WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychoactive prescription drug

  1. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs among DUI suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Haukka, Jari; Lintonen, Tomi; Joukamaa, Matti; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2015-10-01

    The study seeks to increase understanding of the use of psychoactive prescription drugs among persons suspected of driving under the influence (DUI). We studied whether the use of prescribed psychoactive medication was associated with DUI, and examined the difference in the use of prescription drugs between DUI recidivists and those arrested only once. In this register-based study, persons suspected of DUI (n=29470) were drawn from the Register of DUI suspects, and an age- and gender-matched reference population (n=30043) was drawn from the Finnish general population. Data on prescription drug use was obtained by linkage to the National Prescription Register. The associations of DUI arrest and use of psychoactive prescription drugs in different DUI groups (findings for alcohol only, prescription drugs, prescription drugs and alcohol, illicit drugs) were estimated by using mixed-effect logistic regression. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs and DUI appeared to be strongly associated, with DUI suspects significantly more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to the reference population. Gender differences existed, with the use of benzodiazepines being more common among female DUI suspects. Moreover, DUI recidivists were more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to those arrested only once. In addition to alcohol and/or illicit drug use, a significant proportion of DUI suspects were using psychoactive prescription drugs. When prescribing psychoactive medication, especially benzodiazepines, physicians are challenged to screen for possible substance use problems and also to monitor for patients' alcohol or illicit drug use while being medicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Post-marketing surveillance systems for psychoactive prescription drug abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Sandra; Frauger, Elisabeth; Pauly, Vanessa; Rouby, Frank; Mallaret, Michel; Micallef, Joëlle; Thirion, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Drugs affecting the central nervous system form a unique group of products for surveillance because they could be misused, abused or diverted. Considering the characteristics of this behaviour that is often concealed, specific post-marketing surveillance systems have been developed to monitor abuse of prescription drugs in some countries. The purpose of this review is to list and to describe post-marketing surveillance systems, according their methodology, in France and in foreign countries. These programs are based on adverse effect notifications, medical or legal consequences of abuse, general or specific population-based survey, professional networks or medication databases. Some programs use simultaneously several information sources. In conclusion, the multifaceted nature, the diversity and the inventiveness of post-marketing surveillance systems reflects the complexity of the abuse issue. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with fatal poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Jari; Kriikku, Pirkko; Mariottini, Claudia; Partonen, Timo; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2017-08-25

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of non-medical substance use, and to assess the association between non-medical substance use and fatal poisoning or history of drug abuse in Finland. Retrospective cohort study of all medico-legally investigated death cases in Finland. The postmortem toxicology database was linked together with the register on reimbursed prescription medicines. All postmortem cases between 2011 and 2013 positive for one or more of the following drugs: oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, tizanidine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, alprazolam, zolpidem, mirtazapine and bupropion, n = 2974. Non-medical use of substance was the outcome variable. Predictors were the following: gender, residence at the time of death, place of death, blood alcohol concentration, age, drug abuse, number of prescriptions of any psychoactive drugs in last year and proportion of prescriptions issued by psychiatrist in last year. In 50.4% of the studied cases, at least one drug was detected without a prescription. Clonazepam, alprazolam and tramadol were the most prevalent non-medical findings in these cases (6.6, 6.1 and 5.6%, respectively). The risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs was especially high in cases with history of drug abuse (88.5%) and in fatal poisonings (71.0%). The proportion of non-medical use of the studied substances varied between 5.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.1-10.1%)] for risperidone and 55.7% for fentanyl (95% CI = 44.1-66.9%). Valid prescription for one or more of any psychoactive drug was associated with lower odds for non-medical use of the studied substances. Additionally, the higher the proportion of psychoactive drugs prescribed by a psychiatrist, the lower the probability of non-medical use. Non-prescribed psychoactive drugs are found commonly at postmortem in drug poisoning deaths in Finland, with history of drug abuse being a major contributing

  4. Increase in Psychoactive Drug Prescriptions in the Years Following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Caroline; Mottron, Laurent; Presse, Nancy; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Dorais, Marc; Perreault, Sylvie

    2017-08-18

    Psychoactive medications are commonly prescribed to autistic individuals, but little is known about how their use changes after diagnosis. This study describes the use of psychoactive drugs in children and young adults newly diagnosed with autism spectrum, between the year before and up to 5 years after diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use psychoactive drugs before the first diagnosis of autism spectrum condition (from 1998 to 2010), and the clinical and demographic characteristics, identified from public health care databases in Quebec. The types of drugs prescribed and psychoactive polypharmacy were evaluated over 5 years of follow-up. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the association of age and time with the use of psychoactive drugs. In our cohort of 2,989 individuals, diagnosis of another psychiatric disorder before autism spectrum strongly predicted psychoactive drug use. We observed that the proportion of users of psychoactive drugs increased from 35.6% the year before, to 53.2% 5 years after the autism spectrum diagnosis. Psychoactive polypharmacy (≥2 psychoactive drug classes) also increased from 9% to 22% in that time. Age and time since diagnosis strongly associated with the types and combinations of psychoactive drugs prescribed. Psychoactive drug use and polypharmacy increases substantially over time after autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in children.

  5. Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.

  6. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  8. Expression of behaviour and psychoactive drugs in the rat EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Lier, Hester van

    2004-01-01

    Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to describe changes in either behaviour or EEG separately. Rather, changes in EEG caused by psychoactive drugs should be described in direct concurrent relation with the subject's ongoing behaviour. ...

  9. Psychoactive Drugs and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Soren Ventegodt; Joav Merrick

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed on a representative sample of the Danish population in order to investigate the connection to the use of psychoactive drugs and quality of life (QOL) by way of a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2,460 persons aged between 18 and 88, randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register), and 7,222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959–61.A total of 1,501 persons between the ages 18 and 88 years and 4,626 ...

  10. Expression of behaviour and psychoactive drugs in the rat EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, Hester van

    2004-01-01

    Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to

  11. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CNS depressants are used to treat anxiety, tension, panic attacks, and sleep disorders. How they work: CNS ... most common result of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse medications can become addicted just ...

  12. [Psychoactive drug advertising: analysis of scientific information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2008-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, medicinal drug promotion should be reliable, accurate, truthful, informative, balanced, up-to-date and capable of substantiation. The objective of the present study was to review psychoactive drug advertisements to physicians as for information consistency with the related references and accessibility of the cited references. Data was collected in the city of Araraquara, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005. There were collected and reviewed 152 drug advertisements, a total of 304 references. References were requested directly from pharmaceutical companies' customer services and searched in UNESP (Ibict, Athenas) and BIREME (SciELO, PubMed, free-access indexed journals) library network and CAPES journals. Advertisement statements were checked against references using content analysis. Of all references cited in the advertisements studied, 66.7% were accessed. Of 639 promotional statements identified, 346 (54%) were analyzed. The analysis showed that 67.7% of promotional statements in the advertisements were consistent with their references, while the remaining was either partially consistent or inconsistent. Of the material analyzed, an average 2.5 (1-28) references was cited per advertisement. In the text body, there were identified 639 pieces of information clearly associated with at least one cited reference (average 3.5 pieces of information per advertisement). The study results evidenced difficult access to the references. Messages on efficacy, safety and cost, among others, are not always supported by scientific studies. There is a need for regulation changes and effective monitoring of drug promotional materials.

  13. Psychoactive Drugs and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed on a representative sample of the Danish population in order to investigate the connection to the use of psychoactive drugs and quality of life (QOL by way of a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2,460 persons aged between 18 and 88, randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register, and 7,222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959–61.A total of 1,501 persons between the ages 18 and 88 years and 4,626 persons between the ages 31 and 33 years returned the questionnaire (response rates of 61.0% and 64.1%, respectively. Variables investigated in this study were ten different psychotropic drugs and quality of life.Our study showed that over half the Danish population had used illegal psychotropic drugs. The most commonly used was cannabis (marijuana though experience of this drug appeared not to co-vary with QOL to any significant extent. Cocaine, amphetamine, and psilocybin had been used by 1.2 to 3.3% of the population and this varied with QOL to a clear albeit small extent. LSD has been used by 1.2% of the population and the users had a QOL score 10% lower than those who had never used psychotropic drugs. The group with the lowest quality of life was found to be persons who had used heroin, morphine, methadone, and a mixture of alcohol and tranquilizers (10–20% below the group with the highest quality of life.

  14. Psychoactive drugs and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav

    2003-08-18

    This study was performed on a representative sample of the Danish population in order to investigate the connection to the use of psychoactive drugs and quality of life (QOL) by way of a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2,460 persons aged between 18 and 88, randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register), and 7,222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61. A total of 1,501 persons between the ages 18 and 88 years and 4,626 persons between the ages 31 and 33 years returned the questionnaire (response rates of 61.0% and 64.1%, respectively). Variables investigated in this study were ten different psychotropic drugs and quality of life. Our study showed that over half the Danish population had used illegal psychotropic drugs. The most commonly used was cannabis (marijuana) though experience of this drug appeared not to co-vary with QOL to any significant extent. Cocaine, amphetamine, and psilocybin had been used by 1.2 to 3.3% of the population and this varied with QOL to a clear albeit small extent. LSD has been used by 1.2% of the population and the users had a QOL score 10% lower than those who had never used psychotropic drugs. The group with the lowest quality of life was found to be persons who had used heroin, morphine, methadone, and a mixture of alcohol and tranquilizers (10-20% below the group with the highest quality of life).

  15. Worldwide legislative challenges related to psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrei, Carolina; Galateanu, Bianca; Stan, Miriana; Balalau, Cristian; Dumitru, Mircea Lucian Bogdan; Ozcagli, Eren; Fenga, Concettina; Kovatsi, Leda; Fragou, Domniki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2017-06-02

    The discovery of a "new" psychoactive substance is a relatively exceptional event, while the regulatory response usually involved the assessment of risks to public health and inclusion of the novel substance in the national list of controlled substances. However, in recent years we have witnessed the rapid emergence of new chemical substances, which elude international control and pose a challenge to existing processes and a threat to the credibility of control systems. We currently review and present characteristics of these legal and illegal new substances and issues regarding their global monitoring and regulatory measures already taken, or in the process of being taken, for their control. The concept of prohibition applied in active substance-related legislation is rather hazard ridden as balance is required between the ban on substances of potential therapeutic use and the access on the market of high-risk substances. Current and future laws regarding psychoactive compounds.

  16. Non-medical use of psychoactive drugs in relation to suicide tendencies among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Wang; Jian-Xiong, Deng; Lan, Guo; Yuan, He; Xue, Gao; Jing-Hui, Huang; Guo-Liang, Huang; Ci-Yong, Lu

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drug (NMUPD) among adolescents and to explore the associations between non-medical psychoactive prescription drug use and depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, and suicide. A two-stage stratified cluster sample design produced a representative sample of 12-19-year-old students in grades 1-6 who attended public middle schools in Guangdong province. Prevalence estimates (SE) of non-medical psychoactive prescription drug use were calculated, and logistic regression was used to examine its association with depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, and suicide. Overall, 7.5% of adolescents reported non-medical use of opioids, and 4.8% of adolescents reported non-medical use of sedatives. Lifetime, last-year, and last-month non-medical use of opioids and sedatives were positively associated with depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts among different gender and age-group adolescents. Those who reported last month non-medical use of opioids and sedatives had the greatest odds of reporting depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts. Males who were last month non-medical users of opioids or sedative had 8.9 or 10.7 times greater odds of reporting a suicidal attempt, and 8.8 or 9.8 times greater odds of reporting a suicidal attempt were observed among adolescents aged 16-19 who were last-month non-medical users of opioids or sedatives. These findings provide evidence for improving adolescents' suicide prevention strategy by targeting supervision on high risk current non-medical users of psychoactive drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A formal framework of knowledge to support rational psychoactive drug selection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyfte, D. van; Maas, A.A.F. van der; Tjandra-Maga, T.B.; Vries Robbé, P.F. de

    2001-01-01

    Rational psychoactive drug selection is a data and knowledge intensive task which requires true expertise from clinical, pathophysiological and pharmacotherapeutic knowledge. This paper presents a framework of knowledge, which relates concepts from several disciplines required for psychoactive drug

  18. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use by Taxi Drivers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...

  19. Non-addictive psychoactive drug use: Implications for behavioral addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    The newly proposed framework for non-addictive psychoactive substances postulated by Müller & Schumann (M&S) provides an interesting and plausible explanation for non-addictive drug use. However, with specific reference to the relevant behavioral addiction literature, this commentary argues that the model may unexpectedly hold utility not only for non-addictive use of drugs, but also for non-addictive use of other potentially addictive behaviors.

  20. The prevalence of psychoactive drug intake in a metropolitan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakesch, G; Loimer, N; Rasinger, E; Tutsch, G; Katschnig, H

    1989-03-01

    Together with a survey conducted among the population of Vienna on the prevalence of hypertension, the consumption of psychotropic substances was investigated. In cooperation with a polling institute a quota-sample of 1,470 Viennese over 15 were visited in their homes by 50 physicians trained in interview techniques. The quota-sample comprised 1,470 people (0.959(0/00) of the population of 1,531,346 inhabitants) and was representative in terms of age, sex, social status, and area of residence. The overall prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption among the inhibitants of Vienna investigated was found to be 6.8%. The female to male ratio was 3.5 to 1. Furthermore, psychoactive drug use increased with age and was influenced by social status, with the highest consumption rate found among divorced women and widows. Using the Goldberg "General Health Questionnaire", data were collected on the presence of psychopathologic symptoms and the responders' subjective feeling of being under stress was elicited. A significant correlation could be shown between these two factors and the use of psychoactive drugs. The type of drugs most frequently used were tranquilizers (4.96%), followed by antidepressants (0.95%) and hypnotics (0.88%).

  1. Drugs as instruments: a new framework for non-addictive psychoactive drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian P; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-12-01

    Most people who are regular consumers of psychoactive drugs are not drug addicts, nor will they ever become addicts. In neurobiological theories, non-addictive drug consumption is acknowledged only as a "necessary" prerequisite for addiction, but not as a stable and widespread behavior in its own right. This target article proposes a new neurobiological framework theory for non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption, introducing the concept of "drug instrumentalization." Psychoactive drugs are consumed for their effects on mental states. Humans are able to learn that mental states can be changed on purpose by drugs, in order to facilitate other, non-drug-related behaviors. We discuss specific "instrumentalization goals" and outline neurobiological mechanisms of how major classes of psychoactive drugs change mental states and serve non-drug-related behaviors. We argue that drug instrumentalization behavior may provide a functional adaptation to modern environments based on a historical selection for learning mechanisms that allow the dynamic modification of consummatory behavior. It is assumed that in order to effectively instrumentalize psychoactive drugs, the establishment of and retrieval from a drug memory is required. Here, we propose a new classification of different drug memory subtypes and discuss how they interact during drug instrumentalization learning and retrieval. Understanding the everyday utility and the learning mechanisms of non-addictive psychotropic drug use may help to prevent abuse and the transition to drug addiction in the future.

  2. Medicating the mind: a Kantian analysis of overprescribing psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, B A

    2006-02-01

    Psychoactive drugs are being prescribed to millions of Americans at an increasing rate. In many cases these drugs are necessary in order to overcome debilitating emotional problems. Yet in other instances, these drugs are used to supplant, not supplement, interpersonal therapy. The process of overcoming emotional obstacles by introspection and the attainment of self knowledge is gradually being eroded via the gratuitous use of psychoactive medication in order to rapidly attain a release from the common problems that life inevitably presents us with. In this paper, I argue that Kant's formula of humanity, which maintains that persons ought never to treat others or themselves soley as a means to an end, proscribes this. Moreover, Kant argues that we have an imperfect duty of self development, and I argue that we fail to adhere to such a duty whenever we seek to evade the process of introspection and self knowledge in favour of the expedient results that drugs may provide us with as we attempt to overcome the emotional hurdles in our lives.

  3. Dysregulated Translational Control: From Brain Disorders to Psychoactive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSantini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a plethora of studies utilizing pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic approaches have shown that precise translational control is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term memory. Moreover, more recent studies indicate that alterations in translational control are a common pathophysiological feature of human neurological disorders, including developmental disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, translational control mechanisms are susceptible to modification by psychoactive drugs. Taken together, these findings point to a central role for translational control in the regulation of synaptic function and behavior.

  4. Adulteration Practices of Psychoactive Illicit Drugs: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Rotolo, Maria C; Pellegrini, Manuela; Minutillo, Adele; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardò, Francesco P; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse. A literature search up to January 2017 was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science and reports and documents of international agencies or institutions were also searched. Pharmacologically active substances such as: paracetamol, caffeine, dextromethorphan, clenbuterol for heroin; levamisole, phenacetine, lidocaine, hydroxyzine and diltiazem for cocaine; caffeine and phentermine for amphetamine, have been identified over the years. Furthermore, since cocaine and morphine (this latter as a precursor of heroin) are both extracted from natural products, some impurities and minor alkaloids can be present in the final preparation. In this context, it is worth considering that new psychoactive substances are also used as cutting agents. The wide availability of illicit psychotropic drugs is the most serious hazard threatening consumers. Indeed emergency departments are often responsible in evaluating damages caused not only by the base substance, but also by other eventual compounds added to mimic or antagonize drug effects or simply dilute the drug amount, with a possible harmful synergic toxic action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Use Of Psychoactive Drugs Among Medical Undergraduates In Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Khan, Aftab Alam; Bukhari, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad. Seven hundred and eighty participants after informed consent were requested to fill a questionnaire seeking information about their demographics, patterns & behaviours regarding ten common psychoactive substances of abuse including (Cigarettes, Benzodiazepines, naswar, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine, opium, cocaine, heroin & organic solvents). Overall students who responded were 698 (89.48%). One hundred and fifty (21.49%) admitted to the use of a psychoactive substance in past or at present. Majority users (71.33%) were males. Overall (81.33%) users were living in hostel or a rented apartment. Substance abuse was more prevalent among senior students, i.e., 30.06% & 24.24% in 4th year & final year MBBS respectively. Majority of the consumers, i.e., 93 (62%) were falling in an age group between 15-20 years. Main reasons behind substance abuse were: psychological stress (49.33%) and pleasure seeking (42.67%). Substances/drugs used by students in order of preference were Cigarettes 115 (76.67%), Benzodiazepines 48 (32%), naswar 42 (28%), Cannabis 41 (27.33%), Alcohol 24 (16%), Amphetamine 22 (14.67%), Opium 15 (10%), Cocaine 14 (9.33%), Heroin 11 (7.33%) & Organic solvents 05 (3.33%). Use of more than one substance was observed in 70 (46.67%) students. It is concluded that prevalence of cigarette smoking, naswar, benzodiazepines, cannabis & alcohol is high among medical undergraduates in Abbottabad which is a matter of concern. Efforts are needed to create

  6. International prescription drug labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roylance, P J; Buri, W A

    1983-01-01

    Yesterday's therapeutic compounds were meticulously prepared, elegantly presented, and relatively innocuous (Dunlop). Today's powerful and complex drugs are manufactured with sophisticated technology and require clear, concise, and comprehensive information for the physicians throughout the world in order to provide maximum benefit for the patient. Our company, Merck & Co, Inc, has adhered for many years to strict requirements for full and balanced disclosure in all information disseminated to professionals about our products, including circulars, labeling, and advertising. Our practice is to provide complete information to physicians, pharmacists, and regulatory authorities, both on the recommended uses for our products and on their potential adverse effects. The cornerstone of our international disclosure system, the International Physicians Circular (IPC), is provided for each product and comprises part of the initial submission to each national health authority in connection with application for marketing approval. Each IPC sets forth the company's best scientific judgment with respect to both the positive and negative aspects of our drugs, defining actions, indications, and dosage, as well as all contraindications, precautions, and side effects. These circulars are updated in the process of continuous medical review.

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  8. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Segmental hair testing to disclose chronic exposure to psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchei, Emilia; Palmi, Ilaria; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Anton Airaldi, Ileana-Rita; Costa Orvay, Juan Antonio; García Serra, Joan; Bonet Serra, Bartolomé; García-Algar, Óscar

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the case of a 4-year-old healthy child admitted to the paediatric ward for suspected accidental intoxication due to ingestion of narcoleptic drugs (methylphenidate, sertraline and quetiapine), taken on a regular basis by his 8-year-old brother affected by Asperger syndrome.Intoxication can be objectively assessed by measurements of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices with short-term (blood and urine) or long-term (hair) detection windows. At the hospital, the child's blood and urine were analysed by immunoassay (confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sertraline and quetiapine and their metabolites were identified. The suspicion that the mother administered drugs chronically prompted the analysis of six, consecutive 2-cm segments of the child's hair, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, thereby accounting for ingestion over the previous 12 months. Quetiapine was found in the first four segments with a mean concentration of 1.00 ng/mg ± 0.94 ng/mg hair while sertraline and its metabolite, desmethyl-sertraline, were found in all segments with a mean concentration of 2.65 ± 0.94 ng/mg and 1.50 ± 0.94 ng/mg hair, respectively. Hair analyses were negative for methylphenidate and its metabolite (ritalinic acid). Biological matrices testing for psychoactive drugs disclosed both acute and chronic intoxication with quetiapine and sertraline administered by the mother.

  10. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Michael E.; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Objectives Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illu...

  11. Epidemiology of psychoactive drug use amongst adolescents in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famuyiwa, Oluwole; Aina, Olatunji F; Bankole-Oki, Olufunlayo M

    2011-07-01

    The study was conducted in response to the lack of epidemiological data in recent time on the use of psychoactive substances by adolescents in metropolitan Lagos-a city unique for its socio-economic profile. We considered some methodological issues omitted in several previous studies. A total of 4,286 school pupils (mean age 15.2) were anonymously administered a Self-Report Questionnaire to ascertain a range of key drug use factors in lifetime and 1-year periods. The rate of use of most of the 14 substances investigated was much higher than reported in any other study on comparable population sample. We found that 61.8 and 32.1% of respondents have used one or more substances in their lifetime and in the past 1 year, respectively. High lifetime rates of use were found for common stimulants: coffee, kolanut, and prescription drugs (barbiturates and minor tranquilisers). The rate of use of proscribed addictive substances, cannabis, heroin, and cocaine, ranged between 4.0 and 4.8%. Missing data and non-response rates were few; however, social acquiescence, under and over reporting, could be mitigant to estimation of rates and patterns of use. We advocate properly articulated school-based educative programmes that can facilitate drug demand reduction.

  12. Permissive Attitude Towards Drug Use, Life Satisfaction, and Continuous Drug Use Among Psychoactive Drug Users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at

  13. Prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the college students in Chitwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar Pradhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives:Students of colleges may be vulnerable to consume tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drugs due to various factors. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the bachelor level college students of Chitwan.Materials & Methods:This is a descriptive cross sectional study among the 132 bachelor level students at various colleges of Bharatpur, Chitwan district of Nepal. The students were chosen by purposive sampling. A standard pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the data.Results:A total of 90 (68.2% were males and 42 (31.8% were females. The mean age was 22.2 ± 1.7 years. Seventy four (56.06% responded that they had never consumed tobacco in any form.The number of cigarette smoked ranged from one to 20, with a mean of 7.85± 4.94 years. Forty eight (36.36% never consumed alcohol and (87.87% had never used psychoactive drugs.The most common motivator of the use of smoking, tobacco and psychoactive drugs was curiosity.Conclusion:The prevalence of smoking among the bachelor level students participating in our study was 43.94%, alcohol consumption was 63.63% and psychoactive drugs use was 12.12%. 

  14. Episodic memories and their relevance for psychoactive drug use and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian P. Müller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of adult people in western societies regularly consume psychoactive drugs. While this consumption is integrated in everyday life activities and controlled in most consumers, it may escalate and result in drug addiction. Non-addicted drug use requires the systematic establishment of highly organized behaviours, such as drug seeking and -taking. While a significant role for classical and instrumental learning processes is well established in drug use and abuse, declarative drug memories have largely been neglected in research. Episodic memories are an important part of the declarative memories. Here a role of episodic drug memories in the establishment of non-addicted drug use and its transition to addiction is suggested. In relation to psychoactive drug consumption, episodic drug memories are formed when a person prepares for consumption, when the drug is consumed and, most important, when acute effects, withdrawal, craving, and relapse are experienced. Episodic drug memories are one-trial memories with emotional components that can be much stronger than ‘normal’ episodic memories. Their establishment coincides with drug-induced neuronal activation and plasticity. These memories may be highly extinction resistant and influence psychoactive drug consumption, in particular during initial establishment and at the transition to ‘drug instrumentalization’. In that, understanding how addictive drugs interact with episodic memory circuits in the brain may provide crucial information for how drug use and addiction are established.

  15. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage - General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MMA legislation provides seniors and people with disabilities with the first comprehensive prescription drug benefit ever offered under the Medicare program, the...

  16. Are You Shopping Smart for Prescription Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Are You Shopping Smart for Prescription Drugs? Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... of U.S., Inc. Yonkers, NY 10703, a nonprofit organization. No commercial use or reproduction permitted. Winter 2008 ...

  17. Advancing Best Practices for Prescription Drug Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Navaratnam, Prakash; Black, Heather; Russell, Allison L; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Problematic prescription drug labeling has been cited as a root cause of patient misunderstanding, medication errors, and nonadherence. Although numerous studies have recently been conducted to identify and test labeling best practices, the last systematic review on this topic was conducted a decade ago. The objective of this review was, therefore, to examine, summarize, and update best practices for conveying written prescription medication information and instructions to patients. English-language articles published from June 2005 to June 2015 were identified in MEDLINE and CINAHL by searching the following text words: 'medication OR prescription OR drug' AND 'label OR leaflet OR brochure OR pamphlet OR medication guide OR medication insert OR drug insert OR medication information OR drug information OR instructions' AND 'patient OR consumer.' Reference mining and secondary searches were also performed. A total of 31 articles providing evidence on how to improve written, prescription drug labeling for patient use were selected. Two reviewers independently screened articles, rated their quality, and abstracted data. Identified best practices included the use of plain language, improved formatting and organization, and more explicit instructions to improve patient comprehension. The use of icons had conflicting findings, and few studies tested whether practices improved knowledge or behaviors with patients' actual prescribed regimens. Future studies are needed to determine how specific modifications and improvements in drug labeling can enhance patient knowledge and behavior in actual use. Synthesizing best practices across all patient materials will create a more useful, coordinated system of prescription information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... Amphetamines (Adderall®) Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  19. Exploring the Attractiveness of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) among Experienced Drug Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, J.G.C.; Nabben, T.; Keiman, D.; Haanschoten, G.; Korf, D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) appear yearly on the European market (81 for the first time in 2013, adding to a total of over 350 NPS). Using semi-structured interviews with 25 Dutch experienced recreational drug users, the role of the Internet and friends in gathering and

  20. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R B

    1988-10-01

    The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 is described, and its implications for hospitals and other health-care entities are discussed. The act, which became effective on July 21, 1988, is intended to reduce public health risks from adulterated, misbranded, and counterfeit drug products that enter the marketplace through drug diversion. The law provides that prescription drug products manufactured in the United States and exported can no longer be reimported, except by the product's manufacturer. It also establishes restrictions on sales of prescription drug products and samples. Samples of prescription drug products may be distributed only if a licensed prescriber requests them. Other distribution channels for samples specified in the law are permissible, provided records are maintained. Under the law, wholesale distributors must be licensed by the state and meet uniform standards. Penalties for violations of the law are also identified. According to FDA's advisory guidelines on the statute, the law will permit hospitals to return drug products, provided the return is made to the manufacturer or wholesaler and provided written notice is secured that the goods were received (for manufacturers) or the goods were destroyed or returned to the manufacturer (for wholesalers). The final chapter on drug diversion must await issuance of final FDA regulations.

  1. Off-target effects of psychoactive drugs revealed by genome-wide assays in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Ericson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand off-target effects of widely prescribed psychoactive drugs, we performed a comprehensive series of chemogenomic screens using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. Because the known human targets of these drugs do not exist in yeast, we could employ the yeast gene deletion collections and parallel fitness profiling to explore potential off-target effects in a genome-wide manner. Among 214 tested, documented psychoactive drugs, we identified 81 compounds that inhibited wild-type yeast growth and were thus selected for genome-wide fitness profiling. Many of these drugs had a propensity to affect multiple cellular functions. The sensitivity profiles of half of the analyzed drugs were enriched for core cellular processes such as secretion, protein folding, RNA processing, and chromatin structure. Interestingly, fluoxetine (Prozac interfered with establishment of cell polarity, cyproheptadine (Periactin targeted essential genes with chromatin-remodeling roles, while paroxetine (Paxil interfered with essential RNA metabolism genes, suggesting potential secondary drug targets. We also found that the more recently developed atypical antipsychotic clozapine (Clozaril had no fewer off-target effects in yeast than the typical antipsychotics haloperidol (Haldol and pimozide (Orap. Our results suggest that model organism pharmacogenetic studies provide a rational foundation for understanding the off-target effects of clinically important psychoactive agents and suggest a rational means both for devising compound derivatives with fewer side effects and for tailoring drug treatment to individual patient genotypes.

  2. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael E; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs' effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion. Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs' effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories.

  3. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We investigate price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs, using drug purchase records for the entire Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression kink design. The results suggest some...... price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from −0.2 to −0.7. Individuals with chronic disease and especially individuals above the age of 65 respond less to the price of drugs....

  4. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Reisman, Richard M.; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Atherly, Adam J.; Christopher R. Flowers

    2009-01-01

    Context: The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking.Objective: To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on prescription opioid abuse admissions.Des...

  6. The latent structure and predictors of non-medical prescription drug use and prescription drug use disorders: a national study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanco, Carlos; Rafful, Claudia; Wall, Melanie M; Jin, Chelsea J; Kerridge, Bradley; Schwartz, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about non-medical prescription drug use and prescription drug use disorders, whether vulnerability for these conditions is drug-specific or occurs through a shared liability...

  7. Drug prescription in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fuentes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aging process changes the way in which common drugs act in the elderly. Changes in both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics make prescribing drugs in geriatrics a process very different from that of the young adult. The aim of this article is to review the physiologic changes that occur with aging and that must be considered when indicating drugs in this age group. For this purpose we conducted a literature review of articles from various journals and textbooks devoted to geriatric medicine in order to extract recommendations for appropriate prescribing in the elderly, represented in easy to use listings of potentially inappropriate medications, according to the quality of evidence and rationale for their avoidance in advanced age.

  8. Use of psychoactive drugs and related falls among older people living in a community in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaimowicz Flávio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Population aging in Brazil has increased the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and affective disorders (anxiety, depression, all common in old age. A retrospective study was carried out with the purpose of ascertaining if there is an association between falls and psychoactive medication use among older residents of a community in Brazil. METHODS: All residents aged 65+ (n=161 of one neighborhood of Campo Belo, Brazil (population of 48,000 were evaluated regarding the use of psychoactive drugs and the occurrence of falls in the 12 months preceding the study. Vision and hearing screenings were also performed. RESULTS: From the study population, 9.3% were taking prolonged half-life benzodiazepines, 4.4% anticonvulsants (mostly barbiturates, 2.5% antidepressants (all cyclics and 8.1% alpha-methyldopa. No subject reported use of hypnotics, neuroleptics or drugs to treat Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases (except biperiden. As a whole, drugs that increase the risk of falls were used by 1/5 of this population. In the 12-month period preceding the study, 27 residents (16.8% experienced falls and, of those, 4 (14.8% had fracture(s. There was an independent association between psychoactive drug use and falls when variables such as age, gender, vision and hearing were controlled (p=0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Although the population of this neighborhood must be considered young (only 4% are 65 years old or more, there are already problems related to the use of psychoactive drugs among people. Prescribed anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and antihypertensives are not appropriate for this age group and their use is associated with falls.

  9. Fingerprinting of Psychoactive Drugs in Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximino, Caio; da Silva, Annanda Waneza Batista; Araújo, Juliana; Lima, Monica Gomes; Miranda, Vanessa; Puty, Bruna; Benzecry, Rancés; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Gouveia, Amauri; Oliveira, Karen Renata Matos; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2014-01-01

    A major hindrance for the development of psychiatric drugs is the prediction of how treatments can alter complex behaviors in assays which have good throughput and physiological complexity. Here we report the development of a medium-throughput screen for drugs which alter anxiety-like behavior in adult zebrafish. The observed phenotypes were clustered according to shared behavioral effects. This barcoding procedure revealed conserved functions of anxiolytic, anxiogenic and psychomotor stimulating drugs and predicted effects of poorly characterized compounds on anxiety. Moreover, anxiolytic drugs all decreased, while anxiogenic drugs increased, serotonin turnover. These results underscore the power of behavioral profiling in adult zebrafish as an approach which combines throughput and physiological complexity in the pharmacological dissection of complex behaviors. PMID:25079766

  10. Predicting prescription drug misuse in college students' social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; Goodie, Adam S

    2015-06-01

    Prescription drugs, such as stimulants, opioid analgesics, anxiolytics, and sedatives, are frequently being used without a physician's prescription by college students, resulting in a rising epidemic. The literature has not yet examined the impact of one's social network in the use of these drugs, nor the co-occurrence of multiple prescription drugs. The current study investigated predictors of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), in addition to the prevalence of NMUPD in college students' social networks. 279 undergraduates from a large southeastern university were recruited to participate in the study. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the predictors of the respondent misusing prescription drugs in the past 12 months. The number of close friends who misused prescription drugs predicted the respondent misusing prescription drugs in the past year (pcollege students and their close friends is widespread: approximately one-fourth of the sample used prescription drugs without a physician's prescription, and 30% of the sample had at least one close friend who misused prescription drugs. Prescription drug misuse is prevalent in college students' social networks, and more so among those who themselves misuse prescription drugs, suggesting the need for prevention specialists to provide younger adults with information regarding the detrimental consequences of prescription drug misuse for themselves and their friends. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Prescription Drug Plan Formulary, Pharmacy Network, and P...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These public use files contain formulary, pharmacy network, and pricing data for Medicare Prescription Drug Plans and Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plans...

  12. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  13. Resonant Messages to Prevent Prescription Drug Misuse by Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…

  14. Novel Psychoactive Substances-Recent Progress on Neuropharmacological Mechanisms of Action for Selected Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zurina; Bosch, Oliver G; Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Kasinather, B Vicknasingam; Seifritz, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Quednow, Boris B; Müller, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use. With these measures, however, a drug does not disappear, but frequently continues to be used, which eventually allows an even better estimate of the drug's properties. Thus, only in rare cases, there is a final verdict that is no more questioned. Instead, the view on a drug can change from tolerable to harmful but may also involve the new establishment of a desired medical application to a previously harmful drug. Here, we provide a summary review on a number of NPS for which the neuropharmacological evaluation has made important progress in recent years. They include mitragynine ("Kratom"), synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., "Spice"), dimethyltryptamine and novel serotonergic hallucinogens, the cathinones mephedrone and methylone, ketamine and novel dissociative drugs, γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol. This review shows not only emerging harm potentials but also some potential medical applications.

  15. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression...... kink design. Thus, within a unifying framework we uncover price sensitivity for different subpopulations and types of drugs. The results suggest low average price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from -0.08 to -0.25, implying that demand is inelastic. Individuals with lower...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....

  16. Do psychoactive drugs have a therapeutic role in compulsivity? Studies on schedule-induced polydipsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Elena; Prados-Pardo, Ángeles; Mora, Santiago; Flores, Pilar; Moreno, Margarita

    2018-02-01

    Clinical studies have shown that some psychoactive recreational drugs have therapeutic applications in anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. However, to date, there are few studies on the therapeutic potential efficacy of recreational drugs in compulsive neuropsychiatric disorders. We explored the therapeutic potential of different psychoactive and psychedelic drugs in a preclinical model of compulsive behavior. Outbred male Wistar rats were selected as either high (HD) or low (LD) drinkers according to their behavior in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP). Subsequently, we assessed the effects of acute administration of scopolamine (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg), methamphetamine (0.25, 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg), ketamine (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg), cannabidiol (1 and 3 mg/kg), WIN21255-2 (0.5, 075, and 1 mg/kg), and AM404 (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) on compulsive drinking in SIP. Scopolamine reduced dose-dependent compulsive drinking in HD compared with LD rats in SIP. Methamphetamine induced a dose-dependent inverted U-curve effect in both groups, in which lower doses increased and higher doses reduced compulsive drinking in SIP. Ketamine, cannabidiol, WIN21255-2, and AM404 did not have any relevant effects in SIP. These data provide new evidence that low doses of scopolamine and intermediate doses of methamphetamine might therapeutically reduce compulsive behaviors and suggest that there is not a direct participation of the endocannabinoid system in compulsive behavior on SIP. The research in the underlying neurochemical mechanisms of these psychoactive drugs might provide an additional insight on new therapeutic targets in compulsive neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * * (6... drug, nor may an advertisement contain a quantitative statement of safety or effectiveness (a) unless... effectiveness is supported by substantial evidence derived from adequate and well-controlled studies as defined...

  18. Can the use of psychoactive drugs in the general adult population be estimated based on data from a roadside survey of drugs and driving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjerde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A roadside survey of drugs and driving was performed in south-eastern Norway in 2005-6. Samples of saliva from a total of 10,503 drivers above 20 years of age were analysed, and the results were weighted for under- and over-sampling compared to the population distribution in the study area. Weighted results were compared with data on dispensed prescriptions of zopiclone, codeine and diazepam at Norwegian pharmacies in the same area and with self-reported use of cannabis. When using roadside data to estimate drug use, the use of medicinal drugs was under-estimated by 17-59% compared to amounts dispensed. One of the main reasons for the under-estimation may be that a large proportion of the users of psychoactive medicinal drugs are not frequent drivers. For cannabis, self-reported data corresponded approximately to the estimated prevalence range. The results indicate that roadside surveys cannot be used for accurate estima tions of drug use in the population, but may provide minimum figures.

  19. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examined demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (ages 18 to 29) who misused prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs; more than three-quarters reported recent sex without a condom; and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that White race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts.

  20. 'Designer drugs': update on the management of novel psychoactive substance misuse in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher D; Robert, Stefanie

    2014-08-01

    The use of novel psychoactive substances ('legal highs' or 'designer drugs') is increasing worldwide. Patients misusing such substances have been reported to experience severe or prolonged side effects requiring admission to acute or critical care wards. These complications can be life threatening if misdiagnosed or mismanaged. As physicians have traditionally had less involvement with the management of such patients compared with their colleagues in emergency departments an update in the management of such patients is indicated. Here we present a summary of the management of those novel substances with the potential for serious complications based on a review of current literature. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  1. Knowledge of drug prescription in dentistry students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Álvarez R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry.Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Methods: In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing.Results: The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%, followed by pain (n = 24, 38%; the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%, followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%, naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%, diclofenac (n = 2, 3%, and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%; the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78

  2. Risk Factors of Narcotic and Psychoactive Drugs Use among University and High School Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kashi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Today use of different banned substances such as narcotic, psychoactive and energetic drugs are social problem that has created worry in different levels of human societies. The aim of present study was examined the prevalence of use of narcotic and psychoactive drugs among high school and university students also identifying of risk factors associated with the use of this materials. Method: The population of this descriptive survey study was all students of high school and university of Khodabandeh city. By cluster random sampling 580 students of high school and university selected and questionnaires distributed among them. After eliminating incomplete questionnaires 480 students remained as research sample. Results: In consideration of selected sample the most important reasons of using of narcotics are: enjoying and curiosity, exposed to bad environment like addicted friends and families, joblessness, economic problems, lack of information and loss of affection. Conclusion: The analysis of the results indicated the high prevalence of narcotic and drugs use and necessity of codification of preventive programs for these people.

  3. Drugs of Abuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances at Outdoor Music Festivals in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jacob; Smith, Alexis; Yale, Alexander; Chow, Christopher; Alaswad, Elsa; Cushing, Tracy; Monte, Andrew A

    2017-11-17

    Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 171 attendees during the Sonic Bloom and Arise music festivals in Colorado in 2015 and 2016. Discrete variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. The anonymous, multi-domain interview documented the knowledge, attitudes beliefs, and practices underlying DOA use, which were analyzed with qualitative methods. We enrolled 171 participants that endorsed DOA use at the festivals. Most were experienced DOA users, who perceived minimal risks associated with DOA and NPS use. Nearly all unanimously reported normalization of DOA at music festivals. Participants popularly cited empathogenic, entactogenic, and entheogenic effects of DOA as their primary motivations for use. NPS use was endorsed by 39.8% (n = 68) of respondents, all of whom identified as being experienced DOA users. This population of novel psychoactive substance users is primarily composed of experienced drug users that endorsed use because of low cost, minimal perceived risk, accessibility, and normalization of drug use at music festivals.

  4. Prescription drug abuse among ecstasy users in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven P; Inciardi, James A; Surratt, Hilary L; Cottler, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the nature, extent and consequences of prescription drug abuse among 143 ecstasy users in Miami. Participants were recruited through nightclub and college campus outreach, and through respondent referrals. Instrumentation included the Risk Behavior Assessment, Substance Abuse Module and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Median age was 23, 42% were female and 50% Hispanic. An arrest history was reported by 44%, and 33% reported prior drug/alcohol treatment. Prescription drug abuse was reported by 87%; alprazolam (57%), oxycodone (36%), hydrocodone (32%) and diazepam (30%) were cited most often. Prescription drug abusers were more likely to report polydrug use, drug treatment histories, risky drug use behaviors, and symptoms of depression. They also reported numerous physical, psychological and social consequences of prescription drug abuse. Additional studies among larger samples are needed to understand the processes of prescription drug access and the extent of integration in club drug using cultures.

