city of Cali. Statistical analysis was performed using R version 3.2.0. Research safe according to the resolution 8430 of 1993. Results 76.9 % of the homeless population recognizes that they consume some type of illegal psychoactive substance (IPAS). The substances with a higher prevalence of use in this population were: marijuana (51.2 %), the crack cocaine (44.6 %) and cocaine (11.3 %). 28.6 % of homeless people were found to consume IPAS more than three times a day and that the main route of administration is smoke (54.7 %). 50% of respondents reported having been hospitalized at some time in a rehabilitation center. Discussion The results in this study show that the problem of PASI consumption significantly affects the population of homeless people, with marijuana and crack cocaine being the most commonly used, which is a complex situation if the easy access of these substances and the severe physical and mental degenerative effects the cause in those who consume them are taken into account. Therefore it is necessary to support initiatives aimed at intervening in this social phenomenon.

  8. Characterizing users of new psychoactive substances using psychometric scales for risk-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeker, Annabel; van der Burg, Babette G; van Laar, Margriet; Brunt, Tibor M

    2017-07-01

    Studies investigating risk-related behavior in relation to new psychoactive substance (NPS) use are sparse. The current study investigated characteristics of NPS users by comparing risk-related behavior of NPS users to that of illicit drugs (ID) users and licit substances users and non-users (NLC) users. In this cross-sectional study we included 528 individuals across an age range of 18-72years. Using a web-based questionnaire we collected self-report data on substance use, sensation seeking, impulsivity, peer substance use and risk perception of substance use. NPS and ID users had a higher level of sensation seeking compared to NLC users (NPS users: pusers: pusers (pusers (p=0.16), had increased levels of impulsivity compared to NLC users. NPS users had significantly higher scores for sensation seeking (F1,423=51.52, pusers. Additionally, NPS users had significantly more peers who use substances compared to ID and NLC users. Also, NPS and ID users had lower risk perception for most substances than NLC users. NPS users had lower risk perception for most substances than ID users. The findings highlight that NPS users show substantial more risk-related behavior than both ID and NLC users. Therefore, NPS users might be considered as a distinctive group of substance users that need another approach in terms of prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale adapted for people who use psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Verónica Del Valle; Burrone, María Soledad; Fernandez, Alicia Ruth; Boyd, Jennifer E; Abeldaño, Roberto Ariel

    2017-01-01

    People who consume psychoactive substances may experience situations of social stigma on the part of the society in general, and also situations of internalized-stigma derived from their own consumption of substances. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale has been shown to be valid and reliable to evaluate the internalized-stigma in people with severe mental disorders, but in Argentina there is no a Spanish version of this scale for use with people who use psychoactive substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness instrument adapted for people who use psychoactive substances. The work was carried out on a sample of 200 patients older than 18 years under treatment of rehabilitation by consumption of psychoactive substances in a public institution of the city of Córdoba (Argentina) between the years 2014 and 2016. The instrument used was the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) previously adapted for use in these groups of patients. It was determined the reliability of the scale through Cronbach's coefficients α and factorial structure was analyzed through an exploratory factor analysis. The obtained coefficients showed a high reliability, while in the factorial structure emerged the 4 theoretical dimensions described by Ritsher, namely: social isolation, perceived discrimination, alienation and stereotyping. It is concluded that the scale adapted for people who use psychoactive substances is reliable and with an adequate factorial structure.

  10. Detection of new psychoactive substance use among emergency room patients: results from the Swedish STRIDA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Bäckberg, Matilda; Hultén, Peter; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Beck, Olof

    2014-10-01

    The "STRIDA" project monitors the occurrence and trends of new psychoactive substances (NPS; "Internet drugs/designer drugs/legal highs") in Sweden, and collects information about their clinical symptoms, toxicity and associated health hazards. The initial results of the project documented a widespread use of many different NPS by mainly adolescents and young (age range 13-63 years, median 20), male (79%) adults, among cases of drug intoxications presenting at emergency departments and intensive care units across the country. The new substances were identified in samples of urine and blood by a multi-component LC-MS/MS method, and the severity of clinical symptoms were graded by the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS). Of the initial 189 samples submitted for laboratory investigation, 156 (83%) tested positive for at least one drug. Besides classical substances such as ethanol, cannabis and amphetamines, many NPS were detected comprising synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists ("Spice"), piperazines, substituted phenethylamines, synthetic cathinones, hallucinogenic tryptamines, piperidines, opioid related substances, ketamine and related substances, and GABA analogues (in total more than 50 substances). About half of the cases were demonstrated to be multiple drug intoxications, sometimes making it hard to associate the clinical presentations with one specific substance. In conclusion, the STRIDA project has documented use of a broad variety of NPS among mainly young people all over Sweden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de Medicina de Salvador (BA Psychoactive substance use by medical students from Salvador (BA

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    Kleuber Moreira Lemos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Estudos indicam que estudantes de Medicina, apesar do seu dedutível conhecimento sobre os efeitos das substâncias psicoativas, consomem-nas em proporção semelhante à dos jovens de mesma idade na população geral. OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão local do consumo dessas substâncias entre graduandos de Medicina e contribuir na formulação de atividades preventivas. MÉTODOS: Aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado no qual foi avaliada a freqüência de uso das substâncias psicoativas entre os estudantes, assim como as principais razões apontadas para o consumo. Foram analisados 404 questionários obtidos entre alunos dos seis anos de curso das duas maiores escolas médicas de Salvador. RESULTADOS: As drogas mais utilizadas no critério uso na vida foram álcool (92,8% e lança-perfume (46,2%. O uso de álcool apresentou-se constante nos seis anos de curso. Entretanto, o uso de tabaco, lança-perfume e tranqüilizantes aumentou significativamente para os alunos dos últimos anos (p BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students consume psychoactive substances at the same rates as the same age youth on general population, despite their predictable knowledge about drugs effects. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local pattern of psychoactive substances use among medical students and contribute for the formulation of preventive activities. METHODS: The frequency of psychoactive substances use was evaluated by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that also asked the main reasons for that use. Four hundred and four students in the first to sixth year from the two biggest medical schools in Salvador answered the questionnaire. RESULTS: The lifetime use was bigger for alcohol (92.8% and inhalant (46.2%. Alcohol use was constant for the students from first to sixth year of course, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. However, tobacco, inhalants and tranquilizers use had a significant increase at the last two years

  12. Prevalence of alcohol and other substances of abuse among injured patients in a Norwegian emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Normann, Per Trygve; Rossow, Ingeborg; Larsen, Margrete; Mørland, Jørg; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2011-09-01

    Studies have found a high prevalence of both alcohol and other impairing psychoactive drugs in injured patient populations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potentially impairing psychoactive substances in all patients admitted to a hospital emergency department with injuries from accidents, assault or deliberate self harm. A total of 1272 patients over 18 years of age, admitted to the hospital within 12h of injury, were included. Presence of alcohol was determined by an enzymatic method and other drugs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), both highly specific analytical methods for determining recent intake. There were 510 (40%) women in the sample. Of the patients, 38% of the women and 48% of the men had a positive blood sample for psychoactive substances on admission. The most prevalent psychoactive substance was alcohol (27%) with an average concentration of 1.5 g/kg. A further 21% of patients tested showed use of medicinal drugs, and 9% showed use of illicit substances. Cannabis was the most prevalent illicit drug (6.2%). Diazepam (7.4%) and zopiclone (5.3%) were the most prevalent medicinal drugs. In road traffic accidents, 25% of the car drivers had positive findings, about half of them for alcohol. Psychoactive substances were found in nearly half the patients admitted with injuries. The most common substance was alcohol. Alcohol was particularly related to violence, whereas medicinal drugs were most prevalent in accidents at home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Family health and family physician’s influence on prevention of psychoactive substances abuse

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    Lapčević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for

  14. [Family health and family physician's influence on prevention psychoactive substances abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapčević, Mirjana; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for help to the chosen

  15. Drugs of Abuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances at Outdoor Music Festivals in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jacob; Smith, Alexis; Yale, Alexander; Chow, Christopher; Alaswad, Elsa; Cushing, Tracy; Monte, Andrew A

    2017-11-17

    Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 171 attendees during the Sonic Bloom and Arise music festivals in Colorado in 2015 and 2016. Discrete variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. The anonymous, multi-domain interview documented the knowledge, attitudes beliefs, and practices underlying DOA use, which were analyzed with qualitative methods. We enrolled 171 participants that endorsed DOA use at the festivals. Most were experienced DOA users, who perceived minimal risks associated with DOA and NPS use. Nearly all unanimously reported normalization of DOA at music festivals. Participants popularly cited empathogenic, entactogenic, and entheogenic effects of DOA as their primary motivations for use. NPS use was endorsed by 39.8% (n = 68) of respondents, all of whom identified as being experienced DOA users. This population of novel psychoactive substance users is primarily composed of experienced drug users that endorsed use because of low cost, minimal perceived risk, accessibility, and normalization of drug use at music festivals.

  16. [Impact of internet on poisoning with psychoactive substances in young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Tchórz, Michał; Kujawa, Anna; Szponar, Jarosław; Drelich, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    These days young people use internet as a source of information. Internet offers knowledge that can be used not only for school education but also to obtain information about usage and effects of psychoactive substances. Recent research shows that young people more often use internet websites and chat rooms to exchange knowledge and experience with chemicals and everyday products used as intoxicants, for example: nutmeg, nonprescription medications, metal cleaning liquid or feminine hygiene products. This article shows the extend of knowledge young people can gain from popular internet websites. Information on the web is presented as appealing, attractive and encouraging. From a toxicologist point of view it is extremely important to be familiar with those new threats because more and more often we have to treat young patients with a serious poisoning from usage of experimental intoxicating substances.

  17. Modern representations about differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to psychoactive substance use

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    V. V. Chugunov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years in the world there is a tendency of quantity of persons who use drugs increase. Free availability of drugs of different groups for population is the main cause. Another trend associated with the consumption of drugs. All these factors led to the increased frequency of psychosis occurrence among consumers of psychoactive substances. In structure of such psychosis there are a variety of symptoms and syndromes. And since the number of drug users is quite broad in its structure - there are also persons with mental illness. This gives number of diagnostic difficulties. In this regard, the aim of the study was to trace the modern ideas of differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to the drug use. Materials and methods of research. In this work the content analysis of the modern representations of differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders as a result of the use of psychoactive substances was made. The problem of determination of primary and secondary nature of drug addiction in patients with psychotic disorders was indicated. Etiology and psychopathogenesis hypotheses of the addiction from psychoactive substances in the context of their correlation with endogenous mental pathology were defined. In the literature there is no clear diagnostic criteria that would allow distinguishing psychosis due to the use of drugs and endogenous psychosis, which is combined with the admission medicines. However, the attention of clinicians should be concentrated on the premorbid condition: the presence of hereditary family history, pathological behavior in childhood and adolescence. It was found that the majority of substances may cause one or more syndromes - delirium, dementia, and amnestic syndrome, delusional syndrome, hallucinatory syndrome, depressive syndrome, anxiety, and personality disorder, such disorders as schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders are not rare. Special attention was paid to the

  18. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC-QTOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baz-Lomba, J.A., E-mail: jba@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PO box 1078 Blindern, 0316, Oslo (Norway); Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway)

    2016-03-31

    The quantification of illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in sewage has been shown to be a valuable tool that complements existing approaches in monitoring the patterns and trends of drug use. The present work delineates the development of a novel analytical tool and dynamic workflow for the analysis of a wide range of substances in sewage-based samples. The validated method can simultaneously quantify 51 target psychoactive substances and pharmaceuticals in sewage-based samples using an off-line automated solid phase extraction (SPE-DEX) method, using Oasis HLB disks, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) in MS{sup e}. Quantification and matrix effect corrections were overcome with the use of 25 isotopic labeled internal standards (ILIS). Recoveries were generally greater than 60% and the limits of quantification were in the low nanogram-per-liter range (0.4–187 ng L{sup −1}). The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug scene poses a specific analytical challenge since their market is highly dynamic with new compounds continuously entering the market. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) simultaneously allowed the unequivocal identification of NPS based on a mass accuracy criteria of 5 ppm (of the molecular ion and at least two fragments) and retention time (2.5% tolerance) using the UNIFI screening platform. Applying MS{sup e} data against a suspect screening database of over 1000 drugs and metabolites, this method becomes a broad and reliable tool to detect and confirm NPS occurrence. This was demonstrated through the HRMS analysis of three different sewage-based sample types; influent wastewater, passive sampler extracts and pooled urine samples resulting in the concurrent quantification of known psychoactive substances and the identification of NPS and pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • A novel reiterative workflow

  19. [Initiation and consumption of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults in an Anti-Drug Psychosocial Care Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2014-03-01

    The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.

  20. Chromatography as Method for Analytical Confirmation of Paracetamol in Postmortem Material Together with Psychoactive Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscevic-Tokic, Jasmina; Tokic, Nedim; Ibrahimpasic, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in addition to aspirin is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic medication by millions of patients worldwide. It is an example that paracetamol as medicine that in the world is provided without a doctor’s prescription, can lead to death. Today paracetamol became an integral part of a heroin mixture and is very popular at the street market. The main reason for this is that it can be obtained without a prescription, it is cheap, and by most people well tolerated without side effects. It is probably used for “cutting” the pure heroin, as it says in the jargon, and in that manner from small amount of pure drug is obtained greater amount, which is then sold on the street. The goal is to identify presence of paracetamol, by analytical method of gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in postmortem material together with psychoactive substances. Material and methods: For chemical-toxicological analysis is used biological material collected trough autopsy of 20 deceased people, suspected to have died due to psychoactive substance overdose. All received samples are stored at -20 ° C until analysis at our laboratory. From processed 47 samples that were analyzed in the period from 2014 to 2015, 19 are blood samples, urine 19, 3 samples of stomach contents, and 6 samples of bile content. Deceased were middle-aged, of which only 7 were female. The tested samples were processed according to two methods of extraction. Extraction by XAD-2 resin, and the extraction by the method of salting out with sodium tungstate. Extracts of the samples were then dissolved in chloroform and continued analysis at the analytical instrument. Identification of the paracetamol presence, in the test biological samples is demonstrated by the technique of gas chromatography with mass spectometry (hereinafter referred to as GC-MS). The technique of GC-MS is a selective, sensitive and reliable, and is therefore considered a “gold standard

  1. Awareness survey of so-called Dappou drugs or Kiken drugs (New Psychoactive Substances) among University Students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse-Nagase, Yasuko; Saito, Fukumi; Hirohara, Toshie; Miyakawa, Happei

    2015-10-09

    Spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a worldwide problem. In Japan, NPSs with psychoactive ingredients are called as "dappou drugs" or "kiken drugs." Their potential effect on the Japanese society cannot be ignored. We conducted an awareness survey of So-called Dappou Drugs or Kiken Drugs among the students of Ibaraki University, a national university in Japan, in April 2014. 3976 students (2425 men, 1406 women and 145 unspecified) participated in this study. 2813 (70.7 %) respondents were aware of dappou drugs. Only 39.5 % of the respondents selected the option of "ingredients that cause delusions and/or hallucinations may be included" in dappou drugs. 23.4 % of the respondents selected "the number of (dappou drug) users requiring emergency hospitalization due to acute intoxication is increasing". Of the respondents, 19 (0.5 %) reported that they had been invited to use dappou drugs previously, and 40 (1.0 %) had witnessed and/or heard of somebody close to them using the drugs. Those who drank alcohol every day and those who smoked had a higher chance of witnessing and/or hearing of somebody close to them using dappou drugs than those who did not drink or smoke, respectively. Japanese university students do not have sufficient knowledge about dappou drugs or kiken drugs to protect themselves from potential drug misuse. It is both important and urgent to educate Japanese university students about the harmful effects of dappou drugs; in addition, it is important to provide such knowledge before the students are allowed to legally drink and smoke.

  2. New challenges and innovation in forensic toxicology: focus on the "New Psychoactive Substances".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Pascali, Jennifer P; Tagliaro, Franco

    2013-04-26

    In the recent years, new molecules have appeared in the illicit market, claimed to contain "non-illegal" compounds, although exhibiting important psychoactive effects; this heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of compounds are commonly known as "New Psychoactive Substances" or, less properly, "Smart Drugs" and are easily distributed through the e-commerce or in the so-called "Smart Shops". They include, among other, synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and tryptamine analogs of psylocin. Whereas cases of intoxication and death have been reported, the phenomenon appears to be largely underestimated and is a matter of concern for Public Health. One of the major points of concern depends on the substantial ineffectiveness of the current methods of toxicological screening of biological samples to identify the new compounds entering the market. These limitations emphasize an urgent need to increase the screening capabilities of the toxicology laboratories, and to develop rapid, versatile yet specific assays able to identify new molecules. The most recent advances in mass spectrometry technology, introducing instruments capable of detecting hundreds of compounds at nanomolar concentrations, are expected to give a fundamental contribution to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of the toxicological screening to include not only all these continuously changing molecules but also their metabolites. In the present paper a critical overview of the opportunities, strengths and limitations of some of the newest analytical approaches is provided, with a particular attention to liquid phase separation techniques coupled to high accuracy, high resolution mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Psychoactive Substances-Recent Progress on Neuropharmacological Mechanisms of Action for Selected Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zurina; Bosch, Oliver G; Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Kasinather, B Vicknasingam; Seifritz, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Quednow, Boris B; Müller, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use. With these measures, however, a drug does not disappear, but frequently continues to be used, which eventually allows an even better estimate of the drug's properties. Thus, only in rare cases, there is a final verdict that is no more questioned. Instead, the view on a drug can change from tolerable to harmful but may also involve the new establishment of a desired medical application to a previously harmful drug. Here, we provide a summary review on a number of NPS for which the neuropharmacological evaluation has made important progress in recent years. They include mitragynine ("Kratom"), synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., "Spice"), dimethyltryptamine and novel serotonergic hallucinogens, the cathinones mephedrone and methylone, ketamine and novel dissociative drugs, γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol. This review shows not only emerging harm potentials but also some potential medical applications.

  4. Alcohol consumption, sex, and use of psychotropic substances among male Hong Kong-mainland China cross-border substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lam, Lawrence T

    2007-04-01

    The study investigated the prevalence and associated factors for co-occurrence of psychotropic substance use, alcohol consumption and sexual activities among substance users. Totally, 1167 Hong Kong Chinese males aged 18-30 having used substances in mainland China in the last year were identified. Of them, 72.5% and 42.7% respectively reported having consumed alcohol and engaged in sexual activities in conjunction with the last episode of substance use. Among those using substances exclusively in mainland China, multivariate analyses showed that having friends who frequently used substances in China (OR=3.18) and being accompanied by friends in the last episode of substance use (OR=2.31) were associated with alcohol consumption; older age (OR=2.01), higher education level (OR=2.31), alcohol consumption (OR=2.72), belief that substance use increased sexual potency (OR=2.81) and use of multiple types of psychotropic substances in China (OR=2.94) were significantly associated with having sex in conjunction with the last episode of using psychotropic substances. Cross-border psychoactive substance use often co-occurs with alcohol and sex. High levels of risk are involved. Different types of preventive programs need to be integrated.

  5. [Visits to the doctor because of illness or injury of the students of vocational schools who consume or do not consume psychoactive substances (comparative aspects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurgaĭtene, D P; Shopagene, D S; Andreev, V A

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate what impact has the use of different narcotic drugs, alcohol and tobacco on the health of students and the risk of injuries. We carried out a questionnaire survey of the first year students from all six vocational schools of Klaipeda (Lithuania) in 2004, 2006 and 2008. A total of 912 students (507 boys and 405 girls, mean age 17.5 years) were surveyed with an anonymous questionnaire. The findings were analysed with computer soft SPSS (SPSS 16.0 for Windows). The results showed that the use of any psychoactive substances is damaging to health, especially injection and club narcotic drugs. Adolescents addicted to any psychoactive substances more often than non-addicts visited doctor due to illness or injury during the last 12 months. Adolescents on illegal drugs, especially boys on injectable narcotic drugs and girls on club drugs were at twice higher risk for disease or injury (odds ratio--OR--3.39, 95% confidence interval--CI--1.25 to 9.19, p = 0.016 and OR--2.38, CI--1.35 to 4.20, p = 0.003, respectively). Tobacco and alcohol consumption did not significantly increase this risk with the exception of tobacco smoking girls. We think it happened because these two addictions are widely spread among large part of the boys from the vocational schools.

  6. Experimentação e uso regular de bebidas alcoólicas, cigarros e outras substâncias psicoativas/SPA na adolescência Experimentation and regular use of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes and other Psychoactive Substances (PAS during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição O. Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o uso de bebidas alcoólicas, cigarros, outras substâncias psicoativas - SPA e fatores de risco entre adolescentes das escolas de um município com 500 mil/hab., Bahia/Brasil. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória, estratificada por conglomerado com adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos, totalizando 10 escolas públicas e 1.409 alunos de Feira de Santana. O instrumento auto-aplicável foi elaborado segundo a OMS e outros estudos nacionais adequados à faixa adolescente, com rigoroso procedimento, garantindo anonimato e sigilo. RESULTADOS: 86,5% dos adolescentes consideravam-se bem informados sobre SPA, a maioria por TV, rádio e escola; 57,0% relataram uso de bebidas alcoólicas, principalmente cervejas e vinhos; 23,3% usavam cigarros e 5,2% outras SPA (cânabis, solventes e cocaína; 29,3% usavam bebidas uma a três vezes/mês e 13% todo final de semana. Na faixa de 10 a 14 anos, 47% experimentaram bebidas e 16,7% outras SPA. A razão de prevalência (RP mostrou consumo de bebidas, cigarros e outras SPA significantemente maiores na faixa 17 a 19 anos e sexo masculino. A curiosidade foi a principal motivação; na companhia de amigos e pais; festas e casas de colegas. CONCLUSÕES: A Necessidade de institucionalização de atividades adequadas nas escolas à prevenção do uso das SPA entre jovens.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the use of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, other psychoactive substances - PAS , among adolescents of public schools of Feira de Santana, Bahia/Brazil. METHOD: Cross sectional study with random samples, stratified in terms of conglomerate units (schools and students. The sample of the study totalled 1,409 adolescents between 14 and 19 years old from 10 public schools; 30% of the total of schools of the municipality with 500,000/inhabitants. The representation of schools and students was respected. The self-report instrument was elaborated according to OMS recommendations and as used in others studies1

  7. Relationship of alexithymia to personality styles in people dependent on psychoactive substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Procházka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The addiction to psychoactive drugs still remains among the relevant research topics. The research herein focuses on the study and analysis of the relations among the alexithymia, and personality styles. The analyses of such psychological constructs may represent valuable views beneficial for the progress in the up-to-date addictology. The article deals with a number of topics, such as, definition of alexithymia, the issue of addictology and personality aspects.. The applied statistical methods are descriptive statistics, factor analysis, non-parametric Spearman's correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney U Test. The reason for choosing the non-parametric statistics has been the conclusion of the normality test pointing at the fact that the acquired data had not complied with the normal distribution assumption. The data collection methods were questionnaires TAS-20 (Toronto Alexithymia Scale to measure alexithymia, and PSSI (Personality Style and Disorder Inventory. The gross sample under research was represented by 55 probands, namely 14 women and 41 men. The data were collected in the Psychiatric Hospital of Marianna Oranžská in Bílá Voda. The obtained results enabled us to answer the postulated research questions, which were evaluated and the following conclusions were reached: In people addicted to alcohol alexithymia occurs in 41.83 %. In subjects addicted to psychoactive drugs with alexithymia there is a substantial difference in the personality styles of a schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, negativistic, borderline, histrionic, and self-defeating type. We believe that in this field of research there is still a huge gap to be filled, and we hope that the research may help to do so by enriching the knowledge with concrete results.

  8. Novel psychoactive substances: An investigation of temporal trends in social media and electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolliakou, A; Ball, M; Derczynski, L; Chandran, D; Gkotsis, G; Deluca, P; Jackson, R; Shetty, H; Stewart, R

    2016-10-01

    Public health monitoring is commonly undertaken in social media but has never been combined with data analysis from electronic health records. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in social media and their appearance in a large mental health database. Insufficient numbers of mentions of other NPS in case records meant that the study focused on mephedrone. Data were extracted on the number of mephedrone (i) references in the clinical record at the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK, (ii) mentions in Twitter, (iii) related searches in Google and (iv) visits in Wikipedia. The characteristics of current mephedrone users in the clinical record were also established. Increased activity related to mephedrone searches in Google and visits in Wikipedia preceded a peak in mephedrone-related references in the clinical record followed by a spike in the other 3 data sources in early 2010, when mephedrone was assigned a 'class B' status. Features of current mephedrone users widely matched those from community studies. Combined analysis of information from social media and data from mental health records may assist public health and clinical surveillance for certain substance-related events of interest. There exists potential for early warning systems for health-care practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Crisis intervention related to the use of psychoactive substances in recreational settings--evaluating the Kosmicare Project at Boom Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Carmo; de Sousa, Mariana Pinto; Frango, Paula; Dias, Pedro; Carvalho, Joana; Rodrigues, Marta; Rodrigues, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Kosmicare project implements crisis intervention in situations related to the use of psychoactive substances at Boom Festival (Portugal). We present evaluation research that aims to contribute to the transformation of the project into an evidence-based intervention model. It relies on harm reduction and risk minimization principles, crisis intervention models, and Grof's psychedelic psychotherapy approach for crisis intervention in situations related to unsupervised use of psychedelics. Intervention was expected to produce knowledge about the relation between substance use and mental health impact in reducing potential risk related to the use of psychoactive substances and mental illness, as well as an impact upon target population's views of themselves, their relationship to substance use, and to life events in general. Research includes data on process and outcome indicators through a mixed methods approach, collected next to a sample of n=176 participants. Sample size varied considerably, however, among different research measures. 52% of Kosmicare visitors reported LSD use. Over 40% also presented multiple drug use. Pre-post mental state evaluation showed statistically significant difference (pcrisis resolution. Crisis episodes that presented no resolution were more often related with mental health outburst episodes, with psychoactive substance use or not. Visitors showed high satisfaction with intervention (n=58) and according to follow-up (n=18) this perception was stable over time. Crisis intervention was experienced as very significant. We discuss limitations and implications of evaluating natural setting based interventions, and the relation between psychoactive substance use and psychopathology. Other data on visitor's profile and vulnerability to crisis showed inconclusive.

  10. Cognitive and value parameters of students’ perceptions of the effects of psychoactive substances

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    Dontsov, Aleksander I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the main results of a study analyzing attitudes toward psychoactivesubstance (PAS effects. These findings demonstrate the conditionality of social, historic, and cultural views of PAS effects. Despite the threat posed by increasing high school and university students’ drug involvement, exploration of this phenomenon in the format of scientific discourse has been limited so far. In 2014–2015, in Yekaterinburg, Moscow, and Krasnoyarsk a survey to evaluate perceptions of high school and university students about PAS effects was conducted (289 respondents, aged 16–22.The methods used included the semantic differential (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test modified by A.G. Shmelyov, a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey, word associations, and content analysis. The use of psychoactive substances is a specific social practice emerging in a certain social context that includes both drug-addicted and PAS-free young people. Examination of the factors affecting the formation of views about PAS effects and the dynamics of youth values is possible by using a bio-psycho-socio paradigm for performing a complex analysis of cognitive, behavioral, and value parameters. As documented in the respondents’ perceptions, distinctive features that are characteristic of drug addicts and that are seen in their behavior area loss of control over behavior, emotions, and volition; changes in value systems; and a tendency to develop a manipulative communication style. Within the system of their social perceptions the respondents endowed drug-addicted persons with pronounced negative characteristics (“aggressiveness,” “addiction,” “stupidity,” “light-mindedness”. Still, they stated that drug abusers are capable of being active, decisive, cheerful, generous, and flexible. The value analysis demonstrated that terminal values appreciated by the school and university students included health, true friends, love, happy family

  11. "Someone Else's Problem": New Psychoactive Substances in the Online Hungarian Media.

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    Kassai, Szilvia; Rácz, József; Nagy, Alexandra; Bíbók, Tamás; Galambvári, Éva; Kilián, Csillag; Gyarmathy, V Anna

    2017-01-01

    Media monitoring is an important method to inform public health and prevention services about emerging health issues, such as new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study assessed the portrayal of NPS in online Hungarian media in 2015 using qualitative content analysis. Hungarian online media considers the dealer to be the main cause of drug use, which is portrayed as a problem for youth, poor people, minorities, and rural populations. The point of view of the articles is externalized, and so is the solution offered by them. From the perspective of the police or using a biomedical approach, the articles suggest that drug use is an individual (someone else's) problem, and the perspectives of insiders (such as users or addiction treatment professionals) are absent. The media portrays low socioeconomic background and the hopelessness of disadvantaged rural and mostly minority populations as the roots of NPS use, and misses the pressing incapability of health care emergency and drug treatment services to cope with the problem. The dominant portrayal of police raids is rarely counterbalanced by voices of active or recovering drug users or professionals in addiction treatment and harm reduction, who could offer a systematic solution to the apparent rapid spread of NPS use.

  12. The interaction of public-school teachers with student users of psychoactive substances

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    De Castro Rossi L.C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and early use of psychoactive substances by children and adolescents represents a challenge to public-health practice. To understand teachers' interactions with student users of drugs and develop a representative theoretical model of such experience this study was conducted. Qualitative study conducted in Sro Paulo, Brazil, with 32 teachers from public schools by means of focal groups and based on the Grounded Theory as its methodological framework. Progressively comprehensive categories converged to three phenomena: Identifying student's users; Feeling powerless in face the challenges of drugs use; Silencing to preserve oneself from a threatening scenario. These phenomena constructed the core category of the experience: Silencing to preserve oneself from a threatening scenario in face of the fragility of rescuing student's users of drugs. The clash between inducing and protective factors in the concrete situations of drugs use was revealed, thus pointing out that the lack of State and social support associated with the user's relation with drug trafficking and violence leads teachers to silence as they feel unprotected in face of a situation surrounded by stigma and prejudice. Coping strategies should include the educators, relatives, health care professionals and government institutions, thus providing ways to prevent and treat use, orientate and reconstruct lives in a process of active participation for all students

  13. Extending the capability of forensic electrochemistry to the novel psychoactive substance benzylpiperazine

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    S.A. Waddell

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzylpiperazine (BZP is a novel psychoactive substance that is commonly abused in tablet form as an “ecstasy-type” drug. Electroanalysis offers genuine potential for field testing of bulk drug samples. This research is the first to investigate the viability of voltammetric analysis of BZP. Initial cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M KCl showed an oxidative peak at a glassy carbon electrode for BZP at approximately 0.8 V (scan rate 205 mV s−1. Next an optimised electrode/electrolyte combination (viz. 80:20 W:W glassy carbon beads:nujol and pH 9.5, 40 mM, Britton-Robinson buffer was developed using K3Fe(CN6 to test the electrode material. The oxidation of BZP involves two electrons and two protons and a mechanism has been proposed. An anodic stripping square wave voltammetric method was optimised by factorial design with the conditions of deposition: −0.8 V for 135 s, and stripping: step height 10 mV, amplitude 50 mV and frequency 13 Hz. A limit of detection of 6 μM was achieved. The resolution against 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA was also verified.

  14. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Psychoactive Drug Use among High School Students in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2000-01-01

    Investigated health behaviors practiced by 10th graders in Bogota, Colombia. Data from a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that there was a high use of gateway substances (tobacco and alcohol) among respondents, but lower usage, when compared to U.S. students, of other mind-altering substances such as marijuana,…

  15. Success rates in smoking cessation: Psychological preparation plays a critical role and interacts with other factors such as psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Bertrand; Perriot, Jean; d'Athis, Philippe; Chazard, Emmanuel; Brousse, Georges; Quantin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the results of smoking cessation attempts. Data were collected in Clermont-Ferrand from a smoking cessation clinic between 1999 and 2009 (1,361 patients). Smoking cessation was considered a success when patients were abstinent 6 months after the beginning of cessation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between abstinence and different factors. The significant factors were a history of depression (ORadjusted = 0.57, p = 0.003), state of depression at the initial consultation (ORa = 0.64, p = 0.005), other psychoactive substances (ORa = 0.52, psuccess was four times higher). A high score in the Richmond test had a greater impact on success with increasing age (significant interaction: p = 0.01). In exclusive smokers, the contemplation level in the Prochaska algorithm was enough to obtain a satisfactory abstinence rate (65.5%) whereas among consumers of other psychoactive substances, it was necessary to reach the preparation level in the Prochaska algorithm to achieve a success rate greater than 50% (significant interaction: p = 0.02). The psychological preparation of the smoker plays a critical role. The management of smoking cessation must be personalized, especially for consumers of other psychoactive substances and/or smokers with a history of depression.

  16. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

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    Hei-Hwa Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. We developed and validated an LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid–liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC–MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday and 18.7% (interday. The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine.

  17. Psychoactive substances belonging to the amphetamine class potently activate brain carbonic anhydrase isoforms VA, VB, VII, and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Andrea; Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-12-01

    Identifying possible new biological activities of psychoactive substances belonging to various chemical classes may lead to a better understanding of their mode of action and side effects. We report here that amines structurally related to amphetamine, a widely used psychoactive substance, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, mephentermine, and chlorphenteramine, potently activate several carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms involved in important physiological functions. Of the 11 investigated human (h) isoforms, the widespread hCA I and II, the secreted hCA VI, as well as the cytosolic hCA XIII, and membrane-bound hCA IX and XIV were poorly activated by these amines, whereas the extracellular hCA IV, the mitochondrial enzymes hCA VA/VB, the cytosolic hCA VII, and the transmembrane isoform hCA XII were potently activated. Some of these enzymes are abundant in the brain, raising the possibility that some of the cognitive effects of such psychoactive substances might be related to their activation of these enzymes.

  18. Psychoactive substances as a last resort-a qualitative study of self-treatment of migraine and cluster headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Persson, Mari; Kjellgren, Anette

    2017-09-05

    Treatment resistant cluster headache and migraine patients are exploring alternative treatments online. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension regarding the use of non-established or alternative pharmacological treatments used by sufferers of cluster headaches and migraines. A qualitative thematic analysis of the users' own accounts presented in online forum discussions were conducted. The forum boards https://shroomery.org/ , http://bluelight.org , and https://clusterbusters.org/ met the inclusion criteria and were used for the study. The analysis resulted in six themes: a desperate need for effective treatments; the role of the forum-finding alternative treatments and community support; alternative treatment substances; dosage and regimens; effects and treatment results; and adverse effects. The results provide an insight into why, how, and by which substances and methods sufferers seek relief from cluster headache and migraines. These patients are in a desperate and vulnerable situation, and illicit psychoactive substances are often considered a last resort. There appeared to be little or no interest in psychoactive effects per se as these were rather tolerated or avoided by using sub-psychoactive doses. Primarily, psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related psychedelic tryptamines were reportedly effective for both prophylactic and acute treatment of cluster headache and migraines. Treatment results with cannabis were more unpredictable. No severe adverse events were reported, but it was observed how desperation sometimes spurred risky behavior when obtaining and testing various treatment alternatives. The forum discourse mainly revolved around maximizing treatment results and minimizing potential harms.

  19. I like the old stuff better than the new stuff? Subjective experiences of new psychoactive substances.

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    Matthews, Allison; Sutherland, Rachel; Peacock, Amy; Van Buskirk, Joe; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Burns, Lucinda; Bruno, Raimondo

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, monitoring systems have identified the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS). While the use of many NPS is minimal and transitory, little is known about which products have potential for capturing the attention of significant proportions of the drug consuming market. The aim of this study was to explore self-reported experiences of three commonly used NPS classes within the Australian context (synthetic cathinones, hallucinogenic phenethylamines and hallucinogenic tryptamines) relative to traditional illicit drug counterparts. Frequent psychostimulant consumers interviewed for the Australian Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) (n=1208) provided subjective ratings of the pleasurable and negative (acute and longer-term) effects of substances used in the last six months on the last occasion of use, and the likelihood of future use. Stimulant-type NPS (e.g., mephedrone, methylone) were rated less favourably than ecstasy and cocaine in terms of pleasurable effects and likelihood of future use. DMT (a hallucinogenic tryptamine) showed a similar profile to LSD in terms of pleasurable effects and the likelihood of future use, but negative effects (acute and comedown) were rated lower. Hallucinogenic phenethylamines (e.g., 2C-B) showed a similar negative profile to LSD, but were rated as less pleasurable and less likely to be used again. The potential for expanded use of stimulant-type NPS may be lower compared to commonly used stimulants such as ecstasy and cocaine. In contrast, the potential of DMT may be higher relative to LSD given the comparative absence of negative effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychoactive substance use, family context and mental health among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the consumption of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs and demographic variables, mental health and family context among school-aged children. METHODS: The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey was held with a national sample of 109,104 students. Data regarding demographic variables, family background and mental health were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that alcohol consumption was higher among girls, drug experimentation was more frequent among boys and that there was no difference between sexes for smoking. Being younger and mulatto were negatively associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Also negatively associated with such risk behaviors were characteristics of the family context represented by: living with parents, having meals together and parental supervision (when parents know what the child does in their free time. Moreover, characteristics of mental health such as loneliness and insomnia were positively associated with use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Not having friends was positively associated with use of tobacco and illicit drugs and negatively associated with alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the protective effect of family supervision in the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs and, on the contrary, the increasing use of substances according to aspects of mental health, such as loneliness, insomnia and the fact of not having friends. The study's findings may support actions from health and education professionals, as well as from the government and families in order to prevent the use of these substances by adolescents.

  1. Mental health of adolescents who abuse psychoactive substances in Enugu, Nigeria - A cross-sectional study

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    Igwe Wilson C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association between psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse among adolescent has been reported. However prevalence and pattern of such dysfunctions are unknown in our environment. Aims To determine the prevalence of psychosocial dysfunction and depressive symptoms among adolescents who abuse substance and also note the influence of socio-demographic factors and type of substance on the pattern of dysfuction. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 adolescents selected from 29 secondary schools in Enugu metropolis. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select the students. The student drug use questionnaire was used to screen respondents for substance abuse. Those who were abusing substance and matched controls (non substance abusers were assessed for psychiatric symptoms using the 35-item Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. Social classification was done using the parental educational attainment and occupation. Result A total of 290 students were current substance abusers. The substances most commonly abused were alcohol (31.6%, cola nitida (kola nut (20.7% and coffee (15.7%. Using the PSC scale, 70 (24.1% subjects compared to 29 (10.7% of the controls had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 28 for psychosocial dysfuction. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 17.57 p = 0.001. Fifty-four subjects (18.6% had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 50 for depressive symptoms using the Zung SDS compared to 21 (7.7% of controls. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.43, p = 0.001. Prevalence of dysfunction was not significantly related to age in both subjects and controls (χ2 = 4.62, p = 0.010, χ2 = 4.8, p = 0.10 respectively. Also using both scales, there was no significant relationship between psychosocial dysfunction and gender or social class in both subjects and control. The prevalence of dysfuction using both scales was significantly higher

  2. Professional Attitudes of the Teachers in Implementation of a School-Based Programme about Prevention of the Use Psychoactive Substances in 5-7 Grade

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    Kozhuharova Penka Petkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the planning, implementation and evaluation of the program about prevention of the use of psychoactive substances among students 5-7 grade. The study was conducted by survey method with 314 teachers who teach in twenty-six schools. The qualification of the teachers to work with the program about prevention was studied in the lesson of the class. We studied the forms, through which the preventive activity, topicality, the methods used and course curricula for hours in individual classes were implemented. It was found that there was an interaction between the various recipients of the preventive activity. The preparation and qualification of the teachers to work on a program for the prevention of the use of alcohol and tobacco products was studied in the lesson of the class. We pointed out some problematic aspects and guidelines for development of the preventive activity.

