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Sample records for psychoactive substance abuse

  1. Pattern and practice of psychoactive substance abuse and risky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education, shelter, food, hygiene, healthcare and a loving family has been violated.[1] Street children ... drugs to minors is a crime punishable by law in most countries, implementation of the law is ... psychoactive substance abuse and the related behaviours among street children in Cameroon. The information is critical to ...

  2. Suicidal thoughts related to psychoactive substance abuse among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licanin, Ifeta; Music, Emina; Laslo, Erdes; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Masic, Izet; Redzic, Amira; Vejzagic, Anesa; Krosnjar, Sanja

    2003-01-01

    The enquiry of suicide is of particular importance. According to WHO statistics suicide in people aged from 15 to 24 years has shown the greatest increase of relative mortality. In the group of suicidal adolescents, depression, behavioural disorders, abuse of different substances and personality deviations are frequent factors in presence. The aim of our investigation was to determine the correlation between psychoactive substance abuse and the occurrence of suicidal thoughts in adolescents. The specific "Q 2000" test was used to question 600 adolescents, from Tuzla and Sarajevo Cantons, with the same gender and age distribution and rural-urban ambient. The more prevailing suicidal idea occurrence was observed in cannabis abusers (50.0%) and alcohol abusers (36.6%) in comparison to non-abusers regardless gender and/or living ambient (settlement types) (19.5% and 17.6% per each, x2 = 17.184 p = 0.00001). The augmentation in number of suicidal ideas was not observed in tobacco smokers.

  3. Pattern and practice of psychoactive substance abuse and risky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted by the administration of questionnaires to 399 street children who had been homeless for at least a month in three cities of Cameroon during 2015. Results. All 399 participants reported that they were using some psychoactive substance at the time of the survey.

  4. Psychoactive substance use/abuse among students in Igbinedion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This confirmed the verbal and unofficial report of the abuse of such medicament. Other substances of abuse were cannabis 9 (2.8%), cigarette 7 (2.2%), heroine and cocaine (0.003%). In all instances of abuse, (except for heroine which was even) males predominated. The law enforcement agencies like the Nigeria Police ...

  5. [Psychoactive substance abuse, behavioral disorder and depression during adolescence.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, F; Rorive, M; Zoccolillo, M; Romano, E; Tremblay, R E

    2001-01-01

    This article examines coocurrence of three types of problems of adaptation during adolescence : abuse of psychotropic drugs, behavioral disorder (oppositional and behavioral disorders) and feelings of depression (depression and dysthymia). The study also examines behavioral, social as well as family characteristics which, during childhood, distinguish youths with many adaptation problems from those with only one or no problem. More than 1600 youths from all regions of Quebec participated in the study. These youths were around 15,7 years old when they completed an interview aiming at determining the possible presence of abusive use of psychotropic drugs, behavioral problems and feelings of depression. Their behavioral and sociofamilial characteristics had been previously evaluated (between the ages of 6 and 12) with questionnaires answered by parents and teachers. Results reveal that almost 10 % of youths experience two or three adaptation problems. These youths distinguish themselves from those with only one problem on various personal and sociofamilial dimensions in the course of childhood. Those with one problem represent a little more than 25 % of the sample. They also distinguish themselves from the group of youth with no problem on several variables. However, the group of youths with a problem of substance abuse only, is an exception. The discussion underlines the importance of knowing if there is simultaneous presence of several problems and proposes to intervene in a preventive fashion with youths who risk experiencing many problems.

  6. Medical complications of psychoactive substances with abuse risks: Detection and assessment by the network of French addictovigilance centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrière, Hélène; Eiden, Céline; Mallaret, Michel; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    The use of psychoactive substances, whether occasional or regular, can induce a large number of clinical and/or biological complications. These complications may be related to the effects of the active substance itself and/or adulterants, but also to the modalities for use (administrations route, contexts of use). The detection and evaluation of these potentially severe complications are a public health issue. Beyond the assessment of the potential for abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances, the collection and evaluation of complications related to the use of the substances are one of the roles of addictovigilance centres. In this article, the expertise of the French addictovigilance centres in the detection and assessment of medical complications related to psychoactive substances, adulterants or route of administration of substances is advanced through a few recent examples. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Drugs of Abuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances at Outdoor Music Festivals in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jacob; Smith, Alexis; Yale, Alexander; Chow, Christopher; Alaswad, Elsa; Cushing, Tracy; Monte, Andrew A

    2017-11-17

    Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 171 attendees during the Sonic Bloom and Arise music festivals in Colorado in 2015 and 2016. Discrete variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. The anonymous, multi-domain interview documented the knowledge, attitudes beliefs, and practices underlying DOA use, which were analyzed with qualitative methods. We enrolled 171 participants that endorsed DOA use at the festivals. Most were experienced DOA users, who perceived minimal risks associated with DOA and NPS use. Nearly all unanimously reported normalization of DOA at music festivals. Participants popularly cited empathogenic, entactogenic, and entheogenic effects of DOA as their primary motivations for use. NPS use was endorsed by 39.8% (n = 68) of respondents, all of whom identified as being experienced DOA users. This population of novel psychoactive substance users is primarily composed of experienced drug users that endorsed use because of low cost, minimal perceived risk, accessibility, and normalization of drug use at music festivals.

  8. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

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    Hei-Hwa Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. We developed and validated an LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid–liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC–MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday and 18.7% (interday. The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine.

  9. [Use and abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive substances among Polish university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellibruda, Jerzy; Nikodemska, Sabina; Fronczyk, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    The results of country-wide research on alcohol and psychoactive substances use among Polish students are presented. The survey was carried out in the year 2000 and included 9446 students from 8 major academic centres in Poland. Negative events linked with the use of alcohol and drugs were discovered - 40% of students (42% of men and 37% of women) during the last two weeks exceeded the limit of dangerous drinking. Large range of harmful consequences of binge drinking has been found - one in three men and one in four women committed acts under the influence of alcohol, which they regretted after. One in four men under influence of alcohol was involved in aggressive fights with peers and one in six has had serious trouble with studying and bad assessments. The scope of drug use was much smaller but also alarming. During the last 30 days 7% of the studied population reported use of marijuana and 1.5% amphetamine. Abuse of alcohol was correlated with use of drugs. This creates a serious risk of cross addiction and shows an important role of alcohol drinking as a gateway to drug use.

  10. Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated delinquents in Nigeria. ... substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse screening and treatment as part of their programmeme is advocated. Key Words: Substance use, delinquents, incarceration, ...

  11. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Lin, Shin-Yu; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2016-03-01

    A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid-liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday) and 18.7% (interday). The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Mental health of adolescents who abuse psychoactive substances in Enugu, Nigeria - A cross-sectional study

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    Igwe Wilson C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association between psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse among adolescent has been reported. However prevalence and pattern of such dysfunctions are unknown in our environment. Aims To determine the prevalence of psychosocial dysfunction and depressive symptoms among adolescents who abuse substance and also note the influence of socio-demographic factors and type of substance on the pattern of dysfuction. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 adolescents selected from 29 secondary schools in Enugu metropolis. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select the students. The student drug use questionnaire was used to screen respondents for substance abuse. Those who were abusing substance and matched controls (non substance abusers were assessed for psychiatric symptoms using the 35-item Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. Social classification was done using the parental educational attainment and occupation. Result A total of 290 students were current substance abusers. The substances most commonly abused were alcohol (31.6%, cola nitida (kola nut (20.7% and coffee (15.7%. Using the PSC scale, 70 (24.1% subjects compared to 29 (10.7% of the controls had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 28 for psychosocial dysfuction. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 17.57 p = 0.001. Fifty-four subjects (18.6% had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 50 for depressive symptoms using the Zung SDS compared to 21 (7.7% of controls. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.43, p = 0.001. Prevalence of dysfunction was not significantly related to age in both subjects and controls (χ2 = 4.62, p = 0.010, χ2 = 4.8, p = 0.10 respectively. Also using both scales, there was no significant relationship between psychosocial dysfunction and gender or social class in both subjects and control. The prevalence of dysfuction using both scales was significantly higher

  13. Family health and family physician’s influence on prevention of psychoactive substances abuse

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    Lapčević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for

  14. [Family health and family physician's influence on prevention psychoactive substances abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapčević, Mirjana; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for help to the chosen

  15. Non medical use and abuse of psychoactive substances among university students in health-related courses

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    Clesio Nepomuceno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the pattern of consumption of legal andillicit drugs among students of health-related courses and, if thereare users among the participants in the survey, and find out whetherthey wish to participate in prevention and treatment programs.Methods: Quantitative and descriptive study performed using aself-applicable questionnaire. The study population consisted ofstudents at a private university in the city of Sao Paulo whoanswered a questionnaire on research objectives. Anonymity wasassured, and all of them signed an informed consent form. Results:Five hundred and eighty-three students participated in the study,82% female and 18% male. Most students (75.45% were aged 20-35 years. The average family income ranged from 5 to 15 minimumwages. Among the legal substances, alcohol was most frequentlymentioned as used occasionally, frequently or daily (47.33%,followed by tobacco (36.02%. As to illicit drugs, Cannabis sativawas more often mentioned for experimental and occasional use(12.86% and 2.83% of students reported dependence. It wasfollowed by inhaled substances and cocaine. Crack, heroin in theform of medication (Dolantin, “mushroom tea” and othermedications were also mentioned as tried by the participants.Conclusion: These data were similar to those of other studiesperformed with university students and showed the need to createeducational programs in order to broaden the complexity of thecircle involving drug use and abuse.

  16. New psychoactive substances as part of polydrug abuse within opioid maintenance treatment revealed by comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometric urine drug screening.

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    Heikman, Pertti; Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    At present, polydrug abuse comprises, besides traditional illicit drugs, new psychoactive substances (NPS) and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines (N-PPM). Polydrug abuse was comprehensively evaluated among opioid-dependent patients undergoing opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). Two hundred consecutively collected urine samples from 82 OMT patients (52 male) treated with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone medication were studied using a liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening method. The method enables simultaneous detection of hundreds of abused substances covering the traditional drugs of abuse and many NPS as well as N-PPM. Ninety-two (45.8%) samples were positive for the abused substances. Benzodiazepines (29.0%), amphetamines (19.5%), cannabinoids (17.0%), NPS (13.0%), N-PPM (9.0%), and opioids (9.0%) were detected in different combinations. The simultaneous occurrence of up to three groups of abused substances was common (40.0%), and in one sample, all six groups were found. The stimulant NPS alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone was found in 10.0% and the sedative N-PPM pregabalin in 4.0% of the samples. The patients were seldom aware of what particular NPS they had abused. A widespread occurrence of abused substances beyond the ordinary was revealed. Identifying these patients is essential as polydrug abuse is a safety risk to the patient and may cause attrition from OMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Use and Abuse of Psychoactive substances by Students of A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It is pertinent to mention the observation of the absence of the use of Amphetamine, Cocaine, Opiodis and Hallucinogens in our study population. However, the need for immediate action to check this level of drug is highlighted and the need for health education in all schools is stressed. Key words: Drug abuse, ...

  18. Use of psychoactive substances among commercial motorcyclists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly identified psychoactive substance/drugs used were: marijuana [Indian hemp] 25.8%, solution 24.5%, caffeine (Kola) 15.8%, and coffee 4.8%. ... It is further recommended that law enforcement agencies (NAFDAC, NDLEA and FRSC) need to work in tandem so as to curb the problem of substance abuse in our ...

  19. Novel psychoactive substances of interest for psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Duccio Papanti, G; John M. Corkery

    2015-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in ...

  20. Use of psychoactive substances in students at a public university

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    Meire Luci da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of psychoactive substances by the student population has been the object of various studies in Brazil. Objective: To determine the prevalence of substance use among students. Methods: Quantitative study with a closed questionnaire based on standardized assessment instruments was developed. It consists of questions related to types of psychoactive substance use, abuse, frequency and duration of use, self-criticism regarding the use, consequences of use in relation to health, and misdemeanors committed under the influence of psychoactive substances. The sample included the participation of 268 students. A total of 183 (68.3% questionnaires were analyzed, and only those with positive result for substance abuse at some point in life, the remainder, 85 (31% questionnaires, had negative responses to psychoactive substances. Results: Students’ responses to the two years surveyed indicated that the first psychoactive substance used was alcohol (77.9%, followed by tobacco use (10.9%, and marijuana (7.6%. Of the students surveyed, 145 (79.2% answered that still make use of psychoactive substances, and the current frequency of use varies from one or more times per week. When asked about the possibility of being or becoming drug addicts, 169 (92.3% responded that they are not or will not become dependent. Conclusion: The results indicate the high rate of substance use among college students surveyed, and point to their contradiction to consider such psychoactive substances harmful to their health.

  1. [Structure and Family Type in Patients With Substance Abuse or Dependence Psychoactive Rehabilitation Center of Addiction in the Municipality of Chia Cundinamarca].

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    Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Parra Vera, Mario Danilo; Arévalo Zamora, Caterín; Cifuentes Gaitán, Luisa Karen; Valero Carvajal, Jaime; Sierra de Jaramillo, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    To determine the family type, family structure in a group of patients with a diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence who were at a rehabilitation center for addiction during the period between August and October 2009. Through a descriptive qualitative-interpretative methodology 10 patients who met inclusion criteria for substance dependence or abuse were studied. The fieldwork and transcripts were made for three months by non-participant observation, non-structured interviews and examination of patients' clinical history. Seven of the families interviewed were single-parent families with an unconventional organization on "gender roles". Single-parent families favored loneliness, difficulty in rule-setting, de-idealization of the place of the father in the family structure and a constant search for complicity. In the analysis by categories, we found that in 10 families in the study of individuals with addictions it is common to find family structure characteristics such as inadequate communication, lack of authority rules and limits, presence of triangulations, the lack of cohesion due to the existence of a disconnected relationship pattern and changed roles compared to conventional gender. The search for the affection of the mother at her emotional overload absence of roles and lack of father, raised by the separation of the couple, was found as an essential aspect underlying the addictive behavior. A pattern of parental abandonment is configured. The findings confirmed what has been mentioned by various authors regarding the characteristics of the family typology structure and personal factors in patients with addictions, in addition to their need for affection combined with the desire for the mother's presence. The family typology does not determine for itself the abuse of psychoactive substances, but the influence of other factors such as family structure, especially deficient affective interactions, which should be considered in the development of

  2. Determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substance among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis, Northwest Nigeria

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    M.O.Raji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance related disorder. Riding commercial motorcycle entails lot of risk, compounded by abuse of drugs, the scenario can only be worse. This study aimed to assess the determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substances among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis. Methods The study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in Sokoto metropolis, among Commercial motorcyclist, 253 respondents were recruited using multi stage sampling technique. Data was obtained using interviewer administered structured questionnaire containing 47‐item structured questions. Data was analysed using IBM statistical software package version 21, 5% was set as level of significance Result Majority of respondent believed that use of alcohol 214 (84.6, cannabis 147 (58.1 and codeine 171 (67.6 can lead to mental problems. Thirty percent of the respondents reported ever use of psychoactive substances. Most of the respondents (49.3% initiated use of Psychoactive substances between 16‐20 years of age. Respondents who had some formal education had less odds of ever using psychoactive substances (p=0.001, OR= 0.337. Respondents who had ever encouraged fellow commercial motorcyclist to use psychoactive substances had 22 times odds of ever having used psychoactive substances (p=0.000 Conclusion Substance abuse is prevalent among commercial motorcyclist. Despite good knowledge of psychoactive substances and the consequences associated with it, the use was still relatively high. The main predictor of ever use of psychoactive substances was willingness to be friends with someone who use psychoactive substance. There is need for continuous counselling and education of commercial motorcyclist, by road safety workers, on the dangers associated

  3. prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Conclusion: Road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists are a frequent occurrence in this part of the country. There is need for public awareness campaigns on road safety education and health consequences of psychoactive substance use among commercial motorcyclists. It is further recommended that law ...

  4. Is dried paw-paw leaf a psychoactive substance | Olley | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While many studies have looked at the prevalence and pattern as well as effects of drug abuse and dependence among Nigerians, the use of dried paw-paw leaf as a psychoactive substance has not been investigated. This study examines the attitude and perception towards dried paw-paw leaf as a psychoactive ...

  5. New psychoactive substances: catalysing a shift in forensic science practice?

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    Tettey, Justice; Crean, Conor

    2015-08-05

    The analysis of substances of abuse remains one of the most matured areas in forensic science with a strong scientific basis, namely analytical chemistry. The current evolving drug markets, characterized by the global emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the need for forensic scientists to identify an unprecedented and ever-increasing number of NPS, presents a unique challenge to this discipline. This article looks at the current situation with NPS at the global level, and the challenges posed to the otherwise technically robust forensic science discipline of analysis of substances of abuse. It discusses the preparedness of forensic science to deal with the current situation and identifies the need for a shift in forensic science practice, especially one which embraces research and looks beyond normal casework in order to provide the much needed data for developing effective policy responses to the NPS problem. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress.

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    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2012-01-18

    The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use.

  7. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  8. Challenges Posed by Novel Psychoactive Substances – Middle East Perspective

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    Maciej J. Bogusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are defined as substances of abuse, either in a pure form or a preparation, that are not controlled by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a public health threat. In this context, the term “new” does not necessarily refer to new inventions but to substances that have recently become available or popular in a given society or country. This definition indicates that the problem of NPS is not new; however, the availability of any information via new communication technologies in the 21st century has enabled the spread of unwanted and socially harmful information, like information on the commercial availability of various NPS, offered in rising amounts and brands.

  9. New psychoactive substances of natural origin: A brief review

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    Ling-Yi Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS, which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of five common NPS of natural origin, i.e., khat, kratom, salvia, magic mushroom and mandrake. Through the review, we hope that professionals and general public alike can pay more attention to the potential problems caused by natural NPS, and suitable control measures will be taken.

  10. New psychoactive substances of natural origin: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ling-Yi; Battulga, Altansuvd; Han, Eunyoung; Chung, Heesun; Li, Jih-Heng

    2017-07-01

    Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of five common NPS of natural origin, i.e., khat, kratom, salvia, magic mushroom and mandrake. Through the review, we hope that professionals and general public alike can pay more attention to the potential problems caused by natural NPS, and suitable control measures will be taken. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. [The use of psychoactive substances among street teenagers in Ouagadougou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garanet, Franck; Bogono, Etienne; Ouédraogo, Ousmane; Mésenge, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the determinants of psychoactive substance use among street teenagers living in Ouagadougou.Methods: Qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study with street teenagers living on the Zogona campus in Ouagadougou, in September 2012. A focus group was then formed with eight members of the group.Results: The median age was 16 years (range: 12 to 20 years). The various psychotropic agents were tobacco, alcohol, gasoline, glue sniffing and cannabis. Seventeen of the 31 teenagers had already been admitted to a rehabilitation centre and none of them attended school at the time of data collection. However, 12 street teenagers had previously attended school. The main reasons for the presence of these teenagers in the street were “poverty in the family”, “death of the parents”, “Koranic school”. The main reasons reported by the teenagers for substance use were “to give oneself courage”, “to relieve hunger”, “to be like the others”, “to be accepted by the group”, “to protect oneself from the cold”. The main determinants of substance abuse were social exclusion, group membership, and group identification.Conclusion: Psychoactive substance use is an integral part of the life of street teenagers and is a major obstacle to social integration.

  12. Prevalence and Behaviour Effects of Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychoactive substances can alter consciousness, mood and behaviour of an individual user. Objectives: To determine the pattern of psychoactive substance use and its mental and behavioural effects on university students in Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 422 ...

  13. Psychoactive substance and road traffic accident among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family support influence behaviour such as alcohol use and other psychoactive substances. However, few studies have reported on the relationship between family support and road traffic accidents. The present study was to examine whether perceived family support influence the prevalence of psychoactive substances ...

  14. Proficiency testing for psychoactive substances in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, S D; Brusini, G; Maietti, S; Frison, G; Castagna, F; Allevi, S; Menegus, A M; Tedeschi, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the general design and main results of the Italian proficiency testing program for the analysis of psychoactive substances in urine, a long-term initiative created in 1995 on an educational basis and characterized by an innovative internet-based service for data exchange between laboratories and the organizing body. Batches of six urine samples, validated by reference laboratories, are sent every 3 months to participating laboratories, which may choose which classes of substances to test from those planned by the program panel and, within those classes, which type of analytical commitment to work on: identification of just one class (Option 1), identification of single substances (Option 2), or identification and quantification of single substances (Option 3). Comprehensive periodical reports and annual reports are provided to participants with evaluation of their performance and an annual workshop is organized to discuss technical-scientific topics related to clinical, forensic and analytical toxicology. About 200 laboratories currently participate in the program and a total of 67,059 analyses have been carried out since 1995. The mean percentage of correct results was 96.8%, with a yearly improvement of about 0.4%. The best average false positive and false negative rates were obtained for methadone (0.2% and 2.1% respectively) and cocaine (0.3% and 2.2%). The worst average false positive rates were obtained for amphetamines and opiates (3.2% and 5.0%) and worst average false negative rates for amphetamines, barbiturates and cannabinoids (17.4%, 30.7% and 19.9%).

  15. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, R S

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  16. Correlates of psychoactive substance use among Nigerian adolescents

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    Oluyemi O Akanni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The abuse of psychoactive substances which is one of the most important global public health problems begins in adolescence. Adolescents usually start by abusing the gateway substances. They suffer social, economic, physical, and legal consequences on account of use of substances, and this is very worrisome because of the increasing prevalence of use. Aims: The aim was to identify the characteristics of adolescents that use gateway substances. This knowledge shall be utilized in preventive programs. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study with secondary school adolescents as participants. Subjects and Methods: Multistage sampling technique was used to select 492 respondents and the questionnaire consisted of characteristics of the adolescents, their families and schools and the alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and stimulant use sections of the World Health Organisation questionnaire for student drug use surveys. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, and Chi-square statistics was used. Results: Having a friend who uses substance was significantly associated with tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine use while being a male, having a family member that uses substance were significantly associated with tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine use. Older age, lack of satisfaction with the relationship with the teacher and polygamous family background were significantly associated with tobacco use. And finally, lack of satisfaction with the relationship with parents/guardians and having parents or guardians who are not religious were significantly associated with alcohol use. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach is needed to prevent the use of substances; this should target individuals, schools, families, and religious institutions.

  17. Does a history of psychoactive substances abuse play a role in the level of pain of the patient with severe trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, C; Arranz-Esteban, A; Martinez-Ureta, M V; Sánchez-Rascón, M C; Morales-Sánchez, C; Chico-Fernández, M

    2017-12-20

    To analyse the influence of psychotropic substance use on the level of pain in patients with severe trauma. Longitudinal analytical study. Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Trauma and Emergencies. severe trauma, non-communicative and mechanical ventilation >48hours. Two groups of patients were created: users and non-users of psychotropic substances according to medical records. Measurement of pain level at baseline and during mobilization, using the Pain Indicator Behaviour Scale. demographic characteristics, pain score, sedation level and type and dose of analgesia and sedation. Sample of 84 patients, 42 in each group. The pain level in both groups, during mobilisation, showed significant differences p=0.011, with a mean of 3.11(2.40) for the user group and 1.83(2.14) for the non-user group. A relative risk of 2.5 CI (1,014-6,163) was found to have moderate / severe pain in the user group compared to the non-user group. The mean dose of analgesia and continuous sedation was significantly higher in the user group: P=.032 and P=.004 respectively. There was no difference in bolus dose of analgesia and sedation with P=.624 and P=.690 respectively. Patients with a history of consumption of psychoactive substances show higher levels of pain and experience a higher risk of this being moderate/severe compared to non-users despite receiving higher doses of analgesia and sedation infusion. Key words: pain, multiple trauma, drug users. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Catastrophes et consommation des substances psychoactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapić Žilijeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Les catastrophes, les accidents, les stress, les traumatismes sont des expériences négatives de vie accompagnées de changements physiologiques, cognitifs, émotionnels et comportementaux. Les stratégies les plus courantes inefficaces à résoudre les expériences de vie négatives sont: l' agression - ouverte (physique et / ou verbale, passive et latente, le retrait social, le placage, la dépression, l'impuissance, l' isolement et l' abus de médicaments, en particulier de drogues. Les personnes se trouvant dans des situations stressantes essayent de s' aider elles-mêmes souvent en recourant à des substances qui procurent une amélioration de leur état et suppriment le malaise momentané. Cette 'thérapie par auto-thérapie' comporte de graves risques La personne qui, après une période de consommation de ces substances devenaient dépendante, manifeste des changements visibles au niveau physique et psychologique. Elle se dérobe à ses obligations, rompt avec les activités auxquelles elle prenait plaisir autrefois de même qu' avec ses loisirs et ses intérêts; elle change des amis, ses relations familiales et amicales deviennent pauvres et remplies de nombreux conflits; elle devient moins critique et plus manipulative, commence à mentir, trompe pour dissimuler sa toxicomanie, rejoint un groupe de ses semblables, se livre à des activités criminogènes, de plus en plus se dégrade physiquement. L' alcool qui, étant le plus accessible et par conséquent généralement 'la première mesure d' auto-thérapie', a un impact particulièrement dévastateur sur l' organisme sensible au point de vue psycho-physique. Nous assistons à de nombreuses difficultés et des problèmes qui, à la suite de la consommation d' alcool, aggravent ceux liés à des expériences des événements traumatisants. De même l' efficacité de certains comprimés de réduire les tensions ou d' améliorer l' état du patient conduit fréquemment

  19. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  20. Substance Abuse Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  1. Violent substance abusers in domestic violence treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T G; Werk, A; Caplan, T; Seraganian, P

    1999-01-01

    Although substance abuse is frequently encountered in men receiving services in violence treatment settings, systematic study of these 'dual-problem' men has lagged. This study had two main objectives: (1) the characterization of psychoactive substance abuse disorders in a naturalistic sample of men in domestic violence treatment; and (2) clarification of the role of substance abuse on the sociodemographic, personality, psychosocial, and abuse characteristics of dual-problem men. Fifty-three adult men who were attending domestic violence treatment were recruited. They were administered the Addiction Severity Index, the Conflicts Tactics Scale, Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview, the 16PF and the Symptoms Checklist-90. Partners, when available, were asked to provide corroboration. Sixty-three percent of the men had a current diagnosis of psychoactive substance abuse or dependence, while 92.5% had a lifetime diagnosis. Of the former, the majority was diagnosed as multiply dependent on alcohol and other drugs. As the severity of the substance abuse increased, so too did the dangerousness and frequency of abusive behaviors. Moreover, dual-problem men reported more hostility, apprehension, frustration and suspiciousness and past arrests than did their violence-only cohorts as well as a history of multiple (unsuccessful) treatments for substance abuse. These findings suggest that the trend toward multiple drug complaints seen in other clinical milieus is also being confronted in conjugal violence settings. In addition to the greater therapeutic challenge such dual-problem men present, these findings speak to the need to investigate integrated treatment approaches to improve the outlook of men grappling with both conjugal violence and multiple substance abuse problems.

  2. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1–91.0%); amphetamines (0.2–82.5%), marijuana (0.2–29.9%), cocaine (0.1–8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions. PMID:24145953

  3. Parental Guidance about Drinking: Relationship with Teenage Psychoactive Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick; Plant, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Parental guidance concerning alcohol was explored using data from a 2007 survey of 2179 UK school students aged 15 and 16 years. Cluster analysis based on questions about parental advice was used to establish seven student groups. Associations between groups, other family background and psychoactive substance use variables were explored. Substance…

  4. Prevalence of Psychoactive Substances in Dutch and Belgian Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Mathijssen, Rene; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Verstraete, Alain G.; Brookhuis, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of psychoactive substances in general traffic in The Netherlands and Belgium. Method: Randomly selected car drivers and drivers of small vans in six police regions in The Netherlands and five police regions in Belgium were included

  5. Psychoactive substance intake and gender on crime | okediji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of psychoactive substance (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) intake and gender on crime. Three hundred and eighty participants (380) were randomly selected from inmates as models of prisons in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The participants comprised 314 males (82.63%) and 66 females ...

  6. A Comparative study of use of psychoactive substances amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, parents\\' marital status (p=0.05) was statistically significant in the use of Indian hemp, while family type (P=0.00), upbringing (P=0.03)was significant in cocaine. The findings of this study confirm the presence and use of psychoactive substances in varying proportions among students. Therefore, there is need to ...

  7. Psychoactive substance intake and gender on crime | Okediji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of psychoactive substance (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) intake and gender on crime. Three hundred and eighty participants (380) were randomly selected from inmates as models of prisons in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The participants comprised 314 males (82.63%) and 66 females ...

  8. Gateway Psychoactive Substances and Adolescent Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of gateway substances by adolescents usually precedes use of hard substances. Aims: Determine prevalence of use of gateway substances, age at first use and associated factors. Methods: Instruments consisting of sociodemographic variables and alcohol , tobacco, cannabis, stimulant use sections of ...

  9. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  10. Epidemiological aspects of illicit psychoactive substance dependents the interned in psychiatric institution of Criciúma-SC

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    Zunei Votri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is about a descriptive study of quantitative boarding, developed in October of 2008 in the Psychiatric Hospital of the city of Criciúma-SC, with the objective to identify to the aspects epidemiologists of the illicit psychoactive substance dependents. The specific objectives of the study had been: to identify illicit psychoactive substance dependents interned through handbooks of the institution; to inquire the number of psychiatric readmissions in the studied population; to identify the types of more common illicit psychoactive substances, To identify to aspects epidemiologists of the psychoactive substance dependents from dependent 0 variable: sex, age, age group, level of instruction, race, civil state, number of children, religion, profession and origin; e changeable independent: type of used substance, time of use, number of internments and clinical patology associates. The interest for the research subject appeared from the comment in field of work for presenting great number of patients interned for abuse or dependence of psychoactive substances and its social repercussion. 193 handbooks had been inquired, being that 13 had been identified with illicit psychoactive substance diagnosis in the period of the collection of data, having the prevalence in the masculine sex (9, of the white race (11, the majority single (7, with a young age group, on average 35 years. The majority interned involuntarily (8 and the number of readmissions was equivalent 50% of patients and others 50% having its first internment. How much to the types of used illicit psychoactive substances more, the most cited they had been marijuana (20%, crack (17% and cocaine (17%. The half of the sample almost possess clinical illnesses associates, as cardiopathy, diabetes, hepatitis C, arterial hypertension and HIV (Virus of the Immunodeficiency Human being. From these results one sees it importance of clarification and organization of preventive programs in

  11. Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    Driving with alcohol and other psychoactive substances imposes an increased risk of severe injury accidents. In a population-based case-control design, the relative risks of severe driver injury (MAIS ≥ 2) by driving with ten substance groups were approximated by odds ratios (alcohol, amphetamines...... (N = 2490) were collected from severely injured drivers of passenger cars or vans in selected hospitals in various regions of the countries. Control samples (N = 15,832) were sampled in a uniform sampling scheme stratified according to country, time, road type and season. Relative risks were...... driver injury with increasing age. It is concluded that among psychoactive substances alcohol still poses the largest problem in terms of driver risk of getting injured. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Novel Psychoactive Substances in Young Adults with and without Psychiatric Comorbidities

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    Giovanni Martinotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Comorbidities between psychiatric diseases and consumption of traditional substances of abuse (alcohol, cannabis, opioids, and cocaine are common. Nevertheless, there is no data regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS in the psychiatric population. The purpose of this multicentre survey is to investigate the consumption of a wide variety of psychoactive substances in a young psychiatric sample and in a paired sample of healthy subjects. Methods. A questionnaire has been administered, in different Italian cities, to 206 psychiatric patients aged 18 to 26 years and to a sample of 2615 healthy subjects matched for sex, gender, and living status. Results. Alcohol consumption was more frequent in the healthy young population compared to age-matched subjects suffering from mental illness (79.5% versus 70.7%; P<0.003. Conversely, cocaine and NPS use was significantly more common in the psychiatric population (cocaine 8.7% versus 4.6%; P=0.002 (NPS 9.8% versus 3%; P<0.001. Conclusions. The use of novel psychoactive substances in a young psychiatric population appears to be a frequent phenomenon, probably still underestimated. Therefore, careful and constant monitoring and accurate evaluations of possible clinical effects related to their use are necessary.

  13. Psychoactive Substance Use among Medical/Health Faculty Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to explore the drug use practices of undergraduate students within the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Method: This study was a multicentre study carried out in Jamaica and six Latin American countries. The study utilized a cross-sectional design using a survey method of data collection. A list of compulsory classes for first- and second-year undergraduate students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences was retrieved by researchers and then cluster sampling was used to choose lectures to carry out data collection. The instrument utilized for the study was a self-report questionnaire which consisted of 58 questions which enquired about sociodemographic information, psychoactive substance use and associated consequences. Results: A total of 380 students (78 males, 302 females participated in the study; 115 (30.3% reported a past year prevalence of psychoactive substance use. Roughly half (50.8% reported that they first used substances when they were 15−19 years old. Students also reported a past month prevalence of alcohol use (16.6%, prescription drugs without a prescription (4.5%, tobacco (2.4% and cannabis (2.1% use. Conclusion: These preliminary results on substance use patterns among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences indicate urgent need for further research among this population. Such research should be used to inform prevention and treatment programmes that will directly target this student population.

  14. Substance abuse in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Psychoactive Drug Abuse in Adolescent Addicts of a Colombian Rehabilitation Foundation. Descriptive Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo; Rubio, Luz Adriana

    2012-09-01

    To describe the use of psychoactive substances (PAS) in addict population between 14 and 18 years of a foundation devoted to rehabilitation in the Department of Quindío, Colombia. Quantitative-descriptive research. The VESPA (Epidemiological surveillance for psychoactive substance abuse) Forms of the people admitted to the institution between 2006 and 2009. During the study, 333 adolescents between 14 and 18 were attended. 75.4% were men, only 31.2% had primary education, 56% reported being unemployed, and 34.5% stated they were admitted at the foundation after legal indication. Upon admission, the PAS was: 44.2%, tobacco; 25.8%, marijuana; 18.0%, alcohol and 5.7% cocaine. The average starting age for men was 12.33, while for women was 11.96; reported substances showed the following starting averages: alcohol, 12.26 ys old; tobacco, 12.49 ys old; marijuana, 13.39 ys old; inhalants, 13.98 ys old; cocaine, 14.01 ys old; crack, 14.27 ys old; and heroin, 15 ys old. The average admission age to the institution was 15.7 ys old. Figures found highlight the need for greater and better prevention programs regarding PAS abuse in adolescents and children. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  17. Experimentation with psychoactive substances by public school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliane de Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of exposure to psychoactive substances in public students of basic education and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from March to September 2015, involving 1,009 students of the basic and high school education in 20 public schools in the municipality of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The data have been compiled using questionnaires previously applied in national studies of the Brazilian Center for Psychotropic Drugs. The variables have been dichotomized for later logistic regression using the Chi-square test to analyze associations between experimentation with psychoactive substances and other sociodemographic variables; odds ratio and confidence intervals have also been calculated. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS We have identified that 69.6% of the students have experimented alcohol and 12.4% cigarettes. Age (≥ 15 years has shown a significant association with experimentation with alcohol (p < 0.001 and cigarettes (p = 0.02, acting as risk factor in both cases (OR = 2.34 and 1, 78, respectively, but it acted as a protective factor for the use of inhalants (p = 0.03 and OR = 0.58 and weight loss medication (p = 0.006 and OR = 0.44. Religious practice had a significant association with experimentation with alcohol (p = 0.01, functioning as a protective factor (OR = 0.56. CONCLUSIONS We have concluded that the psychoactive substance most experienced by students was alcohol, followed by cigarettes, and chance for experimentation increases after the age of 15. Religious practice, in turn, acts as a protective factor for experimentation with alcohol.