  5. Novel Psychoactive Substances—Recent Progress on Neuropharmacological Mechanisms of Action for Selected Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zurina; Bosch, Oliver G.; Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Kasinather, B. Vicknasingam; Seifritz, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Quednow, Boris B.; Müller, Christian P.

    2017-01-01

    A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use. With these measures, however, a drug does not disappear, but frequently continues to be used, which eventually allows an even better estimate of the drug’s properties. Thus, only in rare cases, there is a final verdict that is no more questioned. Instead, the view on a drug can change from tolerable to harmful but may also involve the new establishment of a desired medical application to a previously harmful drug. Here, we provide a summary review on a number of NPS for which the neuropharmacological evaluation has made important progress in recent years. They include mitragynine (“Kratom”), synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., “Spice”), dimethyltryptamine and novel serotonergic hallucinogens, the cathinones mephedrone and methylone, ketamine and novel dissociative drugs, γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol. This review shows not only emerging harm potentials but also some potential medical applications. PMID:28868040

  6. Novel Psychoactive Substances—Recent Progress on Neuropharmacological Mechanisms of Action for Selected Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurina Hassan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use. With these measures, however, a drug does not disappear, but frequently continues to be used, which eventually allows an even better estimate of the drug’s properties. Thus, only in rare cases, there is a final verdict that is no more questioned. Instead, the view on a drug can change from tolerable to harmful but may also involve the new establishment of a desired medical application to a previously harmful drug. Here, we provide a summary review on a number of NPS for which the neuropharmacological evaluation has made important progress in recent years. They include mitragynine (“Kratom”, synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., “Spice”, dimethyltryptamine and novel serotonergic hallucinogens, the cathinones mephedrone and methylone, ketamine and novel dissociative drugs, γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol. This review shows not only emerging harm potentials but also some potential medical applications.

  7. Awareness survey of so-called Dappou drugs or Kiken drugs (New Psychoactive Substances) among University Students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse-Nagase, Yasuko; Saito, Fukumi; Hirohara, Toshie; Miyakawa, Happei

    2015-10-09

    Spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a worldwide problem. In Japan, NPSs with psychoactive ingredients are called as "dappou drugs" or "kiken drugs." Their potential effect on the Japanese society cannot be ignored. We conducted an awareness survey of So-called Dappou Drugs or Kiken Drugs among the students of Ibaraki University, a national university in Japan, in April 2014. 3976 students (2425 men, 1406 women and 145 unspecified) participated in this study. 2813 (70.7 %) respondents were aware of dappou drugs. Only 39.5 % of the respondents selected the option of "ingredients that cause delusions and/or hallucinations may be included" in dappou drugs. 23.4 % of the respondents selected "the number of (dappou drug) users requiring emergency hospitalization due to acute intoxication is increasing". Of the respondents, 19 (0.5 %) reported that they had been invited to use dappou drugs previously, and 40 (1.0 %) had witnessed and/or heard of somebody close to them using the drugs. Those who drank alcohol every day and those who smoked had a higher chance of witnessing and/or hearing of somebody close to them using dappou drugs than those who did not drink or smoke, respectively. Japanese university students do not have sufficient knowledge about dappou drugs or kiken drugs to protect themselves from potential drug misuse. It is both important and urgent to educate Japanese university students about the harmful effects of dappou drugs; in addition, it is important to provide such knowledge before the students are allowed to legally drink and smoke.

  8. Drug prescription pattern in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital | Sodipo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increasing incidence of irrational drug use worldwide. The drug prescription pattern in Nigeria is characterised by inappropriate drug use which has led to increasing expenditure and loss of patient confidence in the health sector. This has led to calls to improve prescription patterns in Nigerian ...

  9. Knowledge of drug prescription in dentistry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Álvarez, R; Medeiros, M; Lagunes, Li Reyes; Campos-Sepúlveda, Ae

    2012-01-01

    Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing. The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%), followed by pain (n = 24, 38%); the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%), followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%), naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%), diclofenac (n = 2, 3%), and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%); the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78.9%), ampicillin (n = 7, 10.6%), and penicillin V and clindamycin (n = 3, 4.5%). The most frequent errors reported by students were: lack of knowledge about drug posology (n = 49, 74.2%), improperly filled prescriptions (n = 7, 10.7%), not knowing the brand names and uncertainty about the correct drug indicated for each case (n = 3, 4.54%), not knowing the duration of treatment (n = 2, 3%), not asking the patient about possible allergies, and not

  10. Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanjani F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faika Zanjani,1,2 Aasha I Hoogland,1 Brian G Downer11Department of Gerontology, 2Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USABackground: The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults' knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists' willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults.Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults.Results: Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention.Conclusion: In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions

  11. Irrational drug use in India: A prescription survey from Goa

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    Naik D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is concern regarding the irrational production, prescription and use of drugs in India. This study aimed to describe the quality of prescriptions by medical practitioners, including both the layout of the prescription and the type and number of drugs prescribed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of all prescriptions dispensed at a busy pharmacy in the state of Goa, India, was carried out over a consecutive seven-day period. Each prescription was rated on the basis of a priori and pilot-tested variable list. The prescriptions by private practitioners were compared with those from practitioners in the public healthcare system. RESULTS: Nine hundred and ninety prescriptions were collected. The majority (83.9% were from private practitioners. The quality of the layout of the prescriptions was unsatisfactory: information to identify the practitioner was incomplete in more than a third of the prescriptions and information to identify the patient was incomplete in more than half. Clarity of written instructions on how to take the medicines was unsatisfactory in the majority of prescriptions. Polypharmacy was the norm, with more than half (52.7% the prescriptions containing at least 3 medicines. Forty per cent of prescriptions included a vitamin or tonic preparation and a quarter of the prescriptions included an antibiotic and an analgesic. Over 90% of prescriptions contained only branded medicines. Private practitioners prescribed significantly greater number of medicines and were more likely to prescribe vitamins and antibiotics, and branded medicines. DISCUSSION: This study confirms that the quality of prescriptions, both in terms of layout and the content of the drugs prescribed, is inadequate. There is a need to standardize the format of prescriptions in India so that all essential information is included. There is a need to strengthen an independent mechanism for continuing professional development of practitioners to ensure that

  12. Teens and Prescription Drugs: An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report synthesizes a number of national studies that show the intentional abuse of prescription drugs to get high is a growing concern, particularly among teens. The analysis shows that teens are turning away from street drugs and using prescription drugs to get high. New users of prescription drugs have caught up with new users of marijuana.…

  13. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

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    Richard M. Reisman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking. Objective To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions. Design and Setting A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003. Results From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p < 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785. Conclusions PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  14. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Reisman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking.Objective: To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions.Design and Setting: A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003.Results: From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785.Conclusions: PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  15. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  16. Quality of drug prescription in primary health care facilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Drug therapy can improve a patient's quality of life and health outcomes if only used properly. However, data on prescription quality at primary health care facilities in Tanzania is scanty. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of drug prescriptions in selected health care facilities in two districts of ...

  17. Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

  18. Quality of drug prescription in primary health care facilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Marwa

    Conclusion: Prescribing of higher number of drugs than the WHO recommendations and overuse of antibiotics is still a problem at health care facilities in Mwanza Tanzania. The frequency of occurrence of prescription errors found during the study was considerably high. Keywords: drug prescription, primary health care ...

  19. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  20. Prescrição, dispensação e regulação do consumo de psicotrópicos anorexígenos em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Prescription, dispensing, and regulation of psychoactive anorexigenic drugs in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Fátima Gontijo Carneiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudo retrospectivo, realizado na cidade de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, para avaliar indicadores de dispensação e consumo de substâncias anorexígenas. Ocorreu em duas etapas: na primeira, foram analisadas 2.906 das 168.237 notificações de receitas aviadas por estabelecimentos farmacêuticos da cidade, em 2003. Observou-se uma baixa qualidade nas notificações. O consumo projetado foi de 19,75 DDD/mil habitantes/dia. A substância mais consumida foi o fenproporex (59,8%. Uma farmácia foi responsável por 39,8% das dispensações. Na segunda etapa, foram analisados 14.554 registros do livro de receituário geral da farmácia que mais dispensou tais produtos, no período de abril a agosto de 2005. Os anorexígenos responderam por 9,2% das manipulações e 91,8% deles foram prescritos para uso concomitante com outra substância: 43% com clordiazepóxido, 50,6% com fluoxetina, 7,5% com outro anorexígeno e 28,2% com bromazepam. Os resultados observados sugerem um uso indiscriminado e irracional de anorexígenos neste município, sendo fundamental aprimorar a regulação do mercado de produtos manipulados. Para tanto, é necessário uma melhor compreensão do papel da farmácia nessa regulação e o papel dos prescritores no uso racional dessas substâncias.This retrospective study in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aimed to provide indicators on the sale and consumption of anorexigenic substances. During the first stage, 2,906 of 168,237 prescriptions received by pharmacies in 2003 were analyzed, showing low quality of prescriptions. Projected consumption in defined daily doses was 19.75 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day in 2003. Fenproporex (59.8% was the most widely consumed drug. One pharmacy was responsible for 39.8% of the pharmaceutical sales. During the second stage, 14,554 sales records from this "blockbuster" pharmacy were analyzed, from April to August 2005; 9.2% of sales were for anorexigenic products, 91.8% of which

  1. Report on psychoactive drug use among adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2005-06-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca within the context of the Brazilian ayahuasca churches often starts during late childhood or early adolescence. Premature access to psychoactive drugs may represent a risk factor for drug misuse. Conversely, religious affiliation seems to play a protective role in terms of substance abuse. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of drug use in a sample of adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious setting. Forty-one adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 43 adolescents who never drank ayahuasca. No significant differences were identified in terms of lifetime substance consumption. Throughout the previous year period, ayahuasca adolescents used less alcohol (46.31%) than the comparison group (74.4%). Recent use of alcohol was also more frequent among the latter group (65.1%) than among ayahuasca drinkers (32.5%). Although not statistically significant, slight differences in terms of patterns of drug use were definitely observed among groups. Despite their early exposure to a hallucinogenic substance, adolescents using ayahuasca in a controlled setting were mostly comparable to controls except for a considerably smaller proportion of alcohol users. Religious affiliation may have played a central role as a possible protective factor for alcohol use. Thus, ayahuasca seems to be a relatively safe substance as far as drug misuse is concerned.

  2. Lysozyme binding ability toward psychoactive stimulant drugs: Modulatory effect of colloidal metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Vikash K; Islam, Mullah Muhaiminul; Rohman, Mostofa Ataur; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2016-10-01

    The interaction and binding behavior of the well-known psychoactive stimulant drugs theophylline (THP) and theobromine (THB) with lysozyme (LYS) was monitored by in-vitro fluorescence titration and molecular docking calculations under physiological condition. The quenching of protein fluorescence on addition of the drugs is due to the formation of protein-drug complex in the ground state in both the cases. However, the binding interaction is almost three orders of magnitude stronger in THP, which involves mostly hydrogen bonding interaction in comparison with THB where hydrophobic binding plays the predominant role. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching (static type) remains same also in presence of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs); however, the binding capacity of LYS with the drugs changes drastically in comparison with that in aqueous buffer medium. While the binding affinity of LYS to THB increases ca. 100 times in presence of both the NPs, it is seen to decrease drastically (by almost 1000 fold) for THP. This significant modulation in binding behavior indicates that the drug transportation capacity of LYS can be controlled significantly with the formation protein-NP noncovalent assembly system as an efficient delivery channel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilization of the Arkansas Prescription Monitoring Program to combat prescription drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rittenhouse

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Compelling more users of the AR PMP to be prompted to access the program by the involvement of a CS prescription or by requirements per office/facility policy may increase frequency of use of the program and thereby changes in health care practices to combat prescription drug abuse.

  4. [Drug prescriptions outside the marketing product license and its responsibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromb, S; Maurain, C; Carbonnel, S

    In France, drugs are commercialized after obtaining marketing approval. There are some situations however in which clinicians are authorized to prescribe drugs outside the limits set by the approval document. Clinicians must comply with certain number of regulations. Compliance with prescription modalities, particularly precautions concerning prescription writing or the patient's informed consent, is mandatory. Although patients cannot be reimbursed for drugs prescribed outside the approval limitations, they may nevertheless benefit from special dispositions: temporary approval for use and experimentation within the framework of the Huriet law. We analyze here the question of liability in case of drug prescriptions outside approval limitations, discussing the issues of civil and penal law and patient reimbursement.

  5. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  6. Non-medical use of prescription drugs in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattala, Prasanthi; Murthy, Pratima; Kandavel, Thennarasu; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical prescription drug use is an ongoing problem in India; however, there is paucity of literature in the Indian population. The objective of the present study is to explore the non-medical use of prescription medicines in urban Bangalore, South India (N = 717). Participants were recruited using a mall-intercept approach, wherein they were intercepted in 5 randomly selected shopping malls, and interviewed on their use of prescription medicines. The mean age of the participants was 28 years (S.D. 5). The non-medical use of different prescription medicine classes over the past 12 months was as follows: anti-inflammatories and analgesics (26%), opioids (17%), antibiotics (13%), and sedatives (12%). The majority reported "use without prescription," while "use in ways other than as prescribed" was also reported. In all cases, chemist shops were the main source of obtaining the drugs non-medically. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, non-medical use was found to be significantly associated with participants' baseline characteristics like gender, education, current employment status, and marital status. Sixty-five percent stated that although "doctor's prescription is not required for common complaints, we can decide ourselves," while 60% stated, "it's okay to deviate from a prescription as needed." One hundred percent said that "using prescription medicines is more socially acceptable, and safer, compared to alcohol or illicit drugs." These findings underscore the need for considering various contextual factors in tailoring preventive interventions for reducing non-medical use of prescription drugs.

  7. Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Normann, Per T; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Mørland, Jørg

    2011-05-01

    A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prescription drug misuse in New Zealand: challenges for primary health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Butler, Rachael

    2011-09-01

    Prescription drug misuse (PDM) is an international phenomenon. Prescription drugs sought for this purpose are often obtained through the primary health care network. This study aimed to explore the challenges faced by community pharmacists (CPs) and general practitioners (GPs) when faced with the issue of "drug-seeking" and PDM. This forms part of a larger study of PDM issues for primary health care practitioners. Qualitative interviews were carried out in New Zealand with 17 GPs and 16 CPs, purposively sampled to provide information from a variety of demographic and work environments. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis conducted. Data collection took place between June 2007 and January 2008, and interviewees were offered an NZ$30 voucher in recognition of their contribution to the research. GPs and CPs faced a series of challenges in managing PDM, including identification of PDM, dealing with requests for inappropriate requests for psychoactive prescription drugs, verifying the legitimacy of requests and managing threatening behaviors. Specific issues were faced by rural practitioners, female practitioners and by locums and part-time staff. In particular, some participants reported feeling emotionally stressed after unpleasant drug-seeking incidents and some acknowledged that they may have missed identifying some drug-seeking because of lack of knowledge, "drug-seekers'" sophisticated strategies, or patients falling outside of their image of the archetypal "drug-seeker." This study demonstrated that PDM can be an issue for primary health care practitioners, and it can cause disruption to their work. Training in how to better manage threatening and escalating incidents may be useful as would increasing the level of awareness of PDM issues among health professional students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A description of Medical Examiner prescription-related deaths and prescription drug monitoring program data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Roneet; Petro, Sean; Lee, Oren; Lucas, Jonathan; Stuck, Amy; Vilke, Gary M; Castillo, Edward M

    2016-03-01

    The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention have declared prescription drug abuse an epidemic in the United States. However, demographic data correlating prescription-related deaths with actual prescriptions written is not well described. The purpose of this study is to compare toxicology reports on autopsy for prescription-related deaths with Prescription Drug Monitor Program (PDMP) data. This is a retrospective analysis comparing 2013 San Diego Medical Examiner data on 254 unintentional prescription-related deaths obtained for 12 months before death with data from the California PDMP. Data were analyzed on age, sex, whether there was information on the PDMP, types and quantities of prescribed medications, number of pharmacies and providers involved, and whether there was a match between the Medical Examiner toxicology report and data from the PDMP. In 2013, there were 254 unintentional prescription-related deaths; 186 patients (73%) had PDMP data 12 months before death. Ingesting prescription medications with illicit drugs, alcohol, and/or over-the-counter medications accounted for 40% of the unintentional deaths. Opioids were responsible for the majority of single medication deaths (36; 70.6%). The average number of prescriptions was 23.5 per patient, and the average patient used 3 pharmacies and had 4.5 providers. Chronic prescription use was found in 68.8% of patients with PDMP data. The PDMP data highlight important patterns that can provide valuable insight to clinicians making decisions regarding types and amounts of medications they prescribe. Although there is no guaranteed solution to prevent prescription-related deaths, PDMP data can be useful to prevent coprescribing and medication interaction and by following best clinical practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Hwa Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. We developed and validated an LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid–liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC–MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday and 18.7% (interday. The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine.

  11. Prescription Monitoring Program Trends Among Individuals Arrested in Maine for Trafficking Prescription Drugs in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Kenneth; Nichols, Stephanie D; Holt, Christina; Ochs, Leslie; Cattabriga, Gary; Tu, Chunhao

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate controlled substance prescribing trends available in the Maine Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) among individuals arrested for prescription drug "trafficking." The demographic characteristics of the individuals who had matching prescription records in the PMP within 90 days of the arrest were identified. A population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) and the Maine PMP. The study population consisted of persons arrested for trafficking prescription drugs in Maine during the 2014 calendar year from January 1 to December 31. There were 594 trafficking arrests reported by the Maine DAP in 2014. The study population consisted of the 235 persons (40%) with arrests involving controlled prescription medications. The mean age of these persons was 33 years (range 18-77 yrs), and 156 (66%) were male. Arrests involved 154 prescription opioids (65%), seven stimulants (3%), seven benzodiazepines (3%), and 77 unspecified controlled prescription drugs (33%). A minority of individuals (n=57, 24%) had a prescription record in the PMP that matched the substance involved in the arrest. Only one person with matching PMP and arrest records utilized ≥ 5 prescribers, while none used ≥ 5 pharmacies within 90 days before the arrest. Payment methods for matching prescriptions were commercial insurance (n=28, 49%), Medicaid (n=19, 33%), Medicare (n=5, 9%), and cash (n=5, 9%). The majority (76%) of persons arrested for prescription drug trafficking did not have PMP records and did not directly obtain the diverted medication from a licensed pharmacy. Traditional red flags, like cash payment and using multiple prescribers or pharmacies, were uncommon. Therefore, arrest records for diversion and PMPs are distinct and complementary tools for identifying individuals at risk for substance misuse. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  12. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicines, in Spanish drivers: a roadside study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F

    2012-11-30

    Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population

  13. Undispensed Prescriptions due to Drug Unavailability at a Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to drug unavailability. The difference between quantity of drugs requested by the pharmacy and quantity issued from MSD was 47-52%. Conclusion: Mismatch between drug demand and supply in the facility studied is the main cause of shortage. Keywords: Drug prescriptions, inventory management, hospital pharmacy ...

  14. [Does the electronic prescription reduce drugs errors? Comparison between electronic and manual prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurdanella, Pietro; Di Denia, Patrizio

    2007-01-01

    Medication errors are the major responsible for adverse events in hospitals. Although computerized prescription systems are widely considered the best option to decrease the medication errors, this belief is not evidence based since only few studies assessed their effectiveness. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness on reducing medication errors of the manual prescription system (drugs transcribed in the clinical records) with a computerized system. Drugs prescriptions (manual and electronic) were retrospectively analyzed to identify medication errors. A medication error is the lack of clarity and completedness of the prescription. 1587 prescriptions were analyzed with the manual prescription system (phase 1), 1500 with the provisional electronic system (phase 2) and 1034 with the final one (phase 3). Between phase 1 and 2 an increase of incomplete prescriptions for dose (+17%) and lack of completedness of prescription (+49%) was observed. After some modifications a decrease of "errors" was observed, respectively -39% and -23.5% (pprescriptions reduces medication errors but requires a close planning, monitoring and tailoring of the system according to local problems and needs.

  15. Dispensing of drugs with and without a prescription from private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little literature available on dispensing patterns and unsupervised sale of medicines from pharmacies in Tanzania. The present study assessed the patterns of drug acquisition from pharmacies by customers: whether by prescription, recommended by pharmacist, or requested by a customer without a prescription.

  16. Recognizing Signs of Prescription Drug Abuse and Addiction, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.

  17. Evaluation of Drug Prescriptions in Oral Surgery | Ehigiator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Drug Prescriptions in Oral Surgery. ... To evaluate the pattern of medication prescription in an oral surgery outpatient clinic. A questionnaire was distributed to Resident doctord ... This however buttresses that the management of the orofacial pain and dental infection is inherent in dental practice. Keywords: Drig ...

  18. [Failure mode and effects analysis on computerized drug prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Atenciano, J A; Roldán-Aviña, J P; González-García, Mercedes; Blanco-Sánchez, M C; Pinto-Melero, M A; Pérez-Ramírez, C; Calvo Rubio-Burgos, Miguel; Osuna-Navarro, F J; Jurado-Carmona, A M

    2015-01-01

    To identify and analyze errors in drug prescriptions of patients treated in a "high resolution" hospital by applying a Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).Material and methods A multidisciplinary group of medical specialties and nursing analyzed medical records where drug prescriptions were held in free text format. An FMEA was developed in which the risk priority index (RPI) was obtained from a cross-sectional observational study using an audit of the medical records, carried out in 2 phases: 1) Pre-intervention testing, and (2) evaluation of improvement actions after the first analysis. An audit sample size of 679 medical records from a total of 2,096 patients was calculated using stratified sampling and random selection of clinical events. Prescription errors decreased by 22.2% in the second phase. FMEA showed a greater RPI in "unspecified route of administration" and "dosage unspecified", with no significant decreases observed in the second phase, although it did detect, "incorrect dosing time", "contraindication due to drug allergy", "wrong patient" or "duplicate prescription", which resulted in the improvement of prescriptions. Drug prescription errors have been identified and analyzed by FMEA methodology, improving the clinical safety of these prescriptions. This tool allows updates of electronic prescribing to be monitored. To avoid such errors would require the mandatory completion of all sections of a prescription. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Prescription Drug Misuse and Risk Behaviors Among Young Injection Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kristen M.; Fibbi, Meghan; Langer, Debra; Silva, Karol; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse among young adults, especially opioids, is a substantial public health problem in the United States. Although risks associated with injection of illicit drugs are well established, injection and sexual risks associated with misuse of prescription drugs are under-studied. Forty young injection drug users aged 16 to 25 who reported injection of a prescription drug were recruited in 2008–09 in Los Angeles and New York City. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative data w...

  20. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  1. Americans Taking More Prescription Drugs Than Ever: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans Taking More Prescription Drugs Than Ever: Survey Consumer Reports says many may be doing more harm than ... and other dietary supplements, the survey done by Consumer Reports shows. But many of those pills may be ...

  2. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Prescription Drug Events PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is a Public Use File for Prescription Drug Events drawn from the 2008 Beneficiary Summary File of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled during the calendar year 2008,...

  3. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pattern of prescription drug use in Nigerian army hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge, attitude and practice survey of doctors at each study site towards the concept of rational drug use (RDU) were assessed using .... Awareness of existence of National Essential drug list (EDL) or National Drug Formulary (NDF) Y/N. 5. Possession of own copy .... basis for prescriptions. Use of brand names of.

  5. Our prescription drugs kill us in large numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Our prescription drugs are the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in the United States and Europe. Around half of those who die have taken their drugs correctly; the other half die because of errors, such as too high a dose or use of a drug despite contraindications. Our ...

  6. Expecting innovation: psychoactive drug primes and the generation of creative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Pedersen, Sarah L; Pederson, Sarah L; Friedman, Ronald S; McCarthy, Denis M

    2011-08-01

    Many individuals expect that alcohol and drug consumption will enhance creativity. The present studies tested whether substance related primes would influence creative performance for individuals who possessed creativity-related substance expectancies. Participants (n = 566) were briefly exposed to stimuli related to psychoactive substances (alcohol, for Study 1, Sample 1, and Study 2; and marijuana, for Study 1, Sample 2) or neutral stimuli. Participants in Study 1 then completed a creative problem-solving task, while participants in Study 2 completed a divergent thinking task or a task unrelated to creative problem solving. The results of Study 1 revealed that exposure to the experimental stimuli enhanced performance on the creative problem-solving task for those who expected the corresponding substance would trigger creative functioning. In a conceptual replication, Study 2 showed that participants exposed to alcohol cues performed better on a divergent thinking task if they expected alcohol to enhance creativity. It is important to note that this same interaction did not influence performance on measures unrelated to creative problem solving, suggesting that the activation of creativity-related expectancies influenced creative performance, specifically. These findings highlight the importance of assessing expectancies when examining pharmacological effects of alcohol and marijuana. Future directions and implications for substance-related interventions are discussed. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Prescription drug abuse among prisoners in rural Southwestern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Martha J; Nakamoto, Kent; Goswami, Anil; Schnoll, Sidney H

    2007-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription medications is on the rise across the U.S., particularly in rural areas. In this study of 233 prisoners and probationers in southwestern Virginia, we add to an emerging profile of individuals abusing prescription medications. In this retrospective review of 2000-2004 augmented Addiction Severity Index data, those abusing prescription medications reported increased illicit drug and alcohol abuse, poly-drug abuse, psychiatric problems, and arrests for property crimes. Forty percent reported abuse of OxyContin, a drug implicated in a number of deaths in this region. Compared to non-users, OxyContin users were younger, more likely to be female, and more likely to abuse benzodiazepines, methadone, cocaine, and heroin. Longevity of abuse of these other drugs belies suggestions that OxyContin was acting as a "gateway" drug leading naïve users into addiction and risk of death.

  8. Drug prescription appropriateness in the elderly: an Italian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegri N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Allegri,1 Federica Rossi,2 Federica Del Signore,2 Paolo Bertazzoni,3 Roberto Bellazzi,4 Giorgio Sandrini,5 Tomaso Vecchi,1 Davide Liccione,1 Alessia Pascale,6 Stefano Govoni6 1Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, 2Pavia and Vigevano Neuropsychological Center for Alzheimer’s Disease, 3”Bertazzoni” Pharmacy General Partnership, Vigevano, 4Nephrology and Dialysis Ward, Civil Hospital of Vigevano, 5C. Mondino National Institute of Neurology Foundation, IRCCS, 6Department of Drug Sciences, Section of pharmacology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Purpose: Correct drug prescription in the elderly is a difficult task that requires careful survey of the current pharmacological therapies. In this article, we reviewed the drug prescriptions provided to 860 persons aged 65 years or over, residing in a small city of Lombardy, Italy.Methods: Subjects were recruited from a local nursing home, the Pavia and Vigevano Neuropsychological Center for Alzheimer’s Disease, general practitioners’ offices, and the local University of the Third Age. For each patient, the amount of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs, sedative and anticholinergic load (SL and AL, respectively, and drug–drug interactions were evaluated.Results: Widespread polypharmacy, giving rise to 10.06% of PIPs in the whole collection of prescriptions, was observed. In particular, PIPs mainly concern drugs acting at the central nervous system level, mostly benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Moreover, approximately one-fourth of the subjects had an elevated SL and approximately one-tenth a high AL. Drug–drug interactions were frequent (266 requiring medical attention, up to five for each single patient. Of concern was the underuse of antidementia drugs: only 20 patients received a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine, although 183 patients were potentially suitable for this treatment.Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need to develop

  9. QT interval prolongation related to psychoactive drug treatment: a comparison of monotherapy versus polytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinelli Marco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several antipsychotic agents are known to prolong the QT interval in a dose dependent manner. Corrected QT interval (QTc exceeding a threshold value of 450 ms may be associated with an increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias. Antipsychotic agents are often given in combination with other psychotropic drugs, such as antidepressants, that may also contribute to QT prolongation. This observational study compares the effects observed on QT interval between antipsychotic monotherapy and psychoactive polytherapy, which included an additional antidepressant or lithium treatment. Method We examined two groups of hospitalized women with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Schizoaffective Disorder in a naturalistic setting. Group 1 was composed of nineteen hospitalized women treated with antipsychotic monotherapy (either haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone or clozapine and Group 2 was composed of nineteen hospitalized women treated with an antipsychotic (either haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine with an additional antidepressant (citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine or clomipramine or lithium. An Electrocardiogram (ECG was carried out before the beginning of the treatment for both groups and at a second time after four days of therapy at full dosage, when blood was also drawn for determination of serum levels of the antipsychotic. Statistical analysis included repeated measures ANOVA, Fisher Exact Test and Indipendent T Test. Results Mean QTc intervals significantly increased in Group 2 (24 ± 21 ms however this was not the case in Group 1 (-1 ± 30 ms (Repeated measures ANOVA p Conclusions No significant prolongation of the QT interval was found following monotherapy with an antipsychotic agent, while combination of these drugs with antidepressants caused a significant QT prolongation. Careful monitoring of the QT interval is suggested in patients taking a

  10. Using prescription registries to define continuous drug use: how to fill gaps between prescriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacoepidemiological studies often use prescription registries to assess patients' drug episodes. The databases usually provide information on the date of the redemption of the prescription as well as on the dispensed amount, and this allows us to define episodes of drug use. However, when...... the inferred exposure status depends on the patient's future dispensing behaviour and this can lead to severe bias in the findings of the study. In this paper we investigate this potential bias in a study of the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for women using hormone therapy (HT), and we show...

  11. Telematics integrated system to perform drugs prescription and administration reducing adverse drug events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadanza, E; Pettenati, M C; Bianchi, L; Turchi, S; Ciofi, L; Pirri, F; Biffi Gentili, G; Giuli, D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present PHARMA 2.0 a telematics integrated system aimed at reducing Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) in the phases of drug prescription, transcription, distribution and administration. The proposed system is grounded on three sub-systems: a CPOE (Computerized Prescription Order Entry), an RFID-based drug container and dispenser and a middleware system. The visualization and management of prescription and administration data are handled through a web application designed to comply with international usability regulation.

  12. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Lin, Shin-Yu; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2016-03-01

    A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid-liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday) and 18.7% (interday). The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Increasing use of prescription drugs in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Frank; Mamtani, Ronac; Scott, Frank I; Goldberg, David S; Haynes, Kevin; Lewis, James D

    2016-06-01

    Prescription drugs are a central component of healthcare worldwide. We investigated changes in drug-prescribing patterns over time in the general population. Secular trends were analyzed using 1999-2012 prescription data from The Health Improvement Network. Prevalence of receipt of medication prescriptions was computed by age, sex, and therapeutic category for each calendar year. Spearman correlations were computed to assess change over time. Between 1999 and 2012, the percentage of the population that received at least one medication prescription increased from 64.5% to 69.2% (rho = 0.96, p design pharmacoepidemiology and comparative effectiveness studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Reality Television Programs Are Associated With Illegal Drug Use and Prescription Drug Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander

    2016-01-02

    Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.

  15. Concurrent new drug prescriptions and prognosis of early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Lash, Timothy L; Ahern, Thomas P

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myriad reports suggest that frequently used prescription drugs alter the viability of breast cancer cells in pre-clinical studies. Routine use of these drugs, therefore, may impact breast cancer prognosis, and could have important implications for public health. METHODS: The Danish...... the Danish National Prescription Registry, has facilitated large population-based pharmacoepidemiology studies. A unique advantage of using DBCG data for such studies is the ability to investigate the association of drugs with breast cancer recurrence rather than breast cancer mortality - which may...... be misclassified - or all-cause mortality. Here we summarize findings from pharmacoepidemiological studies, based on DBCG data, on the association between routinely used prescription drugs and risk of breast cancer recurrence. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that concurrent use of glucocorticoids, ACE inhibitors...

  16. Vital Signs-Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    This podcast is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  17. Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  18. Drug utilization, prescription errors and potential drug-drug interactions: an experience in rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathish, Devarajan; Bahini, Sivaswamy; Sivakumar, Thanikai; Thiranagama, Thilani; Abarajithan, Tharmarajah; Wijerathne, Buddhika; Jayasumana, Channa; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-06-25

    Prescription writing is a process which transfers the therapeutic message from the prescriber to the patient through the pharmacist. Prescribing errors, drug duplication and potential drug-drug interactions (pDDI) in prescriptions lead to medication error. Assessment of the above was made in prescriptions dispensed at State Pharmaceutical Corporation (SPC), Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted. Drugs were classified according to the WHO anatomical, therapeutic chemical classification system. A three point Likert scale, a checklist and Medscape online drug interaction checker were used to assess legibility, completeness and pDDIs respectively. Thousand prescriptions were collected. Majority were hand written (99.8 %) and from the private sector (73 %). The most frequently prescribed substance and subgroup were atorvastatin (4 %, n = 3668) and proton pump inhibitors (7 %, n = 3668) respectively. Out of the substances prescribed from the government and private sectors, 59 and 50 % respectively were available in the national list of essential medicines, Sri Lanka. Patients address (5 %), Sri Lanka Medical Council (SLMC) registration number (35 %), route (7 %), generic name (16 %), treatment symbol (48 %), diagnosis (41 %) and refill information (6 %) were seen in less than half of the prescriptions. Most were legible with effort (65 %) and illegibility was seen in 9 %. There was significant difference in omission and/or errors of generic name (P = 0.000), dose (P = 0.000), SLMC registration number (P = 0.000), and in evidence of pDDI (P = 0.009) with regards to the sector of prescribing. The commonest subgroup involved in duplication was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (43 %; 56/130). There were 1376 potential drug interactions (466/887 prescriptions). Most common pair causing pDDI was aspirin with losartan (4 %, n = 1376). Atorvastatin was the most frequently prescribed substance

  19. Our prescription drugs kill us in large numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Our prescription drugs are the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in the United States and Europe. Around half of those who die have taken their drugs correctly; the other half die because of errors, such as too high a dose or use of a drug despite contraindications. Our......, widespread crime that includes corruption of the scientific evidence about drugs and bribery of doctors, and lies in drug marketing, which is as harmful as tobacco marketing and, therefore, should be banned. We should take far fewer drugs, and patients should carefully study the package inserts of the drugs...

  20. [Analysis of drug consumption with indicators of prescription quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Juanes, V; Candás Villar, M A; Fidalgo González, S; Armesto Gómez, J; Calvo Alcántara, M J; de Marino Gómez-Sandoval, M A; Vicens Caldentey, C

    2000-05-31

    To evaluate the quality of pharmaceutical prescription by means of various indicators. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. Non-hospital prescription in all the INSALUD provinces, except Ceuta and Melilla, for a year (1997). Different quality indicators were analysed for the following groups of medicines: oral diabetes drugs, anti-platelet aggregation drugs, anti-hypertension drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, tranquillisers and hypnotic drugs, antibiotics, anti-asthmatic drugs and the omeprazol efficiency indicator. Consumption was expressed in defined daily doses (DDD) and in DDD per 1000 persons and per day (DID). A prescription quality indicator was indicated on the basis of weighing up the indicators. The sulphonylurea drugs varied greatly (15-56%) and deviated negatively a lot from the standard value. AAS and ticlopidine made up 74% of the anti-platelet aggregation drugs. Consumption of calcium antagonists was three times greater than of beta-blockers. Captopril and enalapril were 65% of the ACE inhibitors. Ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac made up between 34 and 50% of the NSAIDs. The DID of hypnotics was 44 against a standard figure of 24. Use of first-level antibiotics was 77%. Inhaled adrenergic drugs came to 80% of total anti-asthmatic drugs. The cost of omeprazol treatment per day was 267 pesetas/DID, which was inefficient in comparison with the standard of 190. All provinces had a prescription quality indicator above six out of ten. The ACE inhibitors, anti-asthmatic drugs and antibiotics were close to the standard. The use of sulphonylurea drugs, beta-blockers, NSAIDs and hypnotics was a long way from standard. The prescription level was acceptable in the different provinces.

  1. [Consumption of psychoactive drugs and exposure to bacterial toxins carried by food: a dangerous association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corma-Gómez, Anaïs; López-Sepúlveda, Rocío; Capitán-Del Río, Inés; Sánchez Mariscal, María Dolores; López-Hernández, Begoña

    2017-11-01

    To describe and analyse from a clinical and epidemiological point of view, a food borne outbreak in a psychiatric institution in Granada, in 2015, and to examine whether treatment with psychoactive drugs constitutes a risk factor for the development of a food borne disease, analysing the degree of susceptibility according to the therapeutic group consumed. Ambispective cohort study. Residents were the unit of analysis. Our group carried out an active case search and a food survey. A search for other risks was developed as well as a food inspection. Location, time and individual variables were studied. A descriptive analysis was conducted (absolute and relative frequencies). Calculation of attack rates by building and by menu was made. Bi-variant analysis (Chi-square test, t-Student test) and relative risk were used as a measure of strength of association. For risk analysis of medication, a multivariate analysis using logistic regression was carried out. 18 cases with diarrhoea without fever were found (incubation period from 6 to 16hours). Cases were mild and self-limiting. The clinical manifestations, the temporal grouping of cases and the characteristics of the ingested foods, focussed suspicion on a bacterial toxin. Being equal in the rest of variables, the N03AF, and N03AG therapeutic groups confer greater risk of disease (odds ratio [OR]: 8.626; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.050-36.308; p=0.003; and OR: 14.516; 95%CI: 3.155-66.784; p=0.001, respectively). Decreased intestinal transit, caused by the administration of anticonvulsants, may increase exposure time of the intestinal mucosa to the toxin, increasing the risk of disease and suffering from complications. An additional hygienic effort should be made in this type of institution to prevent these pathologies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychoactive drug advertising: a comparison of technical information from three countries: Brazil, United States and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patricia de Carvalho; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; Carlini, Elisaldo Araujo

    2005-09-01

    Studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s showed that there were country-dependent disparities in the information given for the same drug in medical advertisements. National and international regulations have been published to do away with such disparities and to foster the rational use of drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the information contained in psychoactive drug advertisements published in psychiatric journals in Brazil, the United States and the United Kingdom, before and subsequent to the publication of the United States Export Act, in 1986, the WHO criteria, in 1988, and the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency Resolution no. 102, in 2000. TYPE OF STUDY AND SETTING: Content analysis, at Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (Cebrid). We gathered advertisements from Brazilian, American and British psychiatry periodicals published before and after each ruling. We analyzed a total of twenty-four Brazilian advertisements that were for the same psychoactive drugs as advertised in American and/or British publications from the same period. We observed that Brazilian advertisements omitted information on usage restrictions, such as contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, warnings and precautions, and that such information was present in American and British advertisements. The data suggest that disparities in the information given for the same drug still persist. The information depends on the country in which each drug is marketed. The legislation is insufficient for eradicating such disparities.