  3. Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances among attendees of electronic dance music venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Acosta, Patricia; Sherman, Scott; Ompad, Danielle C; Cleland, Charles M

    2016-11-01

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) continue to emerge in the United States and worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of use. We examined the extent of NPS use in a high-risk population-attendees of electronic dance music (EDM) parties at nightclubs and festivals. We surveyed 682 adults (age 18-25) entering EDM events at nightclubs and festivals in New York City (NYC) in 2015. A variation of time-space sampling was used. We examined the prevalence of self-reported use of 196 NPS and correlates of any NPS use. Over a third (35.1%) of participants reported lifetime use of any NPS. Self-reported use of synthetic cannabinoids was most prevalent (16.3%), followed by psychedelic phenethylamines (14.7%; 2C series: 10.3%, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine [NBOMe] series: 9.0%, Dox series: 3.5%), synthetic cathinones ("bath salts", 6.9%), other psychedelics (6.6%), tryptamines (5.1%), and dissociatives (4.3%). 2C-I was the most prevalent 2C series drug (5.1%); methylone was the most prevalent synthetic cathinone (3.3%), 2-MeO-ketamine was the most prevalent dissociative (3.7%), and 1P-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (2.9%) was the most prevalent non-phenethylamine psychedelic. Risk factors for NPS use included Ecstasy/MDMA/Molly, LSD, and ketamine use; identifying as bisexual (compared to heterosexual), reporting higher frequency of nightclub/festival attendance, and being surveyed outside of a festival (compared to those surveyed outside of nightclubs). NPS use is prevalent in the nightclub and festival scenes in NYC. Since individuals in these scenes-especially frequent attendees-are at high risk for use, prevention and harm reduction services need to be geared toward this population.

  4. The diverse reasons for using Novel Psychoactive Substances - A qualitative study of the users' own perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussan, Christophe; Andersson, Martin; Kjellgren, Anette

    2017-12-11

    The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users' self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively. The self-reported reasons of a self-selected sample of 613 international NPS users were collected via an online survey promoted at the international drug discussion forum bluelight.org and later analyzed qualitatively using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis showed that the participants used NPS because these compounds reportedly: 1) enabled safer and more convenient drug use, 2) satisfied a curiosity and interest about the effects, 3) facilitated a novel and exciting adventure, 4) promoted self-exploration and personal growth, 5) functioned as coping agents, 6) enhanced abilities and performance, 7) fostered social bonding and belonging, and 8) acted as a means for recreation and pleasure. The consumption of NPS was also driven by 9) problematic and unintentional use. The present study contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of the users' own and self-reported reasons for using NPS, which needs to be acknowledged not only in order to minimize drug related harm and drug user alienation but also to improve prevention efforts and reduce the potentially counter-intuitive effects of strictly prohibitive policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropharmacology of new psychoactive substances (NPS: focus on the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cannabimimetics and amphetamine-like stimulants

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    Cristina eMiliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are a heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of molecules available on the global illicit drug market (e.g smart shops, internet, dark net as a substitute for controlled substances. The use of NPS, mainly consumed along with other drugs of abuse and/or alcohol, has resulted in a significantly growing number of mortality and emergency admissions for overdoses, as reported by several poison centers from all over the world. The fact that the number of NPS have more than doubled over the last 10 years, is a critical challenge to governments, the scientific community, and civil society (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2014; EMCDDA, European Drug Report 2014: Trends and developments. The chemical structure (phenethylamines, piperazine, cathinones, tryptamines, synthetic cannabinoids of NPS and their pharmacological and clinical effects (hallucinogenic, anesthetic, dissociative, depressant help classify them into different categories. In the recent past, 50% of newly identified NPS have been classified as synthetic cannabinoids followed by new phenethylamines (17%(WDR, 2014. Besides peripheral toxicological effects, many NPS seem to have addictive properties. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological evidence can help in detecting them. This manuscript will review existing literature about the addictive and rewarding properties of the most popular NPS classes: cannabimimetics (JWH, HU, CP series and amphetamine-like stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone and MDMA analogues. Moreover, the review will include recent data from our lab which links JWH-018, a CB1 and CB2 agonist more potent than Δ9-THC, to other cannabinoids with known abuse potential, and to other classes of abused drugs that increase dopamine signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc shell. Thus the neurochemical mechanisms that produce the rewarding properties of JWH-018, which most likely contributes to the greater incidence of

  6. Use of psychoactive substances in prison: Results of a study in the Lyon-Corbas prison, France.

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    Sahajian, F; Berger-Vergiat, A; Pot, E

    2017-09-01

    In prison, in 2012, according to various sources, from 4 to 56% of the European inmate population used psychoactive substances (PAS). The aim of our study was to describe PAS consumption during incarceration in the prison of Lyon-Corbas, France. A transversal descriptive study was conducted between September 23rd and September 27th 2013 among all inmates of this prison. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, distributed at lunchtime and collected, the same day, at dinnertime, by the mental health service personnel. Among 785 inmates present at the time of the study in the prison of Lyon-Corbas, 710 were included and the response rate was 64.4% (95% CI [60.8-67.8]). Among 457 responding inmates, 16.4% (95% CI [13.2-20.0]) reported no PAS consumption. Among 382 consumers, 74.4% (95% CI [69.8-78.5]) used tobacco, 36.8% (95% CI [32.2-41.8]) cannabis, 30.4% (95% CI [25.9-35.1]) alcohol, 7.7% (95% CI [5.2-10.6]) heroin and 10.3% (95% CI [7.5-13.6]) cocaine. Furthermore, 15% of consumers had started PAS consumption during their incarceration. Among consumers of at least one PAS other than tobacco, cannabis and alcohol, the way of consumption was sniff for 60.0% (95% CI [48.5-70.2]) and injection for 31.0% (95% CI [21.6-42.1]). Use of several PAS at the same time and sharing sniffing and/or injection paraphernalia were other risky behaviors observed; 12% (95% CI [5.8-20.4]) of drug injectors declared using chlorine to sterilize their injection paraphernalia. Our study provides worrying data about PAS consumption in prison. The measures of prohibition do not prevent this consumption. There is even an initiation of consumption of PAS for 15% of the first-time incarcerated inmates. This finding should encourage public authorities to facilitate access of inmates to the care structures in prisons, to improve drug use prevention and care programs and to develop activities (sports, cultural, educational and vocational). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS

  7. Effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT model for reducing the non-medical use of psychoactive substances: a systematic review protocol

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    Young Matthew M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant public health burden associated with substance use in Canada. The early detection and/or treatment of risky substance use has the potential to dramatically improve outcomes for those who experience harms from the non-medical use of psychoactive substances, particularly adolescents whose brains are still undergoing development. The Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment model is a comprehensive, integrated approach for the delivery of early intervention and treatment services for individuals experiencing substance use-related harms, as well as those who are at risk of experiencing such harm. Methods This article describes the protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment model for reducing the non-medical use of psychoactive substances. Studies will be selected in which brief interventions target non-medical psychoactive substance use (excluding alcohol, nicotine, or caffeine among those 12 years and older who are opportunistically screened and deemed at risk of harms related to psychoactive substance use. We will include one-on-one verbal interventions and exclude non-verbal brief interventions (for example, the provision of information such as a pamphlet or online interventions and group interventions. Primary, secondary and adverse outcomes of interest are prespecified. Randomized controlled trials will be included; non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series designs will be considered in the absence of randomized controlled trials. We will search several bibliographic databases (for example, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CORK and search sources for grey literature. We will meta-analyze studies where possible. We will conduct subgroup analyses, if possible, according to drug class and intervention setting. Discussion This

  8. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Lin, Shin-Yu; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2016-03-01

    A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid-liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday) and 18.7% (interday). The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. On the measurement of the effects of alcohol and illicit substances on inhibition of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V; Klein, Raymond M

    2012-06-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the delayed orienting of attention to previously inspected locations in favour of novel locations. Given its implications for visual attention and search, researchers have begun to investigate whether IOR may be impaired by the use of alcohol or illicit substances (e.g. d-amphetamine). The present paper reviews the existing literature exploring the impact of alcohol and other drugs on IOR through the use of the model spatial cueing task developed by Posner. Studies were located that investigated IOR paradigm with respect to either (a) acute effects of alcohol or other psychoactive substances and (b) hallucinogenic drug states as models for psychosis. Findings suggest that alcohol, d-amphetamine and some hallucinogens may alter the timecourse of IOR. This review also yields a critical qualitative analysis of the methodology of studies in this field of research and the implications of particular methodological features for interpreting previous findings. The importance of using multiple stimulus onset asynchronies, employing a cue-back to centre paradigm and distinguishing between acute and chronic substance use are emphasized. Furthermore, questions are raised as to whether findings suggest an impact of psychoactive substances on the subcortical mechanisms that play a critical role in the generation of IOR or are an indirect effect resulting from impairment of the cortical mechanisms responsible for voluntary disengagement of attention. Directions for future research and particular methodological approaches are highlighted.

  10. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sanz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology (“what it feels like” to experience these states is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception (“see,” “visual,” “face,” “reality,” “color”, emotion (“fear”, setting (“outside,” “inside,” “street,” “front,” “behind” and relatives (“mom,” “dad,” “brother,” “parent,” “family” were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain

  11. Non medical use and abuse of psychoactive substances among university students in health-related courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesio Nepomuceno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the pattern of consumption of legal andillicit drugs among students of health-related courses and, if thereare users among the participants in the survey, and find out whetherthey wish to participate in prevention and treatment programs.Methods: Quantitative and descriptive study performed using aself-applicable questionnaire. The study population consisted ofstudents at a private university in the city of Sao Paulo whoanswered a questionnaire on research objectives. Anonymity wasassured, and all of them signed an informed consent form. Results:Five hundred and eighty-three students participated in the study,82% female and 18% male. Most students (75.45% were aged 20-35 years. The average family income ranged from 5 to 15 minimumwages. Among the legal substances, alcohol was most frequentlymentioned as used occasionally, frequently or daily (47.33%,followed by tobacco (36.02%. As to illicit drugs, Cannabis sativawas more often mentioned for experimental and occasional use(12.86% and 2.83% of students reported dependence. It wasfollowed by inhaled substances and cocaine. Crack, heroin in theform of medication (Dolantin, “mushroom tea” and othermedications were also mentioned as tried by the participants.Conclusion: These data were similar to those of other studiesperformed with university students and showed the need to createeducational programs in order to broaden the complexity of thecircle involving drug use and abuse.

  12. [Implications of psychoactive substances on the health of men deprived of liberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Sánchez, Francisco; Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez, Cristóbal; Osuna, Eduardo; Falcón Romero, María; Luna, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of the use of alcohol and other drugs, as well as different types of victimization in men deprived of liberty in the prisons of Castile-La Mancha (Spain). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of men deprived of liberty in four prisons in Castile-La Mancha. An anonymous questionnaire on victimization was distributed among a total of 425 prisoners, with a confidence interval of 95%. The most commonly reported assaults were verbal, affecting 41.4% of the prisoners (n=176) and the least common were sexual, affecting 7.8% (n=33). The most commonly consumed substance was cannabis, with 40.2% (n=171) of prisoners consuming it in the previous month. Victimization and substance use is a reality in prisons, and there is a statistically significant association between the two phenomena. This association should be further studied to design preventive measures and improve prison life. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Headspace analysis of new psychoactive substances using a Selective Reagent Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe; Lanza, Matteo; Agarwal, Bishu; Jürschik, Simone; Sulzer, Philipp; Breiev, Kostiantyn; Jordan, Alfons; Hartungen, Eugen; Hanel, Gernot; Märk, Lukas; Mayhew, Chris A.; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion in the number and use of new psychoactive substances presents a significant analytical challenge because highly sensitive instrumentation capable of detecting a broad range of chemical compounds in real-time with a low rate of false positives is required. A Selective Reagent Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (SRI-ToF-MS) instrument is capable of meeting all of these requirements. With its high mass resolution (up to m/Δm of 8000), the application of variations in reduced electric field strength (E/N) and use of different reagent ions, the ambiguity of a nominal (monoisotopic) m/z is reduced and hence the identification of chemicals in a complex chemical environment with a high level of confidence is enabled. In this study we report the use of a SRI-ToF-MS instrument to investigate the reactions of H3O+, O2+, NO+ and Kr+ with 10 readily available (at the time of purchase) new psychoactive substances, namely 4-fluoroamphetamine, methiopropamine, ethcathinone, 4-methylethcathinone, N-ethylbuphedrone, ethylphenidate, 5-MeO-DALT, dimethocaine, 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran and nitracaine. In particular, the dependence of product ion branching ratios on the reduced electric field strength for all reagent ions was investigated and is reported here. The results reported represent a significant amount of new data which will be of use for the development of drug detection techniques suitable for real world scenarios. PMID:25844048

  14. Current challenges and problems in the field of new psychoactive substances in Germany from a law enforcement perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffert, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, a range of so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS) have established themselves on the German recreational drug scene, causing increased concern. At the same time, a great number of Internet shops have come into existence offering these substances for sale online, ensuring a high level of availability. A number of these substances derived from pharmaceutical research which did not result in marketing authorization, presumably due to unfavourable properties. There are hardly any reliable data on long-term health damage, addictive potential, and other aspects of these scientifically unexplored substances. A number of fatal intoxications have also become known. As a rule, the mostly young consumers do not know what substance they are taking and in what concentration, thus exposing themselves to incalculable health risks and consequences. The punishability of the handling of NPS depends on the actual content: the Narcotic Drugs Act (BtMG) is applicable if a product contains narcotic drugs. If similarly effective substances are contained, which are not classified as narcotic drugs, the (penal) provisions of the Medicinal Products Act might be applicable, if the product has a pharmaceutical effect. Experience gained so far has shown that manufacturers of these intoxicating substances react immediately to inclusions in the German BtMG and put new substances on the market which are chemically similar to the known substances thus circumventing legislation. In view of the immense variety of NPS and the enormous profits derived from their sale, an end to this development is not in sight. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Workplace and psychoactive substances dependence: certificate of eligibility for work and perspectives of prevention in the light of recent innovative regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigno, F; Debarbieri, N; Traversa, F

    2007-01-01

    The Authors consider a present widespread social problem i.e. the abuse and/or addiction to alcohol and drugs (psychoactive substances) with regard to the interferences and consequences it can have on one's working environment. In particular they look into the hardest problem an occupational physician has to face when required to pass judgement on a worker's specific duty fitness, which rightfully falls within the so-called "knotty qualifications". In addition the authors go over the rather complicated Italian laws regulating drugs, alcohol and their relevant problems, underlining how, despite the great number of regulations in force, it's still unclear what an occupational physician is allowed or not allowed to do in such cases. Although even the latest provisions fail to give a clue for correctly running such phenomena, the Authors suggest a diagnostic and rehabilitation/reinstating programme that, by involving the main operators in charge of prevention both at work and inside health territorial services, can set reasonable aims and feasible operating plans granting all due respect for the workers' dignity and self determination.

  16. Qualitative screening for new psychoactive substances in wastewater collected during a city festival using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Kinyua, J.; Ruttkies, C.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Emke, E.; Covaci, A.; de Voogt, P.

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the wastewater-based epidemiology approach presents challenges, such as the reduced number of users that translates into low concentrations of residues and the limited pharmacokinetics information available, which renders the choice of target

  17. Diverted medications and new psychoactive substances-A chemical network analysis of discarded injecting paraphernalia in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, Valéria Anna; Péterfi, Anna; Figeczki, Tamás; Kiss, József; Medgyesi-Frank, Katalin; Posta, János; Csorba, József

    2017-08-01

    Until about 2010, people who inject drugs (PWIDs) injected almost exclusively heroin and amphetamines in Hungary. After 2010, self-reported studies have indicated a dominance of new psychoactive substances on the drug market for injectable drugs. Between March 2015 and February 2016, we collected used and discarded injecting paraphernalia. We utilized chemical analysis to assess and UCINet to visualize the connections between the most prevalent main substances and their respective co-occurring additional components at 7 locations in Hungary. The samples (n=2977) contained a mean of 4.5 components (SD=3.1, range: 1-18); 422 contained only one component. We found that the most common main components were the diverted substitution medication methadone (32%) and cathinones: pentedrone (18%), mephedrone (13%), alpha-PHP (8%), and alpha-PEP (5%). While these main substances also occurred among the top co-occurring additional components, caffeine and benzoic acid (a preservative) also frequently co-occurred. A large number of co-occurring additional components indicate either common reuse of injecting paraphernalia or the common addition of additives or both. While caffeine may indeed be an adulterant, the high prevalence of benzoic acid may be difficult to explain. The preference of methadone despite the availability of a wide array of drugs may indicate a preference for opioids during the current heroin drought and/or a true demand for opioid substitution therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students: prevalence and association with socio-demographic characteristics and psychoactive substances use: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouq, Btissame; Bendaou, B; Elkinany, S; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R; Lyoussi, B; Khelafa, S; Bout, A; Berhili, N; Hlal, H; Nejjari, C; El Rhazi, K

    2015-11-14

    Suicidal behavior is a major cause of injury and death worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults. Few studies have tackled this issue in the Arab world. The present study investigated the prevalence and the risk factors of suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students. From April 2012 to November 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the North-Centre region of Morocco among students in public secondary schools selected using stratified cluster random sampling. The data were collected via anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used in its Moroccan Colloquial Arabic version to assess suicidality according to the DSM-IV criteria. A total of 3020 students (53 % boys) aged 11-23 years (average age = 16 ± 2.1 years) were included in the study. The prevalence of suicide ideation, suicide planning and suicide attempts during the last month were 15.7, 6.3, and 6.5 % respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated that suicidal behaviors followed different epidemiological patterns. According to the multivariate analyses, the risk factors for all suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students were the female gender, middle school level, urban locations, low family income, parents' divorce, tobacco consumption and psychoactive substances (alcohol and cannabis) use. The intervention of preventive programs has become an emergency to overcome the issue of suicidality in Morocco. Further researches on adolescents' suicidal behaviors are suggested to update temporal data and assess the effectiveness of potential interventions.

  19. Can mobile phone technology support a rapid sharing of information on novel psychoactive substances among health and other professionals internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Pierluigi; Bersani, Francesco S; Santacroce, Rita; Cinosi, Eduardo; Schifano, Fabrizio; Bersani, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Corazza, Ornella

    2017-05-01

    The diffusion of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs), combined with the ability of the Internet to act as an online marketplace, has led to unprecedented challenges for governments, health agencies, and substance misuse services. Despite increasing research, there is a paucity of reliable information available to professionals working in the field. The paper will present the pilot results of the first mobile application (SMAIL) for rapid information sharing on NPSs among health professionals. The development of SMAIL was divided into 2 parts: (a) the creation of the application for registered users, enabling them to send an SMS or email with the name or "street name" of an NPS and receive within seconds emails or SMS with the information, when available and (b) the development of a database to support the incoming requests. One hundred twenty-two professionals based in 22 countries used the service over the pilot period of 16 months (from May 2012 to September 2013). Five hundred fifty-seven enquires were made. Users received rapid information on NPSs, and 61% of them rated the service as excellent. This is the right time to use mobile phone technologies for rapid information sharing and prevention activities on NPSs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... alcoholic beverages on the premises. (b) The illegal use or possession of controlled substances on the...

  1. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. The consumption of alcoholic beverages or the possession of...

  2. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. (a) Alcoholic beverages. The possession, transportation of alcoholic beverages in closed containers and their...

  3. A multidimensional measure of sexual orientation, use of psychoactive substances, and depression: results of a national survey on sexual behavior in france.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomond, Brigitte; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Michaels, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a large national representative survey on sexual behavior in France (Contexte de la Sexualité en France), this study analyzed the relationship between a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation and psychoactive substance use and depression. The survey was conducted in 2006 by telephone with a random sample of the continental French speaking population between the ages of 18 and 69 years. The sample used for this analysis consisted of the 4,400 men and 5,472 women who were sexually active. A sexual orientation measure was constructed by combining information on three dimensions of sexual orientation: attraction, sexual behavior, and self-definition. Five mutually exclusive groups were defined for men and women: those with only heterosexual behavior were divided in two groups whether or not they declared any same-sex attraction; those with any same-sex partners were divided into three categories derived from their self-definition (heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual). The consumption of alcohol and cannabis, which was higher in the non-exclusively heterosexual groups, was more closely associated with homosexual self-identification for women than for men. Self-defined bisexuals (both male and female) followed by gay men and lesbians had the highest risk of chronic or recent depression. Self-defined heterosexuals who had same-sex partners or attraction had levels of risk between exclusive heterosexuals and self-identified homosexuals and bisexuals. The use of a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation demonstrated variation in substance use and mental health between non-heterosexual subgroups defined in terms of behavior, attraction, and identity.

  4. Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) using handheld Raman spectroscopy employing both 785 and 1064nm laser sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Amira; Girotto, Sarah; Berti, Benedetta; Stair, Jacqueline L

    2017-04-01

    The chemical identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the field is challenging due not only to the plethora of substances available, but also as a result of the chemical complexity of products and the chemical similarity of NPS analogues. In this study, handheld Raman spectroscopy and the use of two excitation wavelengths, 785 and 1064nm, were evaluated for the identification of 60 NPS products. The products contained a range of NPS from classes including the aminoindanes, arylalkylamines, benzodiazepines, and piperidines & pyrrolidines. Identification was initially assessed using the instruments' in built algorithm (i.e., % HQI) and then further by visual inspection of the Raman spectra. Confirmatory analysis was preformed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For the 60 diverse products, an NPS was successfully identified via the algorithm in 11 products (18%) using the 785nm source and 29 products (48%) using the 1064nm source. Evaluation of the Raman spectra showed that increasing the excitation wavelength from 785 to 1064nm improved this 'first pass' identification primarily due to a significant reduction in fluorescence, which increased S/N of the characteristic peaks of the substance identified. True positive correlations between internet products and NPS signatures ranged from 57.0 to 91.3% HQI with typical RSDsbranded products were particularly challenging as a result of low NPS concentration and high chemical complexity, respectively. This study demonstrates the advantage of using a 1064nm source with handheld Raman spectroscopy for improved 'first pass' NPS identification when minimal spectral processing is required, such as when working in field. Future investigations will focus on the use of mixture algorithms, effect of NPS concentration, and further improvement of spectral libraries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs among DUI suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Haukka, Jari; Lintonen, Tomi; Joukamaa, Matti; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2015-10-01

    The study seeks to increase understanding of the use of psychoactive prescription drugs among persons suspected of driving under the influence (DUI). We studied whether the use of prescribed psychoactive medication was associated with DUI, and examined the difference in the use of prescription drugs between DUI recidivists and those arrested only once. In this register-based study, persons suspected of DUI (n=29470) were drawn from the Register of DUI suspects, and an age- and gender-matched reference population (n=30043) was drawn from the Finnish general population. Data on prescription drug use was obtained by linkage to the National Prescription Register. The associations of DUI arrest and use of psychoactive prescription drugs in different DUI groups (findings for alcohol only, prescription drugs, prescription drugs and alcohol, illicit drugs) were estimated by using mixed-effect logistic regression. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs and DUI appeared to be strongly associated, with DUI suspects significantly more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to the reference population. Gender differences existed, with the use of benzodiazepines being more common among female DUI suspects. Moreover, DUI recidivists were more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to those arrested only once. In addition to alcohol and/or illicit drug use, a significant proportion of DUI suspects were using psychoactive prescription drugs. When prescribing psychoactive medication, especially benzodiazepines, physicians are challenged to screen for possible substance use problems and also to monitor for patients' alcohol or illicit drug use while being medicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The prevalence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS use in non-clinical populations: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Khaled

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availability for purchase on the internet and in so called “head shops.” Yet, the extent of their global use remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of NPS use in non-clinical populations. Methods This is a systematic review of observational studies. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, Scopus, Global Health, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization (WHO regional databases will be searched for eligible prevalence studies published between 2010 and 2016. Data from cross-sectional studies that report the prevalence of NPS use (one or more types in participants (of any age from censuses or probabilistic or convenience samples will be included. Data will be extracted from eligible publications, using a data extraction tool developed for this study. Visual and statistical approaches will be adopted instead of traditional meta-analytic approaches. Discussion This review will describe the distributions of various types of prevalence estimates of NPS use and explore the impact of different population groups and study-related and tempo-geographical variables on characteristics of these distributions over the period of 2010 to 2016. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016037020

  7. The contamination of young people’s notions about narcotics and psychoactive substances as a threat to psychological security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this article investigated contemporary young people’s perceptions of drugs and psychoactive substances (PAS. In the course of the research the following hypothesis was tested: in young people’s perceptions about drugs and PAS there are differences in emotional coloring, coherence, and tolerance. J.-C. Abric’s structural approach was used as the basic methodology. The free-associations method provided the bulk of the empirical material. The results obtained were processed via prototypic analysis (by P. Vergès’s method, indexing of emotional associations (by E.E. Pronina’s method, and frequency and content analysis. As a result the core and the periphery of the perceptions of youth about drugs and PAS were described, and generalized notional categories that synthesize the structural elements of the perceptions were identified. The study revealed that the perceptions of young people about drugs and PAS do differ in coherence, tolerance, and emotional coloring. Perceptions of drugs are firm, consistent, and negative, while perceptions of PAS are less coherent but dynamic and have an ambivalent emotional coloration. The results are of prognostic importance for understanding young people’s attitudes toward drugs and PAS and can be used to design programs and measures directed to the prevention of PAS and drug abuse.

  8. "Spice," "kryptonite," "black mamba": an overview of brand names and marketing strategies of novel psychoactive substances on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Corkery, John; Martinotti, Giovanni; Bersani, Giuseppe; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPSs) are often sold online as "legal" and "safer" alternatives to International Controlled Drugs (ICDs) with captivating marketing strategies. Our aim was to review and summarize such strategies in terms of the appearance of the products, the brand names, and the latest trends in the illicit online marketplaces. Scientific data were searched in PsychInfo and Pubmed databases; results were integrated with an extensive monitoring of Internet (websites, online shops, chat rooms, fora, social networks) and media sources in nine languages (English, French, Farsi, Portuguese, Arabic, Russian, Spanish, and Chinese simplified/traditional) available from secure databases of the Global Public Health Intelligence Network. Evolving strategies for the online diffusion and the retail of NPSs have been identified, including discounts and periodic offers on chosen products. Advertisements and new brand names have been designed to attract customers, especially young people. An increased number of retailers have been recorded as well as new Web platforms and privacy systems. NPSs represent an unprecedented challenge in the field of public health with social, cultural, legal, and political implications. Web monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPSs and for supporting innovative Web-based prevention programmes.

  9. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de Goianá, MG Use of psychoactive substances among students from Goianá, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fernandes Teixeira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o consumo de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes, do ensino fundamental e médio, da rede pública de ensino do município de Goianá, Minas Gerais. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, transversal, utilizando um instrumento desenvolvido pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Participaram 415 estudantes, 57,1% do Ensino Fundamental e 42,9% do Ensino Médio, sendo 49,4% do sexo feminino e 47,5% do masculino, predominando a faixa etária de 13 a 15 anos e a classe social C. O álcool foi a substância mais utilizada entre os jovens, tendo uso inicial precoce, assim como nos levantamentos nacionais. Sobre o uso na vida, as substâncias mais relatadas foram: solventes, anfetamínicos, ansiolíticos, maconha e alucinógenos. As mulheres apresentaram maior padrão de uso de substâncias psicoativas ilícitas na vida, no ano, no mês, uso freqüente e uso pesado. Em comparação com a capital mineira, foi observado um menor uso de maconha e cocaína entre os estudantes de Goianá. A pesquisa aponta a necessidade de formulação de políticas públicas, considerando particularidades locais e a importância de novos estudos que ampliem a discussão sobre o uso de substâncias psicoativas.The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of the consumption of psychoactive substances among students from the public school in Goianá, Minas Gerais. A descriptive, cross sectional study was performed using a structured questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. The participants were 415 students, 57.1% were elementary school students and 42.9% were high school students. 49.4% were female and 47.5% were male. The majority of the students were 13-15 years old and from the C social class. Alcohol was the substance most frequently used among the young people (64.6%, as the prevalence founded in the national sample. The main used substances were: solvents (11.1%, amphetamines (2.9%, anxyolitics (2.9%, cannabis (2.7% and hallucinogens

  10. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  11. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  12. [Comorbidity in adolescence: simultaneous declaration of depressive, eating, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and use of psychoactive substances in the general population of 17 year old students in a big city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Renata

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the following symptoms: depressive symptoms, eating disorder symptoms and obsessive-compulsive symptoms among adolescents in Kraków secondary schools are associated with an increased risk of psychoactive substance use. A representative sample of the population of Kraków secondary school pupils was tested. A two-stage draw method identified a group of 2034 2nd form pupils of all types of secondary schools: grammar schools, technical schools and vocational schools (17-year olds). They were tested using the following screening questionnaires: Beck Depression Scale, EAT-26 eating disorders scale, Obsessive-compulsive disorder (Leyton) scale and the author's drug questionnaire. The incidence of depressive symptoms among boys and girls is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use (74.8% among depressive boys versus 65.8% in the depressive group of girls), cigarette smoking (42.7% vs. 46.7%) and drug use (29.0% vs. 18.6%). All of the relationships are statistically significant in both sexes. 41.7% depressive boys admit to smoking, vs. only 32.6% in the non-depressive group. In the girls' group, these relationships are as follows: 46.7% versus 32.1%. The relationships are statistically significant in both sexes. The incidence of eating disorder symptoms among boys and girls is associated with a higher risk of alcohol use (respectively: 73.5% vs. 61.9%), cigarette smoking (42.1% vs. 46.9%), and drug use (31.6% versus 21.5%). Compared with a group of young people without eating disorder symptoms, the relationships are of statistical significance. Comorbidity of the following symptoms was found: depressive symptoms, eating disorder symptoms, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and symptoms of psychoactive substance use. The presence of depressive symptoms increases the risk of the use of psychoactive substances, especially alcohol and tobacco, to a lesser extent--drugs, both in the boys and in the girls. The presence of eating disorder symptoms

  13. New psychoactive substances (NPS) on cryptomarket fora: An exploratory study of characteristics of forum activity between NPS buyers and vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2017-02-01

    The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS. 852 identified threads relating to the discussion of these NPS were generated. Following exclusion of duplicates, 138 threads remained. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method of data analysis was applied. Four themes and 32 categories emerged. 120 vendors selling NPS were visible on Alphabay, and 21 on Valhalla. Themes were 'NPS Cryptomarkets and Crypto-community interest in NPS'; 'Motives for NPS use'; 'Indigenous Crypto Community Harm Reduction'; and 'Cryptomarket Characteristics underpinning NPS trafficking', with two higher levels of abstraction centring on 'NPS vendor reputation' and 'NPS transactioning for personal use'. NPS cryptomarket characteristics centred on generation of trust, honesty and excellent service. Users appeared well informed, with harm reduction and vendor information exchange central to NPS market dynamics. GABA activating substances appeared most popular in terms of buyer interest on cryptomarkets. Interest in sourcing 'old favorite' stimulant and dissociative NPS was evident, alongside the sequential and concurrent poly use of NPS, and use of NPS with illicit drugs such as MDMA. Continued monitoring of new trends in NPS within Surface Web and cryptomarkets are warranted. A particular

  14. Problematic alcohol and other substance use among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment-seeking substance users (≥18 years of age) were identified using the ... Patients presenting to three EDs were screened for substance use using the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement ... 5 Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

  15. Implementation and Evaluation of an Intervention for Children in Afghanistan at Risk for Substance Use or Actively Using Psychoactive Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Subor Momand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment’s start and end and 12 weeks later. For younger children, there were no significant Gender or Gender X Time effects (all p’s > .16 and .35, resp.. The time main effect was significant for all outcomes (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate. Post hoc testing showed significant improvements from residential treatment entry to completion for all scales. For older children, a time main effect was significant for (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate all but one outcome. Community follow-up means were significantly lower than residential treatment entry means. CHILD had a positive impact on children, and treatment impact endured from posttreatment to follow-up assessment.

  16. Problematic alcohol and other substance use among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients presenting to three EDs were screened for substance use using the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). All patients identified as at risk for substance use problems were offered a brief psychotherapy intervention focused on substance user education. Data were collected on ...

  17. Correlatos psicosociales del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes españoles Psychosocial correlations of the experimentation with psychoactive substances in Spanish teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar los factores que determinan el consumo juvenil de sustancias psicoactivas evaluando la capacidad predictiva de variables actitudinales, afectivas, relacionales a nivel familiar y grupal, así como académicas, entre otras. Material y métodos. Se ha seleccionado una muestra de 750 adolescentes del Principado de Asturias (España (moda 15 años, media=14.69 escolarizados en el curso académico 2008-2009. Resultados. Se ha confirmado que los adolescentes que consumen alcohol y otras drogas presentan un perfil diferencial respecto a los no consumidores en factores relativos a la mayor permisividad actitudinal, efecto de modelado paterno y del grupo de iguales, insatisfacción institucional, inestabilidad emocional y manifestación de más conductas disruptivas con problemas de relación y búsquedas de atención. Conclusiones. A partir de nuestro modelo etiológico se concluye que el consumo juvenil de drogas está determinado por la interrelación de variables personales, familiares, escolares y psicosociales.Objective. To offer an analysis of the factors that determine the consumption of psychoactive substances by youth and to evaluate the predictive capacity of variables related to attitude, affect, the family and groups, as well as academics, among others. Materials and Methods. A sample of 750 adolescents was selected at the Principado de Asturias (Spain (mode 15 years of age, mean=14.69 enrolled during the 2008-2009 academic year. Results. It was confirmed that the teenagers who consumed alcohol and other drugs present a differential profile as compared to non-consumers with respect to greater attitudinal permissiveness, effect of paternal modelling and peer groups, institutional dissatisfaction, emotional instability, and manifestation of more disruptive conducts with problems relating to others and attention-seeking. Conclusions. From our ethiological model we conclude that the consumption of drugs by youth is determined

  18. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  19. A market on both "sides" of the law: The use of the hidden web for the sale of new psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Elle; Drummond, Colin; Kimergård, Andreas; Deluca, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    The hidden Web is used for the anonymous sale of drugs, and with the UK Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016, implemented on May 26th 2016; it could increase as a platform for obtaining new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study aims to describe the NPS market on the visible and hidden Web preban, and assess whether the hidden Web is a likely place for the sale of NPS postban. Data collection of 113 online shops took place in October 2015. Data collection of 22 cryptomarkets took place every 2 months from October 2015 to 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA project. All online shops with a UK domain location sold NPS that were uncontrolled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act, 1971, and closed after the ban. Of the cryptomarkets analysed, the total number of vendors selling NPS, number of substances, and listings advertised, all increased over the year. The majority of the NPS advertised on the hidden Web were phenethylamines and cathinones, yet the majority of uncontrolled NPS were synthetic cannabinoids. Vendors selling and availability of NPS increased over the 12 months of data collection. Potential displacement from the visible Web to hidden Web should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Random and systematic errors in case–control studies calculating the injury risk of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René P.M.

    2013-01-01

    injury in car crashes. The calculated odds ratios in these studies showed large variations, despite the use of uniform guidelines for the study designs. The main objective of the present article is to provide insight into the presence of random and systematic errors in the six DRUID case-control studies...... and cell counts were the most frequently observed errors in the six DRUID case-control studies. Therefore, it is recommended that epidemiological studies that assess the risk of psychoactive substances in traffic pay specific attention to avoid these potential sources of random and systematic errors...

  1. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in private...

  2. The challenge of a ban on animal testing for the development of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') in New Zealand: Issues and options for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In mid-July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which allowed 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs') to be approved for legal sale. In early May 2014, following public protest, the Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act (PSAA) was passed banning animal testing of psychoactive products, potentially making the new regime unworkable. To investigate strategies to overcome the impasse created by the animal testing ban. Solutions to the impasse were investigated using 'scenario' and 'stakeholder' analysis. Legislation, parliamentary debates, and regulatory statements related to the PSA and animal testing were reviewed. Strategies to resolve the impasse were discussed with stakeholders including the Psychoactive Substances Regulatory Authority (PSRA) officials, health officials, a legal high industry lawyer, and a leading legal highs manufacturer. This process generated six possible scenarios and five decision-making criteria of key importance to major stakeholders. Scenarios were then evaluated based on feedback from the industry and regulators. The six scenarios were: (1) pragmatic modification of the animal testing ban; (2) waiting until new non-animal test models are internationally accepted; (3) use of non-validated replacement test methods; (4) judicial challenge of the animal testing ban; (5) 'creative compliance' by only presenting human clinical trial results; and (6) philosophical re-conceptualisation of the 'benefits' from psychoactive products. Options 1 and 5 appear to be the most attractive overall solutions. However, both rely on a new political consensus and astute framing of the issues by political communicators. Political decision makers may be happy to accept Scenario 2 which would impose significant delays. A 'failed' pharmaceutical product with psychoactive effects may have the test data required to be approved under Scenarios 1 and 5. Ultimately, the pleasurable benefits from psychoactive products may need to be

  3. [IMSS in numbers. Consumption of alcohol and psyhoactive substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    One of the main public health problems in the world are alcohol and drug abuse. Health impact of addictions is clearly evidenced by the increasing numbers of suicides, depression, domestic violence, accidents and injuries. The mental and behavioral problems derived by the abuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs are under reported. From 1991 to 2003 around 13,000 cases for problems due to alcohol abuse were reported annually in Family Medicine services, nearly 4000 cases in specialized services and an average of 20,000 cases were attended in the emergency areas of the social security system in Mexico (IMSS). The data indicates that this health problems are becoming evident in young populations under 25 years old and the trend is increasing. Professional resources that are specialized in the treatment of such behavioral problems are not sufficient and the institution faces an upcoming health threat that demands prevention programs and a more integrated health care programs.

  4. Toxicokinetics of novel psychoactive substances: characterization of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoenzymes involved in the phase II metabolism of 2C designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Robert, Anja; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-06-05

    The 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine-derived designer drugs (so-called "2Cs") recently became of great importance on the illicit drug market as stimulating hallucinogens. They are distributed and consumed as "novel psychoactive substances" (NPS) without any safety testing at the forefront. As previous studies have shown, the 2Cs are mainly metabolized by O-demethylation, N-acetylation, or deamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the recombinant human N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoforms 1 and 2 in the phase II metabolism of 2Cs. For these studies, cDNA-expressed recombinant human NATs were used and formation of metabolites after incubation was measured using GC-MS. NAT2 could be shown to be the only isoform catalyzing the reaction in vitro, hence it should be the only relevant enzyme for in vivo acetylation. In general, all metabolite formation reactions followed classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the affinity to human NAT2 was increasing with the volume of the 4-substituent. In consequence, a slow acetylator phenotype or inhibition of NAT2 could lead to decreased N-acetylation and might lead to an increased risk of side effects caused by these novel psychoactive substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New psychoactive substances as part of polydrug abuse within opioid maintenance treatment revealed by comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometric urine drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikman, Pertti; Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    At present, polydrug abuse comprises, besides traditional illicit drugs, new psychoactive substances (NPS) and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines (N-PPM). Polydrug abuse was comprehensively evaluated among opioid-dependent patients undergoing opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). Two hundred consecutively collected urine samples from 82 OMT patients (52 male) treated with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone medication were studied using a liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening method. The method enables simultaneous detection of hundreds of abused substances covering the traditional drugs of abuse and many NPS as well as N-PPM. Ninety-two (45.8%) samples were positive for the abused substances. Benzodiazepines (29.0%), amphetamines (19.5%), cannabinoids (17.0%), NPS (13.0%), N-PPM (9.0%), and opioids (9.0%) were detected in different combinations. The simultaneous occurrence of up to three groups of abused substances was common (40.0%), and in one sample, all six groups were found. The stimulant NPS alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone was found in 10.0% and the sedative N-PPM pregabalin in 4.0% of the samples. The patients were seldom aware of what particular NPS they had abused. A widespread occurrence of abused substances beyond the ordinary was revealed. Identifying these patients is essential as polydrug abuse is a safety risk to the patient and may cause attrition from OMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State law. In a State where a lower minimum age is established, that age limit will apply for purposes... of alcohol or a controlled substance to a degree that may endanger oneself or another person, or...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State law. In a State where a lower minimum age is established, that age limit will apply for purposes... by the Presidio Trust when under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance to a degree that...