  18. New psychoactive substances legislation in Ireland - Perspectives from academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of 'legal highs' or 'new psychoactive substances' (NPS) on the Irish market is reflective of their appearance in many countries, with some notable exceptions. The official response to the situation is examined here by looking at Irish controlled drugs legislation and drug enforcement policies as enacted in recent years and their effects on academic research on NPS. The philosophy and practice of outright bans of scheduled substances has not been effective in delivering the stated aims of illicit drug control, namely harm reduction. With these legislative changes, we have witnessed the removal of the 'legitimate' sale and open marketing of a number of NPS to the general public in commercial retail premises. However, as legislation was enacted, suppliers and vendors rapidly changed the contents of their legal high products from now controlled to non-controlled substances. We have found that it is administratively challenging to perform scientific research on controlled substances at academic institutions. It is desirable to gather analytical, pharmacological, and toxicological data on these substances as they emerge on the market but due to the restrictive nature of licensing requirements, once a substance or generic class of substances is controlled, this becomes more difficult. The facts that any quantity of substance, no matter how small, is controlled, the nomenclature used to describe compounds is not consistent within the enacted legislation and the use of catch-all classes of compounds with the intention of controlling many similar molecular structures, all create problematic issues for academic researchers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Childhood sexual abuse and women's substance abuse: national survey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsnack, S C; Vogeltanz, N D; Klassen, A D; Harris, T R

    1997-05-01

    Clinical studies have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in women seeking treatment for alcohol or drug abuse, and elevated rates of alcohol and drug disorders among female psychiatric patients with histories of CSA. The present study examines the relationship of CSA to women's use of alcohol and other drugs in a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. women. As part of a national survey of women's drinking, 1,099 women were asked about sexual experiences occurring before age 18. Women who reported sexual experiences classified as abusive were compared to women without histories of CSA on nine measures of substance use, self-perception of anxiousness, the occurrence of one or more lifetime depressive episodes, five measures of sexual dysfunction, and early onset of masturbation and consensual sexual intercourse. Results of logit analyses, controlling for age, ethnicity and parental education, indicated that women with histories of CSA were significantly more likely than women without CSA histories to report recent alcohol use, intoxication, drinking-related problems and alcohol dependence symptoms; lifetime use of prescribed psychoactive drugs and illicit drugs; depression and anxiety; pain that prevented intercourse; and consensual sexual intercourse before age 15. Findings from this U.S. national sample support those of previous clinical studies and suggest that women's experience of sexual abuse in childhood may be an important risk factor for later substance abuse, psychopathology and sexual dysfunction. Implications of these findings for future research, treatment and prevention are discussed.

  20. Psychoactive Substance Use Among Long Distance Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15.9%). Except for cigrattes, the other substances were used mainly for instrumental purposes. Only about 50% of the respondents had ever attended a health talk on drug abuse. High level of religiousity was less likely to be associated with ...

  1. Capgras Syndrome associated with the use of psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Ezequiel N

    2011-04-01

    Capgras syndrome has originally been described as psychiatric syndrome. However, in the last few years reports of patients with this syndrome has significantly increased in patients with neurological, metabolic, and infectious diseases and those who consume alcohol. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the neurobiology of this very unusual symptom, such as changes in the dopamine circuit and specific dysfunctions in facial processing. In this work we present a new case of Capgras syndrome, associated with an acute cocaine overdose, which was transient and reversible. The neurobiological bases of this syndrome are analysed, along with their relationship with the changes induced by cocaine use. Thus, Capgras syndrome could be the expression of functional changes at frontal-temporal level, and the paralimbic region secondary to the consumption of psychoactive substances such as cocaine. Copyright © 2010 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging psychoactive substance use among regular ecstasy users in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Raimondo; Matthews, Allison J; Dunn, Matthew; Alati, Rosa; McIlwraith, Fairlie; Hickey, Sophie; Burns, Lucy; Sindicich, Natasha

    2012-07-01

    The past decade has seen the development of an array of emerging psychoactive substances (EPS), however, there is minimal information on the extent of their use outside Europe. This study aimed to determine the extent of use of EPS from stimulant (such as mephedrone) and psychedelic classes (such as 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine [5-MeO-DMT]) among an Australian sample of regular ecstasy users (REU). Further, to determine if consumers of these drugs represent a distinct subgroup of REU. Australian national cross-sectional surveys of 693 regular (at least monthly) ecstasy users conducted during 2010. More than one quarter (28%) of REU had used an EPS in the past six months, most commonly from the stimulant class (20%, typically mephedrone, 17%) rather than the psychedelic class (13%). Demographics and risk behaviours of REU that used stimulant EPS were largely no different from non-EPS consuming REU. Those using psychedelic EPS were distinct, initiating ecstasy use earlier, more frequently using multiple substances (cannabis, inhalants, GHB, ketamine) and more commonly experiencing legal, psychological and social problems. Psychedelic EPS use appears largely restricted to a distinct subset of REU with high-level non-injecting polydrug use, but use appears generally limited. The demographic similarity of stimulant EPS consumers with 'mainstream' REU, in conjunction with positive responses to the psychoactive effects of these drugs and declining ecstasy purity, suggests strong potential for stimulant EPS to expand further into ecstasy markets. Such drugs may have a greater public health impact than ecstasy, and merit careful monitoring into the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Substance abuse disorders in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J

    1999-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious concern in the profession of nursing. The American Nurses Association (1997) estimates that 10% to 20% of nurses have substance abuse problems, and that 6% to 8% of registered nurses are impaired due to their abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Chemical dependency is considered a disease that requires treatment. Early identification and treatment of the chemically dependent nurse is important for the safety of the public and for the well-being of the nurse and her profession. This article addresses substance abuse from a biopsychosocial perspective, and includes a description of an approach to treatment and suggestions for the role of nursing administration.

  4. Readiness to Use Psychoactive Substances Among Second-Generation Adolescent Immigrants and Perceptions of Parental Immigration-Related Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviad-Wilchek, Yael; Levy, Inna; Ben-David, Sarah

    2017-10-15

    This research explores the relationship between parental immigration-related trauma and second-generation adolescent substance abuse. To examine this relationship, we focused on Ethiopian adolescents in Israel who are at risk for substance abuse. Many immigrants from Ethiopia experienced severe immigration trauma and research indicates the existence of transgenerational trauma transmission. The current research focuses on the connection between Ethiopian adolescents' perceptions of their parents' immigration trauma and their readiness to use psychoactive substances. Five hundred and ten second-generation Ethiopian adolescents (Israeli-born children of Ethiopian immigrants) filled out questionnaires examining socio-demographic characteristics, immigration impact and readiness to consume alcoholic beverages and use illegal drugs. Our findings show that readiness levels among Ethiopian adolescents to use psychoactive substances are relatively low, and that parental trauma only affects the readiness to consume alcohol. The levels of readiness to consume drugs were partially related to parental trauma. Conclusions/Importance: Transgenerational trauma transmission should be considered when implementing alcohol and substance abuse treatment and prevention policies among second generation immigrants. This should be done on all levels including personal, interpersonal and community levels.

  5. No349 - Consommation de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordean, Alice; Wong, Suzanne; Graves, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Accroître la sensibilisation à la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse et les connaissances à ce sujet, et formuler des recommandations factuelles relatives à la prise en charge de cet épineux problème clinique à l'intention de l'ensemble des fournisseurs de soins. La présente directive clinique analyse l'utilisation d'outils de dépistage, l'approche générale de soins et les recommandations pour la prise en charge clinique de la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse. Recommandations factuelles pour le dépistage et la prise en charge de la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse et l'allaitement. La littérature à jour a été obtenue au moyen de recherches dans Medline, PubMed et la Bibliothèque Cochrane visant les articles publiés entre 1996 et 2016, avec les mots clés suivants : « pregnancy », « electronic cigarettes », « tobacco use cessation products », « buprenorphine » et « methadone ». Les résultats ont d'abord été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux ECR et aux essais cliniques contrôlés. Ensuite, en raison de la rareté des ECR sur le sujet, des recherches d'études observationnelles ont également été menées. Les articles sélectionnés ont été limités aux études chez l'humain publiées en anglais, puis d'autres articles ont été trouvés manuellement, par l'analyse des listes de références. La qualité des données a été évaluée au moyen des critères énoncés dans le rapport du Groupe d'étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Les recommandations visant la pratique ont été classées conformément à la méthode décrite dans ce rapport. AVANTAGES, DéSAVANTAGES ET COûTS: La présente directive clinique a pour but d'améliorer les connaissances et le degré d'aisance des fournisseurs qui dispensent des soins aux femmes enceintes ayant un trouble de l'usage d'une substance

  6. Stroke And Substance Abuse

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    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  7. Familial Risk Analysis of the Association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Psychoactive Substance Use Disorder in Female Adolescents: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Clarke, Allison; Ten Haagen, Kristina; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A robust and bi-directional comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD, alcohol or drug abuse, or dependence) has been consistently reported in the literature. However, this literature has been based almost exclusively on male only samples and, therefore, the…

  8. Systematic analytical characterization of new psychoactive substances: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Vicente, Joana; Chassaigne, Hubert; Holland, Margaret V; Reniero, Fabiano; Kolář, Kamil; Tirendi, Salvatore; Vandecasteele, Ine; Vinckier, Inge; Guillou, Claude

    2016-08-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthesized compounds that are not usually covered by European and/or international laws. With a slight alteration in the chemical structure of existing illegal substances registered in the European Union (EU), these NPS circumvent existing controls and are thus referred to as "legal highs". They are becoming increasingly available and can easily be purchased through both the internet and other means (smart shops). Thus, it is essential that the identification of NPS keeps up with this rapidly evolving market. In this case study, the Belgian Customs authorities apprehended a parcel, originating from China, containing two samples, declared as being "white pigments". For routine identification, the Belgian Customs Laboratory first analysed both samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The information obtained by these techniques is essential and can give an indication of the chemical structure of an unknown substance but not the complete identification of its structure. To bridge this gap, scientific and technical support is ensured by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to the European Commission Directorate General for Taxation and Customs Unions (DG TAXUD) and the Customs Laboratory European Network (CLEN) through an Administrative Arrangement for fast recognition of NPS and identification of unknown chemicals. The samples were sent to the JRC for a complete characterization using advanced techniques and chemoinformatic tools. The aim of this study was also to encourage the development of a science-based policy driven approach on NPS. These samples were fully characterized and identified as 5F-AMB and PX-3 using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution tandem mass-spectrometry (HR-MS/MS) and Raman spectroscopy. A chemoinformatic platform was used to manage, unify analytical data from multiple techniques and instruments, and combine it with chemical and

  9. Oral lesions of 500 habitual psychoactive substance users in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Rao, Anita; Raman, Uma; Rajasekaran, Saraswathi T; Joshua, Elizabeth; R, Hemalatha; Kannan, Ranganathan

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of oral lesions among 500 psychoactive substance users in a hospital-based population. The study group consisted of 500 consecutive patients attending TTK Hospital, a non-governmental organisation involved in rehabilitation of substance users. Patient history was recorded in a pre-determined format and clinical findings were recorded by a trained physician and dental surgeons. Psychoactive substances used by the patients were alcohol (97%), tobacco (72%), arecanut (57.2%), narcotics (6.8%), cannabis (3.2%) and benzodiazipines (1.8%). Ninety-one percent of patients had one or more oral lesions: dental caries (39%), gingivitis (37.6%), extrinsic stains (24%), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) (8%), periodontitis (7.4%), leukoplakia (6.6%), melanosis (5.2%), nicotina palatini (2.2%) and erythroplakia (0.6%). For OSF, those using arecanut and alcohol had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.23-4.69, P=0.009], smokers using arecanut products and alcohol had an OR of 3.07 (95% CI 1.59-5.91, P=0.000), and smokers who chewed arecanut products and used drugs had an OR of 23.1 (95% CI 2.05-260, P=0.001) compared with the general population. Those who smoked and used alcohol, arecanut and drugs had a 20.67-fold higher risk of developing leukoplakia compared with those who did not engage in these habits. In conclusion, 91% of patients had one or more oral lesions that needed dental treatment, and most patients were not aware of their oral lesions. The high prevalence of OSF and leukoplakia in substance abusers compared with the general population emphasises the need for regular dental assessments in these patients.

  10. [Prevalence and predictors of psychoactive substance use among men in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Sánchez, Francisco; Falcón Romero, María; Luna, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    The use of psychoactive substances among the prison population is an important public health issue because of its magnitude and health consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among the prison population and to analyse its association with sociodemographic and penitentiary factors, particularly the size of the prison. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire among 2,484 random male inmates in eight prisons of different sizes in Spain. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) during the last 6 months in prison were estimated. Prevalence ratios were used to estimate the association between psychoactive substance use and sociodemographic and penitentiary characteristics. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use in the past 6 months in prison was 59.9% (95% CI: 57.9-62.0). Notable among the sociodemographic variables associated with substance use were drug consumption prior to imprisonment (6.90; 95% CI: 5.51-8.65) and recidivism in prison (2.41; 95% CI: 2.04-2.85). The largest prisons showed a higher frequency of drug use than other prisons. A high prevalence of psychoactive substance use was found in prisons and significant differences were found according to delinquent profile and the size of the prison. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of life of users of psychoactive substances, relatives, and non-users assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF

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    Taís de Campos Moreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is related to one of the basic human desires, which is to live well and feel good. The scope of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of psychoactive substance users and relatives, compared to non-users, analyzed by socioeconomic strata. A cross-sectional study with users of psychoactive substances, relatives, and other individuals who called the Information and Orientation Service regarding drug abuse. Data collection took place between November 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected from users, relatives, and non-users, including socioeconomic characteristics and data regarding substance consumption when appropriate. In addition to this the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was given to 347 individuals. Among the 138 users (70% used alcohol, 76 (39%, marijuana, 111 (57% tobacco, 78 (40% cocaine and 70 (36% crack. Control subjects had higher, scores than the relatives of users and users in all areas of the questionnaire (p < 0.05. Psychoactive substance users scored lower in almost all domains and overall score in the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire in comparison with the sample of non-drug users. These findings reflect poor quality of life of patients and their relatives.

  12. Parachuting: a dangerous trend in recreational psychoactive substance delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, David; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Guerlais, Marylène; Le Roux, Gael; Spiers, Andrew; Gerardin, Marie; Lomenech, Hélène; Bretaudeau-Deguigne, Marie; Daveluy, Amélie; Turcant, Alain; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Medicine diversion for recreational use is a constant concern for health authorities. Parachuting, also refered to as bombing, is used in order to increase the expected effect, to accelerate time-to-onset and to create mixtures of medicines and substances. Aeras covered: Firstly, we analyzed all available scientific literature (PRISMA) and internet forums without any limiting timeframe. Secondly, we collected cases of parachuting reported in the west of France by the addictovigilance and poison control centres. Our study confirms the reality of this emerging issue associated with a higher medical risk (60% of intoxication cases were moderate-to-severe in our study). The substances involved in parachuting were primarily stimulants, with a majority of MDMA, although the use of diverted medication and psychotropes is also of concern. Expert opinion: Parachuting is a dangerous way of using substances and of diverting medicines. This type of administration gives users a certain pharmacokinetic latitude to 'play' with respect to substances and medicines. Medicine abuse deterrent formulations do not seem to be sufficient in preventing diversions. This dangerous method of using substances and of diverting medicines should drive pharmaceutical companies to innovate in the interest of public health and safety.

  13. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  14. Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

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    Bogstrand Stig

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p  Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.

  15. Experimentation with psychoactive substances by public school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maria Eliane de; Santos, Igor Henrique Farias; Souza, Antônio Araújo Menezes de; Silva, Aliane Caroline Santos; Leite, Tatiane Dos Santos; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de

    2017-09-04

    To analyze the prevalence of exposure to psychoactive substances in public students of basic education and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from March to September 2015, involving 1,009 students of the basic and high school education in 20 public schools in the municipality of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The data have been compiled using questionnaires previously applied in national studies of the Brazilian Center for Psychotropic Drugs. The variables have been dichotomized for later logistic regression using the Chi-square test to analyze associations between experimentation with psychoactive substances and other sociodemographic variables; odds ratio and confidence intervals have also been calculated. The level of significance adopted was 5%. We have identified that 69.6% of the students have experimented alcohol and 12.4% cigarettes. Age (≥ 15 years) has shown a significant association with experimentation with alcohol (p Drogas Psicotrópicas. As variáveis foram dicotomizadas para posterior regressão logística com aplicação do teste Qui-quadrado para analisar associações entre a experimentação de substâncias psicoativas e outras variáveis sociodemográficas, e calculada a razão de chances e seus intervalos de confiança. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Identificamos que 69,6% dos estudantes têm experimentado álcool e 12,4% cigarro. A idade dos alunos (≥ 15 anos) mostrou associação significativa com a experimentação de álcool (p < 0,001) e cigarros (p = 0,02), atuando como fator de risco em ambos os casos (OR = 2,34 e 1,78, respectivamente), mas atuando como fator de proteção para o uso de inalantes (p = 0,03 e OR = 0,58) e remédios para emagrecer (p = 0,006 e OR = 0,44). A prática religiosa apresentou associação significativa com a experimentação de álcool (p = 0,01), funcionando como um fator de proteção (OR = 0,56). Conclui-se que a subst

  16. New psychoactive substances: Purchasing and supply patterns in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rachel; Bruno, Raimondo; Peacock, Amy; Dietze, Paul; Breen, Courtney; Burns, Lucinda; Barratt, Monica J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the purchasing and supply patterns of new psychoactive substance (NPS) consumers in Australia. Data were obtained from a self-selected sample of 296 past-year NPS consumers, with comparisons made across dimethyltryptamine (n = 104), 2C-x (n = 59), NBOMe (n = 27), and synthetic cannabinoid (n = 22) users. Most consumers (58%) nominated a friend as their main NPS source, and almost half (46%) reported that they had supplied NPS to others in the past year (predominantly "social supply"). However, when comparisons were made across NPS, NBOMe users were more likely to nominate a dealer (30%) or online marketplace (22%) as their main source and to report: supplying NPS to others (63%); supplying to strangers (29%) and acquaintances (24%); and supplying NPS for cash profit (29%). Similarly, NPS consumers who nominated online markets as their main NPS source (9%; n = 26) were more likely to have supplied NPS to others (risk ratio [RR] 1.57); supplied to strangers (RR 6.05) and acquaintances (RR 12.11); sold NPS for cash profit (RR 4.36); and to have exchanged NPS for something else (RR 3.27) than those who reported alternative primary sources. NBOMe consumers and those who nominated online markets as their main NPS source reported greater engagement with for-profit supply; it is unclear if these individuals have "drifted" into dealing or if they were already engaged in such activities. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. What products are considered psychoactive under New Zealand's legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, 'legal highs')? Implications for law enforcement and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The problem of defining what psychoactive products and substances should be covered by legislation aimed at controlling new psychoactive substances (NPS; 'legal highs') is central to the current debate on designing new legislative responses to NPS. In New Zealand, implementation of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2013 (PSA) revealed uncertainties about which psychoactive products are covered by the new regime, with important implications for legal penalties. We reviewed five pieces of legislation which can cover substances with psychoactive properties: PSA, Misuse of Drugs Act (MODA), Food Act, Dietary Supplements Regulations and Medicines Act. Our analysis revealed that a number of psychoactive substances which are not MODA-scheduled may potentially fall under more than one regulatory regime, including kava, Salvia divinorum, nitrous oxide, 25I-NBOMe, and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA). For example, kava may be classified as a food, a dietary supplement, a herbal remedy, or a psychoactive substance, depending on how it is presented (including advertising and labelling). There are considerable differences in penalties and regulatory requirements between the different legislative regimes and these may result in unnecessary prosecutions or 'gaming' of the system. We discuss a number of ways to more clearly categorize products, including a public schedule of psychoactive substances and products, demarcation criteria based on the quantity of the active ingredient, and demarcation based on 'discernible intoxication'. Routine use of forensic testing is essential to ensure appropriate prosecutions and penalties. Robust safety standards are also required in legislative regimes exempted from psychoactive substances regime to prevent 'creative compliance'. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Antitussives and substance abuse

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    Burns JM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  19. Prevalence and factors determining psychoactive substance (PAS) use among Hawassa University (HU) undergraduate students, Hawassa Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Andargachew; Taddesse, Fiker; Yilma, Aweke

    2014-10-07

    Use of psychoactive substances (PAS) early in school age implies drug dependence in later life. Although no studies have been conducted on undergraduate students of Hawassa University, a few studies in Ethiopia have reported that alcohol, khat, and cigarette are the commonly abused PASs among young high school/undergraduate university students. Therefore, this study was designed to establish the prevalence of and predictors for PAS use among undergraduate HU Students. An institution-based quantitative cross-sectional study using the self-administered WHO Model Core Questionnaire to collect information on use of various Psychoactive Substances (PASs) was conducted from June to July 2011. A multistage stratified sampling method was employed to select a total of 586 undergraduate HU students as study participants. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were done to determine factors affecting PAS use. Lifetime, past 12 months, and current prevalence rate for overall PAS were 53.6%, 45.7%, and 35.5% respectively. The study depicted that in the past 12 months of the study period 40.8% used alcohol, 20.3% chewed khat, 11.9% smoked cigarettes, and 0.9% used marijuana. The prevalence of other illicit PASs such as Ecstasy, lysergic diethylamide (LSD), cocaine, crack, heroin, solvents or inhalants and un-prescribed psycho active medications was found zero percent (0%). Having family members who used PAS, peer influence, being male, and living alone during school age were found to be positively associated with overall PAS use in the past 12 months. The prevalence of PAS use among undergraduate HU students is high. Designing effective strategies to reduce PAS use should be everyone's priority.

  20. Assessment of the prevalence of taking psychoactive substances in secondary school students from the Silesia region

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    Mateusz Patyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to scrutinize the scale of a current problem of psychoactive substances taking by adolescents aged 13–16, including the level of their knowledge of that subject. The results obtained can help to create an educational program targeted at decreasing the number of students using drugs. Material and methods: The study was performed on a group of 197 secondary school students in 2013 with the use of selfdeveloped query based on ESPAD (The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs questionnaire. Results: 25% of the students showed their curiosity in trying some psychoactive substances, if those were legal. 19% declared that they already have had a contact with drugs. Teenagers are worried about the possible reaction of their parents and legal consequences of the use of psychoactive substances. At least every tenth of the respondents have had an opportunity to try marihuana. Conclusions: Despite the low average age the group of respondents has had contact with psychoactive substances. Every third person has been offered psychoactive substances. At least 40% of teenagers know about the possible ways where to take the drugs from. The outcome of the study is quite alarming because it shows a considerable interest in common drugs, as well as in some OTC medicaments.

  1. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Movig, K.L.; Mathijssen, M.P.; Nagel, P.H.; van Egmond, T.; de Gier, J.J.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.

    The driving performance is easily impaired as a consequence of the use of alcohol and/or licit and illicit drugs. However, the role of drugs other than alcohol in motor vehicle accidents has not been well established. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between psychoactive

  2. Frequency and risk factors of the use of psychoactive substances among the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Socio-economic changes that occurred in the wake of dismemberment of former Yugoslavia resulted in the appearance of social pathology, one of which was the increase in the use of psychoactive substances. The over whole epidemiological research in the use of psychoactive substances has not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to establish the type and form of the use of psychoactive substances considering sex and age, as well as risk factors for the use of psychoactive substances among the children and adolescents. Methods. The research was carried out among 1011 elementary school children (seventh and eighth grades and secondary school children (all four grades in the area of Belgrade from October 2003 to January 2004. Out of the total number 457 (45.2% were elementary school pupils and 554 (54.8% secondary school pupils. There were 524 (51.8% boys and 487 (48.2% girls, aged from 12 to 18 years (the average age being 15.3 years. The method used was the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs Questionnaire. Chisquare test, Mann-Whitney, Student's t test and Logistic Regression test were used in statistical processing of the data. Results. Totally 14.2% examinees tried psychoactive substances. The most frequent drug used at the first contact was marijuana (10.8% at the age of 15 tried by 12.7% examinees, inhalants (4.4%, amphetamines (4.1%, sedatives (3.7%, alcohol combined with marijuana (3.9%, then cocaine (2.8%, heroine (2.3%, alcohol combined with sedatives (2.2%, and ecstasy (1.6%, followed by anabolic steroids, heroin, diethilamid lisergic acid (LSD and magic mushrooms. It was determined that going out in the evening, smoking and binge form drinking were directly connected with the use of psychoactive substances. Conclusion. Totally 14.2% of the examiners used psychoactive substances, mostly marijuana, followed by amphetamines and others. New tendencies of use characterized by the increase in the

  3. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certification/accreditation All / None / Reverse   State substance abuse agency   State mental health department   State department of health   Hospital licensing authority   The Joint Commission   Commission on Accreditation ...

  4. Correlation between depressive symptoms and quality of life in users of psychoactive substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Reschetti Marcon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the presence of depressive symptoms and quality of life in users of psychoactive substances from Psychosocial Attention Centers in Mato Grosso. Method: A cross-sectional analytical study, conducted in Psychosocial Attention Centers, with 109 users. The instruments used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36, Beck Depression Inventory, socio-demographic variables and the use of psychoactive substances. A Tukey analysis and a Spearman correlation were conducted with a significance level of α<0,05. Results: The most affected domains of quality of life were emotional, social and mental health aspects, besides the strong correlation between depressive symptoms and quality of life. Conclusion: The use of psychoactive substances and the presence of symptoms significantly interfere in the life of users, which can compromise the motivation to the treatment, negatively affecting the quality of life in this population.

  5. Substance Abuse Policy. ERIC Digest, Number 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    Substance abuse affects American children across all geographic and economic boundaries and has been linked to poor academic performance, truancy, and dropping out. Schools lacking clear alcohol and drug policies are more likely to experience problems with substance abuse. A districtwide substance abuse policy makes a public statement that…

  6. Substance abuse among registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Patricia M; Burns, Candace; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2010-12-01

    The stressful conditions under which nurses work, due in part to the nursing shortage, are among the risk factors that contribute to nurses' abuse of illicit drugs. Nurses differ from the general population in that they work in an environment where they not only have access to controlled substances, but also are exposed to death and dying, the stress of which can increase the risk of drug abuse. However, practicing while impaired places patients' lives at risk and decreases staff morale. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. The prevalence of psychoactive substances use among secondary school students from selected cities of Upper Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Muszyńska-Graca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of psychoactive substances among teenagers in Poland has grown for several years. Statistics maintain at a lower level than in the western Europe, however it is necessary to conduct its permanent monitoring. The work presents results of the questionnaire study carried out in IOMEH in years 2010–11. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the scale of psychoactive substances prevalence among teenagers from Silesian cities. Materials and methods: The programme was carried out by use of modified questionnaire of the ESPAD study. Questions related to characteristics of the examined person, dissemination, accessibility, awareness of risk and problems associated with the use of psychoactive substances. 928 teenagers: students of IIIrd grade of secondary schools and Ist and IInd grades of high schools from Sosnowiec and Chorzów (62% boys and 38% girls participated in the study. Results: 86,9% girls and 89,8% boys confirmed contact with the alcohol at least once in the lifetime and it is the most widespread psychoactive substance in the study group. Out of the other substances, cannabis use was confirmed by 40,7% of students (34,7% girls and 44,3% boys, designer drugs use - by of 21,8% pupils (17,5% girls and 24,5% boys. The distribution within the limits of 10% has been observed in the case of soothing/sleeping pills (also together with alcohol, and amphetamine. The prevalence of contact with other substances was at the level *10%. Boys more often than girls used the respective psychoactive substances (statistically significant differences. Conclusions: Results of the study confirm observation concerning the entire country that drinking alcohol by the young adolescents is becoming the statistical norm. The frequency of other psychoactive substances use demonstrates also concerning levels. There is a need of systematic education among teenagers at school, with particular emphasis on issues related to addiction and

  8. Correlates for psycho-active substance use among boarding secondary school adolescents in Enugu, South East, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Chinawa, Awoere T; Obu, Herbert A; Nwokocha, Ada R C; Odetunde, Odutola I

    2016-01-01

    ...; the substances involved and the extent of the problem in this locale. This is a cross-sectional study that assesses the pattern of psychoactive substance use among secondary school adolescents in Enugu, south East, Nigeria...

  9. Extending the capability of forensic electrochemistry to the novel psychoactive substance benzylpiperazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Waddell

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzylpiperazine (BZP is a novel psychoactive substance that is commonly abused in tablet form as an “ecstasy-type” drug. Electroanalysis offers genuine potential for field testing of bulk drug samples. This research is the first to investigate the viability of voltammetric analysis of BZP. Initial cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M KCl showed an oxidative peak at a glassy carbon electrode for BZP at approximately 0.8 V (scan rate 205 mV s−1. Next an optimised electrode/electrolyte combination (viz. 80:20 W:W glassy carbon beads:nujol and pH 9.5, 40 mM, Britton-Robinson buffer was developed using K3Fe(CN6 to test the electrode material. The oxidation of BZP involves two electrons and two protons and a mechanism has been proposed. An anodic stripping square wave voltammetric method was optimised by factorial design with the conditions of deposition: −0.8 V for 135 s, and stripping: step height 10 mV, amplitude 50 mV and frequency 13 Hz. A limit of detection of 6 μM was achieved. The resolution against 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA was also verified.

  10. Exploring the Attractiveness of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) among Experienced Drug Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, J.G.C.; Nabben, T.; Keiman, D.; Haanschoten, G.; Korf, D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) appear yearly on the European market (81 for the first time in 2013, adding to a total of over 350 NPS). Using semi-structured interviews with 25 Dutch experienced recreational drug users, the role of the Internet and friends in gathering and

  11. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part II: Country reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) aimed to combat the problem of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances by providing a solid scientific base for European policy makers. It brought together experienced organisations in Europe to assemble a coordina...

  12. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part I: General results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) aimed to combat the problem of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances by providing a solid scientific base for European policy makers. It brought together experienced organisations in Europe to assemble a coordina...

  13. Psychoactive Substance use among People living with HIV/AIDS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life time uses of psychoactive substances among the participants were: alcohol (84.8%), oral sedatives (21.03%), cannabis (3.64%), cocaine, inhalants and solvents (0.26%) while polysubstance use (alcohol, cannabis and nonprescription use of sedatives) was 0.8%. However, a combination of alcohol, cocaine and ...

  14. Psychoactive Substance Use and School Performance among Adolescents in Public Secondary Schools in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Aloysius; Kibanja, Grace; Steffens, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Psychoactive substance use among adolescents influences behavioral and cognitive processes and is associated with adolescents' performance in school. We therefore sought to investigate association of PASU with adolescents' school performance. Methods: We employed quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. To test the…

  15. The Prevalence and Factors affecting Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Health and Population. Perspectives and Issues. 2008; 31(3):. 212-219. 47. Bahls FRC, Ingbermann YK. Desenvolvimento escolar e abuso de drogas na adolescência / School development and adolescents' drug abuse. Estudos de psicologia. (Campinas). 2005; 22(4): 395-402. 48. Oliha JA. Adolescent and Drug Abuse.

  16. Cognitive and value parameters of students’ perceptions of the effects of psychoactive substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dontsov, Aleksander I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the main results of a study analyzing attitudes toward psychoactivesubstance (PAS effects. These findings demonstrate the conditionality of social, historic, and cultural views of PAS effects. Despite the threat posed by increasing high school and university students’ drug involvement, exploration of this phenomenon in the format of scientific discourse has been limited so far. In 2014–2015, in Yekaterinburg, Moscow, and Krasnoyarsk a survey to evaluate perceptions of high school and university students about PAS effects was conducted (289 respondents, aged 16–22.The methods used included the semantic differential (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test modified by A.G. Shmelyov, a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey, word associations, and content analysis. The use of psychoactive substances is a specific social practice emerging in a certain social context that includes both drug-addicted and PAS-free young people. Examination of the factors affecting the formation of views about PAS effects and the dynamics of youth values is possible by using a bio-psycho-socio paradigm for performing a complex analysis of cognitive, behavioral, and value parameters. As documented in the respondents’ perceptions, distinctive features that are characteristic of drug addicts and that are seen in their behavior area loss of control over behavior, emotions, and volition; changes in value systems; and a tendency to develop a manipulative communication style. Within the system of their social perceptions the respondents endowed drug-addicted persons with pronounced negative characteristics (“aggressiveness,” “addiction,” “stupidity,” “light-mindedness”. Still, they stated that drug abusers are capable of being active, decisive, cheerful, generous, and flexible. The value analysis demonstrated that terminal values appreciated by the school and university students included health, true friends, love, happy family

  17. [Post-marketing surveillance systems for psychoactive prescription drug abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Sandra; Frauger, Elisabeth; Pauly, Vanessa; Rouby, Frank; Mallaret, Michel; Micallef, Joëlle; Thirion, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Drugs affecting the central nervous system form a unique group of products for surveillance because they could be misused, abused or diverted. Considering the characteristics of this behaviour that is often concealed, specific post-marketing surveillance systems have been developed to monitor abuse of prescription drugs in some countries. The purpose of this review is to list and to describe post-marketing surveillance systems, according their methodology, in France and in foreign countries. These programs are based on adverse effect notifications, medical or legal consequences of abuse, general or specific population-based survey, professional networks or medication databases. Some programs use simultaneously several information sources. In conclusion, the multifaceted nature, the diversity and the inventiveness of post-marketing surveillance systems reflects the complexity of the abuse issue. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. What Is Substance Abuse Treatment? A Booklet for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment www. samhsa. gov Acknowledgments This booklet was produced ... No. 270-99-7072 with the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ( ...

  19. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  20. Social representations as a subjective production on the use of psychoactive substances in four young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Caicedo-Castaño

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is approached from a historical-cultural perspective, which places as central axis the representations as subjective productions from Fernando González Rey's Theory of subjectivity. The objective is centered on investigating social representations as a subjective production about the consumption of psychoactive substances in four young people. In this, identify the emotional and symbolic dimensions that have four young people regarding the consumption of substances. Method: Comprehensive, interpretive, constructive, interpretive, qualitative study, completing phrases, compositions and inducers not written as films in a group of four young people. Results: The social representations constructed by young people who have used psychoactive substances are involved both symbolic and emotional dimensions that converge as elements of subjective senses in social and individual instances.

  1. [Ethanol and other psychoactive substances in fatal road traffic accidents in the Czech Republic in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravcík, Viktor; Zábranský, Tomás; Vorel, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    To map the recent prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in deceased victims of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample consisted of individuals autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine who died during traffic accidents in 2008 and were toxicologically tested for one or more of the following substances: ethanol, volatile substances, cannabis, opiates, stimulants, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0.2 g/kg and higher; with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; from cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the positive cases only those where substances were not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. The sample consisted of 1,040 persons deceased in traffic accidents, of whom 582 (56.0%) were toxicologically tested for one or more of the substances listed above. The sample has been divided into two subsamples--one of 778 (74.8%) active participants of road traffic accidents (pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers) and other subsample consisting of 262 (25.4%) non-active participants. Ethanol was found in 38.3% of 381 tested and at least one of other psychoactive substances was found in 11.7% of 384 tested active participants--of those, stimulants (mostly methamphetamine) were found most frequently (6.5% of 337 tested), cannabis (5.9% of 203 tested) and benzodiazepines (3.9% of 363 tested active participants). Drivers were positive for ethanol in 29.2% cases, for one or more of other psychoactive substances except ethanol in 12.7% cases, most frequently for stimulants (9.2%) and cannabis (6.2%). Professional drivers were found negative for ethanol and other psychoactive substance except of one case of methamphetamine (6.7%). The study confirms high prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, especially stimulants

  2. Substance Abuse Treatment Centers and Local Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bondurant, Samuel R.; Lindo, Jason M.; Isaac D. Swensen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the effects of expanding access to substance-abuse treatment on local crime. We do so using an identification strategy that leverages variation driven by substance-abuse-treatment facility openings and closings measured at the county level. The results indicate that substance-abuse-treatment facilities reduce both violent and financially motivated crimes in an area, and that the effects are particularly pronounced for relatively serious crimes. The effects on homicid...

  3. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 'Designer drugs': update on the management of novel psychoactive substance misuse in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher D; Robert, Stefanie

    2014-08-01

    The use of novel psychoactive substances ('legal highs' or 'designer drugs') is increasing worldwide. Patients misusing such substances have been reported to experience severe or prolonged side effects requiring admission to acute or critical care wards. These complications can be life threatening if misdiagnosed or mismanaged. As physicians have traditionally had less involvement with the management of such patients compared with their colleagues in emergency departments an update in the management of such patients is indicated. Here we present a summary of the management of those novel substances with the potential for serious complications based on a review of current literature. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  5. Substance abuse: medical and slang terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Humera; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Vandeveir, Keith

    2005-03-01

    Substance abuse is among one of the major problems plaguing our society. It has come to the attention of several healthcare professionals that a communication gap exists between themselves and substance abusers. Most of the time the substance abusers are only familiar with the slang terms of abused substances, a terminology that medical professionals are usually unaware of. This paper is an attempt to close that communication gap, allowing health care professionals to understand the slang terminology that their patients use, thus enabling them to make appropriate treatment decisions. In addition, the article presents some key features (including active ingredient, pharmacological classification, medical use, abuse form, usage method, combinations used, effects sought, long-term possible effects, and detectability in urine) of the most commonly abused substances.

  6. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris; Witten, Karen

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. In retrospect stakeholders questioned the decision to approve strong synthetic cannabinoid smoking products, noting their health risks because of product formulation, inconsistent manufacturing practices and smoking as the means of administration. Industry actors claimed the decision to approve synthetic cannabinoid smokeable products prevented potentially safer products from gaining market share. The system for withdrawing approved products which were subsequently found to be harmful was criticised for the poor quality of data available, limited engagement with health professionals and the slowness of product withdrawal. Many of the problems with the regime were attributed to the urgency under which the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act was established and implemented. The selection of 'safer' products, implementation of the product monitoring system, and engagement with health professionals may have benefited from more time and resources. An incremental approach to establishing the new market may have made the regulatory management of the new regime more workable. [Rychert M, Wilkins C, Witten K. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Sleeping At The Wheel And Psychoactive Substance Use Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with high prevalence of sleeping at the wheel included long hours of driving =40 hours per week, types of substance use to prevent sleep, and previous use of alcohol. Conclusion: There would be need for policy formulation and implementation with regard to hours of sleep and rest by commercial drivers, ...