  3. The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Fumiko; Nonaka, Ryouichi; Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, Kanako

    2007-03-22

    We developed a reproducible, simple, and small-scale method for determining the re-uptake and release of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine) using rat brain synaptosomes. These assays were then applied to study the effects of different kinds of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine re-uptake and release. The phenethylamine derivatives, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 2-methylamino-3,4-methylene-dioxy-propiophenone (methylone), 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (BDB), and N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), had strong inhibitory effects on the re-uptake of dopamine, 5-HT and norepinephrine. 4-Fluoroamphetamine, methylone and BDB also strongly increased the release of the three monoamines, but MBDB increased 5-HT and norepinephrine release, but had little effect on dopamine release. However, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (2C-C), 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2) and 2,4,6-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-6), which are methoxylated phenethylamine derivatives, slightly influenced the re-uptake and release of monoamines. Alpha-metyltryptamine (AMT), a tryptamine derivative, was one of the strongest re-uptake inhibitors and releasers of the three monoamines. The tryptamine derivative, 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), also strongly inhibited re-uptake and increased the release of the three monoamines. N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-methylisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MIPT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) inhibited monoamine re-uptake, but had a few effects on monoamine release. 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (3CPP) and 1-(methoxyphenyl)piperazine (4MPP), which are piperazine derivatives, inhibited monoamine re-uptake and accelerated their release. The results suggest that some designer drugs strongly act on the central nerve system to the same

  4. Small geographic area variations in prescription drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Shelsey J; House, Samantha A; Chang, Chiang-Hua; Wasserman, Jared R; Goodman, David C; Morden, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    Despite the frequency of pediatric prescribing little is known about practice differences across small geographic regions and payer type (Medicaid and commercial). The goal of this research was to quantify variation in prescription drug use among northern New England children. Northern New England, all-payer administrative data (2007-2010) permitted study of prescriptions for 949 821 children ages 0 to 17 years (1.75 million person-years [PYs]; 54% Medicaid, 46% commercial). Age- and gender adjusted overall and drug group-specific prescription use was quantified according to payer type (Medicaid or commercial) and within payer type across 69 hospital service areas (HSAs). We measured prescription fills per PY (rate) and annual, mean percentage of the population with any drug group-specific fills (prevalence). Overall mean annual prescriptions per PY were 3.4 (commercial) and 5.5 (Medicaid). Generally, these payer type differences were smaller than HSA-level variation within payer type. HSA-level rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug use (5th-95th percentile) varied twofold in Medicaid and more than twofold in commercially insured children; HSA-level antidepressant use varied more than twofold within each payer type. Antacid use varied threefold across HSAs and was highest in infants where commercial use paradoxically exceeded Medicaid. Prevalence of drug use varied as much as rates across HSAs. Prescription use was higher among Medicaid-insured than commercially insured children. Regional variation generally exceeded payer type differences, especially for drugs used in situations of diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainty. Efforts should advance best pediatric prescribing discussions and shared decision-making. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. 21 CFR 250.105 - Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.105 Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. It is the consensus of informed medical opinion that the margin of safety between the... prescription drugs. 250.105 Section 250.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  6. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.108 Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs. (a) There have been a number of reports in the medical literature of serious injuries to... prescription drugs. 250.108 Section 250.108 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  7. Health outcomes in patients using no-prescription online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Theodore J; Ellis, Matthew Stephen

    2012-12-06

    Many prescription drugs are freely available for purchase on the Internet without a legitimate prescription from a physician. This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies (NPOPs) to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model. We also studied whether users of NPOP-purchased drugs had poorer health outcomes than those who obtain the same drug through legitimate health care channels. We selected tramadol as a representative drug to address our objective because it is widely prescribed as an unscheduled opioid analgesic and can easily be purchased from NPOPs. Using search engine marketing (SEM), we placed advertisements on search result pages stemming from the keyword "tramadol" and related terms and phrases. Participants, who either used the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model to obtain tramadol (traditional users, n = 349) or purchased it on the Web without a prescription from their local doctor (ie, nontraditional users, n = 96), were then asked to complete an online survey. Respondents in both groups were primarily white, female, and in their mid-forties (nontraditional users) to upper forties (traditional users). Nearly all nontraditional users indicated that their tramadol use was motivated by a need to treat pain (95%, 91/96) that they perceived was not managed appropriately through legitimate health care channels. A majority of nontraditional users (55%, 41/75) indicated they used NPOPs because they did not have access to sufficient doses of tramadol to relieve pain. In addition, 29% (22/75) of nontraditional users indicated that the NPOPs were a far cheaper alternative than seeing a physician, paying for an office visit, and filling a prescription at a local pharmacy, which is often at noninsured rates for those who lack medical insurance (37%, 35/96, of NPOP users). The remainder of participants (16%, 12/96) cited other motivations (eg, anonymity) for using NPOPs. In

  8. A New Prescription for Fighting Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    It's a drug prevention conversation--and program--that was largely missing as recently as a decade ago in most middle and high schools. In those days, the principal concern of health educators and disciplinarians alike was to keep students from misusing alcohol and illegal street drugs such as ecstasy, cocaine and even heroine. But driven by the…

  9. Body pushing, prescription drugs and hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Kenneally, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    A 39-year-old man died of multi-organ failure complicating mixed drug toxicity that included methadone, oxazepam, oxycodone and nitrazepam. His past medical history involved alcohol and poly-substance abuse with chronic self-harm and suicidal ideation. There had been multiple hospital admissions for drug overdoses. At autopsy the most unusual finding was of two packages of 10 tablets each, wrapped in thin plastic film within the rectum. The insertion of drugs into body orifices and cavities has been termed body pushing to distinguish it from body packing where illicit drugs are wrapped and swallowed for transport and smuggling, and body stuffing where small amounts of loosely wrapped or unwrapped drugs are swallowed to conceal evidence from police. This case demonstrates that body pushing may not always involve illicit drugs or attempted concealment from police or customs officials. It appears that the drugs had been hidden to ensure an additional supply during the time of residence in hospital. The extent to which body pushing is currently being used by patients to smuggle drugs into secure medical facilities is yet to be determined.

  10. Ephemeral profiles of prescription drug and formulation tampering: evolving pseudoscience on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Edward J

    2006-06-01

    The magnitude of non-therapeutic use, or misuse of prescription pharmaceuticals now rivals that of illicit drug abuse. Drug and formulation tampering enables misusers to administer higher doses by intended and non-intended routes. Perceived motives appear to be a combination of interests in achieving a faster onset and enhancing psychoactive effects. Narcotic analgesics, stimulants, and depressants are widely sought, examined, and tampered with for recreational use. This review examines tampering methods reported on the Internet for selected pharmaceutical products. The Internet provides broad and varied guidance on tampering methods that are specific to drug classes and unique formulations. Instructions are available on crushing, separating, purifying and chemically altering specific formulations to allow changes in dosage, route of administration, and time course of effects. Many pharmaceutical formulations contain features that serve as "barriers" to tampering. The nature and effectiveness of formulation barriers vary widely with many being overcome by adventurous misusers. Examples of successes and failures in tampering attempts are frequently described on Internet sites that support recreational drug use. Successful tampering methods that have widespread appeal evolve into recipes and become archived on multiple websites. Examples of tampering methods include: (1) how to separate narcotic drugs (codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone) from excipients and non-desirable actives (aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen); (2) overcoming time-release formulations (beads, layers, matrices); (3) removal of active drug from high-dose formulations (patches, pills); (4) alteration of dosage forms for alternate routes of administration. The development of successful formulations that inhibit or prevent drug/formulation tampering with drugs of abuse should take into consideration the scope and practice of tampering methods available to recreational drug users on the Internet.

  11. Prescription and use of “equivalent” drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three case reports, where an “equivalent” drugs is prescribed, are described: a patient treated with lanzoprazole, a man with acute myocardial infarction and a young man with epilepsy. These reports are emblematic of the doubts and problems that doctors have to afford in the choice of a generic drug instead of a branded drug. The Author examines not only clinical, legislative and economical aspects of prescription of generic drugs in the Italian context, but also common questions that patients may ask when a generic drug is prescribed.

  12. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine...... the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. DESIGN AND SETTING: A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry...... for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3...

  13. How Can Prescription Drug Misuse Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications ... a public health priority. A growing number of older adults and an increasing number of injured military service ...

  14. Characteristics and drug utilization patterns for heavy users of prescription drugs among the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øymoen, Anita; Pottegård, Anton; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2015-01-01

    drug users accounted for 75.4% of their use in 2012, and five of these were cardiovascular drugs. The development over time for the ten most used drug classes followed the same pattern among heavy drug users and in the general population. CONCLUSION: There is a skewed utilization of prescription drugs......PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to (1) identify and characterize heavy users of prescription drugs among persons aged 60 years and above; (2) investigate the association of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables with being a heavy drug user; and (3) study the most...... frequently used drugs among heavy drug users and development in use over time. METHOD: This is a descriptive study. Heavy drug users were defined as the accumulated top 1 percentile who accounted for the largest share of prescription drug use measured in number of dispensed defined daily doses (DDDs...

  15. Drugs prescription pattern in dogs diagnosed with parvovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine parvovirus enteritis affects predominantly puppies with a high prevalence rate in Nigeria and is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia and leucopenia. Treatment is non-specific; hence array of medications are usually prescribed to manage the condition symptomatically. Irrational drugs prescription has been ...

  16. Prescription patterns and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the prescribing pattern and drug use in the management of essential hypertension in a specialist hospital and its conformity to the JNC VII and WHO/ISH management guidelines. A total of 1572 prescriptions from 490 case files of hypertensive patients (> 18 years) attending the ...

  17. Rural Adolescents' Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Implications for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, April M.; Glover, Natalie; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities often have distinct contextual factors that impact residents' substance abuse behavior. However, most studies to date have focused either exclusively on urban populations or neglected to analyze data in a way that allows any rural/urban comparison. This is especially true for research examining nonmedical prescription drug use…

  18. A political history of medicare and prescription drug coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas R; Lee, Philip R; Lipton, Helene L

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of efforts to add prescription drug coverage to the Medicare program. It identifies several important patterns in policymaking over four decades. First, prescription drug coverage has usually been tied to the fate of broader proposals for Medicare reform. Second, action has been hampered by divided government, federal budget deficits, and ideological conflict between those seeking to expand the traditional Medicare program and those preferring a greater role for private health care companies. Third, the provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 reflect earlier missed opportunities. Policymakers concluded from past episodes that participation in the new program should be voluntary, with Medicare beneficiaries and taxpayers sharing the costs. They ignored lessons from past episodes, however, about the need to match expanded benefits with adequate mechanisms for cost containment. Based on several new circumstances in 2003, the article demonstrates why there was a historic opportunity to add a Medicare prescription drug benefit and identify challenges to implementing an effective policy.

  19. Reducing Prescriptions of Long-acting Benzodiazepine Drugs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Sophie Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    inhabitants/day in 2003 to 16.4 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013; a relative reduction of 37%. Prescription data in this study did not include information about indications for initiating treatments. In addition, due to compliance problems, some of the prescribed drugs may not have been consumed according......Prolonged consumption of benzodiazepine drugs (BZD) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone; altogether Z drugs) is related to potential physiological and psychological dependence along with other adverse effects. This study aimed to analyse the prescribing of long......-acting BZD (half-life >10 hr), compared to short-acting BZD in Denmark during a 10-year period. Descriptive analysis of total sales data from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, to individuals in the primary healthcare sector, of all BZD and Z-drugs in the period of 2003-2013. Prescription...

  20. Consumo de drogas psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Assis, SP Psychoactive drug use in school age adolescents, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Guimarães

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de quantificar o consumo das diferentes drogas psicoativas entre os estudantes da cidade de Assis, SP, e investigar as variáveis relacionadas com seu uso, foi aplicado um questionário que identificava dados sociodemográficos e padrão de uso não-médico de psicotrópicos em 20% dos estudantes das escolas públicas e privadas da cidade. Os maiores índices de consumo para o uso na vida foram os do álcool com 68,9% e o tabaco com 22,7%. As drogas mais utilizadas foram: solventes (10,0%; maconha (6,6%; ansiolíticos (3,8%; anfetamínicos (2,6%; cocaína (1,6% e anticolinérgicos (1,0%.To quantify psychoactive drug use and investigate use-related variables among students of Assis, Brazil, a questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic data and identify the pattern of non-medical use of psychoactive drugs in 20% of public and private school students. The largest consumption indexes for lifetime use were seen for alcohol (68.9% and tobacco (22.7%. Drugs most often used were: solvents (10.0%; marijuana (6.6%; benzodiazepines (3.8%; amphetamines (2.6%; cocaine (1.6%; and anticholinergics (1.0%.

  1. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  2. [Pharmacological influences on the brain level and transport of GABA. II) Effect of various psychoactive drugs on brain level and uptake of GABA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabana, M A; Varotto, M; Saladini, M; Zanchin, G; Battistin, L

    1981-04-30

    The effects of some psychoactive drugs on the level and uptake of GABA in the mouse brain was studied using well standardized procedures, mainely the silica-gel cromatography for determining the GABA content and the brain slices for measuring GABA uptake. It was found that levomepromazine, sulpiride, haloperidol and amytryptiline were without effects on the cerebral level of GABA; it was also found that these drugs do not influence the rates of uptake of GABA by mouse brain slices. Such results do indicate that the psychoactive drugs studied are without effects on the level and uptake of GABA in the brain.

  3. 76 FR 68295 - Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... 2010, and shortages are becoming more severe as well as more frequent. The affected medicines include... before a shortage becomes a crisis. However, drug manufacturers have not consistently provided the FDA... lifesaving medicines. Sec. 2. Broader Reporting of Manufacturing Discontinuances. To the extent permitted by...

  4. How Can Prescription Drug Addiction Be Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assisted Treatment (MAT)" below]. These drugs can counter the effects of opioids on the brain or relieve withdrawal symptoms and cravings, helping ... used by emergency medical personnel, first responders, and bystanders. For more information, visit ... webpage on naloxone . Treating Addiction to CNS ...

  5. State prescription drug price Web sites: how useful to consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ha T; Corey, Catherine G

    2008-02-01

    To aid consumers in comparing prescription drug costs, many states have launched Web sites to publish drug prices offered by local retail pharmacies. The current push to make retail pharmacy prices accessible to consumers is part of a much broader movement to increase price transparency throughout the health-care sector. Efforts to encourage price-based shopping for hospital and physician services have encountered widespread concerns, both on grounds that prices for complex services are difficult to measure and compare accurately and that quality varies substantially across providers. Experts agree, however, that prescription drugs are much easier to shop for than other, more complex health services. However, extensive gaps in available price information--the result of relying on Medicaid data--seriously hamper the effectiveness of state drug price-comparison Web sites, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). An alternative approach--requiring pharmacies to submit price lists to the states--would improve the usefulness of price information, but pharmacies typically oppose such a mandate. Another limitation of most state Web sites is that price information is restricted to local pharmacies, when online pharmacies, both U.S. and foreign, often sell prescription drugs at substantially lower prices. To further enhance consumer shopping tools, states might consider expanding the types of information provided, including online pharmacy comparison tools, lists of deeply discounted generic drugs offered by discount retailers, and lists of local pharmacies offering price matches.

  6. Consumer confusion between prescription drug precautions and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozegar, Jacqueline B; Rupert, Douglas J; Sullivan, Helen W; O'Donoghue, Amie C

    2017-06-01

    Multiple studies have identified consumers' difficulty correctly interpreting risk information provided about prescription drugs, whether in printed format or online. This study's purpose was to explore whether consumers can distinguish between prescription drug precautions and side effects presented on brand-name drug websites. Participants (n=873) viewed fictitious drug websites that presented both precautions and side effects for one of four drugs, and they completed a survey assessing recall and comprehension. We coded open-ended recall data to identify whether drug precautions were mentioned and, if so, how they were interpreted. Approximately 15% of participants mentioned at least one drug precaution. The majority (59.7%) misinterpreted precautions as potential side effects. Participants who misinterpreted precautions rated the drugs as significantly more likely to cause side effects than participants who accurately interpreted the precautions. Age, education, literacy, and other factors did not appear to predict precaution interpretation. At least some consumers are likely to interpret precautions on drug websites as potential side effects, which might affect consumer preferences, treatment decisions, and medication safety. Healthcare providers should be aware of this potential confusion, assess patients' understanding of precautions and potential side effects, and address any misunderstandings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficiary price sensitivity in the Medicare prescription drug plan market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    The Medicare stand-alone prescription drug plan (PDP) came into existence in 2006 as part of the Medicare prescription drug benefit. It is the most popular plan type among Medicare drug plans and large numbers of plans are available to all beneficiaries. In this article we present the first analysis of beneficiary price sensitivity in the PDP market. Our estimate of elasticity of enrollment with respect to premium, -1.45, is larger in magnitude than has been found in the Medicare HMO market. This high degree of beneficiary price sensitivity for PDPs is consistent with relatively low product differentiation, low fixed costs of entry in the PDP market, and the fact that, in contrast to changing HMOs, beneficiaries can select a PDP without disrupting doctor-patient relationships.

  8. In vitro screening of psychoactive drugs by [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in rat brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Ryouichi; Nagai, Fumiko; Ogata, Akio; Satoh, Kanako

    2007-12-01

    We constructed a reproducible, simple, and small-scale determination method of the psychoactive drugs that acted directly on the monoamine receptor by measuring the activation of [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)-triphosphate binding to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). This method can simultaneously measure the effects of three monoamines, namely dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE), in rat brain membranes using a 96-well microplate. Activation of D(1) and D(2) receptors in striatal membranes by DA as well as 5-HT and NEalpha(2) receptors in cortical membranes could be measured. Of 12 tested phenethylamines, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (2C-C), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E), and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I) stimulated G protein binding. The other phenethylamines did not affect G protein binding. All 7 tryptamines tested stimulated G protein binding with the following rank order of potency; 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)>5-methoxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine (5-MeO-DALT)>5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT)>or=5-methoxy-N,N-methylisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MIPT)>5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT)>N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT)>or=alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT). This assay system was able to designate psychoactive drugs as prohibited substances in accordance with criteria set forth by the Tokyo Metropolitan government.

  9. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination prescription...

  10. Profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription opioid abuse from a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    There has been a limited focus on prescription drug abuse among women in the country. Choice of psychoactive substance, reasons for initiation and co-occurring disorders have been found to be different among men and women. The current study was aimed at studying the profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription drug use over a period of five years at a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre in India. Case records of all female patients admitted with substance use disorder at a national level drug dependence treatment centre in north India across five years (between January 2008 and December 2012) were reviewed retrospectively to study their socio-demographic and clinical profile. The information was gathered using a semi-structured proforma and detailed case records. Abstinence, relapse and retention rates were calculated. Over the five years, 31 female patients were admitted with prescription drug abuse. Of them, 12 (39%) used prescription opioids and 11 (36%) used prescription opioid along with benzodiazepines. Commonest prescription opioid was pentazocine used by 87 per cent of the women. Twenty two (71%) women were introduced to opioid by medical practitioners and commonest reason for introduction was pain (among 48%). Common co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorder (26%), cluster B traits/disorder (19%) and somatoform disorder (13%). Eight women did not complete treatment and left against medical advice. Thirteen women were advised maintenance treatment, and 70 per cent of them were retained for at least six months. Our findings revealed a link between mental illness, pain and non-medical use of prescription opioids among women. Majority of these women received opioids as a legitimate prescription form physician. Therefore, these legitimate prescribers should be trained for pain management to facilitate proper treatment of pain and to prevent the subsequent misuse of these medicines. Female patients with

  11. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Other Interventions to Combat Prescription Opioid Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Chakravarthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data and trendsrelated to opioid prescription pain relievers (OPR. In 2008, 20,044 deaths were attributedto prescription drug overdose of which 14,800 (73.8% were due to OPR, an amount greaterthan the number of overdose deaths from heroin and cocaine combined. The majority of thesedeaths were unintentional. Between 1999-2008, overdose deaths from OPR increased almostfour-fold. Correspondingly, sales of OPR were four times greater in 2010 than in 1999. Mostsignificant to emergency physicians is the estimate that 39% of all opioids prescribed, administeredor continued come from the emergency department (ED. We present findings from theCDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on current recommendationsand policies for curtailing the OPR epidemic.1

  12. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R A; Kravitz, R L; Wilkes, M S

    1999-11-01

    Drug manufacturers are intensely promoting their products directly to consumers, but the impact has not been widely studied. Consumers' awareness and understanding of, attitudes toward, and susceptibility to direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising were examined. Random-digit dialing telephone survey with a random household member selection procedure (completion and response rates, 58% and 69%, respectively). Respondents were interviewed while they were at their residences. Complete data were obtained from 329 adults in Sacramento County, California. Outcome measures included awareness of advertisements for 10 selected drugs, misconceptions about DTC advertising, attitudes toward DTC ads, and behavioral responses to such promotions. The influence of demographic characteristics, health status, attitudes, beliefs, and media exposure on awareness and behaviors was examined. On average, respondents were aware of advertisements for 3.7 of the 10 drugs; awareness varied from 8% for Buspar (buspirone) to 72% for Claritin (loratadine). Awareness was associated with prescription drug use, media exposure, positive attitudes toward DTC advertising, poorer health, and insurance status. Substantial misconceptions were revealed; e.g., 43% thought that only "completely safe" drugs could be advertised. Direct-to-consumer advertisements had led one third of respondents to ask their physicians for drug information and one fifth to request a prescription. Direct-to-consumer advertisements are reaching the public, but selectively so, and affecting their behaviors. Implications for public policy are examined.

  13. Prescription drug misuse and risk behaviors among young injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristen M; Fibbi, Meghan; Langer, Debra; Silva, Karol; Lankenau, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse among young adults, especially opioids, is a substantial public health problem in the United States. Although risks associated with injection of illicit drugs are well established, injection and sexual risks associated with misuse of prescription drugs are under-studied. Forty young injection drug users aged 16 to 25 who reported injection of a prescription drug were recruited in 2008-09 in Los Angeles and New York City. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to illustrate risky injection and sexual behaviors reported in this sample. Over half of participants engaged in risky injection behavior, three-quarters engaged in risky sexual behavior, nearly half reported both risky behaviors, and five did not report either risk behavior while misusing a prescription drug. Prescription opioids, tranquilizers, and stimulants were misused in the context of risky sexual behaviors while only opioids were misused in the context of injection risk behaviors. Access to clean syringes, attitudes and beliefs regarding hepatitis C, and risk reduction through partner selection were identified as key themes that contextualized risk behaviors. Although these findings help identify areas to target educational campaigns, such as prevention of sexually transmitted infections, risk behaviors specifically associated with prescription drug misuse warrant further study.

  14. [Psychoactive Drug Abuse in Adolescent Addicts of a Colombian Rehabilitation Foundation. Descriptive Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo; Rubio, Luz Adriana

    2012-09-01

    To describe the use of psychoactive substances (PAS) in addict population between 14 and 18 years of a foundation devoted to rehabilitation in the Department of Quindío, Colombia. Quantitative-descriptive research. The VESPA (Epidemiological surveillance for psychoactive substance abuse) Forms of the people admitted to the institution between 2006 and 2009. During the study, 333 adolescents between 14 and 18 were attended. 75.4% were men, only 31.2% had primary education, 56% reported being unemployed, and 34.5% stated they were admitted at the foundation after legal indication. Upon admission, the PAS was: 44.2%, tobacco; 25.8%, marijuana; 18.0%, alcohol and 5.7% cocaine. The average starting age for men was 12.33, while for women was 11.96; reported substances showed the following starting averages: alcohol, 12.26 ys old; tobacco, 12.49 ys old; marijuana, 13.39 ys old; inhalants, 13.98 ys old; cocaine, 14.01 ys old; crack, 14.27 ys old; and heroin, 15 ys old. The average admission age to the institution was 15.7 ys old. Figures found highlight the need for greater and better prevention programs regarding PAS abuse in adolescents and children. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. [Prevalence of potentially inappropriate drug prescription in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajreldines, A; Insua, J; Schnitzler, E

    2016-01-01

    One of the causes of preventable adverse drug events (ADES) in older patients constitutes inappropriate prescription of drugs (PIM). The PIM is where risks exceed the clinical benefit. Several instruments can be use to measure this problem, the most used are: a) Beers criteria; b) Screening tool to Older People Potentially inappropriate Prescription (STOPP); c) Screening tool to Alert Doctors to Right Appropriate indicated Treatments (START); d) The Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). This study aims to assess the prevalence of PIM, in a population of older adults in three clinical scopes of university hospital. cross sectional study of 300 cases from a random sample of fields: hospitalization (n=100), ambulatory (n=100) and emergency (n=100), all patients over 65 years old or more who where treated at our hospital. 1355 prescription drugs were analized, finding patients hospitalized (PIM) of 57.7%, 55%, 26%, and 80% according to Beers, in ambulatory 36%, 36.5%, 5% and 52% with the same tools and in emergency 35%, 35%, 6% y 52% with the same tools. Was found significant association the PIM with polipharmacy with Beers, STOPP and MAI. results can be compare to world literature (26-80% vs 11-73.1%). The STOPP-START used in an integrated manner would be best estimating the problem of PIM. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. New use of prescription drugs prior to a cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancers often have considerable induction periods. This confers a risk of reverse causation bias in studies of cancer risk associated with drug use, as early symptoms of a yet undiagnosed cancer might lead to drug treatment in the period leading up to the diagnosis. This bias can...... as for nine pre-specified individual drug classes, representing drug treatment likely to be prescribed for symptoms of the given cancers. RESULTS: The incidence rate for new drug treatment among cancer cases was stable around 130 per 1000 persons per month until 6 months prior to cancer diagnosis where...... be alleviated by disregarding exposure for some time before the cancer diagnosis (lag time). We aimed at assessing the duration of lag time needed to avoid reverse causation bias. METHODS: We identified all Danish patients with incident cancer between 2000 and 2012 (n = 353 087). Incident use of prescription...

  17. 78 FR 8446 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; Prescription Drug Labeling Improvement and Enhancement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... prescription drug products and reducing the likelihood of medication errors. FDA implemented standardized... voluntarily converts to PLR format. \\4\\ Data obtained from http://labels.fda.gov . Generic drugs approved... show that only 10 percent of generic drug labeling has been converted to the PLR format.\\5\\ Since...

  18. 21 CFR 200.200 - Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and... Prescription Drug Consumer Price Listing § 200.200 Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to consumers. (a) Prescription drug reminder advertisements and...

  19. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medication Among Adolescents Using Drugs in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Élise; Nolin, Marc-Antoine; Traoré, Issouf; Leclerc, Pascale; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with nonmedical use of prescription medication (NMUPM) among adolescents who use drugs (ages 12 to 17 years) in Quebec. Method: Secondary data analyses were carried out with data from a 6-month study, namely, the 2010–2011 Quebec Health Survey of High School Students—a large-scale survey that sought to gain a better understanding of the health and well-being of young Quebecers in high school. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to study NMUPM among adolescents who use drugs, according to sociodemographic characteristics, peer characteristics, health indicators (anxiety, depression, or attention-deficit disorder [ADD] with or without hyperactivity), self-competency, family environment, and substance use (alcohol and drug use) factors. Results: Among adolescents who had used drugs in the previous 12 months, 5.4% (95% CI 4.9% to 6.0%) reported NMUPM. Based on multivariate analyses, having an ADD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.47; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.91), anxiety disorder (AOR 2.14; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.92), low self-esteem (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.08), low self-control (AOR 1.95; 95% CI 1.55 to 2.45), low parental supervision (AOR 1.43; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.83), regular alcohol use (AOR 1.72; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.16), and polysubstance use (AOR 4.09; 95% CI 3.06 to 5.48) were associated with increased odds of reporting NMUPM. Conclusions: The observed prevalence of NMUPM was lower than expected. However, the associations noted with certain mental health disorders and regular or heavy use of other psychoactive substances are troubling. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26720824

  20. Racial/ethnic differences in correlates of prescription drug misuse among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Broman, Clifford L

    2009-10-01

    This study examined psychosocial correlates of prescription drug misuse over time among young adults. Data from a nationally representative U.S. sample consisting of 4882 cases were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that being younger, having less education, as well as alcohol use; marijuana use, inhalant use, and delinquent behavior during adolescence were associated with prescription drug misuse. In Whites, prescription drug misuse was related to age, alcohol use, marijuana use and delinquent behavior. Among Hispanic young adults inhalant use, delinquent behavior and maternal warmth were associated with greater prescription drug use, while marijuana use was predictive of lower prescription drug misuse. Religious attendance was associated with lower prescription drug misuse among Black young adults. These findings suggest that there are unique racial/ethnic profiles for substance use risk behaviors in adolescence. Further investigations should examine culturally specific dimensions culturally specific dimensions that may account for racial/ethnic differences in prescription drug misuse.

  1. 42 CFR 423.884 - Requirements for qualified retiree prescription drug plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... their retirees for both prescription drug coverage and other types of medical coverage, the attestation... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for qualified retiree prescription... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG...

  2. [Quality of drug prescriptions by the Spanish internal medicine services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, F; Gil, V F; Martínez, J L; Calduch, J V; Orozco, D; Merino, J

    1996-09-01

    Many registered drugs in different countries not always have been tested by clinical assays and their efficacy has no definitively proved. Good clinical practice must assume the prescription of the more efficacy drugs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of the drugs prescribed by spanish general internists. We analyze the treatments prescribed by general internists using their hospital medical records. The records were offered by the Heads of the Internal Medecine Departments of Spanish hospitals with 250 beds or more when required by the Spanish Society of Internal Medecine. A random sample, stratified by the hospital size, was obtained from the whole of the Spanish hospitals. Quality of the drugs was determined using two criteria: A. Their intrinsic value; it was decided it was high if clinical assays showed their efficacy and security, and low of it was not B. The number of different chemical substances in the drug; we considered a high quality criteria if only one chemical substance, or two with proved synergistic efficacy were present, and low if it was more than two, or without proved synergistic efficacy. The sample was 250 clinical records, with 1022 different prescriptions; the records were collected between February and July 1994. We found that 94.06 +/- 1.45 of evaluated treatments have a high intrinsic value, and 96.93 +/- 1.06 have only one chemical component. The drugs without a high intrinsic value were: oral hypoglycaemics, some including several combinations of vit B, drugs acting on the cerebral blood flow and some mucolitics. Spanish general Internists usually prescribed monocomponent drugs with proved efficacy and safety.

  3. Prescription drug overdose: between patients and their doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 Li-Tzy Wu21Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAPrescription drug overdoses, mainly involving prescription opioids, have reached epidemic proportions in the United States over the past 20 years.1,2 Since 2003, prescription opioids have been involved in more drug-related overdose deaths than heroin and cocaine combined. Among patients who were prescribed opioids, an estimated 20% were prescribed high doses of opioids by either single or multiple physicians, and these patients appeared to account for the majority of prescription opioid-related overdoses.1,3,4 The increase in prescription overdose deaths has coincided with a major increase in prescription opioid sales.2 The prescribing practices of some physicians are often believed to have contributed in part to the increase in these overdose deaths. In a recently published perspective, Anna Lembke speculated on why doctors prescribe opioids to known prescription opioid abusers.5 Her article raises a timely and troubling issue for all of us interested in this area of medicine. Lembke identifies the root of the problem to lie in the changing societal attitude towards pain and suffering, the ever-growing availability of opioid medications, the regulatory requirements promulgated, and the perceived shift in the role of the medical professional in this context. Central to her argument is that physicians must now practice according to a set of externally imposed expectations of patients, payers, and regulators, putting the prescriber in the position of being "damned if you do and damned if you don’t". If Lembke is right, the physician now prescribes not according to what he or she wants to do, but according to what he or she must do. The result, at one extreme, is the patient acting as their

  4. Fatal injuries while under the influence of psychoactive drugs: a cross-sectional exploratory study in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryden Ruth

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of drug-related mortality rarely describe fatal injuries due to psychoactive drug intoxication (FIUI. The main aim of this study was to determine the nature, extent and pattern of FIUI. Methods This observational study covered the period January 1999 to December 2001. Data were provided by members of a study panel of coroners in England using a standard protocol. Sources of data for this study included autopsy protocols, death certificates, hospital records, police reports, toxicology reports and inquest transcripts. Inclusion criteria for this were (i the mention of one or more psychoactive substances as contributing to fatality; and (ii the presence of a Controlled Drug at post mortem. Results A total of 3,803 drug-related deaths of persons aged 16–64 years were reported by the study panel during the three-year period. The study panel accounted for 86% of drug-related deaths in England in this period. There were 147 FIUI cases (119 males, 28 females, giving a proportionate mortality ratio of approximately 4%. The majority of FIUI cases (84% were aged 16–44 years, with a median age at death of 33 years (Quartile deviation = 7. Fifty-six percent of FIUI occurred in urban areas of England. The population of the study jurisdictions aged 16–64 years contributed 49,545,766 person-years (py to the study, giving an annual crude rate of 3/1,000,000 person-years (py. Rates for male and females were 4.9 and 1.1/1,000,000 py respectively, giving a male/female rate ratio of 4.5 (95%CI = 2.9–6.8. The rates of intentional and unintentional FIUI were 2 and 1/1,000,000 py respectively. The leading mechanism for intentional FIUI was suffocation while the predominant mechanisms in unintentional FIUI were road traffic accidents and falls. There is a significant difference in the pattern of drug-specific risk between FIUI and fatal poisoning. Risks of intentional FIUI are elevated among Black and Minority Ethnic groups

  5. Analysis of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions and Its Clinical Manifestation of Pediatric Prescription on 2 Pharmacies in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa I. Barliana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI in prescription have high incidence around the world, including Indonesia. However, scientific evidence regarding DDI in Indonesia is not available. Therefore, in this study we have conducted survey in 2 pharmacies in Bandung against pediatric prescription given by pediatrician. These prescriptions then analyzed the potential for DDI contained in the prescription and clinical manifestation. The analysis showed that in pharmacy A, there are 33 prescriptions (from a total of 155 prescriptions that have potential DDI, or approximately 21.19% (2 prescriptions have the potential DDI major categories, 23 prescriptions categorized as moderate, and 8 prescriptions as minor. In Pharmacy B, there are 6 prescriptions (from a total of 40 prescriptions or 15% of potential DDI (4 prescriptions categorized as moderate and 2 prescriptions as minor. This result showed that potential DDI happened less than 50% in pediatric prescription from both pharmacies. However, this should get attention because DDI should not happen in a prescription considering its clinical manifestations caused by DDI. Moreover, current pharmaceutical care refers to patient oriented than product oriented. In addition, further study for the pediatric prescription on DDI incidence in large scale need to be investigated.

  6. 76 FR 41434 - Removal of Certain Requirements Related to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... the Prescription Drug Marketing Act; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: Food and Drug... remove a section of the Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA) regulations requiring that prior to the... the purchaser ``a statement identifying each prior sale, purchase, or trade of such drug,'' starting...

  7. How Parents of Teens Store and Monitor Prescription Drugs in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills…

  8. 75 FR 52765 - Development and Distribution of Patient Medication Information for Prescription Drugs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... prescription drug information are as follows: (1) Development of uniform, evidence-based content and format... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Development and Distribution of Patient Medication Information for Prescription Drugs; Public Hearing AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  9. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Niels

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Accidental ingestions of oral prescription drugs: a multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, B J; Rock, A R; Cohn, M S; Litovitz, T

    1989-07-01

    Accidental ingestion of oral prescription drugs by children under age five continues to be a public health problem. A telephone survey of 1,866 ingestion incidents reported to nine poison control centers was conducted in the spring of 1986. Accidental ingestion occurred most often with a two-year-old child (42 per cent) in their own home (82 per cent). Thirty-five per cent of the toxic drugs ingested at home belonged to someone other than the immediate family, most often a grandparent. Toxic drugs were more often out of their usual storage location and in non-child-resistant prescription packaging, a nonprescription container, or in no container. Twenty-two per cent of all child-resistant packages were non-functional. Overall, at least 61 per cent of all medications had no child-resistant barrier at the time of ingestion. Accessible storage locations such as the kitchen counter, table top, or top of a dresser or bedside table greatly increased the risk of accidental ingestion. These results suggest the need for effective child-resistant packaging that is easier for all adults to use.

  11. Profiling online recreational/prescription drugs' customers and overview of drug vending virtual marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, Laura; Francesconi, Giulia; Papanti, Duccio; Giorgetti, Arianna; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    Internet and social networking sites play a significant role in the marketing and distribution of recreational/prescription drugs without restrictions. We aimed here at reviewing data relating to the profile of the online drug customer and at describing drug vending websites. The PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases were searched here in order to elicit data on the socio-demographic characteristics of the recreational marketplaces/online pharmacies' customers and the determinants relating to online drug purchasing activities. Typical online recreational drugs' customers seem to be Caucasian, men, in their 20s, highly educated, and using the web to impact as minimally as possible on their existing work/professional status. Conversely, people without any health insurance seemed to look at the web as a source of more affordable prescription medicines. Drug vending websites are typically presented here with a "no prescription required" approach, together with aggressive marketing strategies. The online availability of recreational/prescriptions drugs remains a public health concern. A more precise understanding of online vending sites' customers may well facilitate the drafting and implementation of proper prevention campaigns aimed at counteracting the increasing levels of online drug acquisition and hence intake activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 2C-B (Nexus is one of the most widespread novel psychoactive substances. There is limited information about its pharmacological properties, and few studies in humans concern its acute and chronic effects. 2C-B has been classified as a stimulant, hallucinogen, entactogen, and/or empathogen. Objectives. To evaluate the emotional, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of 2C-B. Methods. Twenty healthy recreational 2C-B users (12 women self-administered a 20 mg dose of 2C-B. Evaluations included emotional (IAPS, FERT, and speech, subjective (visual analog scales, ARCI, VESSPA, HRS, and POMS questionnaires, and cardiovascular effects (blood pressure and heart rate. Results. Positive subjective effects predominated with a reduction of anger under the influence of 2C-B. It did, however, increase reactivity to negative emotional stimuli and decrease the ability to recognize expressions of happiness. Augmented emotionality in speech could be appreciated by others. 2C-B induced euphoria and well-being, changes in perceptions, and slight hallucinogenic states. Mild sympathetic actions were observed. Conclusions. The specific profile that 2C-B exerts on emotions suggests its classification as an entactogen with psychedelic properties.

  13. [Psychoactive Drug Use by Youth in a Post Armed-Conflict Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Carlos Gantiva; Ramírez, Nohelia Hewitt; Maldonado, Anderssen Vera; Varela, Adriana Angarita; Baños, Arturo Parado; Puerto, Angélica Guillén

    2012-06-01

    There are no studies in Colombia on the use of psychoactive substances (PAS) by post armed-conflict population to serve as guide for prevention programs and to account for the potential impact armed conflict may have upon this area. To describe the use of PAS in young students in a post-conflict region. A quantitative-descriptive study involving the totality of students of the township of Viotá, Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia (1,304 participants). The World Health Survey for Schoolchildren was applied. Alcohol is the substance with the highest percentage of lifetime prevalence; during the last month, it was observed that the highest percentage of people start PAS use between the age of 8 and 13, while 42% of youngsters have experienced at least one drunkenness episode. It was found that 43.4% have been exposed to alcohol in their families while 35.1% were exposed to tobacco at school or in their neighborhoods. 84.5% stated their intention to continue consuming tobacco during the next year. Results show lower consumption percentages in comparison to school youngsters in Bogotá, Colombia, which may indicate that the armed conflict has not increased consumption levels in this population. Based on the results, certain elements to be taken into account are proposed for the implementation of prevention programs with this population. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha A. Fleary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (; , completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults.

  15. Drug Prescription Patterns in Older People Residential Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Saboor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Compared to other age groups, older people, especially frail older people residing in nursing homes use medications more due to the higher prevalence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to investigate prescription patterns for older people in nursing homes of Tehran in 2011. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, the data of 170 older people, sampled random cluster gathering method, using medical records, questionnaires and interview with nurses and physicians. The data analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean, distribution, Chi-square, t-test, Fisher, and SPSS version 16 (P<0.05. Results: The mean average age of the sample was 79.75±2.4% of them were female. 62.4% received more than 5 types of medicines. The mean number of medicines was 7.55 with the ranging of 1-19 drugs. The most medicine forms used by older people were: tablets 98.2%, injection medicines 20.6 %, drops 13.5%, syrup 8.8%, sprays 6.5%, ointments and suppositories 2.9%. The following medicines were used the most used among older people respectively: Central Nervous System drugs, vitamins, cardiovascular drugs, hematologic and gastrointestinal drugs. Vitamins (81.2%, ASA (37.64%, Alprazolam (22.35% were the most used drugs. There was not a significant relationship between participating in geriatric educational course And the mean numbers of the prescribed medications (P=0.054., as well as between covering by health insurance specialty in medicine and the mean of the numbers of mediations (P=0.068. There was a significant relationship between having insurance and the mean number of prescribed medicine (P=0.05. Conclusion: Developing educational programs on geriatric pharmacology general practitioners and more supervision on residential care homes practices may have affects on prescription pattern.

  16. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  17. HOW PARENTS OF TEENS STORE AND MONITOR PRESCRIPTION DRUGS IN THE HOME*

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRIESE, BETTINA; MOORE, ROLAND S.; GRUBE, JOEL W.; JENNINGS, VANESSA K.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills were left, and how medication containers were positioned. Reasons given for not securing drugs were that parents did not think that their teens would be interested in their prescription drugs and did not believe that they could be used to get high. This study highlights the need for parents to be educated about securing prescription drugs, the dangers of non-medical prescription drug use by teens, and which drugs might be used for non-medical purposes. PMID:25429166

  18. Educating Pharmacists on a Prescription Drug Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Marc L; Phan, Yen; Ferries, Erin A; Hatfield, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    To provide education to community pharmacists regarding the registration and use of the Texas prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) and to assess the impact of the education on pharmacists' perceptions of the PDMP. The study design was a descriptive, pre and post, cross-sectional survey conducted among community pharmacists attending a PDMP education program. The program was designed to present the PDMP as a public health tool available to assist pharmacists with dispensing decisions related to controlled prescription drugs. Of the 24 pharmacists who completed the survey, 23 were already registered to use the PDMP. However, all 23 felt that the program successfully educated users regarding the PDMP and agreed that other community pharmacists would benefit from the program presented. After the program, 14 participants responded they would very likely use the PDMP in the next 30 days. Recognition of the use of PDMPs as a program for both pharmacists and physicians was increased from 12.5% (pre) to 73.9% (post). Pharmacists found the educational program beneficial and they were very likely to use the PDMP in the future. Perceptions of the Texas PDMP were changed from pre- to post-education program, with recognition that a PDMP can be a beneficial tool for pharmacy practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. [A system of prescriptions without drug approval: example of baclofen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Benjamin; Deheul, Sylvie; Danel, Thierry; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Baclofen is an anti-spastic drug that acts as an agonist of GABA-B receptors. It also seems to decrease the appetence for alcohol (anti-craving effect), although this effect has not been certified by Authorities for drug approval in France (AMM). However, baclofen receives a great deal of demand by patients hoping to reduce their alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the lack of AMM and the high doses of baclofen supposed to exert an anti-craving effect often discourage practitioners from prescribing this drug in current medical practice. Therefore, it is preferable for a drug like baclofen to be prescribed under specific regulations. As such, certain criteria similar to those required in clinical trials are necessary to protect patients as well as the prescribing doctors. The criteria that are proposed here are: the use of drugs without AMM approval as a last resort (all other treatments must have failed), the collegiate decision for the drug prescription, good knowledge of the potency of the drug as well as good record keeping of patients and proper supervision. The departments of addiction, pharmacology and pharmacovigilance of the University Hospital of Lille, France present here a medical process named "multidisciplinary consultations for resort treatments of addictions" (CAMTEA). This process is designed to meet all the above mentioned criteria and to allow the use of baclofen as an anti-craving drug in safest conditions. If this proves to be successful with baclofen, it is possible to extend the use of CAMTEA to other drugs without AMM approval in addictologic pathologies. © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  20. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-03-26

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim's paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim's findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse: Epidemiology, Regulatory Issues, Chronic Pain Management with Narcotic Analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    Manubay, Jeanne M.; Muchow, Carrie; Sullivan, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of prescription drug abuse has reached a critical level, which has received national attention. Physicians must learn strategies to effectively treat chronic pain, and help reduce the rates of prescription drug abuse. This chapter will provide insight into the epidemiology of prescription drug abuse, explain regulatory issues, and provide guidelines for the assessment and management of pain, particularly with chronic opioid therapy. The use of informed consent forms, treatment ag...