  8. DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award Annual Report 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Award Number: W81XWH-15-2-0077 TITLE: DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rick Williams CONTRACTING...views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author (s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army

  9. problematic extent of alcohol and substance use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... socio-demographic correlates can also inform target-points in preventive strategies. Knowledge ... adolescent alcohol and substance use prevention policies. ..... Attainment. Addiction. 2006;101(12):1684–5. 29. Harrington Godley S. Substance use, academic performance and the village school. Addiction.

  10. 78 FR 37991 - Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... anti-drug and alcohol misuse program in compliance with this part. (b) If the Administrator determines... and Controlled Substances (D&A) Testing regulation to reflect recent amendments to the law. The final... prior proposal because it merely incorporates recent statutory changes to FTA's drug and alcohol testing...

  11. Individual Variation in Alcohol Intake Predicts Reinforcement, Motivation, and Compulsive Alcohol Use in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357805925; Hesseling, Peter; Baars, Annemarie M; Lozeman - van t Klooster, José; Rotte, Marthe D; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126514917; Lesscher, Heidi M B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258637196

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances. Prolonged alcohol use can result in alcohol use disorder (AUD), characterized by excessive and compulsive alcohol consumption. Importantly, however, the development of AUD only happens in a minority of individuals who

  12. Socio-demographic factors and substance use in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Mia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of risky behavior is characteristic in adolescence. Of all forms of risky behavior in adolescence, the use of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances particularly stand out, because of the frequency and degree of prevalence of use, and because of the impact that they have on youth development in this sensitive stage of growing up. Unfortunately, today we are witnessing the fact that such behavior in adolescents has gained an increasingly epidemic character mainly due to the characteristics of the social context in which young people are growing up. The main objective of this research, conducted in the framework of the doctoral dissertation of the author, was determining relations between relevant sociodemographic factors: gender, age, school success, financial status and place of residence of respondents, with the appearance and intensity of use of three types of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances among the general population of adolescents. The sample represents non-clinical young population, and it consists of 529 adolescents, students of the 2nd and 4th class of secondary school (17 and 18 years old. The data was collected by using Scale use of PAS (psychoactive substances in adolescents, which was designed for the purpose of this research, as well as using a set of questions intended for the registration of socio-demographic variables. Respondents filled in questionnaires in groups, during the school lessons. The data show a relationship between the three studied socio-demographic variables with the occurrence and degree of use of psychoactive substances in the adolescence period, such as gender, age and school success of the respondents. As regards gender of respondents associated with the occurrence and degree of alcohol and illegal substance use in adolescents, male adolescents more likely use alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances

  13. Consommation de substances psychoactives des étudiants universitaires libanais : prévalence et facteurs associés

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Salameh; S Rachidi; A Al-Hajje; S Awada; K Chouaib; N Saleh; W Bawab

    2015-01-01

      Scientific research on use and misuse of substances in Lebanon is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of use and abuse of substances among Lebanese youth and identify the determinants and risk factors behind these behaviours...

  14. HighResNPS.com – an Internet Database for Liquid Chromatography - High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Screening for New Psychoactive Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Mollerup, Christian Brinch; Mardal, Marie

    Background/Introduction: The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is constantly increasing which makes it challenging to keep the screening libraries updated with the relevant analytical targets. Liquid chromatography coupled High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) screening methods...... frequently utilize accurate mass of fragment ions for identification, in addition to retention time and accurate mass of precursor ions. The fragment ion information is obtained with data independent acquisition or data dependent acquisition. Both tend to generate similar fragment ions, when acquired...... cannabinoids and their metabolites constitute more than 60% of the database and opioids and their metabolites account for around 15% of the entries. 74% of the entries in HighResNPS are present in the European Database on New Drugs (EDND) governed by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction...

  15. Random and systematic errors in case-control studies calculating the injury risk of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2013-01-01

    injury in car crashes. The calculated odds ratios in these studies showed large variations, despite the use of uniform guidelines for the study designs. The main objective of the present article is to provide insight into the presence of random and systematic errors in the six DRUID case–control studies....... Relevant information was gathered from the DRUID-reports for eleven indicators for errors. The results showed that differences between the odds ratios in the DRUID case–control studies may indeed be (partially) explained by random and systematic errors. Selection bias and errors due to small sample sizes...... and cell counts were the most frequently observed errors in the six DRUID case–control studies. Therefore, it is recommended that epidemiological studies that assess the risk of psychoactive substances in traffic pay specific attention to avoid these potential sources of random and systematic errors...

  16. Promoting innovation and excellence to face the rapid diffusion of novel psychoactive substances in the EU: the outcomes of the ReDNet project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Assi, Sulaf; Simonato, Pierluigi; Corkery, John; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Stair, Jacqueline; Fergus, Suzanne; Pezzolesi, Cinzia; Pasinetti, Manuela; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Davey, Zoe; Blaszko, Ursula; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Mervo, Barbara; Furia, Lucia Di; Farre, Maggi; Flesland, Liv; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Shapiro, Harry; Siemann, Holger; Skutle, Arvid; Sferrazza, Elias; Torrens, Marta; Sambola, F; van der Kreeft, Peer; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    The recent emergence of new psychoactive compounds (novel psychoactive substances (NPS)) has raised prominent challenges in the fields of drug policy, substance use research, public health and service provision. The Recreational Drugs European Network project, funded by the European Commission, was implemented to improve the information stream to young people and professionals about effects/risks of NPS by identifying online products and disseminating relevant information through technological tools. Regular multilingual qualitative assessments of websites, drugs fora and other online resources were carried out using the Google search engine in eight languages from collaborating countries. These included the following: the UK, Norway, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Italy and Spain. Products were tested and prevention messages were developed and disseminated via technological tools such as interactive websites, SMS alert, social networking (Facebook, Twitter), Multimedia (You Tube), Smartphone applications (iPhone) and virtual learning environments (Second Life). The Recreational Drugs European Network project established itself as the first Europe-wide prevention programme designed for NPS based on the efficacy of novel information and communication technology-based forms of intervention. More than 650 NPS products and combinations were identified; relevant information was disseminated to target population and advice was given to both European Union/international agencies and national policy makers. Web-monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPS and the use of technological tools can be successfully incorporated in specific prevention programmes. Furthermore, the involvement of multi-disciplinary international partnerships was and continues to be fundamental for responding to such a prominent challenge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  18. Prevalence of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol and substance use disorders in psychiatric inpatient clinics and determine the frequencies of alcohol and substance use disorder among psychiatric disease groups and find out the differences in between these groups. Material and Methods: Thus all patients admitted to inpatients psychiatric clinics of in one year period were approached for inclusion into this study, and 155 patients with a hospitalization period longer than one day who provided informed consent were included in the study. All patients included in the study were interviewed with a semi structured interview scale to get information regarding the presence of alcohol, nicotine and other substance use disorder. Results: The results of this study confirmed high rates of alcohol, nicotine and substance use disorder comorbidity in psychiatric inpatients. The results of one year prospective follow up study revealed that 57.4% of patients had nicotine dependence, 21.9% alcohol dependence and misuse and 9% had sedative misuse or dependence. The rate of substance use disorder was high among all psychiatric disorder subgroups. Considering all substances including nicotine together, 55% of patients with psychotic disorder had at least one substance use disorder whereas these figures were 61% and 81% for affective disorders and anxiety disorders respectively. Conclusion: Professionals dealing with treatment of psychiatric disorders should always be aware of substance use disorder comorbidity, and start treatment immediately without causing any delay in treatment. Obviously we need future large prospective studies to get more insight into these dual-diagnose disorders. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 37-48

  19. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  20. EL CRAFFT CARLOS COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA LA IDENTIFICACIÓN TEMPRANA DE CONSUMO DE ALCOHOL Y OTRAS SPA: UNA ADAPTACIÓN AL ESPAÑOL/ THE CRAFFT CARLOS AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF ALCOHOL AND OTHER PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES USE: AN ADAPTATION TO SPANISH/ O CRAFFT CARLOS COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA A IDENTIFICAÇÃO INICIAL DE CONSUMO DE ÁLCOOL E OUTRAS SPA: UMA ADAPTAÇÃO AO ESPANHOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pérez Gómez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol en menores es un riesgo para su salud e incrementa la probabilidad de futuros problemas con esta y con otras sustancias psicoactivas, lo que hace necesario un instrumento para identificar rápida y eficazmente a adolescentes que consumen o en riesgo de iniciar el consumo. Con una muestra de 432 jóvenes de la ciudad de Bogotá, este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar una adaptación de lenguaje y una calibración, mediante el modelo de Rasch, del instrumento CRAFFT/CARLOS, que poseería las características antes mencionadas. La utilización del modelo de Rasch mostró que el CRAFFT y su adaptación, el CARLOS, son instrumentos útiles para identificar problemas de consumo de alcohol y otras drogas entre adolescentes.

  1. Use Of Psychoactive Drugs Among Medical Undergraduates In Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Khan, Aftab Alam; Bukhari, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad. Seven hundred and eighty participants after informed consent were requested to fill a questionnaire seeking information about their demographics, patterns & behaviours regarding ten common psychoactive substances of abuse including (Cigarettes, Benzodiazepines, naswar, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine, opium, cocaine, heroin & organic solvents). Overall students who responded were 698 (89.48%). One hundred and fifty (21.49%) admitted to the use of a psychoactive substance in past or at present. Majority users (71.33%) were males. Overall (81.33%) users were living in hostel or a rented apartment. Substance abuse was more prevalent among senior students, i.e., 30.06% & 24.24% in 4th year & final year MBBS respectively. Majority of the consumers, i.e., 93 (62%) were falling in an age group between 15-20 years. Main reasons behind substance abuse were: psychological stress (49.33%) and pleasure seeking (42.67%). Substances/drugs used by students in order of preference were Cigarettes 115 (76.67%), Benzodiazepines 48 (32%), naswar 42 (28%), Cannabis 41 (27.33%), Alcohol 24 (16%), Amphetamine 22 (14.67%), Opium 15 (10%), Cocaine 14 (9.33%), Heroin 11 (7.33%) & Organic solvents 05 (3.33%). Use of more than one substance was observed in 70 (46.67%) students. It is concluded that prevalence of cigarette smoking, naswar, benzodiazepines, cannabis & alcohol is high among medical undergraduates in Abbottabad which is a matter of concern. Efforts are needed to create

  2. [Domestic violence, alcohol and substance abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B

    2005-10-01

    Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.

  3. Effects of Substance Use Education Programs: Gender Differences in Student Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, John Paul; Conroy, Matthew; Landis, Pamela; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study assesses the differential substance use between male and female college students through the administration of a survey of recent use of six commonly used psychoactive substances (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and caffeine). It investigates the situational contexts associated with use of particular substances…

  4. Does a history of psychoactive substances abuse play a role in the level of pain of the patient with severe trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, C; Arranz-Esteban, A; Martinez-Ureta, M V; Sánchez-Rascón, M C; Morales-Sánchez, C; Chico-Fernández, M

    2017-12-20

    To analyse the influence of psychotropic substance use on the level of pain in patients with severe trauma. Longitudinal analytical study. Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Trauma and Emergencies. severe trauma, non-communicative and mechanical ventilation >48hours. Two groups of patients were created: users and non-users of psychotropic substances according to medical records. Measurement of pain level at baseline and during mobilization, using the Pain Indicator Behaviour Scale. demographic characteristics, pain score, sedation level and type and dose of analgesia and sedation. Sample of 84 patients, 42 in each group. The pain level in both groups, during mobilisation, showed significant differences p=0.011, with a mean of 3.11(2.40) for the user group and 1.83(2.14) for the non-user group. A relative risk of 2.5 CI (1,014-6,163) was found to have moderate / severe pain in the user group compared to the non-user group. The mean dose of analgesia and continuous sedation was significantly higher in the user group: P=.032 and P=.004 respectively. There was no difference in bolus dose of analgesia and sedation with P=.624 and P=.690 respectively. Patients with a history of consumption of psychoactive substances show higher levels of pain and experience a higher risk of this being moderate/severe compared to non-users despite receiving higher doses of analgesia and sedation infusion. Key words: pain, multiple trauma, drug users. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel screening method for 64 new psychoactive substances and 5 amphetamines in blood by LC-MS/MS and application to real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiano, Fabio; Busardò, Francesco P; Palumbo, Diego; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Fioravanti, Alessia; Catalani, Valeria; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2016-09-10

    Identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPS), both in biological and non-biological samples, represent a hard challenge for forensic toxicologists. NPS are increasingly emerging on illegal drug market. Many cases of co-consumption of NPS and other substances have also been reported. Hence, the development of analytical methods aiming at the detection of a broad-spectrum of compounds (NPS and "traditional" drugs) could be helpful. In this paper, a fully validated screening method in blood for the simultaneous detection of 69 substances, including 64 NPS (28 synthetic cannabinoids, 19 synthetic cathinones, 5 phenethylamines, 3 indanes, 2 piperazines, 2 tryptamines, 2 phencyclidine, methoxetamine, ketamine and its metabolite) and 5 amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine - MDEA-) by a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring analysis through liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is described. This method is very fast, easy to perform and cheap as it only requires the deproteinization of 200μL of blood sample with acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation is achieved with a C18 column. The analysis is very sensitive, with limits of quantification ranging from 0.1 to 0.5ng/mL. The method is linear from 1 to 100ng/mL and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was always above 0.9900. Precision and accuracy were acceptable at any quality control level and recovery efficiency range was 72-110%. Matrix effects did not negatively affect the analytical sensitivity. This method was successfully applied to three real cases, allowing identification and quantification of: mephedrone and methamphetamine (post-mortem); ketamine, MDMA and MDA (post-mortem); AB-FUBINACA (ante-mortem). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Structure and Family Type in Patients With Substance Abuse or Dependence Psychoactive Rehabilitation Center of Addiction in the Municipality of Chia Cundinamarca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Parra Vera, Mario Danilo; Arévalo Zamora, Caterín; Cifuentes Gaitán, Luisa Karen; Valero Carvajal, Jaime; Sierra de Jaramillo, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    To determine the family type, family structure in a group of patients with a diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence who were at a rehabilitation center for addiction during the period between August and October 2009. Through a descriptive qualitative-interpretative methodology 10 patients who met inclusion criteria for substance dependence or abuse were studied. The fieldwork and transcripts were made for three months by non-participant observation, non-structured interviews and examination of patients' clinical history. Seven of the families interviewed were single-parent families with an unconventional organization on "gender roles". Single-parent families favored loneliness, difficulty in rule-setting, de-idealization of the place of the father in the family structure and a constant search for complicity. In the analysis by categories, we found that in 10 families in the study of individuals with addictions it is common to find family structure characteristics such as inadequate communication, lack of authority rules and limits, presence of triangulations, the lack of cohesion due to the existence of a disconnected relationship pattern and changed roles compared to conventional gender. The search for the affection of the mother at her emotional overload absence of roles and lack of father, raised by the separation of the couple, was found as an essential aspect underlying the addictive behavior. A pattern of parental abandonment is configured. The findings confirmed what has been mentioned by various authors regarding the characteristics of the family typology structure and personal factors in patients with addictions, in addition to their need for affection combined with the desire for the mother's presence. The family typology does not determine for itself the abuse of psychoactive substances, but the influence of other factors such as family structure, especially deficient affective interactions, which should be considered in the development of

  7. Which psychoactive substances are used by patients seen in the healthcare system in French overseas territories? Results of the OPPIDUM survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveluy, Amélie; Frauger, Elisabeth; Peyrière, Hélène; Moracchini, Christophe; Haramburu, Françoise; Micallef, Joëlle

    2017-02-01

    Addiction to illicit substances or medicines is influenced by cultural, religious, ethnic factors as well as local availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profile of drug users and characteristics of the psychoactive substances used in French overseas territories, using data from the OPPIDUM survey. OPPIDUM is an annual, nationwide, multicentric, cross-sectional study based on specialized care centres that included subjects presenting a drug addiction or under opiate maintenance treatment. The current study includes data from the 2012 and 2013 surveys and focuses on patients included by drug addiction centres located in French overseas departments and territories: French Pacific Ocean (French Polynesia, New Caledonia), French Americas (Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, French Guiana) and Reunion Island. Data from metropolitan France (2013 survey) were included as reference. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included. The sex ratio was 3.7 for the Pacific Ocean, 3.5 for the French Americas and 3.3 for Reunion Island. Cannabis was consumed in all the territories, from 50.8% in Reunion Island to 81.7% in Pacific Ocean. Cocaine was most frequently consumed in the French Americas (61%), mainly in the 'freebase' form (91%), whereas 6.5% of cocaine users in metropolitan France did so. Problematic use of medicines was most frequent in Reunion Island. Heroin seems rarely used in all overseas territories. This study highlights the complexity of substances used in French overseas territories, which often differ from that in mainland France. The relative difference between different areas provides valuable information for future investigations and possible interventions. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. [Interactions between alcohol and work exposure to chemical substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, F; Crippa, Michela; Torri, D

    2007-01-01

    The quite diffused habit of a significant assumption of alcohol drinks, can interfere with the professional exposure to chemical substances. The interaction may result in increasing their toxicity and/or modifying the parameters of the biological monitoring. It may also act as a confounding factor, not only in epidemiologic researches but also at individual level when the assessment of the occupational exposure and/or the diagnosis of an occupational diseases, is under consideration. We review available references in the literature summarizing major scientific evidences. The interaction between the alcohol assumption and industrial chemicals may be toxicokinetic or toxicodynamic. Alcohol can interfere in the processes of biotransformation of xenobiotics and modify the doses and the effect indicators used for the biological monitoring, causing wrong interpretations of the results. The metabolism of ethanol can be altered by the exposures to toxic industrial materials, creating some clinical pictures of alcohol intolerance, like an "antabuse syndrome" or an "degreaser flush syndrome". Professional exposure to carbon sulfide or to dimethylformamides, trichloroethylene as well as to nitroglycerin and nitroglycole ethylenic can produce similar syndromes. Interactions are reported between alcohol and solvents: on toxicokinetic bases for methanol, isopropanol, glycol ether, trichloroethylene, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene; and on toxicodynamic bases for CNS. Also between alcohol and metals there can occur toxicokinetic interactions, like in the case of lead and mercury. Alcohol can also interfere with the biological monitoring of solvents, producing an over-estimation of the exposure. For the biological monitoring of reported chemical substances, it is suitable to evaluate the biologic indicators in the days in which there is not assumed alcohol. If this cannot be guaranteed, it is necessary to know at least the quantity of the alcohol consumed or at least if the

  9. Estudio sobre el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y 12 años: Estado del arte y resultados preliminares Study on the use of psychoactive substances in children between 10 and 12 years old: State of the art and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Juan Grigoravicius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados preliminares de la primera etapa de una investigación multidimensional sobre el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas. Se indagaron niños entre 10 y 12 años provenientes de familias con escasos recursos económicos y que concurren a una escuela pública del sur del conurbano bonaerense. Asimismo, se indagaron sus actitudes, valores y creencias hacia dichas sustancias. Metodología: Muestra: niños y niñas de 10 a 12 años que asisten a dicha escuela pública. n= 162; Varones n=61; Mujeres n= 101. Instrumentos: CORIN (conducta de riesgo en niños, Fuente: CONICET. Protocolo de datos sociodemográficos. Resultados y Conclusiones: El 46,3% de los niños manifiesta haber consumido alcohol y el 7,4% tabaco. Se concluye que las sustancias legales, principalmente el alcohol, se consumen y toleran en mayor proporción que las ilegales. Asimismo, se observa una discordancia entre las creencias y valores de los niños respecto del alcohol y sus conductas hacia esta sustancia.This paper presents the preliminary results from the first stage of a multidimensional research about the psychoactive substances use. Children between 10 and 12 years old were investigated. All of them belong to low socioeconomic status families and attend to public schools in the south of Buenos Aires province. Also, their attitudes, values and beliefs towards psychoactive substances were investigated. Methods: Sample: boys and girls between 10 and 12 years old attending to a public school. N=162; boys n= 61; girls n=101. Intruments: CORIN (risk behavior in children, source: CONICET; and Sociodemographic data protocol. Results and conclusions: The 46,3% of the children reports to have consumed alcohol and the 7,4% reports to have consumed tobacco. It is concluded that legal substances, specially alcohol, are consumed and tolerated better than illegal ones. Also, there is a dissonance between beliefs and values in children regarding to alcohol and their

  10. Detecting a signal in the noise: monitoring the global spread of novel psychoactive substances using media and other open-source information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Matthew M; Dubeau, Chad; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-07-01

    To determine the feasibility and utility of using media reports and other open-source information collected by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), an event-based surveillance system operated by the Public Health Agency of Canada, to rapidly detect clusters of adverse drug events associated with 'novel psychoactive substances' (NPS) at the international level. Researchers searched English media reports collected by the GPHIN between 1997 and 2013 for references to synthetic cannabinoids. They screened the resulting reports for relevance and content (i.e., reports of morbidity and arrest), plotted and compared with other available indicators (e.g., US poison control center exposures). The pattern of results from the analysis of GPHIN reports resembled the pattern seen from the other indicators. The results of this study indicate that using media and other open-source information can help monitor the presence, usage, local policy, law enforcement responses, and spread of NPS in a rapid effective way. Further, modifying GPHIN to actively track NPS would be relatively inexpensive to implement and would be highly complementary to current national and international monitoring efforts. © 2015 The Authors. Human Psychopharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Modern approaches to the primary prevention of the development of psychoactive substance dependence on the base of accounting of environmental and genetic risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, A A; Aksenova, M G; Sinitsyna, O O; Kirillov, A V; Kozlova, O B

    2014-01-01

    In the work there was performed an assessment of the interaction of microsocial and genetic factors of the development of psychoactive substance (PS) dependence. The objects of the psycho-hygienic and molecular-genetic studies were 538 male patients from the specialized diagnostic and treatment center at the age from 17 to 65 years with a diagnosis of "PS dependence" according to F10-F09 in the ICD-10. There were determined personality predictors of early (before 25 years) manifestation of systematic abuse, such as low self-control, individualisticity, authoritarianism, unjustified optimism and reduced capacity for social adaptation. Manifestation of the PS dependence at an early age (25 years) is determined by the contribution of genotype 9R+ DAT gene in the combination with other predisposing genotypes A1 + DRD2/ANKK1, SS SERT and 7R+ DRD. The risk of development of PS dependence at a more younger age increases with the superimposition of individual predisposing genotypes ranging from 1,2 (7R+ gene DRD4) to 1,9 (A1 + gene DRD2/ANKK10 on a destructive milieu. Pairwise combinations of genotypes 7R+ DRD4 x A1+ DRD2, 7R+ DRD4 x 9R+ DAT, 9R+ DAT x A1+ DRD2, 9R+ DAT x SS SERT significantly increase the risk by 2 or more times (2.5-2.8). There was suggested an algorithm for the prenosological forecast of the development of PS dependence in adolescents and young men.

  12. Consumption of psychoactive substances in educational institutions: an inquiry into the state of affairs in the schools of Córdoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, M S M; Burrone, M S; Enders, J E; Fernández, A R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes and analyses the consumption of psychoactive substances in educational institutions, the school environment conditions and its relation to the school standing of the students. In the first stage, a quantitative evaluation was performed, based on the records of the Second National Survey of Secondary School Students carried out in Córdoba in 2005; the second stage used a qualitative approach. A multistage probabilistic sample of 4593 students was used for the quantitative assessment. The analysis comprised summary measurements, multivariate and factorial correspondence analysis, in all cases with a significance level of p state schools were chosen using an intentional, cumulative and sequential sampling method. Ten in-depth interviews were carried out to gather qualitative data that was analyzed using the comparative constant method. Results evince that consumption is lower among morning-shift students and that grade repetition and behavior problems are associated to consumption of illegal drugs. Furthermore, it was detected that students in night-shift schools with low academic and disciplinary demand standards have a higher probability of consumption. It is clear that as academic standards decrease, consumption increases.

  13. 49 CFR 382.413 - Inquiries for alcohol and controlled substances information from previous employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Handling of Test Results, Records Retention, and Confidentiality § 382.413 Inquiries for alcohol and controlled substances... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inquiries for alcohol and controlled substances...

  14. Psychoactive Medication and Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris C. Verster

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Driving a car is important to maintain independence and participate in society. Many of those who use psychoactive medication are outpatients and are thus likely to drive a vehicle. Most common adverse effects that impair driving are reduced alertness, affected psychomotor functioning and impaired vision. This review discusses the effects on driving ability of most commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs, including hypnotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, analgesics and stimulant drugs. Within these categories of medicines significant differences concerning their impact on driving ability are evident. The International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety (ICADTS categorization can help physicians to make a choice between treatments when patients want to drive a car.

  15. Psychoactive substances and the provision of specialized care: the case of Espirito Santo Substâncias psicoativas e a provisão de cuidados especializados: o caso do Espírito Santo

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    Marluce Miguel de Siqueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, we conducted a survey of all the institutions that provide treatment for psychoactive substances in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil during the period 2004-2005. METHOD: We used a snowball sampling technique to include all the treatment facilities in our State in which we employed a semi-structured interview instrument for key informants at each institution. We present descriptive results and test differences between groups using the Chi-square test. RESULTS: In Espirito Santo, 250 institutions provide treatment for psychoactive substances and are distributed as follows: governmental (17.6%, nongovernmental (22.8%, and self-help groups (59.6%. Of these 250 institutions, 85 provide direct care, with the majority found in the Central region (70.6% and followed by the Northern (15.3% and Southern (14.1% regions. The majority of those that provide direct care are private nonprofit centers (16.8% institutions with ties to religious organizations make up nearly one-third (30.6% of direct care providers. The drugs most consumed by those seeking care are alcohol (82.4%, tobacco (81.2% and marijuana (68.2%. The institutions generally give assistance to people in the 26-45 years age group (89.4%; with regard to gender, the institutions take care of: men (31.8%, women (5.9%, and both sexes (56.5%. The treatment models most used are psychosocial (58.8%, therapeutic community (47.1% and biomedical (43.5% and the work is evaluated through the team technique (72.9 %. CONCLUSIONS: In the state of Espirito Santo, indirect care services are many times greater than those that offer direct care and the majority of all services are in the Central region. The populations in the mainland have a comparative disadvantage when it comes to treatment options for psychoactive substance use. We observed that a significant number of institutions that provide drug abuse treatment have financial support from religious organizations. The Espirito

  16. Consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en una universidad privada de Pasto, Colombia/ Psychoactive substances at a private university from Pasto, Colombia

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    Edwin Giovanny Córdoba-Paz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es resultado de una investigación de corte cuantitativo y de tipo descriptivo-transversal, que buscó describir y asociar factores sociodemográficos con consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en estudiantes de una universidad privada en la ciudad de Pasto, Colombia. Para cumplir el objetivo, se diseñó y validó un cuestionario que luego se aplicó a 242 estudiantes. Los resultados mostraron que el 21,9 % ha consumido algún tipo de sustancia psicoactiva y 12,4 % reporta haberlas consumido simultáneamente con alcohol. La marihuana es la droga más consumida (11,2 %, seguida de cocaína (9,1 %. El consumo de sustancias psicoactivas se asoció significativamente con sexo, siendo los hombres quienes más consumen (p < 0,05. También se asoció con semestre y estrato socioeconómico, es decir, que el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas varía en función de estas variables. Los datos advierten que la marihuana es la principal sustancia de consumo entre universitarios, simultánea al consumo de alcohol. El impacto preventivo debe focalizarse en variables como sexo y semestre.

  17. Consumo de substâncias psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil. I - Prevalência do consumo por sexo, idade e tipo de substância The consumption of psychoactive substances by adolescents in schools in an urban area of Southeastern region of Brazil. I - Prevalence by sex, age and kind of substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson M. Muza

    1997-02-01

    pelos meninos como pelas meninas, muitas vezes em idades bem precoces.INTRODUCTION: Concern over the consumption of psychoactive substances by teenagers has given rise to a great wordwide effort to produce information about this phenomenon. This study set out to investigate the prevalence of consumption of legal and illegal psychoactive substances, its distribution by age, sex and age at first experience of them, among teenage pupils in county, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A self-applicable questionnaire duly adapted and submitted to a reliability test was applied to a proportional sample of 1,025 teenagers enrolled in 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th grads at public and private city schools. The questionnaire contained questions about the use of ten classes of psychoactive substances, demographic questions and validation information, as well as questions about the perception and intrinsic behavior related to drug consumption. RESULTS: The sample of 88.9% had consumed alcoholic beverages sometime in their lives, 37.7% had used tobacco, 31.1% solvents, 10.5% medicines, 6.8% marihuana, 2.7% cocaine, 1.6% hallucinogens, and 0.3% of the sample had consumed some opiate substance. The rates of consumption increased with age for all substances; however, the use of tobacco and of illegal substances was less intense during the later years of adolescence. As to sex distribution, boys consumed more than girls, except for medicines, with girls consuming barbiturates, amphetamines and tranquilizers in proportions similar to or higher than those observed among boys. Age at first experience showed that access to psychoactive substances occurred at very early ages. CONCLUSIONS: Experimenting with psychoactive substances, whether legal or illegal, is a frequent phenomenon during adolescence, both among boys and girls, often at very early ages.

  18. A cloud on the horizon-a survey into the use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, M; Dargan, P; Wood, D

    2018-01-01

    There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK. A voluntary online survey using a convenience sample of UK adult participants (aged 16 years old and over) identified by a market research company. Data was collected regarding demographics, smoking history, electronic vaping device history and recreational drug/NPS use and route of administration. There were 2501 respondents. The mean (±SD) age was 46.2 ± 16.8 years old. The commonest lifetime recreational drug used was Cannabis (818, 32.7%). The majority of respondents had smoked (1545, 61.8%) with 731 (29.2%) being current smokers. The most commonly used SCRA product was 'Spice Gold' (173, 6.9%) and SCRA compound was ADB-CHMICA (48, 1.9%). 861 (34.4%) had used an electronic vaping device; 340 (13.6%) having used them for recreational drug administration; 236 (9.4%) reporting current use. The commonest lifetime recreational drug to be vaped was cannabis (155, 65.7%), with electronic cigarettes (230, 48.2%) being the commonest reported route of SCRA compound administration. 9.4% of respondents currently use electronic vaping devices for recreational drug administration with 6.2% reporting lifetime cannabis vaping use. Further larger scale studies are required to help inform the appropriate treatment and primary prevention strategies.

  19. Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances in a US nationally representative survey: Prevalence, correlates, and a call for new survey methods to prevent underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Martins, Silvia S; Su, Mark K; Ompad, Danielle C

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in emergence and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the US and worldwide. However, there is little published epidemiological survey data estimating the prevalence of use in the US. Data on self-reported NPS use came from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2009-2013), a national representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals in the US. Subjects were asked to provide names of (non-traditional) drugs they used that they were not specifically asked about. We examined lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of self-reported use of new and uncommon synthetic drugs (NPS) among subjects ages 12-34-years-old. 1.2% of subjects self-reported any use of the 57 NPS we examined. Use of psychedelic tryptamines (primarily DMT) was most common, followed by psychedelic phenethylamines (e.g., 2C series) and synthetic cannabinoids. Prevalence of self-reported use of NPS increased from 2009 to 2013 and use was most common among males, whites, older subjects, those of lower income, and among those residing in cities. Lifetime use of various other illicit drugs (e.g., LSD, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA) was highly prevalent among NPS users. This the first study reporting on use of a variety of NPS in a nationally representative US sample; however, use appears to be underreported as other national data suggest higher rates of NPS (e.g., synthetic cannabinoid) use. Developing more adaptable survey tools and systematically assessing NPS use would allow researchers to ask about hundreds of NPS and improve reporting as new drugs continue to rapidly emerge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HCV prevalence and risk behaviours among injectors of new psychoactive substances in a risk environment in Hungary-An expanding public health burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Anna; Dudás, Mária; Wiessing, Lucas; Horváth, Gergely; Rusvai, Erzsébet; Tresó, Bálint; Csohán, Ágnes

    2017-03-01

    In Hungary a large increase in injecting new psychoactive substances (NPS) coincided with decreasing harm reduction efforts and rising HCV infection. We describe these, and assess changes in HCV prevalence and risk behaviours, 2011-2014, among NPS injectors, using 2011-2015 syringe exchange programme (SEP) data as a key contextual ('risk environment') variable. We conducted repeated national sero-behavioural surveys in people who inject drugs (PWID) injecting in the last month and attending SEPs or drug treatment centres (n=399, 2011; 384, 2014), using face-to-face interviews and dried blood-spot samples. Prevalence of injected drugs and SEP coverage (2011-2015) were assessed through our national SEP monitoring system and using population size estimates. NPS injecting tripled among PWID attending SEPs in Hungary (2011: 26%; 2015: 80%). Among NPS injectors, HCV prevalence, sharing syringes and sharing any injecting equipment (last month), doubled (2011-2014: 37%-74%, 20%-48%, 42%-71%, respectively), significantly exceeding prevalence in other PWID groups. Among young NPS injectors (aged<25), HCV prevalence increased 7-fold (12%-76%), among new injectors (injecting<2years) 4-fold (13%-42%), coupled with high levels of equipment sharing (79% and 72% respectively). Not using a condom at last intercourse (79%), ever-imprisonment (65%) and last-year homelessness (57%) were highly prevalent among NPS injectors (2014). The number of syringes distributed per estimated PWID nationally fell from 114 to 81 (2011-2014) and dropped to 28 in 2015. NPS injectors in Hungary are at severe risk of blood-borne infections due to high levels of injecting and sexual risk behaviours within a high-risk environment, including continuously low SEP provision, imprisonment and homelessness. An HIV outbreak cannot be excluded. Stronger investment in evidence-based prevention measures, with special focus on young and new injectors, and expansion of hepatitis C treatment are urgently needed

  1. Polysubstance use profiles among electronic dance music party attendees in New York City and their relation to use of new psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Cleland, Charles M; Palamar, Joseph J

    2018-03-01

    Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18-40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City. We queried past-year use of common illegal drugs and 98 NPS. We conducted latent class analysis to identify polysubstance use profiles of use of eight common drugs (i.e., ecstasy, ketamine, LSD, mushrooms, powder cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine, benzodiazepines). Relationships between drug classification membership and sociodemographics and use of drugs within six NPS categories were examined. We identified four profiles of use of common drugs: non-polysubstance use (61.1%), extensive polysubstance use (19.2%), moderate polysubstance use/stimulants (12.8%), and moderate polysubstance use/psychedelics (6.7%). Those in the moderate/psychedelic group were at higher odds of using NPS with psychedelic-type effects (2C, tryptamines, and other "new" psychedelics; Ps<0.05). Extensive polysubstance users were at increased odds of reporting use of 2C drugs, synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"), tryptamines, other new (non-phenethylamine) psychedelics, new dissociatives, and synthetic cannabinoids (Ps<0.05). NPS preference is linked to the profile of use of common drugs among individuals in the EDM scene. Most participants were identified as non-polysubstance users, but findings may help inform preventive and harm reduction interventions among those at risk in this scene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A fast bioanalytical method based on microextraction by packed sorbent and UPLC-MS/MS for determining new psychoactive substances in oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, A M; Fernández, P; Regenjo, M; Fernández, A M; Carro, A M; Lorenzo, R A

    2017-11-01

    The emergence in recent years of potentially dangerous new psychoactive substances (NPS) that are not under international control has led to the development of multi-analyte procedures for their unequivocal quantification. A fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS), in combination with a sample pretreatment based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), was for the first time used in this work for the simultaneous determination of NPS in oral fluid. This matrix is an effective alternative to typical biological samples for drug control in substitution therapy programs, and also for the prevention and reduction of traffic accidents. The proposed method allowed the separation and quantification of eleven synthetic cathinones, six opiates, scopolamine, cocaine and two metabolites in less than 3.0min by using appropriate isotope-labelled internal standards. The MEPS procedure, which is a miniaturized version of the SPE technique, is completed within 15min. The influence of variables such as the washing solution and eluent volumes, phase type, number of aspirate-dispense cycles and pH was investigated by using a 3441//16 asymmetric screening design and a response surface methodology based on a Doehlert design. The MEPS process performed optimally with a mixed-mode C8/SCX sorbent and a sample pH of 9. The proposed method was validated according to major guidelines and found to span the linear concentration range 0.5-500ngmL-1 (R2 ≥ 0.9903), and to be selective and precise (within- and between-day precision as %RSD were both lower than 13.7%). The accuracy, in terms of analyte extraction recovery, ranged from 75% to 125% for most of the analytes. The MEPS-UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully used to analyse twelve real samples from patients on a drug detoxification programme and proved an effective tool for drug monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-class analysis of new psychoactive substances and metabolites in hair by pressurized liquid extraction coupled to HPLC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Camilla; Vannutelli, Gabriele; Massa, Maristella; Simeoni, Maria Chiara; Gregori, Adolfo; Ripani, Luigi; Compagnone, Dario; Curini, Roberta; Sergi, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an analytical method has been developed and validated for the analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and metabolites in hair samples. The method was based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) analysis. To evaluate extraction efficiency and the applicability of the method, hair samples were fortified by soaking in order to obtain a good surrogate for drug users' hair; the amount of incorporated drugs related to their lipophilicity, similarly to in vivo drug incorporation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method that allowed for the analysis of both cathinones (5) and synthetic cannabinoids (7) in hair with a single extraction procedure and chromatographic run. A phenethylamine (2C-T-4), 4- fluorophenylpiperazine and methoxetamine were also included showing that PLE coupled to SPE clean-up was suitable for a multi-class analysis of NPS in hair. In addition, the use of PLE significantly reduced hair analysis time: decontamination, incubation, clean-up, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis were carried out in approximately 45 min. The method was fully validated according to Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) and Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) guidelines. Limit of quantification (LOQ) values ranged from 8 to 50 pg mg-1 for cathinones, phenetylamines and piperazines, and from 9 to 40 pg mg-1 for synthetic cannabinoids (10 pg mg-1 for methoxetamine). Matrix effects were below 15% for all the analytes, demonstrating the effectiveness of the clean-up step. Inaccuracy was lower than 9% in terms of bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Psychoactive Substances Bill and Act of New Zealand: A Chance to Engage Undergraduate Scientists with Society using a Transfer Learning Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliddon, Catherine M.; Cridge, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to develop a teaching paradigm that connected undergraduate’s neuropharmacological/toxicological knowledge to that of government policy. One goal of undergraduate education should be to help develop scientists that can use their scientific knowledge to critique government policy. There is little research, however, on whether democratization of science occurs: nor how to achieve this. Our work focused on a semi-structured workshop designed around the Psychoactive Substances Bill (PSB). Third year science students were given a questionnaire that was designed to address whether participating in the workshop enhanced their understanding of the PSB and its relationship to their established knowledge (i.e., transfer learning). Furthermore, whether they felt that they had enough expertise to consider making a submission (i.e., societal engagement). Results showed that the students appreciated the opportunity to explore potential application of their knowledge and delve into a socio-scientific issue. However, our findings suggested they felt uncomfortable discussing their ideas outside the classroom: nor, did they identify themselves as having sufficient knowledge to contribute to a submission. In conclusion, this study highlights two points. First, that discussion based transfer learning can be used in the tertiary sector and students value the opportunity to apply their knowledge to socio-scientific issue. Second, if social participation and democratization of science is a goal, then more emphasis should be placed on how students can realistically and confidently apply their learning to change social policy. In order to achieve this, education programs need to focus on legitimate real-life processes such as the PSB for engagement. PMID:26557790

  5. An Internalizing Pathway to Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Baucom, Donald H.; Boeding, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Research emanating from the field of developmental science indicates that initial risk factors for substance use disorder can be evident in early childhood. One dominant developmental pathway connecting these initial risk factors with subsequent substance use disorders focuses on the central role of disinhibited or externalizing behaviors. In the current paper, we delineate a second pathway that focuses on problems with emotion regulation associated with internalizing symptomatology. Several studies indicate that internalizing symptoms in early and middle childhood predict substance involvement in adolescents and young adulthood. We describe a risk model that traces the potential developmental markers of this internalizing pathway to substance use disorders and that identifies a population potentially vulnerable to this risk process, namely children of alcoholic parents. We consider the relation between the internalizing pathway and the more widely researched externalizing pathway. We then conclude with a discussion of the implications of this model for prevention efforts. In this manner, we strive for a translational goal, linking our existing understanding of internalizing processes and substance use disorders with our efforts to develop effective prevention programs. PMID:21823762

  6. Detection and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) within the evolved "legal high" product, NRG-2, using high performance liquid chromatography-amperometric detection (HPLC-AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuway, Khaled Y; Smith, Jamie P; Foster, Christopher W; Kapur, Nikil; Banks, Craig E; Sutcliffe, Oliver B

    2015-09-21

    The global increase in the production and abuse of cathinone-derived New Psychoactive Substances (NPSs) has developed the requirement for rapid, selective and sensitive protocols for their separation and detection. Electrochemical sensing of these compounds has been demonstrated to be an effective method for the in-field detection of these substances, either in their pure form or in the presence of common adulterants, however, the technique is limited in its ability to discriminate between structurally related cathinone-derivatives (for example: (±)-4′-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, 2a) and (±)-4′-methyl-N-ethylmethcathinone (4-MEC, 2b) when they are both present in a mixture. In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the combination of HPLC-UV with amperometric detection (HPLC-AD) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 4-MMC and 4-MEC using either a commercially available impinging jet (LC-FC-A) or custom-made iCell channel (LC-FC-B) flow-cell system incorporating embedded graphite screen-printed macroelectrodes. The protocol offers a cost-effective, reproducible and reliable sensor platform for the simultaneous HPLC-UV and amperometric detection of the target analytes. The two systems have similar limits of detection, in terms of amperometric detection [LC-FC-A: 14.66 μg mL(-1) (2a) and 9.35 μg mL(-1) (2b); LC-FC-B: 57.92 μg mL(-1) (2a) and 26.91 μg mL(-1) (2b)], to the previously reported oxidative electrochemical protocol [39.8 μg mL(-1) (2a) and 84.2 μg mL(-1) (2b)], for two synthetic cathinones, prevalent on the recreational drugs market. Though not as sensitive as standard HPLC-UV detection, both flow cells show a good agreement, between the quantitative electroanalytical data, thereby making them suitable for the detection and quantification of 4-MMC and 4-MEC, either in their pure form or within complex mixtures. Additionally, the simultaneous HPLC-UV and amperometric detection protocol detailed herein shows a marked improvement

  7. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de odontologia da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Psychoactive substance use among Espírito Santo Federal University odontology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Frossard Teixeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é traçar o perfil do uso de substâncias psicoativas entre os universitários do curso de odontologia do Centro de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, descritivo, transversal e quantitativo, desenvolvido com universitários do primeiro ao último ano do curso de odontologia. O instrumento utilizado na coleta de dados é uma adaptação do proposto pela OMS e desenvolvido pela WHO - Research and Reporting Project on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados através do Programa Statistical Package for the Social Science. 60,3% dos universitários são do sexo feminino, 48,9% se encontram na faixa etária de 20 a 22 anos e 41,3% e 43,7% pertencem à classe social A e B, respectivamente. Quanto ao uso de substâncias psicoativas, 72,4% fizeram uso na vida de alguma substância, exceto álcool e tabaco; 25,9% fizeram uso de solventes, 13,2% uso de maconha, 10,9%, de anfetamínicos, 27%, de tabaco e 87,9%, de álcool. Faz-se necessário a prevenção do uso indevido de substâncias psicoativas entre universitários, através da abordagem dessa temática no currículo acadêmico e da criação de programas específicos para universitários.The objective of this article is to trace the psychoactive substance use profile among odontology college students from the Espírito Santo Federal University Health Sciences Center. It is an explorative, descriptive, transversal and quantitative study developed with first to last year college students of the odontology course. The instrument used for data collection was an adaptation of one proposed by WHO and developed by WHO - Research and Reporting Project on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Data were listed and analyzed through the Statistical Package Program for the Social Science. The results showed that 60.3% colleges student are female, 48.9% age between 20 and 22 years, 41

  8. Family history density of substance use problems among undergraduate college students: Associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright

  9. Worldwide legislative challenges related to psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrei, Carolina; Galateanu, Bianca; Stan, Miriana; Balalau, Cristian; Dumitru, Mircea Lucian Bogdan; Ozcagli, Eren; Fenga, Concettina; Kovatsi, Leda; Fragou, Domniki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2017-06-02

    The discovery of a "new" psychoactive substance is a relatively exceptional event, while the regulatory response usually involved the assessment of risks to public health and inclusion of the novel substance in the national list of controlled substances. However, in recent years we have witnessed the rapid emergence of new chemical substances, which elude international control and pose a challenge to existing processes and a threat to the credibility of control systems. We currently review and present characteristics of these legal and illegal new substances and issues regarding their global monitoring and regulatory measures already taken, or in the process of being taken, for their control. The concept of prohibition applied in active substance-related legislation is rather hazard ridden as balance is required between the ban on substances of potential therapeutic use and the access on the market of high-risk substances. Current and future laws regarding psychoactive compounds.