  8. Homicide and Psychoactive Substance use among Offenders in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , cannabis and stimulants with rates of 34.6%, 15.2% and 1.5% respectively. During imprisonment, lower rates of use were reported for these substances. These were 6.1% 1.5% and 6.1% respectively. The consolidated drug use rate among ...

  9. Modern representations about differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to psychoactive substance use

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chugunov; I. F. Pirogov

    2014-01-01

    In recent years in the world there is a tendency of quantity of persons who use drugs increase. Free availability of drugs of different groups for population is the main cause. Another trend associated with the consumption of drugs. All these factors led to the increased frequency of psychosis occurrence among consumers of psychoactive substances. In structure of such psychosis there are a variety of symptoms and syndromes. And since the number of drug users is quite broad in its structur...

  10. Deep brain stimulation in addiction due to psychoactive substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens; Bührle, Christian P; Lenartz, Doris; Sturm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is one of the most challenging health problems. It is associated with enormous individual distress and tremendous socioeconomic consequences. Unfortunately, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and pharmacological, psychological, or social interventions often fail to achieve long-lasting remission. Next to genetic, social, and contextual factors, a substance-induced dysfunction of the brain's reward system is considered a decisive factor for the establishment and maintenance of addiction. Due to its successful application and approval for several neurological disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known as a powerful tool for modulating dysregulated networks and has also been considered for substance addiction. Initial promising case reports of DBS in alcohol and heroin addiction in humans have recently been published. Likewise, results from animal studies mimicking different kinds of substance addiction point in a similar direction. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on DBS in addiction, and to discuss whether these preliminary results justify further research, given the novelty of this treatment approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of psychoactive substances use in a Lithuanian women's prison revisited after 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkauskaitė, Laura; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt; Venalis, Algirdas; Utkuvienė, Janina

    2010-11-01

    This paper re-examines the prevalence of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol, narcotic drugs) use among inmates in a Lithuanian women's prison. The main goal of this study was to determinate the changes in the use of the psychoactive substances in a women's prison in Lithuania. We accomplished the retesting of the first ever investigation of this kind, carried out in 2004, using the same questionnaire, in the only women's prison in Lithuania. In June 2009, 71 (27.8%) women of 255 inmates of the prison were given questionnaires with information about the aim of the study, stating that the study was voluntary and anonymous, and obtaining permission for release of information. The results were compared with the previous investigation. A statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Tobacco smokers comprised 85.3% of respondents.; the average age at which respondents started to smoke was 14±7.3 years; 57.7% of respondents had tried narcotic drugs at least once; 22.5% of respondents used drugs (in 2004 we had found no drug use in this women's prison); 18.3% of respondents indicated that they narcotic drugs were tried for the first time away, 4.2% - in a custodial establishment. Psychoactive substances are often used due to their psychological effect. inmates constitute a high-risk group of drug users and distributors of narcotic drugs. Intravenous narcotics stimulating dangerous behavior prevail in Lithuanian prisons. Women in prison are especially prone to smoking.

  12. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  13. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  14. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  15. Eating disorders in hospitalized substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J I; Weiss, R D; Pope, H G; McElroy, S K; Mirin, S M

    1992-01-01

    Among 386 consecutive patients hospitalized for substance abuse, 15% of 143 women had a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia nervosa, compared to only 1% of 243 men. Women with eating disorders had significantly higher rates of stimulant abuse and lower rates of opioid abuse than women without eating disorders.

  16. [Psychotherapy with Adjuvant use of Serotonergic Psychoactive Substances: Possibilities and Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majić, Tomislav; Jungaberle, Henrik; Schmidt, Timo T; Zeuch, Andrea; Hermle, Leo; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Background Recently, scientific interest in the therapeutic potential of serotonergic and psilocybin hallucinogens (psychedelics) such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and entactogens like 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) within the framework of psychotherapy has resumed. The present article provides an overview on the current evidence on substance-assisted psychotherapy with these substances. Method A selective search was carried out in the PubMed and Cochrane Library including studies investigating the clinical use of serotonergic psychoactive substances since 2000. Results Studies were found investigating the following indications: alcohol (LSD and psilocybin) and tobacco addiction (psilocybin), anxiety and depression in patients suffering from life-threatening somatic illness (LSD and psilocybin), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (psilocybin), treatment-resistant major depression (psilocybin), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (MDMA). Discussion Substance use disorders, PTSD and anxiety and depression in patients suffering from life-threatening somatic illness belong to the indications with the best evidence for substance-assisted psychotherapy with serotonergic psychoactive agents. To date, studies indicate efficacy and relatively good tolerability. Further studies are needed to determine whether these substances may represent suitable and effective treatment options for some treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Quantifying reinforcement value and demand for psychoactive substances in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Lilje, Todd C; Kassel, Jon D; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-12-01

    Behavioral economics is an emerging cross-disciplinary field that is providing an exciting new contextual framework for researchers to study addictive processes. New initiatives to study addiction under a behavioral economic rubric have yielded variable terminology and differing methods and theoretical approaches that are consistent with the multidimensional nature of addiction. The present article is intended to provide an integrative overview of the behavioral economic nomenclature and to describe relevant theoretical models, principles and concepts. Additionally, we present measures derived from behavioral economic theories that quantify demand for substances and assess decision making processes surrounding substance use. The sensitivity of these measures to different contextual elements (e.g., drug use status, acute drug effects, deprivation) is also addressed. The review concludes with discussion of the validity of these approaches and their potential for clinical application and highlights areas that warrant further research. Overall, behavioral economics offers a compelling framework to help explicate complex addictive processes and it is likely to provide a translational platform for clinical intervention.

  18. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use. 1 , 2 Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months. 3

  19. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of problematic psychoactive substances use in people placed in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérardin, Marie; Guigand, Gabriel; Wainstein, Laura; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Clément, Renaud

    2017-07-01

    In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances. Practitioners investigated desired effects for each substance, and characteristics of use, by means of the dependence criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Problematic use was assessed when at least 3 items of the DSM IV were positive. 604 questionnaires were examined. 90.7% of questionnaires reported tobacco use, 76.2% cannabis, 57.3% alcohol, 12.5% psychostimulants, 10.0% opiates and 0.7% benzodiazepines or Z-drugs. The frequency of problematic use was 74.6% for opiates, 44.9% for cocaine and 25.3% for cannabis. Compared to non-problematic users, problematic users were older, more likely to be jobless without financial means, more likely to have a medical history, including a greater likelihood of mental illness, and more chance of undergoing prescribed medical treatment. They included more women and more homeless people. These results show characteristics of psychoactive substance use in a sample of people in custody. Psychoactive substances mentioned by respondents are not different from those observed in the general population, but for certain users, the desired effects are far from the pharmacologically expected ones. For some, taking substances seems to be part of their way of life, for others it is a means to compensate for an underlying feeling of uneasiness. Furthermore, problematic users present severity criteria which

  1. Use of psychoactive substances and health care in response to anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Carmona, Elodie; Sapinho, David; Messiah, Antoine

    2009-03-01

    The use of psychoactive substances in response to psychological distress is not well documented in the general population and has never been studied in combination with health care use. This study estimated the frequency of health care and substance use in response to anxiety or depressive disorders and determined factors associated with these behaviors. From a large survey of adults from four French regions, the authors selected those with a 12-month probable anxiety or depressive disorder without a substance use disorder (N=4,071). These disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form, and participants were asked whether they used substances or health care in response to each disorder. The use of substances in response to anxiety or depressive disorders was 12.9% among men and 5.2% among women. Compared with those who used health care only, those who used substances (with or without health care) were more likely to be men, single, and young. Those who used both substances and health care were also less likely to have a depressive disorder. This study shows that a sizeable portion of the general population uses substances in response to anxiety or depressive disorders. It also shows that these substance users have distinctive sociodemographic characteristics and can thus be targeted by prevention programs. Strategies to reach substance users with depressive or anxiety disorders who do not use health care remain to be elaborated.

  2. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-07-28

    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  3. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC-QTOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz-Lomba, J A; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-03-31

    The quantification of illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in sewage has been shown to be a valuable tool that complements existing approaches in monitoring the patterns and trends of drug use. The present work delineates the development of a novel analytical tool and dynamic workflow for the analysis of a wide range of substances in sewage-based samples. The validated method can simultaneously quantify 51 target psychoactive substances and pharmaceuticals in sewage-based samples using an off-line automated solid phase extraction (SPE-DEX) method, using Oasis HLB disks, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) in MS(e). Quantification and matrix effect corrections were overcome with the use of 25 isotopic labeled internal standards (ILIS). Recoveries were generally greater than 60% and the limits of quantification were in the low nanogram-per-liter range (0.4-187 ng L(-1)). The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug scene poses a specific analytical challenge since their market is highly dynamic with new compounds continuously entering the market. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) simultaneously allowed the unequivocal identification of NPS based on a mass accuracy criteria of 5 ppm (of the molecular ion and at least two fragments) and retention time (2.5% tolerance) using the UNIFI screening platform. Applying MS(e) data against a suspect screening database of over 1000 drugs and metabolites, this method becomes a broad and reliable tool to detect and confirm NPS occurrence. This was demonstrated through the HRMS analysis of three different sewage-based sample types; influent wastewater, passive sampler extracts and pooled urine samples resulting in the concurrent quantification of known psychoactive substances and the identification of NPS and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Self-Reported consumption of illegal psychoactive substances in a street inhabitant population from Cali, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Carrillo, Mauricio; Álvarez-Claros, Katherine E; Osorio-Sabogal, Iván Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of self-reported use of illegal psychoactive substances in a homeless population of the city of Cali. Method Descriptive study of prevalence of period. The target population was 763 homeless people registered during 2010 in the database provided by a temporary shelter facility in the city of Cali. Statistical analysis was performed using R version 3.2.0. Research safe according to the resolution 8430 of 1993. Results 76.9 % of the homeless population recognizes that they consume some type of illegal psychoactive substance (IPAS). The substances with a higher prevalence of use in this population were: marijuana (51.2 %), the crack cocaine (44.6 %) and cocaine (11.3 %). 28.6 % of homeless people were found to consume IPAS more than three times a day and that the main route of administration is smoke (54.7 %). 50% of respondents reported having been hospitalized at some time in a rehabilitation center. Discussion The results in this study show that the problem of PASI consumption significantly affects the population of homeless people, with marijuana and crack cocaine being the most commonly used, which is a complex situation if the easy access of these substances and the severe physical and mental degenerative effects the cause in those who consume them are taken into account. Therefore it is necessary to support initiatives aimed at intervening in this social phenomenon.

  5. Characterizing users of new psychoactive substances using psychometric scales for risk-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeker, Annabel; van der Burg, Babette G; van Laar, Margriet; Brunt, Tibor M

    2017-07-01

    Studies investigating risk-related behavior in relation to new psychoactive substance (NPS) use are sparse. The current study investigated characteristics of NPS users by comparing risk-related behavior of NPS users to that of illicit drugs (ID) users and licit substances users and non-users (NLC) users. In this cross-sectional study we included 528 individuals across an age range of 18-72years. Using a web-based questionnaire we collected self-report data on substance use, sensation seeking, impulsivity, peer substance use and risk perception of substance use. NPS and ID users had a higher level of sensation seeking compared to NLC users (NPS users: pusers: pusers (pusers (p=0.16), had increased levels of impulsivity compared to NLC users. NPS users had significantly higher scores for sensation seeking (F1,423=51.52, pusers. Additionally, NPS users had significantly more peers who use substances compared to ID and NLC users. Also, NPS and ID users had lower risk perception for most substances than NLC users. NPS users had lower risk perception for most substances than ID users. The findings highlight that NPS users show substantial more risk-related behavior than both ID and NLC users. Therefore, NPS users might be considered as a distinctive group of substance users that need another approach in terms of prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale adapted for people who use psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Verónica Del Valle; Burrone, María Soledad; Fernandez, Alicia Ruth; Boyd, Jennifer E; Abeldaño, Roberto Ariel

    2017-01-01

    People who consume psychoactive substances may experience situations of social stigma on the part of the society in general, and also situations of internalized-stigma derived from their own consumption of substances. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale has been shown to be valid and reliable to evaluate the internalized-stigma in people with severe mental disorders, but in Argentina there is no a Spanish version of this scale for use with people who use psychoactive substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness instrument adapted for people who use psychoactive substances. The work was carried out on a sample of 200 patients older than 18 years under treatment of rehabilitation by consumption of psychoactive substances in a public institution of the city of Córdoba (Argentina) between the years 2014 and 2016. The instrument used was the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) previously adapted for use in these groups of patients. It was determined the reliability of the scale through Cronbach's coefficients α and factorial structure was analyzed through an exploratory factor analysis. The obtained coefficients showed a high reliability, while in the factorial structure emerged the 4 theoretical dimensions described by Ritsher, namely: social isolation, perceived discrimination, alienation and stereotyping. It is concluded that the scale adapted for people who use psychoactive substances is reliable and with an adequate factorial structure.

  7. Psychopathology in substance abusing women reporting childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisely, J S; Barker, S B; Ingersoll, K S; Dawson, K S

    2000-01-01

    This study compared MMPI-2 profiles and evaluated the ability of the MMPI-2 and its two new post-traumatic stress scales (PK and PS) to discriminate women in outpatient substance abuse treatment reporting positive (n = 24) and negative (n = 69) child sexual abuse histories. T-tests revealed significantly higher mean scores for the sexual abuse group for the following scales: F, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. A discriminant analysis yielded a linear function of L, F, 3, 5, 8, and PK that correctly categorized 75% with positive histories and 77% with negative histories. The optimal cutoff PK score was 17, which correctly classified 75% and 46% of those reporting positive and negative abuse histories, respectively. These findings support early identification of abuse survivors among substance abusing women and suggests that the MMPI-2 may be useful in patient-treatment matching.

  8. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  9. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Violence Tribal Affairs Underage Drinking Veterans and Military Families Wellness Workforce Featured Campaign Recovery Month Recovery ... areas. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( ...

  10. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swartz, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy...

  11. 75 FR 16487 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory Council...

  12. 75 FR 16488 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory Council...

  13. Substance abuse on the college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S

    2005-02-01

    Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.

  14. Detection of new psychoactive substance use among emergency room patients: results from the Swedish STRIDA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Bäckberg, Matilda; Hultén, Peter; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Beck, Olof

    2014-10-01

    The "STRIDA" project monitors the occurrence and trends of new psychoactive substances (NPS; "Internet drugs/designer drugs/legal highs") in Sweden, and collects information about their clinical symptoms, toxicity and associated health hazards. The initial results of the project documented a widespread use of many different NPS by mainly adolescents and young (age range 13-63 years, median 20), male (79%) adults, among cases of drug intoxications presenting at emergency departments and intensive care units across the country. The new substances were identified in samples of urine and blood by a multi-component LC-MS/MS method, and the severity of clinical symptoms were graded by the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS). Of the initial 189 samples submitted for laboratory investigation, 156 (83%) tested positive for at least one drug. Besides classical substances such as ethanol, cannabis and amphetamines, many NPS were detected comprising synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists ("Spice"), piperazines, substituted phenethylamines, synthetic cathinones, hallucinogenic tryptamines, piperidines, opioid related substances, ketamine and related substances, and GABA analogues (in total more than 50 substances). About half of the cases were demonstrated to be multiple drug intoxications, sometimes making it hard to associate the clinical presentations with one specific substance. In conclusion, the STRIDA project has documented use of a broad variety of NPS among mainly young people all over Sweden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. "Dangerous relationships": asthma and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Auditore, Roberta; Russo, Cristina; Alamo, Angela; Campagna, Davide; Demma, Shirin; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Commonly abused drug are cocaine, marijuana, cigarettes, heroin, and alcohol. The review emphasizes the importance for clinicians to be alert to the possibility of this substance as a precipitating factor for acute asthma. Substance use disorders to characterize illnesses associated with drug use. The use of drugs of abuse increases risk of developing more severe symptoms, higher frequency of exacerbations and having and significant effect on care resources due to clinicians visits and frequent hospital admissions. Abused drug has been shown to accelerate the decline in lung function and to increase numbers of life-threatening asthma attacks, and greater asthma mortality.

  16. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  17. Diet and substance abuse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or support groups on a regular basis. Take vitamin and mineral supplements if recommended by the health care provider. Alternative Names Substance use recovery and diet; Nutrition and substance use References Kowalchuk A, Reed BC. ...

  18. Dialectical behavior therapy for substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Linda A; Linehan, Marsha M

    2008-06-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, "clear mind," and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies.

  19. [Impact of internet on poisoning with psychoactive substances in young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Tchórz, Michał; Kujawa, Anna; Szponar, Jarosław; Drelich, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    These days young people use internet as a source of information. Internet offers knowledge that can be used not only for school education but also to obtain information about usage and effects of psychoactive substances. Recent research shows that young people more often use internet websites and chat rooms to exchange knowledge and experience with chemicals and everyday products used as intoxicants, for example: nutmeg, nonprescription medications, metal cleaning liquid or feminine hygiene products. This article shows the extend of knowledge young people can gain from popular internet websites. Information on the web is presented as appealing, attractive and encouraging. From a toxicologist point of view it is extremely important to be familiar with those new threats because more and more often we have to treat young patients with a serious poisoning from usage of experimental intoxicating substances.

  20. [Factors Related With Psychoactive Substance Use in an Educational Institution in Jamundí Valle, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Soto, Katalina; Hernández Carrillo, Mauricio; Cassiani, Carlos Arturo; Cubides Munevar, Ángela M; Martínez Cardona, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of psychoactive substances (SPA) use in young people in an educational institution in Jamundí and possible related factors. Cross-sectional study, analytical approach that simulates cases and controls, was conducted in an educational institution in Jamundí-Valley. The sample was composed of 146 students selected through simple random probability sampling without replacement. Participants individually and anonymously completed a questionnaire to identify SPA consumption and associated factors, including APGAR scale to measure family functioning. The data extracted from the questionnaires were entered into a matrix in Microsoft Excel and processed in EpiInfo version 5.0 and Stata. Descriptive analysis was performed, and a multivariate analysis was performed using unconditional logistic regression. Current consumption of SPA, 35%; age of first use was 10 to 13 years; the prevalence of drug misuse by gender was 34% for girls and 37% in boys. The most consumed legal substance was alcohol 34%, and illegal 3%. The most significant associations with the use of psychoactive substances was; having severe family dysfunction (OR=7.32; 95%CI, 1.74-30.76), being enrolled in the 11th grade (OR=14.6; 95%CI, 2.37-89.74), and having friends who use (OR=3.12; 95%CI, 2.49-10.38). The results obtained in this study show a high percentage of SPA consumption, with a higher prevalence in males. In this population, the most commonly used legal substance is alcohol. Family dysfunction and school grade were significantly associated with drug misuse. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Modern representations about differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to psychoactive substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years in the world there is a tendency of quantity of persons who use drugs increase. Free availability of drugs of different groups for population is the main cause. Another trend associated with the consumption of drugs. All these factors led to the increased frequency of psychosis occurrence among consumers of psychoactive substances. In structure of such psychosis there are a variety of symptoms and syndromes. And since the number of drug users is quite broad in its structure - there are also persons with mental illness. This gives number of diagnostic difficulties. In this regard, the aim of the study was to trace the modern ideas of differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to the drug use. Materials and methods of research. In this work the content analysis of the modern representations of differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders as a result of the use of psychoactive substances was made. The problem of determination of primary and secondary nature of drug addiction in patients with psychotic disorders was indicated. Etiology and psychopathogenesis hypotheses of the addiction from psychoactive substances in the context of their correlation with endogenous mental pathology were defined. In the literature there is no clear diagnostic criteria that would allow distinguishing psychosis due to the use of drugs and endogenous psychosis, which is combined with the admission medicines. However, the attention of clinicians should be concentrated on the premorbid condition: the presence of hereditary family history, pathological behavior in childhood and adolescence. It was found that the majority of substances may cause one or more syndromes - delirium, dementia, and amnestic syndrome, delusional syndrome, hallucinatory syndrome, depressive syndrome, anxiety, and personality disorder, such disorders as schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders are not rare. Special attention was paid to the

  2. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC-QTOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baz-Lomba, J.A., E-mail: jba@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PO box 1078 Blindern, 0316, Oslo (Norway); Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway)

    2016-03-31

    The quantification of illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in sewage has been shown to be a valuable tool that complements existing approaches in monitoring the patterns and trends of drug use. The present work delineates the development of a novel analytical tool and dynamic workflow for the analysis of a wide range of substances in sewage-based samples. The validated method can simultaneously quantify 51 target psychoactive substances and pharmaceuticals in sewage-based samples using an off-line automated solid phase extraction (SPE-DEX) method, using Oasis HLB disks, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) in MS{sup e}. Quantification and matrix effect corrections were overcome with the use of 25 isotopic labeled internal standards (ILIS). Recoveries were generally greater than 60% and the limits of quantification were in the low nanogram-per-liter range (0.4–187 ng L{sup −1}). The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug scene poses a specific analytical challenge since their market is highly dynamic with new compounds continuously entering the market. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) simultaneously allowed the unequivocal identification of NPS based on a mass accuracy criteria of 5 ppm (of the molecular ion and at least two fragments) and retention time (2.5% tolerance) using the UNIFI screening platform. Applying MS{sup e} data against a suspect screening database of over 1000 drugs and metabolites, this method becomes a broad and reliable tool to detect and confirm NPS occurrence. This was demonstrated through the HRMS analysis of three different sewage-based sample types; influent wastewater, passive sampler extracts and pooled urine samples resulting in the concurrent quantification of known psychoactive substances and the identification of NPS and pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • A novel reiterative workflow

  3. Forensic psychiatry approach to mental disorders resulting from substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, mental disorders resulting from substance abuse have become a frequent phenomenon, which features diverse forms and degrees of severity. In addition to being a medical and extremely harmful social phenomenon, substance abuse (commonly known as drug or narcotics abuse is frequently a subject matter of research in many sciences or scientific disciplines, such as medicine, psychology, sociology, legal science, etc. Drug abusers may develop diverse mental disorders, which largely depends on the type of psychoactive substance which is being abused and the method of taking narcotics (including frequency, daily dose, mode of administration, etc.. In this paper, the author provides an overview of different types of mental disorders according to the applicable International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. The disturbance of mental functions due to drug abuse (which may or may not result in the development of a mental disorder changes the perception and behaviour of drug users. The disturbance of mental functions becomes particularly prominent in the circumstances where substance abuse has turned into a drug addiction; the basic characteristic of the dependence syndrome is an irresistible urge (craving or even compulsion to take the substance in order to enjoy its effects again or to avoid/relieve the drug addiction crisis or the abstinence syndrome, which may be extremely painful and agonizing. As a consequence of these mental disturbances and other disorders arising from drug addiction, human behaviour may be disrupted to such an extent that a person may demonstrate some criminal conduct, which ultimately makes these mental disorders highly relevant in the field of criminal law. Given the fact that the criminal offender is a drug abuser who may have different forms of mental disorders, there is a need to consider the offender's mental capacity (sanity, which ultimately makes these mental disorders highly

  4. Chromatography as Method for Analytical Confirmation of Paracetamol in Postmortem Material Together with Psychoactive Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscevic-Tokic, Jasmina; Tokic, Nedim; Ibrahimpasic, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in addition to aspirin is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic medication by millions of patients worldwide. It is an example that paracetamol as medicine that in the world is provided without a doctor’s prescription, can lead to death. Today paracetamol became an integral part of a heroin mixture and is very popular at the street market. The main reason for this is that it can be obtained without a prescription, it is cheap, and by most people well tolerated without side effects. It is probably used for “cutting” the pure heroin, as it says in the jargon, and in that manner from small amount of pure drug is obtained greater amount, which is then sold on the street. The goal is to identify presence of paracetamol, by analytical method of gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in postmortem material together with psychoactive substances. Material and methods: For chemical-toxicological analysis is used biological material collected trough autopsy of 20 deceased people, suspected to have died due to psychoactive substance overdose. All received samples are stored at -20 ° C until analysis at our laboratory. From processed 47 samples that were analyzed in the period from 2014 to 2015, 19 are blood samples, urine 19, 3 samples of stomach contents, and 6 samples of bile content. Deceased were middle-aged, of which only 7 were female. The tested samples were processed according to two methods of extraction. Extraction by XAD-2 resin, and the extraction by the method of salting out with sodium tungstate. Extracts of the samples were then dissolved in chloroform and continued analysis at the analytical instrument. Identification of the paracetamol presence, in the test biological samples is demonstrated by the technique of gas chromatography with mass spectometry (hereinafter referred to as GC-MS). The technique of GC-MS is a selective, sensitive and reliable, and is therefore considered a “gold standard

  5. Children of substance abusers: psychosocial profile of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Garcia de Grandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychoactive substance abuse problems in the family have an impact on the development of children and adolescents. This risk conditions can harm mental health and hinder healthy development in psychosocial areas. Objectives: This study investigated the psychosocial profile of children and adolescents assisted in a prevention service center for children of substance abusers in a deprived community located in the outskirts of Sao Paulo. Methods: Exploratory and descriptive study, based on cross-sectional methodology and a convenience sample of 791 children and adolescents assisted at the Intervention and Support Center for Children of Substance Abusers - CUIDA between January 2001 and December 2008. The sample was divided into groups according to discharge status: Active, Therapeutic Discharge (TD, Abandonment, Without Information about the Reason for Leaving and With Information about the Length of Treatment (WIRL, Without Information (WI, and Other Reasons for Leaving (OR. Results: In the Active group, 26% of mothers had completed high-school and 11% belonged to the A/B socioeconomic classes. The TD group showed the highest percentages of wage earning parents (52% living together (64%. In the WIRL group, 17% of the mothers were illiterate or had not completed primary education, and 23% of the fathers were unemployed. In the WI group, 22% lived in houses that had been lent to them. Conclusions: Results indicate the impact of addiction and underprivileged conditions (such as housing status, fathers’ level of education, and socioeconomic status on retention in the service and the importance of health prevention and promotion strategies aimed at this population.

  6. Neuropharmacology of new psychoactive substances (NPS: focus on the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cannabimimetics and amphetamine-like stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMiliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are a heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of molecules available on the global illicit drug market (e.g smart shops, internet, dark net as a substitute for controlled substances. The use of NPS, mainly consumed along with other drugs of abuse and/or alcohol, has resulted in a significantly growing number of mortality and emergency admissions for overdoses, as reported by several poison centers from all over the world. The fact that the number of NPS have more than doubled over the last 10 years, is a critical challenge to governments, the scientific community, and civil society (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2014; EMCDDA, European Drug Report 2014: Trends and developments. The chemical structure (phenethylamines, piperazine, cathinones, tryptamines, synthetic cannabinoids of NPS and their pharmacological and clinical effects (hallucinogenic, anesthetic, dissociative, depressant help classify them into different categories. In the recent past, 50% of newly identified NPS have been classified as synthetic cannabinoids followed by new phenethylamines (17%(WDR, 2014. Besides peripheral toxicological effects, many NPS seem to have addictive properties. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological evidence can help in detecting them. This manuscript will review existing literature about the addictive and rewarding properties of the most popular NPS classes: cannabimimetics (JWH, HU, CP series and amphetamine-like stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone and MDMA analogues. Moreover, the review will include recent data from our lab which links JWH-018, a CB1 and CB2 agonist more potent than Δ9-THC, to other cannabinoids with known abuse potential, and to other classes of abused drugs that increase dopamine signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc shell. Thus the neurochemical mechanisms that produce the rewarding properties of JWH-018, which most likely contributes to the greater incidence of

  7. Frequency of substance abuse among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Salih; Ramadani, Sokolj; Zunic, Lejla; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Masic, Izet

    2013-12-01

    Drug addiction is one of the most prominent problems in many countries in transition, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Age limit of drug addiction is shifted to the younger age groups, especially is troubling the increase in number of injection drug users. Our study was aimed to investigate the habits, attitudes and practices related to drug use among young people from the area of Sarajevo city. We can still feel the effects of the war, among which are the most important life without closest relatives, banishment and various types of war and post-war trauma. To determine the frequency of substance abuse among adolescents; Identify potentially relevant biological, psychological and socio economic characteristics of the adolescents; To explore adolescents attitudes towards drug use; Examine the general level of knowledge of adolescents about drugs and their effects. The study was conducted on randomized sample of 502 students in two primary and three secondary schools in Sarajevo and Gracanica. To study used survey method. Survey instrument was a self-made questionnaire with the research variables. The obtained data were processed by a computer and statistically correlated. The study is of combined, retrospective, prospective and transversal type. To the question "How many times have you consumed cannabis in the last 30 days" about 6% of the respondents have tried once or twice, while 1.5% use it daily, ecstasy have tried one or two times 2.25%, while 0.5% have daily use. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that students at schools in Sarajevo consumed drugs 50% more than the children in Gracanica. Analyzing the age at which the subjects consumed the drug for the first time, we came to the conclusion that in the third year of high school only 8% of adolescents have tried any drugs before they turned 15 years. This percentage among eighth graders is about three times higher. Presented research results clearly suggest a strong contamination of the living

  8. New challenges and innovation in forensic toxicology: focus on the "New Psychoactive Substances".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Pascali, Jennifer P; Tagliaro, Franco

    2013-04-26

    In the recent years, new molecules have appeared in the illicit market, claimed to contain "non-illegal" compounds, although exhibiting important psychoactive effects; this heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of compounds are commonly known as "New Psychoactive Substances" or, less properly, "Smart Drugs" and are easily distributed through the e-commerce or in the so-called "Smart Shops". They include, among other, synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and tryptamine analogs of psylocin. Whereas cases of intoxication and death have been reported, the phenomenon appears to be largely underestimated and is a matter of concern for Public Health. One of the major points of concern depends on the substantial ineffectiveness of the current methods of toxicological screening of biological samples to identify the new compounds entering the market. These limitations emphasize an urgent need to increase the screening capabilities of the toxicology laboratories, and to develop rapid, versatile yet specific assays able to identify new molecules. The most recent advances in mass spectrometry technology, introducing instruments capable of detecting hundreds of compounds at nanomolar concentrations, are expected to give a fundamental contribution to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of the toxicological screening to include not only all these continuously changing molecules but also their metabolites. In the present paper a critical overview of the opportunities, strengths and limitations of some of the newest analytical approaches is provided, with a particular attention to liquid phase separation techniques coupled to high accuracy, high resolution mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Psychoactive substance use among Espírito Santo Federal University odontology students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Frossard; Souza, Renata Santos de; Buaiz, Vitor; Siqueira, Marluce Miguel de

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to trace the psychoactive substance use profile among odontology college students from the Espírito Santo Federal University Health Sciences Center. It is an explorative, descriptive, transversal and quantitative study developed with first to last year college students of the odontology course. The instrument used for data collection was an adaptation of one proposed by WHO and developed by WHO - Research and Reporting Project on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Data were listed and analyzed through the Statistical Package Program for the Social Science. The results showed that 60.3% colleges student are female, 48.9% age between 20 and 22 years, 41.3% and 43.7% belong to A and B social class, respectively. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs use reported at least once in lifetime was 72.4% except for alcohol and tobacco; 25.9% used inhaled drugs, 13.2% marijuana, 10.9% amphetamines , 27% tobacco and 87.9% alcohol. It could be concluded that is necessary to prevent improper drug use among college students by inserting this subject on the college curriculum as well as establishing drug use prevention programs for students.

  10. Novel Psychoactive Substances-Recent Progress on Neuropharmacological Mechanisms of Action for Selected Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zurina; Bosch, Oliver G; Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Kasinather, B Vicknasingam; Seifritz, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Quednow, Boris B; Müller, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use. With these measures, however, a drug does not disappear, but frequently continues to be used, which eventually allows an even better estimate of the drug's properties. Thus, only in rare cases, there is a final verdict that is no more questioned. Instead, the view on a drug can change from tolerable to harmful but may also involve the new establishment of a desired medical application to a previously harmful drug. Here, we provide a summary review on a number of NPS for which the neuropharmacological evaluation has made important progress in recent years. They include mitragynine ("Kratom"), synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., "Spice"), dimethyltryptamine and novel serotonergic hallucinogens, the cathinones mephedrone and methylone, ketamine and novel dissociative drugs, γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol. This review shows not only emerging harm potentials but also some potential medical applications.

  11. Substance abuse and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Addington, J; Addington, D

    1997-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age,...

  12. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  13. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicines, in Spanish drivers: a roadside study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F

    2012-11-30

    Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population

  14. The contamination of young people’s notions about narcotics and psychoactive substances as a threat to psychological security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this article investigated contemporary young people’s perceptions of drugs and psychoactive substances (PAS. In the course of the research the following hypothesis was tested: in young people’s perceptions about drugs and PAS there are differences in emotional coloring, coherence, and tolerance. J.-C. Abric’s structural approach was used as the basic methodology. The free-associations method provided the bulk of the empirical material. The results obtained were processed via prototypic analysis (by P. Vergès’s method, indexing of emotional associations (by E.E. Pronina’s method, and frequency and content analysis. As a result the core and the periphery of the perceptions of youth about drugs and PAS were described, and generalized notional categories that synthesize the structural elements of the perceptions were identified. The study revealed that the perceptions of young people about drugs and PAS do differ in coherence, tolerance, and emotional coloring. Perceptions of drugs are firm, consistent, and negative, while perceptions of PAS are less coherent but dynamic and have an ambivalent emotional coloration. The results are of prognostic importance for understanding young people’s attitudes toward drugs and PAS and can be used to design programs and measures directed to the prevention of PAS and drug abuse.

  15. Substance abuse and rehabilitation: responding to the global burden of diseases attributable to substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tzy Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the availability of treatment services, however, the vast majority of people with substance use disorders do not seek or use treatment. Barriers to and unmet need for evidence-based treatment are widespread even in the United States. Women, adolescents, and young adults are especially vulnerable to adverse effects from substance abuse, but they face additional barriers to getting evidence-based treatment or other social/medical services. Substance use behaviors and the diseases attributable to substance use problems are preventable and modifiable. Yet the ever-changing patterns of substance use and associated problems require combined research and policy-making efforts from all parts of the world to establish a viable knowledge base to inform for prevention, risk-reduction intervention, effective use of evidence-based treatment, and rehabilitation for long-term recovery. The new international, open-access, peer-reviewed Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation (SAR journal strives to provide an effective platform for sharing ideas for solutions and disseminating research findings globally. Substance use behaviors and problems have no boundaries. The journal welcomes papers from all regions of the world that address any aspect of substance use, abuse/dependence, intervention, treatment, and policy. The “open-access” journal makes cutting edge knowledge freely available to practitioners and researchers worldwide, and this is particularly important for addressing

  16. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among Axum University students, Axum Town, North Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreslassie, Measho; Feleke, Amsalu; Melese, Tesfahun

    2013-07-30

    The use of substances such as alcohol, khat leaves and tobacco have long been recognized as one of the leading causes of human suffering and become one of the rising major public health and socio-economic problems worldwide. Even though substances use occurs in all segments of all societies, it is more spreading in an alarming rate among the young generation. This study aimed to establish the prevalence and associated factors of substances use among undergraduate students in Axum University. Institution based quantitative cross sectional study design was conducted among Axum University students in April 2012. A sample of 764 students was selected by using multi- stage sampling technique. Data were collected using pre- tested self- administered questionnaires. The data were cleaned, coded, entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.1 and transferred and analysed using SPSS computer soft ware package version 20. The lifetime prevalence of khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking among the study participants were 28.7%, 34.5% and 9.5% respectively. Similarly, the current prevalence of khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking were 27.9%, 32.8% and 9.3% respectively. The commonest reasons for khat, alcohol and cigarette using were to keep alert while reading 40.6%, for relaxation 65.5% and to relief stress 37.7% respectively. Having peer friends who chew khat was strongly and positively associated with khat use [AOR: 10.18, 95%CI: (5.59, 18.54)].Family members and peer friends alcohol use were strongly associated with alcohol drinking [AOR: 2.61, 95%CI: (1.56, 4.34) and [AOR: 14, 95%CI: (8.09, 24.24)] respectively. Ever alcohol use was strongly associated with cigarette smoking [AOR: 6.54, 95%CI: (2.66, 16.05)]. This study revealed that psychoactive substances use became an urgent problem among undergraduate university students. Universities need to monitor and teach their students with special focus on fresh man students, about the health risks and

  17. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reforming Dutch substance abuse treatment services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Gerard M.; Schramade, Mark; Walburg, Jan A.