  2. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  3. How patients understand the term "nonmedical use" of prescription drugs: insights from cognitive interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jennifer; Halkitis, Perry N; Horton, Ariana; Khan, Rubina; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    With rising rates of prescription drug abuse and associated overdose deaths, there is great interest in having accurate and efficient screening tools that identify nonmedical use of prescription drugs in health care settings. The authors sought to gain a better understanding of how patients interpret questions about misuse of prescription drugs, with the goal of improving the accuracy and acceptability of instruments intended for use in primary care. A total of 27 English-speaking adult patients were recruited from an urban safety net primary care clinic to complete a cognitive interview about a 4-item screening questionnaire for tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs. Detailed field notes were analyzed for overall comprehension of the screening items on illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse, the accuracy with which participants classified drugs into these categories, and whether the screening response correctly captured the participant's substance use behavior. Based on initial responses to the screening items, 6 (22%) participants screened positive for past-year prescription drug misuse, and 8 (30%) for illicit drug use. The majority (26/27) of participants correctly interpreted the item on illicit drug use, and appropriately classified drugs in this category. Eleven (41%) participants had errors in their understanding of the prescription drug misuse item. The most common error was classifying use of medications without abuse potential as nonmedical use. All cases of misunderstanding the prescription drug misuse item occurred among participants who screened negative for illicit drug use. The results suggest that terminology used to describe misuse of prescription medications may be misunderstood by many primary care patients, particularly those who do not use illicit drugs. Failure to improve upon the language used to describe prescription drug misuse in screening questionnaires intended for use in medical settings could

  4. Social Security Administration Data for Extra Help with Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Cost

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file contains information about Social Security determinations of eligibility for Extra Help with Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Costs. Specific data elements...

  5. Extra Help with Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Cost (FY 2010-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file contains information about Social Security determinations of eligibility for Extra Help with Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Costs. Specific data elements...

  6. Preventing Prescription Drug Misuse in Work Settings: Efficacy of a Brief Intervention in Health Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Gale; Neeper, Michael; Linde, Brittany; Bennett, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Background It is becoming more commonplace for employees to use prescription medication outside of intended use. Opioid and other prescription misuse has implications for the health and productivity of workers. Easy-to-access webinars that help employees learn about alternatives to prescription use may decrease risk. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an interactive but brief health consciousness and prescription drug intervention for a diverse sample of employees ...

  7. Use of prescription drugs and self-medication among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria Aparecida Medeiros Barros do; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Bastos, Tássia Fraga; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, investigate factors associated with the use of medication according to prescription, identify the main pharmaceuticals consumed through self-medication, and the reason for this use among adult men. This cross-sectional population-based study with stratified clustered two-stage sampling was conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008/2009. Of the 1,063 men, 45.3% reported using at least 1 drug in the last 3 days. From them, 32.9% reported using exclusively prescribed medication, and 11.2% reported self-medication. The results revealed different profiles among subgroups. Positive associations with the use of prescription medication was found for age (40 - 59 and ≥ 60 years), failure to perform paid work, body mass index (25 - 30 kg/m2), having sought health services over the last 15 days, dental care in the last year, morbidity, and chronic diseases. Lower use of prescription medication was found among men who reported doing physical activities in their leisure time. Independent and positive associations with the use of nonprescription medications in the 15 days prior to the survey were found for reported morbidity and frequent headaches/migraine. Furthermore, there was an independent and inverse association for hospitalization within the last year. Over-the-counter medications consumed by men were dipyrone, paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid, and diclofenac. The findings of this study provide information that can guide actions aimed at promoting the rational use of medication in a poorly investigated population subgroup regarding this topic.

  8. Prescription drug brand Web sites: Guidance where none exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Glinert, Ph.D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies insights from linguistics and discourse analysis to prescription drug brand Web sites, with special reference to the 100 top-selling drugs. Such sites give the outward appearance of being a place to go for straightforward information about a specific brand. In reality, they present a confused mix of brand information, health information and hype, muddled organization, and poor indication of authority, creating an imbalance between benefit and risk content. In so doing, they breach the letter and spirit of the regulations governing direct-to-consumer advertising, which the FDA has by default applied to such Web sites but which were not designed for this special type of discourse. The many communicative difficulties proven to be caused by Web sites in general, in particular for the elderly and less literate, also pose ethical problems. A rethinking of the verbal and visual design of these drug sites is needed -- and new regulatory guidance, for which this paper offers recommendations. At stake is not just the quality of health information at brand drug sites but also their credibility.

  9. 78 FR 28862 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Propose New Ideas For Prescription Drugs Oral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... New Ideas For Prescription Drugs Oral Overdose Protection'' Authority: 15 U.S.C. 3719. SUMMARY: Prescription drug abuse is a growing drug problem for America. The ``Propose New Ideas For Prescription Drugs..., National Institute on Drug Abuse; NIDA Challenge Manager; NIDA SBIR/STTR Coordinator; Phone: 301-496-8768...

  10. An exploration of social circles and prescription drug abuse through Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl Lee; Cannon, Ben; Burton, Scott; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe

    2013-09-06

    Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, PTwitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it-potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm.

  11. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J Redican

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse.Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders.Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco-done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers.Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed.

  12. HOW PARENTS OF TEENS STORE AND MONITOR PRESCRIPTION DRUGS IN THE HOME*

    OpenAIRE

    Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S; Grube, Joel W.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills were left, and how medication containers were positioned. Reasons given for not securing drugs were that parents did not think that their teens would...

  13. [Initiation and consumption of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults in an Anti-Drug Psychosocial Care Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2014-03-01

    The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.

  14. 25C-NBOMe: Preliminary Data on Pharmacology, Psychoactive Effects, and Toxicity of a New Potent and Dangerous Hallucinogenic Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Saverio Bersani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs has rapidly increased as well as their online availability. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the nature and the risks associated with 25C-NBOMe, which has recently appeared in the drug market. Methods. A systematic analysis of the scientific literature and a qualitative assessment of online and media resources (e.g., e-newsgroups, chat-rooms, and e-newsletters in 10 languages were carried out. Results. 25C-NBOMe is sold online as legal LSD or as research chemical with different designations such as “Boom,” “Pandora,” “Holland film,” or “N-bomb.” It is a partial agonist of 5-HT2A receptors. It is usually ingested orally/sublingually and, less commonly, nasally, through injection, vaginally, rectally, and smoked. Its effects include sublingual numbing, stimulation, “body high,” hallucinations, dissociation, and anxiety. 25C-NBOMe presents high risk of overdoses; acute toxicity and fatalities have been reported. Conclusions. 25C-NBOMe consumption represents an emerging phenomenon with potential harmful effects. Its use is increased by its online availability at low costs. Health and other professionals should be informed about this new trend of substance use.

  15. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  16. Get the Facts: Prescription Drug Abuse on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reason, using these medications without a prescription or medical oversight of their risks can lead to addiction, overdose ... Stroke “ Using these medications without a prescription or medical oversight of their risks can lead to addiction, • Addiction • ...

  17. [Prescription and drug expenditure in gynecology and obstetrics in Northwest medical units from IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Gómez, Luis Guillermo; Canales Muñoz, José Luis

    2006-08-01

    Drug prescription is the most frequent medical intervention in Gynecology and Obstetrics; however, studies of prescription profile are limited. In this study, we analyzed differences of expense by drug prescription for gynecologic and obstetrics health problems. It was performed a cross sectional study for one year analysis in each medical area that shape IMSS western district. We calculated spending and consumption coefficients for each drug and therapeutic groups. User coefficients were ordered to compare consumption differences. Besides the statistical ratio of consumption between drugs groups, we described the differences found and analyzed the prescription profile among medical regions. Data related to the expenses in each one of the regions show important differences in each one of the drugs and therapeutic groups. The most common expense for drugs is related to the treatment of osteoporosis, menopause and fertility problems. We also found differences in prescription drug preferences in each therapeutic subgroup. Drug prescription studies are useful as a basis for further specific studies in each pharmacologic subgroup. There are few studies that analyze the drug prescription profile on Gynecology and Obstetrics. In this study it is possible to suppose that medical prescription was not based on known medical evidences; therefore, we must reconsider the need of a permanent actualization and systematic medical evaluation.

  18. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  19. Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychoactive Medication and Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris C. Verster

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Driving a car is important to maintain independence and participate in society. Many of those who use psychoactive medication are outpatients and are thus likely to drive a vehicle. Most common adverse effects that impair driving are reduced alertness, affected psychomotor functioning and impaired vision. This review discusses the effects on driving ability of most commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs, including hypnotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, analgesics and stimulant drugs. Within these categories of medicines significant differences concerning their impact on driving ability are evident. The International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety (ICADTS categorization can help physicians to make a choice between treatments when patients want to drive a car.

  1. Psychoactive drug use by medical students: a review of the national and international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Mesquita

    Full Text Available Non-medical drug use among medical students is a major concern among researchers and policy makers in several countries, not only because of the personal harmful consequences that may arise from this behavior, but also for the social consequences. This article aims to evaluate national and international data available on non-medical drug-use among medical students and risk factors associated with these problems, as well as social and institutional implications. Prevalence rates, in Brazilian and international samples, of alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence, reasons for onset, methodological issues, and the role of medical education are presented, compared and discussed. The authors suggest some issues that should be a addressed in order to deal with this complex situation.

  2. [Cartography of psychoactive heterotopias: a look at the medical, legal and social discourses regarding drug use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massó, Paloma

    2015-09-01

    This article traces a map of the social control of drugs through the politics of space, according to the Foucaultian concept of "heterotopia." Firstly, a brief genealogy of the use of psychotropic substances in different times and cultures is described, up to the introduction of the prohibitionist paradigm. Attention is paid to the way in which power has marked, separated and enclosed certain rituals and uses of pleasure in physical and symbolic sites. The itinerary is focused on the Spanish context to establish a dialogue between the various policies of space that have come into being and have overlapped in the construction and management of a problem which has been rendered an object to the gazes, mechanics and discourses of the medical, legal, and social fields. In this way, the intersections between the liminal spaces of drug use and the harm reduction paradigm are analyzed, including therapeutic strategies with prescribed drugs, from methadone programs to the new heroin programs.

  3. Novel psychoactive substances of interest for psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Duccio Papanti, G; John M. Corkery

    2015-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in ...

  4. University Student Perceptions about the Motives for and Consequences of Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs (NMUPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Przybyla, Sarahmona M.; Darrow, Sherri; Muraven, Mark; Hequembourg, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to increase qualitative understanding of student motives for and consequences associated with nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Participants: Sixty-one students participated in eight focus groups between April and November 2013. Methods: Students described prescription drugs commonly used for…

  5. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  6. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  7. 77 FR 19425 - Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... AFFAIRS Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar... purposes of calculating VA's charges for prescription drugs that were not administered during treatment but....101 of title 38, Code of Federal Regulations, sets forth VA's medical regulations concerning the...

  8. 42 CFR 410.30 - Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.30 Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy. (a) Scope. Payment...

  9. Neighborhood characteristics and prescription drug misuse among adolescents: The importance of social disorganization and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Sacra, Sarah Ann; Yohros, Alexis

    2017-08-01

    Prior research on prescription drug misuse has focused on identifying individual risk factors. While a few studies examine differences in misuse based on geographic residence, there is a lack of research that examines the relevance of neighbourhood characteristics. The current research used data from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, a sample of respondents that was generalizable to the non-institutionalised population of the United States. Logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., social disorganisation, social capital, and social participation) and prescription drug misuse (e.g., any misuse, pain reliever misuse, sedative/tranquiliser misuse, and stimulant misuse) among adolescent respondents ages 12-17. Findings show that neighbourhood characteristics were significantly associated with any prescription drug misuse and also the misuse of prescription opioids. Adolescents in socially disorganised neighbourhoods and also those in neighbourhoods with lower levels of social capital were more likely to report prescription drug misuse. Interestingly, adolescents with greater levels of social participation were more likely to report prescription drug misuse. These findings were largely consistent with prior research examining the significance of neighbourhood characteristics in relation to crime and deviance. In order to adequately address the ongoing prescription drug epidemic in the United States, policy makers must address the neighbourhood characteristics that are known to be associated with prescription drug misuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of psychoactive medicines and drugs as a cause of road trauma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, M.P.M. Movig, K.L.L. Degier, J.J. Nagel, P.H.A. Egmond, T. van & Egberts, A.C.G.

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the feasibility of a case-control design for determining the relative injury risk of motorists who have used alcohol, and/or illicit drugs, and/or medicines. Methods of data collection are presented, as well as analytical and statistical methods. Preliminary study results

  11. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007-2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18-65 for 'non-definitive' conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or 'definitive' conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56-0.67, p-value disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical provider education to include sensitization exercises towards their inherent biases, to enable them to consciously avoid these biases from defining their practice behavior.

  12. TV commercials for prescription drugs: a discourse analytic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinert, Lewis H

    2005-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has called for research that may assist in developing standards for risk/benefit messages in the promotion of prescription drugs. Linguistics-based models of meaning and inference, though frequently applied to advertising, have not hitherto been used in this arena. This study was intended to illustrate how discourse analysis, a methodology for microanalysis of texts in context, can elucidate the workings and interplay of promotional, informational, and other functions of direct-to-consumer drug advertising, anticipating threats to "fair balance" and pinpointing textual phenomena and issues suited to empirical study. The text and visuals of a small corpus were analyzed along several dimensions, using theoretical insights of linguistic pragmatics and ethnography of speech to ask what the advertisement is seeking to do and what messages a viewer is likely to derive. The linguistic and rhetorical features include an intense switching and fusion of styles and modalities: the traditional advertising distinction between personal and impersonal, "company" and "consumer", was ostentatiously flouted. The role of spokesperson was assigned to characters in a real or virtual narrative. The narrative portion of the text and images often struck an ironic or postmodern note, eg, by mixing science with science fiction. The overall functions of the commercials (promotional, informational, and aesthetic) were themselves frequently blended. The text deployed several linguistic or rhetorical strategies to send a double message for promotional advantage, including syntactic-semantic ambiguity, voice-over risk messages at odds with upbeat visuals, and a vagueness of certain words in particular contexts. Findings contribute to our understanding of how TV commercials convey meaning with respect to drug benefits and risks, with implications for advertisers, regulators, and patient education. They also suggest new foci for empirical study.

  13. The Association between Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use and Suicidal Behavior among United States Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda L. Divin; Zullig, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU) among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were deri...

  14. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) The drug origin statement is subject to the record retention requirements of § 203.60 and must be... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  15. 78 FR 78367 - Draft Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... affecting drug and biologics approvals, drug supply chain, and other topics related to human pharmaceuticals... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  16. An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S

    2014-08-16

    In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and cons of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians' care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through healthcare administration, together

  17. Income and the use of prescription drugs for near retirement individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren; Skipper, Niels

    dramatically from about age 55. In this paper we estimate how demand for prescription drugs varies with income for a sample of near retirement individuals. Estimating the prescription drug demand response to income changes is complicated because an important explanatory variable, the health capital......, is unobserved, and because demand is potentially dynamic, for example because some drugs are habitual. The analysis is based on a novel panel data set with information about purchase of prescription drug demand for a very large number of Danish individuals over the period 1995-2003. Our preferred model...

  18. 78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice, request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the...

  19. Prescription drug use in pregnancy and variations according to prior psychiatric history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja G; Liu, Xiaoqin; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prescription drug use during pregnancy has increased during the past decades. However, little is known about prescription drug use for high-risk pregnancies. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of redeemed prescriptions in Danish pregnant women with and without previous psychiatric history....... METHODS: A Danish population-based descriptive study of 981 392 pregnancies ending in live-born singletons by 586 988 women aged 15 to 55 years between 1997 and 2012, of which 113 449 (11.6%) pregnancies were by women with a psychiatric history prior to the index pregnancy. All prescription drugs redeemed...... during pregnancy were identified, and dispensing patterns among the women were reported by therapeutic classes of drugs, calendar year of childbirth, and trimester. RESULTS: Overall, women with psychiatric history prior to pregnancy were more likely to fill a prescription (75.8%; 95% confidence interval...

  20. How the FDA and the ADA affect development of prescription drugs for oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, W E

    1992-01-01

    The patient-consumer, the health professional, and the producer are all essential in the world of prescription drugs for oral care. Also essential are the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American Dental Association (ADA). The FDA is charged with reviewing new-drug applications in the United States and approving those drugs that are proved safe and effective. The FDA also controls prescription-drug advertising and promotion. The ADA applies professional standards in judging all submitted dental drugs. Those drugs accepted by ADA's Council on Dental Therapeutics may display the ADA seal in labeling and advertising. All advertising for accepted products must be cleared by the ADA. An example of a prescription drug approved by the FDA and accepted by the ADA is 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse (Peridex). This drug followed the FDA's investigational-drug (IND) regulations before final approval as a treatment for gingivitis.

  1. On becoming 65 in Ontario. Effects of drug plan eligibility on use of prescription medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootendorst, P V; O'Brien, B J; Anderson, G M

    1997-04-01

    The authors assess (1) the effects of first-dollar prescription drug insurance coverage provided by the Ontario Drug Benefit plan at age 65 on prescription drug use by seniors, and (2) the differential effects of this coverage on prescription drug use by seniors with varying levels of health status. The authors modeled self-reported prescription drug use contained in the 1990 Ontario Health Survey as a function of eligibility for coverage, controlling for health status and other factors. The two-part model was used and was estimated by maximum likelihood. The provision of first-dollar prescription drug insurance coverage at age 65 is associated with an increase in drug use. Increases in drug use are, however, concentrated primarily among individuals with lower levels of health status. Most of the increased use occurs among individuals already under physician supervision, ie, an increase in the level of use among drug users rather than an increase in the probability of use. As Ontarians turn age 65 and become eligible for publicly subsidized prescription drugs, their use increases but the effect appears to be restricted mainly to persons with lower levels of health status. Given a growing trend toward reduction of public subsidy and increased reliance on patient cost sharing, more research is needed to quantify the use and health effects of such initiatives.

  2. Preventing Prescription Drug Misuse in Work Settings: Efficacy of a Brief Intervention in Health Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Gale; Neeper, Michael; Linde, Brittany; Bennett, Joel

    2017-07-06

    It is becoming more commonplace for employees to use prescription medication outside of intended use. Opioid and other prescription misuse has implications for the health and productivity of workers. Easy-to-access webinars that help employees learn about alternatives to prescription use may decrease risk. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an interactive but brief health consciousness and prescription drug intervention for a diverse sample of employees and show effectiveness via both Internet-delivered webinar and classroom delivery. Employees from a variety of workplaces filled out pre- and post-questionnaires upon completion of a one-hour long intervention. A total of 114 participants completed the pre- and post-questionnaires. Results showed that, compared with before the training, participants reported significantly more knowledge about prescription drug misuse and alternatives to prescription drug use after the training (t113=7.91, Pface-to-face vs webinar) did not significantly impact effectiveness of the training (F1,98=1.15, P=.29). In both webinar and classroom formats, participants gained knowledge about alternatives to prescription drug use. This intervention appears to be beneficial to employees and assists in the awareness of prescription drug use in general and in the workplace.

  3. Prescription drug use in pregnancy and variations according to prior psychiatric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingstrup, Katja G; Liu, Xiaoqin; Gasse, Christiane; Debost, Jean-Christophe P; Munk-Olsen, Trine

    2017-11-24

    Prescription drug use during pregnancy has increased during the past decades. However, little is known about prescription drug use for high-risk pregnancies. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of redeemed prescriptions in Danish pregnant women with and without previous psychiatric history. A Danish population-based descriptive study of 981 392 pregnancies ending in live-born singletons by 586 988 women aged 15 to 55 years between 1997 and 2012, of which 113 449 (11.6%) pregnancies were by women with a psychiatric history prior to the index pregnancy. All prescription drugs redeemed during pregnancy were identified, and dispensing patterns among the women were reported by therapeutic classes of drugs, calendar year of childbirth, and trimester. Overall, women with psychiatric history prior to pregnancy were more likely to fill a prescription (75.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 75.5-76.0%), compared with women with no psychiatric history (64.5%; 95% CI, 64.4-64.6%). The difference was observed even when psychotropic drug use was excluded and in all therapeutic classes except for antineoplastic and immunomodulating drugs. The most commonly prescribed drugs were anti-infectives. Approximately 44.7% (95% CI, 44.5-45.0%) of women with psychiatric history and 31.3% (95% CI, 31.2-31.4%) of women with no psychiatric history redeemed more than one therapeutic class of drugs. Women with a psychiatric history were more likely to redeem prescriptions during pregnancy across almost all drug classes, especially anti-infectives. Two thirds of all women redeemed at least one prescription drug during pregnancy and one third more than one drug class. Key points We mapped prescription drug use of almost 600 000 women during almost one million pregnancies with focus on women with a history of psychiatric disorder before conception compared with women with no such history. Pregnant women with a previous psychiatric disorder were more likely to redeem prescription drugs compared

  4. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine... and the methamphetamine they contain is being used as a substitute for amphetamine tablets...

  5. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... August 25, 1967 (32 FR 12404), the Commissioner of Food and Drugs received reports of the abuse of this... Board, that amyl nitrite inhalant is a drug with a potentiality for harmful effect and that it should be... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for...

  6. 77 FR 45639 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...), as amended by the Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (Title 1 of the Food and Drug... full application fee, or one-eighth of an FAE if the applicant initially paid one-half of the full... on the orphan drug exemption in the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA) (see section...

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among College Students With Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S; Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Feldner, Matthew T; Melkonian, Alexander J; Milner, Lauren A; Lewis, Sarah F

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use, defined as using the drug without a prescription or in ways for which it is not prescribed, and traumatic event exposure are highly prevalent among college students. Despite evidence that posttraumatic stress symptoms could place college students at risk for nonmedical prescription drug problems, no studies have examined this relationship. This study was a preliminary examination of posttraumatic stress symptoms, lifetime nonmedical prescription drug use, hazardous use, and dependence symptoms among college students with trauma exposure. Participants were students attending a rural college in Virginia, recruited through psychology classes, flyers, LISTSERVs, and announcements at student events. All students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event were included (N = 119); participants' mean age was 19.7 years (SD = 1.90), about half were women (n = 63, 53%), and most were Caucasian (n = 103, 87%). Nearly 60% of participants (n = 71) reported using nonmedical prescription drugs at least once during their lifetime and were more likely than those with no use to report hazardous alcohol use (p < .01) and depressive symptoms (p < .05). There were no other significant differences between those who did and did not report use of nonmedical prescription drugs. Regression analyses showed that posttraumatic stress symptom frequency was positively associated with hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use, after controlling for gender, depressive symptoms, and hazardous alcohol use (p < .001). Posttraumatic stress symptom frequency was higher for those with any nonmedical prescription drug dependence symptoms (p < .001), but was unrelated to whether the student had ever engaged in nonmedical prescription drug use. Findings suggest that consideration of the types of behaviors and problems a college student is experiencing related to nonmedical prescription drug use may be more relevant to posttraumatic stress symptom frequency

  8. Direct-to-consumer ads can influence behavior. Advertising increases consumer knowledge and prescription drug requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, M; Alperstein, N M; Van Doren, D; Poli, L G

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising on prescription drug knowledge and the requesting behavior of consumers. The authors developed and tested a conceptual model of prescription drug knowledge and requests. Consumers' belief that drug advertising can educate them was associated with a greater amount of drug knowledge, and the belief they would upset physicians by asking for specific drugs was associated with less knowledge. The belief that drug advertising reduces prices was associated with greater probability of drug requests, and the belief that physicians should be the sole source of drug information was associated with lesser probability of request. Preference for generic drugs was associated with a lesser likelihood of requesting a specific drug. Media exposure and drug advertising awareness were associated with higher drug knowledge and a greater probability of drug requesting.

  9. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and sexual risk behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen; Luckman, Diana; Martin, Aaron M; Cejka, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the non-medical use of prescription drugs (without a doctor's prescription) has increased dramatically, particularly in young adults. Previous work has noted associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and the use of illicit drugs, and associations between the use of illicit drugs and sexual risk behavior. Investigations examining associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and sexual risk behavior are sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=435) ages 18-25 completed an instrument assessing these behaviors. Overall, 35.6% of participants reported NMUPD. Individuals who reported NMUPD were more likely to also report the use of alcohol, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, and poppers. Participants who indicated they had used prescription medications without a doctor's consent had significantly higher rates of sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners and more instances of unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Results suggest that a significant minority of young adults are using prescription medication recreationally and are risking negative consequences, including the potential for addiction, dangerous interactions between prescription and recreational drugs, and greater risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors and consequences of prescription drug misuse during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Shih, Regina A; Pedersen, Eric R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU) is a growing public health problem among adolescents. This is the first study to examine the correlates of early NMPDU initiation during middle school, and how early initiation is associated with four domains of functioning in high school (mental health, social, academic, and delinquency). Students initially in 6th-8th grades from 16 middle schools completed in-school surveys between 2008 and 2011 (Waves 1-5), and a web-based survey in 2013-2014 (Wave 6). We used discrete time survival analysis to assess predictors of initiation from Waves 1 to 5 based on students who provided NMPDU information at any of these waves (n=12,904), and regression analysis to examine high school outcomes associated with initiation based on a sample that was followed into high school, Wave 6 (n=2539). Low resistance self-efficacy, family substance use, low parental respect, and offers of other substances from peers were consistently associated with NMPDU initiation throughout middle school. Further, perceiving that more of one's peers engaged in other substance use was associated with initiation at Wave 1 only. By high school, those students who initiated NMPDU during middle school reported lower social functioning, and more suspensions and fighting, compared to students who did not initiate NMPDU during middle school. NMPDU initiation during middle school is associated with poorer social functioning and greater delinquency in high school. It is important for middle school prevention programs to address NMPDU. Such programs should focus on both family and peer influences, as well as strengthening resistance self-efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Living arrangements, chronic diseases, and prescription drug expenditures among Korean elderly: vulnerability to potential medication underuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Ja; Sohn, Hyun Soon; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2014-12-16

    Insufficient social security combined with family structure changes has resulted in a poverty of the elderly. The objective of this study was to examine an association of living arrangements of the elderly with chronic disease prevalence and prescription drug use. 2008 Korea Health Panel Survey (KHPS) data were used in this study. Information on living arrangements, socio-demographics, health behaviors, chronic disease prevalence and healthcare expenditures including out-of-pocket (OOP) prescription drug expenditures for elderly aged 65 or older were collected from self-reported diaries and receipts. OOP prescription drug expenditure as a total cost that subject paid to a pharmacy for prescription drugs was examined. Logistic regression was used to identify differences in major chronic disease prevalence by living arrangements. The association of living arrangements with prescription drug use was analyzed using generalized linear model with a log link and a gamma variance distribution. Proportions of elderly living alone, elderly living with a spouse only, and elderly living with adults aged 20-64 were 14.5%, 48.3%, and 37.2%, respectively. Elderly living alone showed 2.43 odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.66-3.56) for having major chronic diseases prevalence compared to elderly living with adults. Despite a higher major chronic disease prevalence, elderly living alone showed lower OOP prescription drug expenditures (Cost Ratio = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.97) after adjusting for the number of major chronic diseases. Total OOP prescription drug expenditures were significantly lower in patients with a low income level versus high income level. Even though elderly living alone had a higher risk of chronic disease, they spent less on OOP prescription drug expenditures. Optimal drug use is important for elderly with chronic diseases to achieve good health outcomes and quality of life. Public health policies should be supplemented to optimize medical

  12. The prescription talk – an approach to teach patient-physician conversation about drug prescription to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser, Katarina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication communication from physicians to patients often is poor, by this among others enhancing the risk of non-adherence. In this context, a neglect regarding the prescription talk has been complained.Aim of the project: In a newly developed elective medical students work on physician-patient conversations dealing with drug prescription. Essential aspects related to an effective and safe drug treatment are combined with steps of shared decision-making. Together with a tutor, students develop a (model conversation guide that might be tailored according to individual needs and views.Description/Methods: In a one-week course 3rd-5th year medical students treat a paper case according to problem-based learning. This is accompanied by a one-hour lecture and literature provided on an online learning platform (ILIAS. During a workshop, aspects of drug treatment and patient participation are integrated into a guide for a prescription talk. At the end of the week the students are invited to apply the (if need be individualized guide in a simulated physician-patient communication with an actor. The conversation is evaluated using a checklist based upon the (model conversation guide.Results: Informal and formalized feedback indicate high acceptance and satisfaction of participants with this elective. The checklist turned out to be of acceptable to good reliability with mostly selective items. Portfolio entries and written evaluation suggest that participants’ positions and attitudes are influenced.

  13. Content analysis of false and misleading claims in television advertising for prescription and nonprescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Adrienne E; Kreling, David H

    2014-01-01

    False and misleading advertising for drugs can harm consumers and the healthcare system, and previous research has demonstrated that physician-targeted drug advertisements may be misleading. However, there is a dearth of research comparing consumer-targeted drug advertising to evidence to evaluate whether misleading or false information is being presented in these ads. To compare claims in consumer-targeted television drug advertising to evidence, in order to evaluate the frequency of false or misleading television drug advertising targeted to consumers. A content analysis of a cross-section of television advertisements for prescription and nonprescription drugs aired from 2008 through 2010. We analyzed commercial segments containing prescription and nonprescription drug advertisements randomly selected from the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a census of national news broadcasts. For each advertisement, the most-emphasized claim in each ad was identified based on claim iteration, mode of communication, duration and placement. This claim was then compared to evidence by trained coders, and categorized as being objectively true, potentially misleading, or false. Potentially misleading claims omitted important information, exaggerated information, made lifestyle associations, or expressed opinions. False claims were factually false or unsubstantiated. Of the most emphasized claims in prescription (n = 84) and nonprescription (n = 84) drug advertisements, 33 % were objectively true, 57 % were potentially misleading and 10 % were false. In prescription drug ads, there were more objectively true claims (43 %) and fewer false claims (2 %) than in nonprescription drug ads (23 % objectively true, 7 % false). There were similar numbers of potentially misleading claims in prescription (55 %) and nonprescription (61 %) drug ads. Potentially misleading claims are prevalent throughout consumer-targeted prescription and nonprescription drug advertising on

  14. Psychotropic Drug Prescription and the Risk of Falls in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Claudia A; van Jaarsveld, Heike J; Houterman, Saskia; van der Stegen, John C G H; Wasylewicz, Arthur T M; Grouls, Rene J E; van der Linden, Carolien M J

    2016-12-01

    Falling is a common and serious problem in the elderly. Previous studies suggest that the use of psychotropic drugs increases the risk of falling. However, the contribution of these drugs on fall risk has not been quantified on a daily basis among the general population of nursing homes until now. To assess the association between fall incidence and the prescription of psychotropic drugs and different categories of psychotropic drugs (antipsychotics, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines) among a general nursing home population. Retrospective observational study, data collection per person-day. 9 nursing homes in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. 2368 nursing home residents, resulting in 538,575 person-days. Association between the prescription of psychotropic drugs and falls. A total of 2368 nursing home residents were included, which resulted in a data set of 538,575 person-days. Prescription of at least 1 psychotropic drug per day occurred during a total of 318,128 person-days (59.1%). Scheduled prescriptions with or without an as-needed prescription were involved in a total of 270,781 person-days (50.3%). The prescription of psychotropic drugs on a scheduled basis was found to be associated with almost a 3-fold increase in fall incidence (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.52-5.44). An increase in fall incidence was found following the prescription of antipsychotics (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.51-2.59) and antidepressants (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.73-2.95). This increased fall risk was found for prescriptions on a scheduled basis as well as for prescriptions on an as-needed basis. The prescription of psychotropic drugs is associated with a strongly increased risk of falling among nursing home residents. To our knowledge, this is the first study among the general nursing home population in which the association between daily falls and daily prescriptions of psychotropic drugs and groups of psychotropic drugs was specified. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Psychoactive Substance Use among Medical/Health Faculty Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to explore the drug use practices of undergraduate students within the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Method: This study was a multicentre study carried out in Jamaica and six Latin American countries. The study utilized a cross-sectional design using a survey method of data collection. A list of compulsory classes for first- and second-year undergraduate students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences was retrieved by researchers and then cluster sampling was used to choose lectures to carry out data collection. The instrument utilized for the study was a self-report questionnaire which consisted of 58 questions which enquired about sociodemographic information, psychoactive substance use and associated consequences. Results: A total of 380 students (78 males, 302 females participated in the study; 115 (30.3% reported a past year prevalence of psychoactive substance use. Roughly half (50.8% reported that they first used substances when they were 15−19 years old. Students also reported a past month prevalence of alcohol use (16.6%, prescription drugs without a prescription (4.5%, tobacco (2.4% and cannabis (2.1% use. Conclusion: These preliminary results on substance use patterns among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences indicate urgent need for further research among this population. Such research should be used to inform prevention and treatment programmes that will directly target this student population.

  16. Benzodiazepines: a major component in unintentional prescription drug overdoses with opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Michael; Kennedy, William Klugh; Lopez, Gaylord

    2014-02-01

    The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses.

  17. 76 FR 29765 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... possible approaches to developing a track-and-trace system and (2) input from supply chain partners on... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  18. 75 FR 69093 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... stakeholders to better understand the history and evolution of the PDUFA program and its current status... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of the comment period...

  19. [Pharmacist's interventions on outpatient prescriptions in a university hospital drugs sales service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuy, M; Garcia, S; Uhres, A-C; Janoly-Dumenil, A; Dessault, J; Chamouard, V; Bréant, V; Leboucher, G; Pivot, C; Carpentier, I

    2015-07-01

    For public health reasons, some drugs are only available in hospital drugs sales service. This activity takes place in a specific risk context of organization, patients and/or drugs. A systematic prescription analysis by pharmacist contributes to securise treatment dispensed. The aim of this paper is to present the main drugs problems in the analysis of outpatient prescriptions and pharmaceutical interventions in three units of hospital drugs sales service belong to university hospital. Throughout the year 2013, drug problems detected were recorded prospectively and systematically. Of the 22,279 prescriptions analyzed, 247 pharmaceutical interventions (1.1%) were detected including 27.6% of problems concerning the dosages, 15.4% the unconformity, 6.9% contraindications. Regarding ATC drugs classes, we found 43.7% for anti-infectives and 17.4% for antineoplatics. The overall acceptance rate is 81.8%. These results show the importance of the analysis of outpatient prescriptions before dispensing and the need to have all prescriptions, clinical and biological elements and to develop interprofessionality. The implementation of a platform for dematerialized data exchanges between professionals, including data from the pharmaceutical patient record should contribute to improving drug management of the patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Generic drug prescriptions following hospital discharge: a prospective study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C; Rudant, E; Bonvalet, M; Agostini, H; Cavalié, P; Bonhomme-Faivre, L; Frenkiel, J; Taillandier, J; Boissonnas, A; Vittecoq, D; Wyplosz, B

    2011-10-01

    Systematic generic prescription at discharge could reduce confusion on drug-name usage, decrease commercial influence on medicine, and reduce drug-related expenditures. This study aimed to analyze generic drug prescriptions at discharge from hospital and to estimate the potential savings associated with a total substitution policy (substitution of every substitutable drug for its cheapest generic counterpart). Drug prescriptions before admission and at discharge of all patients from three medical units of a university hospital were prospectively collected for five weeks without informing prescribers. Prescriptions from 85 patients were analyzed. On admission, 68 patients (80%) received 413 drugs; 141 were substitutable brand-name drugs and 23 (16%), which were directly prescribed as generics. At discharge, 488 drugs were prescribed to the 85 patients; 180 were substitutable drugs but only 5 (2.8%) were written as generics on prescription pads, a decrease of 78% (pbrand-name drugs. Some common therapeutic classes offered even greater price difference, such as proton-pump inhibitors (42%), statins (32%), or antihypertensive agents (28%). Potential savings from a total substitution policy at discharge were estimated to €1512 per 1000 patients per week; for lifetime drugs, savings amounted to €18,960 per 1000 patients per year. Very few drugs are written as generics on medical forms at discharge in France. Hospital practitioners should be encouraged to prescribe generics, particularly in chronic diseases. A broad generic prescription policy at hospital discharge would result in substantial savings for health insurance. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prescription opioid use and non-fatal overdose in a cohort of injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Stephanie; Wood, Evan; Buxton, Jane; Dong, Huiru; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There is growing concern regarding rising rates of prescription drug-related deaths among the general North American population as well as increasing availability of illicitly obtained prescription opioids. Concurrently among people who inject drugs (IDU), illicit prescription opioid use has increased while non-fatal overdose remains a major source of morbidity. To evaluate whether the use of prescription opioids was associated with non-fatal overdose among IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Data was obtained from two open prospective cohorts of IDU between December 2005 and May 2013. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression to evaluate the association between prescription opioid use and non-fatal overdose, adjusting for various social, demographic, and behavioral factors. There were 1614 IDU, including 541 (33.5%) women, who were recruited and included in this analysis. At baseline, 526 (32.6%) reported using prescription opioids and 118 (7.3%) reported experiencing an overdose in the previous six months. In a multivariable analysis, prescription opioid use remained independently associated with non-fatal overdose (adjusted odds ratio: 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-1.95), after adjusting for confounders. We observed relatively high rates of prescription opioid use among IDU in this setting, and found an independent association between prescription opioid use and non-fatal overdose. Our data is likely representative of riskier substance use associated with those who use prescription opioids within our sample. Interventions to prevent and respond to overdoses should consider the higher risk profiles of IDU who use prescription opioids.

  2. Toxicokinetics of novel psychoactive substances: characterization of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoenzymes involved in the phase II metabolism of 2C designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Robert, Anja; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-06-05

    The 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine-derived designer drugs (so-called "2Cs") recently became of great importance on the illicit drug market as stimulating hallucinogens. They are distributed and consumed as "novel psychoactive substances" (NPS) without any safety testing at the forefront. As previous studies have shown, the 2Cs are mainly metabolized by O-demethylation, N-acetylation, or deamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the recombinant human N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoforms 1 and 2 in the phase II metabolism of 2Cs. For these studies, cDNA-expressed recombinant human NATs were used and formation of metabolites after incubation was measured using GC-MS. NAT2 could be shown to be the only isoform catalyzing the reaction in vitro, hence it should be the only relevant enzyme for in vivo acetylation. In general, all metabolite formation reactions followed classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the affinity to human NAT2 was increasing with the volume of the 4-substituent. In consequence, a slow acetylator phenotype or inhibition of NAT2 could lead to decreased N-acetylation and might lead to an increased risk of side effects caused by these novel psychoactive substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnic/Racial differences in peer and parent influence on adolescent prescription drug misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Bridgid M; Marks, Amy K

    2014-05-01

    To describe ethnic/racial group differences in prescription drug misuse within a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Also to identify potential sociocultural influences on this health risk behavior. A secondary data analysis was conducted on the public-use data of the 2010 National Survey of Drug Use and Health using the records of 12- to 17-year-old African American, Hispanic, and white participants (N = 18,614). Logistic and Poisson regression analyses focused on examining the predictive role of perceived parental and peer substance use disapproval on adolescents' prescription drug misuse and how these social influences varied by ethnic group. Within this sample, 10.4% of adolescents endorsed misusing 1 or more subtypes of prescription drugs. The results showed significant ethnic group differences in rates of prescription drug misuse such that white adolescents reported the highest rates and African American adolescents reported the lowest rates of prescription drug misuse. Rates of misuse for Hispanic adolescents fell in between. Importantly, perceived parental and peer substance use disapproval decreased the likelihood of prescription drug misuse most significantly among white adolescents compared to Hispanic and African American adolescents. Furthermore, influence of disapproval differed by the type of substance, indicating ethnic group differences in disapproval, such as views of alcohol versus marijuana use. These findings provide new ethnic group-specific information about the role that the attitudes of peers and parents on substance use may play in whether adolescents misuse prescription drugs. Future studies should explore possible parent/peer-related socialization mechanisms, which may account for these ethnic group differences.