  10. Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Van der Linden, Trudy

    2013-01-01

    therapeutic. Cannabis (0.5–7.6%) was the most prevailing illicit drug. Alcohol was found in combination with drugs in 2.3-13.2% of the drivers. Drug combinations were found in 0.5–4.3% of the drivers. This study confirms the high prevalence of psychoactive substances in injured drivers, but we observed large...... differences between the participating countries. Alcohol was the most common finding, followed by cannabis and benzodiazepines. Notable are the many drivers having a BAC = 1.3 g/L. The majority of the substances were found in combination with another psychoactive substance, mostly alcohol. The high prevalence...

  11. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances in music videos: a content analysis of prevalence and genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W

    2005-07-01

    Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances.

  12. Using the alcohol, smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) to determine substance abuse prevalence in the RI trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.

  13. Estudio exploratorio sobre la presencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y 12 años y en sus padres o adultos responsables Preliminary study about the presence of the use of psychoactive substances among children between ten and twelve years old and in their parents or responsible adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Slapak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados preliminares de un estudio cuyo propósito es indagar la presencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y años y en sus padres o adultos responsables. Metodología: Muestras: niños de a años que reciben asistencia psicoterapéutica en una unidad de docencia en servicio de una cátedra universitaria; padres o adultos responsables de dichos niños. Instrumentos: CORIN. Fuente: CONICET. Cuestionario que indaga hábitos de consumo en los adultos. Anamnesis a los adultos. Protocolo de datos sociodemográficos. Conclusiones: Se registra consumo ocasional de alcohol durante el año de administración del instrumento entre los niños. De la misma manera, se observa un consumo habitual de diversas sustancias psicoactivas en su entorno familiar. Se concluye que el consumo ocasional de alcohol en los niños no se encuentra relacionado con su sintomatología, sino más bien con las características del contexto familiar.This paper presents the preliminaries results of a study which purpose is to inquire the presence of the use of psychoactive substances among children between ten and twelve years old and in their parents or responsible adults. Methodology: Samples: Children between ten and twelve years old that receive psychotherapeutical assistance in an academic unit in a service witch belongs to an university chair; parents or responsible adults of these children. Tools: CORIN. Source: CONICET. Questionnaire that inquires about consume habits in the adults. Adults anamnesis. Sociodemographic data protocol. Conclusions: During the year of the administration of the instrument, it is registred an occasional consume of alcohol among the children. In the same way, it is observed a habitual consume of diverse psychoactive substances in their family context. It is concluded that the occasionally use of alcohol in children it is not related with their sinthomatology, but with the characteristics of their family

  14. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  15. Effects of Substance Use Education Programs: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Student Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, John Paul; Chambliss, Catherine

    In this study, differential substance use between American and Australian college students was assessed through administration of a survey concerning recent use of six commonly used psychoactive substances (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and caffeine). Situational contexts associated with the use of each particular…

  16. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  17. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  18. Adolescent Alcohol Beverage Type Choices Reflect Their Substance Use Patterns and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintonen, Tomi P.; Konu, Anne I.

    2003-01-01

    Studied alcoholic beverage type choices in relation to substance use patterns and attitudes toward substance abuse using data from the 1999 Finnish Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey for 4,943 adolescents aged 14 to 16. Frequencies of drinking, drunkenness, and smoking and attitudes toward substance use were all affected by beverage type…

  19. Lagos "Area Boys", Substance Usage and Potential Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi; Brown, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the rate at which members of Lagos' "area boys" engage in drug and alcohol use, and determines the predictive roles of parental and neighbourhood characteristics in the gang patterns of psychoactive substance misuse behaviour. The study approached gang members (N = 129) aged from 18 to 38 years (M = 25.83, SD = 4.82)…

  20. Parental separation and early substance involvement: results from children of alcoholic and cannabis dependent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Grant, Julia D; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Slutske, Wendy S; Glowinski, Anne L; Henders, Anjali; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-01-01

    Risks associated with parental separation have received limited attention in research on children of parents with substance use disorders. We examined early substance involvement as a function of parental separation during childhood and parental alcohol and cannabis dependence. Data were drawn from 1318 adolescent offspring of monozygotic (MZ) or dizygotic (DZ) Australian twin parents. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted predicting age at first use of alcohol, first alcohol intoxication, first use and first regular use of cigarettes, and first use of cannabis, from parental separation and both parent and cotwin substance dependence. Parent and cotwin alcohol and cannabis dependence were initially modeled separately, with post hoc tests for equality of effects. With few exceptions, risks associated with parental alcohol versus cannabis dependence could be equated, with results largely suggestive of genetic transmission of risk from parental substance (alcohol or cannabis) dependence broadly defined. Controlling for parental substance dependence, parental separation was a strong predictor for all substance use variables, especially through age 13. Together, findings underscore the importance of parental separation as a risk-factor for early substance involvement over and above both genetic and environmental influences specific to parental alcohol and cannabis dependence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reasons for Substance Use: A Comparative Study of Alcohol Use in Tribals and Non-tribals

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeraj, V. S.; Prasad, Surjit; Khess, Christoday Raja Jayant; Uvais, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Consumption of alcohol has been attributed to different reasons by consumers. Attitude and knowledge about the substance and addiction can be influenced by the cultural background of the individual. The tribal population, where alcohol intake is culturally accepted, can have different beliefs and attributes causing one to take alcohol. This study attempts to examine the reasons for alcohol intake and the belief about addiction and their effect on the severity of addiction in peopl...

  2. Rôle de l'alcool et des substances psychoactives dans les accidents de la voie publique à Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (Étude Asma-ci)

    OpenAIRE

    DIAKITE, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de notre thèse est d'évaluer le rôle de l'alcool et autres substances psychoactives dans la survenue et la gravité des traumatismes dus aux Accidents de la Voie Publique (AVP) en Côte d'Ivoire. Nous avons initié un recueil de données sur 893 victimes tuées ou blessées suite à un AVP, et admises aux urgences ou à l'Institut de Médecine Légale d'Abidjan. Ces données hospitalières ont été couplées aux données policières et aux résultats d'analyses toxicologiques. La méthode de dosage ...

  3. Expecting innovation: psychoactive drug primes and the generation of creative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Pedersen, Sarah L; Pederson, Sarah L; Friedman, Ronald S; McCarthy, Denis M

    2011-08-01

    Many individuals expect that alcohol and drug consumption will enhance creativity. The present studies tested whether substance related primes would influence creative performance for individuals who possessed creativity-related substance expectancies. Participants (n = 566) were briefly exposed to stimuli related to psychoactive substances (alcohol, for Study 1, Sample 1, and Study 2; and marijuana, for Study 1, Sample 2) or neutral stimuli. Participants in Study 1 then completed a creative problem-solving task, while participants in Study 2 completed a divergent thinking task or a task unrelated to creative problem solving. The results of Study 1 revealed that exposure to the experimental stimuli enhanced performance on the creative problem-solving task for those who expected the corresponding substance would trigger creative functioning. In a conceptual replication, Study 2 showed that participants exposed to alcohol cues performed better on a divergent thinking task if they expected alcohol to enhance creativity. It is important to note that this same interaction did not influence performance on measures unrelated to creative problem solving, suggesting that the activation of creativity-related expectancies influenced creative performance, specifically. These findings highlight the importance of assessing expectancies when examining pharmacological effects of alcohol and marijuana. Future directions and implications for substance-related interventions are discussed. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Lankarani, Kamran B; Sarikhani, Yaser; Javanmardi, Kazem; Akbary, Ali; Akbari, Maryam; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz; Tabrizi, Reza

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers. This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran. Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the day. The data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving. A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of (27.0 ± 9.3) years participated in the study. Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving, poor maneuvering, and driving over the speed limit (both p alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identify drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.

  5. Mental Health in School-Aged Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Beate Sandtorv

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to substances can possibly influence a child’s neurodevelopment and may impact on subsequent mental health. We investigated the mental health status of school-aged children referred to a pediatric hospital with a history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other substances. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared with a reference group. A total of 105 of 128 (82% eligible children prenatally exposed to substances participated in the study, with 48 children exposed to alcohol and 57 to other substances. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire subscale mean scores, total difficulties scores, and total impact scores were statistically significantly higher in the group of exposed children, compared with the reference group. In this hospital-based population of school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol or other substances, the exposed group had an increased risk of mental health problems, compared with the reference group.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Sarikhani, Yaser; Javanmardi, Kazem; Akbary, Ali; Akbari, Maryam; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz; Tabrizi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers. Methods This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran. Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the day. The data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some...

  7. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Ujváry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.

  8. Prevalência e fatores associados com o consumo de substâncias psicoativas por acadêmicos de enfermagem da Universidade de Passo Fundo Prevalence and factors associated with psychoactives substances consumption for academics of nursing of the University of Passo Fundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Picolotto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a prevalência de consumo de substâncias psicoativas e seus determinantes entre acadêmicos de enfermagem da Universidade de Passo Fundo (RS, realizou-se estudo transversal com 266 alunos, maiores de dezoito anos, que responderam o questionário do Centro Brasileiro de Informações Sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas. Empregou-se estatística descritiva, qui-quadrado e regressão logística múltipla para análise de dados. A prevalência de uso na vida, no ano e no mês foi maior para álcool, tabaco, benzodiazepínicos e estimulantes. Da amostra, 94% consumiram álcool na vida, 90% no ano e 79% no mês, sendo 14% caracterizado como uso pesado. As alunas consumiram mais benzodiazepínicos e estimulantes que os alunos. Os maiores de 20 anos de idade e os do sexo feminino evidenciaram menor chance de consumo de álcool no mês e aqueles com renda familiar mensal superior a dez salários mínimos apresentaram maior chance de consumo de maconha (OR: 1,92, cocaína (OR:4,63 e inalantes (OR:7,02. O padrão de consumo de substâncias psicoativas assemelha-se ao encontrado em outros grupos de universitários, salvo os benzodiazepínicos e estimulantes, sugerindo-se uma avaliação mais aprofundada desse consumo.The objective of this epidemiologic transversal cut study was to investigate the consumption of psychoactive substances and their determinants between the nursery academics of the University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State. 266 students, aging more than eighteen years old answered a questionnaire of the Brazilian Center of Information about Psychoactive Drugs. A descriptive statistics, qui-square and multiple logistics regression were carried out for the data analysis. Of the sample, 94% had consumed alcohol in the life, 90% in that year and 79% in that month, 14% were characterized as heavy users. The girls had consumed benzodiazepines and stimulants more than the boys. The ones aging 20 year and more and females had

  9. Metabolism of the new psychoactive substances N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) and 5-methoxy-DALT and their detectability in urine by GC-MS, LC-MSn, and LC-HR-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michely, Julian A; Helfer, Andreas G; Brandt, Simon D; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-10-01

    N,N-Diallyltryptamine (DALT) and 5-methoxy-DALT (5-MeO-DALT) are synthetic tryptamine derivatives commonly referred to as so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS). They have psychoactive effects that may be similar to those of other tryptamine derivatives. The objectives of this work were to study the metabolic fate and detectability, in urine, of DALT and 5-MeO-DALT. For metabolism studies, rat urine obtained after high-dose administration was prepared by precipitation and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS-MS). On the basis of the metabolites identified, several aromatic and aliphatic hydroxylations, N-dealkylation, N-oxidation, and combinations thereof are proposed as the main metabolic pathways for both compounds. O-Demethylation of 5-MeO-DALT was also observed, in addition to extensive glucuronidation or sulfation of both compounds after phase I transformation. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes predominantly involved in DALT metabolism were CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4; those mainly involved in 5-MeO-DALT metabolism were CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. For detectability studies, rat urine was screened by GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-HR-MS-MS after administration of low doses. LC-MS(n) and LC-HR-MS-MS were deemed suitable for monitoring consumption of both compounds. The most abundant targets were a ring hydroxy metabolite of DALT, the N,O-bis-dealkyl metabolite of 5-MeO-DALT, and their glucuronides. GC-MS enabled screening of DALT by use of its main metabolites only.

  10. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  11. [Psychoactive Drug Abuse in Adolescent Addicts of a Colombian Rehabilitation Foundation. Descriptive Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo; Rubio, Luz Adriana

    2012-09-01

    To describe the use of psychoactive substances (PAS) in addict population between 14 and 18 years of a foundation devoted to rehabilitation in the Department of Quindío, Colombia. Quantitative-descriptive research. The VESPA (Epidemiological surveillance for psychoactive substance abuse) Forms of the people admitted to the institution between 2006 and 2009. During the study, 333 adolescents between 14 and 18 were attended. 75.4% were men, only 31.2% had primary education, 56% reported being unemployed, and 34.5% stated they were admitted at the foundation after legal indication. Upon admission, the PAS was: 44.2%, tobacco; 25.8%, marijuana; 18.0%, alcohol and 5.7% cocaine. The average starting age for men was 12.33, while for women was 11.96; reported substances showed the following starting averages: alcohol, 12.26 ys old; tobacco, 12.49 ys old; marijuana, 13.39 ys old; inhalants, 13.98 ys old; cocaine, 14.01 ys old; crack, 14.27 ys old; and heroin, 15 ys old. The average admission age to the institution was 15.7 ys old. Figures found highlight the need for greater and better prevention programs regarding PAS abuse in adolescents and children. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies and behavior predict substance-related sexual revictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B; Denardi, Kathleen A; Walker, Dave P

    2013-05-01

    Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Worries about others' substance use-Differences between alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moan, Inger Synnøve; Storvoll, Elisabet E; Lund, Ingunn Olea

    2017-10-01

    While it is well documented that many experience harm from others' substance use, little is known about the psychological strain associated with others' use. The aims were: (1) to describe the prevalence of worries about others' alcohol, cigarette and illegal drug use, (2) whose substance use people worry about, (3) the overlap in worries, and (4) to examine how worries about others' use of each substance vary according to demographics, own substance use and experience of harm from others' use. A population survey was conducted among 16-64year old Norwegians (N=1667). Respondents' reported on worries about others' alcohol, cigarette and illegal drug use, measures of experiences of harm from others' use of the three substances, and own substance use. Worries about others' drinking were most prevalent. Among those who worried, others' cigarette and illegal drug use caused more frequent worry. While worry about cigarette use was mostly associated with family members' use, worry about others' alcohol and illegal drug use more often concerned friends'/acquaintances' use. About half worried about others' use of at least one substance. Across all three substances, experience of harm from others' substance use was most strongly related to worries. Worries about others' substance use are common and reflect the prevalence of use of the substances in the population. In sum, the findings suggest that worry about others' alcohol and illegal drug use is primarily related to acute harm while worry about others' cigarette smoking is more related to chronic harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid situation assessments of alcohol and substance use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To describe the current situation with respect to substance use and related harms among commercial vehicle drivers, and to identify a range of interventions that could be feasibly implemented to minimise harms related to substance use. Study design: Observational and group interviews. Setting: Four different ...

  15. Risk of injury by driving with alcohol and other drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this deliverable is to assess the risk of driving with alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines in various European countries. In total nine countries participated in the study on relative risk of serious injury/fatality while positive for psychoactive substances. Six countries contr...

  16. Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Hong, L; Morter, S; Howe, L

    1999-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications.

  17. The substance specificity of psychosocial correlates of alcohol, tobacco, coffee and drug use by Czech women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicka, L; Csémy, L; Kozený, J; Nespor, K

    1993-06-01

    The paper reports results of an analysis based on face-to-face interviews with two samples of Prague women aged 20-49: (1) a probabilistic sample (n = 718) of the Prague female population; and (2) a sample of 152 inpatients treated for substance dependence/abuse. Of the inpatients, 79% were diagnosed as alcohol dependent only, 15% as both alcohol dependent and drug dependent/abusers, 6% as drug dependent only. With very few exceptions, those with drug problems among the inpatients abused analgesics, hypnotics, or anxiolytics. With data obtained from the general population sample, two-stage hierarchical logistic regression was run with each of the eleven differently defined substance uses as dependent variables. Four demographic variables were entered as predictors into the regression equations in the first stage. From the seven potential risk factors of substance use statistically significant predictors were entered stepwise in stage two. The major result of the study is the specificity of the pattern of predictors related to each of the eleven considered substance uses. It is also found that in the general population the use of a particular substance is generally uncorrelated with the use of other substances. Alcohol use (even heavy alcohol use) has no relation to smoking, to the use of analgesics, hypnotics, anxiolytics--and is connected with a specific pattern of predictors.

  18. An Internalizing Pathway to Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Baucom, Donald H.; Boeding, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Research emanating from the field of developmental science indicates that initial risk factors for substance use disorder can be evident in early childhood. One dominant developmental pathway connecting these initial risk factors with subsequent substance use disorders focuses on the central role of disinhibited or externalizing behaviors. In the current paper, we delineate a second pathway that focuses on problems with emotion regulation associated with internalizing symptomatology. Several ...

  19. Report on psychoactive drug use among adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2005-06-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca within the context of the Brazilian ayahuasca churches often starts during late childhood or early adolescence. Premature access to psychoactive drugs may represent a risk factor for drug misuse. Conversely, religious affiliation seems to play a protective role in terms of substance abuse. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of drug use in a sample of adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious setting. Forty-one adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 43 adolescents who never drank ayahuasca. No significant differences were identified in terms of lifetime substance consumption. Throughout the previous year period, ayahuasca adolescents used less alcohol (46.31%) than the comparison group (74.4%). Recent use of alcohol was also more frequent among the latter group (65.1%) than among ayahuasca drinkers (32.5%). Although not statistically significant, slight differences in terms of patterns of drug use were definitely observed among groups. Despite their early exposure to a hallucinogenic substance, adolescents using ayahuasca in a controlled setting were mostly comparable to controls except for a considerably smaller proportion of alcohol users. Religious affiliation may have played a central role as a possible protective factor for alcohol use. Thus, ayahuasca seems to be a relatively safe substance as far as drug misuse is concerned.

  20. Perceived ease of access to alcohol, tobacco and other substances in rural and urban US students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in the US state of Georgia in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513 909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a four-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using χ2 analysis. In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. The present study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban students' perceived ease of access

  1. Assessment and treatment of alcoholism and substance-related disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menninger, John A

    2002-01-01

    Substance-related disorders in the elderly remain overlooked and undertreated. Up to 16% of the elderly have alcohol use disorders. With Americans age 65 and older constituting the fastest growing segment of our population, this issue becomes increasingly important. The author reviews the prevalence of geriatric alcoholism, the two typical drinking patterns seen in the elderly, the acute and chronic consequences of alcohol consumption with particular relevance to older persons, barriers to proper assessment of alcoholism in this age group, usefulness of available screening tools, treatment of alcohol withdrawal in the elderly, treatment of alcohol dependence in the elderly with focus on brief intervention, and aspects of nonalcohol drug abuse in the elderly.

  2. Pharmacology of Cumyl-Carboxamide Synthetic Cannabinoid New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) CUMYL-BICA, CUMYL-PICA, CUMYL-5F-PICA, CUMYL-5F-PINACA, and Their Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Mitchell; Banister, Samuel D; Boyd, Rochelle; Kevin, Richard C; Connor, Mark; McGregor, Iain S; Kassiou, Michael

    2017-10-18

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are the largest class of new psychoactive substances (NPS), and are increasingly associated with serious adverse effects. The majority of SC NPS are 1,3-disubstituted indoles and indazoles featuring a diversity of subunits at the 1- and 3-positions. Most recently, cumyl-derived indole- and indazole-3-carboxamides have been detected by law enforcement agencies and by emergency departments. Herein we describe the synthesis, characterization, and pharmacology of SCs CUMYL-BICA, CUMYL-PICA, CUMYL-5F-PICA, CUMYL-PINACA, CUMYL-5F-PINACA, and related analogues. All cumyl-derived SCs were potent, efficacious agonists at CB1 (EC50 = 0.43-12.3 nM) and CB2 (EC50 = 11.3-122 nM) receptors in a fluorometric assay of membrane potential, with selectivity for CB1 activation (3.1-53 times over CB2). CUMYL-PICA and CUMYL-5F-PICA were evaluated in rats using biotelemetry, and induced hypothermia and bradycardia at doses of 1 mg/kg. Hypothermia was reversed by pretreatment with a CB1, but not CB2, antagonist, confirming that cumyl-derived SCs are cannabimimetic in vivo.

  3. Consumo de substâncias psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil: II - Distribuição do consumo por classes sociais The intake of psychoactive substances by school-age adolescents in an urban area of Southeastern region of Brazil: II - Distribution of consumption by social levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson M. Muza

    1997-04-01

    educational and housing levels in an attempt to identify individuals or groups in different social contexts. The present study investigates the distribution of consumpition of psychoactive substances according to social class in a sample of teenage pupils in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A self-applicable questionnaire duly adapted and submitted to a reliability test was applied to a proportional sample of 1,025 teenagers enrolled in the 8th, 9th, 10th and 12th grades in public and private city schools. The questionnaires contained questions about the use of ten classes of psychoactive substances, demographic questions and validation information, as well as questions about the perception and intrinsic behavior related to drug consumption. The adaptation of a model that identifies 5 social class strata (business middle class, managerial middle class, lower middle class, proletariat and subproletariat on the basis of indicators that situate the individuals within the social relations of production, was used. RESULTS: The 3 middle class strata were more often represented, whereas the proletariat and subproletariat were less frequently represented in this teenage pupil population than in the population in general. There was no difference in alcohol or tobacco consumption according to social class, although prevalence tended to be higher at the two extremes of the social ladder. In contrast, the consumption of illegal substances was higher in the middle class and lower in the proletariat. CONCLUSION: Although the consumption of legal substances did not differ among social classes, the higher consumption of illegal substances by the wealthier teenagers was probably due to the higher cost of these products as compared those of alcohol and tobacco.

  4. [Psychotropic substances and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L; Ferrario, M M

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of psychotropic substances (alcohol, drugs, medication) has a major impact on complex activity performance such as driving. This issue is of relevant social interest for the high number of potentially involved subjects and the often fatale outcomes, and affects also occupational physicians because of the high number of people whose job is driving. There are still few studies trying to assess the presence of a possible association between increased risk of accident/injury at work and consumption of psychotropic substances and results are not always in agreement. In spite of such uncertainties and some Italian regulations still worth being amended by Legislator, the possible impact of consumption of psychoactive substances on driving is an issue to be still better defined for which occupational physicians may play a basic role in the field of prevention, clinics and rehabilitation.

  5. Utilización de sustancias psicoactivas en alumnos de anatomía y su implicación en el aprendizaje The use of psychoactive substances in Anatomy students and its implication in learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Mazzoglio y Nabar

    2011-06-01

    turn to substances with the objective of being able to stay up more hours with a sharp attention focused on their study. However, these substances can interfere long term memory and can generate pharmaceutical dependency. Aim. To establish the prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances in University students and to relate it with sleeping patterns and social-economic-educational characteristics. Subjects and methods. Cross-sectional study using standardized questionnaire with multiple choice system administered to 122 Anatomy students in the year 2009. Statistic parameters were applied and an informed consent was demanded. Results. 79.51% said that they were not able to read all the topics and 36.89% said that they memorized concepts; 25% started to memorize subjects three days before the exam, 20.49% did it the previous day, and 19.67% memorized subjects the night before the exam without sleeping. 25.41% answered that they used substances for sleeping and 41.8% used some substances to increase studying hours, such as: coffee, energy drinks, psychopharmacological medication (45.09% modafinil and methylphenidate and acetylsalicylic acid. The numbers of hours working correlated with the number of substances consumed (r = 0.89; students that where taking the subject again had less hours of sleep indirectly correlated with the use of psychoactives (r = -0.86. Conclusions. We recorded a high prevalence of consumptions of psychoactive substances, especially amongst students that are repeating the course and students that had jobs. It is of utmost importance to implement pedagogical tools that increase motivation, attention, and the associative capacities under an integrative-educational conception.

  6. When alcohol is only part of the problem: An event-level analysis of negative consequences related to alcohol and other substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Hultgren, Brittney A; Sell, Nichole; Reavy, Racheal; Cleveland, Michael

    2017-05-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice for most college students, national data show that 40% of college students also use other substances (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, etc.). Longitudinal studies indicate that students who report use of both alcohol and other substances experience more consequences (e.g., blackout, arrests). The current study expands upon this research by using a multilevel approach to examine average and event-level alcohol combined with other substance use (ALC+) and its role on consequences experienced. In addition, the research examined which substance combined with alcohol posed the most risk. A total of 461 students reported on alcohol use, substance use, and consequences experienced (e.g., Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire [YAACQ]) on 12 weekend nights (Thursday, Friday, Saturday) across 4 weekends in an academic year. Multilevel model analyses revealed a positive association between both average and event-level ALC+ use and the number of consequences experienced. A significant cross-level interaction was also revealed indicating students who typically combine alcohol and other substances experienced more consequences on occasions when they use more substances relative to students who typically use alcohol only. Finally, alcohol plus nicotine, or marijuana, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications, or cocaine were all significantly positively related to increased consequences. These findings provide consistent evidence that ALC+ use is a highly prevalent behavior among college students that increases risk of problematic consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers.

  8. Prevalence of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Professionals dealing with treatment of psychiatric disorders should always be aware of substance use disorder comorbidity, and start treatment immediately without causing any delay in treatment. Obviously we need future large prospective studies to get more insight into these dual-diagnose disorders. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 37-48

  9. Alcohol consumption and partner violence among women entering substance use disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Vyga G; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Murphy, Christopher M; Murphy, Marie M; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    To test the hypothesized role of alcohol consumption as a proximal risk factor for partner violence, a within-subjects analysis compared levels of alcohol consumption in violent versus nonviolent conflict events among substance-abusing women and their male partners. Participants were married or cohabiting women (N = 145) who had recently begun a substance abuse treatment program and reported both a violent and a nonviolent relationship conflict event with their male partner in the prior 6 months. The average age was 38, and 83% were White. Male partners did not participate in the study. The female participant provided information about the male partner. Women were interviewed regarding a violent conflict event in which physical violence occurred and a nonviolent conflict event in which psychological aggression occurred without physical violence. The interview assessed quantity of alcohol consumed and use of other drugs prior to each conflict. Alcohol consumption was significantly greater prior to violent versus nonviolent conflict events for all measures of women's alcohol consumption examined: any drinking, heavy drinking, number of drinks in the 12 hr preceding the conflict event, and estimated blood alcohol concentration at time of the event. Male partners' alcohol consumption showed similar results. Use of other drugs in women, but not men, was significantly more likely prior to physical conflicts. These within-subject comparisons help to rule out individual difference explanations for the alcohol-violence association and indicate that the quantity of alcohol consumption is an important proximal risk factor for partner violence in substance-abusing women and their male partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. School-level substance use: effects on early adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Gaines, Joanna; Su, Wei; Windle, Michael

    2010-07-01

    School-level use of tobacco and alcohol are related to individual students' use in high school, but few studies have examined the effects of school-level substance use in early adolescence. In addition, little is known about factors modifying individuals' vulnerability to school-level influences. This study examined school-wide levels of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in relation to early adolescents' substance use and the role of peer deviance and parenting practices as modifiers of school-level effects. This cross-sectional study included 542 students attending 49 public middle schools in a single metropolitan area. Students reported on their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, and friends' deviant behavior in the last 12 months. Parents provided information about parental nurturance and harsh and inconsistent discipline. School-wide levels of substance use were obtained from the Pride Surveys completed by all students in Grades 6-8 at each school. Multilevel logistic regressions modeled individual use as a function of school-level use for each substance. Interactions of friends' deviance and poor parenting with school-level substance use evaluated differential susceptibility. Among the three substances, only school-level rates of cigarette smoking were associated with individual smoking. The relationships of school-level smoking and alcohol use with individual use were stronger for students whose parents reported poorer parenting practices. Antismoking programs may need to preferentially target middle schools with high rates of cigarette smoking. Students who receive suboptimal parenting may benefit from increased support to deter them from early initiation of smoking and alcohol use, especially in high-risk schools.

  11. Court based civil commitment of alcoholics and substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, E A; Beck, J C

    1991-01-01

    Problem. To study court ordered substance abuse commitment (SAC) in one jurisdiction. We investigated who was evaluated, by whom, and with what outcome. Is SAC primarily a purely civil procedure as originally intended? Are men and women being treated equally? Questionnaire survey of court clinicians to determine demographic and clinical status of persons evaluated, the process of evaluation, and the disposition. SAC is common and more frequent in criminal cases than in purely civil ones. SAC of women is clearly influenced by the restricted choices for disposition: either state prison or an unlocked facility. SAC is an important public health procedure, which courts are using in highly variable and at times unintended ways. SAC has emerged as an alternative to other dispositions in criminal cases involving substance-abusing defendants.

  12. Dose effects of triazolam and alcohol on cognitive performance in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kleykamp, Bethea A.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines and alcohol are widely used psychoactive substances that have performance-impairing effects. Research suggests that the impairment profiles for benzodiazepines and alcohol differ, though few cognitive psychopharmacological studies have directly compared these drugs. This double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, repeated measures study directly compared the acute dose effects of triazolam (0.125 mg, 0.25 mg/70 kg) and alcohol (0.40 g, 0.80 g/kg) in 20 social drinkers. At...

  13. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  14. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  15. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Joosten, E.A.J.; Haan, L. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates

  16. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Joosten, E.A.G.; Haan, L. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates

  17. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Hein A.; Joosten, Evelien A.G.; de Haan, Lydia; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates

  18. Reasons for Substance Use: A Comparative Study of Alcohol Use in Tribals and Non-tribals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeraj, V S; Prasad, Surjit; Khess, Christoday Raja Jayant; Uvais, N A

    2012-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol has been attributed to different reasons by consumers. Attitude and knowledge about the substance and addiction can be influenced by the cultural background of the individual. The tribal population, where alcohol intake is culturally accepted, can have different beliefs and attributes causing one to take alcohol. This study attempts to examine the reasons for alcohol intake and the belief about addiction and their effect on the severity of addiction in people with a different ethnic background. The study was conducted at a Psychiatric institute with a cross-sectional design. The study population included patients hailing from the Jharkhand state, twenty each, belonging to tribal and non-tribal communities. Patients fulfilling the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria of mental and behavioral disorders due to the alcohol dependence syndrome, with active dependence, were taken, excluding those having any comorbidity or complications. The subjects were assessed with specially designed Sociodemographic-Clinical Performa, modified version of Reasons for Substance Use scale, Addiction Belief scale, and the Alcohol Dependence scale. A significantly high number of tribals cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Addiction was severe in those consuming alcohol to cope with distressing emotions. Belief in the free-will model was noted to be stronger across the cultures, without any correlation with the reason for intake. This cross-sectional study design, which was based on patients, cannot be easily generalized to the community. [corrected] Societal acceptance and pressure as well as high emotional problems appears to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalce of substance depedence in tribals. Primary prevention should be planned to fit the needs of the ethnics.

  19. Non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with fatal poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Jari; Kriikku, Pirkko; Mariottini, Claudia; Partonen, Timo; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2017-08-25

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of non-medical substance use, and to assess the association between non-medical substance use and fatal poisoning or history of drug abuse in Finland. Retrospective cohort study of all medico-legally investigated death cases in Finland. The postmortem toxicology database was linked together with the register on reimbursed prescription medicines. All postmortem cases between 2011 and 2013 positive for one or more of the following drugs: oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, tizanidine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, alprazolam, zolpidem, mirtazapine and bupropion, n = 2974. Non-medical use of substance was the outcome variable. Predictors were the following: gender, residence at the time of death, place of death, blood alcohol concentration, age, drug abuse, number of prescriptions of any psychoactive drugs in last year and proportion of prescriptions issued by psychiatrist in last year. In 50.4% of the studied cases, at least one drug was detected without a prescription. Clonazepam, alprazolam and tramadol were the most prevalent non-medical findings in these cases (6.6, 6.1 and 5.6%, respectively). The risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs was especially high in cases with history of drug abuse (88.5%) and in fatal poisonings (71.0%). The proportion of non-medical use of the studied substances varied between 5.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.1-10.1%)] for risperidone and 55.7% for fentanyl (95% CI = 44.1-66.9%). Valid prescription for one or more of any psychoactive drug was associated with lower odds for non-medical use of the studied substances. Additionally, the higher the proportion of psychoactive drugs prescribed by a psychiatrist, the lower the probability of non-medical use. Non-prescribed psychoactive drugs are found commonly at postmortem in drug poisoning deaths in Finland, with history of drug abuse being a major contributing

  20. [Detection of consumption behaviour of psychotropic substances and alcohol by hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Markus R

    2011-05-01

    Hair analysis is a analytical method which is used for monitoring the consumption behaviour of psychotropic substances and alcohol. The analysis of hair samples is suitable for a retrospective survey over a larger time frame because of the time-resolved storing of drugs, pharmaceuticals, their metabolites and alcohol markers. Hair analysis results provide information on the consumption patterns of these substances. The method is suitable to differentiate between abstinence of a substance (abstinere (Latin), stay away, here: teetotalism, abandonment) and repeated intake. In case of a confirmed consumption, a graduation of the consumption behaviour can be given with some limitations. Both, head hair and body hair can be examined; for a forensic examination generally head hair has to be investigated. Usually a hair growth rate of 1 cm per month is applied.