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch substance abuse treatment system is in the middle of a major reorganization. The goal is to improve outcomes by redesigning all major primary treatment processes and by implementing a system of regular monitoring and feedback of clinical outcome data. The new program includes implementing

  19. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  20. Substance Abuse Among Female Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance Abuse Among Female Senior Secondary School Students In Anambra State South Eastern Nigeria. ... Results: Out of a study population of 725, 34 or 4.7% of the girls smoked tobacco (cigarette) while 69 or 9.5% indulged in alcohol and 109 or 15% took sedatives as a means of inducing sleep. There was no ...

  1. [Domestic violence, alcohol and substance abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B

    2005-10-01

    Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.

  2. Logotherapeutic Management Of Persons With Substance Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the logotherapeutic management of persons with substance abuse/dependence which involves the utilization of a multi- displinary approach. Therefore, the paper highlights how this view is in relationship with the concept of logotherapy about man that comprises biological, psychological and spiritual ...

  3. Substance abuse in older adults: policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Susan; Melillo, Karen Devereaux

    2011-12-01

    By 2020, it is projected that the number of older adults needing treatment for drug and alcohol addictions will increase dramatically. Although Medicare covers treatment for mental health issues, copayments can be prohibitive for those with lower incomes. The Positive Aging Act, an amendment to the Public Health Service Act, is a policy alternative that could address substance abuse in the older adult population by (a) demonstrating ways of integrating mental health services for older adults into primary care settings, and (b) supporting the establishment and maintenance of interdisciplinary geriatric mental health outreach teams in community settings where older adults reside or receive social services. Increasing funding to states to emphasize primary care provider education on the detection, evaluation, and treatment of substance abuse problems of older adults has the potential to better meet the substance abuse needs of this population. Educating primary care providers, including gerontological nurses, to recognize signs of substance abuse in this population and providing age-appropriate treatment options is critically important but will require funding beyond what is currently available. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. non -governmental organisations' response to substance abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. The paper argues that non-governmental organisations have important roles in the fight against substance abuse and sexuality issues among adolescent street children of Harare Central Business District. However, there is also evidence pointing towards the fact that some of the non-governmental ...

  5. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  6. Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions May 9, 2013 Teenage pregnancy is a serious public ... to treatment entry TEDS_121 THE TEDS REPORT: Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions May ...

  7. Expert systems in treating substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, D R; Hink, R H

    1990-05-01

    Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.

  8. Substance abuse amongst the street children in Guwahati city, Assam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The nature of continuous exposure to the street and its associated life‑styles make street children vulnerable to the use of psychoactive substances. Aims: The aim of the present study is to study some social factors of street children in Guwahati city and to ascertain the substance use behavior of the street ...

  9. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ronald

    2010-03-05

    The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes. These findings call for more extensive

  10. Restorative Justice and a New Criminal Law of Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, John

    2001-01-01

    Case studies illustrate how a restorative approach to substance abuse can bring about the recognition of profound community injustices and how confronting injustices can help tackle substance abuse. Outlines the research and development needed to test the hypothesis that criminalization of the harm caused by substance abuse (e.g., burglary) may be…

  11. Socio-demographic characteristics of substance abusers admitted to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic characteristics of substance abusers admitted to a private specialist clinic. ... The results show that substance abuse is largely a problem of the young/adolescent males (p<0.05). There are significant differences between male and female substance abuses (p<0.05). Some of them seek treatment four to ...

  12. Relationship between substance abuse and first-episode psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effect of substance abuse on psychosis in terms of onset, duration, severity of symptoms, use of medication ... Subjects in the first-episode psychosis group were more likely to choose cannabis as their substance of abuse than controls. They also started abusing substances at a younger age than controls.

  13. Consommation de substances psychoactives des étudiants universitaires libanais : prévalence et facteurs associés

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Salameh; S Rachidi; A Al-Hajje; S Awada; K Chouaib; N Saleh; W Bawab

    2015-01-01

      Scientific research on use and misuse of substances in Lebanon is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of use and abuse of substances among Lebanese youth and identify the determinants and risk factors behind these behaviours...

  14. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  15. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...

  16. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  17. Novel psychoactive substances: An investigation of temporal trends in social media and electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolliakou, A; Ball, M; Derczynski, L; Chandran, D; Gkotsis, G; Deluca, P; Jackson, R; Shetty, H; Stewart, R

    2016-10-01

    Public health monitoring is commonly undertaken in social media but has never been combined with data analysis from electronic health records. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in social media and their appearance in a large mental health database. Insufficient numbers of mentions of other NPS in case records meant that the study focused on mephedrone. Data were extracted on the number of mephedrone (i) references in the clinical record at the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK, (ii) mentions in Twitter, (iii) related searches in Google and (iv) visits in Wikipedia. The characteristics of current mephedrone users in the clinical record were also established. Increased activity related to mephedrone searches in Google and visits in Wikipedia preceded a peak in mephedrone-related references in the clinical record followed by a spike in the other 3 data sources in early 2010, when mephedrone was assigned a 'class B' status. Features of current mephedrone users widely matched those from community studies. Combined analysis of information from social media and data from mental health records may assist public health and clinical surveillance for certain substance-related events of interest. There exists potential for early warning systems for health-care practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychoactive Substance Consumption in Recreational Settings among University Students in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Irene

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of psychoactive substances (PAS is a public health problem in Colombia andworldwide. The people who consume such substances are becoming younger, and their effectsare potentially harmful and may affect all areas of adjustment of the individual. Although it hasbeen conceived that way, the use of PAS is not always associated with personal problems or highdegrees of stress. There may be other motivations associated. Objective: The objectives of thisarticle are to present: (a the relative frequency of consumption of PAS among college students,(b which are the PAS consumed most by college students and differences in their consumptionby sex and by age, (3 the relationship between the consumption of PAS and contexts of diversion.Materials and methods: This is a descriptive correlational study derived from an Italian researchproject, in which the sample were 226 college students from four undergraduate programs ofa private university in Bogotá DC, selected using a stratified random sampling procedure withproportional allocation. Participants filled out a questionnaire. Results: The PAS with the highestconsumption were alcohol, nicotine and marijuana. Males predominantly showed an increasedconsumption. The results are consistent with the national trend. Conclusion: The consumptionof SPA among college students is high and some recreational contexts are closely associated withthis behaviour.

  19. Crisis intervention related to the use of psychoactive substances in recreational settings--evaluating the Kosmicare Project at Boom Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Carmo; de Sousa, Mariana Pinto; Frango, Paula; Dias, Pedro; Carvalho, Joana; Rodrigues, Marta; Rodrigues, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Kosmicare project implements crisis intervention in situations related to the use of psychoactive substances at Boom Festival (Portugal). We present evaluation research that aims to contribute to the transformation of the project into an evidence-based intervention model. It relies on harm reduction and risk minimization principles, crisis intervention models, and Grof's psychedelic psychotherapy approach for crisis intervention in situations related to unsupervised use of psychedelics. Intervention was expected to produce knowledge about the relation between substance use and mental health impact in reducing potential risk related to the use of psychoactive substances and mental illness, as well as an impact upon target population's views of themselves, their relationship to substance use, and to life events in general. Research includes data on process and outcome indicators through a mixed methods approach, collected next to a sample of n=176 participants. Sample size varied considerably, however, among different research measures. 52% of Kosmicare visitors reported LSD use. Over 40% also presented multiple drug use. Pre-post mental state evaluation showed statistically significant difference (pcrisis resolution. Crisis episodes that presented no resolution were more often related with mental health outburst episodes, with psychoactive substance use or not. Visitors showed high satisfaction with intervention (n=58) and according to follow-up (n=18) this perception was stable over time. Crisis intervention was experienced as very significant. We discuss limitations and implications of evaluating natural setting based interventions, and the relation between psychoactive substance use and psychopathology. Other data on visitor's profile and vulnerability to crisis showed inconclusive.

  20. An agenda to combat substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    Despite their huge health toll, substance abuse disorders remain underappreciated and underfunded. Reasons include stigma, tolerance of personal choices, acceptance of youthful experimentation, pessimism about treatment efficacy, fragmented and weak leadership, powerful tobacco and alcohol industries, underinvestment in research, and difficult patients. Positive signs include declining prevalence rates, successful counter-marketing campaigns, changing public attitudes, new scientific discoveries that could yield new treatments, and effective new organizations. Further progress will require better treatment, more research, better education of health professionals, more nongovernmental support, and stronger leadership. Policy changes regarding each of the three substance groups are indicated, as are reforms in the criminal justice and educational systems.

  1. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among middle and high school students in the North Center of Morocco: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouq, B; Bendaou, B; El Asri, A; Achour, S; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R; Lyoussi, B; Khelafa, S; Bout, A; Berhili, N; Hlal, H; Najdi, A; Nejjari, C; El Rhazi, K

    2016-06-04

    Data on psychoactive substance (PAS) consumption among adolescents in the North Center of Morocco are not at all available. Therefore, the current study aimed at investigating the prevalence and the determinants of psychoactive substances use among middle and high school students in this region. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in public middle and high schools in the North Central Region of Morocco. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess psychoactive substances use among a representative sample of school students from the 7th to the 12th grade, aged 11-23 years, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. Factors associated with psychoactive substance use were identified using multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. A total of 3020 school students completed the questionnaires, 53.0 % of which were males. The overall lifetime smoking prevalence was 16.1 %. The lifetime, annual and past month rates of any psychoactive substance use among the study subjects were 9.3, 7.5, and 6.3 % respectively. Cannabis recorded the highest lifetime prevalence of 8.1 %, followed by alcohol 4.3 %, inhalants 1.7 %, psychotropic substances without medical prescription 1.0, cocaine 0.7, heroine 0.3, and amphetamine with only 0.2 %. Psychoactive substance use was associated with males more than females. The risk factors identified by multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were being male, studying in secondary school level, smoking tobacco, living with a family member who uses tobacco, and feeling insecure within the family. The prevalence among all school students reported by the current study was comparable to the national prevalence. Efforts to initiate psychoactive substance prevention programs among school students should be made by designing such programs based on the significant factors associated with psychoactive substance use identified in this study.

  2. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among middle and high school students in the North Center of Morocco: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zarrouq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on psychoactive substance (PAS consumption among adolescents in the North Center of Morocco are not at all available. Therefore, the current study aimed at investigating the prevalence and the determinants of psychoactive substances use among middle and high school students in this region. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in public middle and high schools in the North Central Region of Morocco. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess psychoactive substances use among a representative sample of school students from the 7th to the 12th grade, aged 11–23 years, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. Factors associated with psychoactive substance use were identified using multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 3020 school students completed the questionnaires, 53.0 % of which were males. The overall lifetime smoking prevalence was 16.1 %. The lifetime, annual and past month rates of any psychoactive substance use among the study subjects were 9.3, 7.5, and 6.3 % respectively. Cannabis recorded the highest lifetime prevalence of 8.1 %, followed by alcohol 4.3 %, inhalants 1.7 %, psychotropic substances without medical prescription 1.0, cocaine 0.7, heroine 0.3, and amphetamine with only 0.2 %. Psychoactive substance use was associated with males more than females. The risk factors identified by multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were being male, studying in secondary school level, smoking tobacco, living with a family member who uses tobacco, and feeling insecure within the family. Conclusions The prevalence among all school students reported by the current study was comparable to the national prevalence. Efforts to initiate psychoactive substance prevention programs among school students should be made by designing such programs based on the significant factors associated with psychoactive

  3. "Someone Else's Problem": New Psychoactive Substances in the Online Hungarian Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, Szilvia; Rácz, József; Nagy, Alexandra; Bíbók, Tamás; Galambvári, Éva; Kilián, Csillag; Gyarmathy, V Anna

    2017-01-01

    Media monitoring is an important method to inform public health and prevention services about emerging health issues, such as new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study assessed the portrayal of NPS in online Hungarian media in 2015 using qualitative content analysis. Hungarian online media considers the dealer to be the main cause of drug use, which is portrayed as a problem for youth, poor people, minorities, and rural populations. The point of view of the articles is externalized, and so is the solution offered by them. From the perspective of the police or using a biomedical approach, the articles suggest that drug use is an individual (someone else's) problem, and the perspectives of insiders (such as users or addiction treatment professionals) are absent. The media portrays low socioeconomic background and the hopelessness of disadvantaged rural and mostly minority populations as the roots of NPS use, and misses the pressing incapability of health care emergency and drug treatment services to cope with the problem. The dominant portrayal of police raids is rarely counterbalanced by voices of active or recovering drug users or professionals in addiction treatment and harm reduction, who could offer a systematic solution to the apparent rapid spread of NPS use.

  4. The interaction of public-school teachers with student users of psychoactive substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Castro Rossi L.C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and early use of psychoactive substances by children and adolescents represents a challenge to public-health practice. To understand teachers' interactions with student users of drugs and develop a representative theoretical model of such experience this study was conducted. Qualitative study conducted in Sro Paulo, Brazil, with 32 teachers from public schools by means of focal groups and based on the Grounded Theory as its methodological framework. Progressively comprehensive categories converged to three phenomena: Identifying student's users; Feeling powerless in face the challenges of drugs use; Silencing to preserve oneself from a threatening scenario. These phenomena constructed the core category of the experience: Silencing to preserve oneself from a threatening scenario in face of the fragility of rescuing student's users of drugs. The clash between inducing and protective factors in the concrete situations of drugs use was revealed, thus pointing out that the lack of State and social support associated with the user's relation with drug trafficking and violence leads teachers to silence as they feel unprotected in face of a situation surrounded by stigma and prejudice. Coping strategies should include the educators, relatives, health care professionals and government institutions, thus providing ways to prevent and treat use, orientate and reconstruct lives in a process of active participation for all students

  5. Family Characterization of Young Experimental Consumers of Psychoactive Substances Seen in the Toxicology Department at Colsubsidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olarte-Olarte María Francisca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation characterized families of adolescents experimenting with psychoactive substances(PAS consumption. Materials and methods: For this purpose, a qualitative study witha hermeneutical emphasis was conducted among a population of adolescents between the agesof 12 and 17 who have experimented with PAS. Semi-structured interviews were conductedwith patients and their families employing a flexible protocol of 14 categories. Results: The findingsshowed low levels of family cohesion and sense of family identity, inconsistency betweeneducational patterns followed by the parents, as well as deficient parental support. Similarly,the findings indicate significant peer influence during the first stages of consumption of illegalsubstances. In this regard, the findings suggest that more than providing physical satisfaction,consumption represents a form of acquiring prestige and social position while granting a sensationof psychological, emotional and social well-being. Conclusions: Parental influence wasalso found considerable in regarding the consumption of legal PAS, like alcohol and tobacco. Thestudy identified as a high-priority need to promote and incorporate communication and conflictresolution skills within the family dynamics by means of prevention and monitoring programs.Those skills and programs would be aimed at providing parents of adolescents experimentingwith PAS consumption with new educational tools to orientate new raising guidelines so as torespond appropriately to the problems identified in this study.

  6. Screening for substance abuse in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Steven D; Musick, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Several states have proposed laws that urine drug screening be performed as a part of qualifying for public assistance. At least one state (Florida) has passed such a law, and several other states are considering similar laws. The Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth created a committee to study laws and policies regarding the use of illegal drugs while pregnant. To get a better understanding of drug screening and pregnancy, 151 consecutive obstetrical patients receiving Medicaid were screened at their initial obstetrical visit by verbal and written questionnaire's concerning the use of alcohol, nicotine, and other illicit\\dangerous drugs; in addition a urine drug screen for the use of illicit or dangerous drugs was performed. The patient histories regarding the use of dangerous or illicit substances was reviewed and compared with the urine drug screens performed at the same visit. The authors note that when studied the incidence of substance abuse has been similar in patient population receiving public assistance and patient populations with traditional insurance. Oklahoma is one of 13 states with laws requiring mandatory reporting of substance abuse in pregnancy or the exposure of the newborn to illicit substances.

  7. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  8. Substance abuse and rehabilitation: responding to the global burden of diseases attributable to substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy

    2010-10-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the availability of treatment services, however, the vast majority of people with substance use disorders do not seek or use treatment. Barriers to and unmet need for evidence-based treatment are widespread even in the United States. Women, adolescents, and young adults are especially vulnerable to adverse effects from substance abuse, but they face additional barriers to getting evidence-based treatment or other social/medical services. Substance use behaviors and the diseases attributable to substance use problems are preventable and modifiable. Yet the ever-changing patterns of substance use and associated problems require combined research and policy-making efforts from all parts of the world to establish a viable knowledge base to inform for prevention, risk-reduction intervention, effective use of evidence-based treatment, and rehabilitation for long-term recovery. The new international, open-access, peer-reviewed Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation (SAR) journal strives to provide an effective platform for sharing ideas for solutions and disseminating research findings globally. Substance use behaviors and problems have no boundaries. The journal welcomes papers from all regions of the world that address any aspect of substance use, abuse/dependence, intervention, treatment, and policy. The "open-access" journal makes cutting edge knowledge freely available to practitioners and researchers worldwide, and this is particularly important for addressing the global disease burden attributable to substance abuse.

  9. Success rates in smoking cessation: Psychological preparation plays a critical role and interacts with other factors such as psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Bertrand; Perriot, Jean; d'Athis, Philippe; Chazard, Emmanuel; Brousse, Georges; Quantin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the results of smoking cessation attempts. Data were collected in Clermont-Ferrand from a smoking cessation clinic between 1999 and 2009 (1,361 patients). Smoking cessation was considered a success when patients were abstinent 6 months after the beginning of cessation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between abstinence and different factors. The significant factors were a history of depression (ORadjusted = 0.57, p = 0.003), state of depression at the initial consultation (ORa = 0.64, p = 0.005), other psychoactive substances (ORa = 0.52, psuccess was four times higher). A high score in the Richmond test had a greater impact on success with increasing age (significant interaction: p = 0.01). In exclusive smokers, the contemplation level in the Prochaska algorithm was enough to obtain a satisfactory abstinence rate (65.5%) whereas among consumers of other psychoactive substances, it was necessary to reach the preparation level in the Prochaska algorithm to achieve a success rate greater than 50% (significant interaction: p = 0.02). The psychological preparation of the smoker plays a critical role. The management of smoking cessation must be personalized, especially for consumers of other psychoactive substances and/or smokers with a history of depression.

  10. Psychoactive substances belonging to the amphetamine class potently activate brain carbonic anhydrase isoforms VA, VB, VII, and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Andrea; Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-12-01

    Identifying possible new biological activities of psychoactive substances belonging to various chemical classes may lead to a better understanding of their mode of action and side effects. We report here that amines structurally related to amphetamine, a widely used psychoactive substance, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, mephentermine, and chlorphenteramine, potently activate several carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms involved in important physiological functions. Of the 11 investigated human (h) isoforms, the widespread hCA I and II, the secreted hCA VI, as well as the cytosolic hCA XIII, and membrane-bound hCA IX and XIV were poorly activated by these amines, whereas the extracellular hCA IV, the mitochondrial enzymes hCA VA/VB, the cytosolic hCA VII, and the transmembrane isoform hCA XII were potently activated. Some of these enzymes are abundant in the brain, raising the possibility that some of the cognitive effects of such psychoactive substances might be related to their activation of these enzymes.

  11. Psychoactive substances as a last resort-a qualitative study of self-treatment of migraine and cluster headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Persson, Mari; Kjellgren, Anette

    2017-09-05

    Treatment resistant cluster headache and migraine patients are exploring alternative treatments online. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension regarding the use of non-established or alternative pharmacological treatments used by sufferers of cluster headaches and migraines. A qualitative thematic analysis of the users' own accounts presented in online forum discussions were conducted. The forum boards https://shroomery.org/ , http://bluelight.org , and https://clusterbusters.org/ met the inclusion criteria and were used for the study. The analysis resulted in six themes: a desperate need for effective treatments; the role of the forum-finding alternative treatments and community support; alternative treatment substances; dosage and regimens; effects and treatment results; and adverse effects. The results provide an insight into why, how, and by which substances and methods sufferers seek relief from cluster headache and migraines. These patients are in a desperate and vulnerable situation, and illicit psychoactive substances are often considered a last resort. There appeared to be little or no interest in psychoactive effects per se as these were rather tolerated or avoided by using sub-psychoactive doses. Primarily, psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related psychedelic tryptamines were reportedly effective for both prophylactic and acute treatment of cluster headache and migraines. Treatment results with cannabis were more unpredictable. No severe adverse events were reported, but it was observed how desperation sometimes spurred risky behavior when obtaining and testing various treatment alternatives. The forum discourse mainly revolved around maximizing treatment results and minimizing potential harms.

  12. I like the old stuff better than the new stuff? Subjective experiences of new psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Allison; Sutherland, Rachel; Peacock, Amy; Van Buskirk, Joe; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Burns, Lucinda; Bruno, Raimondo

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, monitoring systems have identified the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS). While the use of many NPS is minimal and transitory, little is known about which products have potential for capturing the attention of significant proportions of the drug consuming market. The aim of this study was to explore self-reported experiences of three commonly used NPS classes within the Australian context (synthetic cathinones, hallucinogenic phenethylamines and hallucinogenic tryptamines) relative to traditional illicit drug counterparts. Frequent psychostimulant consumers interviewed for the Australian Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) (n=1208) provided subjective ratings of the pleasurable and negative (acute and longer-term) effects of substances used in the last six months on the last occasion of use, and the likelihood of future use. Stimulant-type NPS (e.g., mephedrone, methylone) were rated less favourably than ecstasy and cocaine in terms of pleasurable effects and likelihood of future use. DMT (a hallucinogenic tryptamine) showed a similar profile to LSD in terms of pleasurable effects and the likelihood of future use, but negative effects (acute and comedown) were rated lower. Hallucinogenic phenethylamines (e.g., 2C-B) showed a similar negative profile to LSD, but were rated as less pleasurable and less likely to be used again. The potential for expanded use of stimulant-type NPS may be lower compared to commonly used stimulants such as ecstasy and cocaine. In contrast, the potential of DMT may be higher relative to LSD given the comparative absence of negative effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, Deborah A

    2006-01-01

    ...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...

  14. Substance abuse and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, logistic regression revealed that only alcohol abuse (B = -1.383, df = 1, p = .002) predicted non adherence to ART. We recommend the screening of patients on ART for substance abuse and a multi-disciplinary approach to the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Keywords: HIV, substance abuse, medication adherence ...

  15. Substance-Abusing Women: False Stereotypes and Real Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Margaret E.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews and interprets some recent literature on substance abuse problems and treatments among women. Major risk factors include childhood sexual or physical abuse, domestic violence, and a spouse or partner who abuses substances. Discusses the enormous problems of access to treatment for women with minor children. (JPS)

  16. Psychological Correlates of Substance Abuse in Non-psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Personality and other psychological variables have been suggested to be closely related to drug abuse. An understanding of such relationship could be beneficial in the management of patients with substance abuse. Aim: The study investigated psychological correlates of substance abuse psychiatric patients.

  17. Pattern of Substance Abuse among Clients at a Drug Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Substance abuse is a worldwide problem and public health issue with attendant health, social, and economic consequences. However, the types of substances and pattern of abuse vary from place to place and with time. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of substance use with the specific ...

  18. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  19. Substance abuse and rehabilitation: responding to the global burden of diseases attributable to substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Tzy Wu

    2010-01-01

    Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the...

  20. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers: comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Verstraete, Alain G

    2012-07-10

    To compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May 2010 were included. Blood samples were taken and analysed for ethanol (with an enzymatic method) and 22 other psychoactive substances (UPLC-MS/MS or GC-MS). In total 535 injured drivers were included in the study (BE: 348; NL: 187). More drivers were found positive for alcohol and drugs in Belgium (52.6%) than in the Netherlands (33.9%). Alcohol (≥0.1 g/L) was the most prevalent substance in both countries (BE: 42.5%; NL: 29.6%). A similar prevalence was found for amphetamine (BE: 2.6%; NL: 2.2%) and cocaine (BE: 2.3%; NL: 2.1%). In the Netherlands almost no positive findings for cannabis were recorded (0.5%). No driver tested positive for benzodiazepines in the Netherlands compared to 7.3% in Belgium. More injured drivers tested positive for Z-drugs (BE: 1.8%; NL: 0.5%) and medicinal opioids (BE: 3.3%; NL: 0.5%) in Belgium. The prevalence of alcohol in seriously injured drivers was 12% higher found in Belgium than in the Netherlands. The prevalence of drugs was similar in both countries except for THC and medicinal drugs, particularly benzodiazepines, with a much higher prevalence in Belgium. In comparison to previous survey there were differences in the prevalence of THC, benzodiazepines and combinations of drugs. Possible explanations are the different matrix used, a bias in study population, or in case of illicit opiates and benzodiazepines a different consumption pattern in the two countries. Alcohol is still the most prevalent substance among the injured driver population and this increased the last 15 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attitudes and Beliefs About New Psychoactive Substance Use Among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Acosta, Patricia; Cleland, Charles M

    2018-02-23

    Attitudes and beliefs about drug use have been shown to be robust correlates of use of drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; however, little is known regarding attitudes or beliefs about new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to examine attitudes and beliefs about NPS and how they relate to self-reported use in a high-risk population-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. 1,048 individuals (age 18-40) were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City in 2016. We queried lifetime use and attitudes and beliefs specific to NBOMe, 2C series drugs, "bath salts" (synthetic cathinones), tryptamines, dissociative NPS, and synthetic cannabinoids. More than half the sample reported being unfamiliar with NPS other than "bath salts" and synthetic cannabinoids. "Bath salts" received the highest ratings of strong disapproval (34.3%), followed by synthetic cannabinoids (23.3%), compared to other NPS (10-14%). "Bath salts" were perceived to be a great risk by 43.1% of the sample, followed by synthetic cannabinoids (27.0%), and other NPS (12-16%). "Bath salts" were reportedly least likely to be used if offered (2.9%). In multivariable models, reporting no disapproval towards use was associated with increased odds of reporting use of 2C drugs, "bath salts", and tryptamines. Having friends who use and reporting intent to use or willingness to use if offered were also associated with use of various NPS classes. This study delineated attitudinal and belief-related correlates of use of various NPS classes. Results can inform prevention effects as NPS continue to emerge.

  2. Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances among attendees of electronic dance music venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Acosta, Patricia; Sherman, Scott; Ompad, Danielle C; Cleland, Charles M

    2016-11-01

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) continue to emerge in the United States and worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of use. We examined the extent of NPS use in a high-risk population-attendees of electronic dance music (EDM) parties at nightclubs and festivals. We surveyed 682 adults (age 18-25) entering EDM events at nightclubs and festivals in New York City (NYC) in 2015. A variation of time-space sampling was used. We examined the prevalence of self-reported use of 196 NPS and correlates of any NPS use. Over a third (35.1%) of participants reported lifetime use of any NPS. Self-reported use of synthetic cannabinoids was most prevalent (16.3%), followed by psychedelic phenethylamines (14.7%; 2C series: 10.3%, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine [NBOMe] series: 9.0%, Dox series: 3.5%), synthetic cathinones ("bath salts", 6.9%), other psychedelics (6.6%), tryptamines (5.1%), and dissociatives (4.3%). 2C-I was the most prevalent 2C series drug (5.1%); methylone was the most prevalent synthetic cathinone (3.3%), 2-MeO-ketamine was the most prevalent dissociative (3.7%), and 1P-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (2.9%) was the most prevalent non-phenethylamine psychedelic. Risk factors for NPS use included Ecstasy/MDMA/Molly, LSD, and ketamine use; identifying as bisexual (compared to heterosexual), reporting higher frequency of nightclub/festival attendance, and being surveyed outside of a festival (compared to those surveyed outside of nightclubs). NPS use is prevalent in the nightclub and festival scenes in NYC. Since individuals in these scenes-especially frequent attendees-are at high risk for use, prevention and harm reduction services need to be geared toward this population.

  3. The diverse reasons for using Novel Psychoactive Substances - A qualitative study of the users' own perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussan, Christophe; Andersson, Martin; Kjellgren, Anette

    2017-12-11

    The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users' self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively. The self-reported reasons of a self-selected sample of 613 international NPS users were collected via an online survey promoted at the international drug discussion forum bluelight.org and later analyzed qualitatively using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis showed that the participants used NPS because these compounds reportedly: 1) enabled safer and more convenient drug use, 2) satisfied a curiosity and interest about the effects, 3) facilitated a novel and exciting adventure, 4) promoted self-exploration and personal growth, 5) functioned as coping agents, 6) enhanced abilities and performance, 7) fostered social bonding and belonging, and 8) acted as a means for recreation and pleasure. The consumption of NPS was also driven by 9) problematic and unintentional use. The present study contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of the users' own and self-reported reasons for using NPS, which needs to be acknowledged not only in order to minimize drug related harm and drug user alienation but also to improve prevention efforts and reduce the potentially counter-intuitive effects of strictly prohibitive policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental health professional perception of the embracement towards psychoactive substance user in CAPSad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bernardoni Salles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to chemical dependency treatment is still a great challenge for both, users and health care professionals. Currently, public healthcare policy is a tool to assist in the development of a humanized care model, which advocates for the practice of user inclusion. Objective: Investigate the perception of professionals who work in the mental health field, to understand the inclusion offered to users of psychoactive substances in Psychosocial Care Centers for alcohol and drug users (CAPSad. Method: A descriptive and exploratory study conducted at the CAPSad in São Paulo. Active professionals in the mental health field working at the CAPSad participated in the present study. For data collection a semi-structured questionnaire was used with 27 self-report questions, 15 closed questions, analyzed through statistics and 12 open questions, with speech analysis. Results: The questionnaires of six professionals with a mean of 14.3 years working at the CAPSad, revealed that they had no prior training about inclusion. Five participants responded that they carried out inclusion in the presence of the family, four responded without the presence of family and just one responded according to user choice (each participant could choose more than one option. The results show ambiguity regarding the concept of user inclusion, as all reported that inclusion hampers user reception, qualified listening, guidance and making necessary referrals. Conclusion: The need to create formal spaces for knowledge exchange, case discussion, and encourage professional training, promoting the identity of the service and improving user adherence to treatment was highlighted.

  5. Addiction and substance abuse in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Ethan O; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

    2008-11-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace, and outcomes have not appreciably changed. Although alcoholism and other forms of impairment, such as addiction to other substances and mental illness, impact anesthesiologists at rates similar to those in other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology, and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when comorbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt reentry into clinical practice.

  6. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…

  7. Moderators and mediators of treatments for youth with substance abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, L.; Lavigne, A.; Wood, M.; Wiers, R.W.; Maric, M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Ollendick, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period when substance use problems often emerge. Accordingly, efficacious, empirically valdated interventions, which can arrest the development of substance abuse by targeting etiologically relevant risk, promotive, and protective factors, are critically important. Enhanced

  8. 78 FR 45544 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council will meet August 14, 2013, 9:00 a.m.--4:30 p.m...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse...

  9. Substance Abuse among Drivers of Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohamad; Kariman, Hamid; Arhamidolatabadi, Ali; Safari, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Motor vehicle collisions (MVC) comprise a majority cause of referral to the emergency department (ED). A large proportion of MVC appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after substance abuse can be implemented. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of substance abuse among drivers of MVC, following road traffic accidents (RTA). Materials and Methods: This case-control research was conducted from July to October 2007. One hundred MVC drivers admitted in the ED were included as the case group and 110 hospitalized patients, due to nontraumatic causes were used as controls. History of substances abused was obtained and urine samples were tested for opium in both groups. Finally the history and laboratory results of the groups were compared using SPSS 18. Results: Of the 100 patients in the case group, 39 (39%) were positive for substance abuse (100% males). On the other hand, 49 (44.5%) patients in the control group had positive history or laboratory findings of substance abuse (73.9% male). Opioids were the most common agent abused in both groups. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding the prevalence of substance abuse (P = 0.92). Conclusions: The prevalence of substance abuse is high among victims of road traffic injury but in equal proportion to the control group. Health education and counseling is needed to reduce substance abuse in the general population although it was not significantly related to the cause of RTA. PMID:24829889

  10. Survey of current trends in the abuse of psychotropic substances and plants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Goda, Yukihiro

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, many analogs of narcotics have been widely distributed as easily available psychotropic substances and have become a serious problem in Japan. To counter the spread of these non-controlled substances, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan was amended in 2006 to establish a new category, "designated substances", to more strictly control these psychotropic substances. Fifty-one substances have been listed in this category as of December 2010. However, many new analogs have appeared, one after the other. Although the distribution of tryptamine-type designer drugs has decreased since the amendment of the law, the distribution of cathinone derivatives, as well as of phenetylamine-type and piperazine-type designer drugs, has increased. Moreover, non-controlled psychotropic plants have become popular in place of chemical psychotropic substances, which are now subject to stricter controls. Additionally, since 2008, new herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids (for example, a brand named "Spice") have appeared. Sixteen synthetic cannabinoids, classified into four groups, have been detected in products purchased up to December 2010 via Japanese-based websites. The distribution of products containing the psychoactive substances described above (so-called "legal highs" in European countries) is a worldwide problem. In this review, we survey current trends in the abuse of psychotropic substances and plants in Japan, focusing especially on synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives and psychotropic plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlates of MMPI-A Substance Abuse Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Nicholas T.

    1997-01-01

    The correlates of 16 scales for the identification of substance abuse developed for the adolescent form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were studied with 180 adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse. As expected, previously validated scales were reliably and positively correlated with therapists' ratings of behavioral…

  12. University and family collaboration in substance abuse intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    show that parental involvement, reactions and anticipated consequences were significant factors in substance abuse treatment and prevention among university students. The extended family also emerged as a protective factor for the development of substance abuse behavior amongst university students. This study ...

  13. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: A Synthesis of Controlled Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A synthesis was conducted to assess outcome findings and methodological characteristics of controlled evaluations of adolescent substance abuse treatments. Method: Extensive computerized and manual bibliographic searches were employed to identify controlled evaluations of adolescent substance abuse treatment. Meta-analytic techniques…

  14. Substance Abuse and the Workplace. Technical Assistance Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    According to the United States Department of Labor, 73% of drug users in 1997 were employed. Numerous studies, reports, and surveys suggest that substance abuse is having a negative effect on the workplace in terms of decreased productivity; increased accidents; absenteeism; turnover; and medical costs. However, workplace substance abuse is a…

  15. Joint Solutions to Substance Abuse: Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and Local Government Labor-Management Committee, Washington, DC.

    This short booklet is a joint expression by public sector labor and management that recognizes that neither side has all the answers to the problems of employee substance abuse and that both share a common concern for a successful outcome. The booklet summarizes the dimension of substance abuse in today's workplace; and it tries to encourage…

  16. Gender Differences Regarding Peer Influence and Attitude toward Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…

  17. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  18. The Response to Conjugal Violence in Substance Abuse Treatment Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas G.; Caplan, Thomas; Seraganian, Peter; Werk, Annette

    The linkage between conjugal violence and substance abuse is well established. The evidence suggests that little coordination exists among the therapeutic communities positioned to treat co-existing problems. A survey was conducted in Quebec with professionals representing 57 substance abuse treatment centers, 38 of which were public. Questions…

  19. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...

  20. Gender and Peer Influence on Substance Abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a survey research study which investigated gender and peer influence on substance abuse among undergraduates in Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria. 513 undergraduates were purposively selected for the study. The researchers designed the instrument, Gender and Peer Influence on Substance Abuse ...

  1. Residential Treatment for the ADHD Adolescent Substance Abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Loree; Wallace, John L.

    1994-01-01

    Substance abusing adolescents (n=30) with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and substance abusing non-ADHD (n=30) adolescents were compared in terms of treatment outcomes. Although treatment outcomes did not vary significantly, a difference was observed in actual length of stay. Those with a behavior diagnosis stayed an average of 36…

  2. The Evolution of an Online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…

  3. The Marihuana Perception Inventory: The Effects of Substance Abuse Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia

    1990-01-01

    Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…

  4. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  5. Comorbidity of Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews substance abuse disorders in schizophrenia patients, including prevalence of comorbid disorders, assessment, hypothesized mechanisms underlying abuse, and clinical effects of abuse on course of illness and cognitive functioning. Outlines principles of treatment for dual-diagnosis schizophrenia patients, noting limitations of existing…

  6. 78 FR 53789 - Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... CONTROL POLICY Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related... Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference highlighting promising... call ONDCP's Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference...

  7. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  8. Legal challenges for substance abuse treatment during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Mojtabai, Ramin; Rodman, Sarah O; Kaufmann, Christopher N

    2012-01-01

    Certain groups with preexisting mental and behavioral health conditions, such as substance use disorders, may be especially vulnerable during and shortly after disasters. Researchers have found that substance abuse treatment programs and the individuals they serve experienced major disruptions after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and after Hurricane Katrina. This column considers legal challenges that may arise when a rapid influx of licensed providers is needed for substance abuse treatment during disasters and reviews specific legal issues that disasters may raise for opioid treatment programs. Opportunities to mitigate legal challenges and facilitate substance abuse treatment during disasters are discussed.