  4. [Prescription of Benzodiazepines and Z-Drugs by German General Practitioners: A Cross-Sectional Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Haumann, Hannah; Muche, Rainer; Scheub, David; Joos, Stefanie; Laux, Gunter

    2017-07-03

    Background Due to their addictive potential, benzodiazepine (BZ) and non-benzodiazepine-agonists (NBZ, so-called Z-drugs) should be taken no longer than 6 weeks. BZ and NBZ are primarily prescribed by general practitioners (GPs). Therefore, we aimed to analyze GPs' data on the patients collective, the amount of BZ/NBZ prescribed and the rate of private prescriptions. Methods We analyzed person years of 2-year intervals from 2009 to 2014 of the primary care CONTENT register that contains routine data from 31 general practitioners' practices. We classified BZ/NBZ prescriptions according to risk groups. The association of BZ/NBZ prescription and potential influencing factors was analyzed by calculating the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (and corresponding p-value) on the basis of a multiple logistic regression model (adjusted by age, sex and type of health insurance). All patients with drug prescription with and without BZ/NBZ-prescription were compared. Results Almost 5% of patients with drug prescriptions received at least one prescription of BZ/NBZ during 1 year of observation. On average these patients were older (67.5 vs. 48 years respectively) and the proportion of women was higher than in the comparison group (69 vs. 58%). About one-third of these patients received more than 600 mg diazepam equivalent dose per person year (according to a 2-month daily intake of more than 10 mg diazepam). About one-third of the prescriptions were private prescriptions. A number of variables were significantly associated with the prescription of BZ/NBZ (e. g. age, gender, diagnosis codes, practices). Conclusion The results provide valuable information about BZ/NBZ prescription routines in general practice. For continuous medical education as well as the development of interventions to reduce the use of BZ/NBZ, patient characteristics (e. g. sex, age, comorbidities, type of insurance) as well as different prescription routines (e. g. private prescriptions

  5. The Drug Facts Box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Communication about prescription drugs ought to be a paragon of public science communication. Unfortunately, it is not. Consumers see $4 billion of direct-to-consumer advertising annually, which typically fails to present data about how well drugs work. The professional label—the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mechanism to get physicians information needed for appropriate prescribing—may also fail to present benefit data. FDA labeling guidance, in fact, suggests that industry omit benefit data for new drugs in an existing class and for drugs approved on the basis of unfamiliar outcomes (such as depression rating scales). The medical literature is also problematic: there is selective reporting of favorable trials, favorable outcomes within trials, and “spinning” unfavorable results to maximize benefit and minimize harm. In contrast, publicly available FDA reviews always include the phase 3 trial data on benefit and harm, which are the basis of drug approval. However, these reviews are practically inaccessible: lengthy, poorly organized, and weakly summarized. To improve accessibility, we developed the Drug Facts Box: a one-page summary of benefit and harm data for each indication of a drug. A series of studies—including national randomized trials—demonstrates that most consumers understand the Drug Facts Box and that it improves decision-making. Despite calls from their own Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Congress (in the Affordable Care Act) to consider implementing boxes, the FDA announced it needs at least 3–5 y more to make a decision. Given its potential public health impact, physicians and the public should not have to wait that long for better drug information. PMID:23942130

  6. Prescription pattern of antimalarial drugs in children below 5 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The hospital records of 430 children with malaria infection admitted for treatment in a chosen tertiary health facility between January to December 2005 were selected for study. Forty-eight case records were ... The prescriptions were predominantly chloroquine, instead of artemisinin based. The death rate was ...

  7. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  8. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  9. Electronically assisted prescription will minimise drug transcription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, S E; Baldominos Utrilla, G

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impact of administration errors when transcribing treatments to nurses' administration forms, and to estimate the impact of electronically assisted prescription (EAP) in minimising these errors. A prospective, observational study in hospitalised patients. In a representative sample changes in treatment in the 24 h before the examination are analysed. Transcription errors were detected when checking the discrepancies between the medical prescription and the nurses' treatment administration forms. Error incidence was calculated as a whole and by ward, type of error, administration route and their potential danger. The possible reduction in new errors per day if the EAP were to be introduced in all units was estimated. Of the 416 prescriptions recorded, the overall percentage of transcription errors was 12.4%, 9.8% in medical units and 15.2% in surgical units. Most of the errors were made when a new medicine was added (29.4%) and the frequency of administration was changed (27.4%). With regard to their gravity, 98% did not harm the patients, and 57.7% were filed as "Category C". Taking into account that 1 change of treatment is made per patient per day, the introduction of the EAP is predicted to prevent 64 new errors daily in the hospital. There are so many transcription errors that they should be taken into account when designing strategies to improve care quality. EAP is an efficient tool to eliminate errors associated with the transcription of prescriptions. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-01-01

    information on treatment regimen and the patient's weight. Treatment was successful in 89.4%. Prescriptions of tablets/vials conforming to recommendations were found for respectively 91.2%, 89.9%, 92.3% and 94.6% of the patients for RMP/isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin. Patients in the 25...

  11. Fatores associados ao uso de psicofármacos em idosos asilados Factors associated with the use of psychoactive drugs in institutionalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Lucchetti

    2010-01-01

    psychoactive drugs for the control of behavioral disorders. Few Brazilian studies have so far focused on this aspect of elderly care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with use of psychoactive drugs in institutionalized elderly patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective study was carried out based on medical charts of all elderly patients (60 years and over treated in a nursing home, independently of their diseases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with the use of psychoactive drugs in the institution. RESULTS: Two hundred and nine patients were evaluated (73.2% females, suffering predominantly of dementia syndromes, sequelae of stroke or cranial trauma, and hypertension. Of these, 123 patients (58.9% were using some type of psychoactive drug, mainly antipsychotics and antidepressants. Logistic regression analysis revealed an association between antipsychotic drug use and dementia (p = 0.000, whereas antidepressant drug use was associated with a higher number of drugs (p = 0.004 and depression (p = 0.000. In general, the use of psychoactive drugs was strongly associated with depression (p = 0.000, dementia (p = 0.006, and psychiatric disorders (p = 0.02. There were no associations with sex, functional status or age. CONCLUSION: There is a high consumption of psychoactive drugs in nursing homes. The association between polypharmacy and depression is evident, and patients with dementia were shown to receive more antipsychotics than other patients. Factors such as age or sex, usually relevant among outpatients, did not present association with psychoactive drug use in nursing home patients.

  12. Psychotropic drug prescription patterns among patients with bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J; Chengappa, K N; Brar, J S; Gershon, S; Yablonsky, E; Stapf, D; Kupfer, D J

    2000-06-01

    Combination treatment, rather than monotherapy, is prevalent in the treatment of subjects with bipolar disorder, probably due to the complex and phasic nature of the illness. In general, prescription patterns may be influenced by the demographic characteristics of patients as well. We evaluated prescription patterns and the influence of demographic variables on these patterns in a voluntary registry of subjects with bipolar disorder. A subset of data from a larger voluntary registry was extracted for demographic variables and psychotropic medication use that had been reported in the month prior to registration by ambulatory, non-hospitalized subjects with bipolar I disorder in 1995/96 (n = 457). Among the thymoleptic agents, lithium was prescribed in over 50% of subjects, valproate in approximately 40%, and carbamazepine in 11% of subjects. Eighteen percent of subjects had no prescription for thymoleptic agents. Nearly one-third of all subjects were receiving antipsychotic agents, of whom two-thirds were receiving the traditional neuroleptic agents. More than half of all subjects were receiving concomitant antidepressants, of whom nearly 50% received the SSRI antidepressants and nearly 25% received buproprion. Approximately 40% of subjects received benzodiazepines. Only 18% of subjects received monotherapy, and nearly 50% received three or more psychotropic agents. In general, no associations were noted between demographic parameters including age, gender, marital or educational status, and psychotropic prescriptions. Consistent with the anecdotal reports, these data confirm that combination treatment is far more common than monotherapy. Demography appears to have a minimal impact on cross-sectional prescription patterns in subjects with bipolar disorder. Given that combination treatments are the rule rather than the exception, we should strive to achieve rational, yet pragmatic, treatment guidelines and algorithms to minimize the risks while maximizing the

  13. Standard additions-dilution method for absolute quantification in voltammetry of microparticles. Application for determining psychoactive 1,4-benzodiazepine and antidepressants drugs as adulterants in phytotherapeutic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Martini, Mariele; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Viana, Carine; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Silva, Miguel

    2013-06-01

    A standard additions-dilution solid-state electrochemical method for the determination of psychoactive 1,4-benzodiazepine and antidepressants drugs used as adulterants in commercial slimming herbal formulations is described and compared with conventional standard addition method. The proposed method, based on the voltammetry of microparticles approach, permits quantify, via standard additions methodology, 1,4-benzodiazepine and antidepressants drugs in phytotherapeutic formulations with no need of sample dissolution using dilution with a reference electroactive compound. The method was used to measure 1,4-benzobenzodiazepines (clonazepam, flurazepam, alprazolam, midazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam and diazepam) and antidepressants (bupropion, sertraline, paroxetine and fluoxetine) in slimming formulations that have been commercialized in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Current prescription status of antihypertensive drugs with special reference to the use of diuretics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaraki, Ai; Goto, Wataru; Iura, Rie; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    The guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend the inclusion of diuretics, especially when three or more antihypertensive drugs are used. The present study investigated the current prescription status of antihypertensive drugs with a particular focus on the use of diuretics in a local district in Japan. Prescriptions, including antihypertensive drugs, were collected from a dispensing pharmacy of the Yahata Pharmacist Association, located in Kitakyushu City, in October 2014. Of the 10 585 prescriptions, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were prescribed in 73.5%, followed by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB, 62.7%), diuretics (16.5%) and β-blockers (13.6%). The average number of drugs used was 1.80. The rates of prescription of diuretics for patients with one, two, three and four drugs were 0.6%, 13.1%, 55.2% and 82.6%, respectively. Diuretics were more frequently prescribed in elderly patients, and the prescription rate of doctors in hospitals was significantly higher than that of general practitioners (19.1% vs. 15.7%, Pdiuretics were prescribed combination tablets of hydrochlorothiazide with ARB, whereas trichlormethiazide (34.9%) and indapamide (19.8%) were used in other patients. Based on these findings, the use of diuretics remains limited, even among patients taking multiple antihypertensive drugs.

  15. High-Cost Users of Prescription Drugs: A Population-Based Analysis from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Deirdre; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Morgan, Steven G

    2017-04-01

    To examine variation in pharmaceutical spending and patient characteristics across prescription drug user groups. British Columbia's population-based linked administrative health and sociodemographic databases (N = 3,460,763). We classified individuals into empirically derived prescription drug user groups based on pharmaceutical spending patterns outside hospitals from 2007 to 2011. We examined variation in patient characteristics, mortality, and health services usage and applied hierarchical clustering to determine patterns of concurrent drug use identifying high-cost patients. Approximately 1 in 20 British Columbians had persistently high prescription costs for 5 consecutive years, accounting for 42 percent of 2011 province-wide pharmaceutical spending. Less than 1 percent of the population experienced discrete episodes of high prescription costs; an additional 2.8 percent transitioned to or from high-cost episodes of unknown duration. Persistent high-cost users were more likely to concurrently use multiple chronic medications; episodic and transitory users spent more on specialized medicines, including outpatient cancer drugs. Cluster analyses revealed heterogeneity in concurrent medicine use within high-cost groups. Whether low, moderate, or high, costs of prescription drugs for most individuals are persistent over time. Policies controlling high-cost use should focus on reducing polypharmacy and encouraging price competition in drug classes used by ordinary and high-cost users alike. © 2016 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Prescription Drugs: Comparison of DOD, Medicaid, and Medicare Part D Retail Reimbursement Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    administered outpatient prescription drugs and items that are not traditionally considered drugs such as bandages, syringes, needles, diabetes test...28 29 21 Metformin HCL (500 mg tablet) 5 3 2 Metformin HCL (1000 mg tablet) 32 18 24 Metoprolol succinate (25 mg tablet, extended...the-counter drugs, and certain items such as bandages, syringes, needles, diabetes test strips, and saline. We determined drug utilization and

  17. Herb-drug interactions. Interactions between saw palmetto and prescription medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Rubin

    2005-11-01

    Patients over age 50 typically present with one chronic disease per decade. Each chronic disease typically requires long-term drug therapy, meaning most older patients require several drugs to maintain health. Simultaneously, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased in the United States in the last 20 years, reaching 36% in 2002; herbal medicine use accounts for approximately 22% of all CAM use. Older adults often add herbal medicines to prescription medications, yet do not always inform their physicians. The drug metabolizing enzyme systems process all compounds foreign to the body, including prescription and herbal medications. Therefore use of both medicinals simultaneously has a potential for adverse interactions. This review, which discusses saw palmetto, is the last in a series covering the documented interactions among the top 5 efficacious herbal medicines and prescription drugs.

  18. Piling Pills? Forward-Looking Behavior and Stockpiling of Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    -rate to a non-linear insurance plan for prescription drugs that incentivizes stockpiling at the end of the coverage year. We extend the original framework of Keeler et al. (1977) and discuss how the institutional features of most health insurance contracts, at least theoretically, incentivize intertemporal......This paper provides evidence of forward-looking behavior in the demand for prescription drugs, while relying on registry-based, individual-level information about the universe of Danish prescription drug purchases from 1995–2014. We exploit a universal shift in policy in early 2000 from a flat...... of the response by individual-level characteristics, proxies for health status, and drug type. We find no evidence of any immediate adverse health utilization effects associated with the stockpiling. We round off the paper with an analysis of the importance of stockpiling for estimates of price sensitivity. We...

  19. School and work status, drug-free workplace protections, and prescription drug misuse among Americans ages 15-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted; Novak, Scott P; Galvin, Deborah M; Spicer, Rebecca S; Cluff, Laurie; Kasat, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence and characteristics of prescription drug misuse among youth ages 15-25 to examine differences by student and employment status, and associations with workplace antidrug policies and programs. Multivariate logistic regressions analyzed associations in weighted data on the 20,457 young adults in the combined 2004-2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Demographic controls included sex, race, community size, and age group. After we accounted for demographic controls, at ages 15-25, students were less likely than nonstudents to misuse prescription drugs. Segmenting student from nonstudent groups, working consistently was associated with a further reduction in misuse for those ages 18-25. When we controlled for demographics and substance use history, both Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services and awareness that one's employer had a drug-free workplace policy were associated with significantly lower misuse of prescription drugs (OR = 0.85 for each program, 95% CI [0.73, 1.00] and [0.72, 1.00]). Associations of workplace antidrug policies and programs with marijuana use and with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence contrasted sharply with these patterns. All four aspects were significantly associated with lower marijuana use. None was associated with problem drinking. Protective effects of drug-free workplace policy and EAPs persist after other substance use was controlled for. Comparing the effects of workplace programs on illicit drug use and problem drinking versus prescription misuse suggests that those protective associations do not result from selection bias. Thus, drug-free workplace policies and EAPs appear to help protect younger workers against prescription misuse. If workplace substance use disorder programs focused prevention messages and interventions on prescription drug misuse, their impact on misuse might increase.

  20. 75 FR 46952 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2007 (Title 1 of the... user fees for certain applications for approval of drug and biological products, on establishments where the products are made, and on such products. Base revenue amounts to be generated from PDUFA fees...

  1. 78 FR 46980 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012, which was... applications for approval of drug and biological products, on establishments where the products are made, and on such products. Base revenue amounts to be generated from PDUFA fees were established by PDUFA V...

  2. 78 FR 12760 - Guidance for Industry on Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Drug and Biological Products--Implementing the Physician Labeling Rule Content and Format Requirements... Prescription Drug and Biological Products--Implementing the PLR Content and Format Requirements.'' This guidance is intended to assist applicants in complying with the content and format requirements of labeling...

  3. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... established to advise the Commissioner: (a) Generally on the safety and effectiveness, including the labeling and advertising, and regulatory control of the human prescription drugs falling within the... determination of safety and effectiveness in that class of drugs. (b) Specifically on any particular matter...

  4. 75 FR 15376 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... advertisement. 2. Television video and print disclosures shall be of a color or shade that readily contrasts... Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in Television and Radio Advertisements in... Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA), that the major statement in DTC television or radio...

  5. Off-label and unlicensed drug prescriptions for children living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The extent and pattern of off-label and unlicensed drug prescriptions have been documented in developed countries leading to development and adoption of guidelines on the use of different classes of drugs in different disease settings. Paucity of data on this subject in developing countries such as Nigeria ...

  6. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs: Exploiting a Regression Kink Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...

  7. Patterns of Drug Prescription for Japanese Cedar Pollinosis Using a Clinical Vignette Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Our investigation suggested that, compared to ENTs, GPs and IMs have a lower tendency to concomitantly prescribe drugs for localized treatment such as nasal corticosteroids and eye drops with oral medication. There may be differences in prescription patterns of drugs for pollinosis between ENTs and non-specialist physicians.

  8. Prescription pattern of anxiolytic drugs in burn patients: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiolytic drugs are essential in the management of cases where anxiety and insomnia are likely to be found. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prescription pattern of these drugs on burn patients and to ascertain their relevance in burn therapy. The study was carried out retrospectively by evaluating ...

  9. FDA regulatory affairs: a guide for prescription drugs, medical devices, and biologics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mantus, David; Pisano, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    ...: A Guide for Prescription Drugs, Medical Devices, and Biologics, Second Edition are covered in a straightforward format. It is a compilation and commentary of selected laws and regulations pertaining to the development and approval of drugs, biologics, and medical devices in the United States. It is not intended to take the place of an actual r...

  10. 76 FR 58020 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act IV Information Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act IV Information Technology... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of an updated information technology (IT) plan entitled ``PDUFA IV Information Technology Plan'' (updated plan) to achieve the objectives defined in the...

  11. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macipe-Costa Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID. Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67 and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14. Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities.

  12. Prescription Drug Promotion from 2001-2014: Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen W Sullivan

    Full Text Available The volume of prescription drug promotion over time is often measured by assessing changes in ad spending. However, this method obscures the fact that some types of advertising are more expensive than others. Another way to measure the changes in prescription drug promotion over time is to assess the number of promotional pieces submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Form FDA 2253 collects information such as the date submitted and the type of material submitted. We analyzed data from Forms FDA 2253 received from 2001-2014. We examined the frequency of submissions by audience (consumer and healthcare professional and type of promotional material. There was a noted increase in prescription drug promotion submissions across all media in the early 2000s. Although non-Internet promotion submissions have since plateaued, Internet promotion continued to increase. These results can help public health advocates and regulators focus attention and resources.

  13. Nonmedical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behavior in gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Martin, Aaron M; Koester, Stephen; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated associations between substance use and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men (MSM). Recent trends in substance use show increasing use of prescription medications (e.g., Vicodin) without a physician's prescription, yet associations between the nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and HIV risk behavior have not been well examined in MSM. MSM attending a gay pride festival completed a self-report measure assessing NMUPD, motivations for use, use of traditional recreational drugs, and HIV risk behavior. More than one-third of the sample (38%) reported lifetime NMUPD and 17% reported NMUPD in the previous 3 months. The most common class of medications used was prescription analgesics. Men reporting NMUPD also reported higher rates of the use of marijuana, poppers, ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, GHB, ketamine, heroin, and rohypnol, and had significantly higher rates of HIV risk behaviors, including more sexual partners and more unprotected sex. A significant minority of MSM are using prescription medications without a doctor's consent. Men who do so are risking negative consequences of such use, including the potential for addiction, potentially dangerous interactions between prescription and recreational drugs, and greater risk for contracting HIV.

  14. Comparing employer-sponsored and federal exchange plans: wide variations in cost sharing for prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttorff, Christine; Andersen, Martin S; Riggs, Kevin R; Alexander, G Caleb

    2015-03-01

    Just under seven million Americans acquired private insurance through the new health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces, in 2014. The exchange plans are required to cover essential health benefits, including prescription drugs. However, the generosity of prescription drug coverage in the plans has not been well described. Our primary objective was to examine the variability in drug coverage in the exchanges across plan types (health maintenance organization or preferred provider organization) and metal tiers (bronze, silver, gold, and platinum). Our secondary objective was to compare the exchange coverage to employer-sponsored coverage. Analyzing prescription drug benefit design data for the federally facilitated exchanges, we found wide variation in enrollees' out-of-pocket costs for generic, preferred brand-name, nonpreferred brand-name, and specialty drugs, not only across metal tiers but also within those tiers across plan types. Compared to employer-sponsored plans, exchange plans generally had lower premiums but provided less generous drug coverage. However, for low-income enrollees who are eligible for cost-sharing subsidies, the exchange plans may be more comparable to employer-based coverage. Policies and programs to assist consumers in matching their prescription drug needs with a plan's benefit design may improve the financial protection for the newly insured. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Nonmedical Use of Antihistaminergic Anxiolytics and Other Prescription Drugs among Persons with Opioid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disa Dahlman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU is an increasing problem, insufficiently studied among people in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with NMPDU for drug classes insufficiently described in opioid-dependent populations, including antihistaminergic anxiolytics and central stimulants. Methods. Study participants were recruited at two OMT clinics in Malmo, Sweden, between October 2014 and December 2015 (N=73 and interviewed about their use, motivations for use, and acquisition and administration of prescription drugs. Results. The majority of the sample reported lifetime NMPDU: 60% for benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (z-drugs, 21% for pregabalin, 19% for stimulants, and 12%–15% for antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Lower age was associated with nonmedical benzodiazepine use (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.89; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.82–0.97. Illicit acquisition was reported by 61% of people using z-drugs, 46% of people using pregabalin, and 38% of people using prescription stimulants, but only by 6–10% of people using antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Conclusions. The substantial nonmedical use of pregabalin, z-drugs, and prescription stimulants found in this study suggests that clinicians should prescribe these drugs with great caution. Nonmedical use of antihistaminergic anxiolytics does not seem to be a clinical issue among people in OMT in a Swedish setting, but we propose future studies to monitor their use.

  16. A survey of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug prescription for oral implant surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Datta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the preferred analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed by oral implantologists in India. Methods: A structured questionnaire was distributed to 332 dentists to gather information regarding their prescription habits for analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Frequency distributions were computed by type of drug being prescribed and the protocol followed. Results: Analysis of data showed that majority of dentists (85.8%, n = 285 prescribed conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs for implant surgery. The most common prescription was ibuprofen with paracetamol combination (32.2%, n = 107 followed by diclofenac (20.2%, n = 67. Most dentists reported prescribing different NSAIDs for the same procedure in different patients (64.7%, n = 215. Only, 35.5% (n = 118 followed the peri-operative protocol. Adjunctive prescription of steroids was done by only 33.7% (n = 112. Conclusion: Our study illustrates that the general trend of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug prescription for dental implant surgery among Indian dentists is mostly in accordance with the guidelines for pain management worldwide. However, it is noteworthy that a few dentists do prescribe drugs not primarily indicated for dental pain management and use widely varying protocols for the same. Therefore, in order to avoid potential complications, it is essential to raise awareness of among the dental practitioners of the appropriate indications and dosage regimen of specific drugs.

  17. Psychotropic drug prescriptions in Western European nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, Sarah I M; van Manen, Jeannette G; IJzerman, Maarten J; Zuidema, Sytse U

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous warnings of European and national drug agencies as well as clinical guidelines since the year 2004, psychotropic drugs are still frequently used in dementia. A systematic review comparing the use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes from different European

  18. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  19. Late Onset of Prescription Drug Abuse or Dependence Among Older Adults: Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Lay

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prescription drug abuse and dependence is an increasing concern for older adults. This article describes issues specific to older adults with late onset abuse or dependence on prescription sedatives and/or opiates.The older adult with late onset should not be viewed as having the same issues as individuals who have a life pat- tern of drug and alcohol abuse/dependence.A chart review of older adults in a treatment program contrasts late onset prescription dependence clients (n=12 and early onset addiction clients (n=104 and outlines differences and similarities between the two samples. Social workers need to understand the specific and changing needs of older adults as they relate to assessment and treatment of drug abuse and dependence.

  20. Prescription drugs associated with reports of violence towards others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Moore

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Violence towards others is a seldom-studied adverse drug event and an atypical one because the risk of injury extends to others. OBJECTIVE: To identify the primary suspects in adverse drug event reports describing thoughts or acts of violence towards others, and assess the strength of the association. METHODOLOGY: From the Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS data, we extracted all serious adverse event reports for drugs with 200 or more cases received from 2004 through September 2009. We identified any case report indicating homicide, homicidal ideation, physical assault, physical abuse or violence related symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disproportionality in reporting was defined as a 5 or more violence case reports, b at least twice the number of reports expected given the volume of overall reports for that drug, c a χ2 statistic indicating the violence cases were unlikely to have occurred by chance (p<0.01. RESULTS: We identified 1527 cases of violence disproportionally reported for 31 drugs. Primary suspect drugs included varenicline (an aid to smoking cessation, 11 antidepressants, 6 sedative/hypnotics and 3 drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The evidence of an association was weaker and mixed for antipsychotic drugs and absent for all but 1 anticonvulsant/mood stabilizer. Two or fewer violence cases were reported for 435/484 (84.7% of all evaluable drugs suggesting that an association with this adverse event is unlikely for these drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Acts of violence towards others are a genuine and serious adverse drug event associated with a relatively small group of drugs. Varenicline, which increases the availability of dopamine, and antidepressants with serotonergic effects were the most strongly and consistently implicated drugs. Prospective studies to evaluate systematically this side effect are needed to establish the incidence, confirm differences among drugs and

  1. A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firestone Michelle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use of these drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 PO injectors. Topics covered included drug use history, types of drugs used, how drugs were purchased and transitions to PO use. Interviews were taped and transcribed. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Results Five prominent themes emerged from the interviews: 1 Combination of crack and prescription opioids, 2 First injection experience and transition to prescription opioids, 3 Drug preferences and availability, 4 Housing and income and 5 Obtaining drugs. There was consensus that OxyContin and crack were the most commonly available drugs on the streets of Toronto. Drug use preferences and behaviours were influenced by the availability of drugs, the desired effect, ease of administration and expectations around the purity of the drugs. Distinct experiences were observed among younger users as compared to older users. In particular, the initiation of injection drug use and experimentation with POs among younger users was influenced by their experiences on the street, their peers and general curiosity. Conclusion Given the current profile of street-based drug market in Toronto and the emergence of crack and POs as two predominant illicit drug groups, understanding drug use patterns and socio-economic factors among younger and older users in this population has important implications for preventive and therapeutic interventions.

  2. Factors Contributing to Increases in Prescription Drug Expenditures Borne by National Health Insurance in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Young-Man; Paek, Kyung Won; Bea, Min Hee; Chun, Kihong; Lee, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rapid growth of prescription drug expenditures is a problem in South Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the contributions of four variables (therapeutic choice, drug-mix, original use, and price changes) to increases in drug expenditures paid by the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Korea. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2012 utilizing data from the NHI Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review a...

  3. Prescription for antibiotics at drug shops and strategies to improve quality of care and patient safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to assess practices of antibiotic prescription at registered drug shops with a focus on upper respiratory tract infections among children in order to provide data for policy discussions aimed at improving quality of care and patient safety......-line drug for treatment of pneumonia in children according to the guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: There is urgent need to regulate drug shop practices of prescribing and selling antibiotics, for the safety of patients seeking care at these outlets....

  4. To dope or not to dope: neuroenhancement with prescription drugs and drugs of abuse among Swiss university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Larissa J; Liechti, Matthias E; Herzig, Fiona; Schaub, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroenhancement is the use of substances by healthy subjects to enhance mood or cognitive function. The prevalence of neuroenhancement among Swiss university students is unknown. Investigating the prevalence of neuroenhancement among students is important to monitor problematic use and evaluate the necessity of prevention programs. To describe the prevalence of the use of prescription medications and drugs of abuse for neuroenhancement among Swiss university students. In this cross-sectional study, students at the University of Zurich, University of Basel, and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich were invited via e-mail to participate in an online survey. A total of 28,118 students were contacted, and 6,275 students completed the survey. Across all of the institutions, 13.8% of the respondents indicated that they had used prescription drugs (7.6%) or drugs of abuse including alcohol (7.8%) at least once specifically for neuroenhancement. The most frequently used prescription drugs for neuroenhancement were methylphenidate (4.1%), sedatives (2.7%), and beta-blockers (1.2%). Alcohol was used for this purpose by 5.6% of the participants, followed by cannabis (2.5%), amphetamines (0.4%), and cocaine (0.2%). Arguments for neuroenhancement included increased learning (66.2%), relaxation or sleep improvement (51.2%), reduced nervousness (39.1%), coping with performance pressure (34.9%), increased performance (32.2%), and experimentation (20%). Neuroenhancement was significantly more prevalent among more senior students, students who reported higher levels of stress, and students who had previously used illicit drugs. Although "soft enhancers", including coffee, energy drinks, vitamins, and tonics, were used daily in the month prior to an exam, prescription drugs or drugs of abuse were used much less frequently. A significant proportion of Swiss university students across most academic disciplines reported neuroenhancement with prescription drugs and drugs of

  5. 76 FR 11790 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Allergy; Withdrawal of Hearing Requests; Final Resolution of Dockets AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... CFR part 341, ``Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and Antihistamine Drug Products for Over-the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-1981-N-0077 (formerly 81N-0393), FDA-1981-N...

  6. Abuse and misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs sold in community pharmacies in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Wazaify, Mayyada; Yousef, Al-Motassem; Tahaineh, Linda

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate abuse/misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs in community pharmacies in Jordan by random distribution of a structured questionnaire to 405 pharmacies (November 2005-January 2006). Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows (version 14.0). Most respondents (94.1%) suspected that some level of abuse/misuse occurred in their pharmacy, which was highest for decongestants, cough/cold preparations, benzodiazepines, and antibiotics. Abuse/misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs is present in Jordan, but current methods for controlling the problem are ineffective, and better methods should be developed. The study's limitations are noted..

  7. The influence of the structure and culture of medical group practices on prescription drug errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralewski, John E; Dowd, Bryan E; Heaton, Alan; Kaissi, Amer

    2005-08-01

    This project was designed to identify the magnitude of prescription drug errors in medical group practices and to explore the influence of the practice structure and culture on those error rates. Seventy-eight practices serving an upper Midwest managed care (Care Plus) plan during 2001 were included in the study. Using Care Plus claims data, prescription drug error rates were calculated at the enrollee level and then were aggregated to the group practice that each enrollee selected to provide and manage their care. Practice structure and culture data were obtained from surveys of the practices. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression. Both the culture and the structure of these group practices appear to influence prescription drug error rates. Seeing more patients per clinic hour, more prescriptions per patient, and being cared for in a rural clinic were all strongly associated with more errors. Conversely, having a case manager program is strongly related to fewer errors in all of our analyses. The culture of the practices clearly influences error rates, but the findings are mixed. Practices with cohesive cultures have lower error rates but, contrary to our hypothesis, cultures that value physician autonomy and individuality also have lower error rates than those with a more organizational orientation. Our study supports the contention that there are a substantial number of prescription drug errors in the ambulatory care sector. Even by the strictest definition, there were about 13 errors per 100 prescriptions for Care Plus patients in these group practices during 2001. Our study demonstrates that the structure of medical group practices influences prescription drug error rates. In some cases, this appears to be a direct relationship, such as the effects of having a case manager program on fewer drug errors, but in other cases the effect appears to be indirect through the improvement of drug prescribing practices. An important aspect of this study is that

  8. Opportunities for Exploring and Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse Through Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin R; Nelson, Lewis; Meisel, Zachary; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    The rising toll of opioid overdoses in the past decade has been declared a prescription drug epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control. In that same period, Internet platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, have grown exponentially, being used primarily by a population similar to new initiates of substance abuse. Researchers have utilized social media to gain insights into use patterns and prevailing attitudes about various substances. Social media has potential to enhance screening, prevention, and treatment of addiction. With future funding, they should be leveraged to advance understanding of prescription drug use and improve treatment and prevention of abuse.

  9. Evaluation of Drug Interactions and Prescription Errors of Poultry Veterinarians in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madadi MS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug prescription errors are a common cause of adverse incidents and may lead to adverse outcomes, sometimes in subtle ways, being compounded by circumstances or further errors. Therefore, it is important that veterinarians issue the correct drug at the correct dose. Using two or more prescribed drugs may lead to drug interactions. Some drug interactions are very harmful and may have potential threats to the patient's health that is called antagonism. In a survey study, medication errors of 750 prescriptions, including dosage errors and drug interactions were studied. The results indicated that 20.8% of prescriptions had at least one drug interaction. The most interactions were related to antibiotics (69.1%, Sulfonamides (46.7%, Methenamine (46.7% and Florfenicol (20.2%. Analysis of dosage errors indicated that total drugs consumed by broilers in the summer are more than winter seasons. Based on these results, avoiding medication errors are important in the balanced prescribing of drugs and regular education of veterinary practitioners in a certain interval is needed.

  10. The Association between Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use and Suicidal Behavior among United States Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Divin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.

  11. A population-based prescription study of asthma drugs during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana; Nielsen, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Among the goals of gestational asthma, therapy is optimisation of pulmonary function. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, no asthma drugs can be considered ‘safe’ during pregnancy. Fear of adverse fetal effects may thus lead to restrictive use of asthma drugs during...... pregnancy, and no population-based studies concerning gestational asthma therapy exist. Objectives: To examine whether asthma drugs or changing intensity of asthma therapy during pregnancy was associated with deviations from expected values of gestational age, birth weight, length at birth, or malformations....... Methods: The Birth Registry was used to identify all 15,756 primiparous women who gave birth in the County of North Jutland between 1991 and 1996. According to the North Jutland Prescription Database, 303 of these women received prescriptions for asthma drugs during pregnancy. Women who did not purchase...

  12. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Southwell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions.

  13. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G; Rupert, Douglas J

    2016-01-16

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Can increases in CHIP copayments reduce program expenditures on prescription drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bisakha; Blackburn, Justin; Morrisey, Michael; Becker, David; Kilgore, Meredith; Caldwell, Cathy; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim is to explore whether prescription drug expenditures by enrollees changed in Alabama's CHIP program, ALL Kids, after copayment increases in fiscal year 2004. The subsidiary aim is to explore whether non-pharmaceutical expenditures also changed. Data on ALL Kids enrollees between 1999-2007, obtained from claims files and the state's administrative database. We used data on children who were enrolled between one and three years both before and after the changes to the copayment schedule, and estimate regression models with individual-level fixed effects to control for time-invariant heterogeneity at the child level. This allows an accurate estimate of how program expenditures change for the same individual following copayment changes. Primary outcomes of interest are expenditures for prescription drugs by class and brand-name and generic versions. We estimate models for the likelihood of any use of prescription drugs and expenditure level conditional on use. Following the copayment increase, the probability of any expenditure decline by 5.8%, brand name drugs by 6.9%, generic drugs by 7.4%. Conditional on any use, program expenditures decline by 7.9% for all drugs, by 9.6% for brand name drugs, and 6.2% for generic drugs. The largest declines are for antihistamine drugs; the least declines are for Central Nervous System agents. Declines are smaller and statistically weaker for children with chronic health conditions. Concurrent declines are also seen for non-pharmaceutical medical expenditures. Copayment increases appear to reduce program expenditures on prescription drugs per enrollee and may be a useful tool for controlling program costs.

  15. A cloud on the horizon-a survey into the use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, M; Dargan, P; Wood, D

    2018-01-01

    There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK. A voluntary online survey using a convenience sample of UK adult participants (aged 16 years old and over) identified by a market research company. Data was collected regarding demographics, smoking history, electronic vaping device history and recreational drug/NPS use and route of administration. There were 2501 respondents. The mean (±SD) age was 46.2 ± 16.8 years old. The commonest lifetime recreational drug used was Cannabis (818, 32.7%). The majority of respondents had smoked (1545, 61.8%) with 731 (29.2%) being current smokers. The most commonly used SCRA product was 'Spice Gold' (173, 6.9%) and SCRA compound was ADB-CHMICA (48, 1.9%). 861 (34.4%) had used an electronic vaping device; 340 (13.6%) having used them for recreational drug administration; 236 (9.4%) reporting current use. The commonest lifetime recreational drug to be vaped was cannabis (155, 65.7%), with electronic cigarettes (230, 48.2%) being the commonest reported route of SCRA compound administration. 9.4% of respondents currently use electronic vaping devices for recreational drug administration with 6.2% reporting lifetime cannabis vaping use. Further larger scale studies are required to help inform the appropriate treatment and primary prevention strategies.

  16. STUDY ON DRUG COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH COPD PRESCRIPTION MEDICINE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iris Marie; Anker, Niels; Dolleru, Jens

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spirometric studies of the general population estimate that 430,000 Danes have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is mainly caused by smoking, and smoking cessation is the most important intervention to prevent disease progression. Cost-of-illness studies conclude...... that the costs associated with COPD in Denmark are significant, but costs of prescription medicine for COPD were not analysed. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the societal costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark. METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide retrospective register study...... had been either hospitalized with a COPD diagnosis or had at least one prescription for drugs primarily used for COPD. RESULTS: The study population comprised 166,462 individuals of which 97,916 were alive on 31 December 2010. The average annual drug costs (R03) were DKK 7,842 (EUR 1,055) per patient...

  17. Study on drug costs associated with COPD prescription medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M; Anker, N; Dollerup, J

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spirometric studies of the general population estimate that 430,000 Danes have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is mainly caused by smoking, and smoking cessation is the most important intervention to prevent disease progression. Cost-of-illness studies conclude...... that the costs associated with COPD in Denmark are significant, but costs of prescription medicine for COPD were not analysed. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the societal costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark. METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide retrospective register study...... had been either hospitalized with a COPD diagnosis or had at least one prescription for drugs primarily used for COPD. RESULTS: The study population comprised 166,462 individuals of which 97,916 were alive on 31 December 2010. The average annual drug costs (R03) were DKK 7,842 (EUR 1,055) per patient...

  18. Increased alcohol consumption, nonmedical prescription drug use, and illicit drug use are associated with energy drink consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; Wish, Eric D

    2010-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and correlates of energy drink use among college students, and investigated its possible prospective associations with subsequent drug use, including nonmedical prescription drug use. Participants were 1,060 undergraduates from a large, public university who completed three annual interviews, beginning in their first year of college. Use of energy drinks, other caffeinated products, tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit and prescription drugs were assessed, as well as demographic and personality characteristics. Annual weighted prevalence of energy drink use was 22.6%(wt) and 36.5%(wt) in the second and third year of college, respectively. Compared to energy drink non-users, energy drink users had heavier alcohol consumption patterns, and were more likely to have used other drugs, both concurrently and in the preceding assessment. Regression analyses revealed that Year 2 energy drink use was significantly associated with Year 3 nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and prescription analgesics, but not with other Year 3 drug use, holding constant demographics, prior drug use, and other factors. A substantial and rapidly-growing proportion of college students use energy drinks. Energy drink users tend to have greater involvement in alcohol and other drug use and higher levels of sensation-seeking, relative to non-users of energy drinks. Prospectively, energy drink use has a unique relationship with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and analgesics. More research is needed regarding the health risks associated with energy drink use in young adults, including their possible role in the development of substance use problems.

  19. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Future Survey on teen drug use ( December 2017 ) View more related News Releases This page was last updated February 2016 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ...

  20. Which Classes of Prescription Drugs Are Commonly Misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive enhancement has also sparked debate over the ethical implications of the practice. Issues of fairness arise ... c to copy Featured Publications Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Principles of Substance Abuse ...

  1. Drug availability adjustments in population-based studies of prescription opioid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secora, Alex; Trinidad, James Phillip; Zhang, Rongmei; Gill, Rajdeep; Dal Pan, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    Population-based prescription opioid abuse studies in which one drug is compared to another, or drugs are compared across time, often account for the availability of those drugs in the community. The objective of this investigation is to assess consistency in the relative abuse ratios (RARs) across different approaches for adjusting for drug availability. For the years 2004 through 2010, RARs for each of four prescription opioids (hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and morphine) were calculated using negative binomial regression. Measures of abuse (outcome) were misuse/abuse-related emergency department visits obtained from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Measures of drug availability (offsets) were drug utilization estimates obtained from IMS Health. Separate regression models were run using each of five measures of drug utilization: unique patients (URDD), prescriptions dispensed (RX), tablets dispensed (TD), kilograms (KGs) sold, and morphine-equivalents (MEs) of kilograms sold. These results were compared for consistency. Aside from oxycodone-combination products, across molecules, RARs adjusted by RXs, TDs, and URDDs were generally similar to each other while RARs adjusted by KGs and MEs were different. For example, compared to hydrocodone, oxycodone had statistically significantly increased RARs of 3.6 (95%CI: 2.0-6.5), 3.5 (95%CI: 1.9-6.4), and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.5-5.0) when adjusted by URDDs, RXs, and TDs, respectively, but not when adjusted by KGs or MEs. Different drug utilization adjustment approaches may yield inconsistent RAR estimates in population-based prescription opioid abuse analyses. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Route of administration for illicit prescription opioids: a comparison of rural and urban drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havens Jennifer R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonmedical prescription opioid use has emerged as a major public health concern in recent years, particularly in rural Appalachia. Little is known about the routes of administration (ROA involved in nonmedical prescription opioid use among rural and urban drug users. The purpose of this study was to describe rural-urban differences in ROA for nonmedical prescription opioid use. Methods A purposive sample of 212 prescription drug users was recruited from a rural Appalachian county (n = 101 and a major metropolitan area (n = 111 in Kentucky. Consenting participants were given an interviewer-administered questionnaire examining sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders, and self-reported nonmedical use and ROA (swallowing, snorting, injecting for the following prescription drugs: buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, OxyContin® and other oxycodone. Results Among urban participants, swallowing was the most common ROA, contrasting sharply with substance-specific variation in ROA among rural participants. Among rural participants, snorting was the most frequent ROA for hydrocodone, methadone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone, while injection was most common for hydromorphone and morphine. In age-, gender-, and race-adjusted analyses, rural participants had significantly higher odds of snorting hydrocodone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone than urban participants. Urban participants had significantly higher odds of swallowing hydrocodone and oxycodone than did rural participants. Notably, among rural participants, 67% of hydromorphone users and 63% of morphine users had injected the drugs. Conclusions Alternative ROA are common among rural drug users. This finding has implications for rural substance abuse treatment and harm reduction, in which interventions should incorporate methods to prevent and reduce route-specific health complications of drug use.