  1. The Influence of Household Substance Use on Children's Later Cigarette, Alcohol and Drug Use: A Three Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, I.; Willner, P.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of family use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs on teenagers', aged 11-16 years old, later use of these substances. Adult drug use, whether of single substances or several, clearly influenced adolescents to use a variety of substances. Suggests a three-factor model comprising Modeling, Attitude, and Availability to explain the…

  2. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  3. Depression and psychoactive substances consumption in Mexican college undergraduates Depresión y consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en universitarios mexicanos Risco de depressão e consumo de substâncias psicoactivas em universitários mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the relationship between risk of depression and psychoactive substances consumption in college undergraduates. Methodology. Cross sectional descriptive study in which an instrument that included a sociodemographic variables, b Beck depression inventory II (BDI-II and c questions about psychoactive substances consumption in life, in the last year and in the last month, was applied to 32 college undergraduates. Results. 52.9% of the students had drunk alcohol and other 33.6% had smoked in the last month. For illicit substances: 3.7% used cocaine, 3.4% marihuana and 0.5% amphetamines. The risk of depression for the sample was: 6.6% had low risk, 3.4% moderate and 1.8% severe risk. Significant differences were found between consumers and non consumers DBI-II means in regards to: alcohol, tobacco, marihuana, and any illicit drug. Conclusion. College undergraduates who have consumed alcohol or marihuana at least once in their life have a higher risk of depression compared to non consumers.Objetivo. Explorar la relación entre el riesgo de depresión y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en universitarios. Metodología. Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el que se aplicó a una muestra representativa de 432 universitarios un instrumento que incluía: a variables sociodemográficas, b Inventario de Depresión de Beck II (DBI-II y c preguntas sobre el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en la vida, en el último año y en el último mes. Resultados. En el último mes el 52.9% de los estudiantes ha bebido alcohol y otro 33.6% ha consumido tabaco; en cuanto a las sustancias ilícitas: 3.7% cocaína, 3.4% marihuana y 0.5% anfetaminas. El riesgo de depresión para la muestra fue: 6.6% leve; 3.4% moderada y 1.8% grave. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las medianas del DBI-II de consumidores y no consumidores en: alcohol, tabaco, marihuana y alguna droga ilícita. Conclusión. Los universitarios que han consumido

  4. Socioeconomic characteristics of alcohol and other substance users, seeking treatment in Sikkim, North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was conducted to generate information for better understanding of socioeconomic and CAGE characteristics of alcohol and other substance users who were undergoing treatment in Sikkim. Subjects and Methods: Socioeconomic and CAGE questionnaire was administered to alcohol and other substance abusers of Sikkim (n = 241 who were undergoing treatment in different treatment centers of Sikkim. Information was collected on printed instrument after taking participant′s consent and data was statistically analyzed. Results: Male participants (93.8% outnumbered female (6.2%. Majority of the sample were either in the school dropout group or school completed (36.1% group. Most of the samples were occupationally unemployed, urban residents, Nepali by ethnicity, single, and Hindu (48.5% by religion. Minimum age for starting of alcohol and drug was 5 years and 7 years respectively. Knowledge about AIDS and its transmission was satisfactory. All the four CAGE characteristics were present in majority of samples. Conclusions: Climate, geographical location, wide and easy availability of alcohol in Sikkim make this state vulnerable for alcohol abuse. Alcohol drinking among parents, sibling and friends found to be important risk factor. Outreach to the community for better acceptability of treatment is an important area to fill the gap of treatment demand and treatment supply.

  5. Identification of a new psychoactive substance in seized material: the synthetic opioid N‐phenyl‐N‐[1‐(2‐phenethyl)piperidin‐4‐yl]prop‐2‐enamide (Acrylfentanyl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimergård, Andreas; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances (NPS) that have recently emerged on the market, many of the new synthetic opioids have shown to be particularly harmful. A new synthetic analogue of fentanyl, N‐phenyl‐N‐[1‐(2‐phenethyl)piperidin‐4‐yl]prop‐2‐enamide (acrylfentanyl), was identified in powder from a seized capsule found at a forensic psychiatric ward in Denmark. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) identified a precursor to synthetic fentanyls, N‐phenyl‐1‐(2‐phenylethyl)piperidin‐4‐amine; however, the precursor 1‐(2‐phenethyl)piperidin‐4‐one, was not detected. Analysis of the electron impact mass spectrum of the main, unknown chromatographic peak (GC) tentatively identified an acryloyl analogue of fentanyl. Further analyses by quadrupole time‐of‐flight high resolution mass spectrometry (QTOF‐MS), matrix‐assisted laser ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MALDI‐Orbitrap‐MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and infra‐red spectroscopy (IR) confirmed the presence of acrylfentanyl (also known as acryloylfentanyl). Quantitative analysis with liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS) determined the content of acrylfentanyl in the powder, equal to 88.3 mass‐% acrylfentanyl hydrochloride. An impurity observed by NMR was identified as triethylamine hydrochloride. Acrylfentanyl is sold on the Internet as a ‘research chemical’. Like other synthetic fentanyls, such as acetylfentanyl, it poses a serious risk of fatal intoxication. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27476446

  6. Pooled human liver preparations, HepaRG, or HepG2 cell lines for metabolism studies of new psychoactive substances? A study using MDMA, MDBD, butylone, MDPPP, MDPV, MDPB, 5-MAPB, and 5-API as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lilian H J; Flockerzi, Veit; Maurer, Hans H; Meyer, Markus R

    2017-09-05

    Metabolism studies play an important role in clinical and forensic toxicology. Because of potential species differences in metabolism, human samples are best suitable for elucidating metabolism. However, in the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS), human samples of controlled studies are not available. Primary human hepatocytes have been described as gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies, but there are some disadvantages such as high costs, limited availability, and variability of metabolic enzymes. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate and compare the metabolism of six methylenedioxy derivatives (MDMA, MDBD, butylone, MDPPP, MDPV, MDPB) and two bioisosteric analogues (5-MAPB, 5-API) using pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) combined with cytosol (pHLC) or pooled human liver S9 fraction (pS9) all after addition of co-substrates for six phase I and II reactions. In addition, HepaRG and HepG2 cell lines were used. Results of the different in vitro tools were compared to each other, to corresponding published data, and to metabolites identified in human urine after consumption of MDMA, MDPV, or 5-MAPB. Incubations with pHLM plus pHLC showed similar results as pS9. A more cost efficient model for prediction of targets for toxicological screening procedures in human urine should be identified. As expected, the incubations with HepaRG provided better results than those with HepG2 concerning number and signal abundance of the metabolites. Due to easy handling without special equipment, incubations with pooled liver preparations should be the most suitable alternative to find targets for toxicological screening procedures for methylenedioxy derivatives and bioisosteric analogues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of drugs, tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances in a French student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommet, Agnès; Ferrières, Nicolas; Jaoul, Vidiane; Cadieux, Laurence; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    To investigate perceived health status and prevalence of drug use, tobacco smoking, consumption of alcohol and illicit substances in a student population. Data were obtained from an anonymous questionnaire distributed to first-year students of the Toulouse University. Collected data concerned socio-demographic characteristics, perceived health status, and consumption of tobacco, alcohol, illicit substances and drugs. Fifty seven percent of the 3 561 responders declared to have taken at least one drug during the week preceding the questionnaire. Most commonly Anatomical, Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classes used were genito-urinary system and sex hormones (29.6%), nervous system (16.4%) and alimentary tract and metabolism (14.1%). Twenty three percent of students were smokers. Differences according to health perception were found for tobacco and cannabis consumption. Anxiety was significantly more prevalent among students reporting that they did not consume alcohol (pconsumptions (tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances) are related with perceived health status. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  9. PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Wanklyn, Sonya; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is access to alcohol associated with alcohol/substance abuse among people diagnosed with anxiety/mood disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A L; Bowie, C; Thornton, L E

    2014-11-01

    important area for alcohol/substance abuse intervention, particularly for vulnerable sub-populations. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  12. A review of implicit and explicit substance self-concept as a predictor of alcohol and tobacco use and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Gasser, Melissa L; Ramirez, Jason J; Cvencek, Dario

    2017-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the self-concept as it relates to substance use. Self-concept has a long history in psychological theory and research; however, substance self-concept (e.g., viewing one's self as a drinker or smoker) is an understudied area of research with the potential to expand existing conceptualizations of substance use, addiction, and prevention and treatment efforts, and should receive greater research attention. First, we review and provide a theoretical framework of substance self-concept that draws from dual process models and distinguishes between implicit and explicit self-concept. Next, we summarize key findings related to substance use in the extant literature, focusing on alcohol and tobacco (smoking). Across both substances, there is converging evidence that substance self-concept is associated with substance use outcomes, including quantity and frequency of use and problems associated with use, and that change in substance self-concept is associated with recovery from substance misuse. Recommendations for the substance self-concept research agenda include routine assessment of substance self-concept, expanded use of implicit measures, investigation of moderators of substance self-concept, and targeting substance self-concept directly in prevention and intervention efforts. Ultimately, we suggest that substance self-concept is a promising, but understudied, construct. Greater research attention to substance self-concept could clarify its potential as an important risk factor for hazardous use and addiction as well as its utility as a prevention and treatment target.

  13. Interaction of substance use and risks to sexual health in the Slovak army: general, sociocultural and individual behaviour patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G; Popper, M

    2000-12-01

    This paper offers an overview about the application of the newly designed WHO/UNAIDS Rapid Assessment and Response Guide (SEX-RAR) for research on interaction between psychoactive substance use and sexual risks in the very specific environment during mandatory military service in the Slovak Republic. Presented results outline general, specific (sociocultural) and individual behaviour patterns concerning interaction of substance (alcohol) use and sexual behaviour, as well as proposed recommendations for intervention activities.

  14. Adolescent substance abuse: the effects of alcohol and marijuana on neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Robert J; Monnig, Mollie A; Lysne, Per A; Ruhl, David A; Pommy, Jessica A; Bogenschutz, Michael; Tonigan, J Scott; Yeo, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period in which cognition and brain undergo dramatic parallel development. Whereas chronic use of alcohol and marijuana is known to cause cognitive impairments in adults, far less is known about the effect of these substances of abuse on adolescent cognition, including possible interactions with developmental processes. Neuropsychological performance, alcohol use, and marijuana use were assessed in 48 adolescents (ages 12 to 18), recruited in 3 groups: a healthy control group (HC, n = 15), a group diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence (SUD, n = 19), and a group with a family history positive for alcohol use disorder (AUD) but no personal substance use disorder (FHP, n = 14). Age, drinks per drinking day (DPDD), percentage days drinking, and percentage days using marijuana were considered as covariates in a MANCOVA in which 6 neuropsychological composites (Verbal Reasoning, Visuospatial Ability, Executive Function, Memory, Attention, and Processing Speed) served as dependent variables. More DPDD predicted poorer performance on Attention and Executive Function composites, and more frequent use of marijuana was associated with poorer Memory performance. In separate analyses, adolescents in the SUD group had lower scores on Attention, Memory, and Processing Speed composites, and FHP adolescents had poorer Visuospatial Ability. In combination, these analyses suggest that heavy alcohol use in adolescence leads to reduction in attention and executive functioning and that marijuana use exerts an independent deleterious effect on memory. At the same time, premorbid deficits associated with family history of AUD appeared to be specific to visuospatial ability. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism. No claim to original U.S. government works.

  15. Tobacco, alcohol and illegal substances: experiences and attitudes among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kračmarová, Lenka; Klusoňová, Hana; Petrelli, Fabio; Grappasonni, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the prevalence of addictive drug use among students of University of Camerino (Italy) and to verify aspects related to substance use in this population. The survey was carried out in the form of anonymous questionnaires completed by 345 participants. Chi-square test was used for statistic evaluation. Most students have experienced legal addictive substances: 28.0 % of participants smoke cigarettes regularly and 23.2 % of respondents have admitted regular alcohol consumption. In addition, 50.4 % of subjects have already tried an illegal drug; the most used substance was cannabis (46.7 %), followed by cocaine (13.3 %). Our results confirmed the increased experimental use of cannabis among young people in Europe and showed a long-term use of drugs, particularly cocaine, among university students.

  16. Does comorbid alcohol and substance abuse affect electroconvulsive therapy outcome in the treatment of mood disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lori; Vaidya, Nutan

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressant medications remain the principal agents used to treat patients with mood disorders, although 30% to 40% of these patients do not improve. One of the factors associated with poor medication response is alcohol and substance abuse. Persons with mood disorders are at the greatest risk for suicide, and alcoholism is a significant additional risk factor. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be the most effective treatment for major depression especially when associated with psychosis, catatonia, and suicide intent. However, similar to most antidepressant trials, patients with depression and comorbid alcohol and substance abuse are excluded from ECT efficacy studies. Through a retrospective chart review, we compared response to ECT in patients with mood disorder and comorbid alcohol and drug abuse to those with mood disorder only. From 2004 to 2010, 80 patients with mood disorder received ECT. Fifty of these had comorbid alcohol or drug abuse. Using a 10-item psychopathology scale, we compared pre- and post-ECT symptom severity between the 2 groups. Outcome was determined by measuring a decrease in the pre-ECT and post-ECT score using Wilcoxon rank tests, with statistical significance at P = 0.05. There was no difference between the 2 groups in most demographics, ECT medication, or seizure quality. There was no difference in ECT outcome between those with comorbid alcohol abuse and those without based on percent decrease in pre- and post-ECT symptom scores (abuse: mean [SD], 0.89 [0.2] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 1332; P = 0.086). When we compared those who met the criteria for alcohol or drug dependence (19 patients) with those with no abuse, there was a trend for the dependence group to not do as well (dependence: mean [SD], 0.83 [0.25] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 405; P = 0.053). Those with combined drug and alcohol abuse (18 patients) did have a significantly worse outcome (combined: mean [SD], 0.82 [0

  17. prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    motocyclistes soient toujours sous l'influence de la drogue. A travers les études de certaines communautés, on a pu déterminer la prévalence de cette facteur et les conséquences sociales et sanitaires de la prise de cette drogue psycho active parmi les motocyclistes utilitaires dans la cite de. Zaria au du Nigeria. Modalité: ...

  18. The effects of purchasing alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Ramchand, Rajeev; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-09-18

    Among high-risk youth, those who may be at increased risk for adverse alcohol and other drug (AOD) use outcomes may benefit from targeted prevention efforts; how youth acquire AOD may provide an objective means of identifying youth at elevated risk. We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180) at two time points (prior to the program and 180 days from baseline). Participants were predominantly White and Hispanic/Latino(a). In cross-sectional analyses among alcohol and marijuana users, purchasing marijuana was associated with more frequent marijuana use and consequences, time spent around teens who use marijuana, higher likelihood of substance use disorders, and lower resistance self-efficacy compared to non-purchasers. Teens who purchased both alcohol and marijuana experienced similar outcomes to those who purchased only marijuana, and also reported more frequent and higher quantity of drinking, greater alcohol-related consequences, time spent around teens who use other drugs, and prescription drug misuse. Longitudinally, purchasing alcohol and marijuana at baseline was associated with more frequent and higher quantity of drinking compared to non-purchasers at follow-up. Marijuana only purchasers had a greater likelihood of substance use disorders at follow-up compared to non-purchasers. In an era where drinking is commonplace and attitudes towards marijuana use are becoming more tolerant, it is essential to evaluate how accessibility to AOD and subsequent purchasing behaviors affect youth consumption and intervene accordingly to prevent future consequences.

  19. Alcohol use and substance use disorders in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with nondeployed military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, Helen Louise; Wijesinghe, Millawage Supun Dilara; Creamer, Mark Christopher; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Page, Matthew James; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2015-01-01

    Although recent veterans have been found to be at increased risk of psychiatric disorders, limited research has focused on alcohol or substance use disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether alcohol or substance use disorders were more common in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with military comparison groups nondeployed to the corresponding conflict, including never deployed personnel. Literature was searched (1990-2014) in multiple electronic databases. Studies were assessed for eligibility and quality, including risk of bias. Eighteen studies (1997-2014) met inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis based on a random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.46) for alcohol (7 studies) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.96, 4.72) for substance use (3 studies) disorders among Gulf War veterans, as well as 1.36 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.66) for alcohol (7 studies) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) for substance use (4 studies) disorders among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans; meta-regressions found no statistically significant association between theater of war and alcohol use or substance use disorders. Our findings indicate that Gulf and Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans are at higher alcohol use disorder risk than nondeployed veterans, but further studies with increased power are needed to assess substance use disorder risk in Gulf War veteran populations. © Commonwealth of Australia 2015.

  20. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  1. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  2. Frequency of alcohol and substance abuse observed in drivers killed in traffic accidents in Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Saeed; Saleh, Aliehsan; Seif Rabiei, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Kazem

    2013-04-01

    Human factor is one of the most important causes for traffic accidents. This study has been designed to determine the presence of alcohol and drug abuse among drivers killed in car accidents in Hamadan, Iran during a one year period. This study was conducted as a post-mortem series design. Forensic autopsies were performed on all drivers killed in car accidents who were referred to the Hamadan Medico-legal Center. Alcohol and drug abuse was evaluated in these drivers. Of the 106 drivers killed in car accidents, 98.1% were male. Most were 20-30 years of age. In the majority of cases (83%) the toxicologic tests were negative. Higher level of education (diploma and higher) was related to higher alcohol or drug abuse compared with those whose educational status was less than a diploma (46.7%) or those who were illiterate (16.5%; Chi-square: 7.13; P = 0.008). There was a remarkable difference between drug or alcohol abuse and season. The majority of substance abusers were in the summer (n = 13, 59.1%); the least were in the spring (n = 2; 9.1%). This study shows that alcohol and drug abuse, in particular opiates, could be important factors in traffic accidents in Hamadan, Iran.

  3. Perceived harmfulness of substance use: A pilot study

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    Siddharth Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.

  4. Six rapid assessments of alcohol and other substance use in populations displaced by conflict

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    Adelekan Moruf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use among populations displaced by conflict is a neglected area of public health. Alcohol, khat, benzodiazepine, opiate, and other substance use have been documented among a range of displaced populations, with wide-reaching health and social impacts. Changing agendas in humanitarian response-including increased prominence of mental health and chronic illness-have so far failed to be translated into meaningful interventions for substance use. Methods Studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in six different settings of protracted displacement, three in Africa (Kenya, Liberia, northern Uganda and three in Asia (Iran, Pakistan, and Thailand. We used intervention-oriented qualitative Rapid Assessment and Response methods, adapted from two decades of experience among non-displaced populations. The main sources of data were individual and group interviews conducted with a culturally representative (non-probabilistic sample of community members and service providers. Results Widespread use of alcohol, particularly artisanally-produced alcohol, in Kenya, Liberia, Uganda, and Thailand, and opiates in Iran and Pakistan was believed by participants to be linked to a range of health, social and protection problems, including illness, injury (intentional and unintentional, gender-based violence, risky behaviour for HIV and other sexually transmitted infection and blood-borne virus transmission, as well as detrimental effects to household economy. Displacement experiences, including dispossession, livelihood restriction, hopelessness and uncertain future may make communities particularly vulnerable to substance use and its impact, and changing social norms and networks (including the surrounding population may result in changed - and potentially more harmful-patterns of use. Limited access to services, including health services, and exclusion from relevant host population programmes, may exacerbate the harmful consequences

  5. Risks for Early Substance Involvement Associated with Parental Alcoholism and Parental Separation in an Adolescent Female Cohort*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined timing of substance involvement as a joint function of parental history of alcoholism and parental separation during childhood. Method Data were drawn from a large cohort of female like-sex twins [n = 613 African Ancestry (AA), n = 3550 European or other Ancestry (EA)]. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use of alcohol, first alcohol intoxication, first use and regular use of cigarettes, and first use of cannabis and other illicit drugs from dummy variables coding for parental alcoholism and parental separation. Propensity score analysis was also conducted comparing intact and separated families by predicted probability of parental separation. Results In EA families, increased risk of substance involvement was found in both alcoholic and separated families, particularly through ages 10 or 14 years, with risk to offspring from alcoholic separated families further increased. In AA families, associations with parental alcoholism and parental separation were weak and with few exceptions statistically nonsignificant. While propensity score findings confirmed unique risks observed in EA families, intact and separated AA families were poorly matched on risk-factors presumed to predate parental separation, especially parental alcoholism, requiring cautious interpretation of AA survival-analytic findings. Conclusion For offspring of European ancestry, parental separation predicts early substance involvement that is not explained by parental alcoholism nor associated family background characteristics. Additional research is needed to better characterize risks associated with parental separation in African American families. PMID:24647368

  6. Risks for early substance involvement associated with parental alcoholism and parental separation in an adolescent female cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Vaughan, Ellen L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Sartor, Carolyn E; Duncan, Alexis E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-05-01

    We examined timing of substance involvement as a joint function of parental history of alcoholism and parental separation during childhood. Data were drawn from a large cohort of female like-sex twins [n=613 African Ancestry (AA), n=3550 European or other ancestry (EA)]. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use of alcohol, first alcohol intoxication, first use and regular use of cigarettes, and first use of cannabis and other illicit drugs from dummy variables coding for parental alcoholism and parental separation. Propensity score analysis was also conducted comparing intact and separated families by predicted probability of parental separation. In EA families, increased risk of substance involvement was found in both alcoholic and separated families, particularly through ages 10 or 14 years, with risk to offspring from alcoholic separated families further increased. In AA families, associations with parental alcoholism and parental separation were weak and with few exceptions statistically nonsignificant. While propensity score findings confirmed unique risks observed in EA families, intact and separated AA families were poorly matched on risk-factors presumed to predate parental separation, especially parental alcoholism, requiring cautious interpretation of AA survival-analytic findings. For offspring of European ancestry, parental separation predicts early substance involvement that is not explained by parental alcoholism nor associated family background characteristics. Additional research is needed to better characterize risks associated with parental separation in African American families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distal and proximal factors related to aggression severity among patients in substance abuse treatment: family history, alcohol use and expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Wryobeck, John M; Walton, Maureen A; Blow, Frederic C

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among distal (paternal and maternal family history of alcohol problems and violence) and proximal (general alcohol use, acute use associated with conflict incidents, alcohol-aggression expectancies) factors and physical aggression severity among 125 men and 125 women recruited from substance abuse treatment. Paternal alcohol problem history (PA) was related to alcohol-aggression expectancies, but no family history factors were related to general or acute alcohol use. Separate analyses examining predictors of aggression were conducted, one with general alcohol use and one with acute alcohol use. In both analyses, alcohol use and the maternal violence (MV) by PA interaction were significant. Specifically, MV was associated with aggression severity for those with a history of PA. The general alcohol use model also revealed significant alcohol by expectancy and MV by gender interactions. The findings suggest that expectancies are not the primary mediator of the alcohol-aggression relationship, alcohol use measurement issues may impact whether expectancies are observed to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship, and that both maternal and paternal family history factors appear to impact aggression severity.

  8. Frontoparietal connectivity in substance-naïve youth with and without a family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Bava, Sunita; Thompson, Wesley K; Boucquey, Veronique; Pulido, Carmen; Yang, Tony T; Tapert, Susan F

    2012-01-13

    Frontoparietal connections underlie key executive cognitive functions. Abnormalities in the frontoparietal network have been observed in chronic alcoholics and associated with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. It remains unclear whether neurobiological differences in frontoparietal circuitry exist in substance-naïve youth who are at-risk for alcohol use disorders. This study used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine frontoparietal connectivity and underlying white matter microstructure in 20 substance-naïve youth with a family history of alcohol dependence and 20 well-matched controls without familial substance use disorders. Youth with a family history of alcohol dependence showed significantly less functional connectivity between posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal seed regions (psfamily history negative controls; however, they did not show differences in white matter architecture within tracts subserving frontoparietal circuitry (ps>.34). Substance-naïve youth with a family history of alcohol dependence show less frontoparietal functional connectivity in the absence of white matter microstructural abnormalities as compared to youth with no familial risk. This may suggest a potential neurobiological marker for the development of substance use disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Methodological Considerations in Social Cost Studies of Addictive Substances: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Nick; Lievens, Delfine; Annemans, Lieven; Vander Laenen, Freya; Putman, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychoactive pharmaceuticals' use is associated with a higher likelihood of developing several diseases and injuries and, as a consequence, considerable health-care expenditures. There is yet a lack of consistent methodologies to estimate the economic impact of addictive substances to society. The aim was to assess the methodological approaches applied in social cost studies estimating the economic impact of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychoactive pharmaceuticals. A systematic literature review through the electronic databases, Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science, was performed. Studies in English published from 1997 examining the social costs of the addictive substances alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychoactive pharmaceuticals were eligible for inclusion. Twelve social cost studies met the inclusion criteria. In all studies, the direct and indirect costs were measured, but the intangible costs were seldom taken into account. A wide variety in cost items included across studies was observed. Sensitivity analyses to address the uncertainty around certain cost estimates were conducted in eight studies considered in the review. Differences in cost items included in cost-of-illness studies limit the comparison across studies. It is clear that it is difficult to deal with all consequences of substance use in cost-of-illness studies. Future social cost studies should be based on sound methodological principles in order to result in more reliable cost estimates of the economic burden of substance use.

  10. Energy drink use is associated with alcohol and substance use in eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders

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    Kathryn Polak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of energy drink (ED use and its link with negative behaviors and adverse health outcomes has garnered much attention. Use of EDs combined with alcohol among college students has been of particular interest. It is unclear if these relationships develop in the context of college, or if similar associations exist in younger individuals. The present study examined associations between ED consumption patterns and other substance use in an adolescent, school-based sample. Participants were N = 3743 students attending 8th, 10th or 12th grade in a suburban central Virginia public school system who completed a prevention needs assessment survey in 2012. Chi-square analyses and logistic regressions were used to compare rates of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use across three ED use groups: moderate/heavy (12.6%, light (30.5%, and non-users (57%. Over 40% of the sample reported recent (past month ED use, with males more likely to report moderate/heavy ED use than females (14.0% and 11.1%, respectively; p = 0.02. After adjusting for gender and grade, ED use group predicted lifetime alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (all p < 0.001. Moderate/heavy ED users were most likely and ED non-users were least likely to report using each of the 13 substances in the survey, with light ED users intermediate to the other two groups. Moderate/heavy ED users were consistently most likely to report licit and illicit substance use. Additional research is needed to better understand which adolescents are at greatest risk for adverse health behaviors associated with ED use.

  11. Energy drink use is associated with alcohol and substance use in eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Kathryn; Dillon, Pamela; Koch, J Randy; Miller, Willis G; Thacker, Leroy; Svikis, Dace

    2016-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of energy drink (ED) use and its link with negative behaviors and adverse health outcomes has garnered much attention. Use of EDs combined with alcohol among college students has been of particular interest. It is unclear if these relationships develop in the context of college, or if similar associations exist in younger individuals. The present study examined associations between ED consumption patterns and other substance use in an adolescent, school-based sample. Participants were N = 3743 students attending 8th, 10th or 12th grade in a suburban central Virginia public school system who completed a prevention needs assessment survey in 2012. Chi-square analyses and logistic regressions were used to compare rates of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use across three ED use groups: moderate/heavy (12.6%), light (30.5%), and non-users (57%). Over 40% of the sample reported recent (past month) ED use, with males more likely to report moderate/heavy ED use than females (14.0% and 11.1%, respectively; p = 0.02). After adjusting for gender and grade, ED use group predicted lifetime alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (all p Moderate/heavy ED users were most likely and ED non-users were least likely to report using each of the 13 substances in the survey, with light ED users intermediate to the other two groups. Moderate/heavy ED users were consistently most likely to report licit and illicit substance use. Additional research is needed to better understand which adolescents are at greatest risk for adverse health behaviors associated with ED use.

  12. Alcohol and substance use disorders as predictors of child to adult sexual revictimization in a sample of community women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Long, Patricia J

    2002-06-01

    Alcohol- and substance-related diagnoses were examined as factors in child to adult sexual revictimization. Three hundred community women completed interviews and self-report instruments to obtain information regarding victimization and to diagnose substance use disorders (alcohol and substance abuse/dependence). Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors were more likely than nonvictims to meet criteria for both substance use disorders and to report rape (e.g., unwanted intercourse due to threat or use of force, or due to the inability to consent due to the respondent's alcohol or drug use) and coerced intercourse (e.g., unwanted intercourse due to verbal coercion or misuse of authority by the perpetrator) by acquaintances, strangers, and husbands. In general, both CSA and substance use disorders were predictive of adult sexual victimization, but there were no significant interactions between these factors. Overall, substance use disorders were related to rape for all women; this relationship was not unique to CSA survivors. Alcohol- and substance-related diagnoses predicted rape by all three types of perpetrators, but CSA was predictive of rape only by acquaintances and strangers and not husbands. In contrast, CSA predicted coerced intercourse by all three perpetrators, while alcohol- and substance-related diagnoses predicted coerced intercourse by acquaintances and strangers, but not husbands. Results highlight the need to continue the study of revictimization of CSA survivors, including examination of both rape and sexually coercive experiences by different types of perpetrators. Findings support continued research of substance use disorders as risk factors for sexual victimization among all women.

  13. Sexual Orientation-Based Discrimination, Excessive Alcohol Use, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Megan E; Godette, Dionne; Huang, Boji; Ruan, W June; Kerridge, Bradley T

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between sexual orientation-based discrimination and excessive alcohol use and substance use disorders and to identify how these relationships differ by sexual identity, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and education among sexual minorities. We used logistic regression to analyze associations between discrimination and substance use measures among 1351 gay/lesbian, bisexual, or unsure adults from a nationally representative survey. Differential effects by sexual identity, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and education were assessed using interaction models followed by stratified models. Discrimination was associated with increased odds of the following: exceeding weekly drinking limits [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-2.08] among bisexuals, any substance use disorder (aOR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.41-2.95) and nicotine use disorder (aOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.08-2.14) among Hispanic sexual minorities, and exceeding weekly drinking limits (aOR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08-2.26) among those with a high school degree or less. Sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with select substance use outcomes, especially among bisexuals, Hispanics, and less educated sexual minority adults, highlighting potential disparities associated with experiencing discrimination.

  14. Counseling Latino alcohol and other substance users/abusers. Cultural considerations for counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, A M; Peregoy, J J

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a sociocultural alcohol/drug counseling model for counselors working with Latino users/abusers. Intended to supplement different treatment models, this model addresses pre-treatment issues of Latino users/abusers. A demographic overview of Latinos and a discussion of selected Latino cultural values and issues as they relate to substance use/abuse are included. These cultural values include Simpatía, Personalismo, Familismo, Gender Roles (Machismo and Hembrismo/Marianisimo), Vergüenza, and Espiritismo. Along with identifying misperceptions and issues that may occur within the counseling session, specific recommendations and interventions for counselors are provided.

  15. Reliability and Validity of Beliefs about Substance Use (BSU Questionnaire in Alcohol Dependent Patients.

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    Selçuk ASLAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Beliefs About Substance Use Questionnaire (BSU which was originally developed by Wright (1993. Method: Seventy alcohol addicted inpatients, who were admitted to Ankara Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Education and Research Hospital Psychiatry Clinic, 31 healthy volunteers who had never used alcohol and 33 social drinkers were evaluated. For all groups, BSU and Craving Beliefs Questionnaire (CBQ, for the patient groups, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment (CIWA, Dysfunctional Attitudes Questionnaire (DAS and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ were used as the assessment tools. The correlations and differences between the questionnaires were studied. Results: Mean age of the addicted patients, healthy controls and social drinkers were 42,3± 7,0, 33,5± 9,9 and 33,2± 8,9, respectively. In patient group, mean BSU score was 46,4 ± 21,2. For alcohol addicts, internal reliability of BSU was found to be adequate (Cronbach alfa=0.91 and item-total score correlations were between 0.33 and 0.69. Basic component analysis showed one basic factor. A positive correlation has been found between BSU and CBQ, and ATQ scores. No correlations have been found between total and subscale scores of DAS and total scores of CIWA, BAI and BSU. In evaluation of validity, BSU mean scores of alcohol addicts were found to be significantly higher than healthy controls and social drinkers. Conclusion: Our findings support that Turkish version of BSU is an adequate tool that can be used to evaluate alcohol addicted patients` cognitive believes about alcohol use

  16. Relation of Mental Health to Alcohol and Substance Use Among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Alan B; Koenig, Jessica A; Becker, Emilie A

    2017-04-01

    We examined the effect of mental health problems and difficulties on alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among college students by using the 2013 Texas College Survey of Substance Use (n=11,216), which includes the K6 screening scale for severe mental illness (SMI). Students' K6 scores were used to classify them into 3 groups: those likely to have SMI (9% with scores ≥ 13), those with some mental health problems (36%), and those without mental health issues (55% with scores ≤ 4). Questions regarding ATOD use were analyzed using these 3 groups. Alcohol use was not significantly associated with K6 scores, although problematic alcohol behaviors as measured by the CAGE test were. Higher cigarette use was significantly associated with higher K6 scores. Finally, both higher marijuana and higher drug use (across 9 other individual drugs) were significantly associated with higher K6 scores. Although higher K6 scores were associated with higher rates of drug use, most students with high K6 scores did not use drugs. However, given the higher level of risk, drug and alcohol interventions should be made available for those students who receive mental health counseling.

  17. Alcohol and drug abuse among U.S. veterans: comparing associations with intimate partner substance abuse and veteran psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Accuracy of the Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ACASI ASSIST) for identifying unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pritika C; Cleland, Charles M; Gourevitch, Marc N; Rotrosen, John; Strauss, Shiela; Russell, Linnea; McNeely, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    An Audio Computer-assisted Self Interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) could reduce barriers to substance use screening and assessment in primary care settings. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an ACASI ASSIST for identification of unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). 399 adult patients were consecutively recruited from an urban safety-net primary care clinic. ACASI ASSIST scores for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine were compared against reference standard measures to assess the instrument's diagnostic accuracy for identifying unhealthy use and SUD, first using empirically-derived optimal cutoffs, and second using the currently recommended ASSIST cutoffs. For identifying any unhealthy use, at the empirically-derived cutoffs the ACASI ASSIST had 93.6% sensitivity and 85.8% specificity (AUC=0.90) for tobacco, 85.9% sensitivity and 60.3% specificity (AUC=0.73), for alcohol in men, 100% sensitivity and 62.4% specificity (AUC=0.81) for alcohol in women, 94.6% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity (AUC=0.88) for marijuana, and 86.1% sensitivity, 84.0% specificity (AUC=0.85) for cocaine. For SUD, sensitivity ranged from 79% (for alcohol in males), to 100% (for tobacco), and specificity was 83% or higher (AUCs ranged 0.83-0.91). For substances other than tobacco, empirically-derived cutoff scores were lower than the standard cutoffs, and resulted in higher sensitivity and lower specificity for identifying unhealthy substance use. The ACASI ASSIST is a valid measure of unhealthy use and SUD for substances that are commonly used by primary care patients, and could facilitate effective and efficient screening for substance use in medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between alcohol consumption, whether linked to other substance use or not, and antiretroviral treatment adherence in HIV+ patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, Sara; Madoz-Gúrpide, Agustín; Parro-Torres, Carlos; Hernández-Huerta, Daniel; Ochoa Mangado, Enriqueta

    2017-07-14

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a common diagnosis among people living with HIV infection. The relationship between alcohol consumption and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy has been highlighted in different studies, yet few of them performed a parallel analysis of other substance use. In Spain, alcohol consumption is frequently associated with other substance use, mainly cannabis and cocaine. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of hazardous alcohol consumption both combined with other substances (cocaine, heroin, methadone and/or cannabis) or alone on antiretroviral therapy adherence in our social environment. We performed an observational case-control study including 119 HIV+ individuals. We recruited 40 non-adherent patients, defined by less than 90% compliance according to hospital pharmacy refill data, and corroborated by the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ) and referring professional's opinion. Control cases (n=79) were defined as those patients with similar characteristics but considered adherent according to the same parameters. Data collection took place between May 2013 and September 2015. Statistical analysis was performed using a binary logistic regression model. Our results indicate that alcohol consumption decreases adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The use of methadone represents a statistically significant increased risk of poor adherence. No significant differences were found between adherent and non-adherent groups regarding cocaine, heroin or cannabis use in this study. In summary, the detection of substance use and especially alcohol consumption in HIV+ patients can improve the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy by identifying and treating at-risk individuals for a poor therapeutic adherence.

  20. Fobia social e transtorno de pânico: relação temporal com dependência de substâncias psicoativas Fobia Social y trastorno de pánico: relación temporaria con dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas Social phobia and panic disorder: temporal relation with psychoactive substance dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Barbosa Terra

    2003-12-01

    sustancias psicoactivas. MÉTODO: los diagnósticos psiquiátricos fueron obtenidos a través de entrevista clínica semi-estructurada (SCID-I, basada en los criterios do DSM-IV. Un cuestionario fue desenvuelto por los autores, visando estudiar el relacionamiento temporáneo entre el inicio del trastorno del uso de sustancias, y el principio de trastorno de pánico y de la fobia social. RESULTADOS: apenas 1 (2.1 % paciente presentó trastorno de pánico antes del uso de sustancias psicoactivas. La mayoría de los pacientes con ataques de pánico, cumplían criterios para el diagnóstico de trastorno de ansiedad inducido por el uso de sustancias: 11 (22.9% de los pacientes tuvieron ataques de pánico apenas durante la intoxicación o en el síndrome de abstinencia, o sea, secundariamente al uso de drogas. Cuanto a la fobia social, 16 (33.3% pacientes presentaban este trastorno, siendo que, en todos, la fobia social se inició antes de comenzar el uso de sustancias psicoactivas. CONCLUSIONES: lo descubierto confirma la elevada frecuencia de fobia social en pacientes dependientes de sustancias psicoactivas, y refuerza la hipótesis de la auto-medicación en esta comorbidad, una vez que esta fobia tiende a preceder el uso de drogas. Cuanto al trastorno de pánico, en nuestra muestra, este parece derivar de una complicación del uso de sustancias psicoactivas.INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is: 1 to determine the prevalence of panic disorder and social phobia in patients hospitalized due to the use of psychoactive substances; 2 to determine the temporal relation between the beginning of these anxiety disorders and the beginning of the use of psychoactive substances. METHODS: The psychiatric diagnoses were made by means of semi-structured clinical interviews (SCID-I, based on DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was developed by the authors for the purpose of studying the temporal relation between the beginning of the disorder due to psychoactive substances and the beginning

  1. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Hein A; Joosten, Evelien A G; de Haan, Lydia; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Buitelaar, Jan K; van der Palen, Job; De Jong, Cor A J

    2013-10-01

    Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates to the presence and severity of alexithymia in SUD patients. Hospitalized, abstinent SUD-patients (n=187), were assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI). A maternal, paternal, and total continuous measure of the Family History of Alcohol (FHA) was developed. Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlations were used to relate the composite scores of FHA to alexithymia as a categorical and continuous measure. Multivariate regression models were performed to control for the effects of confounders on the relation between FHA and alexithymia. Compared to moderate (33%) and low (17%) alexithymic SUD-patients, high alexithymic (50%) patients were more likely to have fathers with alcohol problems (P=0.004). Such a difference was not found for mothers with alcohol problems. The composite FHA-score was significantly associated with alexithymia (Rs=.19, P=0.01). However, only a paternal FHA, independent from disturbed family functioning, related to the degree of alexithymia (β=.13, P=0.06), especially to the Difficulty Identifying Feelings as measured by the TAS-20 (β=.16, P=0.02). The relation between a paternal FHA and a higher degree of alexithymia in SUD-patients suggests that alexithymia could mediate the familiality of alcoholism or SUD in the paternal line. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lesbians in alcohol recovery surviving childhood sexual abuse and parental substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J M

    1999-05-01

    Narratives of lives disrupted by abuse are essential data sources for understanding women's survival and healing in contexts of childhood sexual abuse. In this qualitative, feminist study of lesbians recovering from alcohol problems who have histories of childhood sexual abuse, a multiethnic sample of 20 women narrated their life stories in a series of three in-depth interviews. The purpose of this paper is to focus on parental substance misuse as it affected these women when they were growing up. Conditions and consequences of surviving childhood sexual abuse and parental substance misuse are analysed using narrative strategies and described using excerpts from the women's narratives. Loss was the overarching core theme that integrated participants' storied descriptions of parental substance misuse. They incurred severe losses in the absence of basic necessities for safe and healthy passages through childhood. In their abusive homes, they were not allowed innocence, and protected from violence, nor nurtured, guided, and loved. As many said, they lost their very childhoods.

  3. Factores de riesgo y de protección relacionados con el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en estudiantes de enfermería Fatores de risco e proteção relacionados ao consumo de substâncias psicoativas em alunos de graduação em enfermagem Risk and protection factors related to the consumption of psychoactive substances in undergraduate nursing students

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    Blanca Nivia Morales

    2011-06-01

    frequency of risk and protection factors related to drug consumption among undergraduate nursing students. It is a cross-sectional study in which authors applied the instrument Risk and Protection Factors for the Consumption of Psychoactive Substances, validated for use with undergraduate nursing students. Data were analyzed through STATA 10. Three hundred and ninety students participated in the study. The domain "prejudice and appraisal", "social permissiveness and access to psychoactive substances", "social skills and self-control" are risk factors for drugs use in 100% of participants. "Spirituality" and "satisfaction with interpersonal relations" were predominant protective domains. Based on data, authors can conclude that the students did not consider the risks in alcohol and tobacco consumption, as they think it is normal and socially acceptable.