  9. Underlying substance abuse problems in drunk drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snenghi, Rossella; Forza, Giovanni; Favretto, Donata; Sartore, Daniela; Rodinis, Silvia; Terranova, Claudio; Nalesso, Alessandro; Montisci, Massimo; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate polydrug use in drunk drivers. The experimental study was conducted on 2,072 drunk drivers undergoing a driving license reissue protocol at the Department of Legal Medicine of Padova University Hospital in the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The study protocol involved anamnesis, clinical examination, toxicological history, and toxicological analyses on multiple biological samples. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven subjects (90.6%) were assessed as fit to drive, and 195 (9.5%) were declared unfit. Among those unfit, 32 subjects (1.6%) were declared unfit due to recent use of an illicit drug (time span drive after completeness of the protocol was established in 1.2% of cases for alcohol disorders and in 5.7% of cases for illicit drug abuse; only one subject was included in both subgroups. Cocaine was the most widely used substance, followed by cannabis, opiates, and psychotropic pharmaceutical drugs. The application of the protocol presented in this study allowed the identification of underlying polydrug use in drunk drivers. The study led to the identification of 6.8% unfit subjects on the basis of alcohol disorders and/or drug abuse, compared to 1.2% of identifiable unfitness if the protocol were limited to the mere assessment of alcohol consumption. The frequent association of alcohol and cocaine is different from other patterns of use in North Europe countries.

  10. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sanz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology (“what it feels like” to experience these states is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception (“see,” “visual,” “face,” “reality,” “color”, emotion (“fear”, setting (“outside,” “inside,” “street,” “front,” “behind” and relatives (“mom,” “dad,” “brother,” “parent,” “family” were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain

  11. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  12. Characteristics of transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Flentje, A; Heck, NC; Sorensen, JL

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear...

  13. Headspace analysis of new psychoactive substances using a Selective Reagent Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe; Lanza, Matteo; Agarwal, Bishu; Jürschik, Simone; Sulzer, Philipp; Breiev, Kostiantyn; Jordan, Alfons; Hartungen, Eugen; Hanel, Gernot; Märk, Lukas; Mayhew, Chris A.; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion in the number and use of new psychoactive substances presents a significant analytical challenge because highly sensitive instrumentation capable of detecting a broad range of chemical compounds in real-time with a low rate of false positives is required. A Selective Reagent Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (SRI-ToF-MS) instrument is capable of meeting all of these requirements. With its high mass resolution (up to m/Δm of 8000), the application of variations in reduced electric field strength (E/N) and use of different reagent ions, the ambiguity of a nominal (monoisotopic) m/z is reduced and hence the identification of chemicals in a complex chemical environment with a high level of confidence is enabled. In this study we report the use of a SRI-ToF-MS instrument to investigate the reactions of H3O+, O2+, NO+ and Kr+ with 10 readily available (at the time of purchase) new psychoactive substances, namely 4-fluoroamphetamine, methiopropamine, ethcathinone, 4-methylethcathinone, N-ethylbuphedrone, ethylphenidate, 5-MeO-DALT, dimethocaine, 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran and nitracaine. In particular, the dependence of product ion branching ratios on the reduced electric field strength for all reagent ions was investigated and is reported here. The results reported represent a significant amount of new data which will be of use for the development of drug detection techniques suitable for real world scenarios. PMID:25844048

  14. Current challenges and problems in the field of new psychoactive substances in Germany from a law enforcement perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffert, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, a range of so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS) have established themselves on the German recreational drug scene, causing increased concern. At the same time, a great number of Internet shops have come into existence offering these substances for sale online, ensuring a high level of availability. A number of these substances derived from pharmaceutical research which did not result in marketing authorization, presumably due to unfavourable properties. There are hardly any reliable data on long-term health damage, addictive potential, and other aspects of these scientifically unexplored substances. A number of fatal intoxications have also become known. As a rule, the mostly young consumers do not know what substance they are taking and in what concentration, thus exposing themselves to incalculable health risks and consequences. The punishability of the handling of NPS depends on the actual content: the Narcotic Drugs Act (BtMG) is applicable if a product contains narcotic drugs. If similarly effective substances are contained, which are not classified as narcotic drugs, the (penal) provisions of the Medicinal Products Act might be applicable, if the product has a pharmaceutical effect. Experience gained so far has shown that manufacturers of these intoxicating substances react immediately to inclusions in the German BtMG and put new substances on the market which are chemically similar to the known substances thus circumventing legislation. In view of the immense variety of NPS and the enormous profits derived from their sale, an end to this development is not in sight. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Comparison of Body Image, Quality of Sleep and Marital Satisfaction among Substance Abuser and Non-substance Abuser Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.

  16. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis...... impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients...... with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse....

  17. Substance abuse among nurses--intercession and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Debra

    2005-11-01

    IT IS NOT EASY to report a coworker who may have a substance abuse problem, so many nurses choose to remain silent about this issue. THIS ARTICLE PROVIDES suggestions for staff nurses about how to confront a peer, document inappropriate nursing behaviors related to substance abuse, and report these issues to a manager. The manager's role in counseling and intercession with a substance abusing employee also is detailed. REMEDIATION AND SUPPORT programs are addressed along with return-to-work issues and the need for education about this debilitating disease.

  18. Substance abuse among nurses--defining the issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Debra

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse in the nurse population is believed to parallel that in the general population (i.e. approximately 10%). Nurses with substance abuse problems need help. They are in danger of harming patients, the facility's reputation, the nursing profession, and themselves. The consequences of not reporting concerns can be far worse than those of reporting the issue. Part one of this two-part series discusses how society views addiction and the nursing profession, signs and symptoms of substance abuse, reasons nurses should report an impaired colleague, the code of silence that exists among nurses, and board of nursing jurisdiction.

  19. Running away experience and psychoactive substance use among adolescents in Taiwan: multi-city street outreach survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew-Ting Chih-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine: 1 the relationship between being a runaway and the time since the first absconding event and adolescent substance use; 2 whether different kinds of psychoactive substances have a different temporal relationship to the first absconding event; and 3 whether the various reasons for the first absconding event are associated with different risks of substance use. Methods Participants were drawn from the 2004-2006 nationwide outreach programs across 26 cities/towns in Taiwan. A total of 17,133 participants, age 12-18 years, who completed an anonymous questionnaire on their experience of running away and substances use and who were now living with their families, were included in the analysis. Results The lifetime risk of tobacco, alcohol, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use increased steadily from adolescents who had experienced a trial runaway episode (one time lasting ≤ 1 day, to those with extended runaway experience (≥ 2 times or lasting > 1 day, when compared to those who had never ran away. Adolescents who had their first running away experience > 6 months previously had a greater risk of betel nut or illegal drug/inhalant use over the past 6-months than those with a similar experience within the last 6 months. Both alcohol and tobacco use were most frequently initiated before the first running away, whereas both betel nut and illegal drug/inhalant use were most frequently initiated after this event. When adolescents who were fleeing an unsatisfactory home life were compared to those who ran away for excitement, the risk of alcohol use was similar but the former tended to have a higher risk of tobacco, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use. Conclusions More significant running away and a longer time since the first absconding experience were associated with more advanced substance involvement among adolescents now living in a family setting. Once adolescents had left home, they

  20. Prevalence of Substance Abuse among Senior Secondary Students in Mainland Local Government, Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George N. Ani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Use of drugs among adolescents is a global phenomenon eating deep into the fabrics of our society. Students are most vulnerable at this transformative stage in their life. Available report indicates that Nigeria is currently the highest consumer of cannabis and amphetamine in Africa. What is the prevalence of this abuse by students? Methodology: This research was a cross sectional descriptive design to identify the prevalence of substance abuse among students in public senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government, Lagos. A sample size of two hundred and sixty two was determined and used from randomly selected five out of the nine public schools identified. Multi stage sampling (including simple random and systematic sampling and probability proportional to size methods were usefully employed in scientific selection of 262 samples and subsequent data collection in a total sample frame of 1,938 students. Self-administered questionnaire consisting of open and close-ended questions generated using research objectives was used in data collection. Result: It identified that 19.5% had smoked cigarette once or more in their lifetime. 77.2% had used alcohol once or more in a life time while 7.7% used marijuana, 8.4% tranquilizers and 1.9% cocaine all in a life time respectively. Conclusion: It recommended strict regulation of alcohol and tobacco products import and use in public places as well as aggressive dissemination of information on the dangers of substance use and abuse.

  1. Implementing a perinatal substance abuse screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Carol M; Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen

    2011-08-01

    Newborns exposed to illicit drugs or alcohol in utero can face physical, social, and emotional obstacles. Outcomes for children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorders are well documented in the literature. Data exist on the effects of maternal illicit drug use. Identifying perinatal substance abuse can increase positive outcomes for newborns and create the opportunity for mothers to access assistance through referrals to community resources.This article provides insight on how hospitals can implement an effective screening tool through patient surveying and testing, nurse education, and collaboration with community agencies in a multidisciplinary advisory committee setting.This discussed method of universal perinatal screening results in increased positive screens and increased referrals for care and support. Emphasis is placed on universal screening and testing methods. Nurses are trained in motivational interview techniques that convey empathy, listening, and objectivity. Community agencies partner with hospital staff through onsite meetings with families that determine the best discharge plan for the newborn. The multidisciplinary advisory committee meets continually to discuss future enhancements.

  2. Pyrethroid as a Substance of Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a 22-year-old Hispanic male with a history of bipolar disorder and methamphetamine dependence who was admitted after presenting with suicidal ideations by slashing his throat with a machete. The patient had been smoking and inhaling “processed” pyrethroid for about eight weeks as an inexpensive methamphetamine substitute. He reported experiencing a “rush” similar to methamphetamine after using pyrethroid from liquid insecticide that had been heated (electrocuted or sprayed on hot metal sheets until it crystallized. The patient presented with no significant physical markings or findings but claimed to have his suicidal ideations precipitated by concerns of ill effects of pyrethroid on his health. He also had positive urine drug screen for methamphetamine, which he admitted to using on the day of admission. We conclude that it is important for physicians to maintain a high level of suspicion for alternate and uncommon substances of abuse as well as risks for suicidal tendencies in these patients.

  3. University of the Free State medical students' view of at-risk drinking behaviour and psychoactive substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Smit

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate undergraduate medical students' knowledge of at-risk drinking behaviour and their own patterns of alcohol intake. The use of non-alcoholic psychoactive substances was also investigated. Design: A cross-sectional study design was used. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was completed by participants. Questionnaires were designed using the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for identifying at-risk drinking. Setting: The School of Medicine, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein. Subjects: Participants included first-, fourth- and fifth-year medical students enrolled in 2006. Results: 371/408 (90.9% questionnaires were returned. 10% of students who repeated an academic year ascribed it to substance use. The majority of students conservatively estimated the maximum daily and weekly safe levels of alcohol consumption for both men and women as notably lower than recommended by the guidelines. Nevertheless, 32% of students admitted to alcohol intake exceeding these limits, and 55.3% were identified as at-risk drinkers. Marijuana was the most common non-alcoholic substance used by medical students (14.6% in the preceding three years. Alcohol or other substances was most frequently used during social activities with friends. Conclusions: Medical students' knowledge of levels of alcohol intake associated with increased risks and their own drinking patterns might influence their approach to patients with alcohol-related problems. Therefore, education regarding at-risk drinking behaviour requires to be addressed.

  4. Non -governmental organisations' response to substance abuse and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non -governmental organisations' response to substance abuse and sexual behaviours of adolescent street children of Harare central business district. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader ...

  5. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families - Vietnamese Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  6. Origins and consequences of child neglect in substance abuse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marija G; Tarter, Ralph E; Mezzich, Ada C; Vanyukov, Michael; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina

    2002-09-01

    The empirical literature pertaining to the prevalence, origins, and consequences of neglectful parenting as it relates to substance abuse is critically reviewed. Available evidence indicates that children who experience parental neglect, with or without parental alcohol or drug abuse, are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD). The effects of parental substance abuse on substance abuse outcome of their children appear to be partly mediated by their neglectful parenting. The discussion concludes with presentation of a developmental multifactorial model in which neglect, in conjunction with other individual and environmental factors, can be integratively investigated to quantify the child's overall liability across successive stages of development as well as to map the trajectory toward good and poor outcomes.

  7. [Workplace and psychoactive substances dependence: certificate of eligibility for work and perspectives of prevention in the light of recent innovative regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigno, F; Debarbieri, N; Traversa, F

    2007-01-01

    The Authors consider a present widespread social problem i.e. the abuse and/or addiction to alcohol and drugs (psychoactive substances) with regard to the interferences and consequences it can have on one's working environment. In particular they look into the hardest problem an occupational physician has to face when required to pass judgement on a worker's specific duty fitness, which rightfully falls within the so-called "knotty qualifications". In addition the authors go over the rather complicated Italian laws regulating drugs, alcohol and their relevant problems, underlining how, despite the great number of regulations in force, it's still unclear what an occupational physician is allowed or not allowed to do in such cases. Although even the latest provisions fail to give a clue for correctly running such phenomena, the Authors suggest a diagnostic and rehabilitation/reinstating programme that, by involving the main operators in charge of prevention both at work and inside health territorial services, can set reasonable aims and feasible operating plans granting all due respect for the workers' dignity and self determination.

  8. [Modern approaches to the primary prevention of the development of psychoactive substance dependence on the base of accounting of environmental and genetic risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, A A; Aksenova, M G; Sinitsyna, O O; Kirillov, A V; Kozlova, O B

    2014-01-01

    In the work there was performed an assessment of the interaction of microsocial and genetic factors of the development of psychoactive substance (PS) dependence. The objects of the psycho-hygienic and molecular-genetic studies were 538 male patients from the specialized diagnostic and treatment center at the age from 17 to 65 years with a diagnosis of "PS dependence" according to F10-F09 in the ICD-10. There were determined personality predictors of early (before 25 years) manifestation of systematic abuse, such as low self-control, individualisticity, authoritarianism, unjustified optimism and reduced capacity for social adaptation. Manifestation of the PS dependence at an early age (25 years) is determined by the contribution of genotype 9R+ DAT gene in the combination with other predisposing genotypes A1 + DRD2/ANKK1, SS SERT and 7R+ DRD. The risk of development of PS dependence at a more younger age increases with the superimposition of individual predisposing genotypes ranging from 1,2 (7R+ gene DRD4) to 1,9 (A1 + gene DRD2/ANKK10 on a destructive milieu. Pairwise combinations of genotypes 7R+ DRD4 x A1+ DRD2, 7R+ DRD4 x 9R+ DAT, 9R+ DAT x A1+ DRD2, 9R+ DAT x SS SERT significantly increase the risk by 2 or more times (2.5-2.8). There was suggested an algorithm for the prenosological forecast of the development of PS dependence in adolescents and young men.

  9. Substance abuse counselors' experiences with victims of incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover-Graf, N M; Janikowski, T P

    2001-01-01

    Counselors delivering substance abuse treatment from within 39 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories (SACSCIH). The sample of 114 participants reported upon experiences and perceptions related to their incest-related training, identification of incest victims, prevalence of incest victims on their caseloads, and referral and treatment practices. Additionally, group comparisons provided information on differences based upon participants' gender, educational degree, recovery status, and experience with incest counseling.

  10. Finding the common ground: contemporary psychoanalysis and substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Debra; Gellman, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in psychoanalysis and substance abuse treatment are healing long-standing rifts that had kept these two fields apart. This article elaborates the historical positions that contributed to the schism and describes how the harm reduction model of substance abuse treatment and the relational orientation in psychoanalysis can bring them together. Three clinical examples illustrate how integrating these methods can offer an approach that is effective and comprehensive.

  11. Substance Abuse among Drivers of Motor Vehicle Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohamad; Kariman, Hamid; Arhamidolatabadi, Ali; Safari, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Motor vehicle collisions (MVC) comprise a majority cause of referral to the emergency department (ED). A large proportion of MVC appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after substance abuse can be implemented. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of substance abuse among drivers of MVC, following road traffic accidents (RTA). Materials and Methods: This case-control research was conducted from July to October 2007. One hundred...

  12. DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award Annual Report 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Award Number: W81XWH-15-2-0077 TITLE: DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rick Williams CONTRACTING...views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author (s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army

  13. Personnel-General: Army Substance Abuse Program (ASAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    civilians. c. All urine specimens will be forwarded to the supporting FTDTL. d. Illicit use of anabolic steroids by military members is recognized as an...Army Regulation 600–85 Personnel—General Army Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC 1 October 2001...Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number

  14. Stigma, treatment beliefs, and substance abuse treatment use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2004; 26: 237–242. 13. Cunningham JA, Sobell LC, Sobell MC, Agrawal S, Toneatto T. Barriers to treatment: Why alcohol and drug abusers delay or never seek treatment. Addictive Behaviours 1993; 18: 347-353. 14. Moos RH. Addictive behaviors in context: Principles and puzzles of.

  15. Substance abuse in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The increasing drug abuse globally has brought problems of increased violent crimes, transmittable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B viruses and tuberculosis. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess substance abuse in Sagamu Local Government, Ogun State. Material and Methods: A ...

  16. Qualitative screening for new psychoactive substances in wastewater collected during a city festival using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Kinyua, J.; Ruttkies, C.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Emke, E.; Covaci, A.; de Voogt, P.

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the wastewater-based epidemiology approach presents challenges, such as the reduced number of users that translates into low concentrations of residues and the limited pharmacokinetics information available, which renders the choice of target

  17. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... for treatment, does not qualify for FMLA leave. (b) Treatment for substance abuse does not prevent an...

  18. 78 FR 15961 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council on April 10, 2013. The meeting is open to the public and will...

  19. 75 FR 44265 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse. Type of Information Collection Request... Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the Web site SBIRTTraining.com , to positively... U.S. who treat substance abuse patients. The Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse is a...

  20. Fathers entering substance abuse treatment: An examination of substance abuse, trauma symptoms and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Hall, Chelsea; McMahon, Thomas J; Easton, Caroline J

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between fatherhood and both psychiatric distress and severity of substance abuse (SA) among men entering SA treatment has not been well explored. This study was designed to (a) examine differences in symptoms of men presenting for SA assessment based on fatherhood status and (b) determine how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and severity of SA were associated with parenting for men who were fathers. PTSD symptoms, severity of SA, and parenting data reported on structured questionnaires were collected from 126 men presenting for an SA evaluation at a forensic drug diversion clinic. There were no differences in severity of alcohol or drug use between fathers and nonfathers; however, fathers with more PTSD symptoms reported greater severity of alcohol and drug use. Among the fathers, PTSD symptoms correlated significantly and positively with negative parenting behaviors, whereas SA did not. Fathers with more significant PTSD symptoms were more likely to want help with parenting. Further exploration of the impact of trauma-related symptoms on the parenting behaviors of substance-abusing men is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the Diverse Needs of Children whose Parents Abuse Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509

  2. Understanding the diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M

    2012-06-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present.

  3. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  4. Diverted medications and new psychoactive substances-A chemical network analysis of discarded injecting paraphernalia in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, Valéria Anna; Péterfi, Anna; Figeczki, Tamás; Kiss, József; Medgyesi-Frank, Katalin; Posta, János; Csorba, József

    2017-08-01

    Until about 2010, people who inject drugs (PWIDs) injected almost exclusively heroin and amphetamines in Hungary. After 2010, self-reported studies have indicated a dominance of new psychoactive substances on the drug market for injectable drugs. Between March 2015 and February 2016, we collected used and discarded injecting paraphernalia. We utilized chemical analysis to assess and UCINet to visualize the connections between the most prevalent main substances and their respective co-occurring additional components at 7 locations in Hungary. The samples (n=2977) contained a mean of 4.5 components (SD=3.1, range: 1-18); 422 contained only one component. We found that the most common main components were the diverted substitution medication methadone (32%) and cathinones: pentedrone (18%), mephedrone (13%), alpha-PHP (8%), and alpha-PEP (5%). While these main substances also occurred among the top co-occurring additional components, caffeine and benzoic acid (a preservative) also frequently co-occurred. A large number of co-occurring additional components indicate either common reuse of injecting paraphernalia or the common addition of additives or both. While caffeine may indeed be an adulterant, the high prevalence of benzoic acid may be difficult to explain. The preference of methadone despite the availability of a wide array of drugs may indicate a preference for opioids during the current heroin drought and/or a true demand for opioid substitution therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Building Collaboration in Substance Abuse Treatment and Vocational Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Margaret K.; Moore, Lucas C.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the perceived external and internal issues that may have an effect on collaborative ventures designed to provide vocational rehabilitation services to persons with substance use disorders. Participants in the study were professionals from substance abuse (SA) treatment and vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies in 1 state…

  6. Rural realities in service provision for substance abuse: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is minimal research that has considered influences in mental health care service delivery in rural and disadvantaged communities in South Africa. Methods: A qualitative study with ... prevalence of substance users. Keywords: community occupational therapy, rural, service delivery, service providers, substance abuse ...

  7. Relationship of alexithymia to personality styles in people dependent on psychoactive substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Procházka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The addiction to psychoactive drugs still remains among the relevant research topics. The research herein focuses on the study and analysis of the relations among the alexithymia, and personality styles. The analyses of such psychological constructs may represent valuable views beneficial for the progress in the up-to-date addictology. The article deals with a number of topics, such as, definition of alexithymia, the issue of addictology and personality aspects.. The applied statistical methods are descriptive statistics, factor analysis, non-parametric Spearman's correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney U Test. The reason for choosing the non-parametric statistics has been the conclusion of the normality test pointing at the fact that the acquired data had not complied with the normal distribution assumption. The data collection methods were questionnaires TAS-20 (Toronto Alexithymia Scale to measure alexithymia, and PSSI (Personality Style and Disorder Inventory. The gross sample under research was represented by 55 probands, namely 14 women and 41 men. The data were collected in the Psychiatric Hospital of Marianna Oranžská in Bílá Voda. The obtained results enabled us to answer the postulated research questions, which were evaluated and the following conclusions were reached: In people addicted to alcohol alexithymia occurs in 41.83 %. In subjects addicted to psychoactive drugs with alexithymia there is a substantial difference in the personality styles of a schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, negativistic, borderline, histrionic, and self-defeating type. We believe that in this field of research there is still a huge gap to be filled, and we hope that the research may help to do so by enriching the knowledge with concrete results.

  8. How do nursing students perceive substance abusing nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Martha A; Nosek, Laura J

    2014-02-01

    Substance abuse among nurses was recognized by nurse leaders and professional nursing organizations as a growing threat to patient safety and to the health of the abusing nurse more than 30years ago. Although numerous studies on nurse impairment were published in the 1980s and 1990s, there was minimal focus on student nurses' perceptions about impaired nurses and less research has been published more recently, despite a growing rate of substance abuse. A quasi-experimental study to explore the perceptions of student nurses toward nurses who are chemically dependent was conducted using a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The Perception of Nurse Impairment Inventory (PNII) was completed by student nurses at the beginning of their junior course work, prior to formal education about substance abuse. The PNII was repeated after the students received substance abuse education. The PNII was also completed by a control group of sophomore student nurses who did not receive the formal substance abuse education. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to measure the differences between the two groups of students. Students who received the education chose more compassionate responses on the PNII and were more likely to respond that an impaired nurse's supervisor is responsible for supporting and guiding the impaired nurse to access professional care. Discrepancies in study findings about the efficacy of education for effecting positive attitudes of student nurses toward impaired nurses may be related to the length and type of the education. © 2014.

  9. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  10. Substance abuse among adolescents in the Limpopo province

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Cur. (Psychiatric Nursing) Globally, the use of substances which seem to be harmful in all life dimensions appear to be an alarming problem. Recent studies indicate that the use and abuse of these substances is more prevalent among adolescents than any other age group. This is so because there are enormous changes to the physical, psychological and social dimensions at this stage. The use of these substances is a daily occurrence and reality for many people. However, for some individuals...

  11. Awareness survey of so-called Dappou drugs or Kiken drugs (New Psychoactive Substances) among University Students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse-Nagase, Yasuko; Saito, Fukumi; Hirohara, Toshie; Miyakawa, Happei

    2015-10-09

    Spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a worldwide problem. In Japan, NPSs with psychoactive ingredients are called as "dappou drugs" or "kiken drugs." Their potential effect on the Japanese society cannot be ignored. We conducted an awareness survey of So-called Dappou Drugs or Kiken Drugs among the students of Ibaraki University, a national university in Japan, in April 2014. 3976 students (2425 men, 1406 women and 145 unspecified) participated in this study. 2813 (70.7 %) respondents were aware of dappou drugs. Only 39.5 % of the respondents selected the option of "ingredients that cause delusions and/or hallucinations may be included" in dappou drugs. 23.4 % of the respondents selected "the number of (dappou drug) users requiring emergency hospitalization due to acute intoxication is increasing". Of the respondents, 19 (0.5 %) reported that they had been invited to use dappou drugs previously, and 40 (1.0 %) had witnessed and/or heard of somebody close to them using the drugs. Those who drank alcohol every day and those who smoked had a higher chance of witnessing and/or hearing of somebody close to them using dappou drugs than those who did not drink or smoke, respectively. Japanese university students do not have sufficient knowledge about dappou drugs or kiken drugs to protect themselves from potential drug misuse. It is both important and urgent to educate Japanese university students about the harmful effects of dappou drugs; in addition, it is important to provide such knowledge before the students are allowed to legally drink and smoke.

  12. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  13. The impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder among patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, C.J.; Hansen, T.; Timm, S.

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and substance abuse are frequent phenomena among patients with schizophrenia and may be attributable in part to antipsychotic treatment failure. Individuals who carry functional variants of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes, shown to cause altered drug metabolism of psychoactive drugs......, are at risk of toxic accumulation or rapid elimination of these drugs, leading to treatment failure. We tested whether substance abuse disorder and suicidal behavior were associated with the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes among patients with schizophrenia. Three hundred sixty-two patients with schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) were genotyped for functional CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Based on available medical records and clinical interviews, their suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder were evaluated. No significant associations between...

  14. The impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder among patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Timm, Sally

    2008-01-01

    , are at risk of toxic accumulation or rapid elimination of these drugs, leading to treatment failure. We tested whether substance abuse disorder and suicidal behavior were associated with the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes among patients with schizophrenia. Three hundred sixty-two patients with schizophrenia......Suicidal behavior and substance abuse are frequent phenomena among patients with schizophrenia and may be attributable in part to antipsychotic treatment failure. Individuals who carry functional variants of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes, shown to cause altered drug metabolism of psychoactive drugs...... spectrum disorders (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) were genotyped for functional CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Based on available medical records and clinical interviews, their suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder were evaluated. No significant associations between...

  15. Can mobile phone technology support a rapid sharing of information on novel psychoactive substances among health and other professionals internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Pierluigi; Bersani, Francesco S; Santacroce, Rita; Cinosi, Eduardo; Schifano, Fabrizio; Bersani, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Corazza, Ornella

    2017-05-01

    The diffusion of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs), combined with the ability of the Internet to act as an online marketplace, has led to unprecedented challenges for governments, health agencies, and substance misuse services. Despite increasing research, there is a paucity of reliable information available to professionals working in the field. The paper will present the pilot results of the first mobile application (SMAIL) for rapid information sharing on NPSs among health professionals. The development of SMAIL was divided into 2 parts: (a) the creation of the application for registered users, enabling them to send an SMS or email with the name or "street name" of an NPS and receive within seconds emails or SMS with the information, when available and (b) the development of a database to support the incoming requests. One hundred twenty-two professionals based in 22 countries used the service over the pilot period of 16 months (from May 2012 to September 2013). Five hundred fifty-seven enquires were made. Users received rapid information on NPSs, and 61% of them rated the service as excellent. This is the right time to use mobile phone technologies for rapid information sharing and prevention activities on NPSs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Characteristics of transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use, and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications, but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between adolescent depressive symptomology and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Blore

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the phenomena of adolescent depressive symptomology, substance abuse and the relationship between the two phenomena in a South African context. The influence of moderator variables was also examined. Another objective was to determine risk factors for the before mentioned. This was done by using a questionnaire with a sample of 1298 conveniently selected adolescents in a South African high school. It was determined that adolescents become progressively unhappier from 13 to 17 years of age. Girls are more depressed than boys. This research also revealed that adolescent depressive symptomology is significantly and positively correlated with earlier age of onset of substance abuse as well as frequency of usage. There appear to be no gender differences in substance abuse but teenagers from different ethnic and language groups differ in their use of substances. Risk factors for depression and substance abuse included a conflict relationship with parents, the experience of major stressful events, dissatisfaction with school grades and friends’ use of substances.

  18. Substance Abuse Treatment Stage and Personal Networks of Women in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Elizabeth M.; Kim, HyunSoo; Brown, Suzanne; Min, Meeyoung O.; Jun, Min Kyoung; McCarty, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship among 4 treatment stages (i.e., engagement, persuasion, active treatment, relapse prevention) and the composition, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks. The study sample includes 242 women diagnosed with substance dependence who were interviewed within their first month of intensive outpatient treatment. Using EgoNet software, the women reported on their 25 alter personal networks and the characteristics of each alter. With one exception, few differences were found in the network compositions at different stages of substance abuse treatment. The exception was the network composition of women in the active treatment stage, which included more network members from treatment programs or 12-Step meetings. Although neither the type nor amount of social support differed across treatment stages, reciprocity differed between women in active treatment and those in the engagement stage. Networks of women in active treatment were less connected, as indicated by a higher number of components, whereas networks of women in the persuasion stage had a higher degree of centralization, as indicated by networks dominated by people with the most ties. Overall, we find social network structural variables to relate to the stage of treatment, whereas network composition, type of social support, and sociodemographic variables (with a few exceptions) do not relate to treatment stage. Results suggest that social context, particularly how social contacts are arranged around clients, should be incorporated into treatment programs, regardless of demographic background. PMID:22639705

  19. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p power (-0.48, p power (0.15, p power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  20. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  1. Recurrent Syncope following Substance Abuse; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forod Salehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is considered as the most common poisoning in the world. Stimulants agent especially amphetamines and methamphetamines are among important abused substances. Different types of neurologic, psychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiogenic complications have been reported to be related to methamphetamine consumption. Some of these substances could cause dysrhythmias which is the most prevalent etiology of cardiogenic syncope. Ecstasy, as one of the most commonly abused drugs, is known as a cause of cardiac dysrhythmias. Here we report a young boy who was admitted into the emergency department following three syncope attacks. All cardiac and neurologic assessments were normal; and finally ecstasy abuse was detected as the main etiology of syncopes.

  2. Barriers to addressing substance abuse in domestic violence court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig

    2014-03-01

    Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.

  3. The reliability of the Massachusetts Substance Abuse Management Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldz, Stephen; Panas, Lee; Rodriguez-Howard, Mayra

    2002-09-01

    State substance abuse management information systems increasingly are becoming important tools for research, program management, and policy formulation at federal and state levels. These systems are currently undergoing radical expansion, leading to the creation of statewide performance and outcome monitoring systems for publicly-funded substance abuse treatment. This expansion makes imperative increased knowledge of the psychometric properties of the data in these systems. This study develops a method for examining the reliability of such data and applies it to the Massachusetts Substance Abuse Management Information System (SAMIS). Cohen's kappa, intraclass correlations, and the techniques of Heise (1969) are used to assess the reliability of different types of variables. Results show that key variables on the SAMIS Admission Form exhibit moderate to high reliability, supporting the use of this data for aggregate analyses. At the same time, caution should be used in making judgments about individual patients. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Substance abuse in patients admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to acute psychiatric wards: a national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Opsal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and mental disorder comorbidity is high among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. The aim of the study was to identify this co-occurrence as a reason for involuntary admission and if specific substance use-related diagnoses were associated with such admissions.Methods: The study was a part of a multicentre, cross-sectional national study carried out during 2005-2006 within a research network of acute mental health services. Seventy-five percent of Norwegian hospitals providing acute in-patient treatment participated. Substance use was measured using the Clinician Rating Scale and the ICD-10 diagnoses F10-19. Diagnostic assessments were performed by the clinicians during hospital stay.Results: Overall, 33.2% (n=1,187 of the total patient population (3,506 were abusing alcohol or drugs prior to admission according to the Clinician Rating Scale. No difference in the overall prevalence of substance abuserelated diagnoses between the two groups was found. Overall, 310 (26% of the admissions, 216 voluntarily and 94 involuntarily admitted patients received a double diagnosis. Frequent comorbid combinations among voluntarily admitted patients were; a combination of alcohol and either mood disorder (40% or multiple mental disorders (29%. Among involuntarily admitted patients, a combination of poly drug use and schizophrenia was most frequent (47%. Substance abusing patients diagnosed with mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of psychoactive stimulant substances had a significantly higher risk of involuntary hospitalization (OR 2.3.Conclusion: Nearly one third of substance abusing patients are involuntarily admitted to mental hospitals, in particular stimulant drug use was associated with involuntarily admissions.

  5. Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) using handheld Raman spectroscopy employing both 785 and 1064nm laser sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Amira; Girotto, Sarah; Berti, Benedetta; Stair, Jacqueline L

    2017-04-01

    The chemical identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the field is challenging due not only to the plethora of substances available, but also as a result of the chemical complexity of products and the chemical similarity of NPS analogues. In this study, handheld Raman spectroscopy and the use of two excitation wavelengths, 785 and 1064nm, were evaluated for the identification of 60 NPS products. The products contained a range of NPS from classes including the aminoindanes, arylalkylamines, benzodiazepines, and piperidines & pyrrolidines. Identification was initially assessed using the instruments' in built algorithm (i.e., % HQI) and then further by visual inspection of the Raman spectra. Confirmatory analysis was preformed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For the 60 diverse products, an NPS was successfully identified via the algorithm in 11 products (18%) using the 785nm source and 29 products (48%) using the 1064nm source. Evaluation of the Raman spectra showed that increasing the excitation wavelength from 785 to 1064nm improved this 'first pass' identification primarily due to a significant reduction in fluorescence, which increased S/N of the characteristic peaks of the substance identified. True positive correlations between internet products and NPS signatures ranged from 57.0 to 91.3% HQI with typical RSDsbranded products were particularly challenging as a result of low NPS concentration and high chemical complexity, respectively. This study demonstrates the advantage of using a 1064nm source with handheld Raman spectroscopy for improved 'first pass' NPS identification when minimal spectral processing is required, such as when working in field. Future investigations will focus on the use of mixture algorithms, effect of NPS concentration, and further improvement of spectral libraries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of substance abuse among regular degree health science students in Sheba University College in Mekelle Town, Tigray - Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Esietu Gebregazabher; Asfeha, Gebrekidan Gebregzabher; Berihu, Birhane Alem

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse (SA) refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The most common substances which are usually abused are alcohol and tobacco. Herein, we assessed the prevalence of SA among regular degree health science students of the Sheba University College (SUC). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1076 SUC students using self-administered structured questionnaire. The simple sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. The overall prevalence of "ever used substance" for at least one was 45.5%. The most commonly used drugs in descending order were alcohol (25.1%), cigarette (11.4%), and khat (9.2%). Male participants, urban setting, peer pressure, personal pleasure, and academic dissatisfaction and pocket money were highly associated with SA. This study showed a lower magnitude (45.6% ever use and 21% still using) of SA among students' compared to other studies. Even if a considerable decrease in SA among study subjects, the creation of awareness and health education should be continued to fully combat the problem of abuse.

  7. Substance abuse issues among women in domestic violence programs: findings from North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L; Moracco, Kathryn E; Chang, Judy C; Council, Carol L; Dulli, Lisa S

    2008-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey of North Carolina domestic violence programs that found that substance abuse problems are common among program clients, yet only half of the programs had policies concerning substance-abusing clients, and one fourth had memoranda of agreement with substance abuse treatment providers. Most programs with shelters asked clients about substance use; however, one third of the shelters would not admit women if they were noticeably under the influence of substances while seeking shelter residence, instead referring them to substance abuse programs. Approximately one tenth of the domestic violence programs did not have any staff or volunteers with training in substance abuse issues. Implications are discussed.

  8. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...

  9. Treating Adolescents for Substance Abuse and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Paula D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has identified a cluster of standardized approaches that effectively treat adolescents with substance abuse disorders. Many of these approaches share elements that may be adopted to improve outcomes in substance treatment programs. In adolescents, treatment goals should be informed by a comprehensive assessment that includes the adolescent patient?s developmental history and evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment for behavioral, psychosocial, and psychiatric problems...

  10. [Initiation and consumption of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults in an Anti-Drug Psychosocial Care Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2014-03-01

    The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.