  3. Drug prescription based on WHO indicators: Tehran university of medical sciences facilities with pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosleh A.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rationalize of drug use in societies is one of the main responsibilities of health policy makers. In our country irrational use of dugs has increased in the recent years, for example one study in 1998 has shown that average number of medicines per prescription was 3.6, percentage of prescriptions containing antibiotics was 43% and percentage of prescriptions containing Injections was 39%. One of the best tools for evaluation of drug use is the WHO guideline for calculating prescribing indicators. In this study, we had an assessment about prescribing patterns in South of Tehran, Islamshahr and Rey Health Centers.Methods: In order to evaluating prescribing indicators in Tehran University of Medical Sciences region 35 facilities which had pharmacy were selected according to WHO gridline and 4190 prescription from these facilities were studied. Indicators were calculated according to formulas has explained in article. Results: The average number of drug per prescription was 2.58, percentage of drug prescribed by generic name: 99.8%, percentage of encounters prescribed Antibiotics: 62.39% percentage of encounters prescribed Injection: 28.96% & the percentage of drugs prescribed from PHC formulary 99.46%. These findings were almost similar in the three Health Centers.Conclusions: Health facilities are one of the most important bases to improve rational use of Drugs and general practitioners are the major chain in RUD cycle. Results show that we need to design intervention especially educational interventions to improve two WHO prescribing indicators, percentage of encounters prescribed Antibiotics & Injections in this region. For reaching this goals we need to design educational programs for physicians, pharmacists and people too. These educations can be as workshops, seminars, conferences or printed materials such as books, leaflets and etc.

  4. Teens and the Misuse of Prescription Drugs: Evidence-Based Recommendations to Curb a Growing Societal Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2008-01-01

    The misuse of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health problem. This article provides a systematic synthesis of multiple strands of literature to recommend effective prevention methods. Using a social-ecological framework, we review the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens. Then, we analyze…

  5. 75 FR 61621 - Charges Billed to Third Parties for Prescription Drugs Furnished by VA to a Veteran for a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... reasonable charges for medical care or services (including the provision of prescription drugs) from a third... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN15 Charges Billed to Third Parties for Prescription Drugs Furnished by...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends the medical regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs...

  6. Use of the Internet to Obtain Drugs without a Prescription Among Treatment-involved Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Clements, Nicolle; Flynn, Anna B; Falco, Mathea; McLellan, A Thomas; Arria, Amelia M

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs is common and poses risks such as injury, overdose, and development of abuse and dependence. Internet pharmacies offer prescription drugs without a prescription, creating a source of illicit drugs accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. We examined this issue in a convenience sample of 1,860 adolescents and young adults from 24 residential and outpatient treatment programs. Few individuals obtained drugs from the Internet (n = 26, 2.3%). Pain relievers were the most frequently purchased type of drug. The majority of adolescents and young adult online purchasers made the purchases from their own or a friend's house.

  7. Use of the Internet to Obtain Drugs without a Prescription Among Treatment-involved Adolescents and Young Adults*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Clements, Nicolle; Flynn, Anna B.; Falco, Mathea; McLellan, A. Thomas; Arria, Amelia M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs is common and poses risks such as injury, overdose, and development of abuse and dependence. Internet pharmacies offer prescription drugs without a prescription, creating a source of illicit drugs accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. We examined this issue in a convenience sample of 1,860 adolescents and young adults from 24 residential and outpatient treatment programs. Few individuals obtained drugs from the Internet (n = 26, 2.3%). Pain relievers were the most frequently purchased type of drug. The majority of adolescents and young adult online purchasers made the purchases from their own or a friend’s house. PMID:28194089

  8. Ischaemic cardiovascular risk and prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman, A.R.; Valkhoff, V.E.; Jong, G.W. t; Warle-van Herwaarden, M.F.; Bindels, P.J.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Luijsterburg, P.A.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of ischaemic cardiovascular (CV) risk on prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by general practitioners (GPs) in patients with musculoskeletal complaints. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: A healthcare database containing the electronic GP

  9. Prescription Drug Abuse Hits Hospitals Hard: Tighter Federal Steps Aim to Deflate Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Barlas, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals and their pharmacy departments are now at the epicenter of the prescription drug-abuse tsunami. The Obama administration is using regulatory agencies in an to attempt to crack down on physician-run “pill mills” and the pharmacies that support them.

  10. The relationship between DTCA, drug requests, and prescriptions: Uncovering variation in specialty and space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); V. Schwartz-Landsman (Vardit); S. Venkataraman (Sriram)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPatients increasingly request their physicians to prescribe specific brands of pharmaceutical drugs. A popular belief is that requests are triggered by direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). We examine the relationship between DTCA, patient requests, and prescriptions for statins. We

  11. Utilizing Business, University, and Community Resources to Target Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade-Mdivanian, R.; Anderson-Butcher, D.; Hale, K.; Kwiek, N.; Smock, J.; Radigan, D.; Lineberger, J.

    2012-01-01

    "Generation Rx" is a prescription drug abuse prevention strategy which includes a "toolkit" designed to be used with youth. Developed by Cardinal Health Foundation and the Ohio State University, it provides health care providers (especially pharmacists), parents, teachers, youth workers, and other community leaders with…

  12. prescription pattern of anti-hypertensive drugs in a tertiary health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Abstract. Objective: This study examined the pattern of physicians' prescription of antihypertensive drugs and its possible effects on blood pressure control as well as physicians' compliance with recommended guidelines. Methods: Records of 145 patients aged 17-91 (mean: 52.6 ± 14.6) years, with male to female ratio of.

  13. Prescription changes and drug costs at the interface between primary and specialist care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, D; Van Sonderen, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    Objective: To explore the relevance of prescription changes and related drug costs when patients are referred from primary to secondary care. Patients and methods: Secondary analysis of data derived from a study on the quality of referrals, which was performed in 1989-1990. New and non-acute

  14. Adverse events with use of antiepileptic drugs: a prescription and event symmetry analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Morten; Hallas, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess adverse events with use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) by the method of sequence symmetry analysis. METHODS: We used data from two population-based sources in Funen County, Denmark (population 2006: 479 000); prescription data from Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Datab...

  15. Direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription drugs as an argumentative activity type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, R.; Visser, J.; Rubinelli, S.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    With direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA), pharmaceutical companies can market their prescription drugs directly to consumers. In order to properly study the argumentative aspects of these advertisements from a pragma-dialectical perspective, it is necessary to characterize DTCA as an

  16. Direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription drugs as an argumentative activity type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, R.; Visser, J.

    2012-01-01

    With direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA), pharmaceutical companies can market their prescription drugs directly to consumers. In order to properly study the argumentative aspect of these advertisements from a pragma-dialectical perspective, it is necessary to characterize DTCA as an

  17. Prescription of secondary preventive drugs after ischemic stroke : Results from the Malaysian National Stroke Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwong, Wen Yea; Abdul Aziz, Zariah; Sidek, Norsima Nazifah; Bots, Michiel L.; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of secondary stroke prevention in low and middle-income countries remains limited. This study assessed the prescription of secondary preventive drugs among ischemic stroke patients upon hospital discharge in Malaysia and identified factors related to the prescribing decisions.

  18. 75 FR 996 - Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 Section 1013: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... chosen for the Stakeholder Group will be required to declare and submit conflict of interest... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and... AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), DHHS. ACTION: Notice of invitation to submit...

  19. Socio-economic differences in prescription and OTC drug use in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, H.; Meijer, W.M.; Tuinstra, J.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect whether there were socio-economic differences in the overall use of prescription and OCT drugs among adolescents. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of questionnaire data collected to investigate socio-economic differences in health risk behaviour and decision-making.

  20. 77 FR 16973 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in Television and Radio Advertisements in... determining whether the major statement in direct-to- consumer (DTC) television and radio advertisements...

  1. 77 FR 4273 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in Television and Radio Advertisements in a Clear, Conspicuous, and Neutral Manner; Notice of Availability of Study Data AGENCY: Food and...

  2. Factors related to psychotropic drug prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.H.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Vries, E. de; Spek, K. van der; Koopmans, R.T.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. SETTING: Twelve NHs in The

  3. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.H.W.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; de Vries, E.; van der Spek, K.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The

  4. Use of substance and non-prescription drugs by pregnant Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 2.9% admitted to using tobacco. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption in pregnancy appears to be higher in the older pregnant Nigerians. The implications of use in early pregnancy and during labour are highlighted. Key Words: Non-prescription drugs, Substance use, Pregnant Women, Nigeria (J College Med: 2003 8(1): ...

  5. Determinants of Market Exclusivity for Prescription Drugs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-11-01

    The high prices of brand-name prescription drugs are a growing source of controversy in the United States. Manufacturers of brand-name drugs can command high prices because they are protected from generic competition by two types of government-granted monopoly rights. The first are patents on the drugs that generally define the basic period of brand-name-only sales. The second is awarded at the time of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and usually defines the minimum time until a generic can be sold. The initial patents last for 20 years and may be extended to account for time spent in clinical trials and regulatory review; other laws prevent approval of other manufacturers' versions of new drugs for about 6 to 7 years, and for new biologics for 12 years. Overall, most new drugs receive about 12 to 16 years of market exclusivity from both kinds of monopoly protection combined. We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature to identify studies that described the different types of patent protection and regulatory exclusivities that shield brand-name prescription drugs from competition and thus help to sustain high drug prices. We also identified potential policy reforms intended to modify exclusivity periods to address public health needs by balancing drug affordability and industry revenue. The goal of policy in this area should be to ensure that drug market exclusivity periods provide for fair return on investment but do not indefinitely block availability of lower-cost generic drugs.

  6. 77 FR 12310 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Prescription Drugs That Contained...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background When initially enacted in 1938, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C... contracted with the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) to make an initial...

  7. 76 FR 1174 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... structure or known pharmacological properties.'' In 1962, Congress amended the act to require that new drugs... napsylate and aspirin, was marketed under NDA 13-097. In response to the June 1, 1982, notice, timely...

  8. On Utilization and Stockpiling of Prescription Drugs when Co-payments Increase: Heterogeneity across Types of Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates prescription drug utilization changes following an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Two different types of medication are considered – insulin for treatment of the chronic condition diabetes...

  9. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  10. Analysis of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in pediatric prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tânia R; Lopes, Luciane C

    2016-01-01

    Data on clinical practice in pediatrics on the use of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs considering the best available evidence and regulatory-agency approved use are uncertain. This study aimed to determine the frequency of prescription of these drugs according to the best scientific evidence and use approved by regulatory agencies. This was a cross-sectional study of 150 pediatric prescriptions containing analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by interview with caregivers at 18 locations (nine private drugstores and nine Basic Health Units of the Brazilian Unified Health System). The assessed outcomes included recommended use or use with no contraindication, indications with benefit evidence, and health surveillance agency-approved use. Data were analyzed in electronic databases and the variables were summarized by simple frequency. A total of 164 analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed to 150 children aged 1-4 years (38.6%). Dipyrone was included in 82 (54.6%) and ibuprofen in 40 (26.6%) prescriptions. Non-recommended uses were identified in 15% of prescriptions and contraindicated uses were observed in 13.3%. Nimesulide (1.5%) is still prescribed to children younger than 12 years. The dose was incorrect in 74.3% of prescriptions containing dipyrone. Of the 211 reported clinical indications, 56 (26.5%) had no evidence of benefit according to the best available scientific evidence and 66 (31.3%) had indications not approved by the regulatory agencies. There are significant discrepancies between clinical practice and recommended use of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pediatrics. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in pediatric prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia R. Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Data on clinical practice in pediatrics on the use of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs considering the best available evidence and regulatory-agency approved use are uncertain. This study aimed to determine the frequency of prescription of these drugs according to the best scientific evidence and use approved by regulatory agencies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 150 pediatric prescriptions containing analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by interview with caregivers at 18 locations (nine private drugstores and nine Basic Health Units of the Brazilian Unified Health System. The assessed outcomes included recommended use or use with no contraindication, indications with benefit evidence, and health surveillance agency-approved use. Data were analyzed in electronic databases and the variables were summarized by simple frequency. RESULTS: A total of 164 analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed to 150 children aged 1-4 years (38.6%. Dipyrone was included in 82 (54.6% and ibuprofen in 40 (26.6% prescriptions. Non-recommended uses were identified in 15% of prescriptions and contraindicated uses were observed in 13.3%. Nimesulide (1.5% is still prescribed to children younger than 12 years. The dose was incorrect in 74.3% of prescriptions containing dipyrone. Of the 211 reported clinical indications, 56 (26.5% had no evidence of benefit according to the best available scientific evidence and 66 (31.3% had indications not approved by the regulatory agencies. CONCLUSION: There are significant discrepancies between clinical practice and recommended use of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pediatrics.

  12. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distributor or other written, printed, or graphic matter containing no representation or suggestion relating... experience adequately documented in medical literature or by other data (to be supplied to the Food and Drug... material in the light of its representations or material with respect to consequences that may result from...

  13. OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

  14. Co-prescription of antiepileptic drugs and contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Bos, J.H.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    Background: Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives. Little is known of contraceptive practice among reproductive-age women who receive AEDs. Study Design: We explored the use of contraceptive methods among Dutch women aged 15 to 49 years with

  15. prescriptions involving analgesic drugs at a secondary health facility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perhaps pharmacogenetics may provide an insight. Meanwhile, it will be essential to carry out a large epidemiological survey with a view to determining tolerance or otherwise of Dipyrone amongst Nigerian. Africans. It is noteworthy that none of the patients with Peptic. Ulcer Disease who required analgesic drug was given.

  16. Factors Contributing to Increases in Prescription Drug Expenditures Borne by National Health Insurance in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeong Sook; Kim, Young Man; Paek, Kyung Won; Bea, Min Hee; Chun, Kihong; Lee, Soojin

    2016-07-01

    Rapid growth of prescription drug expenditures is a problem in South Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the contributions of four variables (therapeutic choice, drug-mix, original use, and price changes) to increases in drug expenditures paid by the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Korea. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2012 utilizing data from the NHI Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The number of target drug types for final analysis was 13959. To analyze the growth rates of drug expenditures, this study used Fisher ideal index and the Laspeyres and Paasche indexes. With the exception of 2012, therapeutic choice contributed to about 40-60% of the increase in drug expenditures every year, while drug-mix contributed to another 30-40%. The rapid growth in prescription drug expenditure was found to be largely due to drug-mix and therapeutic choice over time. Original use had little impact on drug spending.

  17. Prescription Drug Utilization and Reimbursement Increased Following State Medicaid Expansion in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Farley, Joel F

    2017-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded health care and medication insurance coverage through Medicaid expansion in select states. Expansion has the potential to increase the availability of health services to patients, including prescription medications. However, limited studies have examined how expansion affected prescription drug utilization and reimbursement. To compare prescription drug utilization (number of prescriptions filled) and reimbursement trends between states that did and did not expand Medicaid coverage in 2014, while accounting for known effects of expansion on Medicaid enrollment. We conducted a comparative interrupted time series using retrospective Medicaid state drug utilization data from 2011 to 2014. After inclusion/exclusion criteria, 8 states that expanded Medicaid in 2014 and 10 states that did not expand Medicaid were studied. Primary outcomes were changes in quarterly prescription drug utilization and quarterly total prescription drug reimbursement before and after expansion. To account for increases in enrollment in expansion states, secondary outcomes were per-member-per-quarter (PMPQ) utilization and reimbursement before and after expansion. Expansion states experienced a 1.4 million prescriptions per quarter and $163 million per quarter increase in utilization and reimbursement above the change in rates observed in nonexpansion states after expansion (P factor driving reimbursement changes. Factors such as changes in product mix, risk pool composition, and drug pricing and their effects on total and per-member reimbursement should be evaluated in future studies. No outside funding supported this study. Mahendraratnam is currently a Worldwide Health Economics and Outcomes Research Pre-doctoral Fellow at Bristol-Myers Squibb and previously provided advisory services to public and private sector clients while employed at Avalere Health, an Inovalon Company, as well as completed an internship at Genentech, a member of the Roche Group

  18. Sexual Orientation and College Students' Reasons for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagirmanjian, Faedra R; McDaniel, Anne E; Shadick, Richard

    2017-07-03

    Nonmedical use of prescription pain medications, sedatives, and stimulants is a well-documented problem among college students. Research has indicated that students who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are at elevated risk. However, little is known about students' reasons for use. (1) To replicate findings that sexual minority students report higher nonmedical use than heterosexual students, moving from a campus-specific to a multicampus sample and (2) to test for an association between sexual orientation and reasons for use. The 2015 College Prescription Drug Study surveyed 3389 students from nine 4-year public and private colleges and universities across the United States using an anonymous online survey. Measures assessed demographic information, prevalence of nonmedical use, frequency of use, where the drugs were obtained, reasons for use, and consequences of use. Stepwise logistic regression models were used to determine if sexual orientation predicted use. Chi-square tests of independence were also used to analyze prevalence of use by demographics as well as to assess differences in reasons for use by sexual orientation. Sexual minority students were significantly more likely than heterosexual students to nonmedically use any prescription drug, pain medications, and sedatives. Sexual minority students were also more likely to select that they used pain medications to relieve anxiety, enhance social interactions, and to feel better. Conclusions/Importance: Although sexual minority students are more likely to report nonmedical use, students overall use prescription medications for similar reasons, with the exception of painkillers. Implications and areas for future research are discussed.

  19. Stress, Drugs, and Alcohol Use Among Health Care Professional Students: A Focus on Prescription Stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwal, Monica K; Ip, Eric J; Shah, Bijal M; Serino, Melissa J

    2015-12-01

    To contrast the characteristics of pharmacy, medicine, and physician assistant (PA) students regarding the prevalence of drug, alcohol, and tobacco use and to identify risk factors associated with prescription stimulant use. Five hundred eighty nine students were recruited to complete a 50-item Web-based survey. Demographics, nonmedical prescription medication use, illicit drug and alcohol use, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR) psychiatric diagnoses, and perceived stress scale (PSS) scores. Medicine and PA students reported greater nonmedical prescription stimulant use than pharmacy students (10.4% vs 14.0% vs 6.1%; P students were more likely to report a history of an anxiety disorder (12.1% vs 18.6% vs 5.9%; P students. PSS scores for all 3 groups (21.9-22.3) were roughly twice as high as the general adult population. Illicit drug and prescription stimulant use, psychiatric disorders, and elevated stress levels are prevalent among health care professional students. Health care professional programs may wish to use this information to better understand their student population which may lead to a reassessment of student resources and awareness/prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Medical Treatment of Newly Arrived Refugees in Erlangen: A Study of Drug Prescription Rates Focused on Psychotropic Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Fabian; Frewer, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Background: In 2015 the number of refugees who sought asylum in Germany has increased dramatically. Therefore, the medical care for these refugees faces huge challenges. The treatment of mental illness of refugees is a particular difficult topic. Objective of this study is the acquisition of the outpatient prescriptions of drugs for newly arrived refugees in Erlangen, focused on psychotropic drugs. Methods: Evaluation of all outpatient prescribed drugs (n=1 137), which were prescribed between 10/01/2014 and 09/30/2015 for asylum seekers living in the refugee center in Erlangen, a branch of the "Central Admission Institution" ("ZAE") Zirndorf. Funding organization of this treatment is the City of Erlangen. Settlement documents of the City of Erlangen were used for the analysis. Results: The prescribed drugs cover the spectrum of acute primary care. Big parts of the prescription rates are antiinfectives (ATC-Code: J), medication for the respiratory system (ATC: R), as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID's: ibuprofen, paracetamol, metamizole). The prescription of psychotropic drugs is relatively underrepresented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Prescription of anorectic and benzodiazepine drugs through notification B prescriptions in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Aparecida Nappo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 22,158 special B prescriptions (notificações B containing amphetamine-type anorectic drugs or benzodiazepines, obtained from compounding pharmacies or drugstores located in the city of Natal, RN, Brazil. The data obtained were compared with those from other Brazilian cities. Results showed that compounding pharmacies dispensed 85.4% of the prescriptions, indicating that these pharmacies filled out nearly 10 times more of these prescriptions than did the drugstores. The majority (83.5% of B prescriptions issued for the compounding pharmacies were for women, where the female/male patient ratio ranged from 7.1/1.0 for mazindol to 10.3/1.0 for amfepramone. Similar results were obtained for the benzodiazepines with ratios of 1.9/1.0 for clonazepam to 15.6/1.0 for oxazepam. Omissions and mistakes were present in the B prescriptions, including missing information about the patient (in 49.6% of the documents or about the pharmacies or drugstores (50.4%. There were cases where the name and/or CRM of the physician was lacking. It was noted that one medical doctor made out 1855 B prescriptions within one year. The same patient's name appeared on 138 prescriptions, and the same RG (identification card number was present in 125 others. Comparison of Natal's data with those of several other Brazilian cities disclosed a striking similarity throughout Brazil, from Pelotas - Rio Grande do Sul State to Belem-Para State, revealing a practically identical medical/pharmaceutical behavior. This pattern of prescription/dispensation of amphetamine-type substances mostly to women for weight loss is therefore for cosmetic reasons. Consequently, there is an urgent need for an ethical review of this behavior.Foram examinadas 22.158 notificações B contendo substâncias anoréticas tipo-anfetamina ou de benzodiazepínicos, obtidas de drogarias e de farmácias de manipulação. Os dados foram comparados com os de outras cidades do Brasil, obtendo

  2. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

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    István Ujváry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.

  3. Assessment of Lemna minor (duckweed) and Corbicula fluminea (freshwater clam) as potential indicators of contaminated aquatic ecosystems: responses to presence of psychoactive drug mixtures.

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    Mohamed, Bourioug; Jean-Yves, Mazzitelli; Pierre, Marty; Hélène, Budzinski; Aleya, Lotfi; Elsa, Bonnafé; Florence, Geret

    2017-01-31

    The pharmaceutical products are emerging pollutants continuously released into the environment, because they cannot be effectively removed by the wastewater treatment plants. In recent years, questions have been raised concerning the environmental risks related to these pollutants. The goal of this research was to evaluate the responses in Lemna minor after 7 days and in Corbicula fluminea after differing durations (1, 3, 7, and 19 days) of exposure to the psychoactive drug mixture (valproic acid, citalopram, carbamazepine, cyamemazine, hydroxyzine, oxazepam, norfluoxetine, lorazepam, fluoxetine, and sertraline) in different concentrations (0, 0 + ethanol, drug concentration (DC) 1 = river water concentration, DC2 = effluent concentration, and DC3 = 10× effluent concentration). In this aim, growth parameters of L. minor, gluthathione S-transferase (GSTs), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and/or gene expressions (pi-gst, cat, cytochrome P450 4 (cyp4), multidrug resistant 1 (mdr1), and superoxide dismutase (sod)) were measured. GST activities increased significantly in L. minor exposed to DC3, but no changes were found in CAT activity. In C. fluminea, EROD activity was induced significantly in both gill and digestive gland tissues after 3 days' exposure to DC3, while a GST increase was observed only in digestive gland tissues, suggesting that these pharmaceuticals induced an oxidative effect. Gene expression analysis revealed transient transcriptomic responses of cyp4, sod, and mdr1 under drug concentrations 2 or 3 and no change of expression for the other genes (cat and pi-gst) or condition (environmental drug concentration) tested. Finally, the data reported in this study represent important ecotoxicological information, confirming that this enzyme family (cyp4, sod, and mdr1) may be considered as a sensible and early indicator of exposure to drugs and emphasizing the involvement of selected genes in detoxification pathways.

  4. Association of authorized generic marketing with prescription drug spending on antidepressants from 2000 to 2011.

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    Cheng, Ning; Banerjee, Tannista; Qian, Jingjing; Hansen, Richard A

    Prior research suggests that authorized generic drugs increase competition and decrease prices, but little empirical evidence supports this conclusion. This study evaluated the impact of authorized generic marketing on brand and generic prices. Longitudinal analysis of the household component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Interview panels over 12 years, with a new panel each year. For each panel, 5 rounds of household interviews were conducted over 30 months. Nationally representative sample of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population, focusing on people using 1 of 5 antidepressant drugs that became generically available between 2000 to 2011. Drugs and dose/formulations with versus without an authorized generic drug marketed. Multiple linear regression models with lagged variables evaluated the effect of an authorized generic on average inflation-adjusted brand and generic price, adjusting for payment sources, generic entry time, competitor price, and year. During 2000-2011, annual brand antidepressant utilization decreased from 51.47 to 7.52 million prescriptions, and generic antidepressant utilization increased from 0 to 88.83 million prescriptions. Over time, payment per prescription for brand prescriptions increased 25% overall, and generic payments decreased 70% for all payer types. With unadjusted data, after generic entry the average brand price decreased $0.59 per year with and $3.62 per year without an authorized generic in the market. Average generic prices decreased $10.30 per year with and $8.47 per year without an authorized generic in the market. In multiple regression models with lagged variables adjusted for heteroscedasticity, payer source, time since generic entry, competitor price, and year, authorized generics significantly reduced average payment for generic (-$3.03) and brand (-$60.64) prescriptions, and over time this price change slowly diminished. Availability of an authorized generic was associated with reduced average

  5. Frequency of potential interactions between drugs in medical prescriptions in a city in southern Brazil

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    Genici Weyh Bleich

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Drug interactions form part of current clinical practice and they affect between 3 and 5% of polypharmacy patients. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for adult and elderly patients. TYPE OF STUDY AND SETTING: Cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiological survey in the Parque Verde housing project, municipality of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil, between December 2006 and February 2007. METHODS: Stratified cluster sampling, proportional to the total number of homes in the housing project, was used. The sample consisted of 95 homes and 96 male or female patients aged 19 or over, with medical prescriptions for at least two pharmaceutical drugs. Interactions were identified using DrugDigest, Medscape and Micromedex softwares. RESULTS: Most of the patients were female (69.8%, married (59.4% and in the age group of 60 years or over (56.3%, with an income less than or equal to three minimum monthly salaries (81.3% and less than eight years of schooling (69.8%; 90.6% of the patients were living with another person. The total number of pharmaceutical drugs was 406 (average of 4.2 medications per patient. The drugs most prescribed were antihypertensives (47.5%. The frequency of drug interactions was 66.6%. Among the 154 potential drug interactions, 4.6% were classified as major, 65.6% as moderate and 20.1% as minor. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of drug prescriptions with a potential for differentiated interactions indicates a situation that has so far been little explored, albeit a reality in household surveys.

  6. New psychoactive substances as part of polydrug abuse within opioid maintenance treatment revealed by comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometric urine drug screening.

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    Heikman, Pertti; Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    At present, polydrug abuse comprises, besides traditional illicit drugs, new psychoactive substances (NPS) and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines (N-PPM). Polydrug abuse was comprehensively evaluated among opioid-dependent patients undergoing opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). Two hundred consecutively collected urine samples from 82 OMT patients (52 male) treated with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone medication were studied using a liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening method. The method enables simultaneous detection of hundreds of abused substances covering the traditional drugs of abuse and many NPS as well as N-PPM. Ninety-two (45.8%) samples were positive for the abused substances. Benzodiazepines (29.0%), amphetamines (19.5%), cannabinoids (17.0%), NPS (13.0%), N-PPM (9.0%), and opioids (9.0%) were detected in different combinations. The simultaneous occurrence of up to three groups of abused substances was common (40.0%), and in one sample, all six groups were found. The stimulant NPS alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone was found in 10.0% and the sedative N-PPM pregabalin in 4.0% of the samples. The patients were seldom aware of what particular NPS they had abused. A widespread occurrence of abused substances beyond the ordinary was revealed. Identifying these patients is essential as polydrug abuse is a safety risk to the patient and may cause attrition from OMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Analysis of projects developed by teachers: the challenge of preventing psychoactive drug use and violence among young people in Medellín

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    Ana C. Jaramillo M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the development of projects formulated by professional teachers who are students of the certified course named “Red Formemos Educadores 2008-2010”. The projects were formulated in order to prevent violence and psychoactive drug use among the young students of Medellín, Colombia. Methodology: the Methodological elements proposed by grounded theory were used. Data collection was carried out in three stages: 1 one group interview, 2 four individual in-depth interviews, and 3 two individual in-depth interviews with two teachers and two interviews of the same nature with two members from the SURGIR NGO. No theories were formulated. Results: an important reason to develop prevention projects is the well-being of the young individuals living in communities where violence and drug use are common. Teacher motivation allowed for the successful development of the projects. Conversely, a lack of motivation led to withdrawal from the certified course. Discussion: the various problems of the teachers’ social environment have a direct effect on their motivations. For some teachers, the lack of time is an obstacle to carry out the academic activities proposed during the certified course. A motivated teacher can successfully face the difficulties encountered during the project development process

  8. FDA direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs: what are consumer preferences and response tendencies?

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    Khanfar, Nile; Loudon, David; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza

    2007-01-01

    The effect of direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertising of prescription medications is a growing concern of the United States (U.S.) Congress, state legislatures, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This research study was conducted in order to examine consumers' perceived preferences of DTC television advertisement in relation to "reminder" "help-seeking," and "product-claim" FDA-approved advertisement categories. An additional objective was to examine the influence of DTC television advertising of prescription drugs on consumers' tendency to seek more information about the medication and/or the medical condition. The research indicates that DTC television drug ads appear to be insufficient for consumers to make informed decisions. Their mixed perception and acceptance of the advertisements seem to influence them to seek more information from a variety of medical sources.

  9. Governmental oversight of prescribing medications: history of the US Food and Drug Administration and prescriptive authority.

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    Plank, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of drug regulation and awarding of prescriptive authority is a complex and sometimes convoluted process that can be confusing for health care providers. A review of the history of how drugs have been manufactured and dispensed helps explain why this process has been so laborious and complicated. Because the federal and state governments have the responsibility for protecting the public, most regulations have been passed with the intentions of ensuring consumer safety. The current system of laws and regulations is the result of many years of using the legal system to correct drug marketing that had adverse health consequences. Government oversight will continue as prescribing medications transitions to an electronic form and as health care professionals in addition to physicians seek to gain prescriptive authority. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Evaluation of the community pharmacist’s behavior towards a prescription of antidiabetic and antiasthma drugs

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    Alomar MJ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the performance of community pharmacist towards antidiabetic and antiasthma prescriptions, and also to assess the lack of information provided by community pharmacists regarding patient counseling and missing data, using a simulated patient technique.Methods: A prescription including antidiabetic and antiasthma drugs was used by simulated patient to assess community pharmacist’s performance in 194 pharmacies. A performance assessment sheet was used to measure the patient counseling process. A quantitative descriptive and comparative analysis was done for the collected data. Pearson chi-square test (crosstabs was used with a level of significance 95%.Results: The analysis of the 194 pharmacies visited revealed that most of the pharmacists were male (61%, Arabs (35% and Indians (55% with some other nationalities. The dispensing time in the pharmacy ranged between 2 to 10 minutes. Spending time with patients was not affected by gender (p-value 0.087, slightly affected by nationality (p-value 0.04, and highly affected by age (p-value 0.002 leaning towards older pharmacists who spent more time with patients than younger pharmacists. Most pharmacists (90% started preparing the prescription once they received the prescription with no actual prescription screening. fifty five percent of the pharmacists asked about the duration of the treatment after preparing the prescription. ninety six percent did not counsel patients about diet, exercise and lifestyle changes. Less than 40% asked if the prescription was intended to be used for the same patient.Conclusion: This study recommends that health authorities consider follow up plans in order to ensure the best pharmaceutical care is provided by community pharmacies.

  11. Do pharmacists have a right to refuse to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs?

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    Weinstein, B D

    1992-01-01

    Some pharmacists opposed to abortion on moral ground are concerned by having to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs like mifepristone (RU-486). The issue of the right of pharmacists to refuse to fill such prescriptions depends on the model of the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship. The libertarian model of pharmacy practice holds that physicians, pharmacists, and patients are bound only by the contract that they freely negotiate with one another, thus the pharmacist has no moral obligation to fill a prescription for mifepristone unless he or she has expressly contracted to do so. The American Pharmaceutical Association's 1981 Code of Ethics does not specify what a pharmacist ought to do in particular circumstances. The right to refuse is strongly supported by the principles of nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. These are principles of the libertarian model of the pharmacist-patient relationship but are also present in the guild or societal models stressing the duty to avoid harming others. Justification for pharmacists right of refusal appeals to their autonomy rights as members of the moral community rather than the profession of pharmacy. Since the professional right to autonomy is not absolute, moral consideration circumscribe it: it is difficult to argue that a pharmacist who believes that homosexuality is immoral has the right to refuse to fill a prescription for AZT. Even if a person who presents such a prescription is homosexual there is no causal relationship between filling a prescription for AZT and participating in a homosexual act. At the opposite end the libertarians reject the notion of even a basic right to health care. A woman in the above situation would not have a right to the abortifacient drug, so a pharmacist has no duty to dispense it. According to the technician model of professionalism, the pharmacist's personal values do not matter, so a pharmacist has a duty to provide the service.

  12. Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs - a cross-sectional study.

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    Corroon, James M; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs. A total of 2,774 individuals were a self-selected convenience sample who reported having used cannabis at least once in the previous 90 days. Subjects were surveyed via an online anonymous questionnaire on cannabis substitution effects. Participants were recruited through social media and cannabis dispensaries in Washington State. A total of 1,248 (46%) respondents reported using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common classes of drugs substituted were narcotics/opioids (35.8%), anxiolytics/benzodiazepines (13.6%) and antidepressants (12.7%). A total of 2,473 substitutions were reported or approximately two drug substitutions per affirmative respondent. The odds of reporting substituting were 4.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.87-5.43) greater among medical cannabis users compared with non-medical users and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.27-2.16) greater among those reporting use for managing the comorbidities of pain, anxiety and depression. A slightly higher percentage of those who reported substituting resided in states where medical cannabis was legal at the time of the survey (47% vs. 45%, p =0.58), but this difference was not statistically significant. These patient-reported outcomes support prior research that individuals are using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs, particularly, narcotics/opioids, and independent of whether they identify themselves as medical or non-medical users. This is especially true if they suffer from pain, anxiety and depression. Additionally, this study suggests that state laws allowing access to, and use of, medical cannabis may not be influencing

  13. Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review.

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    Orizio, Grazia; Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-09-30

    Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs, researchers very often found

  14. Drug prescription appropriateness in the elderly: an Italian study [Corrigendum

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    Allegri N

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Page 325, the author affiliations were incorrect, the correct affiliations are shown below:Nicola Allegri,1 Federica Rossi,2 Federica Del Signore,2 Paolo Bertazzoni,3 Roberto Bellazzi,4 Giorgio Sandrini,1,5 Tomaso Vecchi,1,5 Davide Liccione,1 Alessia Pascale,6 Stefano Govoni61Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 2Pavia and Vigevano Neuropsychological Center for Alzheimer’s Disease, Pavia, 3“Bertazzoni” Pharmacy General Partnership, Vigevano, 4Nephrology and Dialysis Ward, Civil Hospital of Vigevano, Vigevano, 5C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, 6Department of Drug Sciences, Section of pharmacology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Read the original article

  15. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts: Prescription Drug Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Wesley K; Taniguchi, Ronald; Juarez, Deborah Taira

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drugs have reduced morbidity and mortality and improved the quality of life of millions of Americans. Yet, concerns over drug price increases loom. Drug spending has risen relatively slowly over the past decade because many of the most popular brand-name medicines lost patent protection. In the near future, there will be fewer low-cost generics coming into the market to offset the rising prices of brand-name drugs. Drug expenditures are influenced by both volume and price. This article focuses on how drug prices are set in the United States and current trends. Drug prices are determined through an extremely complicated set of interactions between pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, insurers, pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs), managed care organizations, hospitals, chain stores, and consumers. The process differs depending on the type of drug and place of delivery. Rising drug prices have come under increased scrutiny due to increased cost inflation and because many price increases come as a result of mergers and acquisitions of generic drug companies or changes in ownership of brand name drug manufacturers. Other countries have reigned in drug prices by negotiating with or regulating pharmaceutical manufacturers. The best long-term solution to rising drug prices is yet to be determined but the United States will continue to debate this issue and the discussions will get more heated if drug expenditures continue to rise at a rapid rate (ie, increasing 13% in 2014 from the previous year).

  16. Knowledge regarding antibiotic drug action and prescription practices among dentist in Jaipur city, Rajasthan

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    Dushyant Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentists prescribe antibiotics routinely to manage oral and dental infections. Unscrupulous antibiotic prescriptions can be associated with unfavorable side effects and the development of resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge regarding antibiotic prescription use among dentists in Jaipur City, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 300 dentists in Jaipur city. A validated, self-designed, 21-item, closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect data on knowledge regarding antibiotic prescription. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: A total of 300 dental practitioners were included in the study. The majority of the respondents seem to prescribe antibiotics that are broad spectrum or the ones that are commonly used. A considerable percentage of the respondents were not aware of the pregnancy drug risk categories by Food and Drug Administration. The most of the respondents said that they prescribe antibiotics on the basis of the diagnosis, whereas more than two-thirds of the respondents said that they never advise culture sensitivity test before prescribing the antibiotics. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the knowledge of dentists regarding antibiotic prescription is inadequate and more focus should be given to the ongoing training regarding the pharmacological aspects, pertinent medical conditions, and prophylactic use of antibiotics in dentistry.

  17. To Dope or Not to Dope: Neuroenhancement with Prescription Drugs and Drugs of Abuse among Swiss University Students

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    Maier, Larissa J.; Liechti, Matthias E.; Herzig, Fiona; Schaub, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuroenhancement is the use of substances by healthy subjects to enhance mood or cognitive function. The prevalence of neuroenhancement among Swiss university students is unknown. Investigating the prevalence of neuroenhancement among students is important to monitor problematic use and evaluate the necessity of prevention programs. Study aim To describe the prevalence of the use of prescription medications and drugs of abuse for neuroenhancement among Swiss university students. Method In this cross-sectional study, students at the University of Zurich, University of Basel, and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich were invited via e-mail to participate in an online survey. Results A total of 28,118 students were contacted, and 6,275 students completed the survey. Across all of the institutions, 13.8% of the respondents indicated that they had used prescription drugs (7.6%) or drugs of abuse including alcohol (7.8%) at least once specifically for neuroenhancement. The most frequently used prescription drugs for neuroenhancement were methylphenidate (4.1%), sedatives (2.7%), and beta-blockers (1.2%). Alcohol was used for this purpose by 5.6% of the participants, followed by cannabis (2.5%), amphetamines (0.4%), and cocaine (0.2%). Arguments for neuroenhancement included increased learning (66.2%), relaxation or sleep improvement (51.2%), reduced nervousness (39.1%), coping with performance pressure (34.9%), increased performance (32.2%), and experimentation (20%). Neuroenhancement was significantly more prevalent among more senior students, students who reported higher levels of stress, and students who had previously used illicit drugs. Although “soft enhancers”, including coffee, energy drinks, vitamins, and tonics, were used daily in the month prior to an exam, prescription drugs or drugs of abuse were used much less frequently. Conclusions A significant proportion of Swiss university students across most academic disciplines reported

  18. To dope or not to dope: neuroenhancement with prescription drugs and drugs of abuse among Swiss university students.

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    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroenhancement is the use of substances by healthy subjects to enhance mood or cognitive function. The prevalence of neuroenhancement among Swiss university students is unknown. Investigating the prevalence of neuroenhancement among students is important to monitor problematic use and evaluate the necessity of prevention programs. STUDY AIM: To describe the prevalence of the use of prescription medications and drugs of abuse for neuroenhancement among Swiss university students. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, students at the University of Zurich, University of Basel, and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich were invited via e-mail to participate in an online survey. RESULTS: A total of 28,118 students were contacted, and 6,275 students completed the survey. Across all of the institutions, 13.8% of the respondents indicated that they had used prescription drugs (7.6% or drugs of abuse including alcohol (7.8% at least once specifically for neuroenhancement. The most frequently used prescription drugs for neuroenhancement were methylphenidate (4.1%, sedatives (2.7%, and beta-blockers (1.2%. Alcohol was used for this purpose by 5.6% of the participants, followed by cannabis (2.5%, amphetamines (0.4%, and cocaine (0.2%. Arguments for neuroenhancement included increased learning (66.2%, relaxation or sleep improvement (51.2%, reduced nervousness (39.1%, coping with performance pressure (34.9%, increased performance (32.2%, and experimentation (20%. Neuroenhancement was significantly more prevalent among more senior students, students who reported higher levels of stress, and students who had previously used illicit drugs. Although "soft enhancers", including coffee, energy drinks, vitamins, and tonics, were used daily in the month prior to an exam, prescription drugs or drugs of abuse were used much less frequently. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of Swiss university students across most academic disciplines reported

  19. Medicare Part D and Its Effect on the Use of Prescription Drugs and Use of Other Health Care Services of the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Nasreen Khan,

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of gaining prescription drug insurance, as a result of Medicare Part D, on use of prescription drugs and other medical services for a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Given the heightened importance of prescription drugs for those with chronic illness, we provide separate estimates for elderly in…

  20. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market.