  4. The importance of a positive family history of alcoholism, parental rejection and emotional warmth, behavioral problems and peer substance use for alcohol problems in teenagers: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc A; Lucht, Michael; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothetical model of alcohol problems in German adolescents. Among 180 offspring, family history of alcoholism, parenting styles, behavioral and emotional problems, peer-group characteristics, feelings of self-esteem, behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity of the parents were examined. Data were generated from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), in which families were randomly selected if 12-18 year old biological offspring were members of the household; a smaller group of subjects was selected from local outpatient treatment centers. Members of 133 families, including 180 (50.6% male) offspring who were appropriate for the current analyses, received personal semistructured diagnostic interviews and several self-rating questionnaires. Analyses compared offspring with alcohol problems (AP; n = 40) and with no alcohol problems (NAP; n = 140), and used structural equation modeling to test a hypothetical model. The comparisons revealed that the AP group had significantly more behavioral problems (e.g., aggression/delinquency), more perceived parental rejection and less emotional warmth, a higher amount of alcohol consumption, were more likely to associate with substance-using peers and more often received a diagnosis of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Whereas the family history of alcoholism did not differ significantly between groups, parents of offspring with an alcohol use disorder had significantly more additional diagnoses on DSM-IV Axis I. The evaluation of the model supported the importance of aggression/delinquency and association with substance-using peers for alcohol problems in people. An additional diagnosis in the parents was directly and indirectly (through aggression/delinquency) related to alcohol problems of the adolescents. The data indicate that alcohol problems in the offspring are associated with several domains of influence in their environment. Prospective studies

  5. A European study on alcohol and drug use among young drivers: the TEND by Night study design and methodology

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    Siliquini Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young individuals are the age group with the highest risk of car accidents. One of main explanations relies on the use of psychoactive substances (alcohol, illegal and medicinal drugs, which are known to be major risk factors of road accidents, and whose consumption is almost universally more common among younger drivers. Although the correlation between psychoactive substances use and decrease in driving performance has been established in controlled experimental or laboratory settings, few studies were conducted in naturalistic circumstances. The TEND by Night project has been designed to evaluate the relationship between driving performance and psychoactive substances assumption in young drivers enrolled at typical places of consumption. Methods/Design The TEND by Night project, endorsed by the European Commission, is a multidisciplinary, multi-centric, cross-sectional study conducted in six European countries (Italy, Belgium/Netherlands, Bulgaria, Spain, Poland and Latvia. The study population consists of 5000 young drivers aged 16-34 years, attending recreational sites during weekend nights. The intervention is based on the portal survey technique and includes several steps at the entrance and exit of selected sites, including the administration of semi-structured questionnaires, breath alcohol test, several drug assumption test, and measurement of the reaction time using a driving simulator. The main outcome is the difference in reaction time between the entrance and exit of the recreation site, and its correlation with psychoactive substances use. As a secondary outcome it will be explored the relationship between reaction time difference and the amount of consumption of each substance. All analyses will be multivariate. Discussion The project methodology should provide some relevant advantages over traditional survey systems. The main strengths of the study include the large and multicentric sample, the objective

  6. Genome-wide linkage scan of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the UCSF family alcoholism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizer, Ian R; Ehlers, Cindy L; Vieten, Cassandra; Feiler, Heidi S; Gilder, David A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that the rates of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use are increased among individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence relative to those who are not. Thus, the present study conducted genome-wide linkage scans of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the University of California at San Francisco Family Alcoholism Study. Antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and impulsive substance use were assessed using three scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2nd ed.: the Antisocial Practices content scale, the Depression content scale, and the revised MacAndrew Alcoholism scale. Linkage analyses were carried out using a variance components approach. Suggestive evidence of linkage to three genomic regions independent of alcohol and cannabis dependence diagnostic status was observed: the Antisocial Practices content scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 13 at 11 cM, the MacAndrew Alcoholism scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 15 at 47 cM, and all three scales showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 17 at 57-58 cM. Each of these regions has shown previous evidence of linkage and association to substance dependence as well as other psychiatric disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia, thus suggesting potentially broad relations between these regions and psychopathology.

  7. Perfil clínico y demográfico de pacientes atendidos en los servicios de urgencias, por intoxicación aguda con sustancias psicoactivas. Bogotá D.C, julio 2010junio 2011 Clinical and demographic profile of patients nursed in urgency services due to acute intoxication with psychoactive substances in Bogotá

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    Karla Mabel Cárdenas L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El uso de sustancias psicoactivas es un problema de salud pública en el mundo, afectan al individuo y a la sociedad. Se estima que contribuyen a la rápida propagación de enfermedades infecciosas, como VIH y hepatitis; es por ello que la sociedad debe abordar su uso indebido. Objetivo. Determinar el perfil clínico y demográfico de pacientes atendidos en los servicios de urgencias, por intoxicación aguda con sustancias psicoactivas en Bogotá, 20102011. Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, derivado de la revisión de 1073 registros del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública relacionados con los casos de intoxicaciones por sustancias psicoactivas, atendidos en los servicios de urgencias de Bogotá, 20102011. Se revisaron historias clínicas correspondientes, para establecer el perfil clínico de los pacientes. Se calcularon las frecuencias simples y estratificadas con intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95% de las variables sociodemográficas, tipo de sustancia psicoactiva y manifestación clínica. Resultados. El mayor número de consultas (73% se presentaron en hombres, con edades comprendidas entre 25 a 34 años, predominando las intoxicaciones con fines delictivos (58%. Las benzodiacepinas son las sustancias implicadas en el 83% de los casos. Las manifestaciones clínicas, correspondieron en su mayoría 80% a manifestaciones neurológicas. Conclusión. El tipo de exposición con intencionalidad delictiva, predominante en los resultados de este trabajo, es un fenómeno no documentado en la literatura científica revisada. Las benzodiazepinas, como sustancia implicada en los casos de intoxicación son consecuentes con el tipo de exposición evidenciado en los resultados aportados por este estudio, similares a los obtenidos por Uribe y cols (2005, y lo documentado en otros estudios.Background. Psychoactive substance use is public health problem around the world, affecting individuals and society in

  8. Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use

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    George B. Richardson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  9. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-11-03

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  10. [Psychoactive Drug Use by Youth in a Post Armed-Conflict Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Carlos Gantiva; Ramírez, Nohelia Hewitt; Maldonado, Anderssen Vera; Varela, Adriana Angarita; Baños, Arturo Parado; Puerto, Angélica Guillén

    2012-06-01

    There are no studies in Colombia on the use of psychoactive substances (PAS) by post armed-conflict population to serve as guide for prevention programs and to account for the potential impact armed conflict may have upon this area. To describe the use of PAS in young students in a post-conflict region. A quantitative-descriptive study involving the totality of students of the township of Viotá, Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia (1,304 participants). The World Health Survey for Schoolchildren was applied. Alcohol is the substance with the highest percentage of lifetime prevalence; during the last month, it was observed that the highest percentage of people start PAS use between the age of 8 and 13, while 42% of youngsters have experienced at least one drunkenness episode. It was found that 43.4% have been exposed to alcohol in their families while 35.1% were exposed to tobacco at school or in their neighborhoods. 84.5% stated their intention to continue consuming tobacco during the next year. Results show lower consumption percentages in comparison to school youngsters in Bogotá, Colombia, which may indicate that the armed conflict has not increased consumption levels in this population. Based on the results, certain elements to be taken into account are proposed for the implementation of prevention programs with this population. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-01

    This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of alcohol and illicit substance use on verbal memory among individuals with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Taiane de A; Bauer, Isabelle E; Jansen, Karen; Suchting, Robert; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Quevedo, João; Glahn, David C; Soares, Jair C

    2016-09-30

    Cognitive impairment is a well-established feature of bipolar disorder (BD). Comorbid BD and substance use leads to poor psychosocial and clinical outcomes. However, knowledge on the neurocognitive functioning of individuals with dual diagnosis is limited. The aim of this study is to assess the cognitive performance of subjects with BD, BD with comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD), and BD with comorbid illicit substance use disorders (SUD) as compared to healthy individuals. We included 270 inpatients and outpatients with BD and 211 healthy controls. The diagnostic of BD and substance use disorder was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. The cognitive assessment included the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), and a revised version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) as part of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition (STAN). The STAN was administered to 134 BD patients (100 female, M±SD: 37.37±12.74 years), 72 BD patients with AUD (40 female, M±SD: 38.42±11.82), 64 BD patients with SUD (39 female, M±SD: 34.50±10.57), and 211 healthy controls with no lifetime history of mental illness and substance use (127 female, M±SD: 34.80±12.57 years). In terms of clinical characteristics, BD+SUD showed a marginally earlier onset of illness compared to BD. Compared to HC, BD performed poorly in the immediate recall and short-delay free tests of the CVLT, while BD patients with AUD and SUD showed significant memory deficits in both the immediate recall and recognition components of the CVLT. There were no differences in memory performance between BD and BD with either AUD or SUD. A history of substance use disorders is associated with an earlier onset of BD. BD has marked effects on processes underlying the encoding of new information, while comorbid substance use in BD impairs more specifically the recognition of

  13. Non-addictive psychoactive drug use: Implications for behavioral addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    The newly proposed framework for non-addictive psychoactive substances postulated by Müller & Schumann (M&S) provides an interesting and plausible explanation for non-addictive drug use. However, with specific reference to the relevant behavioral addiction literature, this commentary argues that the model may unexpectedly hold utility not only for non-addictive use of drugs, but also for non-addictive use of other potentially addictive behaviors.

  14. Concomitant Psychiatric and Nonalcohol-Related Substance Use Disorders Among Hospitalized Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinjuvadia, Raxitkumar; Jinjuvadia, Chetna; Puangsricharoen, Pimpitcha; Chalasani, Naga; Crabb, David W; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2018-02-01

    Despite that the epidemiological studies on the comorbidity of alcohol misuse and psychiatric disorders have been studied, less is known about the magnitude of these disorders among patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders among hospitalized ALD patients in the United States. We utilized a single-level clinical classification software to identify patients with ALD and psychiatric/substance use disorders from the 2011 National Inpatient Sample data. The primary outcome was the prevalence of these disorders among hospitalized patients with ALD (n = 74,972) compared to those with chronic liver diseases not caused by alcohol (n = 350,140) and those without underlying liver diseases (n = 1,447,063). The prevalence of adjustment disorder, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression was significantly higher among hospitalized patients with ALD when compared to those with chronic liver diseases not caused by alcohol (all with p-values disorders among hospitalized patients with ALD. Hospitalized patients with ALD have significantly high prevalence of concomitant psychiatric and substance abuse disorders when compared to those with chronic liver diseases not caused by alcohol and those without underlying liver diseases. Screening and appropriate intervention should be implemented as part of routine clinical care for these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Psychoactive "bath salts" intoxication with methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Edward A; Reisfield, Gary M; Watson, Mary C; Chronister, Chris W; Goldberger, Bruce A

    2012-09-01

    Abuse of the psychoactive "designer drug" methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has become a serious international public health concern because of the severity of its physical and behavioral toxicities. MDPV is the primary ingredient in so-called "bath salts," labeled as such to avoid criminal prosecution and has only been classified recently as a controlled substance in the United States and some other countries. However, it remains a danger because of illegal sources, including the Internet. MDPV is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant and is taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Administered via oral ingestion, nasal insufflation, smoking, intravenous or intramuscular methods, or the rectum, the intoxication lasts 6 to 8 hours and has high addictive potential. Overdoses are characterized by profound toxicities, causing increased attention by emergency department and law enforcement personnel. Physical manifestations range from tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, and seizures to those as severe as stroke, cerebral edema, cardiorespiratory collapse, myocardial infarction, and death. Behavioral effects include panic attacks, anxiety, agitation, severe paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis, suicidal ideation, self-mutilation, and behavior that is aggressive, violent, and self-destructive. Treatment is principally supportive and focuses on counteracting the sympathetic overstimulation, including sedation with intravenous benzodiazepines, seizure-prevention measures, intravenous fluids, close (eg, intensive care unit) monitoring, and restraints to prevent harm to self or others. Clinical presentation is often complicated by coingestion of other psychoactive substances that may alter the treatment approach. Clinicians need to be especially vigilant in that MDPV is not detected by routine drug screens and overdoses can be life-threatening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mothers with substance and alcohol abuse-support through pregnancy and early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfors, Monica; Höjer, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    This article is about the support given to pregnant women and mothers, at an antenatal and child welfare team in Gothenburg (Sweden), specialised on working with mothers who abuse alcohol and/or other substances. The study consists of interviews with 17 women. The aim of the article is to account for how the women experienced the support they got and how they perceived the impact. The results show the importance for the staff of finding the balance between control and support and of creating a non-judgmental attitude in order to build trusting relationships with the women. The organization of the MBHV-team is a prerequisite for the staff to be able to design support based on an assessment of the mother's whole situation.

  18. Are there reciprocal relationships between substance use risk personality profiles and alcohol or tobacco use in early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad A; Lammers, Jeroen; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-12-01

    We examined whether reciprocal relationships were present between the SURPS personality profiles and substance use in early adolescence. Longitudinal data of four-waves of a broader effectiveness study were used from 1068 early adolescents. Our cross-lagged models indicated that sensation seeking and impulsivity show strongest reciprocal associations with substance use during early adolescence. In contrast, no reciprocity was present between substance use and anxiety sensitivity and only one reciprocal relationship was present between substance use and hopelessness. In trying to prevent early adolescents from alcohol and tobacco use, it might be of key importance to acknowledge the mutual influence between certain personality profiles and substance use. Specifically, sensation seeking and impulsivity are relevant during early adolescence and awareness of early adolescents' vulnerability for these personality predispositions is warranted. © 2013.

  19. Vaccine-driven pharmacodynamic dissection and mitigation of fenethylline psychoactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthur, Cody J.; Zhou, Bin; Janda, Kim D.

    2017-08-01

    Fenethylline, also known by the trade name Captagon, is a synthetic psychoactive stimulant that has recently been linked to a substance-use disorder and ‘pharmacoterrorism’ in the Middle East. Although fenethylline shares a common phenethylamine core with other amphetamine-type stimulants, it also incorporates a covalently linked xanthine moiety into its parent structure. These independently active pharmacophores are liberated during metabolism, resulting in the release of a structurally diverse chemical mixture into the central nervous system. Although the psychoactive properties of fenethylline have been reported to differ from those of other synthetic stimulants, the in vivo chemical complexity it manifests upon ingestion has impeded efforts to unambiguously identify the specific species responsible for these effects. Here we develop a ‘dissection through vaccination’ approach, called DISSECTIV, to mitigate the psychoactive effects of fenethylline and show that its rapid-onset and distinct psychoactive properties are facilitated by functional synergy between theophylline and amphetamine. Our results demonstrate that incremental vaccination against a single chemical species within a multi-component mixture can be used to uncover emergent properties arising from polypharmacological activity. We anticipate that DISSECTIV will be used to expose unidentified active chemical species and resolve pharmacodynamic interactions within other chemically complex systems, such as those found in counterfeit or illegal drug preparations, post-metabolic tissue samples and natural product extracts.

  20. Heavy Alcohol Use Compared to Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Do College Students Experience a Difference in Substance Use Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…

  1. Executive control deficits in substance-dependent individuals: a comparison of alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine and of men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, E.A.A.; Crone, E.A.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Tranel, D.; Bechara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Substance dependence is associated with executive function deficits, but the nature of these executive defects and the effect that different drugs and sex have on these defects have not been fully clarified. Therefore, we compared the performance of alcohol- (n = 33; 18 women), cocaine- (n = 27; 14

  2. Consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en dos regiones argentinas y su relación con indicadores de pobreza Consumo de substâncias psicoativas em duas regiões argentinas e sua relação com indicadores de pobreza Psychoactive substance use in two regions of Argentina and its relationship to poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ap. Arena Ventura

    2013-05-01

    , em relação ao gênero e as condições de pobreza.Data were analyzed from the National Survey on Substance Use (ENPreCoSP-2.008 in 6,122 cases to estimate the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and assess the association between unmet basic needs (UBN and family income and the consumption of psychoactive substances by individuals 18-34 years of age in 10 provinces in Northern Argentina. The study conducted descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression. Prevalence of lifetime drug use and use in the previous year and previous month were higher for legal versus illegal substances. Consumption was also higher in males. Poverty indicators were significantly associated with the consumption of legal substances. The findings show differences in consumption of psychoactive substances related to gender and poverty.

  3. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  4. The Classification of Substance Use Disorders: Historical, Contextual, and Conceptual Considerations.

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    Robinson, Sean M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-08-18

    This article provides an overview of the history of substance use and misuse and chronicles the long shared history humans have had with psychoactive substances, including alcohol. The practical and personal functions of substances and the prevailing views of society towards substance users are described for selected historical periods and within certain cultural contexts. This article portrays how the changing historical and cultural milieu influences the prevailing medical, moral, and legal conceptualizations of substance use as reflected both in popular opinion and the consensus of the scientific community and represented by the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Finally, this article discusses the efforts to classify substance use disorders (SUDs) and associated psychopathology in the APA compendium. Controversies both lingering and resolved in the field are discussed, and implications for the future of SUD diagnoses are identified.

  5. The Classification of Substance Use Disorders: Historical, Contextual, and Conceptual Considerations

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    Sean M. Robinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the history of substance use and misuse and chronicles the long shared history humans have had with psychoactive substances, including alcohol. The practical and personal functions of substances and the prevailing views of society towards substance users are described for selected historical periods and within certain cultural contexts. This article portrays how the changing historical and cultural milieu influences the prevailing medical, moral, and legal conceptualizations of substance use as reflected both in popular opinion and the consensus of the scientific community and represented by the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. Finally, this article discusses the efforts to classify substance use disorders (SUDs and associated psychopathology in the APA compendium. Controversies both lingering and resolved in the field are discussed, and implications for the future of SUD diagnoses are identified.

  6. Violent substance abusers in domestic violence treatment.

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    Brown, T G; Werk, A; Caplan, T; Seraganian, P

    1999-01-01

    Although substance abuse is frequently encountered in men receiving services in violence treatment settings, systematic study of these 'dual-problem' men has lagged. This study had two main objectives: (1) the characterization of psychoactive substance abuse disorders in a naturalistic sample of men in domestic violence treatment; and (2) clarification of the role of substance abuse on the sociodemographic, personality, psychosocial, and abuse characteristics of dual-problem men. Fifty-three adult men who were attending domestic violence treatment were recruited. They were administered the Addiction Severity Index, the Conflicts Tactics Scale, Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview, the 16PF and the Symptoms Checklist-90. Partners, when available, were asked to provide corroboration. Sixty-three percent of the men had a current diagnosis of psychoactive substance abuse or dependence, while 92.5% had a lifetime diagnosis. Of the former, the majority was diagnosed as multiply dependent on alcohol and other drugs. As the severity of the substance abuse increased, so too did the dangerousness and frequency of abusive behaviors. Moreover, dual-problem men reported more hostility, apprehension, frustration and suspiciousness and past arrests than did their violence-only cohorts as well as a history of multiple (unsuccessful) treatments for substance abuse. These findings suggest that the trend toward multiple drug complaints seen in other clinical milieus is also being confronted in conjugal violence settings. In addition to the greater therapeutic challenge such dual-problem men present, these findings speak to the need to investigate integrated treatment approaches to improve the outlook of men grappling with both conjugal violence and multiple substance abuse problems.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol and other substance use disorders in young adulthood: A population-based study

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    Korhonen Tellervo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several risk factors for alcohol and other substance use disorders (SUDs have been identified, but it is not well understood whether their associations with SUD are independent of each other. In particular, it is not well known, whether the associations between behavioral and affective factors and SUDs are independent of other risk factors. The incidence of SUDs peaks by young adulthood making epidemiological studies of SUDs in young adults informative. Methods In a comprehensive population-based survey of mental health in Finnish young adults (aged 21-35 years, n = 605, structured clinical interview (SCID-I complemented by medical record data from all lifetime hospital and outpatient treatments were used to diagnose SUDs. We estimated the prevalences of lifetime DSM-IV SUDs, and investigated their associations with correlates from four domains representing: (1 behavioral and affective factors, (2 parental factors, (3 early initiation of substance use, and (4 educational factors. Independence of the association of behavioral and affective factors with SUD was investigated. Results Lifetime prevalences of abuse or dependence of any substance, alcohol, and any illicit substance were 14.2%, 13.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. Correlates from all four domains were associated with SUD. The associations between behavioral and affective factors (attention or behavior problems at school, aggression, anxiousness and SUD were largely independent of other correlates, whereas only daily smoking and low education associated with SUD after adjustment for behavioral and affective factors. Conclusion Alcohol use disorders are common in Finnish young adults, whereas other SUDs are less common than in many other developed countries. Our cross-sectional analyses suggested that the association between behavioral and affective factors and SUD was only partly accounted for by other correlates, such as early initiation of substance use and parental

  8. Does family history of alcohol problems influence college and university drinking or substance use? A meta-analytical review.

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    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B; Bonafide, Katherine E

    2012-10-01

    Family history of alcohol use problems is a reliable determinant of alcohol use and problems in the population at large, but findings are inconsistent when this issue is examined in college and university students. No quantitative summary of this literature has been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of family history on substance use and abuse in college and university students. A two-group contrast meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the differences in substance use and abuse between family history-positive and -negative students pursuing higher education. The studies that contributed data to this meta-analysis were conducted in five countries, with the majority of studies from the United States. A total of 65 published papers (53 samples) contributed data from 89 766 participants attending university or college. Effect sizes were coded for alcohol consumption, problems and use disorder symptoms, as well as other illegal drug use and abuse. Two independent coders calculated effect sizes and coded descriptive content about the papers, and discrepancies were reconciled. Family history was used as the grouping variable. Family history had a minimal effect on alcohol consumption, with stronger effects on alcohol consequences (Cohen's d: 0.21-0.25), alcohol use disorder symptoms (Cohen's d: 0.24) and other drug involvement (Cohen's d: 0.37-0.86). Relative to students without a family history of alcohol problems, students with positive family histories do not drink more, but may be at greater risk for difficulties with alcohol and drugs. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Crosswalk between DSM-IV dependence and DSM-5 substance use disorders for opioids, cannabis, cocaine and alcohol.

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    Compton, Wilson M; Dawson, Deborah A; Goldstein, Risë B; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-09-01

    Ascertaining agreement between DSM-IV and DSM-5 is important to determine the applicability of treatments for DSM-IV conditions to persons diagnosed according to the proposed DSM-5. Data from a nationally representative sample of US adults were used to compare concordance of past-year DSM-IV opioid, cannabis, cocaine and alcohol dependence with past-year DSM-5 disorders at thresholds of 3+, 4+, 5+ and 6+ positive DSM-5 criteria among past-year users of opioids (n=264), cannabis (n=1622), cocaine (n=271) and alcohol (n=23,013). Substance-specific 2 × 2 tables yielded overall concordance (kappa), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). For DSM-IV alcohol, cocaine and opioid dependence, optimal concordance occurred when 4+ DSM-5 criteria were endorsed, corresponding to the threshold for moderate DSM-5 alcohol, cocaine and opioid use disorders. Maximal concordance of DSM-IV cannabis dependence and DSM-5 cannabis use disorder occurred when 6+ criteria were endorsed, corresponding to the threshold for severe DSM-5 cannabis use disorder. At these optimal thresholds, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV generally exceeded 85% (>75% for cannabis). Overall, excellent correspondence of DSM-IV dependence with DSM-5 substance use disorders was documented in this general population sample of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and opioid users. Applicability of treatments tested for DSM-IV dependence is supported by these results for those with a DSM-5 alcohol, cocaine or opioid use disorder of at least moderate severity or severe cannabis use disorder. Further research is needed to provide evidence for applicability of treatments for persons with milder substance use disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in Brandenburg and Saxony (Germany

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    Kugler Joachim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients regard health care professionals as role models for leading a healthy lifestyle. Health care professionals' own behaviour and attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle have an influence in counselling patients. The aim of this study was to assess consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in two German states: Brandenburg and Saxony. Methods Socio-demographic data and individual risk behaviour was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians were approached via mail and students were recruited during tutorials or lectures. Results 41.6% of physicians and 60.9% of medical students responded to the questionnaire; more than 50% of the respondents in both groups were females. The majority of respondents consumed alcohol at least once per week; median daily alcohol consumption ranged from 3.88 g/d (female medical students to 12.6 g/d (male physicians. A significantly higher percentage of men (p Conclusion More than one third of the medical students and health care professionals showed problematic alcohol-drinking behaviour. Although the proportion of non-smokers in the investigated sample was higher than in the general population, when compared to the general population, medical students between 18-24 reported higher consumption of illegal substances. These results indicate that methods for educating and promoting healthy lifestyle, particularly with respect to excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and abuse of illegal drugs should be considered.

  11. Peyote, a potential ethnopharmacologic agent for alcoholism and other drug dependencies: possible biochemical rationale.

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    Blum, K; Futterman, S L; Pascarosa, P

    1977-01-01

    The authors examine folk psychiatry among Native American Church members from an enthnopharmacologic viewpoint. Alcohol and opiate abuse among Indian and non-Indian are presented in case histories proving to be asymptomatic under Indian guidance and through participation in the peyote ritual. The biochemical alkaloids common in the peyote cactus, rather than just the psychoactive substances (mescaline), are purported to be pharmacologically similar to the neuroamine-derived alkaloids found in the brain during alcohol intoxification. Evidence is reviewed that points out possible common features of alcohol and opiate dependence leading to the speculation for a common mode of treatment may reside in plants rich in isoquinoline alkaloids.

  12. Association of average daily alcohol consumption, binge drinking and alcohol-related social problems: results from the German Epidemiological Surveys of Substance Abuse.

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    Kraus, Ludwig; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Pabst, Alexander; Orth, Boris

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the combined effect of average volume and binge drinking in predicting alcohol-related social problems and estimates the proportion of alcohol-related harms related to specific drinking patterns that could be prevented if transferred to a low-risk drinking group. Data came from the 1997 and 2000 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) (age: 18-59 years; response rate: 65% and 51%, respectively). The pooled sample consisted of 12,668 current drinkers. By using nine categories of average daily intake and three groups of binge drinking, individuals were grouped into 22 mutual exclusive groups. Social problems were defined as the occurrence of 'repeated family quarrels', 'concern of family members or friends', 'loss of partner or friend' or 'physical fight or injury' in relation to alcohol. The effect of average daily intake is modified by binge drinking frequency such that the association was strongest in those with four or more binge drinking occasions during the last 30 days. Within each binge drinking group, adjusted relative risks (aRR) increased with alcohol intake up to a certain threshold and decreased thereafter. Overall, compared to the reference group (alcohol-related social problems than volume. Alcohol-related social harms especially among drinkers with moderate volume per day may be reduced by targeting prevention strategies towards episodic heavy drinkers.

  13. Impact of alcohol use on thyroid function

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    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the commonest illicit psychoactive substances consumed globally and is the world′s third largest risk factor for disease and disability. It has been reported to have multiple effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and the functioning of the thyroid gland. It has been reported to cause direct suppression of thyroid function by cellular toxicity, and indirect suppression by blunting thyrotropin-releasing hormone response. It causes a decrease of peripheral thyroid hormones during chronic use and in withdrawal. Alcohol use may also confer some protective effect against thyroid nodularity, goiter, and thyroid cancer. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant effects of alcohol on the functioning of the thyroid gland and also discusses the effect of medication used in treatment of alcohol dependence on thyroid function.

  14. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use.

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    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.

  15. Marijuana use and achievement of abstinence from alcohol and other drugs among people with substance dependence: a prospective cohort study.

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    Mojarrad, Mohammadali; Samet, Jeffrey H; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Saitz, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Many with alcohol and other drug dependence have concurrent marijuana use, yet it is not clear how to address it during addiction treatment. This is partially due to the lack of clarity about whether marijuana use impacts one's ability to achieve abstinence from the target of addiction treatment. We examined the association between marijuana use and abstinence from other substances among individuals with substance dependence. A secondary analysis of the Addiction Health Evaluation And Disease management study, a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of chronic disease management. Individuals met criteria for drug or alcohol dependence and reported recent drug (i.e. opioid or stimulant) or heavy alcohol use. Recruitment occurred largely at an inpatient detoxification unit, and all participants were referred to primary medical care. The association between marijuana use and later abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use was assessed using longitudinal multivariable models. Of 563 study participants, 98% completed at least one follow-up assessment and 535 (95%) had at least one pair of consecutive assessments and were included. In adjusted analyses, marijuana use was associated with a 27% reduction in the odds of abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.97], P=0.03). Marijuana use among individuals with alcohol or other drug dependence is associated with a lower odds of achieving abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use. These findings add evidence that suggests concomitant marijuana use among patients with addiction to other drugs merits attention from clinicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender and race/ethnic differences in the persistence of alcohol, drug, and poly-substance use disorders.

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    Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Washington, Donna L; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-05-01

    To examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) type on SUD persistence. Data were provided by 1025 women and 1835 men from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender and race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic) moderate the effects of DSM-IV defined past-12 month SUD type (alcohol, drug, poly-substance) on SUD persistence at 3-year follow-up, controlling for covariates. Using gender-stratified weighted binary logistic regression, we examined predictors of SUD persistence, tested an SUD type by race/ethnicity interaction term, and calculated and conducted Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons of predicted probabilities. SUD persistence rates at 3-year follow-up differed for SUD type by gender by race/ethnicity sub-group, and ranged from 31% to 81%. SUD persistence rates were consistently higher among poly-substance users; patterns were mixed in relation to gender and race/ethnicity. Among women, alcohol disordered Hispanics were less likely to persist than Whites. Among men, drug disordered Hispanics were less likely to persist than Whites. Also, Black men with an alcohol or drug use disorder were less likely to persist than Whites, but Black men with a poly-substance use disorder were more likely to persist than Hispanics. The effect of SUD type on SUD persistence varies by race/ethnicity, and the nature of these relationships is different by gender. Such knowledge could inform tailoring of SUD screening and treatment programs, potentially increasing their impact. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Influencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en el ámbito familiar sobre la autoestima de escolares A influência do consumo de substâncias psicoactivas na autoestima dos estudantes no âmbito familiar The influence of psychoactive substance consumption in the family context on students' self-esteem

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    Náyade B. Riquelme Pereira

    2005-10-01

    eles. Concluiu-se que o consumo moderado de qualquer substância psicoativa não influenciou os níveis de auto-estima dos estudantes deste nível de instrução.This study aimed to correlate students' self-esteem in the sixth year of basic education in Chiguayante state schools in Concepción-Chile with psychoactive substance consumption in the family. This non-experimental, correlational and cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 303 children. An instrument with sociodemographic data and Garcia's Self-Concept Inventory in School (1995 were used for data collection. In general, 89.1% of the students displayed high global self-esteem. This result was repeated when the group of children who reported on psychoactive substance consumption (no matter which mode in the family was compared with the group of children that did not mention this situation. As we did not observe any significant diffferences between the groups, we concluded that moderate consumption of any psychoactive substance would not influence the self-esteem of students at this educational level.

  18. Consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in Brandenburg and Saxony (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Karen; Twork, Sabine; Mittag, Dirk; Göbel, Anne; Voigt, Roger; Klewer, Jörg; Kugler, Joachim; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bergmann, Antje

    2009-12-03

    Patients regard health care professionals as role models for leading a healthy lifestyle. Health care professionals' own behaviour and attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle have an influence in counselling patients. The aim of this study was to assess consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in two German states: Brandenburg and Saxony. Socio-demographic data and individual risk behaviour was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians were approached via mail and students were recruited during tutorials or lectures. 41.6% of physicians and 60.9% of medical students responded to the questionnaire; more than 50% of the respondents in both groups were females. The majority of respondents consumed alcohol at least once per week; median daily alcohol consumption ranged from 3.88 g/d (female medical students) to 12.6 g/d (male physicians). A significantly higher percentage of men (p illegal substances was considerably lower in physicians (5.1%) than medical students (33.0%). Male students indicated a significantly (p illegal drug-use compared to female students. More than one third of the medical students and health care professionals showed problematic alcohol-drinking behaviour. Although the proportion of non-smokers in the investigated sample was higher than in the general population, when compared to the general population, medical students between 18-24 reported higher consumption of illegal substances.These results indicate that methods for educating and promoting healthy lifestyle, particularly with respect to excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and abuse of illegal drugs should be considered.

  19. Risk factors for out-of-home custody child care among families with alcohol and substance abuse problems.

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    Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Halmesmäki, Erja

    2007-11-01

    To study the risk of children to mothers with alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for early childhood out-of-home care in Finland. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 526 pregnant women attending special outpatient clinics during 1992-2001 and their 626 offspring, with out-of-home care data until 2003 provided by the National Child Welfare Register. Fifty percent (95% confidence interval 46-54%) were at some point and 38% (34-42%) by the age of two years, in out-of-home care. Out-of-home care was associated with maternal care for substance abuse after delivery, nonemployment, housing, daily smoking during pregnancy, increasing number of previous births, mother in custody in her childhood, maternal education, previous child in custody, drug in urine during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, partner with significant abuse, regular health-care contact for abuse, daily alcohol consumption before and/or during pregnancy, newborn not discharged with mother, neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS), intensified perinatal surveillance or NICU, and delayed discharge from hospital. There is a substantial risk of children born to mothers with significant alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for out-of-home care during early childhood. Factors identified during the pre- and perinatal period are associated with this risk.

  20. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

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    Muthusami Kumaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  1. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for military spouses experiencing alcohol and substance use disorders: a literature review.

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    Ahmadi, Halima; Green, Scott L

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of alcohol and substance use issues in military spouses, and explore how the screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) model may enable health care providers to identify individuals at risk for developing substance use related disorders. The information presented is based on a broad literature scan relating to the characteristics of the military lifestyle, health infrastructure, screening and intervention processes, and the uses of SBIRT in military and civilian settings. Current literature suggests that military spouses, and families, tend to be at different points in their life course than civilian families of similar ages. Marrying earlier and having children sooner coupled with military lifestyle stressors place them at increased risk for developing adverse coping mechanisms, particularly during deployment. SBIRT has been recognized as an effective method among civilian patients although there is limited research on the efficacy of SBIRT for military spouses at risk of or experiencing substance use problems.

  2. Personality and alcohol/substance-use disorder patient relapse and attendance at self-help group meetings.

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    Janowsky, D S; Boone, A; Morter, S; Howe, L

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of personality in the short-term outcome of alcohol/substance-use disorder patients. Detoxifying alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST), the CAGE Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). These patients were subsequently evaluated over a 1-month period for relapse and attendance at self-help group meetings. High TPQ Persistence scale scores predicted abstinence. When the Thinking and Feeling groups were considered separately, and when these two groups were combined into a single group, high scores for the individual groups and the combined group (i.e. Thinking and Feeling types together) predicted abstinence. High TPQ Persistence scale scores and low Shyness with Strangers and Fear of Uncertainty subscale scores predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. High MBTI Extroversion and high MBTI Thinking scores also predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. When the Extroverted and Introverted types and the Thinking and Feeling types respectively were combined, as with abstinence, high scores predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. Age, gender, CAGE, MAST, and BDI scores did not predict outcome. The above information suggests that specific personality variables may predict abstinence and attendance at self-help group meetings in recently detoxified alcoholics, and this may have prognostic and therapeutic significance.

  3. Universal school-based substance abuse prevention programs: Modeling targeted mediators and outcomes for adolescent cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use.

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    Stephens, Peggy C; Sloboda, Zili; Stephens, Richard C; Teasdale, Brent; Grey, Scott F; Hawthorne, Richard D; Williams, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    We examined the relationships among targeted constructs of social influences and competence enhancement prevention curricula and cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use outcomes in a diverse sample of high school students. We tested the causal relationships of normative beliefs, perceptions of harm, attitudes toward use of these substances and refusal, communication, and decision-making skills predicting the self-reported use of each substance. In addition, we modeled the meditation of these constructs through the intentions to use each substance and tested the moderating effects of the skills variables on the relationships between intentions to use and self-reported use of each of these substances. Logistic regression path models were constructed for each of the drug use outcomes. Models were run using the Mplus 5.0 statistical application using the complex sample function to control for the sampling design of students nested within schools; full information maximum likelihood estimates (FIML) were utilized to address missing data. Relationships among targeted constructs and outcomes differed for each of the drugs with communication skills having a potentially iatrogenic effect on alcohol use. Program targets were mediated through the intentions to use these substances. Finally, we found evidence of a moderating effect of decision-making skills on perceptions of harm and attitudes toward use, depending upon the outcome. Prevention curricula may need to target specific drugs. In addition to normative beliefs, perceptions of harm, and refusal and decision-making skills, programs should directly target constructs proximal to behavioral outcomes such as attitudes and intentions. Finally, more research on the effects of communication skills on adolescent substance use should be examined.

  4. The prevalence of psychoactive drug intake in a metropolitan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakesch, G; Loimer, N; Rasinger, E; Tutsch, G; Katschnig, H

    1989-03-01

    Together with a survey conducted among the population of Vienna on the prevalence of hypertension, the consumption of psychotropic substances was investigated. In cooperation with a polling institute a quota-sample of 1,470 Viennese over 15 were visited in their homes by 50 physicians trained in interview techniques. The quota-sample comprised 1,470 people (0.959(0/00) of the population of 1,531,346 inhabitants) and was representative in terms of age, sex, social status, and area of residence. The overall prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption among the inhibitants of Vienna investigated was found to be 6.8%. The female to male ratio was 3.5 to 1. Furthermore, psychoactive drug use increased with age and was influenced by social status, with the highest consumption rate found among divorced women and widows. Using the Goldberg "General Health Questionnaire", data were collected on the presence of psychopathologic symptoms and the responders' subjective feeling of being under stress was elicited. A significant correlation could be shown between these two factors and the use of psychoactive drugs. The type of drugs most frequently used were tranquilizers (4.96%), followed by antidepressants (0.95%) and hypnotics (0.88%).

  5. Visual and verbal learning deficits in Veterans with alcohol and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Vissicchio, Nicholas A; Weinstein, Andrea J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined visual and verbal learning in the early phase of recovery for 48 Veterans with alcohol use (AUD) and substance use disorders (SUD, primarily cocaine and opiate abusers). Previous studies have demonstrated visual and verbal learning deficits in AUD, however little is known about the differences between AUD and SUD on these domains. Since the DSM-5 specifically identifies problems with learning in AUD and not in SUD, and problems with visual and verbal learning have been more prevalent in the literature for AUD than SUD, we predicted that people with AUD would be more impaired on measures of visual and verbal learning than people with SUD. Participants were enrolled in a comprehensive rehabilitation program and were assessed within the first 5 weeks of abstinence. Verbal learning was measured using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and visual learning was assessed using the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVMT). Results indicated significantly greater decline in verbal learning on the HVLT across the three learning trials for AUD participants but not for SUD participants (F=4.653, df=48, p=0.036). Visual learning was less impaired than verbal learning across learning trials for both diagnostic groups (F=0.197, df=48, p=0.674); there was no significant difference between groups on visual learning (F=0.401, df=14, p=0.538). Older Veterans in the early phase of recovery from AUD may have difficulty learning new verbal information. Deficits in verbal learning may reduce the effectiveness of verbally-based interventions such as psycho-education. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. What You Should Know about Alcohol Problems. Substance Abuse in Brief, April 2003.