  11. The prevalence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS use in non-clinical populations: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Khaled

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availability for purchase on the internet and in so called “head shops.” Yet, the extent of their global use remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of NPS use in non-clinical populations. Methods This is a systematic review of observational studies. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, Scopus, Global Health, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization (WHO regional databases will be searched for eligible prevalence studies published between 2010 and 2016. Data from cross-sectional studies that report the prevalence of NPS use (one or more types in participants (of any age from censuses or probabilistic or convenience samples will be included. Data will be extracted from eligible publications, using a data extraction tool developed for this study. Visual and statistical approaches will be adopted instead of traditional meta-analytic approaches. Discussion This review will describe the distributions of various types of prevalence estimates of NPS use and explore the impact of different population groups and study-related and tempo-geographical variables on characteristics of these distributions over the period of 2010 to 2016. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016037020

  12. "Spice," "kryptonite," "black mamba": an overview of brand names and marketing strategies of novel psychoactive substances on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Corkery, John; Martinotti, Giovanni; Bersani, Giuseppe; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPSs) are often sold online as "legal" and "safer" alternatives to International Controlled Drugs (ICDs) with captivating marketing strategies. Our aim was to review and summarize such strategies in terms of the appearance of the products, the brand names, and the latest trends in the illicit online marketplaces. Scientific data were searched in PsychInfo and Pubmed databases; results were integrated with an extensive monitoring of Internet (websites, online shops, chat rooms, fora, social networks) and media sources in nine languages (English, French, Farsi, Portuguese, Arabic, Russian, Spanish, and Chinese simplified/traditional) available from secure databases of the Global Public Health Intelligence Network. Evolving strategies for the online diffusion and the retail of NPSs have been identified, including discounts and periodic offers on chosen products. Advertisements and new brand names have been designed to attract customers, especially young people. An increased number of retailers have been recorded as well as new Web platforms and privacy systems. NPSs represent an unprecedented challenge in the field of public health with social, cultural, legal, and political implications. Web monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPSs and for supporting innovative Web-based prevention programmes.

  13. New psychoactive substances (NPS) on cryptomarket fora: An exploratory study of characteristics of forum activity between NPS buyers and vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2017-02-01

    The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS. 852 identified threads relating to the discussion of these NPS were generated. Following exclusion of duplicates, 138 threads remained. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method of data analysis was applied. Four themes and 32 categories emerged. 120 vendors selling NPS were visible on Alphabay, and 21 on Valhalla. Themes were 'NPS Cryptomarkets and Crypto-community interest in NPS'; 'Motives for NPS use'; 'Indigenous Crypto Community Harm Reduction'; and 'Cryptomarket Characteristics underpinning NPS trafficking', with two higher levels of abstraction centring on 'NPS vendor reputation' and 'NPS transactioning for personal use'. NPS cryptomarket characteristics centred on generation of trust, honesty and excellent service. Users appeared well informed, with harm reduction and vendor information exchange central to NPS market dynamics. GABA activating substances appeared most popular in terms of buyer interest on cryptomarkets. Interest in sourcing 'old favorite' stimulant and dissociative NPS was evident, alongside the sequential and concurrent poly use of NPS, and use of NPS with illicit drugs such as MDMA. Continued monitoring of new trends in NPS within Surface Web and cryptomarkets are warranted. A particular

  14. Substance abuse in borderline personality disorder: clinical and etiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L. M.; Verheul, R.; van den Brink, W.

    2001-01-01

    This work examines differences between female borderline patients with and without substance abuse problems and between borderline patients from different treatment settings. A total of 64 female borderline patients were recruited from mental health services (n = 34) and addiction treatment services

  15. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  16. Stigma, treatment beliefs, and substance abuse treatment use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Access to substance abuse treatment among historically disadvantaged communities (HDCs) in Cape Town, South Africa is limited, despite a growing demand for services. Although research has reported on structural barriers to treatment access, nonstructural factors remain largely unexplored. The aim of this ...

  17. Effects of Peer Modelling Technique in Reducing Substance Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of peer modelling techniques in reducing substance abuse among undergraduates in Nigeria. The participants were one hundred and twenty (120) undergraduate students in 100 and 400 levels respectively. There are two groups: one treatment group and one control group.

  18. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  19. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  20. Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

  1. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Holly Barrett; Turner, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesized findings from 17 studies since 1998 regarding evaluation of outpatient treatments for adolescent substance abuse. These studies represented systematic design advances in adolescent clinical trial science. The research examined 46 different intervention conditions with a total sample of 2,307 adolescents. The sample included…

  2. An Overview of Outpatient Treatment of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc; Glickman, Linda; Singer, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on ambulatory substance abuse treatment for adolescents, including brief intervention, Twelve-Step-based outpatient treatment, family-based treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacologic treatment. An overview of socially and culturally specific strategies is also included. The diversity of settings…

  3. Dual disorders: Mild intellectual disability and substance abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammink, A.B.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Mheen, H. van de; Dom, G.; Moggi, F.

    2015-01-01

    In European countries, there is an increasing awareness that substance abuse also occurs among people with a mild intellectual disability (MID). Individuals with MID often do not fit within the traditional (addiction) treatment systems and subsequently treatment outcomes can be poor. To improve

  4. Substance Abuse amongst the Street‑children in Guwahati City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by smoking 147/174 (84.5%). Conclusion: Substance abuse is an important concern affecting ... Street children's drug use often commences with alcohol, tobacco and inhalants which ... auditory or verbal dysfunction (difficulty in communicating). • Children in a state of severe drug intoxication, aggressive behavior. The main ...

  5. Personnel-General: Army Substance Abuse Program Civilian Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-15

    health activity, the child protective Case Management Team, Army Community Services, schools) or other family members. c. Referred family members will be...of osteopathy ) responsible for receiving laboratory results generated by an employer’s drug testing program, and who has knowledge of substance abuse

  6. Social Resource Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Abuse Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Peter W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…

  7. Network analysis of substance abuse and dependence symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemtulla, M.; Fried, E.I.; Aggen, S.H.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Kendler, K.S.; Borsboom, D.

    Background: The DSM uses one set of abuse and dependence criteria to assess multiple substance use disorders (SUDs). Most SUD research aggregates across these symptoms to study the behavior of SUD as a static construct. We use an alternative approach that conceptualizes symptoms as directly

  8. Non -governmental organisations' response to substance abuse and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non -governmental organisations' response to substance abuse and sexual behaviours of adolescent street children of Harare central business district. ... qualitative research methodology and street ethnography approach. In analysing the various roles of these organisations, the study adopted the child rights perspective.

  9. Recovery Based on Spirituality in Substance Abusers in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsalinia, Abbas; Norouzi, Kiyan; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Farhoudian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Spirituality is an important factor influencing the decrease of substance abuse severity and maintenance of the recovery phase. This research, investigates the effect of spiritual experiences in the recovery of substance abusers. Material and Methods: Qualitative data was collected from 16 men and 6 women, selected through purposeful sampling to ensure an equilibrated gender representation and data from different recovery periods. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Results: Data showed two main categories: “Mutual relationship between spirituality and recovery,” divided into four subcategories: religious background, religious teachings, experience exchange, and support of family and society; and “A new perspective toward life” subdivided into access to calmness and spiritual development. A factor “spirituality meaning religion” arose repeatedly throughout the study. Conclusion: The results of this study can be useful for policy makers, care providers, families, and drug addicts. The promotion of spirituality in substance abusers can help in their struggle with temptation. Effective strategies to ensure drug abstinence and maintenance of the recovery phase are encouraging substance abusers and their families to participate in spirituality-based psychotherapy sessions held in addiction treatment centers, multi-disciplinary cooperation among the organizations involved in the addiction phenomenon, and training the families regarding the importance of spirituality in the mental health of their children through mass media. PMID:25363097

  10. Substance abuse and anaesthesia - Part 2 | Lundgren | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco and alcohol remain the most abused substances in South Africa and elsewhere in the western world. Tobacco is commonly smoked, but in South Africa it is also “sniffed” as snuff, and if inhaled causes as much damage as inhaled tobacco smoke. There is also a high incidence of related cancer.1 Likewise people ...

  11. Hope-Focused Interventions in Substance Abuse Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne; O'Neill, Linda; Sherry, John

    2012-01-01

    Hope is a vital component of psychological healing and plays a critical role in counselling. With despair so prominent for individuals with serious substance abuse problems, the question arises as to how to foster hope in such clients. There are recent suggestions in the general counselling literature that some of the work in counselling involve…

  12. Rural realities in service provision for substance abuse: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DM Mpanza

    addiction because we grew up with alcohol, we stay with alcohol and it's part of our lives so we think it's not .... as the Prevention of and Treatment for Substance Abuse (Act no. 70 of 2008),16 states that 'the minister must ... demand for the service and prevention programmes but determine trends, patterns and types of drugs ...

  13. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... safer, drug-free America. By stopping drug use before it starts, we can prevent the disease of addiction and create stronger neighborhoods across our country. My Administration has placed prevention at the...

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Case Management in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi S.; Vaughn, Thomas; Levey, Samuel; Fuortes, Laurence; Uden-Holmen, Tanya; Hall, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study, which is part of a larger clinical trial, was to examine the cost-effectiveness of case management for individuals treated for substance abuse in a residential setting. Method: Clients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Two groups received face-to-face case management…

  15. Commercial 'Sex Work' and substance abuse among adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are still huge child rights violations taking place. These child rights violations are seen when children including street children engage in substance abuse and commerical sex work. This paper is part of the author's doctoral degree study that adopted a qualitative research methodology and street ethnographic approach.

  16. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... diagnosable substance abuse or dependence problems--countless families and communities also live with the pain... the efforts of parents and guardians, our children's first teachers and role models, whose positive... making health choices. Through national collaboration, community programs, and the help of engaged youth...

  17. Relationship between substance abuse and first-episode psychosis - a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brink

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Co-morbidity between substance abuse and psy- chotic disorders is high. Few studies have examined therelationship between first-episode psychosis and substance abuse. Several questions emerge from this common relationship and many of them remain unanswered. Objectives. To determine the effect of substance abuse on psychosis in terms of onset, duration, severity of symptoms, use of medication and outcome. Method. Thirty - three subjects with first-episode psychosis, as well as primary caregivers, were interviewed re g a rding substance abuse and its relation to illness. Thirty-six control subjects were also interv i e w e d . Results. Twenty-seven per cent of subjects abused substances in the 3 months before onset of illness, and 77.8% of the abusers w e re male. Subjects in the first-episode psychosis group were m o re likely to choose cannabis as their substance of abuse than c o n t rols. They also started abusing substances at a younger age than controls. Subjects with first-episode psychosis who abused substances presented at an earlier age than non-abusers. Substances affected symptoms at baseline presentation . Conclusions. Substance abuse has a significant impact on first- onset psychosis as far as age of onset and symptom severity are c o n c e rned. Subjects with an underlying vulnerability to psychosis seem to start abusing substances at an earlier age than the general population. Males are more likely to abuse substances than females.

  18. Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Episode Data Set (TEDS), the proportion of female substance abuse treatment admissions aged 15 to 44 who were pregnant ... see http: / / store. samhsa. gov/ product/ TIP- 51- Substance- Abuse- Treatment- Addressing- the- Specific- Needs- of- Women/ SMA12- 4426. ...

  19. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  20. Depression, anxiety, and history of substance abuse among Norwegian inmates in preventive detention: reasons to worry?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Værøy, Henning

    2011-01-01

    .... Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests...

  1. [Implications of psychoactive substances on the health of men deprived of liberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Sánchez, Francisco; Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez, Cristóbal; Osuna, Eduardo; Falcón Romero, María; Luna, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of the use of alcohol and other drugs, as well as different types of victimization in men deprived of liberty in the prisons of Castile-La Mancha (Spain). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of men deprived of liberty in four prisons in Castile-La Mancha. An anonymous questionnaire on victimization was distributed among a total of 425 prisoners, with a confidence interval of 95%. The most commonly reported assaults were verbal, affecting 41.4% of the prisoners (n=176) and the least common were sexual, affecting 7.8% (n=33). The most commonly consumed substance was cannabis, with 40.2% (n=171) of prisoners consuming it in the previous month. Victimization and substance use is a reality in prisons, and there is a statistically significant association between the two phenomena. This association should be further studied to design preventive measures and improve prison life. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of substance abuse among regular degree health science students in Sheba University College in Mekelle Town, Tigray - Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esietu Gebregazabher Hagos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse (SA refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The most common substances which are usually abused are alcohol and tobacco. Herein, we assessed the prevalence of SA among regular degree health science students of the Sheba University College (SUC. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1076 SUC students using self-administered structured questionnaire. The simple sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. Results: The overall prevalence of “ever used substance” for at least one was 45.5%. The most commonly used drugs in descending order were alcohol (25.1%, cigarette (11.4%, and khat (9.2%. Male participants, urban setting, peer pressure, personal pleasure, and academic dissatisfaction and pocket money were highly associated with SA. Conclusion: This study showed a lower magnitude (45.6% ever use and 21% still using of SA among students' compared to other studies. Even if a considerable decrease in SA among study subjects, the creation of awareness and health education should be continued to fully combat the problem of abuse.

  3. Legal high industry business and lobbying strategies under a legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, 'legal highs') in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2016-11-01

    The establishment of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, 'legal highs') under New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) 2013 created a new commercial sector for psychoactive products, previously limited to alcohol and tobacco. To explore how the newly-recognised 'legal high' industry (LHI) viewed and responded to the changing regulatory and market environment. In-depth interviews with six key informants (KI) from the LHI: a leading entrepreneur, chemist, industry spokesperson, retailer, product buyer and a researcher commissioned by the LHI - were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. Formative work for the study included review of official LHI documents (websites, public submissions, self-regulation documents). The LHI stakeholders espoused an idealistic mission of shifting recreational users of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs towards "safer alternatives". Passage of the PSA was viewed as a success after years of lobbying led by pioneering LHI actors. The growth and professionalisation of the LHI resulted in an increasingly commercial market which challenged idealistic views of the original operators. LHI KI reported the targeting of young and low income customers, price cutting and increasing the strength of products as business strategies. Attempts by the LHI to self-regulate did not prevent escalation in the strength of products and fall in retail prices. The LHI reported outsourcing of manufacturing and exporting of their products to other countries, demonstrating an international business model. There was a tension between profit and idealistic motivations within the LHI and this increased as the sector became more commercialised. While the LHI distanced itself from both alcohol and tobacco, they reported the use of similar marketing, business and political lobbying strategies. Rules for engagement with new 'addictive consumption industries' are required to clarify the role they are permitted to play in the

  4. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  5. Adolescent Onset of Maternal Substance Abuse: Descriptive Findings from a Feasibility Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Saldana, Lisa; Smith, Dana K.; Weber, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal substance abuse in child welfare populations is a well-documented occurrence, little is known about the onset of these behaviors or the substance abuse histories of these mothers. Descriptive data from a small feasibility trial of mothers referred for substance abuse and child neglect suggest adolescent onset of hard substance use. Age of onset was associated with family history of use. The majority of mothers reported polysubstance abuse starting at an early age and quickly...

  6. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de Medicina de Salvador (BA Psychoactive substance use by medical students from Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleuber Moreira Lemos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Estudos indicam que estudantes de Medicina, apesar do seu dedutível conhecimento sobre os efeitos das substâncias psicoativas, consomem-nas em proporção semelhante à dos jovens de mesma idade na população geral. OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão local do consumo dessas substâncias entre graduandos de Medicina e contribuir na formulação de atividades preventivas. MÉTODOS: Aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado no qual foi avaliada a freqüência de uso das substâncias psicoativas entre os estudantes, assim como as principais razões apontadas para o consumo. Foram analisados 404 questionários obtidos entre alunos dos seis anos de curso das duas maiores escolas médicas de Salvador. RESULTADOS: As drogas mais utilizadas no critério uso na vida foram álcool (92,8% e lança-perfume (46,2%. O uso de álcool apresentou-se constante nos seis anos de curso. Entretanto, o uso de tabaco, lança-perfume e tranqüilizantes aumentou significativamente para os alunos dos últimos anos (p BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students consume psychoactive substances at the same rates as the same age youth on general population, despite their predictable knowledge about drugs effects. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local pattern of psychoactive substances use among medical students and contribute for the formulation of preventive activities. METHODS: The frequency of psychoactive substances use was evaluated by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that also asked the main reasons for that use. Four hundred and four students in the first to sixth year from the two biggest medical schools in Salvador answered the questionnaire. RESULTS: The lifetime use was bigger for alcohol (92.8% and inhalant (46.2%. Alcohol use was constant for the students from first to sixth year of course, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. However, tobacco, inhalants and tranquilizers use had a significant increase at the last two years

  7. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2010-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  8. Developmental models of substance abuse relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Ramo, Danielle Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Most models of addiction treatment outcome and relapse have been formulated on adult populations, with only modest consideration of developmental factors which are salient issues for substance use disordered (SUD) youth. The dominant cognitive behavioral model of addiction relapse (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985) has been compelling in its description of how situational context (e.g., high risk situations) interacts with cognitive factors (e.g., self-efficacy, coping resources) to elevate risk for re...

  9. Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    personnel about the use of substances as a poor coping mechanism for combat and operational stress reactions (COSRs) and (2) boost resilience to COSRs...private and convenient approach and should facilitate access to care by reducing the stigma and common barriers associated with seeking treatment. 15...including COSRs).  Studies with soldiers have found that symptoms increase 3 to 6 months after returning home.  Perceived stigma often keeps

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of an Intervention for Children in Afghanistan at Risk for Substance Use or Actively Using Psychoactive Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Subor Momand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment’s start and end and 12 weeks later. For younger children, there were no significant Gender or Gender X Time effects (all p’s > .16 and .35, resp.. The time main effect was significant for all outcomes (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate. Post hoc testing showed significant improvements from residential treatment entry to completion for all scales. For older children, a time main effect was significant for (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate all but one outcome. Community follow-up means were significantly lower than residential treatment entry means. CHILD had a positive impact on children, and treatment impact endured from posttreatment to follow-up assessment.

  11. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... information below). Committee Name: SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council...

  12. 75 FR 38112 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... information below). Committee Name: SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council...

  13. Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Aged 12 to 14. The TEDS Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report uses data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2008 to provide information on the characteristics of youths aged 12 to 14 admitted to substance abuse treatment. In 2008, approximately 23,770 substance abuse treatment admissions were adolescents aged 12 to 14. The two most frequently reported primary substances of abuse among…

  14. 75 FR 47819 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... information below). Committee Name: SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council...

  15. HIV Rapid Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…

  16. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of determining... substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant, an Indian tribe or tribal organization is not required...

  17. Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Group Training on Anger in Adolescents with Substance-Abusing Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…

  18. Policy and Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Substance Abuse in the Nursing Education Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

    This paper suggests that in order to facilitate the management of substance abuse problems, schools of nursing should adopt written, comprehensive, and equitable substance abuse policies for students, faculty, and staff. Such policies should be based on the assumption that substance abuse is an illness that can be treated successfully and the…

  19. Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

  20. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...

  1. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...

  2. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA...

  3. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...

  4. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...

  5. Detection and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) within the evolved "legal high" product, NRG-2, using high performance liquid chromatography-amperometric detection (HPLC-AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuway, Khaled Y; Smith, Jamie P; Foster, Christopher W; Kapur, Nikil; Banks, Craig E; Sutcliffe, Oliver B

    2015-09-21

    The global increase in the production and abuse of cathinone-derived New Psychoactive Substances (NPSs) has developed the requirement for rapid, selective and sensitive protocols for their separation and detection. Electrochemical sensing of these compounds has been demonstrated to be an effective method for the in-field detection of these substances, either in their pure form or in the presence of common adulterants, however, the technique is limited in its ability to discriminate between structurally related cathinone-derivatives (for example: (±)-4′-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, 2a) and (±)-4′-methyl-N-ethylmethcathinone (4-MEC, 2b) when they are both present in a mixture. In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the combination of HPLC-UV with amperometric detection (HPLC-AD) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 4-MMC and 4-MEC using either a commercially available impinging jet (LC-FC-A) or custom-made iCell channel (LC-FC-B) flow-cell system incorporating embedded graphite screen-printed macroelectrodes. The protocol offers a cost-effective, reproducible and reliable sensor platform for the simultaneous HPLC-UV and amperometric detection of the target analytes. The two systems have similar limits of detection, in terms of amperometric detection [LC-FC-A: 14.66 μg mL(-1) (2a) and 9.35 μg mL(-1) (2b); LC-FC-B: 57.92 μg mL(-1) (2a) and 26.91 μg mL(-1) (2b)], to the previously reported oxidative electrochemical protocol [39.8 μg mL(-1) (2a) and 84.2 μg mL(-1) (2b)], for two synthetic cathinones, prevalent on the recreational drugs market. Though not as sensitive as standard HPLC-UV detection, both flow cells show a good agreement, between the quantitative electroanalytical data, thereby making them suitable for the detection and quantification of 4-MMC and 4-MEC, either in their pure form or within complex mixtures. Additionally, the simultaneous HPLC-UV and amperometric detection protocol detailed herein shows a marked improvement

  6. Neonatal Effects of Substance Abuse during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse in pregnancy is not uncommon, and the use of illicit opioids during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess neonatal outcome of pregnancy with maternal addiction. Materials and Methods:   In this cohort study we assessed 100 pregnant women 15 -49 years old. To identify drug exposure was used self- questionnaire (Self-Report. Data on pregnancies complicated by illicit drug abuse (n = 50 were collected during a 2-year period (2014 - 2016 at Hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of medical sciences. Data on the type of drug, course of gestation and labor, and on neonatal complications outcome were considered. Medical records on all non-dependence pregnancies during the study period were used as a non-exposed group (n = 50.To control possible confounding factor was used of multiple logistic regression model. Results: our results showed The risk of various congenital anomalies was 5-fold in the group of children born to addicted mothers (RR = 5.65, 95% CI: 0.27-114.7. Also RDS (RR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.16-22.3, meconial amniotic fluid (RR=2.26, 95% CI: 0.21-24.1, NICU admission (RR=3.07, 95% CI: 1.93-4.88, neonatal seizure (RR=5.38, 95%CI: 1.97-14.64, neonatal hypoglycemia (RR=2.26, 95% CI: 0.60-8.54 were significantly more common in the group of pregnant addicts. Conclusion: Addiction pregnancies must be considered as high-risk pregnancies according to perinatal outcome. We should prepare Appropriate obstetric and neonatal care in these pregnancies.

  7. On the Comparison of Cognitive Function in Substance Abusers and Addicts under Methadone Treatment with Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza mohammadzadeghan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare cognitive functioning in substance abusers and addicts under methadone treatment with normal individuals. Method: The current study was a causal-comparative one. The statistical population of this research consisted of all male substance abusers who had referred to addiction treatment centers of Khoy city in 2013. The total of 40 addicts under methadone treatment, 40 active drug users, and 40 non-addicts were selected as the participants of this study via convenience sampling method. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Wechsler Memory Scale were administered to the three groups for data collection purposes. Results: The results showed that the substance abusers’ scores in Wisconsin card sorting test and Wechsler memory scale were significantly different from those of addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals. In the same way, there was a significant difference between addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals in terms of cognitive function however, there was no significant difference between these two groups in terms of perseveration error. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chronic use of psychoactive substances causes damage to multiple brain regions such as prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and, thereby, it leads to cognitive malfunctioning in these areas.

  8. [The effect of child abuse and neglect on the later appearance of substance abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovits, Zsuzsanna; Gerevich, József; Pálinkás, Bence András

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of childhood abuse and neglect can be grave. One of them is the use of drugs since it is conducive to the incidence of several physical and psychological problems. Many sorts of abuses can be differentiated, but from the point of view of this study the most significant ones are sexual, physical and emotional abuses as well as neglect. For the exploration of the specialized literature the following English data bases were used: PubMed, PsycINFO, EISZ, EBSCO, Science Direct. The selection from 1992 to 2008 was assembled with a complex search applied so as to find the relevant articles in which there is a connection between abuses in the family, substance use and psychological status. By reason of scientific achievements, the suffered abuse at an early age was a risk factor on later substance use and in the formation of psychiatric disorders, e. g. depression, panic disorder, anxiety, and it was accompanied by psychological consequences such as a low self-esteem. On the grounds of scientific achievements it was proved that abuse in the family can entail the risk of growing substance use, and serious psychological problems can appear which can initiate a vicious circle with a growing risk of being a victim again.

  9. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  10. The relationship between sexual and physical abuse and substance abuse consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Liebschutz, Jane; Savetsky, Jacqueline B.; Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J.; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse (PhySexAbuse) and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69% of men report past PhySexAbuse, starting at a median age of 13 and 11, respectively...

  11. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach).

  12. [Homicide, schizophrenia and substance abuse: a complex interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Bouyer-Richard, A I; Jollant, F; Mondoloni, A; Voyer, M; Senon, J-L

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of homicide perpetrators with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is 6% in Western countries populations. The relationship between schizophrenia and homicide is complex and cannot be reduced to a simple causal link. The aim of this systematic review was to clarify the role of substance abuse in the commission of murder in people suffering from schizophrenia. A systematic English-French Medline and EMBASE literature search of cohort studies, case-control studies and transversal studies published between January 2001 and December 2011 was performed, combining the MeSH terms "schizophrenia", "psychotic disorders", "homicide", "violence", "substance use disorder", and the TIAB term "alcohol". Abstract selection was based on the STROBE and PRISMA checklist for observational studies and systematic and meta-analysis studies, respectively. Of the 471 selected studies, eight prospective studies and six systematic reviews and meta-analysis studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. Homicide committed by a schizophrenic person is associated with socio-demographic (young age, male gender, low socioeconomic status), historical (history of violence against others), contextual (a stressful event in the year prior to the homicide), and clinical risk factors (severe psychotic symptoms, long duration of untreated psychosis, poor adherence to medication). In comparison to the general population, the risk of homicide is increased 8-fold in schizophrenics with a substance abuse disorder (mainly alcohol abuse) and 2-fold in schizophrenics without any comorbidities. A co-diagnosis of substance abuse allows us to divide the violent schizophrenics into "early-starters" and "late-starters" according to the age of onset of their antisocial and violent behavior. The violence of the "early-starters" is unplanned, usually affects an acquaintance and is not necessarily associated with the schizophrenic symptoms. Substance abuse is frequent and plays an

  13. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  14. Court based civil commitment of alcoholics and substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, E A; Beck, J C

    1991-01-01

    Problem. To study court ordered substance abuse commitment (SAC) in one jurisdiction. We investigated who was evaluated, by whom, and with what outcome. Is SAC primarily a purely civil procedure as originally intended? Are men and women being treated equally? Questionnaire survey of court clinicians to determine demographic and clinical status of persons evaluated, the process of evaluation, and the disposition. SAC is common and more frequent in criminal cases than in purely civil ones. SAC of women is clearly influenced by the restricted choices for disposition: either state prison or an unlocked facility. SAC is an important public health procedure, which courts are using in highly variable and at times unintended ways. SAC has emerged as an alternative to other dispositions in criminal cases involving substance-abusing defendants.

  15. Benefits of concurrent syringe exchange and substance abuse treatment participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L; Peirce, Jessica; Pierce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    Participation in syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is associated with many individual and public health benefits but may have little impact on reducing drug use without concurrent treatment engagement. This study evaluated rates of drug use, other risk behaviors, and illegal activities in newly registered SEP participants (N = 240) enrolled versus not enrolled in substance abuse treatment over a 4-month observation window and examined the effect of days in treatment on these outcomes. After controlling for baseline differences, SEP registrants enrolled in treatment (n = 113) reported less days of opioid and cocaine use, injection drug use, illegal activities, and incarceration than those not enrolled in treatment (n = 127). For those enrolled in treatment, days of treatment was strongly correlated with each of these outcomes. These findings provide good evidence for a dose-response effect of treatment in syringe exchangers and suggest that substance abuse treatment significantly expands the harm reduction benefits of SEP participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória; Sérgio Antonio Antoniuk; Francisco Baptista Assumpção Junior; Daniele Nascimento Fajardo; Maurício Nasser Ehlke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance abuse disorder (SAD) in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (ran...

  17. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    OpenAIRE

    MacKinnon, David P; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these featu...

  18. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse Morten; Thylstrup Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, ...

  19. A review of tribal best practices in substance abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Allyson; Witzel, Morgan; Fatupaito, Bethany

    2017-11-16

    American Indian youth experience higher rates of substance use than non-American Indian youth. Researchers, clinicians, and treatment programs embrace evidence-based practices (EBPs) and practice based evidence (PBE) as a primary method for addressing substance abuse and advancing behavioral health. However, less is known about the use of tribal best practices (TBPs) and how they are implemented in American Indian substance use prevention contexts. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine how TBPs are implemented and shared in the context of tribal substance use prevention. The second objective was to document TBP examples from three tribal communities involved in a 5-year substance use prevention initiative. A systematic review of published and grey literature was conducted using funding agencies websites, EBSCO Host and national registries. Three tribal communities involved in the initiative documented current TBPs to highlight characteristics of TBPs, costs, and approval processes. TBPs are very limited in the literature. Despite tribal use for thousands of years, TBPs are underrepresented and misunderstood. This review found that the terminology used to describe TBPs is not consistent across agencies, publications, websites, or reports. There is also variation in how TBPs originate in substance use prevention contexts and there is not a primary resource or protocol for sharing TBPs. Continued efforts are needed to support the use and dissemination of TBPs in substance use prevention.

  20. Use of potentially abusive psychotropic substances in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestin, J; Nussbaumer, C; Angst, K; Scheidegger, P; Hell, D

    1997-01-01

    A series of 417 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients were studied with regard to their use of potentially abusive psychotropic substances in the last 3 months preceding admission. In all patients face-to-face interviews were performed; in 354 of them urine specimens could also be tested. Alcohol and benzodiazepines belonged to the most frequently used substances followed by cannabis, opiates and cocaine. Barbiturates, hallucinogens and amphetamine derivatives were only exceptionally reported. The most important finding of the study is that every fifth patient regularly used "hard" drugs (opiates and/or cocaine), every fourth patient illegal drugs and every third patient alcohol. Substances were found in 54% of all urine specimens; methadone, opiates and cocaine were hardly found alone. For the latter substances excellent agreement was found between interview reports and urine exams. Excluding patients diagnosed as substance-use disorders, there were no statistically significant differences between schizophrenic, affective, neurotic/stress/somatoform and other disorders with regard to the use of "hard" drugs and illegal drugs. Regular substance use correlated with much worse psychosocial adjustment. Substance use has to be explored and considered in every individual psychiatric inpatient.

  1. The relationship between individual and family religiosity with substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Makarem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between individual and family religiosity with substance abuse. In other side because of the importance of prevention and the role of people beliefs about the causes of substance use/ non-use in this area, the relationship between (university students’ beliefs about drug and their consequences with amount of the substance use was explored. Method: Study sample included 270 students (128 females and 142 males from the University of Shiraz that were selected by multistage cluster sampling. They completed religious orientation questionnaire, family religiosity questionnaire and drug questionnaire. Findings: Results indicated significant negative relationship between individual religiosity in general and amount of substance use .however, the relationship between drug use and family religiosity was not found. Also, there was significant negative correlation between believing the consequences (mostly physical and mental and rate of substance use. Results: According to this results, religious beliefs and considering the consequences of substance use play important role in reducing substance use.

  2. Tapentadol abuse potential: a postmarketing evaluation using a sample of individuals evaluated for substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; McNaughton, Emily C; Black, Ryan A

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of prescription opioid pain relievers continues to be a serious public health concern. In contrast to opioids such as oxycodone or morphine, tapentadol, a prescription analgesic, has two mechanisms of action: μ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. As a result of differences in its receptor pharmacology, there may be differences in its abuse profile. As an initial step toward testing this hypothesis, we present a postmarketing examination of tapentadol's abuse liability relative to comparators. A sentinel sample of 113,914 individuals assessed for substance abuse treatment as part of the NAVIPPRO ASI-MV(®) surveillance system at 624 facilities in 38 states from January 2011 to September 2012 was examined for prevalence and prescription-adjusted prevalence of past 30-day abuse of tapentadol as a compound and its immediate-release (IR) and extended-release (ER) formulations with oxymorphone, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, tramadol, and buprenorphine as comparators. Tapentadol abuse was reported significantly less often (P Tapentadol IR abuse prevalence was significantly lower than all comparators except fentanyl IR, which had the next lowest unadjusted abuse prevalence. Prevalence of tapentadol ER abuse was lower than comparators except hydromorphone ER. Low prescription-adjusted estimates were observed for tapentadol as a compound as well as its IR and ER formulations, which were among the lowest observed and the lowest of the Schedule II comparators. Prescription-adjusted risk for tapentadol ER was less than comparators except hydromorphone ER (P = 0.06). Tapentadol abuse was seen infrequently in this study and, on a prescription basis, was less likely to be abused than most of the examined Schedule II analgesics. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Substance abuse, memory, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipps, Megan E; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-07-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the effects of abused substances on memory. These effects differ depending on the drug, the pattern of delivery (acute or chronic), and the drug state at the time of learning or assessment. Substance use disorders involving these drugs are often comorbid with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When the cognitive effects of these drugs are considered in the context of the treatment of these disorders, it becomes clear that these drugs may play a deleterious role in the development, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. In this review, we examine the literature evaluating the cognitive effects of three commonly abused drugs: nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol. These three drugs operate through both common and distinct neurobiological mechanisms and alter learning and memory in multiple ways. We consider how the cognitive and affective effects of these drugs interact with the acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of learned fear, and we discuss the potential impediments that substance abuse creates for the treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Working Alliance in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment: Predicting Substance Use Frequency and Client Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…

  5. Substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients entering substance abuse treatment: Comparisons to heterosexual clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated whether sexual orientation-specific differences in substance use behaviors exist among adults entering substance abuse treatment. Admissions records (July 2007-December 2009) were examined for treatment programs in San Francisco, California receiving government funding. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (n = 1,441) were compared to heterosexual persons (n = 11,770) separately by sex, examining primary problem substance of abuse, route of administration, age of first use, and frequency of use prior to treatment. Regarding bisexual males, the only significant finding of note was greater prevalence of methamphetamine as the primary substance of abuse. When compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men evidenced greater rates of primary problem methamphetamine use (44.5% and 21.8%, respectively, vs. 7.7%, adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 6.43 and 2.94), and there was lower primary heroin use among gay men (9.3% vs. 25.8%, OR 0.35). Among LGB individuals, race and ethnicity did not predict primary problem substance, except that among LGB men and women, a non-White race predicted cocaine use (OR 4.83 and 6.40, respectively), and among lesbian and bisexual women, Hispanic ethnicity predicted lower odds of primary cocaine use (OR 0.24). When compared to heterosexual men, gay men were more likely to smoke their primary problem substance (OR 1.61), first used this substance at an older age (M = 23.16 vs. M = 18.55, p substance fewer days prior to treatment (M = 8.75 vs. M = 11.41, p substance use for gay and bisexual men entering substance abuse treatment, but women did not evidence differences. Gay men evidenced unique factors that may reflect less severity of use when entering treatment including fewer days of use and a later age of initiation of their primary problem substances. The results underscore the importance of being sensitive to differences between gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males when considering substance use disorders. (Psyc

  6. Just Say Know: An Examination of Substance Use Disorders among Older Adults in Gerontological and Substance Abuse Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders. PMID:23731426

  7. Pattern and Inclination of Adolescents Towards Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mahjoob

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcotic drug abuse and illicit use of drugs is a major, complicated multifactorial phenomenon affecting most of the societies today. Incidence of drug abuse among adolescents is very high. Adolescents become addicted to substances more quickly than adults. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of drug abuse among male adolescents in Hamadan. Methods: This study was a descriptive study and samples (n=400 were collected on the basis of snowball sampling method. Information was collected individually through completion of a researcher-designed questionnaire including demographic and epidemiological indices, perceived familial support, religiosity, and locus of control. Results: The results showed that smoking (93%, alcohol (92.5%, marijuana (64.3%, and opium (57.8% use were very high, while LSD (4.8% and Cocaine(2.3% use was rare. 77.8 % of adolescents began drug abuse between 12 and 18 years of age. Moreover, sensation seeking (26.5%, individual interest (24.8%, and peer pressure (22%, were the main reasons for drug abuse. Conclusion: As initial smoking, alcohol and marijuana use play an important role in determining the future addiction of adolescents to narcotics, yearly surveillance programs in the country and evaluation of etiological factors of narcotic addiction need to be studied carefully. All of the preventive and school programs designed for the young should take into account environmental, demographic and policy factors in addition to personal factors so that the programs have a maximum effect.

  8. A market on both "sides" of the law: The use of the hidden web for the sale of new psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Elle; Drummond, Colin; Kimergård, Andreas; Deluca, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    The hidden Web is used for the anonymous sale of drugs, and with the UK Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016, implemented on May 26th 2016; it could increase as a platform for obtaining new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study aims to describe the NPS market on the visible and hidden Web preban, and assess whether the hidden Web is a likely place for the sale of NPS postban. Data collection of 113 online shops took place in October 2015. Data collection of 22 cryptomarkets took place every 2 months from October 2015 to 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA project. All online shops with a UK domain location sold NPS that were uncontrolled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act, 1971, and closed after the ban. Of the cryptomarkets analysed, the total number of vendors selling NPS, number of substances, and listings advertised, all increased over the year. The majority of the NPS advertised on the hidden Web were phenethylamines and cathinones, yet the majority of uncontrolled NPS were synthetic cannabinoids. Vendors selling and availability of NPS increased over the 12 months of data collection. Potential displacement from the visible Web to hidden Web should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Random and systematic errors in case–control studies calculating the injury risk of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René P.M.