  1. The price may not be right: the value of comparison shopping for prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sanjay; Sood, Neeraj; Terp, Sophie; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2017-07-01

    To measure variations in drug prices across and within zip codes that may reveal simple strategies to improve patients' access to prescribed medications. We compared drug prices at different types of pharmacies across and within local markets. In-store prices were compared with a Web-based service providing discount coupons for prescription medications. Prices were collected for 2 generic antibiotics because most patients have limited experience with them and are less likely to know the price ranges for them. Drug prices were obtained via telephone from 528 pharmacies in Los Angeles (LA) County, California, from July to August 2014. Online prices were collected from GoodRx, a popular Web-based service that aggregates available discounts and directly negotiates with retail outlets. Drug prices found at independent pharmacies and by using discount coupons available online were lower on average than at grocery, big-box, or chain drug stores for 2 widely prescribed antibiotics. The lowest-price prescription was offered at a grocery, big-box, or chain drug store in 6% of zip codes within the LA County area. Drug prices varied dramatically within a zip code, however, and were less expensive in lower-income areas. The average price difference within a zip code was $52 for levofloxacin and $17 for azithromycin. Price shopping for medications within a small geographic area can yield considerable cost savings for the uninsured and consumers in high-deductible health plans with high negotiated prices. Clinicians and patient advocates have an incentive to convey this information to patients to improve adherence to prescribed medicines and lower the financial burden of purchasing prescription drugs.

  2. Use of psychoactive drugs and related falls among older people living in a community in Brazil Uso de medicamentos psicoativos e seu relacionamento com quedas entre idosos

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    Flávio Chaimowicz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Population aging in Brazil has increased the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and affective disorders (anxiety, depression, all common in old age. A retrospective study was carried out with the purpose of ascertaining if there is an association between falls and psychoactive medication use among older residents of a community in Brazil. METHODS: All residents aged 65+ (n=161 of one neighborhood of Campo Belo, Brazil (population of 48,000 were evaluated regarding the use of psychoactive drugs and the occurrence of falls in the 12 months preceding the study. Vision and hearing screenings were also performed. RESULTS: From the study population, 9.3% were taking prolonged half-life benzodiazepines, 4.4% anticonvulsants (mostly barbiturates, 2.5% antidepressants (all cyclics and 8.1% alpha-methyldopa. No subject reported use of hypnotics, neuroleptics or drugs to treat Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases (except biperiden. As a whole, drugs that increase the risk of falls were used by 1/5 of this population. In the 12-month period preceding the study, 27 residents (16.8% experienced falls and, of those, 4 (14.8% had fracture(s. There was an independent association between psychoactive drug use and falls when variables such as age, gender, vision and hearing were controlled (p=0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Although the population of this neighborhood must be considered young (only 4% are 65 years old or more, there are already problems related to the use of psychoactive drugs among people. Prescribed anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and antihypertensives are not appropriate for this age group and their use is associated with falls.INTRODUÇÃO: O envelhecimento populacional no Brasil tem aumentado a prevalência de doenças neurodegenerativas (Parkinson, Alzheimer e psiquiátricas (depressão, ansiedade, comuns em idosos. Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo com o objetivo de determinar se h

  3. [Frequency of prescriptions of off-label drugs and drugs not approved for pediatric use in primary health care in a southern municipality of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marcele Giacomin; Heineck, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency of prescriptions of off-label drugs and drugs not approved for pediatric use in primary health care in medium-sized municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, which analyzed prescriptions issued to 326 patients from August to December/2012 in two basic health units in the city of Viamão, state of Rio Grande do Sul. It included all prescriptions of patients whose medical records or service records were available and complete in relation to the date of presence, weight and date of birth. Off-label prescriptions were those which, in relation to the drug leaflet, showed dose different the recommended range, frequency of prescription and/or different form of administration and younger age than the indicated range. Descriptive statistics with absolute frequencies, means and standard deviations were used. During the study period, a total of 731 drug prescriptions were issued and the frequency of off-label medications prescribed was 31.7%, especially antihistamines and antiasthmatics (32.3% and 31.5%, respectively). The main type of off-label prescription was dose (38.8%), followed by age range (31.5%) and frequency of administration (29.3%). Regarding the dose off-label prescription, overdose was more frequent (93.3%) than the underdose (6.7%). Prescriptions of unapproved drugs were not identified. The study showed that off label prescription is common in both assessed units. The observed percentage of off label prescription was higher than that reported by European studies carried out in primary care. On the other hand, the prescription of drugs not approved for children was not observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Demand for prescription drugs under non-linear pricing in Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungrae; Feldman, Roger; McBean, A Marshall

    2014-03-01

    We estimate the price elasticity of prescription drug use in Medicare Part D, which features a non-linear price schedule due to a coverage gap. We analyze patterns of drug utilization prior to the coverage gap, where the "effective price" is higher than the actual copayment for drugs because consumers anticipate that more spending will make them more likely to reach the gap. We find that enrollees' total pre-gap drug spending is sensitive to their effective prices: the estimated price elasticity of drug spending ranges between [Formula: see text]0.14 and [Formula: see text]0.36. This finding suggests that filling in the coverage gap, as mandated by the health care reform legislation passed in 2010, will influence drug utilization prior to the gap. A simulation analysis indicates that closing the gap could increase Part D spending by a larger amount than projected, with additional pre-gap costs among those who do not hit the gap.

  5. Prescription Pain Medications (Opioids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rx drug abuse by letting the viewer make choices for the characters. Information on Prescription Drug Video NIDA: How many pain meds should you take? Addiction, compulsive drug use, and prescription drug abuse are ...

  6. Integrating nine prescription opioid analgesics and/or four signal detection systems to summarize statewide prescription drug abuse in the United States in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael F; Bailey, J Elise; Cicero, Theodore J; Dart, Richard C; Inciardi, James A; Parrino, Mark; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2009-09-01

    Integrate statewide rankings of abuse across different drugs and/or signal detection systems to summarize prescription drug abuse in each state in 2007. Four signal detection systems (Opioid Treatment Programs, Key Informants, Drug Diversion, and Poison Centers) that covered heterogeneous populations collected data on the abuse of nine opioids: hydrocodone, immediate-release oxycodone, tramadol, extended-release [ER] oxycodone, fentanyl, morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and buprenorphine). We introduce here linearized maps which integrate nine drugs within each system; four systems for each drug; or all drugs and systems. When rankings were integrated across drugs, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine, West Virginia, and Michigan were in the highest tertile of abuse in three systems. When rankings were integrated across signal detection systems, there was a geographic clustering of states with the highest rates for ER oxycodone (in Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont) and methadone (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, Connecticut, and New Jersey). When rankings were integrated across both drugs and signal detection systems, states with 3-digit ZIP codes below 269 (i.e., from Massachusetts to West Virginia): Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, Washington DC, Virginia, and West Virginia were in the highest tertile and only Delaware was in the lowest tertile. We have presented methods to integrate data on prescription opioid abuse collected by signal detection systems covering different populations. Linearized maps are effective graphical summaries that depict differences in the level of prescription opioid abuse at the state level.

  7. The Use of Prescription Drugs, Recreational Drugs, and "Soft Enhancers" for Cognitive Enhancement among Swiss Secondary School Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Liakoni

    Full Text Available The use of prescription or recreational drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE is prevalent among students. However, the prevalence of CE among Swiss school students is unknown. We therefore performed a cross-sectional online survey including ≥ 16-year-old students from bridge-year schools (10th grade, vocational schools, and upper secondary schools (10th-12th grade in the Canton of Zurich to investigate the prevalence of and motives for the use of prescription drugs, recreational drugs, and/or freely available soft enhancers for CE. A total of 1,139 students were included. Of these, 54.5% reported the use of prescription drugs (9.2%, recreational drugs including alcohol (6.2%, or soft enhancers (51.3% explicitly for CE at least once in their lives. The last-year and last-month prevalence for CE considering all substances was 45.5% and 39.5%, respectively. Soft enhancers were the substances that were most commonly used (ever, last-year, and last-month, respectively, including energy drinks (33.3%, 28.4%, and 24.6%, coffee (29.8%, 25.1%, and 21.9%, and tobacco (12.6%, 9.3%, and 8.3%. CE with methylphenidate was less prevalent (4.0%, 2.8%, and 2.0%. However, the use of prescription drugs, alcohol, or illegal drugs for CE was reported by 13.3% of the participants. The most common motives for use were to stay awake and improve concentration. CE was more prevalent among students who reported higher levels of stress or performance pressure and students with psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, half of the school students had used a substance at least once in their lives to improve school performance. Soft enhancers were most commonly used. Prevalence rates were similar to those reported by Swiss university students, indicating that the use of prescription or recreational drugs for CE already occurs before starting higher education. Performance pressure, stress, and psychiatric disorders may be associated with CE.

  8. Thinking outside the medicine cabinet: a comparative content analysis of direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study content analyzed online direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA) for prescription drug treatments to explore whether ads for prescription treatments for psychiatric conditions, which are commonly untreated, differ from other drug advertisements. Coded variables included the presence of interactive technological components, use of promotional incentives, and the social contexts portrayed in images shown on each site. Statistical analysis revealed ads for psychiatric medications contained fewer interactive website features, financial incentives, and calls to action than other types of prescription drug advertisements. Implications for health communication researchers are discussed.

  9. Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corroon Jr JM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James M Corroon Jr,1 Laurie K Mischley,2 Michelle Sexton3 1Center for Medical Cannabis Education, Del Mar, CA, 2Bastyr University Research Institute, Kenmore, WA, 3Department of Medical Research, Center for the Study of Cannabis and Social Policy, Seattle, WA, USA Background: The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs.Methods: A total of 2,774 individuals were a self-selected convenience sample who reported having used cannabis at least once in the previous 90 days. Subjects were surveyed via an online anonymous questionnaire on cannabis substitution effects. Participants were recruited through social media and cannabis dispensaries in Washington State.Results: A total of 1,248 (46% respondents reported using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common classes of drugs substituted were narcotics/opioids (35.8%, anxiolytics/benzodiazepines (13.6% and antidepressants (12.7%. A total of 2,473 substitutions were reported or approximately two drug substitutions per affirmative respondent. The odds of reporting substituting were 4.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.87–5.43 greater among medical cannabis users compared with non-medical users and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.27–2.16 greater among those reporting use for managing the comorbidities of pain, anxiety and depression. A slightly higher percentage of those who reported substituting resided in states where medical cannabis was legal at the time of the survey (47% vs. 45%, p=0.58, but this difference was not statistically significant.Discussion: These patient-reported outcomes support prior research that individuals are using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs

  10. Establishing a Link Between Prescription Drug Abuse and Illicit Online Pharmacies: Analysis of Twitter Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Takeo; Mackey, Tim Ken; Cuomo, Raphael

    2015-12-16

    Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are concerning, as our study found over 45,000 tweets

  11. Past-year Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Opioid Prescriptions and Self-reported Opioid Use in an Emergency Department Population with Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Kathryn; D'Onofrio, Gail; Fiellin, David A; Chawarski, Marek C; O'Connor, Patrick G; Owens, Patricia H; Pantalon, Michael V; Bernstein, Steven L

    2017-11-22

    Despite increasing reliance on Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) as a response to the opioid epidemic, the relationship between aberrant drug-related behaviors captured by the PDMP and opioid use disorder is incompletely understood. How PDMP data should guide Emergency Department (ED) assessment has not been studied. To evaluate a relationship between PDMP opioid prescription records and self-reported non-medical opioid use of prescription opioids in a cohort of opioid dependent ED patients enrolled in a treatment trial. PDMP opioid prescription records during one year prior to study enrollment on 329 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for opioid dependence entering a randomized clinical trial (RCT) in a large, urban ED were cross tabulated with data on 30-day non-medical prescription opioid use self-report. The association among these two types of data was assessed by the Goodman and Kruskal's Gamma; a logistic regression was used to explore characteristics of participants who had PDMP record of opioid prescriptions. During one year prior to study enrollment,118/329 (36%) patients had ≥ 1 opioid prescriptions (range 1-51) in our states' PDMP. Patients who reported ≥15 out of 30 days of non-medical prescription opioid use were more likely to have ≥4 PDMP opioid prescriptions (20/38; 53%) than patients reporting 1-14 days (14/38, 37%) or zero days of non-medical prescription opioid use (4/38,11%); p=0.002. Female gender and having health insurance were significantly more represented in the PDMP (p<0.05 for both). PDMPs may be helpful in identifying patients with certain aberrant drug-related behavior, but are unable to detect many patients with OUD. The majority of ED patients with OUD were not captured by the PDMP, highlighting the importance of using additional methods such as screening and clinical history to identify OUDs in ED patients and the limitations of PDMPs to detect OUDs. This article is protected by copyright

  12. Doping in gymnasiums in Amman: the other side of prescription and nonprescription drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazaify, Mayyada; Bdair, Ahmad; Al-Hadidi, Kamal; Scott, Jenny

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the abuse of over-the-counter (OTC) products (e.g., proteins, dietary supplements) and prescription drugs (e.g., hormones) in gymnasiums in Amman by random distribution of a structured questionnaire to 375 gym clients (November 2012-February 2013). Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 17.0). A total of 31 (8.8%) clients admitted to using 21 products (mentioned 71 times) of anabolic steroids and other hormones (e.g., growth hormone and thyroxine) to increase muscular power at the gym or build muscle mass. Abuse of different prescription and OTC drugs among gymnasium clients is present in Jordan, but current methods for controlling the problem are ineffective. Better methods should be developed. The study's limitations are noted.

  13. Vasospastic myocardial infarction caused by a slimming agent—do not forget non-prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodagh, Neil; Iqbal, Mohammed Husnain; Timmis, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A 41-year-old woman presented with central chest discomfort. She had been previously well, was an ex-smoker and reported no regular medication. The ECG developed T-wave changes inferiorly and anterolaterally and troponin I concentrations were elevated confirming non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization showed severe spasm of the right and left anterior descending coronary arteries which resolved with intracoronary nitrates. She later volunteered that prior to presentation she had been taking non-prescription Acti-Phen a slimming agent containing phentermine. Acti-Phen had its licence withdrawn in 2001 because of cardiovascular side effects including coronary spasm. Accordingly, she was advised to avoid Acti-Phen in future. The case emphasizes the importance of obtaining a complete drug history, including non-prescription drugs, in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. PMID:28473918

  14. Vasospastic myocardial infarction caused by a slimming agent-do not forget non-prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohammed Omer; Bodagh, Neil; Iqbal, Mohammed Husnain; Timmis, Adam

    2017-04-01

    A 41-year-old woman presented with central chest discomfort. She had been previously well, was an ex-smoker and reported no regular medication. The ECG developed T-wave changes inferiorly and anterolaterally and troponin I concentrations were elevated confirming non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization showed severe spasm of the right and left anterior descending coronary arteries which resolved with intracoronary nitrates. She later volunteered that prior to presentation she had been taking non-prescription Acti-Phen a slimming agent containing phentermine. Acti-Phen had its licence withdrawn in 2001 because of cardiovascular side effects including coronary spasm. Accordingly, she was advised to avoid Acti-Phen in future. The case emphasizes the importance of obtaining a complete drug history, including non-prescription drugs, in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes.

  15. Rapid detection by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) of psychoactive plant drugs of abuse: the case of Mitragyna speciosa aka "Kratom".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A

    2014-09-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, also known commonly as "Kratom" or "Ketum", is a plant with psychoactive properties that have been attributed to the presence of various indole alkaloids such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. M. speciosa use is gaining popularity internationally as a natural and legal alternative to narcotics. As a drug of abuse, its detection and identification are not straightforward, since M. speciosa plant material is not particularly distinctive. Here, we show that direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) can be used not only to rapidly identify M. speciosa plant material and distinguish it from other plants, but also to distinguish between M. speciosa plant varieties, based on differences between their chemical profiles. The method is rapid and the analysis expeditious. Plant material such as that found at a crime scene can be analyzed directly with no sample pre-preparation steps. Furthermore, we show that the basis set of principal components that permit characterization of the plant material can be used to positively identify M. speciosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of a patient charge and a prescription regulation on the use of antihypertension drugs in Limburg, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmans, B; Janssen, R; Schepers, M; Verkooijen, M

    1994-01-15

    On 1 February 1983 a patient charge was introduced for prescription drugs for persons insured under the Dutch Sickness Funds Insurance Act. The charge consisted of a co-payment of NLG 2.50 per prescription item up to a maximum of NLG 125 for each family per calendar year. In the period before the introduction of the charge a prescription regulation was in force. For the majority of drugs this rule directed that each prescription item should be for a dosage of not more than 30 days. The prescription regulation was officially introduced on 1 January 1981 and ceased with the introduction of the charge. The effect of both measures on the use of antihypertension drugs in Limburg was investigated in an interrupted time-series analysis. Both the prescription regulation and the charge appeared to have an effect on the number of prescription items per insurant and the number of units delivered per prescription item. However, neither measure resulted in a reduction in the number of units delivered per insurant or the number of 'defined daily doses' (DDDs) per insurant. These findings suggest that neither measure resulted in a decrease in the inappropriate or appropriate use of antihypertension drugs.

  17. Living arrangements, chronic diseases, and prescription drug expenditures among Korean elderly: vulnerability to potential medication underuse

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Ja; Sohn, Hyun Soon; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient social security combined with family structure changes has resulted in a poverty of the elderly. The objective of this study was to examine an association of living arrangements of the elderly with chronic disease prevalence and prescription drug use. Methods 2008 Korea Health Panel Survey (KHPS) data were used in this study. Information on living arrangements, socio-demographics, health behaviors, chronic disease prevalence and healthcare expenditures including out-of...

  18. Not a good buy: value for money of prescription drugs sold on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella; Marcantoni, Claudio; Filippucci, Laura; Gelatti, Umberto

    2012-08-01

    In this note we study the value for money of purchases of fluoxetine made through on-line pharmacies without prescription. We show that this channel is not good value from an economic point of view and that it can be dangerous in medical terms because of the poor quality of the drugs received and the lack of prescribing instructions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonmedical use of prescription drugs in emerging adulthood: differentiating sex from gender

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Robert L.; Stewart, Breanna C.; Steele, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Fernando A.

    2016-01-01

    Male-female variations in health-behavior continue to be of national and international significance with men generally being more likely to be engaged in behaviors that enhance risk across an array of preventable diseases and injuries as well as premature deaths. The literature has identified non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) as a developing and particularly dangerous substance use behavior among college students. The literature has reported sex differences (male; f...

  20. Prescription drug abuse communication: A qualitative analysis of prescriber and pharmacist perceptions and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Tudiver, Fred; Brewster, Scott; Hagy, Elizabeth J; Hagaman, Angela; Pack, Robert P

    Interpersonal communication is inherent in a majority of strategies seeking to engage prescriber and pharmacist health care professionals (HCPs) in the reduction and prevention of prescription drug abuse (PDA). However, research on HCP PDA communication behavioral engagement and factors that influence it is limited. This study quantitatively examined communication behaviors and trait-level communication metrics, and qualitatively described prescription drug abuse-related communication perceptions and behaviors among primary care prescribers and community pharmacists. Five focus groups (N = 35) were conducted within the Appalachian Research Network (AppNET), a rural primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) in South Central Appalachia between February and October, 2014. Focus groups were structured around the administration of three previously validated trait-level communication survey instruments, and one instrument developed by the investigators to gauge HCP prescription drug abuse communication engagement and perceived communication importance. Using a grounded theory approach, focus group themes were inductively derived and coded independently by study investigators. Member-checking interviews were conducted to validate derived themes. Respondents' trait-level communication self-perceptions indicated low communication apprehension, high self-perceived communication competence, and average willingness to communicate as compared to instrument specific criteria and norms. Significant variation in HCP communication behavior engagement was noted specific to PDA. Two overarching themes were noted for HCP-patient communication: 1) influencers of HCP communication and prescribing/dispensing behaviors, and 2) communication behaviors. Multiple sub-themes were identified within each theme. Similarities were noted in perceptions and behaviors across both prescribers and pharmacists. Despite the perceived importance of engaging in PDA communication, HCPs reported

  1. Marketing drugs, marketing health care relationships: a content analysis of visual cues in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch Cline, Rebecca J; Young, Henry N

    2004-01-01

    Proponents and opponents of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs argue that it promotes greater participation in health care by consumers with significant implications for public health and health care outcomes. This article (a). proposes a social cognitive theoretical framework to explain DTCA's effects, and (b). reports the first in a series of studies on DTCA's observational learning functions that may influence consumer behavior and the physician-patient relationship. This investigation addresses visual features of print DTCA. Results focus on the prevalence and nature of models featured in the ads and how visual cues may offer identity and relational motivators while reinforcing the value of prescription drug treatments. Further, DTCA may market disenfranchising images that increase disparity in health care information and access, despite their argued educational function.

  2. To Dope or Not to Dope: Neuroenhancement with Prescription Drugs and Drugs of Abuse among Swiss University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Larissa J; Liechti, Matthias E; Fiona Herzig; Schaub, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuroenhancement is the use of substances by healthy subjects to enhance mood or cognitive function. The prevalence of neuroenhancement among Swiss university students is unknown. Investigating the prevalence of neuroenhancement among students is important to monitor problematic use and evaluate the necessity of prevention programs. Study aim: To describe the prevalence of the use of prescription medications and drugs of abuse for neuroenhancement among Swiss university ...

  3. High Prevalence of Drug-Drug Interactions in Primary Health Care is Caused by Prescriptions from other Health Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marine L; Böttiger, Ylva; Kockum, Henrik; Eiermann, Birgit

    2017-11-15

    Drug-drug interactions are increasingly common, as patients are getting older and the number of drugs per patient is increasing. In this study, we investigated to which extent potential drug-drug interactions originated from single or multiple prescribers. All patients attending any of 20 primary health care centres were included in a retrospective observational cohort study. Data on all prescriptions to these patients, irrespectively of the prescriber, were collected for two 4-month periods. Potential drug interactions were identified using the drug-drug interaction database SFINX. Interactions were classified with respect to the workplace of the prescriber and the prevalence of interactions according to origin was analysed. We found that the drug interactions were significantly more common when the drugs were prescribed from different health care centres, compared with drugs prescribed from the patients' primary health care centre only. One explanation for this increased risk of drug interactions could be that the prescribers at different primary health care centres do not share the same information concerning the total medication list of the patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased Incidence of Spinal Abscess and Substance Abuse after Implementation of State Mandated Prescription Drug Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. "Pharming": the abuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs in teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A

    2007-06-01

    Prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold medication abuse is rapidly becoming a national health concern for adolescents. Increased awareness of this growing epidemic is essential toward diagnosing, treating and preventing this type of substance abuse. Data from surveys and poison control center records demonstrate an increased nonmedical use of prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations, particularly those containing dextromethorphan. The nonmedical use of prescription medications may result in serious clinical effects with potential life-threatening complications, dependence and withdrawal syndromes. Dextromethorphan causes alterations in mental status that may contribute to judgment impairment leading to injury or fatality. Co-ingestion of other substances found in over-the-counter medications may also cause significant morbidity. Alcohol and illicit drug use is highly associated with the abuse of these medications. The incentive for abuse, such as easy accessibility, low cost and decreased perception of potential for harm, and potential interventions are described. The recent trend of prescription and dextromethorphan-containing over-the-counter medication abuse in adolescents is alarming. Improved awareness for these readily available, seemingly benign yet highly dangerous medications is essential. Prevention and early education on substance abuse in young teens are critical in combating this recent epidemic.

  6. [Evaluation of prescription practices for drugs charged in addition to DRG-based fees in Alsace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Géraldine; Drogue, Nicole; Michel, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Two studies led in parallel from May till June, 2009, were proposed in Alsace in order to analyze the hospital practices of prescription relative to 6 drugs charged in addition to the GHS: bevacizumab, gemcitabine, trastuzumab, etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab. The first study, led within 9 hospitals, allowed the collection of 343 situations of prescription. The second approach, based on the extraction of the PMSI data from the same hospitals, allowed the exploitation of 771 situations of prescription. The data collected on sites and from the PMSI respectively put in evidence 86.3% and 73.0% of prescriptions corresponding to guidelines. No unacceptable situation was revealed. The differences between approaches can be explained by the important proportion of unclassifiable situations extracted from the PMSI. These approaches bring complementary lightings and allow the OMEDIT of Alsace to take position in its missions of expertise and follow-up of therapeutic innovations. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  7. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Morgan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid to variations in the use of prescription drugs because their role in health care has grown to the point where their use can be considered a proxy for health system performance. Studies have shown that prescription drug use varies across regions in the US, UK, and Canada by more than would be predicted based on age and health status alone. In this paper, we explore the determinants of variations in the use of prescription drugs, drawing on health services theories of access to care.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative health care data for British Columbia (BC, Canada. We used logistic and hierarchical regressions to analyze the effects of individual- and area-level determinants of use of prescriptions overall and rates of purchase of prescriptions from five therapeutic categories representing a range of indications: antihypertensives, statins, acid reducing drugs, opioid drugs, and antidepressants. To indicate the relative scale of regional variations and the importance of individual- and area-level variables in explaining them, we computed standardized rates of utilization for 49 local health areas in BC.We found that characteristics of individuals and the areas in which they live affect likelihood of prescription drug purchase. Individual-level factors influenced prescription drug purchases in ways generally consistent with behavioral models of health services use. Contextual variables exerted influences that differed by type of drug studied. Population health, education levels, and ethnic composition of local areas were associated with significant differences in the likelihood of purchasing medications. Relatively modest regional variations remained after both individual-level and area-level determinants were taken into account.The results of this study suggest that individual- and area-level factors should be considered when studying variations in the use of

  8. Exposure to potential CYP450 pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions among osteoarthritis patients: incremental risk of multiple prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Labhsetwar, Sumedha A; Puenpatom, R Amy; Joo, Seongjung; Ben-Joseph, Rami; Summers, Kent H

    2011-01-01

    Patients taking more than one drug metabolized through the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme system experience a drug-drug exposure (DDE), which puts them at risk for a potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction (DDI), defined as two or more drugs interacting in such a way that the effectiveness and/or toxicity of one or all drugs are changed. Any patient subjected to a DDE is at risk for a potentially serious DDI, the epidemiology of which has not been thoroughly studied. Many drugs are metabolized primarily via the CYP450 enzyme system, including certain opioids used to manage moderate to severe chronic pain. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a large commercial claims database and a Medicare database to assess the prevalence of DDEs among patients with osteoarthritis taking CYP450-metabolized opioids. The overall prevalence of DDEs in this population was 26%, with females more likely to experience DDEs than males (28.4% vs. 21.0%, respectively). The number of unique concurrent prescriptions at baseline, gender, age, and Charlson Comorbidity Index were statistically significant predictors of DDEs (P risk of DDE. However, the number of prescriptions the patient received in the 90-day window prior to the index date was a risk factor. For patients taking at least two medications in the 90-day period prior to the index date, every additional prescription taken increased their risk for a DDE during the observation period by 138% (on average). The risk of DDE during the study period was threefold greater for patients with one medication in the 90-day period before index date compared with similar patients with no prescriptions in that same period before the index date. DDEs are more common than may be generally believed in patients with osteoarthritis, regardless of age, and can occur even in patients taking few medications. When selecting an opioid analgesic to treat osteoarthritis, physicians should consider the potential for exposure of these patients to

  9. Impact of celebrity pitch in direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Nilesh S; Menon, Ajit M; Deshpande, Aparna D; Perri, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Online surveys were conducted to determine the impact of endorser credibility, endorser effectiveness, and consumers' involvement in direct-to-consumer advertising. In a randomized posttest only study, using the elaboration likelihood model, survey participants (U.S. adults) were either exposed to a fictitious prescription drug ad with a celebrity or a noncelebrity endorser. There was no significant difference in credibility and effectiveness between the celebrity and the noncelebrity endorser. High involvement consumers viewed the ad more favorably and exhibited significantly stronger drug inquiry intentions during their next doctor visit. Further, consumers' involvement did not moderate the effect of celebrity endorser.

  10. Multifaceted determinants of online non-prescription drug information seeking and the impact on consumers' use of purchase channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgräfe, Catherine; Zentes, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the Internet as an information and purchasing channel is drawing widespread attention from marketing decision makers. Nevertheless, the relevance of the Internet to the so-called self-medication market in Germany has been paid barely enough attention. Our study aims to contribute insights concerning the penetration of the Internet in this market, as well as to give an overview of the critical determinants of Internet use for non-prescription drug information seeking, such as the accessibility of professional information, trust in health professionals' opinion and the ability to search online, as well as the perceived usefulness and credibility of online non-prescription drug information. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the preferred use of the Internet as a non-prescription drug information source positively influences the choice of unconventional purchase channels for non-prescription drugs and negatively affects the use of stationary pharmacies.

  11. Knowledge regarding prescription of drugs among dental students: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankita; Gupta, Devanand; Singh, Deepika; Garg, Yogesh; Saxena, Antima; Chaudhary, Himani; Singh, Alpana; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The act of indicating one or more drugs to be taken by the patient, its dosage, and the interval of the treatment is known as prescribing. It is a dynamic and individualized clinical process. Cultural, social, economic and promotional factors can influence the pattern of prescription. Thus the present study was conducted to evaluate the drug prescription knowledge in third year and final year dental students at Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. A questionnaire consisting of 10 open-ended questions was used in a study which was conducted among 170 male and female, third year and final year dental students of Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre. Tables and graphs were used to represent data. Pain was found to be the most important reason for prescribing medication. Diclofenac was found to be the most commonly prescribed NSAID. While amoxicillin was found to be the most widely prescribed antibiotic. Lack of knowledge about drug posology was the basic reason for error done by students. Maximum number of students gets their information for prescribing drugs from their professors. Maximum number of students was unacquainted about the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing. The knowledge of prescribing drugs is of utmost need for good dental practice and hence, it is essential to expand the knowledge related to pharmacological therapy and to know about the proper therapeutic guidelines. With the help of WHO Guide to Good Prescribing, and some educational programs students will develop better prescribing skills.

  12. The Impact of Private Insurance Coverage on Prescription Drug Use in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Jillian; Cheng, Lucy; Allin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Canadians obtain prescription drug coverage through a patchwork of public insurance, private benefit plans and out-of-pocket payments. Prior evidence suggests that insurance coverage, in general, leads to higher utilization rates of essential medicines; it is unclear whether individuals with private insurance have better access to medicines. Using data from the 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, we identified cohorts from Ontario who reported having been diagnosed by a physician with asthma, high blood pressure or diabetes. Using propensity score stratification techniques, we compared drug utilization of individuals holding private insurance with that of individuals holding either public insurance (for those aged over 65 years) or no insurance (aged under 65 years). In five out of six comparisons, individuals with private insurance were more likely to take prescribed drugs than those without. Raw differences in the percentage of patients taking medicines ranged from 0.1 to 8.1%. Ontarians with chronic conditions holding private drug insurance are more likely to use prescription drugs than those who do not. Whether these inequities result in health outcome differences remains unknown. PMID:26142359

  13. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: European Commission persists in putting industry's interests first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In late September 2010, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) issued their verdict on European Commission proposals aimed at lifting the ban on pharmaceutical companies communicating directly with the general public about prescription drugs. The MEPs were able to limit the scope of some of the more harmful aspects of these proposals, in particular by proposing that drug regulatory agencies should pre-screen the "information" produced by drug companies before it is made available to the public. In December 2010, faced with ongoing opposition from European Member States, the Commission appeared to back down, announcing that it was drawing up "amended proposals". They were publicly released in February 2012 but still leave the door open to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, particularly "reminder advertising". As of 4 July 2012, the amended proposals had not yet been examined by Member States, thus obstructing the legislative process. Public health and management of the costs of social services for Member States are at stake. The Medicines in Europe Forum (MiEF) and the International Society of Drug Bulletins (ISDB) urge Member States to continue to refuse to examine the Commission's proposals, and have drawn up concrete counterproposals that would enable the general public to obtain relevant health information.

  14. [Prescription of drugs with ASMR V in patients over 65 years in a primary care ambulatory setting. Drug prescription analysis in the Midi-Pyrénées region (France)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuth, Serge; Chalvignac, Caroline; Bagheri, Haleh; Oustric, Stéphane

    2010-12-20

    In French patients over 65 years, drug intake is characterized by polytherapy, causing iatrogenic events. The general practitioner is the main actor in the follow-up and reassessment of drug prescriptions. To assess the proportion of ASMR V (Amélioration du service medical rendu - additional therapeutic benefit versus current standards) drugs [drugs producing no medical improvement] prescribed to patients over 65 years in the management of a chronic disease. In May 2009, 849 drug prescriptions were collected from 34 general practitioners in the Midi-Pyrénées region. Specialties with ASMR V were classified according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. 58.8% of the prescriptions concerned female patients; 67.4% of the prescriptions contained at least one ASMR-V drug. Approximately 20% of the prescriptions in subjects over 65 years contained ASMR-V drugs. This study shows that older subjects are being prescribed a significant number of ASMR-V drugs. However, this classification combines several situations, including a product line extension, a fixed combination of preexisting drugs, an insufficient therapeutic benefit, the absence of additional therapeutic benefit versus a comparative drug, the absence of comparative study in some indications, or a less favorable benefit-risk ratio comparing to that of the reference drug.This classification includes as well the generic drugs prescribed using the international non proprietary names. This study did not analyze the influence of certain factors, such as treatment history, history of drug allergy or dose titration, which could influence the physician's decision. Following this study, it appears useful to extend this type of survey to other general practitioners in other French regions, and to analyze the reasons for prescribing ASMR-V drugs. These data would help increasing general practitioners' awareness of "proper drug use" to reduce the proportion of "inadequate" drugs prescribed to

  15. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A-minus, Barbs, Candy, Downers, Phennies, Reds, Red Birds, Seeping Pills, Tooies, Tranks, Yellow Jackets, Yellows, and ... that causes changes in your mood, perceptions, and behavior can affect judgment and willingness to take risks— ...

  16. e-Prescription: An e-Health System for Preventing Adverse Drug Events in Community Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma M. Puspitasari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes development activities of an e-health system for community health center (Puskesmas with integrated adverse drug events e-prescription module, consist of system design and development, human resource development, e-health system realization, laboratory and implementation test of e-health system. Some e-readiness evaluations were conducted, through a number of field visits and questionnaires. The results had been used in the e-health system design and development, installation of the internet access infrastructure, and implementation of the education and hands-on training for the medical and administrative staff of the healthcare units. After completing the e-health system design and development as well as system realization and laboratory tests stages, a series of field implementation and experiments have been successfully conducted at Puskesmas Babakansari in Bandung. A number of users feed back have been obtained and used for further improvements on both of the software and hardware modules. The e-health system with integrated e-prescription module has successfully developed and shown its expected functions in: patient registration, medical record, paperless prescription, producing the required reports and preventing possible adverse drug events.

  17. 'He was like a zombie': off-label prescription of antipsychotic drugs in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Rosie; Peel, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores the legal position of the off-label prescription of antipsychotic medications to people with dementia who experience behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Dementia is a challenging illness, and BPSD can be very difficult for carers to manage, with evidence that this contributes to carer strain and can result in the early institutionalisation of people with dementia. As a result, the prescription of antipsychotic and other neuroleptic medications to treat BPSD has become commonplace, in spite of these drugs being untested and unlicensed for use to treat older people with dementia. In recent years, it has become apparent through clinical trials that antipsychotic drugs increase the risk of cerebrovascular accident (stroke) and death in people with dementia. In addition, these types of medication also have other risk factors for people with dementia, including over-sedation and worsening of cognitive function. Drawing on recent questionnaire (n = 185), focus group (n = 15), and interview (n = 11) data with carers of people with dementia, this paper explores the law relating to off-label prescription, and the applicability of medical negligence law to cases where adverse events follow the use of antipsychotic medication. It is argued that the practice of off-label prescribing requires regulatory intervention in order to protect vulnerable patients.

  18. Demand for a Medicare prescription drug benefit: exploring consumer preferences under a managed competition framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Richard R; Mott, David A

    2003-01-01

    Several proposals for adding a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program rely on consumer choice and market forces to promote efficiency. However, little information exists regarding: 1) the extent of price sensitivity for such plans among Medicare beneficiaries, or 2) the extent to which drug-only insurance plans using various cost-control mechanisms might experience adverse selection. Using data from a survey of elderly Wisconsin residents regarding their likely choices from a menu of hypothetical drug plans, we show that respondents are likely to be price sensitive with respect to both premiums and out-of-pocket costs but that selection problems may arise in these markets. Outside intervention may be necessary to ensure the feasibility of a market-based approach to a Medicare drug benefit.

  19. 78 FR 28860 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for: “Data Rx: Prescription Drug Abuse Infographic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Rx: Prescription Drug Abuse Infographic Challenge'' Authority: 15 U.S.C. 3719. SUMMARY: The ``Data Rx... the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) statutory authority, described in 42 U.S.C. 285o. The... abuse and the treatment of drug abusers. Consistent with this authority, one of NIDA's strategic goals...

  20. 21 CFR 201.57 - Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... available concerning the use of the drug in other specified subpopulations (e.g., renal or hepatic... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). 201.57 Section...