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    Substance Abuse in Brief, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol use is legal for persons age 21 and older, and the majority of people who drink do so without incident. However, there is a continuum of potential problems associated with alcohol consumption. This brief addresses the definition of an "alcohol problem" and problems associated with "risky drinking." It also addresses the…

  7. Family Therapy and Children of Alcoholics Implications for Continuing Education and Certification in Substance Abuse Practice

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    Crespi, Tony D.; Rueckert, Quentin H.

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians involved in family therapy are increasingly concerned with the impact of parental alcoholism on individual development and family functioning. With more than 20 million adults raised within an alcoholic family, and with widespread problems associated with parental alcoholism, clinicians providing family treatment have a potentially…

  8. Reciprocal relationships between substance use and disorders and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism.

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    Agrawal, Arpana; Tillman, Rebecca; Grucza, Richard A; Nelson, Elliot C; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Few, Lauren; Conner, Kenneth R; Lynskey, Michael T; Dick, Danielle M; Edenberg, Howard J; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I; Schuckit, Marc A; Porjesz, Bernice; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2017-04-15

    Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders. The prospective cohort of the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N=3277) was used. Cross-sectional and discrete time logistic regression (i.e. survival) analyses examined associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence. Survival models also examined whether individual early substance use was related to onset of ideation and attempt. Ideation was related to 0.71-0.77 odds of onset of subsequent alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use. Attempt was associated with 1.44-1.61 odds of later alcohol, nicotine and cannabis dependence, even after accounting for covariates. Evidence for early substance use being related to subsequent onset of ideation or attempt was limited. Several sex and race differences emerged. The sample was ascertained for family history of alcoholism; not all participants had been followed up allowing for censored observations; reporting bias. Suicide attempts are associated with increased likelihood of onset of substance dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal resilience intervention in reducing tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in a population of adolescents: cluster-randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell,Elizabeth; Dray, Julia; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Wiggers, John

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Initiation of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use typically occurs during adolescence, with the school setting recommended to reduce adolescent substance use. Strengthening individual (eg, problem solving) and environmental (eg, caring relationships at school) resilience protective factors of adolescents has been suggested as a strategy for reducing substance use by adolescents; however, few studies have examined this potential. A study was conducted to investigate the effec...

  10. [Effect of psychotropic substances on the development of alcoholic motivation in noninbred white rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A V; Nikitina, L N

    1986-03-01

    The experiments have shown the capacity of antidepressant amitriptylin (0.5 mg/kg, i. p.) and tranquilizer phenazepam (0.1 mg/kg i. p.) to normalize the adaptive behaviour and almost completely prevent the development of alcohol motivation in animals with insufficient adaptive behaviour. It was established that in animals initially rejecting alcohol, chronic treatment with these drugs as well as d-amphetamine promoted alcohol motivation. The results obtained have proved our earlier hypothesis that preclinical search for drugs for the prevention and treatment of early stages of alcoholism is possible only in animals pre-selected according to their inclination to experimental alcoholism.

  11. The Association of Trauma and PTSD with the Substance Use Profiles of Alcohol and Cocaine Dependent Out-of-Treatment Women

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sharon D.; Cottler, Linda B.; O'Leary, Catina Callahan; Ben Abdallah, Arbi

    2010-01-01

    The association of trauma and PTSD with alcohol and cocaine use is explored to determine if there is additive risk associated with dual dependence. Data were collected from out-of-treatment women enrolled in an HIV-prevention study. Women who experienced a DSM-IV qualifying event (N=791) were stratified into four substance use groups based on lifetime alcohol and cocaine use. Women with lifetime co-morbid alcohol and cocaine dependence experienced significantly more traumatic events, had a hi...

  12. Rôle de l'alcool et des substances psychoactives dans les accidents de la voie publique à Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (Étude ASMA-CI)

    OpenAIRE

    Diakite, Aïssata

    2015-01-01

    We implemented a data collecting process including 893 victims who died or were injured following a RTA, and were admitted to the Emergency Room or to the Forensic Institute in Abidjan. This hospital-based data was linked with police data and toxicological testing. The method developed in our laboratory for blood alcohol determination using GC-FID demonstrated a good compliance with analytical performance requirements in terms of repeatability, accuracy, linearity, stability and limit of quan...

  13. GRASr2 evaluation of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances used as flavoring ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnett, Lawrence J; Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Adams, Timothy B; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Taylor, Sean V

    2014-04-01

    This publication is the 1st in a series of publications by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Assoc. summarizing the Panel's 3rd re-evaluation of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status referred to as the GRASr2 program. In 2011, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 2700 flavor ingredients that have previously met the criteria for GRAS status under conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr2) based, in part, on their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Age of onset of smoking among alcohol dependent men attending substance abuse treatment after a domestic violence arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Caroline J; Weinberger, Andrea H; George, Tony P

    2007-10-01

    This study examined differences between alcohol dependent offenders of intimate partner violence (IPV) with early initiation of cigarette smoking versus alcohol dependent offenders of IPV with later initiation of cigarette smoking. Seventy-eight alcohol dependent men who were arrested for domestic and referred to substance abuse treatment were randomly assigned to manual-guided behavioral therapies (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Twelve Step Facilitation). Sixty-two clients reported smoking cigarettes (85%) while 52 reported smoking cigarettes (71%) on a daily basis. Early initiation of smoking was defined as smoking cigarettes before the age of 16 years of age, while later initiation of smoking was defined as smoking cigarettes from 16.5 years and older. Regarding baseline characteristics, participants assigned to the early initiation of smoking condition had significantly more domestic violence arrests and significantly higher anger expression scores at baseline compared to the late smoking initiation group. Despite more severity of substance abuse, legal and violence characteristics at the baseline assessment in the early initiation group, both smoking initiation groups responded equally as well across 12 weeks of manualized behavioral treatments. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.

  16. [Public university students' psychosocial factors associated with legal and illegal substance consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogollo-Milanés, Zuleima; Arrieta-Vergara, Katherine M; Blanco-Bayuelo, Sandra; Ramos-Martínez, Lina; Zapata, Karen; Rodríguez-Berrio, Yuranis

    2011-06-01

    Determining the prevalence and psychosocial factors associated with public university students' legal and illegal substance consumption. This was across-sectional study of 1,359 randomly selected students. The harvesting instrument included the CAGE questionnaire and VESPA,WHO, Rosenberg, Francis and APGAR scales. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for univariate and bivariate analysis using disparity ratios (95 % confidence intervals and 5 % error) whilst logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. An association was found between abusive alcohol consumption and smoking cigarettes (OR=4.6), marijuana (OR=4.6) and using cocaine (OR=2.2); having a dysfunctional family was associated with smoking cigarettes (OR=1.2), using cocaine (OR=1.95) and abusive alcohol consumption (OR=1.94). Abusive alcohol consumption and having a dysfunctional family were influential factors regarding psychoactive substance consumption in public university students.

  17. Association between personality traits and substance use in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Guillon-Riquelme, Alejandro; Secades, Roberto; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-03-02

    Substance use is considered one of the most frequent risk behaviors during adolescence. Personality factors are linked to consumption during adolescence. Although there are studies on personality and consumption among Spanish adolescents, some outcomes are contradictory, and more studies including larger samples and using validated measures are needed. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between different personality factors and substance use among Spanish adolescents. Participants were 1,455 students aged between 13-18 years. The adaptation of the 16PF-IPIP Personality Inventory was applied to assess Warmth, Stability, Gregariousness, Friendliness, Sensitivity, Trust, Openness to experience, Sociability, Perfectionism, and Calmness. Participants were asked about their different consumption substances during their lifetime. Results provide evidence for a relationship between personality factors and psychoactive substance use. There are different distributions of alcohol use regarding personality traits. Furthermore, personality factors have some influence on consumption of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.Trust and Calmness influence average alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine consumption, whereas Sociability had no statistically significant influence on any of the three substances. The results from this study are highly useful in the design of preventive programs, as they provide more evidence of the role of personality traits as a risk factor.

  18. Metabolism of the tryptamine-derived new psychoactive substances 5-MeO-2-Me-DALT, 5-MeO-2-Me-ALCHT, and 5-MeO-2-Me-DIPT and their detectability in urine studied by GC-MS, LC-MSn , and LC-HR-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Achim T; Gaab, Jonas B; Michely, Julian A; Brandt, Simon D; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2018-01-01

    Many N,N-dialkylated tryptamines show psychoactive properties and were encountered as new psychoactive substances. The aims of the presented work were to study the phase I and II metabolism and the detectability in standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) of 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-diallyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-DALT), 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N-allyl-N-cyclohexyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-ALCHT), and 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-2-Me-DIPT) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography coupled with multistage accurate mass spectrometry (LC-MSn ), and liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). For metabolism studies, urine was collected over a 24 h period after administration of the compounds to male Wistar rats at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW). Phase I and II metabolites were identified after urine precipitation with acetonitrile by LC-HR-MS/MS. 5-MeO-2-Me-DALT (24 phase I and 12 phase II metabolites), 5-MeO-2-Me-ALCHT (24 phase I and 14 phase II metabolites), and 5-MeO-2-Me-DIPT (20 phase I and 11 phase II metabolites) were mainly metabolized by O-demethylation, hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, and combinations of them as well as by glucuronidation and sulfation of phase I metabolites. Incubations with mixtures of pooled human liver microsomes and cytosols (pHLM and pHLC) confirmed that the main metabolic reactions in humans and rats might be identical. Furthermore, initial CYP activity screenings revealed that CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were involved in hydroxylation, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in O-demethylation, and CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in N-dealkylation. For SUSAs, GC-MS, LC-MSn , and LC-HR-MS/MS were applied to rat urine samples after 1 or 0.1 mg/kg BW doses, respectively. In contrast to the GC-MS SUSA, both LC-MS SUSAs were able to detect an intake of 5-MeO-2-Me-ALCHT and 5-MeO-2-Me-DIPT via their metabolites following 1 mg/kg BW administrations and 5-MeO-2-Me-DALT following 0

  19. Adulteration Practices of Psychoactive Illicit Drugs: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Rotolo, Maria C; Pellegrini, Manuela; Minutillo, Adele; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardò, Francesco P; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse. A literature search up to January 2017 was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science and reports and documents of international agencies or institutions were also searched. Pharmacologically active substances such as: paracetamol, caffeine, dextromethorphan, clenbuterol for heroin; levamisole, phenacetine, lidocaine, hydroxyzine and diltiazem for cocaine; caffeine and phentermine for amphetamine, have been identified over the years. Furthermore, since cocaine and morphine (this latter as a precursor of heroin) are both extracted from natural products, some impurities and minor alkaloids can be present in the final preparation. In this context, it is worth considering that new psychoactive substances are also used as cutting agents. The wide availability of illicit psychotropic drugs is the most serious hazard threatening consumers. Indeed emergency departments are often responsible in evaluating damages caused not only by the base substance, but also by other eventual compounds added to mimic or antagonize drug effects or simply dilute the drug amount, with a possible harmful synergic toxic action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Heterogeneity of alcohol, tobacco, and other substance use behaviors in U.S. college students: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Polce, Rebecca; Lanza, Stephanie; Maggs, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    To identify subgroups of college students with distinct profiles of traditional and alternative types of tobacco, alcohol, and other substance use and to examine how demographic characteristics and academic and social activities are associated with subgroup membership. We used latent class analysis to characterize subgroups of individuals in their fourth-year of college based on their patterns of seven substance use behaviors: extreme heavy episodic drinking (HED), cigarette use, cigar/cigarillo/little cigar use, smokeless tobacco use, hookah use, marijuana use, and non-medical prescription drug use. Demographic characteristics and academic and social activities were then incorporated as predictors of these latent classes. We identified five classes defined by unique behavior patterns: (1) Non/Low Users, (2) Non-Hookah Tobacco Users, (3) Extreme HED & Marijuana Users, (4) Hookah and Marijuana Users, and (5) Poly-Substance Users. Being male, older, and involved in sports were associated with greater odds of being in the Poly-Substance User class compared to the Low/No User class, and participating in an honors society and reporting more positive peer relationships were associated with being in the Hookah and Marijuana User class compared to the Low/No User class. Our findings of unique characteristics in the subgroups identified suggest that college substance users are a heterogeneous population requiring different targeted interventions. Of particular concern are subgroups with high rates of alternative tobacco products, as perceived risks of use may be inaccurate and this is not currently a focus of college substance use prevention interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Substance Use Variations between Rural and Urban Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2017-01-01

    The use of addictive substances by adolescents is a major public health concern; however, rural versus urban variations are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in the prevalence of recent use of 11 substances in grades 6 through 12 in a statewide sample of students from the Georgia Student…

  2. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. (a) Employer obligation to promulgate a... authority independent of this subpart. Any such additional policies or consequences must be clearly and...

  3. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. METHOD: The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305...... analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6...... increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life....

  4. As condições de trabalho como fator desencadeador do uso de substâncias psicoativas pelos trabalhadores de enfermagem Las condiciones de trabajo como factor desencadenante del uso de sustancias psicoactivas por los trabajadores de enfermería The work conditions as unleash factor of the psychoactive substance use by the workers of nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rose Costa Martins

    2007-12-01

    condiciones familiares, ambientales y sociales. Se concluye que esas substancias comprometen la salud de ellos y el desarrollo de sus actividades laborales.The study had as object the psychoactive substance use by the workers of nursing and its relation with the work. The objective was to analyze the work conditions as unleash factor of the use of drugs by the nursing worker. The theoretical referential was structuralized from the concept of drugs and clarifying models of the drug dependency, supported in the conceptions of Dejours (1999 and Laurell & Noriega (1989. Descriptive study of qualitative approach with 40 citizens workers of nursing of medical clinic of a university hospital in the City of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, carried through in 2005 and 2006. As instrument of data collection, was used the half-structuralized interview. The results showed that the psychoactive substance use by the professionals in the work place can be related with the conditions of overload work and with the easiness of access and that such substances compromise their health and the development of their labor activities.

  5. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  6. [Cocaine and alcohol: a risky association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Jérôme; Pedrera-Melgire, Manuela; Charles-Nicolas, Aimé; Ballon, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    Key points. Cocaine, the second most frequently consumed illicit substance after cannabis in both United States and Europe, remains the psychostimulant of choice for many, often mixed with other psychoactive substances. It is most frequently associated with alcohol, and a diagnosis of alcohol dependence may be made in 50%-90% of cocaine-dependent subjects. When treating cocaine addicts, it is important to characterize not only the modalities of cocaine use but also the modes of consumption of other substances, notably alcohol. Alcohol is often consumed to reduce the anxiety and discomfort resulting from cocaine withdrawal. Alcohol may also trigger an irresistible craving for cocaine, which can result in frequent relapses even after several months of cocaine abstinence. Brief intervention and motivational interview techniques can help to reduce alcohol use and prevent cocaine relapses in this context. In the absence of severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms, the guidelines for treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome may be applied for cocaine and alcohol codependence. Lower doses of benzodiazepine are needed for treating this alcohol-cocaine withdrawal syndrome. Cognitive behavioral therapies, alone or in combination with psychotropic medication, are accepted therapeutic approaches for alcohol-cocaine dependence. It is also accepted that over the long term the combination of psychotherapeutic treatments is usually more effective than any single approach. In the absence of a therapeutic consensus, four drugs (disulfiram, baclofen, topiramate and naltrexone) are most often recommended to promote and maintain abstinence; nevertheless, their efficacy has not been proven and their use remains experimental and off-label: they have not been approved by health authorities as treatment for addictions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Change in delay discounting and substance reward value following a brief alcohol and drug use intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Yurasek, Ali M; Murphy, James G

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined (1) the impact of a brief substance use intervention on delay discounting and indices of substance reward value (RV), and (2) whether baseline values and posttreatment change in these behavioral economic variables predict substance use outcomes. Participants were 97 heavy drinking college students (58.8% female, 41.2% male) who completed a brief motivational intervention (BMI) and then were randomized to one of two conditions: a supplemental behavioral economic intervention that attempted to increase engagement in substance-free activities associated with delayed rewards (SFAS) or an Education control (EDU). Demand intensity, and Omax, decreased and elasticity significantly increased after treatment, but there was no effect for condition. Both baseline values and change in RV, but not discounting, predicted substance use outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Students with high RV who used marijuana were more likely to reduce their use after the SFAS intervention. These results suggest that brief interventions may reduce substance reward value, and that changes in reward value are associated with subsequent drinking and drug use reductions. High RV marijuana users may benefit from intervention elements that enhance future time orientation and substance-free activity participation. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  9. Prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and knowledge of drug/alcohol-related sexual assaults among Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Villa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is the most widely used substance among adolescents, exceeding the use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The study aims at investigating the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and prevalence and knowledge of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA among Italian adolescents. Methods: The study population was a sample of 512 students of secondary education (high school from 3 public schools in Milan, Italy. Two hundred and fourty-nine boys and 263 girls aged 15 to 21 years old (M = 16.2, SD = 2.1 answered a specially structured anonymous questionnaire. Results: Recent problem drinking (‘every day’ or ‘once a week’ was reported from 9% (‘wine’ up to 28% (‘beer’ of students. Cannabis and rave drugs usage (ranged from ‘every day’ to ‘once only in a while’ were reported by up to 38% (‘cannabis’ and 2% (‘rave drugs’ of students. Beer was the most popular type of alcoholic beverage (81% with respect to wine (62% and hard liquor (66%. Only a small percentage of participants stated that they were informed about the possible addiction to alcohol (5% and its negative social consequences (3%. Nevertheless, almost all the students (92% declared that alcohol consumption was less dangerous than other psychoactive substances. Finally, most students stated to know DFSA phenomenon (77% and were victims or witness (13% of a DFSA event. Conclusion: Psychoactive substances consumption remains a serious problem among Italian adolescents. For a successful alcohol strategy there is a need to implement preventive measures and counseling approaches in school. Increasing the knowledge of the negative effects of alcohol/drugs use might also lead to a better prevention of the DFSA phenomenon.

  10. Retention of homeless clients in substance abuse treatment. Findings from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Cooperative Agreement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwin, R G; Garrison-Mogren, R; Jacobs, M L; Sonnefeld, L J

    1999-01-01

    Retaining clients in treatment who are homeless presents a particular challenge for substance abuse treatment providers. A National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Cooperative Agreement Program offered the first opportunity to systematically study program retention in a multisite study of interventions for homeless persons with alcohol and other drug problems. This article presents results from analyses conducted across 15 interventions implemented at 8 Cooperative Agreement sites. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed. Key findings were that (a) retention problems with homeless clients are as or more pervasive than in the general addicted population; (b) the provision of housing increases retention, but the increases tend to be nullified when the housing is bundled with high-intensity services; (c) homeless clients leave treatment programs for a multitude of reasons; and (d) midcourse corrections to increase retention are frequently successful. The discussion focuses on service components related to retention, the importance of attending to phase transitions, and the importance of being programmatically responsive when serving this population.

  11. Joint heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes and coffee and the risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanskanen, A; Tuomilehto, J; Viinamäki, H; Vartiainen, E; Lehtonen, J; Puska, P

    2000-11-01

    To estimate the relationship between joint heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes and coffee, and the risk of suicide in a general population with high rate of suicide. Prospective cohort analyses. Finland. Data from 36,689 adult (age range 25-64 years) men and women who participated in the population surveys between 1972 and 1992. The mortality of the cohort was monitored for a mean of 14.4 years, which yielded 169 suicides. Criteria for heavy use of each psychoactive substance were defined as follows: alcohol (> 120 g/week), cigarettes (> or = 21/day) and coffee (> or = seven cups/day). About half the men and 80% of the women did not use any of the psychoactive substances heavily. Every third man and every fifth woman used one substance heavily, and the prevalence for those who exceeded criteria for joint heavy use of two substances was 9% for men and 1% for women. Joint heavy use of all three substances was rare. The adjusted relative risk of suicide increased linearly with increasing level of joint heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes and coffee. Among subjects with heavy use of one substance the risk was 1.55 (95% CI = 1.10, 2.18), with joint heavy use of two substances 2.22 (95% CI = 1.37, 3.61), and with joint heavy use of all three substances 3.99 (95% CI = 1.80, 8.84) compared with no heavy use. Clustering of the heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes and coffee could serve as a new marker for increased risk of suicide.

  12. Are there any potentially dangerous pharmacological effects of combining ADHD medication with alcohol and drugs of abuse? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Xanthe M; McArdle, Paul A; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-10-30

    Among young people up to 18 years of age, approximately 5% have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), many of whom have symptoms persisting into adulthood. ADHD is associated with increased risk of co-morbid psychiatric disorders, including substance misuse. Many will be prescribed medication, namely methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine and lisdexamfetamine. If so, it is important to know if interactions exist and if they are potentially toxic. Three databases (Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO) from a 22 year period (1992 - June 2014) were searched systematically. Key search terms included alcohol, substance related disorders, methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine, and death, which identified 493 citations (344 after removal of duplicates). The eligibility of each study was assessed jointly by two investigators, leaving 20 relevant articles. We identified only a minimal increase in side-effects when ADHD medication (therapeutic doses) was taken with alcohol. None of the reviewed studies showed severe sequelae among those who had overdosed on ADHD medication and other coingestants, including alcohol. The numbers across all the papers studied remain too low to exclude uncommon effects. Also, studies of combined effects with novel psychoactive substances have not yet appeared in the literature. Nevertheless, no serious sequelae were identified from combining ADHD medication with alcohol/illicit substances from the pre-novel psychoactive substance era.

  13. The role of illicit substance use in a conceptual model of intimate partner violence in men undergoing treatment for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Richard E; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Lofgreen, Ashton M; Cunningham, Karlene; Murphy, Christopher M

    2012-06-01

    Illicit substance use (ISU) predicts intimate partner violence (IPV) above and beyond alcohol use and other known IPV correlates. Stuart and colleagues (2008) provided evidence for a theoretical framework by which ISU contributes both directly and indirectly to IPV. We sought to replicate and extend their findings using data from 181 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples in which the male had recently begun a substance abuse treatment program and met criteria for alcohol dependence (97%) or abuse (3%). Using SEM, we found that (a) Stuart et al.'s model provided a good fit to the data; (b) men's cocaine use and women's sedative use emerged as particularly relevant to their respective perpetration of IPV; (c) a positive association between men's antisociality and physical aggression was mediated by increased stimulant use; and (d) the specific pattern of IPV predicted by women's sedative use differed across levels of aggression severity. These findings not only highlight the direct role of ISU in relationship aggression, but also support a larger theory-driven model comprising various proximal and distal precursors of IPV.

  14. Retention of adolescents with substance dependence and coexisting mental health disorders in outpatient alcohol and drug group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagey, Bronwyn; Deering, Daryle; Sellman, Doug

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics that might enhance retention among adolescents attending outpatient alcohol and drug group therapy within a youth mental health setting. An important goal was to provide information for nurses and other clinicians who work with adolescents with coexisting substance use and mental health disorders. A retrospective file audit reviewed the files of 64 adolescents who attended a weekly alcohol and drug group between 2002 and 2004. Five characteristics were shown to have a significant impact on enhancing participant group retention. These were Māori and Pacific Island ethnicity, past or current legal charges, youth drug court (YDC) involvement, having a diagnosis of cannabis dependence, and a diagnosis of conduct disorder. Logistic regression found that YDC involvement on its own significantly predicted treatment retention. In an area of limited research, the findings from this study expand the literature on enhancing treatment retention for a vulnerable and hard-to-engage adolescent group with complex treatment needs, and highlight the need for further investigation of the potential role of the YDC. From a practice perspective, the findings support group therapy interventions as a cost-effective treatment modality for assisting adolescents with coexisting substance use and mental health issues, including those with conduct disorder and YDC involvement. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2010 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Psychoactive Drugs and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed on a representative sample of the Danish population in order to investigate the connection to the use of psychoactive drugs and quality of life (QOL by way of a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2,460 persons aged between 18 and 88, randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register, and 7,222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959–61.A total of 1,501 persons between the ages 18 and 88 years and 4,626 persons between the ages 31 and 33 years returned the questionnaire (response rates of 61.0% and 64.1%, respectively. Variables investigated in this study were ten different psychotropic drugs and quality of life.Our study showed that over half the Danish population had used illegal psychotropic drugs. The most commonly used was cannabis (marijuana though experience of this drug appeared not to co-vary with QOL to any significant extent. Cocaine, amphetamine, and psilocybin had been used by 1.2 to 3.3% of the population and this varied with QOL to a clear albeit small extent. LSD has been used by 1.2% of the population and the users had a QOL score 10% lower than those who had never used psychotropic drugs. The group with the lowest quality of life was found to be persons who had used heroin, morphine, methadone, and a mixture of alcohol and tranquilizers (10–20% below the group with the highest quality of life.

  16. Psychoactive drugs and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav

    2003-08-18

    This study was performed on a representative sample of the Danish population in order to investigate the connection to the use of psychoactive drugs and quality of life (QOL) by way of a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2,460 persons aged between 18 and 88, randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register), and 7,222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61. A total of 1,501 persons between the ages 18 and 88 years and 4,626 persons between the ages 31 and 33 years returned the questionnaire (response rates of 61.0% and 64.1%, respectively). Variables investigated in this study were ten different psychotropic drugs and quality of life. Our study showed that over half the Danish population had used illegal psychotropic drugs. The most commonly used was cannabis (marijuana) though experience of this drug appeared not to co-vary with QOL to any significant extent. Cocaine, amphetamine, and psilocybin had been used by 1.2 to 3.3% of the population and this varied with QOL to a clear albeit small extent. LSD has been used by 1.2% of the population and the users had a QOL score 10% lower than those who had never used psychotropic drugs. The group with the lowest quality of life was found to be persons who had used heroin, morphine, methadone, and a mixture of alcohol and tranquilizers (10-20% below the group with the highest quality of life).

  17. The effects of purchasing alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Ramchand, Rajeev; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    .... We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180...

  18. Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haqwi, Ali I

    2010-01-22

    This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate) participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early stage of their academic life, as a medical student about the

  19. Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early

  20. The effects of purchasing alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use

    OpenAIRE

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy NV; Ramchand, Rajeev; D’Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Background Among high-risk youth, those who may be at increased risk for adverse alcohol and other drug (AOD) use outcomes may benefit from targeted prevention efforts; how youth acquire AOD may provide an objective means of identifying youth at elevated risk. Methods We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180) at two ti...

  1. Elucidation of the metabolites of the novel psychoactive substance 4-methyl-N-ethyl-cathinone (4-MEC) in human urine and pooled liver microsomes by GC-MS and LC-HR-MS/MS techniques and of its detectability by GC-MS or LC-MS(n) standard screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Andreas G; Turcant, Alain; Boels, David; Ferec, Séverine; Lelièvre, Bénédicte; Welter, Jessica; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-05-01

    4-methyl-N-ethcathinone (4-MEC), the N-ethyl homologue of mephedrone, is a novel psychoactive substance of the beta-keto amphetamine (cathinone) group. The aim of the present work was to study the phase I and phase II metabolism of 4-MEC in human urine as well as in pooled human liver microsome (pHLM) incubations. The urine samples were worked up with and without enzymatic cleavage, the pHLM incubations by simple deproteinization. The metabolites were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). Based on the metabolites identified in urine and/or pHLM, the following metabolic pathways could be proposed: reduction of the keto group, N-deethylation, hydroxylation of the 4-methyl group followed by further oxidation to the corresponding 4-carboxy metabolite, and combinations of these steps. Glucuronidation could only be observed for the hydroxy metabolite. These pathways were similar to those described for the N-methyl homologue mephedrone and other related drugs. In pHLM, all phase I metabolites with the exception of the N-deethyl-dihydro isomers and the 4-carboxy-dihydro metabolite could be confirmed. Glucuronides could not be formed under the applied conditions. Although the taken dose was not clear, an intake of 4-MEC should be detectable in urine by the GC-MS and LC-MS(n) standard urine screening approaches at least after overdose. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to buy or use alcohol. By setting the drinking age at 21, they hope older people will be ... stop without help. A person who starts drinking alcohol at a young age is more likely to develop alcoholism. Alcoholism is ...

  3. Systematic review of universal school-based 'resilience' interventions targeting adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jenny; Nepal, Smriti; Dray, Julia; Kingsland, Melanie; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wiggers, John

    2017-07-01

    Universal school-based interventions that address adolescent 'resilience' may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, however previous systematic reviews have not examined the effectiveness of such an intervention approach. A systematic review was undertaken to 1) assess whether universal school-based 'resilience' interventions are effective in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use by adolescents, and 2) describe such effectiveness per intervention characteristic subgroups. Eligible studies were peer-reviewed reports (1994-2015) of randomised controlled trials including participants aged 5-18years that reported adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use, and implemented a universal school-based 'resilience' intervention (i.e. those addressing both individual (e.g. self-esteem) and environmental (e.g. school connectedness) protective factors of resilience). Trial effects for binary outcomes were synthesised via meta-analyses and effect sizes reported as odds ratios. Subgroup (by intervention type, prevention approach, setting, intervention duration, follow-up length) and sensitivity analyses (excluding studies at high risk of bias) were conducted. Nineteen eligible studies were identified from 16,619 records (tobacco: n=15, alcohol: n=17, illicit: n=11). An overall intervention effect was found for binary measures of illicit substance use (n=10; OR: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.6-0.93, p=0.007,Tau2=0.0, I2=0%), but not tobacco or alcohol use. A similar result was found when studies assessed as high risk of bias were excluded. Overall intervention effects were evident for illicit substance use within multiple intervention characteristic subgroups, but not tobacco and alcohol. Such results support the implementation of universal school-based interventions that address 'resilience' protective factors to reduce adolescent illicit substance use, however suggest alternate approaches are required for tobacco and alcohol use

  4. Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness have both increased mortality and are more likely to have a substance use disorder. We assessed the association between mortality and lifetime substance use disorder in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression. METHODS......: In this prospective, register-based cohort study, we obtained data for all people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression born in Denmark in 1955 or later from linked nationwide registers. We obtained information about treatment for substance use disorders (categorised into treatment for alcohol......, cannabis, or hard drug misuse), date of death, primary cause of death, and education level. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality and subhazard ratios (SHRs) for cause-specific mortality associated with substance use disorder of alcohol, cannabis, or hard drugs. We calculated...

  5. Development of risk perception and substance use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among adolescents and emerging adults: evidence of directional influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevenstein, Dennis; Nagy, Ede; Kroeninger-Jungaberle, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    While several studies have investigated the relationship between risk perception and substance use, surprisingly little is known about mutual influences between both variables over time. The present study aimed to explore two different hypotheses separately for tobacco, alcohol and cannabis: influences from risk perception on behavior (motivational hypothesis) and influences from behavior on risk perception (risk reappraisal hypothesis). A prospective and longitudinal cross-lagged panel design was used with substance use and risk perception measured five times over the course of 10 years. Participants were 318 German youths aged 14-15 at the beginning of the study. Risk perception and substance use frequency were measured using self-reports. Structural equation modeling indicated significant influences of risk perception on substance use behavior for all substances, which supports the motivational hypothesis. Changes in risk perception predict changes in future substance use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Specifically for cannabis, influences of substance use on risk perception can also be shown, thus, supporting the risk reappraisal hypothesis. While there is support for the rationale behind adequate risk perception as a goal of preventive interventions, the possibility of risk reappraisal should not be neglected, especially regarding illicit substances.

  6. Frequency of alcohol use among elementary school pupils at Belgrade territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Alcoholism is one of the most frequent modern diseases. These kinds of epidemiological studies have not been carried out in this country at a global level. Objective The aim of the study was to establish the spread of alcohol abuse among the young regarding the sex, and find the connection between the alcohol abuse and the consumption of drugs and cigarettes. Methods The study was carried out among the elementary school pupils of the seventh and eighth grade in the area of Belgrade from October 2003 to January 2004. Total of 457 pupils were involved; 229 (50.1% were boys and 228 (49.9% girls, aged 12-15 years, the average age being 13.4 years. The method used was the modified questionnaire European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, which the pupils filled in individually, voluntarily and anonymously. χ2-test, Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney Logistic Regression Test were used in statistical processing of the data. Results Almost 70% of the examinees have tried alcohol. Most of the examinees had the first contact with alcohol at the age of 11. Half of our examinees got drunk at least once in their life and about one fifth more than 20 times. The binge form of consumption (five or more drinks in a row was evident in a quarter of our examinees. Our examinees use alcohol together with other psychoactive substances, mostly marijuana. It was observed that certain types of behavior, such as frequent going out in the evening, were directly related to the abuse of alcohol. Conclusion Two thirds of the examinees have tried alcohol. The first contact with alcohol is shifted to an earlier age (11 years. New trends of alcohol abuse have been noticed, such as binge form of consumption and the connection of use with other psychoactive substances. .

  7. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that

  8. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  9. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  10. ALCOHOLIC INGESTION AND ALCOHOL ABUSE IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AT JEQUIÉ-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polianna Alves Andrade Rios

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify theassociation between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends sociodemographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population.

  11. Guidelines for biological treatment of substance use and related disorders, part 1: Alcoholism, first revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael; Kranzler, Henry R; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kasper, Siegfried; Mutschler, Jochen; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    These practice guidelines for the biological treatment of alcohol use disorders are an update of the first edition, published in 2008, which was developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). For this 2016 revision, we performed a systematic review (MEDLINE/PUBMED database, Cochrane Library) of all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of alcoholism and extracted data from national guidelines. The Task Force evaluated the identified literature with respect to the strength of evidence for the efficacy of each medication and subsequently categorised it into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5). Thus, the current guidelines provide a clinically and scientifically relevant, evidence-based update of our earlier recommendations. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and practitioners who evaluate and treat people with alcohol use disorders and are primarily concerned with the biological treatment of adults with such disorders.

  12. Clinical risk factors of prediabetes in Taiwanese women without substance uses (tobacco, alcohol, or areca nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Wu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Besides age, the factors of BMI, hypertension, dyslipidemia, GPT, hyperuricemia, and proteinuria are the main risk factors for prediabetes in Taiwanese women without substance uses. A follow-up study is necessary to clarify the causality of these important biochemical parameters and prediabetes.

  13. Tobacco, Caffeine, Alcohol and Illicit Substance Use among Consumers of a National Psychiatric Disability Support Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Adam; Lubman, Dan I.; Cox, Merrilee

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented high rates of tobacco smoking and substance use disorders among young people with serious mental illness. However, limited studies have been conducted outside traditional clinical settings. In an attempt to address this shortfall and to better understand the needs of young people accessing its…

  14. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model…

  15. Childhood sexual abuse and women's substance abuse: national survey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsnack, S C; Vogeltanz, N D; Klassen, A D; Harris, T R

    1997-05-01

    Clinical studies have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in women seeking treatment for alcohol or drug abuse, and elevated rates of alcohol and drug disorders among female psychiatric patients with histories of CSA. The present study examines the relationship of CSA to women's use of alcohol and other drugs in a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. women. As part of a national survey of women's drinking, 1,099 women were asked about sexual experiences occurring before age 18. Women who reported sexual experiences classified as abusive were compared to women without histories of CSA on nine measures of substance use, self-perception of anxiousness, the occurrence of one or more lifetime depressive episodes, five measures of sexual dysfunction, and early onset of masturbation and consensual sexual intercourse. Results of logit analyses, controlling for age, ethnicity and parental education, indicated that women with histories of CSA were significantly more likely than women without CSA histories to report recent alcohol use, intoxication, drinking-related problems and alcohol dependence symptoms; lifetime use of prescribed psychoactive drugs and illicit drugs; depression and anxiety; pain that prevented intercourse; and consensual sexual intercourse before age 15. Findings from this U.S. national sample support those of previous clinical studies and suggest that women's experience of sexual abuse in childhood may be an important risk factor for later substance abuse, psychopathology and sexual dysfunction. Implications of these findings for future research, treatment and prevention are discussed.

  16. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna

    2016-12-21

    Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users-71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users-13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users-7.2%, poly-users-7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  17. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  18. Similarities and Differences between Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Problems vs. Alcohol and Substance Use Problems in Relation to the Progressive Model of Self-stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Rabayov, Tal

    2017-01-01

    Aims: People with gambling as well as substance use problems who are exposed to public stigmatization may internalize and apply it to themselves through a mechanism known as self-stigma. This study implemented the Progressive Model for Self-Stigma which consists four sequential interrelated stages: awareness, agreement, application and harm on three groups of individuals with gambling, alcohol and other substance use problems. It explored whether the two guiding assumptions of this model (each stage is precondition for the following stage which are trickle-down in nature, and correlations between proximal stages should be larger than correlations between more distant stages) would differentiate people with gambling problems from those with alcohol and other substance use problems in terms of their patterns of self-stigma and in terms of the stages in the model. Method: 37 individuals with gambling problems, 60 with alcohol problems and 51 with drug problems who applied for treatment in rehabilitation centers in Israel in 2015-2016 were recruited. They completed the Self-stigma of Mental Illness Scale-Short Form which was adapted by changing the term "mental health" to gambling, alcohol or drugs, and the DSM-5-diagnostic criteria for gambling, alcohol or drug disorder. Results: The assumptions of the model were broadly confirmed: a repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that in all three groups there was a difference between first two stages (aware and agree) and the latter stages (apply and harm). In addition, the gambling group differed from the drug use and alcohol groups on the awareness stage: individuals with gambling problems were less likely to be aware of stigma than people with substance use or alcohol problems. Conclusion: The internalization of stigma among individuals with gambling problems tends to work in a similar way as for those with alcohol or drug problems. The differences between the gambling group and the alcohol and other substance groups at the

  19. Similarities and Differences between Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Problems vs. Alcohol and Substance Use Problems in Relation to the Progressive Model of Self-stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle Gavriel-Fried

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: People with gambling as well as substance use problems who are exposed to public stigmatization may internalize and apply it to themselves through a mechanism known as self-stigma. This study implemented the Progressive Model for Self-Stigma which consists four sequential interrelated stages: awareness, agreement, application and harm on three groups of individuals with gambling, alcohol and other substance use problems. It explored whether the two guiding assumptions of this model (each stage is precondition for the following stage which are trickle-down in nature, and correlations between proximal stages should be larger than correlations between more distant stages would differentiate people with gambling problems from those with alcohol and other substance use problems in terms of their patterns of self-stigma and in terms of the stages in the model.Method: 37 individuals with gambling problems, 60 with alcohol problems and 51 with drug problems who applied for treatment in rehabilitation centers in Israel in 2015–2016 were recruited. They completed the Self-stigma of Mental Illness Scale-Short Form which was adapted by changing the term “mental health” to gambling, alcohol or drugs, and the DSM-5-diagnostic criteria for gambling, alcohol or drug disorder.Results: The assumptions of the model were broadly confirmed: a repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that in all three groups there was a difference between first two stages (aware and agree and the latter stages (apply and harm. In addition, the gambling group differed from the drug use and alcohol groups on the awareness stage: individuals with gambling problems were less likely to be aware of stigma than people with substance use or alcohol problems.Conclusion: The internalization of stigma among individuals with gambling problems tends to work in a similar way as for those with alcohol or drug problems. The differences between the gambling group and the alcohol and other

  20. Concoction of harmful substances in homemade alcoholic beverages in rural areas of Mopani district in Limpopo province-RSA: implications for social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhubele, J C

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion.