    2013-01-01

    injury in car crashes. The calculated odds ratios in these studies showed large variations, despite the use of uniform guidelines for the study designs. The main objective of the present article is to provide insight into the presence of random and systematic errors in the six DRUID case-control studies...... and cell counts were the most frequently observed errors in the six DRUID case-control studies. Therefore, it is recommended that epidemiological studies that assess the risk of psychoactive substances in traffic pay specific attention to avoid these potential sources of random and systematic errors...

  10. Use of psychoactive substances in prison: Results of a study in the Lyon-Corbas prison, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahajian, F; Berger-Vergiat, A; Pot, E

    2017-09-01

    In prison, in 2012, according to various sources, from 4 to 56% of the European inmate population used psychoactive substances (PAS). The aim of our study was to describe PAS consumption during incarceration in the prison of Lyon-Corbas, France. A transversal descriptive study was conducted between September 23rd and September 27th 2013 among all inmates of this prison. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, distributed at lunchtime and collected, the same day, at dinnertime, by the mental health service personnel. Among 785 inmates present at the time of the study in the prison of Lyon-Corbas, 710 were included and the response rate was 64.4% (95% CI [60.8-67.8]). Among 457 responding inmates, 16.4% (95% CI [13.2-20.0]) reported no PAS consumption. Among 382 consumers, 74.4% (95% CI [69.8-78.5]) used tobacco, 36.8% (95% CI [32.2-41.8]) cannabis, 30.4% (95% CI [25.9-35.1]) alcohol, 7.7% (95% CI [5.2-10.6]) heroin and 10.3% (95% CI [7.5-13.6]) cocaine. Furthermore, 15% of consumers had started PAS consumption during their incarceration. Among consumers of at least one PAS other than tobacco, cannabis and alcohol, the way of consumption was sniff for 60.0% (95% CI [48.5-70.2]) and injection for 31.0% (95% CI [21.6-42.1]). Use of several PAS at the same time and sharing sniffing and/or injection paraphernalia were other risky behaviors observed; 12% (95% CI [5.8-20.4]) of drug injectors declared using chlorine to sterilize their injection paraphernalia. Our study provides worrying data about PAS consumption in prison. The measures of prohibition do not prevent this consumption. There is even an initiation of consumption of PAS for 15% of the first-time incarcerated inmates. This finding should encourage public authorities to facilitate access of inmates to the care structures in prisons, to improve drug use prevention and care programs and to develop activities (sports, cultural, educational and vocational). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS

  11. Street Children in Tehran and Risk Factors for Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Economy,lack of welfare and social services, AIDS and civil war,and also substance abuse are predominant factors that attributes with street children.Method:576 street children of 10-19 years were evaluated.Data were gathered by demographic and substance use check list.Theses check lists were designed by the researchers and included some simple question about type and duration of substance use.Several psychiatrists confirmed the content of check list.Results:36.7% of the children had lifetime smoking of cigarette.The frequency of smoking in boys was significantly higher than girls (P<0.05.Conclusion:It should be noted that street children are at high risk group for using tobacco. Theses children are also exposed to the dangerous behaviors and sexually transmitted

  12. Use Of Psychoactive Drugs Among Medical Undergraduates In Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Khan, Aftab Alam; Bukhari, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad. Seven hundred and eighty participants after informed consent were requested to fill a questionnaire seeking information about their demographics, patterns & behaviours regarding ten common psychoactive substances of abuse including (Cigarettes, Benzodiazepines, naswar, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine, opium, cocaine, heroin & organic solvents). Overall students who responded were 698 (89.48%). One hundred and fifty (21.49%) admitted to the use of a psychoactive substance in past or at present. Majority users (71.33%) were males. Overall (81.33%) users were living in hostel or a rented apartment. Substance abuse was more prevalent among senior students, i.e., 30.06% & 24.24% in 4th year & final year MBBS respectively. Majority of the consumers, i.e., 93 (62%) were falling in an age group between 15-20 years. Main reasons behind substance abuse were: psychological stress (49.33%) and pleasure seeking (42.67%). Substances/drugs used by students in order of preference were Cigarettes 115 (76.67%), Benzodiazepines 48 (32%), naswar 42 (28%), Cannabis 41 (27.33%), Alcohol 24 (16%), Amphetamine 22 (14.67%), Opium 15 (10%), Cocaine 14 (9.33%), Heroin 11 (7.33%) & Organic solvents 05 (3.33%). Use of more than one substance was observed in 70 (46.67%) students. It is concluded that prevalence of cigarette smoking, naswar, benzodiazepines, cannabis & alcohol is high among medical undergraduates in Abbottabad which is a matter of concern. Efforts are needed to create

  13. Substance Abuse Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromin, Romulo Alcalde

    2016-12-01

    Knowing how to manage substance abuse in all youth is an important aspect of pediatric care, including providing clinically appropriate anticipatory guidance, monitoring, assessment, and treatment. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth do not abuse substances, as a group they experience unique challenges in self-identity development that put them at an increased risk for substance abuse. This article addresses prevention and management of substance use in LGBT youth relevant to pediatrics and allied professions as an aspect of their overall health care. It reviews basic information about substance abuse in youth and special considerations for LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of alcohol and other substances of abuse among injured patients in a Norwegian emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Normann, Per Trygve; Rossow, Ingeborg; Larsen, Margrete; Mørland, Jørg; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2011-09-01

    Studies have found a high prevalence of both alcohol and other impairing psychoactive drugs in injured patient populations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potentially impairing psychoactive substances in all patients admitted to a hospital emergency department with injuries from accidents, assault or deliberate self harm. A total of 1272 patients over 18 years of age, admitted to the hospital within 12h of injury, were included. Presence of alcohol was determined by an enzymatic method and other drugs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), both highly specific analytical methods for determining recent intake. There were 510 (40%) women in the sample. Of the patients, 38% of the women and 48% of the men had a positive blood sample for psychoactive substances on admission. The most prevalent psychoactive substance was alcohol (27%) with an average concentration of 1.5 g/kg. A further 21% of patients tested showed use of medicinal drugs, and 9% showed use of illicit substances. Cannabis was the most prevalent illicit drug (6.2%). Diazepam (7.4%) and zopiclone (5.3%) were the most prevalent medicinal drugs. In road traffic accidents, 25% of the car drivers had positive findings, about half of them for alcohol. Psychoactive substances were found in nearly half the patients admitted with injuries. The most common substance was alcohol. Alcohol was particularly related to violence, whereas medicinal drugs were most prevalent in accidents at home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The challenge of a ban on animal testing for the development of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') in New Zealand: Issues and options for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In mid-July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which allowed 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs') to be approved for legal sale. In early May 2014, following public protest, the Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act (PSAA) was passed banning animal testing of psychoactive products, potentially making the new regime unworkable. To investigate strategies to overcome the impasse created by the animal testing ban. Solutions to the impasse were investigated using 'scenario' and 'stakeholder' analysis. Legislation, parliamentary debates, and regulatory statements related to the PSA and animal testing were reviewed. Strategies to resolve the impasse were discussed with stakeholders including the Psychoactive Substances Regulatory Authority (PSRA) officials, health officials, a legal high industry lawyer, and a leading legal highs manufacturer. This process generated six possible scenarios and five decision-making criteria of key importance to major stakeholders. Scenarios were then evaluated based on feedback from the industry and regulators. The six scenarios were: (1) pragmatic modification of the animal testing ban; (2) waiting until new non-animal test models are internationally accepted; (3) use of non-validated replacement test methods; (4) judicial challenge of the animal testing ban; (5) 'creative compliance' by only presenting human clinical trial results; and (6) philosophical re-conceptualisation of the 'benefits' from psychoactive products. Options 1 and 5 appear to be the most attractive overall solutions. However, both rely on a new political consensus and astute framing of the issues by political communicators. Political decision makers may be happy to accept Scenario 2 which would impose significant delays. A 'failed' pharmaceutical product with psychoactive effects may have the test data required to be approved under Scenarios 1 and 5. Ultimately, the pleasurable benefits from psychoactive products may need to be

  16. Tobacco use and substance abuse in students of Karaj Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Kabir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is clear that tobacco smoking and substance abuse have negative consequences on adolescent and youth′s health. Tobacco smoking especially hookah smoking has increased worldwide especially among university students. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of risk-taking behaviors such as cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, alcohol use, and drug abuse and its predictors in students of Karaj universities. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in Karaj in January and February 2014. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1959 college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure risk-taking behaviors as well as demographic and related risk factors. Logistic regression model was performed in data analysis. Results: The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.3%. The prevalence of hookah smoking was 9.3%. 7% of students used illegal drugs and 9.5% of students used alcohol at least once in last 30 days. After adjustment for other factors, being male, living without parents, having smoker friends, and presence any smoker in the family were factors associated with students′ risk-taking behaviors. The results showed the co-occurrence of risk-taking behaviors. Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco smoking and substance abuse, particular in males, are high. It seems that planning preventive interventions for this part of the population are necessary. This study emphasized the co-occurrence of risky behaviors, so, it is better high-risk behaviors simultaneously targeted at reducing or preventing interventions.

  17. Mothers in Substance Abuse Treatment: Differences in Characteristics Based on Involvement with Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…

  18. Substance Abuse Treatment And Family Therapy. A Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jonathan Max; Oliff, Helen; Sutton, David; Bartlett, Catalina; Henderson, Randi

    2004-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) addresses substance abuse treatment in the context of family therapy. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts in the…

  19. 45 CFR 96.126 - Capacity of treatment for intravenous substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.126 Capacity of treatment... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of treatment for intravenous substance... programs that receive funding under the grant and that treat individuals for intravenous substance abuse to...

  20. Predictors of Relapse for American Indian Women after Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…

  1. Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jonathan Max; Hills, Susan; Rife, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) presents an overview of the role and efficacy of group therapy in substance abuse treatment. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel…

  2. Social Functioning and Self-Esteem of Substance Abuse Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi

    2016-10-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  4. Chaos, creativity, and substance abuse: the nonlinear dynamics of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zausner, Tobi

    2011-04-01

    Artists create their work in conditions of disequilibrium, states of creative chaos that may appear turbulent but are capable of bringing forth new order. By absorbing information from the environment and discharging it negentropically as new work, artists can be modeled as dissipative systems. A characteristic of chaotic systems is a heightened sensitivity to stimuli, which can generate either positive experiences or negative ones that can lead some artists to substance abuse and misguided searches for a creative chaos. Alcohol and drug use along with inadequately addressed co-occurring emotional disorders interfere with artists' quest for the nonlinearity of creativity. Instead, metaphorically modeled by a limit cycle of addiction and then a spiral to disorder, the joys of a creative chaos become an elusive chimera for them rather than a fulfilling experience. Untreated mental illness and addiction to substances have shortened the lives of artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Frida Kahlo, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Jackson Pollock, all of whom committed suicide. In contrast Edvard Munch and John Callahan, who chose to address their emotional problems and substance abuse, continued to live and remain creative. Choosing to access previously avoided moments of pain can activate the nonlinear power of self-transformation.

  5. [Visits to the doctor because of illness or injury of the students of vocational schools who consume or do not consume psychoactive substances (comparative aspects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurgaĭtene, D P; Shopagene, D S; Andreev, V A

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate what impact has the use of different narcotic drugs, alcohol and tobacco on the health of students and the risk of injuries. We carried out a questionnaire survey of the first year students from all six vocational schools of Klaipeda (Lithuania) in 2004, 2006 and 2008. A total of 912 students (507 boys and 405 girls, mean age 17.5 years) were surveyed with an anonymous questionnaire. The findings were analysed with computer soft SPSS (SPSS 16.0 for Windows). The results showed that the use of any psychoactive substances is damaging to health, especially injection and club narcotic drugs. Adolescents addicted to any psychoactive substances more often than non-addicts visited doctor due to illness or injury during the last 12 months. Adolescents on illegal drugs, especially boys on injectable narcotic drugs and girls on club drugs were at twice higher risk for disease or injury (odds ratio--OR--3.39, 95% confidence interval--CI--1.25 to 9.19, p = 0.016 and OR--2.38, CI--1.35 to 4.20, p = 0.003, respectively). Tobacco and alcohol consumption did not significantly increase this risk with the exception of tobacco smoking girls. We think it happened because these two addictions are widely spread among large part of the boys from the vocational schools.

  6. Perception of health risks among adolescents due to consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilav, A; Rudić, A; Branković, S; Djido, V

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the perception of health risks in adolescents due to the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH), as well as their observation of the behavior of their peers related to addictive behaviors. For the analysis was used a database from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) survey which was conducted in FBIH in 2011. The target population were students in the second grade of secondary schools in FBIH born in 1995 according to the ESPAD protocol. The total number of respondents from the cohort born in 1995 was 3813 students. The research results showed that the prevalence of risk perception due to the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances among adolescents in the FBIH is lower than the mean prevalence in countries which have implemented the ESPAD survey of 2011. PPreventive activities should be aimed at adolescent risk behaviours and empower them to make the right decisions that can have far reaching significance. Attention has to be paid to selective prevention that is directed towards individuals or subgroup of population where the risk of developing disorder is much higher than average. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicokinetics of novel psychoactive substances: characterization of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoenzymes involved in the phase II metabolism of 2C designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Robert, Anja; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-06-05

    The 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine-derived designer drugs (so-called "2Cs") recently became of great importance on the illicit drug market as stimulating hallucinogens. They are distributed and consumed as "novel psychoactive substances" (NPS) without any safety testing at the forefront. As previous studies have shown, the 2Cs are mainly metabolized by O-demethylation, N-acetylation, or deamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the recombinant human N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoforms 1 and 2 in the phase II metabolism of 2Cs. For these studies, cDNA-expressed recombinant human NATs were used and formation of metabolites after incubation was measured using GC-MS. NAT2 could be shown to be the only isoform catalyzing the reaction in vitro, hence it should be the only relevant enzyme for in vivo acetylation. In general, all metabolite formation reactions followed classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the affinity to human NAT2 was increasing with the volume of the 4-substituent. In consequence, a slow acetylator phenotype or inhibition of NAT2 could lead to decreased N-acetylation and might lead to an increased risk of side effects caused by these novel psychoactive substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Comparison of Identity Formation Styles in Teenagers with/without Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frarid Ahmadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making questionnaire administered in two samples. Results: The results showed that substance abusers were scored higher on normative and confused/avoidant identity formation also the non substance abusers were scored higher on information identity formation style. Conclusion: With different kind of intervention-training trials the parents and people who are effective on children’s identity formation can be mobilized, in order to prevention of identity formation styles which can planning teenagers’ substance abusing.

  9. Substance Abuse Policy Among Nursing Students: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh Nair, Julie; Nemeth, Lynne S; Sommers, Marilyn; Newman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students practicing in healthcare settings may increase risks to consumers, if impaired by drugs and/or alcohol, and are incapable of practicing safely. Several agencies implemented educational/professional policies, designed to protect healthcare consumers from risks. Policies addressing impaired nursing students vary among these agencies, and no nationally implemented policy exists for the treatment of impaired nursing student practice in the United States. This scoping study synthesizes substance abuse policy among nursing students, guided by the research question: What professional and state policies exist to address substance abuse among U.S. nursing students? The broader term, substance abuse, was used because alcohol-specific policies were not identified. Evidence was drawn from several policy documents identified through electronic sources that include national nursing organizations (NNOs) and nurse practice acts (NPAs) and rules. A comparative analysis was conducted on the identified policies to determine similarities and differences at the national and state levels and between national and state levels. Four NNO policies, 50 U.S. states, District of Columbia, and two U.S. territories' NPAs were selected for review based on selection criteria. Six areas were identified in NNO policies, and four were identified in NPAs that addressed chemically impaired nursing students. This review of current policy provided evidence that identifies and describes areas of concern. Impaired nursing practice, which includes nursing students, remains a major issue, complicated by the inconsistencies noted particularly within the reviewed NPAs. Knowledge gained from this review will be used to guide future research and subsequent state policy development.

  10. Social workers' ratings of comorbid personality disorders in substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Morten

    2005-07-01

    Clinical diagnoses of personality disorders have been discredited in the literature. However, the artificial dichotomization of dimensions, along with the constraint of having to select only one or a few diagnoses, may have limited the ability of clinical judgment to converge with other clinician's judgments, or with relevant external criteria. Assessment with a dimensional approach to personality disorders may provide improved agreement. In this study, substance abusers were rated by two different staff members involved in their treatment. Inter-rater agreement was moderately high for paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorder, and high-moderate discriminant validity was found for all personality disorders except schizoid and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

  11. A research agenda for economic evaluation of substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Drummond, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Economic analyses of substance abuse interventions play a critical role in informing the decision makers involved in funding these programs. Despite the emergence of new and more effective interventions, the adoption of costlier services still demands justification based on economic evidence. Updated and more rigorous economic information allows patients, health care professionals, insurance companies, policymakers, and others to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. To prepare for the next wave of addiction health services research, this article presents background information on the economics of addiction health services, reviews recent empirical and methodological contributions, and provides 15 research recommendations.

  12. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial...

  13. Traumatic experiences and re-victimization of female inmates undergoing treatment for substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mej?a, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Sald?var, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. Methods This was a r...

  14. Evaluation of a Training to Reduce Provider Bias Toward Pregnant Patients With Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    SEYBOLD, DARA; CALHOUN, BYRON; BURGESS, DENISE; LEWIS, TAMMI; GILBERT, KELLY; CASTO, ANGIE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is not to present a scientific or systematic study, but to provide an initial framework for designing a training workshop to enhance health practitioners’ (nurses, social workers, physicians, etc.) knowledge regarding substance abuse treatment and to decrease their bias toward substance-abusing women, particularly pregnant women in rural communities. We incorporated the 4 Transdisciplinary Foundations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administra...

  15. Does Cultural Adaptation Have a Role in Substance Abuse Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlew, A. Kathleen; Copeland, Valire Carr; Ahuama-Jonas, Chizara; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    The changing ethnic composition of the nation and increasing requirements to use evidence-based treatments (EBTs) challenge mental health professionals to adapt treatments and interventions to be appropriate for their clients. This article applies the available information on cultural adaptation to substance abuse. The authors’ review suggests that the most common approaches for adapting substance use interventions include some combination of either community involvement in the adaptation, existing research and literature, and/or consultation from experts to adapt EBTs. The challenges facing the development of culturally adapted interventions include the need for additional research to determine which specific EBTs warrant adaptation, the responsibility of maintaining the balance between fidelity and adaptation, and the challenge of intragroup diversity. PMID:23731430

  16. Treatment of Substance Abusing Patients with Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.; Douaihy, Antoine B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To update clinicians on the latest in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders (SUD) and non-substance use disorders among adults and suggest how these treatments can be combined into an evidence based process that enhances treatment effectiveness in comorbid patients. Method Articles were extracted from Pubmed using the search terms “dual diagnosis,” “comorbidity” and “co-occurring” and were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness for pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments of comorbidity. Results Twenty-four research reviews and 43 research trials were reviewed. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that antidepressants prescribed to improve substance-related symptoms among patients with mood and anxiety disorders are either not highly effective or involve risk due to high side-effect profiles or toxicity. Second-generation antipsychotics are more effective for treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid substance abuse and current evidence suggests clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone are among the best. Clozapine appears to be the most effective of the antipsychotics for reducing alcohol, cocaine and cannabis abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Motivational interviewing has robust support as a highly effective psychotherapy for establishing a therapeutic alliance. This finding is critical since retention in treatment is essential for maintaining effectiveness. Highly structured therapy programs that integrate intensive outpatient treatments, case management services and behavioral therapies such as Contingency Management (CM) are most effective for treatment of severe comorbid conditions. Conclusions Creative combinations of psychotherapies, behavioral and pharmacological interventions offer the most effective treatment for comorbidity. Intensity of treatment must be increased for severe comorbid conditions such as the schizophrenia/cannabis dependence comorbidity due to the limitations of pharmacological

  17. Conformity, peer pressure, and adolescent receptivity to treatment for substance abuse: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raniseski, J M; Sigelman, C K

    1992-01-01

    To explore the possibility that peer influences not only contribute to adolescent substance abuse but shape feelings about being in treatment for substance abuse, forty adolescent inpatients were surveyed. Misconduct, including substance abuse, was predicted best by perceived peer pressure toward misconduct, low opinions of the value of treatment by disposition to conform to antisocial peers, and sense of stigma associated with being treated by perceived peer pressure toward conformity. Concerns over peer acceptance may be one basis for resistance to substance abuse treatment.

  18. Surveying Substance Abuse Frequency in Hospitalized Patients in Psychiatric Ward of Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaleiha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Substance abuse is believed to be one of the greatest social, economical ,and cultural problems all over the world and it is commonly observed among all social classes especially among mental disorder patients. Substance abuse can influence on the receptive-mental states such as mood and on the external visible activities such as behaviors. The aim of this study is to survey the frequency of Substance abuse in hospitalized mental-psychic patients in psychiatric ward of Farshchian hospital in Hamadan. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and retrospective study, available sampling method was used along with examining filed records in which the records of 400 hospitalized patients (293 men and 107 women from September 2000 to 2001 were checked and required data such as demographic information, infliction duration, substance abuse duration, psychiatric diagnosis were extracted and registered. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods.Results: About half of the hospitalized patients in the psychiatric ward had simultaneous substance abuse. Men had substance abuse more than women and the youths aged 20-39 more than the other groups. The study showed that widowing had positive relationship and higher education negative relationship with substance abuse.Conclusion: Mood disorders with 90.53%, schizophrenia with 8.29%, and other diagnostics with 1.18% were observed in persons with substance abuse and these diagnostics in non substance abuse persons were 79.22% ,11.26% and 9.52% respectively.

  19. Effectiveness of Role Play on Knowledge of Adolescents Regarding Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomimol Lucy Thomas,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and dependency are most common during adolescence. Adolescents are in a transitional phase, confusion can sometimes make them susceptible to taking up unfavourable habits. Attitude shaping by parents and knowledge of harmfulness of substance abuse can indirectly motivate the user to give up the habit. Substance abuse control programmes, focusing on youth, are essential, to reduce the burden of related diseases. Objectives: It was aimed to assess the level of knowledge of adolescents regarding substance abuse, to find the effectiveness of role play on knowledge regarding substance abuse among adolescents, to find out the association of knowledge scores of adolescents regarding substance abuse with selected socio demographic variables. Material and Methods: A quasi experimental, one group pre-test post-test design with evaluative approach was adopted for this study. The study was conducted at Krishna Charitable Trust’s English Medium School and Junior College, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Simple random sampling with lottery method was used for selecting the 60 subjects from VIIIth, IXth and Xth class. On the 1st day a structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge on substance abuse and role play was conducted followed by post test on the 7thday. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The mean and standard deviation of the knowledge scores of the subjects in pre test was 11.51 + 3.55 which increased in post test after role play to 17.5 + 2.89. The paired ‘t’ test value were 15.363 (p < 0.0001 showing a significant increase in knowledge regarding substance abuse. There was an association between type of family and general information on substance abuse, education of father with commonly abused substances and the total score on substance abuse, education of mother with commonly abused substances and prevention and management of substance abuse and number of

  20. Substance Abuse and Dependency Risk: The Role of Peer Perceptions, Marijuana Involvement, and Attitudes toward Substance Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Mobley, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed…

  1. Early risk indicators of substance abuse among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Margaret Mary

    2002-01-01

    To investigate early risk factors that led to substance-related disorders and to predict group differences between substance-impaired (SI) and nonimpaired (NI) registered nurses. Donovan's multifactorial model of impairment, and Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings. Data were gathered from 100 previously SI and 100 NI nurses located through use of the Internet. Three questionnaires were used: the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (ZSSS), the Efinger Alcohol Risk Survey (EARS), and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). Independent t-test scores showed the two groups differed significantly on all three instruments' total scores. Discriminate analysis indicated a correct prediction of 87% for SI and 95% for NI nurses, with an overall rate of 91%. EARS scores were the best predictor of nurses with substance-related disorders (.99), followed by ZSSS (.44) and CAST (.42) scores. The three variables indicate early risk factors for substance-abuse impairment. Identification of nurses at risk for impairment will allow for earlier intervention and possible prevention. Methods to reduce the number of modifiable risk factors are recommended.

  2. Pregnant substance-abusing women in involuntary treatment: Attachment experiences with the unborn child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Siv Merete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Use of coercion against pregnant women who misuse substances was legalised in Norway in 1996. The background for the law was that substance abuse during pregnancy represents a significant health problem for the child.

  3. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.

  4. Bipolar disorder with comorbid substance abuse: diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, J F

    2001-03-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse occur frequently in individuals with bipolar disorder, but clinicians may often feel ill-prepared to identify such multi-diagnosis syndromes, to contextualize drug abuse alongside affective symptoms, and to formulate appropriate treatment strategies. Plausible explanations for high comorbidity rates between bipolar illness and substance use disorders are complex and likely embrace numerous factors that extend beyond simple, older theories about drug use as sheer "self-medication." Evidence from epidemiologic, family-genetic, pharmacologic, psychosocial, and clinical psychopathology studies suggest that a majority of bipolar patients are at risk for developing lifetime drug or alcohol-related problems, which may in turn contribute to more varied and complex clinical presentations, accelerated relapses, worsening of depressive features, poorer lithium response, functional disability, and elevated suicide risk. In this article, the author reviews essential concepts about the phenomenology and treatment outcome of bipolar illness with substance use comorbidities and offers a systematic approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with such dual diagnoses.

  5. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. METHOD: The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305...... analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6...... increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life....

  6. Sexual abuse and substance abuse increase risk of suicidal behavior in Malaysian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. CHILD WELFARE AGENCY TIES TO PROVIDERS AND SCHOOLS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT USE BY ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E.; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. The current study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems as well as to improve service utilization. PMID:20870374

  8. Gender abuse, depressive symptoms, and substance use among transgender women: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population.

  9. The role of schools in combating illicit substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Cynthia J; Knight, John R

    2007-12-01

    Disturbingly high levels of illicit drug use remain a problem among American teenagers. As the physical, social, and psychological "home away from home" for most youth, schools naturally assume a primary role in substance abuse education, prevention, and early identification. However, the use of random drug testing on students as a component of drug prevention programs requires additional, more rigorous scientific evaluation. Widespread implementation should await the result of ongoing studies to address the effectiveness of testing and evaluate possible inadvertent harm. If drug testing on students is conducted, it should never be implemented in isolation. A comprehensive assessment and therapeutic management program for the student who tests positive should be in place before any testing is performed. Schools have the opportunity to work with parents, health care professionals, and community officials to use programs with proven effectiveness, to identify students who show behavioral risks for drug-related problems, and to make referrals to a student's medical home. When use of an illicit substance is detected, schools can foster relationships with established health care experts to assist them. A student undergoing individualized intervention for using illicit substances merits privacy. This requires that awareness of the student's situation be limited to parents, the student's physician, and only those designated school health officials with a need to know. For the purposes of this statement, alcohol, tobacco, and inhalants are not addressed.

  10. Substance abuse may hasten motor onset of Huntington disease: Evaluating the Enroll-HD database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jordan L; Kamholz, John A; Moser, David J; Feely, Shawna M E; Paulsen, Jane S; Nopoulos, Peg C

    2017-02-28

    To investigate the relationship between substances of abuse and age at motor onset (AMO) in patients with Huntington disease (HD) in a large and diverse patient population. This was a retrospective, observational study of the Enroll-HD database. Participants were determined to belong to 1 of 3 substance abuse groups: (1) tobacco abusers, (2) alcohol abusers, and (3) drug abusers. A group of participants who had never abused substances served as a control group. The average AMO of patients in the substance abuse groups was compared to the control group. The number of CAG repeats was used as a covariate in all analyses. The average difference in AMOs of participants in the tobacco (n = 566), alcohol (n = 374), and drug abuse groups (n = 217) compared to the control group (n = 692) were 2.3 (F1, 1,258 = 33.8, p < 0.0001), 1.0 (F1, 1,066 = 4.2, p = 0.04), and 3.3 (F1, 909 = 29.7, p < 0.0001) years earlier, respectively. In all substance abuse groups, the AMO was lowered to a greater degree in female participants than it was in male participants. Substances of abuse have a strong effect on the AMO in patients with HD. These effects seem to be amplified in women with HD compared to men. These results may provide a safe intervention capable of adding disease-free years to patients with HD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Substance abuse, conduct disorder and crime: assessment in a juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Mazlum; Turkcan, Ahmet; Erdogmus, Meral

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of substance abuse in the juvenile detention house and to determine the relationship between crime and substance abuse and conduct disorder. Two hundred and thirty cases in the biggest juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria. Law files and data of crime were examined. A total of 80 out of 230 juvenile detainees (34.8%) were found to have substance abuse excluding nicotine and alcohol. The substances abused in preferential order were cannabis (72.5%), volatile substances (21.3% bally and 3.7% thinner; 25%) and sedative hypnotic drugs and biperidents (2.5%). The rate of conduct disorder was 46.3% in substance abusers and 25.3% in the others (odds ratio: 2.536). The rate of substance abuse was 48.5% in the juveniles who had committed multiple crimes and 14.1% in the others (odds ratio: 5.735). The study shows that conduct disorder was very high in juvenile detainees. Conduct disorder was higher in substance-abusing than in non-abusing juvenile detainees. Substance-abusing juvenile detainees were found to have a higher detention rate than non-abusing juvenile detainees. There was a close relation between conduct disorder and substance abuse and multiple crimes. In the light of these results, diagnosis and treatment for conduct disorder in juvenile detainees are of great importance.

  12. On the Identification of Patterns of Substance Abuse with the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Nicholas T.

    1997-01-01

    The contributions of specific scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) to the classification of 180 adolescent substance abusers into groups characterized by aspects of behavioral control were studied. Seven scales made significant contributions to the classification of substance abusers into three groups, with…

  13. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  14. Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan

    2009-01-01

    To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…

  15. Ethical Considerations for the Use of Family Therapy in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittinghill, David

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the unique ethical considerations for the provision of family therapy as substance abuse treatment. Use of family therapy as substance abuse treatment has grown rapidly, but the ethical codes that guide clinical practice have not kept pace. Ethical pitfalls specific to family counseling within alcohol and drug treatment…

  16. Training Needs for Substance Abuse Treatment and Assessment among Rehabilitation Counselors: California State Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lee Za; Lee, Dal-Yob; Cha, Grace; Arokiasamy, Charles

    2008-01-01

    One hundred rehabilitation counselors in California reported that about 90% of consumers with whom they worked with had substance abuse and cooccurring issues, yet about half rated their graduate training in substance abuse treatment and assessment as poor and their practices as marginally proficient. The correlation analysis revealed that…

  17. The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.

    2007-01-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

  18. Children of Mothers with Histories of Substance Abuse, Mental Illness, and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeMark, Nancy R.; Russell, Lisa A.; O'Keefe, Maura; Finkelstein, Norma; Noether, Chanson D.; Gampel, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Children exposed to parental substance abuse, mental illness, and violence face profound challenges, including increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems, substance abuse, and victimization. In this article, we describe the characteristics of a sample of children of women entering treatment. These children had been exposed to domestic…

  19. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse VII: Teens, Parents and Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuses surveys have consistently found that the family is fundamental to keeping children away from tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs. This 2002 survey keeps the focus on family and seeks to assess the impact of siblings on the likelihood of teen substance abuse. This year 1,000 teens ages 12 to 17…

  20. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  1. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidities: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse co-morbidity with psychiatric disorders is common and has been widely reported, except in Kenya. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern and socio-economic burden of a dual diagnosis of substance abuse disorder and other psychiatric conditions. This was a cross-sectional descriptive ...

  2. Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices among Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A.; Shopshire, Michael; Tajima, Barbara; Gruber, Valerie; Guydish, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted at a Substance Abuse Forum designed to address local community needs by focusing on Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) in addiction treatment. The purpose of the study was to assess substance abuse treatment professionals' readiness to adopt EBPs, experience with EBPs, and attitudes toward EBPs, as well as agency support…

  3. The Relationship Between the Clinical Orientation of Substance Abuse Professionals and Their Clinical Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriello, Paul J.; Leierer, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationship between the clinical orientations of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and their clinical decisions. Cluster analysis grouped a sample of 245 SAPs on two clinical orientations that differed in their relative endorsement of traditional versus contemporary substance abuse counseling processes…

  4. Daughters' Perspectives on Maternal Substance Abuse: Pledge to Be a Different Kind of Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anne P.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Cancelli, Anthony A.; Chinitz, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) study was to explore the experiences of racially and culturally diverse young mothers whose own mothers abused substances two decades ago when substance abuse peaked in inner city, urban neighborhoods in the United States and to identify the factors that have influenced how they parent…

  5. Using Personal Narratives for Curriculum Development about Substance Abuse and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bial, Martha C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; Hanson, Meredith; White-Ryan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a project to sensitize graduate social work students taking courses in substance abuse to the needs of older adults. Graduate social work students at a major urban school of social work in the Northeast were recruited and trained to interview older adults with a history of substance abuse problems regarding their life…

  6. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. (a) Employer obligation to promulgate a... authority independent of this subpart. Any such additional policies or consequences must be clearly and...

  7. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs. Therefore, this meeting is... Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is... Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug Testing Advisory Board (DTAB) will meet on August 27 and 28, 2012...

  8. An Integrative Spiritual Development Model of Supervision for Substance Abuse Counselors-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss Ogden, Karen R.; Sias, Shari M.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors who address clients' spiritual development may provide more comprehensive counseling. This article presents an integrative supervision model designed to promote the spiritual development of substance abuse counselors-in-training, reviews the model, and discusses the implications for counselor education.

  9. Narratives of resilience after a period of substance abuse and crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse and criminality are critical problems in South Africa, yet little is understood about youth resilience. Through narrative analysis, this study sought to gain an understanding of resilience in eight men who have disengaged from criminality and substance abuse. Childhood difficulties, ineffective parenting, ...

  10. Caregiver Substance Abuse among Maltreated Children Placed in Out-of-Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinger, Bridgett A.; Garland, Ann F.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Landsverk, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed child protective services' case records of 639 children placed in out-of-home care due to maltreatment, and systematically evaluated substance abuse by the child's parents or guardian prior to placement. Found that 79% of caregivers met criteria for caregiver substance abuse (CSA); children with and without CSA differed in age, ethnicity,…

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  12. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  13. Experiences Associated with Intervening with Homeless, Substance-Abusing Mothers: The Importance of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists,…

  14. 75 FR 74738 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... research will evaluate the effectiveness of the Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the... clinical skills of primary care physicians in the US who treat substance abuse patients. The Online Skills... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  15. Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

  16. HighResNPS.com – an Internet Database for Liquid Chromatography - High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Screening for New Psychoactive Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Mollerup, Christian Brinch; Mardal, Marie

    Background/Introduction: The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is constantly increasing which makes it challenging to keep the screening libraries updated with the relevant analytical targets. Liquid chromatography coupled High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) screening methods...... frequently utilize accurate mass of fragment ions for identification, in addition to retention time and accurate mass of precursor ions. The fragment ion information is obtained with data independent acquisition or data dependent acquisition. Both tend to generate similar fragment ions, when acquired...... cannabinoids and their metabolites constitute more than 60% of the database and opioids and their metabolites account for around 15% of the entries. 74% of the entries in HighResNPS are present in the European Database on New Drugs (EDND) governed by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction...

  17. Professional Attitudes of the Teachers in Implementation of a School-Based Programme about Prevention of the Use Psychoactive Substances in 5-7 Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhuharova Penka Petkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the planning, implementation and evaluation of the program about prevention of the use of psychoactive substances among students 5-7 grade. The study was conducted by survey method with 314 teachers who teach in twenty-six schools. The qualification of the teachers to work with the program about prevention was studied in the lesson of the class. We studied the forms, through which the preventive activity, topicality, the methods used and course curricula for hours in individual classes were implemented. It was found that there was an interaction between the various recipients of the preventive activity. The preparation and qualification of the teachers to work on a program for the prevention of the use of alcohol and tobacco products was studied in the lesson of the class. We pointed out some problematic aspects and guidelines for development of the preventive activity.