  1. Promising Practices and Strategies To Reduce Alcohol and Substance Abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives. An OJP Issues & Practices Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Ada Pecos; Chino, Michelle; May, Phillip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

    This report presents case studies of nine successful programs designed to reduce alcohol and substance abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives. These case studies highlight effective solutions developed within tribal communities and combining Western and traditional approaches to build upon the strengths of the respective Indian…

  2. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  3. Substance use patterns among first-year college students: secondary effects of a combined alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossbard, Joel R; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kilmer, Jason R; Lee, Christine M; Turrisi, Rob; Larimer, Mary E; Ray, Anne

    2010-12-01

    This study explored secondary effects of a multisite randomized alcohol prevention trial on tobacco, marijuana, and other illicit drug use among a sample of incoming college students who participated in high school athletics. Students (n = 1,275) completed a series of Web-administered measures at baseline during the summer before starting college and 10 months later. Students were randomized to one of four conditions: a parent-delivered intervention, a brief motivation enhancement intervention (Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students [BASICS]), a condition combining the parent intervention and BASICS, and assessment-only control. A series of analyses of variance evaluating drug use outcomes at the 10-month follow-up assessment revealed significant reductions in marijuana use among students who received the combined intervention compared to the BASICS-only and control groups. No other significant differences between treatment conditions were found for tobacco or other illicit drug use. Our findings suggest the potential utility of targeting both alcohol and marijuana use when developing peer- and parent-based interventions for students transitioning to college. Clinical implications and future research directions are considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    medications, including baclofen, gabapentin, pregabalin, ondansetron, modafinil, and aripiprazole, are able to decrease alcoholic needs and to alleviate the manifestations of alcohol dependence. The Russian narcological practice in using antipsychotics to suppress a craving for alcohol (as well as other psychoactive substances contradicts the principles of evidence-based medicine and has no scientific base.

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  6. Validação da versão brasileira do teste de triagem do envolvimento com álcool, cigarro e outras substâncias (ASSIST Validation of the Brazilian version of Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Ferraz Silva Henrique

    2004-04-01

    World Health Organization (WHO developed the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Screening Test (ASSIST. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of ASSIST, as well as its reliability and concurrent validity in the detection of psychoactive substance use and related problems. METHODS: The ASSIST and three validated diagnostic instruments (Mini-Plus, AUDIT, RTQ were applied to 99 patients of primary/secondary health care services and to 48 patients in treatment for alcohol and drug dependence in specialized services, at São Paulo and Curitiba cities. RESULTS: The ASSIST' scores to alcohol showed good correlation with AUDIT' scores. The ASSIST presented high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine abuse/dependence, considering the MINI-Plus diagnostic the "gold-standard". The reliability of the instrument was good (Cronbach's alpha of 0.80 to alcohol, 0.79 to cannabis and 0.81 to cocaine. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the ASSIST seem to be satisfactory, recommending its use in patients of primary/secondary health care services.

  7. Contributions of Child Sexual Abuse, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Alcohol Use to Women's Risk for Forcible and Substance-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self

  8. Biotransformation and detectability of the new psychoactive substances N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) derivatives 5-fluoro-DALT, 7-methyl-DALT, and 5,6-methylenedioxy-DALT in urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn, and LC-HR-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michely, Julian A; Brandt, Simon D; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2017-02-01

    Derivatives of N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) can be classified as new psychoactive substances. Biotransformation and detectability of 5-fluoro-DALT (5-F-DALT), 7-methyl-DALT (7-Me-DALT), and 5,6-methylenedioxy-DALT (5,6-MD-DALT) are described here. Their metabolites detected in rat urine and pooled human liver microsomes were identified by liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution (HR)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In addition, the human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in the main metabolic steps were identified and detectability tested in urine by the authors' urine screening approaches using GC-MS, LC-MSn, or LC-HR-MS/MS. Aromatic and aliphatic hydroxylations, N-dealkylation, N-oxidation, and combinations could be proposed for all compounds as main pathways. Carboxylation after initial hydroxylation of the methyl group could also be detected for 7-Me-DALT and O-demethylenation was observed for 5,6-MD-DALT. All phase I metabolites were extensively glucuronidated or sulfated. Initial phase I reactions were catalyzed by CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5. Rat urine samples were analyzed following two different low-dose administrations. GC-MS was not able to monitor consumption reliably, but all three compounds are predicted to be detectable in cases of overdose. The LC-MSn and LC-HR-MS/MS approaches were suitable for detecting an intake of all three compounds mainly via their metabolites. However, after the lowest dose, a reliable monitoring could only be achieved for 5-F-DALT via LC-MSn and LC-HR-MS/MS and for 7-Me-DALT via LC-HR-MS/MS. The most abundant targets in both LC-MS screenings were one of two hydroxy-aryl metabolites and both corresponding glucuronides for 5-F-DALT, one N-deallyl hydroxy-aryl, the carboxy, and one dihydroxy-aryl metabolite for 7-Me-DALT, and the demethylenyl metabolite, its oxo metabolite, and glucuronide for 5,6-MD-DALT.

  9. New psychoactive substances: Studies on the metabolism of XLR-11, AB-PINACA, FUB-PB-22, 4-methoxy-α-PVP, 25-I-NBOMe, and meclonazepam using human liver preparations in comparison to primary human hepatocytes, and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lilian H J; Maurer, Hans H; Meyer, Markus R

    2017-10-05

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an increasing problem in clinical and forensic toxicology. The knowledge of their metabolism is important for toxicological risk assessment and for developing toxicological urine screenings. Considering the huge numbers of NPS annually appearing on the market, metabolism studies should be realized in a fast, simple, cost efficient, and reliable way. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were recommended to be the gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies as they are expected to contain natural enzyme clusters, co-substrates, and drug transporters. In addition, they were already successfully used for metabolism studies of NPS. However, they also have disadvantages such as high costs and limited applicability without special equipment. The aims of the present study were therefore first to investigate exemplarily the phase I and phase II metabolism of six NPS (XLR-11, AB-PINACA, FUB-PB-22, 4-methoxy-α-PVP, 25-I-NBOMe, and meclonazepam) from different drug classes using pooled human S9 fraction (pS9) or pooled human liver microsomes combined with cytosol (pHLM/pHLC) after addition of the co-substrates for the main metabolic phase I and II reactions. Second to compare results to published data generated using primary human hepatocytes and human urine samples. Results of the incubations with pS9 or pHLM/pHLC were comparable in number and abundance of metabolites. Formation of metabolites, particularly after multi-step reactions needed a longer incubation time. However, incubations using human liver preparations resulted in a lower number of total detected metabolites compared to PHH, but they were still able to allow the identification of the main human urinary excretion products. Human liver preparations and particularly the pooled S9 fraction could be shown to be a sufficient and more cost-efficient alternative in context of metabolism studies also for developing toxicological urine screenings. It might be recommended to use the

  10. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, IM

    2013-01-01

    , which is 0.53 g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were...

  11. Identification of a new psychoactive substance in seized material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breindahl, Torben; Kimergård, Andreas; Andreasen, Mette Findal

    2017-01-01

    from a seized capsule found at a forensic psychiatric ward in Denmark. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified a precursor to synthetic fentanyls, N-phenyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-amine; however, the precursor 1-(2-phenethyl)piperidin-4-on, was not detected. Analysis...

  12. The Prevalence and Factors affecting Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Health and Population. Perspectives and Issues. 2008; 31(3):. 212-219. 47. Bahls FRC, Ingbermann YK. Desenvolvimento escolar e abuso de drogas na adolescência / School development and adolescents' drug abuse. Estudos de psicologia. (Campinas). 2005; 22(4): 395-402. 48. Oliha JA. Adolescent and Drug Abuse.

  13. The Prevalence and Factors affecting Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Peer group influence (94.3%), Stress (70.5%), Curiosity (58.7%), were the most common factors perceived to predispose ... performance (p<0.05). ... self-image, despite the knowledge of its potential ... skills and poor memory with many of them.

  14. Profile of Problems Associated with Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CIDI auto is a computer program which could concurrently generate both ICD 10 and DSM IIIR diagnoses using various indices which include physical and social health problems. Focus group discussion and direct observation were also conducted in each of the study parks. Results: Their median age was 39 years, ...

  15. A novel application in the study of client language: Alcohol and marijuana-related statements in substance-using adolescents during a simulation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Benjamin O; Garcia, Tracey A; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-09-01

    The current study explored whether laboratory-based techniques can provide a strategy for studying client language as a mechanism of behavior change. Specifically, this study examined the potential of a simulation task to elicit healthy talk, or self-motivational statements in favor of healthy behavior, related to marijuana and alcohol use. Participants (N = 84) were adolescents reporting at least 10 lifetime substance use episodes recruited from various community settings in an urban Pacific Northwest setting. Participants completed the Adolescent Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation (A-SIDE), a validated paradigm for assessing substance use decision making in peer contexts. Participants responded to 4 types of offers in the A-SIDE: (a) marijuana, (b) food (marijuana control), (c) alcohol, and (d) soda (alcohol control). Using a validated coding scheme adapted for the current study, client language during a structured interview assessing participants' response to the simulated offers was evaluated. Associations between percent healthy talk (PHT, calculated by dividing the number of healthy statements by the sum of all substance-related statements) and cross-sectional outcomes of interest (previous substance use, substance use expectancies, and behavioral willingness) were explored. The frequency of substance-related statements differed in response to offer type; rate of PHT did not. PHT was associated with behavioral willingness to accept the offer. However, PHT was not associated with decontextualized measures of substance use. Associations between PHT and global expectancies were limited. Simulation methods may be useful in investigating the impact of context on self-talk and to systematically explore client language as a mechanism of change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA): A Multisite Study of Adolescent Development and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A; Brumback, Ty; Tomlinson, Kristin; Cummins, Kevin; Thompson, Wesley K; Nagel, Bonnie J; De Bellis, Michael D; Hooper, Stephen R; Clark, Duncan B; Chung, Tammy; Hasler, Brant P; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C; Prouty, Devin; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V; Pohl, Kilian M; Rohlfing, Torsten; Nichols, B Nolan; Chu, Weiwei; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-11-01

    During adolescence, neurobiological maturation occurs concurrently with social and interpersonal changes, including the initiation of alcohol and other substance use. The National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) is designed to disentangle the complex relationships between onset, escalation, and desistance of alcohol use and changes in neurocognitive functioning and neuromaturation. A sample of 831 youth, ages 12-21 years, was recruited at five sites across the United States, oversampling those at risk for alcohol use problems. Most (83%) had limited or no history of alcohol or other drug use, and a smaller portion (17%) exceeded drinking thresholds. A comprehensive assessment of biological development, family background, psychiatric symptomatology, and neuropsychological functioning-in addition to anatomical, diffusion, and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging-was completed at baseline. The NCANDA sample of youth is nationally representative of sex and racial/ethnic groups. More than 50% have at least one risk characteristic for subsequent heavy drinking (e.g., family history, internalizing or externalizing symptoms). As expected, those who exceeded drinking thresholds (n = 139) differ from those who did not (n = 692) on identified factors associated with early alcohol use and problems. NCANDA successfully recruited a large sample of adolescents and comprehensively assessed psychosocial functioning across multiple domains. Based on the sample's risk profile, NCANDA is well positioned to capture the transition into drinking and alcohol problems in a large portion of the cohort, as well as to help disentangle the associations between alcohol use, neurobiological maturation, and neurocognitive development and functioning.

  17. The impact of Federal Alcohol and Drug Abuse block grants on state and local government substance abuse program expenditures: the role of federal oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamkhar, S; Sim, S C

    2001-12-01

    Are the federal Alcohol and Drug Abuse (ADA) block grant funds substituting for or supplementing state and local government spending on substance abuse? Using panel data on state and local government substance abuse programs, this study explores the fiscal effects of the ADA block grant money and the increased enforcement (after 1989) of federal restrictions on state spending of ADA block grants. The findings here reveal that for the current period, the federal ADA grant has no statistically significant effect on state and local government substance abuse spending both before and after 1989, and the increased enforcement of federal restrictions on the ADA grants after 1989 does not change this result. An additional finding is that lagged ADA grants have had a large effect on substance abuse spending both before and after 1989--a feature of the program not considered in previous studies.

  18. [Ethical, technical and legal procedures of the medical doctor responsibility to accomplish the road enforcement law about driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Nunes, Rui; Carvalho, Félix; Santos, Agostinho; Teixeira, Helena; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The forensic toxicology (TF) is a science of analytical basis, aiming to clarify legal issues related to poisoning, whether or not fatal, within the various areas of law (criminal, civil, labor, etc.). The analysis that are more often requested (with a tendency to increase and gaining rising attention) are those concerning the procedures involving supervision of driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances, in the living individual and in the cadaver. The key players in this process, are: (a) the police agents carrying out the screening and quantification of alcohol on the exhaled breath and the screening of psychotropic and stupefacient substances in saliva; (b) the public health services that perform qualitative analysis of these substances in urine (if the test was not previously performed in saliva); (c) the doctor that collects blood samples from the living, or the dead victim; (d) the forensic toxicologist who conducts toxicological analysis in blood (or, eventually in another biological sample) and (e) the magistrate prosecutors that ultimately will receive the toxicological report to apply the law. Therefore it is important to understand and be acquainted with the road law enforcement of driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances, particularly in what concerns to the role of the medical doctor. Consequently, this paper aimed to review these topics, namely highlighting the necessary information to clarify the interested parties about the technical, ethical and legal procedures to consider.

  19. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use...... compared with 7% of controls used illicit drugs within last month (P = 0.260). Conclusion: No significant group differences were found in the prevalence of ever having smoked cigarettes, drinking alcohol or using illicit drugs between adolescents with ADHD and controls. Contrary to expectations, subjects......Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...

  20. Substance use and social, health and safety-related factors among fatally injured drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Blencowe, Tom; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine different socio-demographic, health and safety-related factors, and psychoactive substance use among fatally injured drivers in road traffic accidents in Finland during 2006-2008. An accident information register maintained by the Traffic Safety Committee of Insurance Companies (VALT) of the Finnish Motor Insurers' Centre was used as basic data, and the basic data were complemented with further toxicological analytical information retrieved from autopsy reports from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Helsinki University. The data included all the drivers (n=556) who were driving a motor vehicle and who died in a road traffic accident in Finland during 2006-2008. Of all the 556 fatally injured drivers 43% (n=238) had psychoactive substance findings. 51% (n=121) of substance positive drivers had a finding for alcohol only, the rest had a finding for one or more illicit/medicinal drugs impairing driving ability, and possibly also alcohol. Fatally injured drivers with alcohol findings were significantly younger (mean age 34 years) than sober drivers (mean age 44 years) or drivers with findings for drugs (mean age 45 years). Socio-demographic background did not differ substantially among drunken/drugged and sober drivers, although drivers with alcohol findings had a slightly lower education and socioeconomic position. Previous substance abuse problems were highly prevalent among drivers with substance findings and mental or both mental and physical health problems were more common among drivers with drug findings. The non-use of safety equipment and driving at a high speed were more common among fatally injured drivers with substance findings. Substance abuse and mental health problems, as well as reckless driving behavior were more pronounced among fatally injured drivers with substance findings when compared to sober drivers. Thus, prevention and early intervention concerning substance abuse, mental health problems and DUI are

  1. Recherche d'une eventuelle implication des substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les SPA les plus consommées ont été les benzodiazépines (48,57%) et les antidépresseurs tricycliques (28,57%). Mots clés: Substances psychoactives, crises cardiovasculaires, benzodiazépines. English Abstract. This study was conducted to determine the presence or absence of psychoactive substances in the urine of ...

  2. Alcohol and substance screening and brief intervention for detainees kept in police custody. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariot, Patrick; Lepresle, Aude; Lefèvre, Thomas; Boraud, Cyril; Barthès, Agnès; Tedlaouti, Menouar

    2014-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention programs related to addictive disorders have proven effective in a variety of environments. Both the feasibility and outcome of brief interventions performed in police custody by forensic physicians are unknown. Our objectives were to characterize addictive behaviors in detainees and to evaluate the feasibility of a brief intervention at the time of the medical examination in police custody. This prospective study included 1000 detainees in police custody who were examined by a physician for the assessment of fitness for detention. We used a standardized questionnaire and collected data concerning individual characteristics, addictive disorders, and reported assaults or observed injuries. 944 men and 56 women (94-6%) were studied. We found an addictive disorder in 708 of 1000 cases (71%), with the use of tobacco (62%), alcohol (36%), cannabis (35%), opiates (5%), and cocaine (4%) being the most common. A brief intervention was performed in 544 of these 708 cases (77%). A total of 139 of the 708 individuals (20%) expressed a willingness to change and 14 of 708 (2%) requested some information on treatment options. The main reasons why brief interventions were not performed were aggressive behaviors, drowsiness, or fanciful statements by the detainee. Brief interventions and screening for addictive behaviors in police custody are feasible in the majority of cases. The frequent link between addictive behaviors and the suspected crimes highlights the value of such interventions, which could be incorporated into the public health mission of the physician in police custody. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol: common for men in substance abuse treatment and associated with high-risk sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A; Cousins, Sarah J; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n = 505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer-administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-9).

  4. [Alcohol and drug consumption in students exposed to the Dawson College shooting: a gender-based analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal, Natasha; Guay, Stéphane; Boyer, Richard; Lesage, Alain; Séguin, Monique; Bleau, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    To study alcohol and drug addiction incidence in students exposed to the Dawson College shooting within the 18 months following the event, to identify the precursors of a psychoactive substance addiction development while considering the severity of event exposure, and to examine whether alcohol use, 18 months after the event, is related to any of the various posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom groups. The population of this study was comprised of all the Dawson College students at the time of the event. Analyses were conducted with 854 students enrolled in the college at the time of the shooting. Five per cent of women and 7% of men showed, for the first time in their life, a problem with substance addiction following the shooting. In men, young age, lifetime suicidal ideation, and having seen the killer during the shooting are the main precursors of incident accident cases. None of the studied precursors were significant in women. Men and women were also different in terms of PTSD symptoms predicting alcohol use 18 months after the shooting. The study highlights the importance of considering a person's sex when studying their psychoactive substance use following a trauma.

  5. Can Google Searches Predict the Popularity and Harm of Psychoactive Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Wojciech; Hoffmann, Marcin

    2016-02-25

    Predicting the popularity of and harm caused by psychoactive agents is a serious problem that would be difficult to do by a single simple method. However, because of the growing number of drugs it is very important to provide a simple and fast tool for predicting some characteristics of these substances. We were inspired by the Google Flu Trends study on the activity of the influenza virus, which showed that influenza virus activity worldwide can be monitored based on queries entered into the Google search engine. Our aim was to propose a fast method for ranking the most popular and most harmful drugs based on easily available data gathered from the Internet. We used the Google search engine to acquire data for the ranking lists. Subsequently, using the resulting list and the frequency of hits for the respective psychoactive drugs combined with the word "harm" or "harmful", we estimated quickly how much harm is associated with each drug. We ranked the most popular and harmful psychoactive drugs. As we conducted the research over a period of several months, we noted that the relative popularity indexes tended to change depending on when we obtained them. This suggests that the data may be useful in monitoring changes over time in the use of each of these psychoactive agents. Our data correlate well with the results from a multicriteria decision analysis of drug harms in the United Kingdom. We showed that Google search data can be a valuable source of information to assess the popularity of and harm caused by psychoactive agents and may help in monitoring drug use trends.

  6. The Long-term Effects of Self-Esteem on Depression: The Roles of Alcohol and Substance Uses during Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiwoong; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979, this study examines the roles of alcohol and substance use as mediators in the mechanism between self-esteem and depression, and investigates whether the mechanism works for both men and women. Results demonstrate that alcohol and substance use during young adulthood mediates the effect of self-esteem on depression among men. Furthermore, self-esteem during young adulthood remains a determinant of high depression in middle adulthood. However, we did not find evidence to support that same mechanism among women. Our findings provide insight into how self-esteem affects depression over the transition from young to middle adulthood, and elucidate potential gendered responsivity to low self-esteem.

  7. The relationships of sociodemographic factors, medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities to neurocognition in short-term abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Rothlind, Johannes C; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2008-09-01

    Co-morbidities that commonly accompany those afflicted with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may promote variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurocognitive abnormalities demonstrated. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of several common co-morbid medical conditions (primarily hypertension and hepatitis C), psychiatric (primarily unipolar mood and anxiety disorders), and substance use (primarily psychostimulant and cannabis) disorders, and chronic cigarette smoking on the neurocognitive functioning in short-term abstinent, treatment-seeking individuals with AUD. Seventy-five alcohol-dependent participants (ALC; 51+/-9 years of age; three females) completed comprehensive neurocognitive testing after approximately 1 month of abstinence. Multivariate multiple linear regression evaluated the relationships among neurocognitive variables and medical conditions, psychiatric, and substance-use disorders, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Sixty-four percent of ALC had at least one medical, psychiatric, or substance-abuse co-morbidity (excluding smoking). Smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker) and age were significant independent predictors of cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, postural stability, processing speed, and visuospatial memory after age-normed adjustment and control for estimated pre-morbid verbal intelligence, education, alcohol consumption, and medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities. Results indicated that chronic smoking accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the neurocognitive performance of this middle-aged AUD cohort. The age-related findings for ALC suggest that alcohol dependence, per se, was associated with diminished neurocognitive functioning with increasing age. The study of participants who demonstrate common co-morbidities observed in AUD is necessary to fully understand how AUD, as a clinical syndrome, affects neurocognition, brain neurobiology, and their changes with

  8. Formal education and nurses' attitudes towards alcohol and alcoholism in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Pillon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nurses are one of the largest groups of healthcare professionals sharing in patient care responsibilities, including caring for those who use and abuse psychoactive substances. The objective was to evaluate the theoretical-practical knowledge acquired by nurses in undergraduate and postgraduate studies and their perceptions about alcohol users. DESIGN AND SETTING: Quantitative, descriptive survey at Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina and Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: The sample included nurses, students and nursing teachers. The survey included questions about sociodemographic characteristics; a nurses' attitudes and beliefs scale; and a questionnaire to identify formal nursing education on the use of alcohol and its consequences. RESULTS: 59.7% out of 319 volunteers were nurses, 22.7% were nursing teachers and 17.6% were nursing students. 70% of the participants had received little or no information on physical, family and social problems related to alcohol use; 87% had received little or no information on high risk related to specific segments of the population; 95% had received little or no information on nursing procedures for alcohol-abuse patients. CONCLUSION: Formal education regarding the use of alcohol and its consequences is limited, especially with regard to offering adequate care and management for patients who have problems with or are addicted to alcohol.

  9. Religiosity and adolescent substance use in central Mexico: exploring the influence of internal and external religiosity on cigarette and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L; Hoffman, Steven

    2012-03-01

    This study explores the multidimensional nature of religiosity on substance use among adolescents living in central Mexico. From a social capital perspective, this article investigates how external church attendance and internal religious importance interact to create differential pathways for adolescents, and how these pathways exert both risk and protective influences on Mexican youth. The data come from 506 self-identified Roman Catholic youth (ages 14-17) living in a semi-rural area in the central state of Guanajuato, Mexico, and attending alternative secondary schools. Findings indicate that adolescents who have higher church attendance coupled with higher religious importance have lower odds of using alcohol, while cigarette use is lower among adolescents who have lower church attendance and lower religious importance. Adolescents are most at risk using alcohol and cigarettes when church attendance is higher but religious importance is lower. In conclusion, incongruence between internal religious beliefs and external church attendance places Mexican youth at greater risk of alcohol and cigarette use. This study not only contributes to understandings of the impact of religiosity on substance use in Mexico, but highlights the importance of understanding religiosity as a multidimensional phenomenon which can lead to differential substance use patterns.

  10. RELACIÓN ENTRE EL CONSUMO CRÓNICO DE SUSTANCIAS PSICOACTIVAS Y ALTERACIONES NEUROCOMPORTAMENTALES EN FÁRMACO-DEPENDIENTES EN REHABILITACIÓN EN COMUNIDADES TERAPÉUTICAS (FECCOT: BOGOTÁ CUNDINAMARCA 2006-2007. ESTUDIO DESCRIPTIVO Relationship betwem chronic consumption of psychoactive substances and alterations neurobehavior alterations in a rehabilitation process in some therapeutic communities (FECCOT: Bogota -Cundinamarca 2006-2007-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cote-Menéndez

    2008-12-01

    a relationship between the neurobehavior disorders and the use of psychoactive substances in therapeutic Communities for rehabilitation affiliated to FECCOT. Materials and methods. This is a cross-sectional study of the Therapeutic Communities belonging to the FECCOT in Bogota and Cundinamarca. In depth interviews, physical examinations and neuropsychological testing were conducted. The data was extrapolated from the 403 persons tested in the years 2006 and 2007 accordingly. Included were also the criteria for drug abuse or dependence according to DSMIV-R. Results. This is a cross-sectional study of the Therapeutic Communities belonging to the FECCOT in Bogota and Cundinamarca. In depth interviews, physical examinations and neuropsychological testing were conducted. The data was extrapolated from the 403 persons tested in the years 2006 and 2007 accordingly. Included were also the criteria for drug abuse or dependence according to DSMIV-R. . Conclusions. There is a tendency in the multiple- drug abuse person to present a higher level of neurobehavior disorders than the general population. This determination was not evidenced by a specific control group.

  11. Using evolutionary tools to search for novel psychoactive plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse-Gramkow, Morten; Ernst, Madeleine; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bioprospecting is the search for valuable products from natural sources. Given that most species are poorly known, a key question is where to search. Ethnodirected bioprospecting approaches use traditional knowledge in the process of selecting plants to screen for desired properties...... and phylogenetic distribution of psychoactive plants. We compiled a database of 501 psychoactive plant species and their properties from published sources. We mapped these plant attributes on a phylogenetic tree of all land plant genera and showed that psychoactive properties are not randomly distributed...... on the phylogeny of land plants; instead certain plant lineages show overabundance of psychoactive properties. Furthermore, employing a "hot nodes" approach to identify these lineages, we can narrow down our search for novel psychoactive plants to 8.5% of all plant genera for psychoactivity in general and 1...

  12. Expression of behaviour and psychoactive drugs in the rat EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Lier, Hester van

    2004-01-01

    Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to describe changes in either behaviour or EEG separately. Rather, changes in EEG caused by psychoactive drugs should be described in direct concurrent relation with the subject's ongoing behaviour. ...

  13. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression and violence in the substance using population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, R

    1997-01-01

    Advances in our knowledge of the neurobiology of aggression and violence has given rise to rational pharmacological treatments for these behaviors. The main biological systems which are known to be involved are the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and electrophysiological activity in the brain. Abnormal functioning of these systems may also be complicated or caused by abuse of various psychoactive substances, particularly alcohol and stimulants. Adding further to this interaction is the high incidence of psychiatric disorders in the substance-using population, providing other behavioral influences and accompanying neurobiological dysregulation. Understanding of the interaction of these components has led to success in the treatment of aggressive and violent behaviors using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), lithium carbonate, beta-adrenergic blockers, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, neuroleptics, and novel agents such as anti-androgens and serenics.

  14. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alrashedy, Nashmiah Aid; Molina, Jeanmaire

    2016-01-01

    ... alternate uses for plants containing psychoactive phytochemicals that have purportedly evolved to ward off plant predators. However, the affinity of these phytochemicals within the hominid nervou...

  15. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment is likely to reduce this risk. To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. The sample in this case-control study comprised 219 adolescents aged 13-18 years, including a case group of 117 adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 102 adolescents without ADHD. Participating subjects completed a questionnaire about their use of cigarettes, drugs and alcohol and the self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). 21% of ADHD probands vs. 16% controls were daily smokers (P = 0.326). Among alcohol users, 52% of ADHD probands vs. 70% controls confirmed monthly alcohol intake (P = 0.014); 4% of cases compared with 7% of controls used illicit drugs within last month (P = 0.260). No significant group differences were found in the prevalence of ever having smoked cigarettes, drinking alcohol or using illicit drugs between adolescents with ADHD and controls. Contrary to expectations, subjects in the control group had a more regular and heavier use of alcohol. However, ADHD patients had a heavier use of cigarettes than controls.

  16. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal resilience intervention in reducing tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in a population of adolescents: cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Dray, Julia; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Wiggers, John

    2017-08-18

    Initiation of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use typically occurs during adolescence, with the school setting recommended to reduce adolescent substance use. Strengthening individual (eg, problem solving) and environmental (eg, caring relationships at school) resilience protective factors of adolescents has been suggested as a strategy for reducing substance use by adolescents; however, few studies have examined this potential. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal 'resilience' intervention in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use, and increasing the individual and environmental protective factors of students. A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Thirty-two Australian secondary schools (20 intervention; 12 control). Cohort of grade 7 students followed-up in grade 10 (2014; aged 15-16 years). A pragmatic intervention involving school staff selection and implementation of available programmes and resources targeting individual and environmental 'resilience' protective factors for all grade 7-10 students was implemented in schools (2012-2014). School staff were provided implementation support. An online survey collected baseline and follow-up data for primary outcomes: tobacco (ever, recent) and alcohol (ever, recent, 'risk') use, and secondary outcomes: marijuana and other illicit substance use, and individual (six-factor subscales, aggregate) and environmental (three-factor subscales, aggregate) protective factor scores. Generalised and linear mixed models examined follow-up differences between groups. Follow-up data from 2105 students (intervention=1261; control=844; 69% of baseline cohort) were analysed. No significant differences were found between intervention and control students for any primary (ever tobacco: OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.68, p=0.14; recent tobacco: OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.31, p=0.19; recent ever alcohol: OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.48, p=0

  17. Excessive alcohol consumption in young men: is there an association with their earlier family situation? A baseline-analysis of the C-SURF-study (Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Simon; Schori, Dominik; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether parental factors earlier in life (parenting, single parent family, parental substance use problem) are associated with patterns of alcohol consumption among young men in Switzerland. This analysis of a population based sample from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) included 5,990 young men (mean age 19.51 years), all attending a mandatory recruitment process for the army. These conscripts reported on parental monitoring and rule-setting, parental behaviour and family structure. The alcohol use pattern was assessed through abstention, risky single occasion drinking (RSOD), volume drinking and dependence. Furthermore, the impact of age, family socio-economic status, educational level of the parents, language region and civil status was analysed. A parental substance use problem was positively associated with volume drinking and alcohol dependence in young Swiss men. Active parenting corresponded negatively with RSOD, volume drinking and alcohol dependence. Single parent family was not associated with a different alcohol consumption pattern compared to standard family. Parental influences earlier in life such as active parenting (monitoring, rule-setting and knowing the whereabouts) and perceived parental substance use problem are associated with alcohol drinking behaviour in young male adults. Therefore, health professionals should stress the importance of active parenting and parental substance use prevention in alcohol prevention strategies.

  18. [Alcohol consumption in adolescence as predisposition for early development of alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okić, Rasema; Dobranić, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a special period in human development which takes place between childhood and adulthood. In order to enter the world of adults the adolescent negates authorities, reject existing norms of behavior and wants to prove itself. Characteristic is withdrawal in themselves, experimenting with cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances. Excessive use of alcohol among young has results in several psychological aspects, among which most often are: challenge, escape and satisfaction. These are the problems that many young people cannot overcome, so in early thirties we have a population of alcohol addicts (to develop alcoholism 10-15 years is necessary), with increased number of hospitalizations, families that suffer, problems for whole society. Goal of this paper is to point to the problem of alcohol use among young people, movement of age limit for the first use, minor difference in use between adolescents: delinquents--prisoners of prison in Zenica and graduate students from the High technical school in Sarajevo. Beside study on two groups of adolescents-delinquents and students, material used for this research also includes and represents evaluation data of the Department for Alcohols and Day Hospital during 2006. This research is epidemiological, retrospective, analytical-descriptive, based on analysis of relevant variables. Research results indicate that from the baseline of 60 adolescents in two "different" groups there is a minor difference in alcohol use, in group of delinquents 46.7% and among students 36.7% use drink alcohol beverages, but the father of every second delinquent is addicted to alcohol, while among students 3% fathers drink. From the total number of patients treated at the Day Hospital of the Department for Alcoholism during one year (total of 106 patients), 7% are addicts younger than 35 years, with tendency of increase in number of patients and younger age even down to 30 years.

  19. Psychoactive Drugs and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Soren Ventegodt; Joav Merrick

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed on a representative sample of the Danish population in order to investigate the connection to the use of psychoactive drugs and quality of life (QOL) by way of a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2,460 persons aged between 18 and 88, randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register), and 7,222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959–61.A total of 1,501 persons between the ages 18 and 88 years and 4,626 ...

  20. Prevalence, pattern and familial effects of substance use among the male college students -a north Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sorab; Sarpal, Sandeep Singh; Kumar, Dinesh; Kaur, Tarundeep; Arora, Sumant

    2013-08-01

    Substance use refers to the use of any psychoactive substance or drug, including licit and illicit drugs, other than when medically indicated. Psychoactive substance use poses a threat to the health, social and economic fabric of families, communities and nations. Chandigarh has more than 0.2 million students from across the country pursuing their courses in higher education institutions. There is a very little information about pattern of drug dependence among the college students of Chandigarh,India. To study the prevalence and pattern of substance use among college students of Chandigarh and to study the psycho-social behaviour of youth and perceived reasons for using substances. A Cross - sectional community based study. A stratified multi-stage random sample design was adopted in study. The study instrument was a questionnaire which was developed by reviewing relevant literature and previously used standardized instruments and protocols including the WHO questionnaire. On the basis of 60% prevalence anticipated on the basis of pilot study, 90% confidence coefficient and 10% permissible error - sample size came out to be 256. Prevalence of substance use was seen in 52.7% students belonging to age group 19 to 21 years. More prevalence of substance use was found among law students (76.2%) followed by the students from Art stream (62.5%). Among the users alcohol was most commonly used (53.5%), followed by smokers (27.3%), tobacco chewers (8.2%), cannabis (6.8%).49% of the users were using substances on daily basis, followed by 23% who using weekly.29.3% of users had father using any substance. Relief from psychological stress (66.0%) followed by easy availability (46.9%) were the most common reasons of substance abuse. that substances use is common among college going male students irrespective of their social demographic characteristics like age [OR 0.76, 95%CI (.443-1.317) religion [OR.859 95%CI (.461-1.598), parental education, occupation and socio

  1. Latino Immigrants' Biological Parents' Histories of Substance Use Problems in Their Country of Origin Predict Their Pre- and Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackson, Timothy C; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Li, Tan

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have assessed whether recent young adult (aged 18-34) Latino immigrants' biological parents' histories of substance use problems (BPHSUP) in their country of origin predict their alcohol use problems at pre- and post-immigration to the United States (US). BPHSUP in their country of origin were assessed via interviews conducted by bilingual Latino researchers with recent Latino immigrants primarily from Cuba and Central and South America recruited through respondent-driven sampling at the time of their immigration to southeastern US. Three waves of data were collected to document Latino immigrants' severity of alcohol use problems at pre-immigration and 2 annual post-immigration follow-up assessments. BPHSUP+/- status was used as a predictor of Latinos' (N = 452; 45.8% female, 54.2% male) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores at pre- and post-immigration with age, education, and income as covariates as wells as odds ratios for AUDIT classifications of hazardous use, harmful use, and dependence. BPHSUP+ status predicted Latino immigrants' higher AUDIT scores pre- and post-immigration by gender (P immigrants of BPHSUP- status, controlling for age, education, and income. BPHSUP+ status predicted odds ratios of 3.45 and 2.91 for AUDIT alcohol dependence classification for men and women, respectively. This study documents that BPHSUP+/- status in their country of origin predict their young adult Latino offspring's severity of alcohol use problems pre- and post-immigration. These results may inform (1) community-based health care providers to screen recent young adult Latino immigrants for their BPHSUP+/- status and severity of alcohol use problems to redirect trajectories away from alcohol use disorders toward more normative post-immigration outcomes through culturally relevant prevention services and (2) future research advantages of differential susceptibility theory. Implications for future research and the need for replication

  2. Prevalence of Substance Use Among Patients of Community Health Centers in East Los Angeles and Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Andersen, Ronald M; Arroyo, Miriam; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Rico, Melvin W; Vahidi, Mani; Yacenda-Murphy, Julia; Arangua, Lisa; Serota, Martin

    2017-02-23

    Given the increased use of psychoactive substances on the United States-Mexico border, a binational study (Tijuana, Mexico-Los Angeles, USA) was conducted to identify the prevalence of substance use in primary care settings. To compare the prevalence and characteristics of patients at risk for substance use disorders in Tijuana and East Los Angeles (LA) community clinics with special attention paid to drug use. This was an observational, cross-sectional, analytical study, comparing substance use screening results from patients in Tijuana and LA. The settings were 2 community clinics in LA and 6 in Tijuana. Participants were 2,507 adult patients in LA and 2,890 in Tijuana eligible for WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) screening during March-October 2013. Patients anonymously self-administered the WHO ASSIST on a tablet PC in the clinic waiting rooms. Of eligible patients, 96.4% completed the ASSIST in Tijuana and 88.7% in LA (mean 1.34 minutes and 4.20 minutes, respectively). The prevalence of patients with moderate-to-high substance use was higher in LA than Tijuana for each substance: drugs 19.4% vs. 5.7%, alcohol 15.2% vs. 6.5%, tobacco 20.4% vs. 16.2%. LA patients born in Mexico had 2x the odds and LA patients born in the United States had 6x the odds of being a moderate-to-high drug user compared to Tijuana patients born in Mexico. Moderate-to-high drug use is higher in LA than in Tijuana but rates are sufficiently high in both to suggest that screening for drug use (along with alcohol and tobacco use) should be integrated into routine primary care of community clinics in both cities.

  3. Expression of behaviour and psychoactive drugs in the rat EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, Hester van

    2004-01-01

    Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to

  4. Prevalence of Self-Medication of Psychoactive Stimulants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication of psychoactive stimulants and antidepressants among pharmacy students of Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on self-medication of psychoactive stimulants and antidepressants among pharmacy students was conducted with a structured and validated ...

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addicted, there are some downsides to drinking: The punishment is severe. Teens who drink put themselves at ... treatment centers help a person gradually overcome the physical and psychological dependence on alcohol. previous continue What ...

  6. Substance use Among University Undergraduates: A Study of Pattern and Beliefs in Ile-Ife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoye, F O

    2007-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of substance use and to investigate the relationship between psychosocial variables and current use of psychoactive substances among university undergraduates. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected undergraduates of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife was carried out using the WHO drug use questionnaire. Alcohol, stimulants, hypnosedatives, tobacco and cannabis with current use prevalence rates of 20.2 %, 17.7%, 9.8%, 9.0% and 8.2 % respectively were the most commonly used substances. Inhalants/organic solvents, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens and pethidine/morphine with current use rates of 3.2%, 2.6%, 2.2%, 1.0% and 0.5% respectively belonged to the 'low - use' category. However, these rates were marginally higher than most previous findings. Five variables (sex, polygamy, living outside the university campus, poor mental health and study difficulty), were significantly associated with the use of many of the substances. Also, perceived harmfulness was observed to be a possible deterrent to substance use and most users were engaged in the use of cheap and easily available substances. The observations are largely similar to those from other locations in Nigeria and may therefore be useful in preventive programmes.

  7. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg), Papaveraceae (opium poppy), Cactaceae (peyote), Convolvulaceae (morning glory), Solanaceae (tobacco), Lamiaceae (mints), Apocynaceae (dogbane) have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence). However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants suggests

  8. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashedy, Nashmiah Aid; Molina, Jeanmaire

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg), Papaveraceae (opium poppy), Cactaceae (peyote), Convolvulaceae (morning glory), Solanaceae (tobacco), Lamiaceae (mints), Apocynaceae (dogbane) have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence). However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants suggests

  9. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives. The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg, Papaveraceae (opium poppy, Cactaceae (peyote, Convolvulaceae (morning glory, Solanaceae (tobacco, Lamiaceae (mints, Apocynaceae (dogbane have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence. However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants

  10. Screening for bipolar disorders in patients with alcohol or substance use disorders : Performance of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, Jan; van den Berg, Belinda; Draisma, Stasja; Nolen, Willem A.; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Screening properties of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to detect bipolar disorder (BD) in patients with substance use disorders are unknown. Methods: 403 treatment seeking patients with a substance use disorder completed the MDQ and subsequently 111 MDQ positives and 59 MDQ

  11. Prevalence of substance abuse among regular degree health science students in Sheba University College in Mekelle Town, Tigray - Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Esietu Gebregazabher; Asfeha, Gebrekidan Gebregzabher; Berihu, Birhane Alem

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse (SA) refers to the harmful o