  18. Random and systematic errors in case-control studies calculating the injury risk of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2013-01-01

    injury in car crashes. The calculated odds ratios in these studies showed large variations, despite the use of uniform guidelines for the study designs. The main objective of the present article is to provide insight into the presence of random and systematic errors in the six DRUID case–control studies....... Relevant information was gathered from the DRUID-reports for eleven indicators for errors. The results showed that differences between the odds ratios in the DRUID case–control studies may indeed be (partially) explained by random and systematic errors. Selection bias and errors due to small sample sizes...... and cell counts were the most frequently observed errors in the six DRUID case–control studies. Therefore, it is recommended that epidemiological studies that assess the risk of psychoactive substances in traffic pay specific attention to avoid these potential sources of random and systematic errors...

  19. Promoting innovation and excellence to face the rapid diffusion of novel psychoactive substances in the EU: the outcomes of the ReDNet project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Assi, Sulaf; Simonato, Pierluigi; Corkery, John; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Stair, Jacqueline; Fergus, Suzanne; Pezzolesi, Cinzia; Pasinetti, Manuela; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Davey, Zoe; Blaszko, Ursula; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Mervo, Barbara; Furia, Lucia Di; Farre, Maggi; Flesland, Liv; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Shapiro, Harry; Siemann, Holger; Skutle, Arvid; Sferrazza, Elias; Torrens, Marta; Sambola, F; van der Kreeft, Peer; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    The recent emergence of new psychoactive compounds (novel psychoactive substances (NPS)) has raised prominent challenges in the fields of drug policy, substance use research, public health and service provision. The Recreational Drugs European Network project, funded by the European Commission, was implemented to improve the information stream to young people and professionals about effects/risks of NPS by identifying online products and disseminating relevant information through technological tools. Regular multilingual qualitative assessments of websites, drugs fora and other online resources were carried out using the Google search engine in eight languages from collaborating countries. These included the following: the UK, Norway, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Italy and Spain. Products were tested and prevention messages were developed and disseminated via technological tools such as interactive websites, SMS alert, social networking (Facebook, Twitter), Multimedia (You Tube), Smartphone applications (iPhone) and virtual learning environments (Second Life). The Recreational Drugs European Network project established itself as the first Europe-wide prevention programme designed for NPS based on the efficacy of novel information and communication technology-based forms of intervention. More than 650 NPS products and combinations were identified; relevant information was disseminated to target population and advice was given to both European Union/international agencies and national policy makers. Web-monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPS and the use of technological tools can be successfully incorporated in specific prevention programmes. Furthermore, the involvement of multi-disciplinary international partnerships was and continues to be fundamental for responding to such a prominent challenge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  1. Designing new substance abuse treatment services for a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R H; Smith, M C; Garner, D D; Cage, B N; Freeman, R A

    1986-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the relationships between service attributes and physician perceptions was conducted as an approach to marketing substance abuse treatment services. The results of this attribute-perceptive-preference study indicate: the physician(s) on staff attribute makes the greatest contribution to perceived quality and efficiency; easy referral admission makes the largest contribution to accessibility perceptions; and providing feedback produces the greatest contribution to perceived continuity. The JCAH attributes neither adds to nor subtracts from the perceptions of any of the four perceptual attributes. Other findings indicate that perceived efficiency produces the greatest contribution to overall consumer preference. Quality perceptions make the second largest contribution to overall preference, followed by continuity and accessibility perceptions.

  2. Racial disparities in substance abuse treatment and the ecological fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gerald; Duncan, Alexandra; Thompson, Azure; Wexler, Harry K; Chaple, Michael; Cleland, Charles M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined engagement in treatment in substance abuse treatment programs that treated primarily either African American or White clients. Findings showed higher levels of engagement in White programs; however, engagement of African Americans in White programs was similar to that of Whites and was greater than Whites in African American programs. No significant differences emerged when a mixed model analysis considered additional variables of staff consensus (regarding treatment elements), treatment climate, acceptance of Medicaid clients, the proportion mandated to treatment, and the quality of the physical space. Although African American programs may show poorer levels of engagement than White programs, attribution of engagement in treatment to client level race/ethnicity should be made with caution.

  3. “Focus on the young ones”: Discourses on substance abuse and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selseng Lillian Bruland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS – Previous research has shown that age categories play a vital part in the decision-making processes of counsellors in substance abuse services, yet very little is known about how the meanings of “age” and “substance abuse” are constructed and intertwined. This article aims to provide insights into the dynamic relationship between discourses on age and substance abuse. It explores the narratives of a group of counsellors on age and substance abuse, and looks at the subject positions this intersection produces.

  4. Social adaptability and substance abuse: Predictors of depression among hemodialysis patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several aspects linked to social are involved in the onset of depressive feelings. We aimed to find out if social adaptability and substance abuse predict depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD. Methods We included 145 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Social adaptability was estimated by the Social Adaptability Index (SAI. Substance abuse was defined according to SAI. We screened for depression by applying the 20-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A score ≥ 24 classified the patients as depressed. Comparisons between depressed and non-depressed patients were carried out and logistic regression was performed to test gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable (yes/no as predictors of depression. Results There were 36 (24.8% depressed patients. There were no differences regarding demographic and laboratory data between the depressed and non-depressed patients. Mean SAI among depressed and non-depressed patients was, respectively, 6.1 ± 1.6 vs. 6.2 ± 1.9 (p=0.901. The percentage of patients with or without substance abuse among depressed patients was, respectively, 13.8% vs. 13.9% (p=1.000. Gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable did not predict depression. Conclusions Social adaptability and substance abuse did not predict depression in HD patients. We propose that aspects related to socioeconomic status not comprised in SAI items should be ruled out as predictors of depression.

  5. The comparative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) and substance abuse treatment alone: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Vedel, Ellen; Scholing, Agnes; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2013-07-16

    Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N = 52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+.

  6. Racial differences in treatment effect among men in a substance abuse and domestic violence program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J

    2010-11-01

    It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.

  7. The relationship between child abuse and negative outcomes among substance users: psychopathology, health, and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-10-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report higher rates of child abuse than adults without SUDs. Prior work suggests that this abuse is associated with higher rates of psychosis, posttraumatic stress disorder, physical health problems, alcohol dependence, and cannabis dependence among substance users. Little is known about other problems associated with child abuse experienced by substance users. We hypothesized that among adults with SUDs, child abuse would be associated with elevated rates of all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR) psychiatric disorders, substance dependencies, and comorbidities assessed. We assessed 280 inpatients in substance use treatment with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV-TR, the Diagnostic Instrument for Personality Disorders, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We used chi-square and regression analyses to establish whether rates of psychiatric disorders, substance dependencies, and comorbidities differed as a function of child abuse. Consistent with our hypotheses, higher scores on the CTQ were associated with elevated rates of psychiatric disorders (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic symptoms, and personality disorders) and substance dependencies (alcohol dependence and cocaine dependence). Moreover, higher rates of all comorbidity patterns (e.g. comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety) were observed among individuals who reported experiencing child abuse. Across all substance dependencies examined, individuals who had been abused had significantly higher rates of all psychiatric disorders assessed. Individuals with substance use disorders who have been abused have particularly elevated rates of psychiatric and substance use disorders as a function of their abuse experiences. These findings have important treatment implications for individuals in residential substance use treatment settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Who seeks public treatment for substance abuse in Brazil? Results of a multicenter study involving four Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Faller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of alcohol and drug users who seek treatment at the Brazilian Unified Health System in Brazil.METHOD:A multicenter cross-sectional study involving five clinical and research centers located in four Brazilian state capitals was conducted with 740 in- and outpatients. The only exclusion criterion was the presence of neurological or severe psychiatric symptoms at the moment of the interview. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6 and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST were used to assess the severity of substance use and the problems related.RESULTS: There were significantly more men than women in the sample; mean age was 36 years. The drug most frequently used at all sites was alcohol (78%, followed by cocaine/crack (51%. Alcohol was the drug that most commonly motivated treatment seeking, at all centers. ASI-6 Summary Scores for Recent Functioning (SS-Rs were quite similar among centers. SS-Rs were compared between users who had never received treatment for psychoactive substance abuse (n = 265, 36.1% and those who had already been treated at one or more occasions (n = 470, 63.9%. This analysis revealed significant differences between the groups in the drug, psychiatric symptoms, legal, and family/social problems areas (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm previous evidence suggesting that the management of patients seeking drug abuse treatment should take several different aspects into consideration, e.g., education, employment, and family relationships, which often appear as areas of concern for these individuals.

  9. Measurement of materialism and spiritualism in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, R J; Mathew, V G; Wilson, W H; Georgi, J M

    1995-07-01

    A modified version of an instrument called the Mathew Materialism-Spiritualism Scale (MMSS), originally developed in India, was evaluated for possible use in substance abuse research in the U.S. The scale was administered to 62 individuals recovering from substance use, 20 clergy people and 61 general controls. Test-retest reliability for the MMSS was verified by administering it to 18 control subjects on two separate occasions, 7 days apart. The Pearson correlation for the MMSS total scores was 0.83 (p < .0001). Internal consistency was examined with Cronbach's alpha in the entire sample of 143 subjects; the result for the total score was .93. Factor analysis showed a factor structure compatible with the subscales proposed by the developer. Women, in general, obtained higher spirituality scores. Members of the recovering group obtained significantly higher scores on "character" and "mysticism" than the general controls. When general controls were divided into MAST positive and MAST negative individuals, the MAST positive group obtained lower scores than the recovering group for "God," "mysticism" and "character." MAST negative individuals had lower scores on "mysticism" than the recovering group. Christians had higher scores on "God" and "religion" subscales than did nonChristians and agnostics. The results of this study need confirmation using an improved methodology and larger sample sizes. However, they suggest that the scale may be useful for the study of spirituality in the U.S.

  10. [Substance-induced sleep disorders and abuse of hypnotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, D; Nissen, C

    2011-12-01

    The intake of a large variety of substances has a negative impact on sleep. Widely used, readily available substances like alcohol, nicotine, or caffeine need to be mentioned here. Illicit drugs (e.g., heroin or ecstasy) have different mechanisms of action with a high sleep-disrupting potential. Prescription drugs, i.e., corticosteroids or β-blockers, may also negatively affect sleep. An important question is whether the intake of hypnotics, especially benzodiazepines, may have a negative long-term effect on sleep. Classical benzodiazepines (BZ) initially lead to a reduction of nocturnal wake time and prolong total sleep time as a desired effect. Regarding the microstructure of sleep, BZ lead to a reduction of slow frequencies and an increase of fast frequencies in the EEG. With many BZ, tolerance may occur, thus, leading to unwanted dose increases. Further problems include rebound effects that occur upon discontinuation of BZ, including a drastic deterioration of sleep upon drug withdrawal. This phenomenon may pave the way for the development of drug dependency. Further unwanted side-effects (e.g., nocturnal falls) and the question of BZ abuse and dependency will be discussed.

  11. A Neurobiological Basis for Substance Abuse Comorbidity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R. Andrew; Krystal, John H.; Self, David W.

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly held that substance use comorbidity in schizophrenia represents self-medication, an attempt by patients to alleviate adverse positive and negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, or medication side effects. However, recent advances suggest that increased vulnerability to addictive behavior may reflect the impact of the neuropathology of schizophrenia on the neural circuitry mediating drug reward and reinforcement. We hypothesize that abnormalities in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex facilitate the positive reinforcing effects of drug reward and reduce inhibitory control over drug-seeking behavior. In this model, disturbances in drug reward are mediated, in part, by dysregulated neural integration of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the nucleus accumbens resulting form frontal cortical and hippocampal dysfunction. Altered integration of these signals would produce neural and motivational changes similar to long-term substance abuse but without the necessity of prior drug exposure. Thus, schizophrenic patients may have a predilection for addictive behavior as a primary disease symptom in parallel to, and in many cases independent from, their other symptoms. PMID:11526998

  12. The relationship between wisdom and abstinence behaviors in women in recovery from substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digangi, Julia A; Jason, Leonard A; Mendoza, Leslie; Miller, Steve A; Contreras, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is theorized to be an important construct in recovery from substance abuse. In order to explore the role of wisdom in substance abuse recovery behaviors, the present study had two goals. First, it sought to examine the factor structure of a wisdom scale, the Foundational Value Scale (FVS) in a community sample of women in recovery from substance abuse. Second, the study examined how wisdom predicted the women's beliefs about their ability to abstain from future substance use. 116 women in recovery from substance abuse disorders were recruited from self-run recovery homes and a substance abuse recovery convention. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that a modified version of the FVS has good internal consistency reliability and is composed of three wisdom-related dimensions. The three factors were then used to create a higher-order wisdom factor in a structural equation model (SEM) that was used to predict abstinence self-efficacy behaviors. Results from the SEM showed that the wisdom factor was predictive of greater abstinence self-efficacy behaviors. The FVS was found to be a reliable measure with women in recovery from substance abuse. In addition, wisdom predicted beliefs about self-efficacy such that those who reported higher levels of wisdom felt more confident in their abilities to abstain from alcohol. The results of this study indicate that wisdom is an important construct in the abstinence behaviors of women who are in recovery from substance abuse disorders.

  13. The Dynamic Assessment and Referral System for Substance Abuse (DARSSA): Development, Functionality, and End-user Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Bedek, Kristyna L.; Gilles, Donna; Baumann, Brigitte M.; Hollenberg, Steven; Lord, Sherrill A.; Grissom, Grant

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Assessment and Referral System for Substance Abuse (DARSSA) conducts a computerized substance abuse assessment; prints personalized summary reports that include tailored substance abuse treatment referral lists; and, for individuals who provide authorization, automatically faxes their contact information to a “best match” substance abuse treatment provider (dynamic referral). After piloting the program and resolving problems that were noted, we enrolled a sample of 85 medical pati...

  14. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  15. Integrated Substance Abuse and Child Welfare Services for Women: A Progress Review

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Smith, Brenda D.

    2011-01-01

    A review of empirical literature reveals improvements in service utilization and outcomes for women when substance abuse and child welfare services are integrated. The increased use of substances by women involved in the child welfare system has resulted in a call for integrated, coordinated, evidence-based practices. Since the late 1990s, specific system- and service-level strategies have been developed to coordinate and integrate the provision of substance abuse and child welfare services s...

  16. Substance abuse prevalence and its relation to scholastic achievement and sport factors: an analysis among adolescents of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekulic, Damir; Ostojic, Marko; Ostojic, Zdenko; Hajdarevic, Braco; Ostojic, Ljerka

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors...

  17. Substance abuse amongst the medical graduate students in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Substance abuse is found worldwide including among students. We carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of substance abuse among medical student studying in a medical college in north India. Methods: Using a validated questionnaire a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 230 undergraduate and postgraduate medical students in a private medical college. Results: The prevalence of substance abuse was 20.43 per cent (47/230 among medical students. An increase in substance abuse was observed in the latter years of medical education. A total of 43 of 47 (91.7% students using these substances were aware of the ill effects. The most common reasons for substance use were relief from psychological stress (34/47, 72.4% and occasional celebration (34/47, 72.4%. Of the 47 substance users, 28 (59.6% made past attempts to quit the substance abuse. Interpretation & conclusions:Nearly one-fifth of medical students abuse at least one substance despite knowing the ill effects with the main predisposing factor being the psychological stress.

  18. Differences in efficacy on substance abuse between risperidone and clozapine supports the importance of differential modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, Marise W. J.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2009-01-01

    In patients with a psychotic disorder, substance abuse is a major problem. Substance abuse is associated with changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Differences in efficacy between antipsychotics on substance abuse could be explained by differences in D2 receptor

  19. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Ragnar; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Base-rate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of…

  20. Cutting down substance abuse--present state and visions among surgeons and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen-Lehto, Riitta; Seppä, Kaija; Nordback, Isto

    2005-06-01

    Although substance abuse is variably common among surgical patients, detection of the problem and brief interventions are seldom undertaken. The aim of the present study was to assess surgeons' and nurses' activity in screening substance abuse among their patients and obstacles concerning intervention of patients with substance abuse. Surgeons and nurses of The Department of Surgery, Tampere University Hospital were asked to predict if the surgical patients treated during a 24-h period (n=211) had a substance abuse disorder. This was compared to the patients' self-reports based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and questions about use of other substances. The surgeons and the nurses were also asked to complete a questionnaire related to interventions of patients with substance abuse; perceived knowledge, skills, attitudes and obstacles. Of the surgical patients, 47 (22%) proved to be substance abusers. Out of them, 23% were detected by surgeons and nurses. Of the surgeons (n=44) 83% and of the nurses (n=332) 84% perceived responsibility for intervention but claimed many obstacles. Nurses reported the lack of knowledge as the main obstacle. Of the nurses 18% reported enough knowledge to conduct the whole brief intervention compared to 34% of surgeons (p=0.021). The main obstacle reported by surgeons was the lack of time. Surgeons and nurses detect only minority of the substance abusing surgical patients. Lack of knowledge and time prevent intervening in patients' substance abuse. These results may be utilized when developing a program to better involve surgeons and nurses in detection and intervention of surgical patients' substance abuse.

  1. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

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    Kelly Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition. All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female, length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more, and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication. Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9

  3. Prior Substance Abuse and Related Treatment History Reported by Recent Victims of Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174

  4. Pretreatment for substance-abusing people with intellectual disabilities : Intervening on autonomous motivation for treatment entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Kroon, A.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a lack of consensus regarding prevalence rates of substance abuse, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) on average use substances slightly less often than their non-disabled peers. However, their use of substances is more often problematic. Avoidance of treatment is a

  5. Results from the Pro-QOL-IV for Substance Abuse Counselors Working with Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Elizabeth B.; Sprang, Ginny

    2013-01-01

    This study examines compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction in two groups of counselors who specialize in substance dependency treatment in order to identify the unique features of substance abuse service delivery that may be related to professional quality of life. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 substance abuse…

  6. Sexual temptation: substance abuse, no sex, safe sex, risky sex, and STDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarso, Toto; Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Anerin, Denny R; McCartt, Intan W S; Gibson, Courtney B

    2016-12-23

    University students' substance abuse and risky sex contribute to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We develop and empirically test a formative theoretical model of sexual temptation involving substance abuse (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), safe sexual behavior (use of condom/barrier for oral and vaginal intercourse), risky sexual behavior (unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners), and STDs: gonorrhea, HIV, and genital herpes. We simultaneously explore these constructs, controlling membership in social groups (fraternity/sorority, varsity athlete, and club sports) and perceived norm of substance abuse. A total of 687 American university students completed the National College Health Assessment (NCHA). We use structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the goodness of fit between our formative theoretical model and actual data. Results reveal the following discoveries: membership in campus social groups is positively associated with STDs, whereas perceived norm of peer substance abuse is negatively related to STDs. Under the influence of substance abuse, we test three outcomes of sexual temptation as related to STDs. Those who have no sex do not contract STDs. For those who fall into temptation and have sex, substance abuse is more strongly related to risky sex which leads to STDs than safe sex which does not. Those engaging in risky sex have significantly higher cognitive impairment than those practicing safe sex. Substance abuse contributes to STDs through risky sex only. Those having risky sex suffer higher cognitive impairment than those practicing safe sex. We provide novel implications to policy makers, practitioners, and researchers.

  7. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  8. Synthetic cathinone abuse

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    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  9. MUCOCILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HIV AND SMOKED SUBSTANCE ABUSE

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    Srinivasan eChinnapaiyan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC is a hallmark of acquired chronic airway diseases like chronic bronchitis associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. This manifests as microbial colonization of the lung consequently leading to recurrent respiratory infections. People living with HIV demonstrate increased incidence of these chronic airway diseases. Bacterial pneumonia continues to be an important comorbidity in people living with HIV even though anti-retroviral therapy has succeeded in restoring CD4+ cell counts. People living with HIV demonstrate increased microbial colonization of the lower airways. The microbial flora is similar to that observed in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD suggesting that mucociliary dysfunction could be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of chronic airway diseases in people living with HIV. The three principal components of the MCC apparatus are, a mucus layer, ciliary beating and a periciliary airway surface liquid (ASL layer that facilitates ciliary beating. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR plays a pivotal role in regulating the periciliary airway surface liquid. HIV proteins can suppress all the components of the MCC apparatus by increasing mucus secretion and suppressing CFTR function. This can decrease ASL height leading to suppressed ciliary beating. The effects of HIV on MCC are exacerbated when combined with other aggravating factors like smoking or inhaled substance abuse, which by themselves can suppress one or more components of the MCC system. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to MCC suppression in people living with HIV who also smoke tobacco or abuse illicit drugs.

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse: An investigation in young Austrian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegler, Anita; Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Lesch, Otto; Walter, Henriette; Skala, Katrin

    2017-08-01

    Many studies have found an association between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. We intended to determine whether substance abuse and SUDs are associated with former and current ADHD symptomatology in a non-clinical sample of 17 and 18 year old males. A representative sample of 3280 young men (6.8% of all males born in Austria in the respective year) was investigated during the examination for military service. We collected data on past (WURS) and current (ADHD symptom checklist) ADHD symptomatology, substance abuse, parental substance use and abuse and motives for substance use. Measured by WURS, 10.1% had scored positive for past ADHD symptoms. 2.7% of all subjects stated that they have been treated for ADHD and 1.5% reported that they had at one point received pharmacological treatment for the condition. Abuse of alcohol, nicotine and illicit substances was significantly (pADHD syndrome. Perceived parental alcohol abuse increased the risk for ADHD in the offspring. Motives for substance use differed greatly between groups. The sample consists of men only. Subjects had to be fit enough to be enlisted military service, generating a possible bias towards healthier subjects. The cross-sectional design does not allow conclusions about the temporal relationships between ADHD symptoms and substance abuse. Identification of vulnerability factors for comorbid ADHD and SUD in adolescence should be intensified. Preventive strategies ought to be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tackling Adolescent Substance Abuse in Hong Kong: Where We Should and Should Not Go

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    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 2007 Policy Address, the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, P.R.C. expressed the Administration’s concern about adolescent substance abuse and proposed to form a high-level interdepartmental task force to tackle the problem in a holistic manner. In this paper, the author presents his observations about adolescent substance abuse in Hong Kong, and outlines the risk factors and related strategies based on the ecological perspective that the Government should consider in order to tackle the problem of adolescent substance abuse in Hong Kong. Furthermore, the directions where the Government should and should not go are discussed.

  12. Equity in private insurance coverage for substance abuse: a perspective on parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Sindelar, Jody L

    2007-01-01

    Congress is considering enactment of comprehensive parity legislation. The intent of parity is to equalize private coverage of behavioral and general medical care, thereby improving efficiency and fairness in insurance markets. One issue is whether to extend parity to substance abuse (SA) benefits. In the past, inclusion of substance abuse has been a hurdle to passage of parity. We examine the politics of SA parity, compare coverage trends for substance abuse and mental health, and assess the rationale for equalizing benefits. We conclude that the justification for SA parity is as compelling as it is for mental health parity.

  13. Rapid detection by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) of psychoactive plant drugs of abuse: the case of Mitragyna speciosa aka "Kratom".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A

    2014-09-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, also known commonly as "Kratom" or "Ketum", is a plant with psychoactive properties that have been attributed to the presence of various indole alkaloids such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. M. speciosa use is gaining popularity internationally as a natural and legal alternative to narcotics. As a drug of abuse, its detection and identification are not straightforward, since M. speciosa plant material is not particularly distinctive. Here, we show that direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) can be used not only to rapidly identify M. speciosa plant material and distinguish it from other plants, but also to distinguish between M. speciosa plant varieties, based on differences between their chemical profiles. The method is rapid and the analysis expeditious. Plant material such as that found at a crime scene can be analyzed directly with no sample pre-preparation steps. Furthermore, we show that the basis set of principal components that permit characterization of the plant material can be used to positively identify M. speciosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in statistical methods for substance abuse prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P; Lockwood, Chondra M

    2003-09-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods.

  15. Exploring the relationship among ADHD, stimulants, and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrea; Galon, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate among prescribers concerning the risk of inadvertently contributing to the initiation of substance abuse (SA) in children and adolescents through the use of stimulants in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychiatric nurses at all levels of practice must be informed about this important discourse in order to provide accurate and timely interventions to clients and their families. This literature review explores the current state of prescriptive stimulant use for ADHD and the possible links to SA. Developmental, genetic, and neuro-chemical theories of the disorder that may contribute to SA as well as the burden of comorbidity are considered. The impact of gender, cultural, legal, and ethical influences on diagnostic and treatment recommendations is also included. U.S. and other English language articles were identified through PubMed and the Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature. These sources were used to determine the current practice of stimulant prescription and the prevalence of SA as a comorbidity to other child psychiatric disorders including ADHD. Textbooks were consulted for information regarding relevant neurochemistry, genetics, and psychopharmacology. The authors conclude that the use of stimulants is appropriate for children and adolescents with ADHD when opportunities for screening, family and child education, and counseling concerning SA are consistently integrated into the ongoing treatment regimen. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Psychological intervention in substance abusing women: A theoretical review

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    Rosario Ruiz-Olivares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug use remains today one of the health problems of greatest concern to society. According to the most recent state epidemiological data, women's consumption continuously increases, becoming more and more similar to that of men. However, this same trend does not occur in terms of access to treatment, and when women seek treatment, there is a marked difficulty in adherence to treatment as abandoning it is often the case. Such is the importance of meeting the specific needs of substance-abusing women, that it is even highlighted as a priority and an integral element of the latest Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016 (Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas, 2013a. In this sense, at the empirical level, researchers have started to study the possible differences men and women may present in drug treatment, as well as the development of a gender-specific treatment. The aim of this theoretical review paper is to analyze the elements that characterize drug dependent women, establishing what aspects should be taken into account in the intervention with women from previous research or from on-going research, suggesting its implementation and future research directions.

  17. Can MDMA play a role in the treatment of substance abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lisa; Schuster, Shira; Yazar-Klosinski, B Berra

    2013-03-01

    A wider array of treatments are needed for people with substance abuse disorders. Some psychedelic compounds have been assessed as potential substance abuse treatments with promising results. MDMA may also help treat substance abuse based on shared features with psychedelic compounds and recent reports indicating that MDMAassisted psychotherapy can reduce symptoms of PTSD. Narrative reports and data from early investigations found that some people reduced or eliminated their substance use after receiving MDMA, especially in a therapeutic setting. MDMA is a potent monoamine releaser with sympathomimetic effects that may indirectly activate 5-HT2A receptors. It increases interpersonal closeness and prosocial feelings, potentially through oxytocin release. Findings suggest that ecstasy, material represented as containing MDMA, is associated with deleterious long-term effects after heavy lifetime use, including fewer serotonin transporter sites and impaired verbal memory. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders. However, subjects who received MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in two recent clinical studies were not motivated to seek out ecstasy, and tested negative in random drug tests during follow-up in one study. MDMA could either directly treat neuropharmacological abnormalities associated with addiction, or it could indirectly assist with the therapeutic process or reduce symptoms of comorbid psychiatric conditions, providing a greater opportunity to address problematic substance use. Studies directly testing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with active substance abuse disorder may be warranted.

  18. Substance abuse and psychosocial adaptation to physical disability: analysis of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Ebener, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the current state of the literature with respect to substance abuse and psychosocial adjustment in persons with disabilities. The two primary databases containing the literature related to rehabilitation and disability issues (PsychINFO and MedLine) were searched to identify articles addressing the psychosocial impact of substance abuse in persons with disabilities. Eleven empirical articles specifically measuring the strength of the relationship between substance use and psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities were selected for analysis. Of the studies identified, five were related to spinal cord injury, three were related to traumatic brain injury, one was related to chronic back pain, one was related to HIV/AIDS, and one was related to persons with any type of disability. Each of the studies used different methodologies, measured substance abuse in different ways, and examined different psychosocial outcome variables. Examination of trends suggested that pre-injury substance abuse appears to be unrelated to acceptance of disability in persons with spinal cord injury and negatively associated with satisfaction in persons with traumatic brain injury. Recent substance abuse tends to have a detrimental effect on psychosocial outcomes across all disability groups. Future research, combined with appropriate pre-service and continuing education related to substance abuse and disability for rehabilitation practitioners, has the potential to lead to improved psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities.

  19. African-Americans in public housing: a traditional social work approach to substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Rufus

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, an increased and special emphasis on family issues of public housing residents emerged among social service professionals in northeast Georgia. This emphasis was launched because of the disparity between the number of substance-dependent African-Americans and those who sought and remained in substance abuse treatment programs. The relationship between these factors prompted an examination of preferences for substance abuse treatment among African-Americans in three northeast Georgia public housing complexes. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a traditional social work practice approach involving the identification of families where substance abuse was present, the examination of their preferences for substance abuse treatment, and the efficacy of home-based, family-centered practice. The evaluation results support the claim that elements of traditional social work practice, such as community or home-based, family-centered treatment, can be effective in addressing substance abuse issues of African-Americans residing in public housing complexes. In addition, this form of treatment supports the notion that African-American families residing in public housing can be assisted in the resolution of substance abuse issues.

  20. Psychoactive substance use, family context and mental health among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the consumption of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs and demographic variables, mental health and family context among school-aged children. METHODS: The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey was held with a national sample of 109,104 students. Data regarding demographic variables, family background and mental health were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that alcohol consumption was higher among girls, drug experimentation was more frequent among boys and that there was no difference between sexes for smoking. Being younger and mulatto were negatively associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Also negatively associated with such risk behaviors were characteristics of the family context represented by: living with parents, having meals together and parental supervision (when parents know what the child does in their free time. Moreover, characteristics of mental health such as loneliness and insomnia were positively associated with use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Not having friends was positively associated with use of tobacco and illicit drugs and negatively associated with alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the protective effect of family supervision in the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs and, on the contrary, the increasing use of substances according to aspects of mental health, such as loneliness, insomnia and the fact of not having friends. The study's findings may support actions from health and education professionals, as well as from the government and families in order to prevent the use of these substances by adolescents.

  1. A novel screening method for 64 new psychoactive substances and 5 amphetamines in blood by LC-MS/MS and application to real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiano, Fabio; Busardò, Francesco P; Palumbo, Diego; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Fioravanti, Alessia; Catalani, Valeria; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2016-09-10

    Identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPS), both in biological and non-biological samples, represent a hard challenge for forensic toxicologists. NPS are increasingly emerging on illegal drug market. Many cases of co-consumption of NPS and other substances have also been reported. Hence, the development of analytical methods aiming at the detection of a broad-spectrum of compounds (NPS and "traditional" drugs) could be helpful. In this paper, a fully validated screening method in blood for the simultaneous detection of 69 substances, including 64 NPS (28 synthetic cannabinoids, 19 synthetic cathinones, 5 phenethylamines, 3 indanes, 2 piperazines, 2 tryptamines, 2 phencyclidine, methoxetamine, ketamine and its metabolite) and 5 amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine - MDEA-) by a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring analysis through liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is described. This method is very fast, easy to perform and cheap as it only requires the deproteinization of 200μL of blood sample with acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation is achieved with a C18 column. The analysis is very sensitive, with limits of quantification ranging from 0.1 to 0.5ng/mL. The method is linear from 1 to 100ng/mL and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was always above 0.9900. Precision and accuracy were acceptable at any quality control level and recovery efficiency range was 72-110%. Matrix effects did not negatively affect the analytical sensitivity. This method was successfully applied to three real cases, allowing identification and quantification of: mephedrone and methamphetamine (post-mortem); ketamine, MDMA and MDA (post-mortem); AB-FUBINACA (ante-mortem). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Which psychoactive substances are used by patients seen in the healthcare system in French overseas territories? Results of the OPPIDUM survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveluy, Amélie; Frauger, Elisabeth; Peyrière, Hélène; Moracchini, Christophe; Haramburu, Françoise; Micallef, Joëlle

    2017-02-01

    Addiction to illicit substances or medicines is influenced by cultural, religious, ethnic factors as well as local availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profile of drug users and characteristics of the psychoactive substances used in French overseas territories, using data from the OPPIDUM survey. OPPIDUM is an annual, nationwide, multicentric, cross-sectional study based on specialized care centres that included subjects presenting a drug addiction or under opiate maintenance treatment. The current study includes data from the 2012 and 2013 surveys and focuses on patients included by drug addiction centres located in French overseas departments and territories: French Pacific Ocean (French Polynesia, New Caledonia), French Americas (Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, French Guiana) and Reunion Island. Data from metropolitan France (2013 survey) were included as reference. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included. The sex ratio was 3.7 for the Pacific Ocean, 3.5 for the French Americas and 3.3 for Reunion Island. Cannabis was consumed in all the territories, from 50.8% in Reunion Island to 81.7% in Pacific Ocean. Cocaine was most frequently consumed in the French Americas (61%), mainly in the 'freebase' form (91%), whereas 6.5% of cocaine users in metropolitan France did so. Problematic use of medicines was most frequent in Reunion Island. Heroin seems rarely used in all overseas territories. This study highlights the complexity of substances used in French overseas territories, which often differ from that in mainland France. The relative difference between different areas provides valuable information for future investigations and possible interventions. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT model for reducing the non-medical use of psychoactive substances: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Matthew M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant public health burden associated with substance use in Canada. The early detection and/or treatment of risky substance use has the potential to dramatically improve outcomes for those who experience harms from the non-medical use of psychoactive substances, particularly adolescents whose brains are still undergoing development. The Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment model is a comprehensive, integrated approach for the delivery of early intervention and treatment services for individuals experiencing substance use-related harms, as well as those who are at risk of experiencing such harm. Methods This article describes the protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment model for reducing the non-medical use of psychoactive substances. Studies will be selected in which brief interventions target non-medical psychoactive substance use (excluding alcohol, nicotine, or caffeine among those 12 years and older who are opportunistically screened and deemed at risk of harms related to psychoactive substance use. We will include one-on-one verbal interventions and exclude non-verbal brief interventions (for example, the provision of information such as a pamphlet or online interventions and group interventions. Primary, secondary and adverse outcomes of interest are prespecified. Randomized controlled trials will be included; non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series designs will be considered in the absence of randomized controlled trials. We will search several bibliographic databases (for example, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CORK and search sources for grey literature. We will meta-analyze studies where possible. We will conduct subgroup analyses, if possible, according to drug class and intervention setting. Discussion This

  4. I Am a Pediatric Dentist: Why Is Substance Abuse among My Patients My Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    The rapidly evolving demographic base of our communities intensifies the need for an awareness which in the past seemed beyond the traditional concerns of pediatric dentists; in this case, substance abuse by teenagers. A review was carried out regarding evolving demographics, the proportion of teenagers involved with substance abuse, the rationale for the use of varying elicit substances and the associated symptoms. A series of options for action are considered given the potential for pediatric dentists to be involved in the care of teenagers using elicit substances.

  5. Use of the MMPI-A to detect substance abuse in a juvenile correctional setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L A; Graham, J R

    2001-12-01

    In this study, we examined the ability of the MMPI-A (Butcher et al., 1992) to detect substance abuse problems in a juvenile correctional setting. Specifically, we evaluated the Alcohol/Drug Problem Acknowledgment scale (ACK; Weed, Butcher, & Williams, 1994), the Alcohol/Drug Problem Proneness scale (PRO; Weed et al., 1994), and the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (MAC-R; Butcher et al., 1992) in the prediction of substance abuse. In addition, the incremental validity of ACK in comparison to PRO was evaluated, as was the incremental validity of PRO in comparison to ACK. The sample consisted of 123 boys and girls from ajuvenile correctional facility in Northeastern Ohio. Results indicate that ACK and PRO, but not MAC-R, were related to interviewer ratings of substance abuse. Results point to the superiority of ACK over PRO in substance abuse identification.

  6. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-1997-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  7. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  8. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  9. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  10. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  11. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  12. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  13. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  14. Mediation effect of social skills between impulsivity with substance abuse in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Poorkord

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine mediation effect of social skills between impulsivity with substance abuse in adolescents. The research sample consists of 616 students of vulnerable high schools in Ardabil City. Together the data of Impulsivity Scale, Matson social skills scale and substance abuse survey were used [Matson, J. L., Rotatori, A. F., & Helsel, W. J. (1983. Development of a rating scale to measure social skills in children: The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY. Behaviour Research and therapy, 21(4, 335-340.]. The results show that impulsivity indirectly is associated with substance abuse students (P<0.001 through the effect on social skills. The results indicate that high levels of impulsivity and low-level social skills increase substance abuse in students. These results are consistent with other existing results found in the literature.

  15. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  16. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... make arrangements to attend, comment or to request special accommodations for persons with disabilities... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...

  17. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... special accommodations for persons with disabilities, please register at the SAMHSA Advisory Committees... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...

  18. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... comments, or request special accommodations for persons with disabilities, please register at the SAMHSA... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...

  19. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... written or brief oral comments, or request special accommodations for persons with disabilities, please... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...

  20. The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders, a systematic review of the several articles on the childhood sexual abuse-related risk for developing substance problems in adolescence or adulthood is provided. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists. Six reviews, including 200 studies, were included. Results indicate that child sexual abuse is a statistically significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for substance problems. Other biological and psychosocial variables contribute to substance-related disorders, with sexual abuse conferring additional risk, either as a distal, indirect cause or as a proximal, direct cause. Recommendations for future research are provided.