  1. How does complementary private prescription drug insurance coverage affect seniors' use of publicly funded medications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Sara; Law, Michael R; Laporte, Audrey

    2013-05-01

    Like in many other high-income jurisdictions, the public drug program in Ontario, Canada provides comprehensive coverage of prescription drugs to the 65 years and older population with some cost sharing. The objective of this study was to examine the marginal impact of holding private drug coverage on the use of publicly funded medicines among the senior population in Ontario. We drew on linked survey and administrative data sources to examine the impact of private drug coverage first on total spending and utilization of medications, and second, on clinically recommended medications for individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes. Approximately 27% of Ontario seniors reported having private prescription drug insurance from a current or prior employer. The population-level analysis of all seniors found that individuals with private insurance coverage, on average, took about a quarter of an additional drug and incurred 16% more in costs to the public program in a year compared to those without additional coverage. The disease-specific analysis of seniors with a diagnosis of diabetes found that private coverage was associated with two-fold higher odds of taking an anti-hypertensive drug, but it had no association with the use of statins or anti-diabetic medications. The results of this study provide some evidence that seniors in Ontario are sensitive to the price of drugs. These findings raise equity concerns relating to the cost sharing arrangements in the public system and our policy of allowing private plans to "top-up" the public plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of the use of 3-MMC and other new psychoactive drugs in Slovenia, and the perceived problems experienced by users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sande, Matej

    2016-01-01

    The study presents the characteristics of the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), the perceived problems experienced by users, and the reasons for cessation or cutting down. The research focused mainly on synthetic cathinones and the use of 3-MMC in Slovenia. In order to research the characteristics of NPS use, we used a questionnaire which had been developed to determine the characteristics of the use of ATS and cocaine in the context of nightlife and was elaborated in our study on the use of mephedrone. The final non-representative sample included 249 users of NPS from Slovenia, who had completed an on-line survey over a period of 5 months in 2014. Part of the sampling was conducted on the ground and with the help of peer-groups. DrogArt's outreach workers and correspondents visited open public places, clubs, and discotheques to encourage users to participate in the survey. Most users of NPS in Slovenia have tried NPS from the groups of synthetic cathinones and amphetamines. Most respondents included in the sample (67.9%) have tried 3-MMC, while 43.0% have tried methylone and 37.3% have tried mephedrone (4-MMC). Users attributed greater risks to the use of new drugs and preferred the effects of traditional drugs to those of new drugs. The most frequently reported problems were depression (55.2% of users), concentration difficulties (44.0%), damage to the mucous membrane of the nose and to the throat (39.8%), feelings of fear and anxiety (39.4%), and tingling in the arms or legs (34.4%). The main reasons for cutting down or discontinuing the use of NPS were 'fear of the health consequences', 'actual health consequences', and 'growing weary of using'. Among users of NPS, 7% have sought help, while 9.1% have considered doing so. The results also highlight differences between the NPS drug markets in Slovenia and the United Kingdom. In 2014, the most frequently used NPS in Slovenia were synthetic cathinones such as 3-MMC. Users experienced various problems

  3. Effect of Florida's Prescription Drug Monitoring Program and Pill Mill Laws on Opioid Prescribing and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Webster, Daniel W; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Alexander, G Caleb

    2015-10-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) and pill mill laws are among the principal means states use to reduce prescription drug abuse and diversion, yet little high-quality evidence exists regarding their effect. To quantify the effect of Florida's PDMP and pill mill laws on overall and high-risk opioid prescribing and use. We applied comparative interrupted time-series analyses to IMS Health LifeLink LRx data to characterize the effect of PDMP and pill mill law implementation on a closed cohort of prescribers, retail pharmacies, and patients from July 2010 through September 2012 in Florida (intervention state) compared with Georgia (control state). We conducted sensitivity analyses, including varying length of observation and modifying requirements for continuous observation of individuals throughout the study period. Total opioid volume, mean morphine milligram equivalent (MME) per transaction, mean days' supply per transaction, and total number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Analyses were conducted per prescriber and per patient, in aggregate and after stratifying by volume of baseline opioid prescribing for prescribers and use for patients. From July 2010 through September 2012, a cohort of 2.6 million patients, 431,890 prescribers, and 2829 pharmacies was associated with approximately 480 million prescriptions in Florida and Georgia, 7.7% of which were for opioids. Total monthly opioid volume, MME per transaction, days' supply, and prescriptions dispensed were higher in Florida than Georgia before implementation. Florida's laws were associated with statistically significant declines in opioid volume (2.5 kg/mo, P<.05; equivalent to approximately 500,000 5-mg tablets of hydrocodone bitartrate per month) and MME per transaction (0.45 mg/mo, P<.05), without any change in days' supply. Twelve months after implementation, the policies were associated with approximately a 1.4% decrease in opioid prescriptions, 2.5% decrease in opioid volume, and 5

  4. Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corroon, James M; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs. Methods A total of 2,774 individuals were a self-selected convenience sample who reported having used cannabis at least once in the previous 90 days. Subjects were surveyed via an online anonymous questionnaire on cannabis substitution effects. Participants were recruited through social media and cannabis dispensaries in Washington State. Results A total of 1,248 (46%) respondents reported using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common classes of drugs substituted were narcotics/opioids (35.8%), anxiolytics/benzodiazepines (13.6%) and antidepressants (12.7%). A total of 2,473 substitutions were reported or approximately two drug substitutions per affirmative respondent. The odds of reporting substituting were 4.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.87–5.43) greater among medical cannabis users compared with non-medical users and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.27–2.16) greater among those reporting use for managing the comorbidities of pain, anxiety and depression. A slightly higher percentage of those who reported substituting resided in states where medical cannabis was legal at the time of the survey (47% vs. 45%, p=0.58), but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion These patient-reported outcomes support prior research that individuals are using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs, particularly, narcotics/opioids, and independent of whether they identify themselves as medical or non-medical users. This is especially true if they suffer from pain, anxiety and depression. Additionally, this study suggests that state laws allowing access to, and use of, medical

  5. Self-admitted behavior and perceived use of performance-enhancing vs psychoactive drugs among competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvacsek, M; Nepusz, T; Naughton, D P; Mazanov, J; Ránky, M Zs; Petróczi, A

    2011-04-01

    The relationships between projected use, self-reported behavior and attitudes to performance-enhancing (PED) and recreational (RD) drugs were investigated among 82 competitive Hungarian athletes, with 14.6% admitting using PED and 31.7% using RD. Both the observed doping estimations (even those made by non-users) and self-admitted use were considerably higher than the average rate of positive doping tests (2% of all tests). The notable overestimation by PED users (34.6% vs 16.9%) was in keeping with the false consensus effect. A prediction model with attitude and projection to the likelihood of PED use suggested at least a 70% chance of self-involvement of athletes, with responses at or above the median scores (Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale ≥ 60 and estimation ≥ 50%) on the two independent measures. Users overestimated the prevalence of doping in their sport (P=0.007) but not RD use, with the converse holding for RD users' views of doping (P=0.029). PED users also showed a significantly more lenient attitude toward doping (P<0.001). This domain-specific characteristic adds new information to the ongoing research effort in understanding drug-doping co-morbidity. The reasons for elevated in-group projection are discussed, along with the potential application of this phenomenon in doping epidemiology studies. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Medicare prescription drug plan coverage of pharmacotherapies for opioid and alcohol dependence in WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jae; Dipzinski, Aaron; Roll, John; Coyne, Joseph; Blodgett, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Pharmacotherapeutic treatments for drug addiction offer new options, but only if they are affordable for patients. The objective of this study is to assess the current availability and cost of five common antiaddiction medications in the largest federal medication insurance program in the US, Medicare Part D. In early 2010, we collected coverage and cost data from 41 Medicare Part D prescription drug plans (PDPs) and 45 Medicare Advantage Plans (MAPs) in Washington State. The great majority of Medicare plans (82-100%) covered common pharmacotherapeutic treatments for drug addiction. These Medicare plans typically placed patent protected medications on their highest formulary tiers, leading to relatively high patient co-payments during the initial Part D coverage period. For example, median monthly co-payments for buprenorphine (Suboxone®) were about $46 for PDPs, and about $56 for MAPs. While Medicare prescription plans usually cover pharmacotherapeutic treatments for drug addiction, high co-payments can limit access. For example, beneficiaries without supplemental coverage who use Vivitrol® would exceed their initial coverage cap in 7-8 months, reaching the "doughnut hole" in their Part D coverage and becoming responsible for the full cost of the medication (over $900 per month). The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will gradually eliminate this coverage gap, and loss of patent protection for other antiaddiction medications (Suboxone® and Campral®) should also drive down patient costs, improving access and compliance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physicians' decision process for drug prescription and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing mix instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Katia; De Staebel, Odette; Gijsbrechts, Els; van Waterschoot, Walter

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth, qualitative analysis of the physicians' decision process for drug prescription. Drugs in the considered therapeutic classes are mainly prescribed by specialists, treating patients with obligatory medical insurance, for a prolonged period of time. The research approach is specifically designed to capture the full complexity and sensitive nature of the physician's choice behavior, which appears to be more hybrid and less rational in nature than is often assumed in quantitative, model-based analyses of prescription behavior. Several interesting findings emerge from the analysis: (i) non-compensatory decision rules seem to dominate the decision process, (ii) consideration sets are typically small and change-resistant, (iii) drug cost is not a major issue for most physicians, (iv) detailing remains one of the most powerful pharmaceutical marketing instruments and is highly appreciated as a valuable and quick source of information, and (v) certain types of non-medical marketing incentives (such as free conference participation) may in some situations also influence drug choices.

  8. Unintentional drug overdose death trends in New Mexico, USA, 1990-2005: combinations of heroin, cocaine, prescription opioids and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nina G; Lathrop, Sarah L; Reichard, R Ross; Landen, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    To determine the contribution of heroin, prescription opioids, cocaine and alcohol/drug combinations to the total overdose death rate and identify changes in drug overdose patterns among New Mexico subpopulations. We analyzed medical examiner data for all unintentional drug overdose deaths in New Mexico during 1990-2005. Age-adjusted drug overdose death rates were calculated by sex and race/ethnicity; we modeled overall drug overdose death adjusting for age and region. The total unintentional drug overdose death rate in New Mexico increased from 5.6 per 100 000 in 1990 to 15.5 per 100 000 in 2005. Deaths caused by heroin, prescription opioids, cocaine and alcohol/drug combinations together ranged from 89% to 98% of the total. Heroin caused the most deaths during 1990-2005, with a notable rate increase in prescription opioid overdose death during 1998-2005 (58%). During 1990-2005, the 196% increase in single drug category overdose death was driven by prescription opioids alone and heroin alone; the 148% increase in multi-drug category overdose death was driven by heroin/alcohol and heroin/cocaine. Hispanic males had the highest overdose death rate, followed by white males, white females, Hispanic females and American Indians. The most common categories causing death were heroin alone and heroin/alcohol among Hispanic males, heroin/alcohol among American Indian males and prescription opioids alone among white males and all female subpopulations. Interventions to prevent drug overdose death should be targeted according to use patterns among at-risk subpopulations. A comprehensive approach addressing both illicit and prescription drug users, and people who use these drugs concurrently, is needed to reduce overdose death.

  9. The association between non-medical prescription drug use, depressive symptoms, and suicidality among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith J; Divin, Amanda L

    2012-08-01

    Studies have substantiated a relationship between drug use, depression, and suicidality. However, little research has examined this relationship with prescription drugs. Given the prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU) among college students, this study explored the association between general and specific NMPDU, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Data from the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment (NCHA) was utilized (N=22,783). Five separate logistic regression models were employed, with the first combining any NMPDU (antidepressants, painkillers, sedatives, and stimulants) followed by four additional regressions for each drug, and then separated by gender. Models were estimated before and after control for key covariates. Approximately 13% of participants reported NMPDU. After covariate adjustment, those who reported feeling hopeless, sad, depressed, or considered suicide were 1.22-1.31 times more likely to report NMPDU (pdepressed were 1.18-1.43 times more likely to report opioid painkiller use; those who reported feeling sad, depressed, or considered suicide were 1.22-1.38 times more likely to report stimulant use; those who reported being depressed were 1.36 times more likely to report sedative use; and those who reported feeling hopeless or depressed were 1.44 and 1.91 times more likely to report antidepressant use (pDepressive symptoms and suicidality were significantly associated with greater odds of any NMPDU, with painkiller use (especially for females) representing the greatest correlate among college students. Results suggest that students may be inappropriately self-medicating psychological distress with prescription medications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Communicating uncertainties about prescription drugs to the public: a national randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven

    2011-09-12

    controls chose the older drug (absolute difference, 19% [95% confidence interval, 13%-24%] for each explanation vs control). A substantial proportion of the public mistakenly believes that the FDA approves only extremely effective drugs and drugs lacking serious side effects. Brief explanations highlighting uncertainties about the benefit of drugs approved based on surrogate outcomes and the safety of new prescription drugs improved choices. Nondirective explanations worked as well as directive ones. clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00950157, NCT00950131.

  11. Prescription Drug Misuse and Associated Risk Behaviors among Public High School Students in Oklahoma: Data from the 2013 Oklahoma Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thad; Sampilo, Marilyn L; Wendling, Tracy; Nguyen, Claire; Piatt, Jamie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of prescription drug misuse among Oklahoma high school students, examine associated risk factors, and inform state-based prevention strategies. Data from the 2013 Oklahoma Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used for this analysis and were representative of public school students in grades 9 through 12 in Oklahoma. Variables were examined using percentages and 95% confidence intervals. The chi-square test was used to test for differences in proportions. Logistic regression was used to produce adjusted odds ratios as measures of association between selected independent variables and prescription drug misuse. Nearly one in five students had ever used a prescription drug without a doctor's prescription. While there was no statistically significant difference of prescription drug misuse by gender or grade in the bivariate analysis, after covariate adjustment, females were 1.5 times more likely than males to have misused prescription drugs and twelfth graders were 1.7 times more likely than ninth graders to have misused prescription drugs. Students who had ever taken prescription drugs without a doctor's prescription were significantly more likely than students who had never taken prescription drugs without a doctor's prescription to have engaged in current tobacco use, current binge drinking, current marijuana use, and lifetime drug use and have a higher prevalence of suicide risk.

  12. Co-Prescription of QT-Interval Prolonging Drugs: An Analysis in a Large Cohort of Geriatric Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Schächtele

    Full Text Available Drug-induced QT-interval prolongation is associated with occurrence of potentially fatal Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP. So far, data regarding the overall burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs in geriatric patients are limited.This study was performed to assess the individual burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs in geriatric polymedicated patients and to identify the most frequent and risky combinations of QT-drugs.In the discharge medication of geriatric patients between July 2009 and June 2013 from the Geriatrics in Bavaria-Database (GiB-DAT (co-prescriptions of QT-drugs were investigated. QT-drugs were classified according to a publicly available reference site (CredibleMeds® as ALL-QT-drugs (associated with any QT-risk or High-risk-QT-drugs (corresponding to QT-drugs with known risk of Torsades de Pointes according to CredibleMeds® and in addition as SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs (according to the German prescribing information (SmPC contraindicated co-prescription with other QT-drugs.Of a cohort of 130,434 geriatric patients (mean age 81 years, 67% women, prescribed a median of 8 drugs, 76,594 patients (58.7% received at least one ALL-QT-drug. Co-prescriptions of two or more ALL-QT-drugs were observed in 28,768 (22.1% patients. Particularly risky co-prescriptions of High-risk-QT-drugs or SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs with at least on further QT-drug occurred in 55.9% (N = 12,633 and 54.2% (N = 12,429 of these patients, respectively. Consideration of SmPCs (SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs allowed the identification of an additional 15% (N = 3,999 patients taking a risky combination that was not covered by the commonly used CredibleMeds® classification. Only 20 drug-drug combinations accounted for more than 90% of these potentially most dangerous co-prescriptions.In a geriatric study population co-prescriptions of two and more QT-drugs were common. A considerable proportion of QT-drugs with higher risk only could be detected by

  13. Co-Prescription of QT-Interval Prolonging Drugs: An Analysis in a Large Cohort of Geriatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schächtele, Simone; Tümena, Thomas; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Fromm, Martin F; Maas, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced QT-interval prolongation is associated with occurrence of potentially fatal Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP). So far, data regarding the overall burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs) in geriatric patients are limited. This study was performed to assess the individual burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs) in geriatric polymedicated patients and to identify the most frequent and risky combinations of QT-drugs. In the discharge medication of geriatric patients between July 2009 and June 2013 from the Geriatrics in Bavaria-Database (GiB-DAT) (co)-prescriptions of QT-drugs were investigated. QT-drugs were classified according to a publicly available reference site (CredibleMeds®) as ALL-QT-drugs (associated with any QT-risk) or High-risk-QT-drugs (corresponding to QT-drugs with known risk of Torsades de Pointes according to CredibleMeds®) and in addition as SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs (according to the German prescribing information (SmPC) contraindicated co-prescription with other QT-drugs). Of a cohort of 130,434 geriatric patients (mean age 81 years, 67% women), prescribed a median of 8 drugs, 76,594 patients (58.7%) received at least one ALL-QT-drug. Co-prescriptions of two or more ALL-QT-drugs were observed in 28,768 (22.1%) patients. Particularly risky co-prescriptions of High-risk-QT-drugs or SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs with at least on further QT-drug occurred in 55.9% (N = 12,633) and 54.2% (N = 12,429) of these patients, respectively. Consideration of SmPCs (SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs) allowed the identification of an additional 15% (N = 3,999) patients taking a risky combination that was not covered by the commonly used CredibleMeds® classification. Only 20 drug-drug combinations accounted for more than 90% of these potentially most dangerous co-prescriptions. In a geriatric study population co-prescriptions of two and more QT-drugs were common. A considerable proportion of QT-drugs with higher risk only could be detected by

  14. Drug safety and the impact of drug warnings: An interrupted time series analysis of diabetes drug prescriptions in Germany and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the impact of drug safety warnings from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on drug utilisation and their interaction with information released through national reimbursement bodies. Insurance claims data on anti-diabetic drug prescriptions in primary care in Germany and Denmark were analysed using interrupted time series analysis, with EMA drug warnings for thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in 2007 and 2011 as the intervention. Monthly drug utilisation data per substance in defined daily dosages (DDD) consumed per 1000 insurees were retrieved from the Danish national drug prescriptions register and one large statutory sickness fund in Germany. TZDs were generally reimbursed in Germany but restricted to individual reimbursement in Denmark. Consequently, utilisation of TZDs was much higher in Germany in 2007 compared with Denmark. For rosiglitazone, the drug warning had a significant impact on utilisation, reducing the number of DDD per 1000 insurees per day by -0.0105 in Denmark and -0.0312 in Germany (p-values<0.05). For pioglitazone, neither of the drug warnings had a significant effect on utilisation. The impact of EMA drug warnings differed across countries and might be mediated by information released through national reimbursement bodies and physician associations. Increasing complexity of new drugs and modified approval procedures require a strengthening of information exchange between drug regulation bodies and physicians to ensure patient safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The association of consumer cost-sharing and direct-to-consumer advertising with prescription drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Schommer, Jon C; Cline, Richard R; Hadsall, Ronald S; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Nyman, John A

    2005-06-01

    Previous research on the impact of various cost-sharing strategies on prescription drug use has not considered the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. To explore the association of cost-containment strategies with prescription drug use and to determine if the association is moderated by DTC prescription drug advertising. The study population included 288 280 employees and dependents aged 18 to 65 years with employer-sponsored health insurance contributing to the MEDSTAT MarketScan administrative data set. Person-level enrollment and claims data were obtained for beneficiaries enrolled continuously during July 1997 through December 1998. Direct-to-consumer advertising data were obtained from Competitive Media Reporting and linked to the MEDSTAT enrollment files. Localized DTC advertising expenditures for one class of medication were evaluated and matched with prescription claims for eligible MEDSTAT contributors. The association of various types and levels of cost-sharing incentives with incident product use was evaluated, controlling for the level of DTC advertising, health status, and other demographic covariates. The relationship of cost-sharing amounts with drug use was modified by the level of DTC advertising in a geographic market. This relationship was dependent on the type of cost-sharing, distinguishing between co-payments for provider visits and co-payments for prescription drugs. Compared with low-advertising markets, individuals residing in markets with high levels of advertising and paying provider co-payments of $10.00 or more were more likely to use the advertised product. In the same markets, higher prescription drug co-payments were associated with a decreased likelihood of using the advertised product. A similar relationship was not observed for the nonadvertised competitor. Among insured individuals, response to cost-sharing strategies is moderated by DTC prescription drug advertising. The relative ability of cost-sharing strategies to

  16. Coping and emotion regulation profiles as predictors of nonmedical prescription drug and illicit drug use among high-risk young adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Carolyn F; Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Schrager, Sheree M; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Iverson, Ellen; Lankenau, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    ... adolescents and young adults. However, limited research has focused on understanding how coping and emotion regulation tendencies might be associated with different patterns of prescription and illicit drug use, particularly...

  17. Chiral resolution and absolute configuration of the enantiomers of the psychoactive "designer drug" 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaki; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C

    2015-04-01

    Illicit rac-MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), manufactured in clandestine labs, has become widely abused for its cocaine-like stimulant properties. It has recently been found as one of the toxic materials in the so-called "bath salts," producing, among other effects, psychosis and tachycardia in humans when introduced by any of the several routes of administration (e.g., intravenous, oral, etc.). The considerable toxicity of this "designer drug" probably resides in one of the enantiomers of the racemate. In order to obtain a sufficient amount of the enantiomers of rac-MDPV to determine their activity, we improved the known synthesis of rac-MDPV and found chemical resolving agents, (+)- and (-)-2'-bromotetranilic acid, that gave the MDPV enantiomers in >96% enantiomeric excess as determined by (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance and chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. The absolute stereochemistry of these enantiomers was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. [Prescription patterns for antilipidemic drugs in a group of Colombian patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Enrique; Moncada, Juan Carlos; Mesa, Giovanny

    2008-03-01

    To determine patterns in antilipidemic drug prescriptions among a group of patients covered by the General Social Security System (Sistema General de Seguridad Social) in Colombia. A descriptive, observational study was conducted of 41 580 hyperlipidemics of both sexes, who were over 20 years of age, undergoing treatment from at least April to June 2006, and were residents of one of 19 cities in Colombia. A database was created to track prescription data collected by the pharmaceutical company that dispenses medications to the patients. The mean age was 58.4+/-13.5 years; 58.9% of the participants were women. Of the total number of patients, 95.6% were receiving monotherapy, while 4.4% were receiving two or more antilipidemics. Prescriptions were ranked as follows: statins (70.9%), fibrates (27.5%), bile acid sequestrant resins (0.9%), and others (0.7%), all at low dosage levels. The most common therapy combinations were lovastatin + gemfibrozil (n = 1 568), cholestyramine + gemfibrozil (n = 92), and cholestyramine + lovastatin (n = 78). Comedications most frequently prescribed were: antihypertensive (60.9%), antiinflammatory (56.5%), antiulcer (22.9%), and antidiabetes drugs (20.6%), and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 3.8%). Antianginals and ASA were being underused, while antiinflamatories and antiulcer drugs were being overused. Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for developing coronary heart disease and stroke, frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in Colombia and the world. All of the antilipidemics are being used at lower-than-recommended dosage levels. Clearly there is a need for creating educational strategies to address these prescribing habits and for exploring clinical results of the pharmaceuticals studied.

  19. Non-medical use of prescription drugs among Mississippi youth: constitutional, psychological, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Trent, Lindsay; Tull, Matthew T; Heiden, Laurie; Damon, John D; Hight, Terry L; Young, John

    2012-12-01

    The non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) among youth is a significant public health concern, ranking as the second most frequently used class of drug in youth after marijuana. Given the complex and multiple pathways that may lead to NMUPD in youth, this study examines predictors of NMUPD across constitutional, psychological, and family/peer domains. An ethnically diverse sample of 6790 youth in the 6th-12th grades enrolled in public schools throughout Mississippi completed a battery of questionnaires as part of a broader school-based mental health screening initiative in Mississippi (Behavioral Vital Signs Project). The lifetime prevalence rate of NMUPD in our sample was 6.5%. Pain medications were the most commonly used (57%), followed by benzodiazepines (44%), prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Concerta, Focalin, Dexedrine; 37%), SSRIs (29%), and antipsychotics (24%). Almost a quarter of NMUPD youth used these drugs for 10days or more during the 30-day period prior to completing the survey, and 8% reported daily use. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that race; grade level; anxiety, mood, and suicide-related symptoms; and substance use involvement significantly increased risk for NMUPD in youth. NMUPD among youth is a clinically-relevant and multi-determined phenomenon. Findings from this study identify factors relevant to understanding youth NMUPD and also highlight the need for additional research and targeted prevention and intervention programs for NMUPD among youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of presentation modality in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogalter, Michael S; Shaver, Eric F; Kalsher, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising markets medications requiring a physician's script to the general public. In television advertising, risk disclosures (such as side effects and contraindications) may be communicated in either auditory (voice) or visual (text) or both in the commercials. This research examines presentation modality factors affecting the communication of the risk disclosures in DTC prescription drug television commercials. The results showed that risk disclosures presented either visually only or both visually and auditorily increased recall and recognition compared to no presentation. Risk disclosures presented redundantly in both the visual and auditory modalities produced the highest recall and recognition. Visual only produced better performance than auditory only. Simultaneous presentation of non-risk information together with risk disclosures produced lower recall and recognition compared to risk disclosures alone-without concurrent non-risk information. Implications for the design of DTC prescription drug television commercials and other audio-visual presentations of risk information including on the Internet, are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of Drug Utilization Pattern for Skin Diseases in Dermatology OPD of an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital - A Prescription Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anuj Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Kumar, Manish; Mohan, Lalit; Dikshit, Harihar

    2016-02-01

    Skin diseases are the major contributors of disease burden in society. It affects individuals of all ages, neonates to elderly. Owing to its chronic nature, it causes serious impact on quality of life and financial status of the sufferer and his family. The problem gets compounded with the inappropriate and irrational use of medicines. Periodic prescription audit in form of drug utilization study is a way to improve the quality of prescription and curb the menace of irrational prescribing which has become a global phenomenon. This study aims to determine the drug utilization pattern and assess the economic burden of the patient with skin disease. It was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted over a period of three months from January to March 2015 in newly diagnosed cases attending outpatient department of Skin and VD, IGIMS, Patna. The prescriptions were analysed with the help of descriptive statistics and results were expressed in percentage. Total 752 prescriptions were analysed during the study. Male patients were lesser as compared to female as male to female ratio was 0.88. Over 50% of patients were in adolescent age group i.e. 21-40 years. Acne (17.95%) was most common disease in the study population followed by eczema and Dermatophytosis. Among the drugs, antihistaminics (24.13%) were prescribed most frequently followed by antifungals and antibiotics. Topical agents constituted almost 60% of the total prescription and average number of drugs per prescription was 5.13, irrespective of the dosage forms prescribed. This drug utilization study provides an insight to the prescriber regarding various issues related to polypharmacy, cost analysis and prevalent disease pattern in the region. This study also suggests periodic evaluation of prescription pattern to monitor and improve quality of prescription in other departments of the hospital.

  2. Antiepileptic drugs prescription utilization behavior and direct costs of treatment in a national hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Haroon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The present study evaluated the direct costs of active epilepsy and looked at the pattern of drug prescription and utilization in epileptic patients visiting the neuroscience centre of a national hospital of India. Materials and Methods: A total of 134 epileptic patients were studied over a period of 4 months. Patients demography, commonly prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, socioeconomic status, direct costs, response ratio (RR for newer drugs, and quality of life (QOLIE-10 was evaluated. Results and Discussion: We found a higher percentage of male patients (67.9% as compared with females. Most of the patients were in the age group 11-30 years and majority of them (39.6% belonged to lower middle group. A higher percentage (68.7 of drugs was prescribed as polytherapy. Higher monthly cost was observed for some of the newer AEDs including the lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and lacosamide as compared with older drugs. Among the newer drugs, clobazam had the lowest cost. RR was calculated for 12 patients out of which 8 had a RR < −0.50. The QOL domains, following conventional or newer drugs, were not much affected. Conclusion: The study indicates an increasing trend toward clinical usage of newer AEDs, increasing trend of poly-therapy with significant escalations in the cost of therapy.

  3. Direct-to-Consumer Promotion of Prescription Drugs on Mobile Devices: Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, Kathryn J; Sullivan, Helen W; Dolina, Suzanne; Lynch, Molly; Squiers, Linda B

    2017-07-04

    US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations state that any prescription drug promotion that presents drug benefits to consumers must also disclose certain information about the drug's risks in a similar manner. Nearly three-quarters of all US mobile phone subscribers use a smartphone, and over half report receiving mobile advertisements on their device. The objective of this project was to investigate how prescription drugs are being promoted to consumers using mobile technologies. We were particularly interested in the presentation of drug benefits and risks, with regard to presence, placement, and prominence. We analyzed a sample of 51 mobile promotional communications and their associated linked landing pages. We assessed the content and format of the mobile communications and landing pages with regard to presentation of drug benefits and risks. Of the 51 mobile communications we coded, 41% (21/51) were product claim communications (includes the drug name, benefits, and risks), 22% (11/51) were reminder communications (includes drug name only), and 37% (19/51) were help-seeking communications (includes information about the medical condition but not the drug name). Some of the product claim communications (5/21, 24%) required scrolling to see all the benefit information; in contrast, 95% (20/21) required scrolling to see all the risk information. Of the 19 product claim communications that presented both benefits and risks, 95% (18/19) presented benefits before risks and 47% (9/19) used a bigger font for benefits than for risks. Most mobile communications (35/51, 69%) linked to branded drug websites with both benefits and risks, 25% (13/51) linked to a landing page with benefits but no visible risks, and 6% (3/51) linked to a landing page with risks but no visible benefits. Few landing pages (4/51, 8%) required scrolling to see all the benefit information; in contrast, 51% (26/51) required scrolling to see all the risk information. Of the 35 landing pages

  4. Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erku DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Asfaw Erku,1 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,2 Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario.Results: Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%, followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%, and azithromycin (50%. Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs.Conclusion: This study revealed a very high

  5. [Evaluation of potential drug interactions in primary health care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia (Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Danyllo Fábio Lessa; de Moura, Cristiano Soares; de Medeiros, Danielle Souto

    2014-01-01

    Drug interactions are risk factors for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The risk for drug interactions includes factors related to prescription that are intrinsic to the patient. This study sought to evaluate the potential drug interactions in primary care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia to fill the knowledge gap on this topic in Brazil. Information about several variables derived from the primary health care prescriptions was collected and drug interactions were evaluated based on information from Medscape and Micromedex(R) databases. Polypharmacy frequency and its association with the occurrence of drug interactions were also evaluated. Results revealed a 48,9% frequency of drug interactions, 74,9% of moderate or greater severity, 8,6% of prescriptions in polypharmacy that in the chi-square test showed a positive association with the occurrence of drug interactions (p Conquista in the state of Bahia showed a high frequency of drug interactions, however it is necessary to analyze other risk factors for their occurrence at this level of health care.

  6. Consumer understanding of prescription drug information: an illustration using an antidepressant medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Gerlach, Karen K; Sembower, Mark A; Rohay, Jeffrey M

    2011-04-01

    Patient education and warnings have emerged as prominent interventions for improving drug safety. As part of the provision of information and guidance on safe use of drugs, patients often receive multiple pieces of written information when they obtain a prescription medication, including a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-mandated medication guide (MG), consumer medication information (CMI), and patient package insert (PPI). To determine whether patients understand the materials providing drug information and whether the materials convey the intended information. Fifty-two adults with a high school education or less were shown an actual (blinded) MG, CMI, and PPI for a marketed antidepressant medication. Comprehension was tested with methods used by the FDA to assess label comprehension for nonprescription products. The majority of participants (88.2%) looked at all 3 pieces of information provided. The mean (SD) time spent reviewing the CMI was 5.2 (4.8) minutes (range 0-21.9), 16.5 (13.3) minutes for the PPI (range 0-43.0), and 2.5 (1.6) minutes for the MG (range 0-7.6). Less than 20% of participants were able to identify the symptoms of a rare but potentially life-threatening situation that can occur with this medication and only 61.5% recalled the risk of teen suicide, which is the sole focus of the MG. Respondents with lower literacy scores performed more poorly than those with higher literacy scores. Information provided with at least some prescription drugs is not adequately understood by less-educated consumers and does not effectively communicate critical safety messages or directions.

  7. Adherence to the Australian National Inpatient Medication Chart: the efficacy of a uniform national drug chart on improving prescription error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Alp

    2013-10-01

    In 2006, the National Inpatient Medication Chart (NIMC) was introduced as a uniform medication chart in Australian public hospitals with the aim of reducing prescription error. The rate of regular medication prescription error in the NIMC was assessed. Data was collected using the NIMC Audit Tool and analyzed with respect to causes of error per medication prescription and per medication chart. The following prescription requirements were assessed: date, generic drug name, route of administration, dose, frequency, administration time, indication, signature, name and contact details. A total of 1877 medication prescriptions were reviewed. 1653 prescriptions (88.07%) had no contact number, 1630 (86.84%) did not have an indication, 1230 and 675 (35.96%) used a drug's trade name. Within 261 medication charts, all had at least one entry, which did not include an indication, 258 (98.85%) had at least one entry, which did not have a contact number and 200 (76.63%) had at least one entry, which used a trade name. The introduction of a uniform national medication chart is a positive step, but more needs to be done to address the root causes of prescription error. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The role of mental illness in alcohol abuse and prescription drug misuse: gender-specific analysis of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Monge, Allison N; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether and how collegians' misuse of prescription drugs and alcohol abuse are associated with mental illness and with a lack of mental health care. Nationally representative data were derived from 5,241 full-time American college students who completed the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We observed the presence of alcohol abuse/dependence and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs to be associated with relatively serious mental illness and with lack of health care. In pursuing gender-specific results, we found that the association between alcohol abuse and mental illness was stronger among females than males.

  9. Evaluation of health plan member use of an online prescription drug price comparison tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Norman V; Mitchell, Matthew P; Cannon, H Eric; York, Bryan W York; Oscar, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Health plans have implemented tiered copayment systems to incentivize members to use less expensive medications. However, members need drug price information to make comparisons among therapeutic alternatives. Many health plans and pharmacy benefit management companies have implemented online prescription drug price comparison tools to provide such information. There has been little published evaluation of these tools. To evaluate use of an online price comparison tool- MyPharmacyTools (MPT)- by the measures of (a) the extent to which the tool was used, (b) changes in use over the first year after implementation, and (c) the types of members who were most likely to use the tool. Data were provided by a 500,000-member integrated health plan with approximately 156,250 enrolled families. The sample included only families with continuous eligibility for all members from July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2008; use of 1 of 7 common copayment structures; and use of the pharmacy benefit in every quarter of the study period. Data collected on each member, using pharmacy claims for the time period July 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008, included annual drug costs (total, out-of-pocket, plan-paid, and mail order) and number of unique drugs and unique generic drugs taken during the third quarter of 2007. Data collected also included whether the member had each of several selected chronic diseases (as inferred from drug claims for the third quarter of 2007) and demographics. Age, gender, and family size were taken from eligibility files. Other demographic data were imputed to members from the demographics of the ZIP code in which they resided. MPT was made available to members on July 1, 2007. Use of MPT was measured as the number of times members logged into the site for each quarter during the subsequent year. Statistical analyses were conducted at the family rather than at the individual level, and families were defined as users if any family member used MPT at least once during

  10. Antipsychotic drug prescription rates among Dutch nursing homes: the influence of patient characteristics and the dementia special care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, M.J.A.M. van; Wetzels, R.B.; Bor, H.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the differences in antipsychotic drug prescription rates in residents with dementia in dementia special care units (SCUs) of Dutch nursing homes, considering the differences in patient characteristics. METHOD: As part of the Waalbed-II study, the data on antipsychotic drug use

  11. Antipsychotic drug prescription rates among Dutch nursing homes : the influence of patient characteristics and the dementia special care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, M. J. G.; Wetzels, R. B.; Bor, H.; Zuidema, S. U.; Koopmans, R. T. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the differences in antipsychotic drug prescription rates in residents with dementia in dementia special care units (SCUs) of Dutch nursing homes, considering the differences in patient characteristics. Method: As part of the Waalbed-II study, the data on antipsychotic drug use

  12. Potential drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions among ambulatory cancer patients: a prevalence study using an advanced screening method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R.W.F.; Swart, E.L.; Boom, F.A.; Schuitenmaker, M.S.; Hugtenburg, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The pharmacotherapeutic treatment of patients with cancer is generally associated with multiple side-effects. Drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions between anti-cancer drugs or interactions with medication to treat comorbidity can reinforce or intensify side-effects.The aim of

  13. Varsity Medical Ethics Debate 2015: should nootropic drugs be available under prescription on the NHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Emma; Kang, Isaac; D'Costa, Stephanie; Vlazaki, Myrto; Ayeko, Olaoluwa; Arbe-Barnes, Edward H; Swerner, Casey B

    2016-09-13

    The 2015 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes nootropic drugs should be available under prescription". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its seventh year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the current usage of nootropic drugs, their safety and whether it would be beneficial to individuals and society as a whole for them to be available under prescription. The Varsity Medical Debate was first held in 2008 with the aim of allowing students to engage in discussion about ethics and policy within healthcare. The event is held annually and it is hoped that this will allow future leaders to voice a perspective on the arguments behind topics that will feature heavily in future healthcare and science policy. This year the Oxford University Medical Society at the Oxford Union hosted the debate.

  14. Choice set size and decision making: the case of Medicare Part D prescription drug plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundorf, M Kate; Szrek, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The impact of choice on consumer decision making is controversial in US health policy. The authors' objective was to determine how choice set size influences decision making among Medicare beneficiaries choosing prescription drug plans. The authors randomly assigned members of an Internet-enabled panel age 65 and older to sets of prescription drug plans of varying sizes (2, 5, 10, and 16) and asked them to choose a plan. Respondents answered questions about the plan they chose, the choice set, and the decision process. The authors used ordered probit models to estimate the effect of choice set size on the study outcomes. Both the benefits of choice, measured by whether the chosen plan is close to the ideal plan, and the costs, measured by whether the respondent found decision making difficult, increased with choice set size. Choice set size was not associated with the probability of enrolling in any plan. Medicare beneficiaries face a tension between not wanting to choose from too many options and feeling happier with an outcome when they have more alternatives. Interventions that reduce cognitive costs when choice sets are large may make this program more attractive to beneficiaries.

  15. Estimating the Effect of Health Insurance on Personal Prescription Drug Importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, Andrew R; Howe, Chanelle J; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Personal prescription drug importation occurs in the United States because of the high cost of U.S. medicines and lower cost of foreign equivalents. Importation carries a risk of exposure to counterfeit (i.e., falsified, fraudulent), adulterated, and substandard drugs. Inadequate health insurance may increase the risk of importation. We use inverse probability weighted marginal structural models and data on 87,494 individuals from the 2011-2013 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the marginal association between no health insurance and importation within U.S. subpopulations. The marginal prevalence difference [95% confidence limits] for those without (prevalence = 0.031) versus those with health insurance was 0.016 [0.011, 0.021]. The prevalence difference was higher among persons who were Hispanic, born in Latin America, Russia, or Europe, traveled to developing countries, and did not use the Internet to fill prescriptions or to find health information. Health insurance coverage may effectively reduce importation, especially among particular subpopulations.

  16. Utilisation and off-label prescriptions of respiratory drugs in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schmiedl

    Full Text Available Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ≤18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374-575 per 10,000 children and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378-527 per 10,000 children. Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (-97%. Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3% and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%. The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n = 67,084; 42.0% and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n = 18,897; 20.7%. Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections

  17. Utilisation and off-label prescriptions of respiratory drugs in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ≤18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374-575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378-527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (-97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n = 67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n = 18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining the

  18. Rote learning after exposure to a direct-to-consumer television advertisement for a prescription drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, J C; Doucette, W R; Mehta, B H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to: (1) test the rote learning response; and (2) investigate the effects of selected consumer demographic/psychographic, information-access, and health-related knowledge/experience variables on rote learning after exposure to a televised direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisement that was developed and broadcast under new US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. A judgment (nonprobability) sample of 202 individuals waiting for their appointments at a university-based general medicine clinic was selected to view a televised advertisement and complete a questionnaire. One participant returned an unusable form; 24 others held positions in health care occupations and were omitted from the analysis. Results based on responses from the 177 eligible participants showed that the presentation of both promotional and risk-related product information in the same broadcast advertisement may lead to viewer problems with rote learning of each type of information.

  19. Association between sociodemographic status and antiepileptic drug prescriptions in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Peter; Tomson, Torbjörn; Edebol Eeg-Olofsson, Karin; Brännström, Lars; Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    We investigated whether in Sweden sociodemographic differences are associated with access to expert health care and antiepileptic drug (AED) prescriptions in children with epilepsy. Data on epilepsy, prescription of AEDs, and sociodemographic variables were obtained from several national administrative registers. We linked individual data to examine whether access by pediatric epilepsy patients to neuropediatricians and the prescription of individual AEDs differed according to gender, age, parental education, place of residence, parental region of birth, and household income. We also assessed whether AEDs are prescribed differently to patients with epilepsy by neuropediatricians as compared to other physicians. Of 1,788,382 children aged 1-17 years in 2006, living in the country by the end of 2006, 9,935 had a diagnosis of epilepsy (0.56%). Patients with epilepsy on AED treatment (n = 3,631) comprised 0.24% of the total Swedish population aged 1-17 years. Out of 3631 patients with epilepsy on AED treatment, 2301 (63.4%) received prescriptions from a neuropediatrician. Children with epilepsy aged 1-5 years old--as opposed to older children and adolescents--and children with epilepsy residing in large cities--as opposed to children living in smaller cities and rural areas--were more likely to be treated by a neuropediatrician. Children living in large cities received oxcarbazepine to a greater extent than children living in rural areas. Levetiracetam was prescribed more extensively to children whose parents had higher incomes. Of the five most frequently used AEDs, three (lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, and levetiracetam) were prescribed to a larger extent by a neuropediatrician rather than by other specialists, and one AED (carbamazepine) was prescribed to a lesser extent. The results of this nationwide cross-sectional study of children with epilepsy are important because they show that universal coverage for medical care does not eliminate inequalities of access to

  20. Análise do conteúdo de propagandas de medicamentos psicoativos Análisis del contenido de propagandas de medicamentos psicoactivos Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C Mastroianni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi descrever as figuras humanas retratadas nas propagandas de medicamentos psicoativos quanto ao gênero, a idade, a etnia e o contexto social. Foi realizada análise de conteúdo de 86 impressos publicitários inéditos divulgados em Araraquara (SP no ano de 2005. A associação entre as categorias foi analisada usando o teste exato de Fisher. Houve predomínio de mulheres (62,8%, sendo quatro vezes mais freqüentes que os homens em propagandas de antidepressivos e ansiolíticos. A maioria era constituída de jovens adultos (72%, de etnia branca (98,8%. As pessoas estavam em lazer (46,5%, em suas casas (29% ou em contato com a natureza (16,2%. A mensagem transmitida foi que os medicamentos tratam sintomatologias subjetivas de desconforto do dia-a-dia, induzindo a um apelo irracional que pode refletir na prescrição medicamentosa.El objetivo del estudio fue describir las figuras humanas retratadas en las propagandas de medicamentos psicoactivos con relación al género, la edad, la etnia y el contexto social. Se realizó un análisis del contenido de 86 anuncios publicitarios inéditos divulgados en Araraquara (sureste de Brasil, en el año 2005. La asociación entre las categorías fue analizada usando la prueba exacta de Fisher. Se detectó un predominio de mujeres (62,8%, siendo cuatro veces mas frecuentes que los hombres en propagandas de antidepresivos y ansiolíticos. La mayoría estaba constituida por jóvenes adultos (72%, de etnia blanca (98,8%. Las personas estaban en tiempo de ocio (46,5%, en sus casas (29% o en contacto con la naturaleza (16,2%. El mensaje transmitido fue que los medicamentos tratan sintomatologías subjetivas de incomodidad del día a día, induciendo un reclamo irracional que puede reflejarse en la prescripción medicamentosaThe goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content

  1. Prescription Disposal Practices: A 2-Year Ecological Study of Drug Drop Box Donations in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeffrey; Hagemeier, Nicholas; Brooks, Billy; Alamian, Arsham

    2015-09-01

    We quantified controlled substance donations via permanent drug donation boxes over 2 years in a region with high prescription abuse, assessing medication characteristics, time between dispensing and donation, and weight of medications donated per capita. In partnership with Drug Enforcement Administration and local law enforcement, we analyzed permanent drug donation box collections in 8 Northeast Tennessee locations from June 2012 to April 2014. We recorded controlled substance dosage units along with the product dispensing date. We collected 4841 pounds of pharmaceutical waste, 4.9% (238.5 pounds) of which were controlled substances, totaling 106,464 controlled substance doses. Analysis of dispensing dates for controlled substances indicated a median of 34 months lapsed from dispensing to donation (range = 1-484 months). The mean controlled substance donation rate was 1.39 pounds per 1000 residents. Communities with fewer than 10,000 residents had a statistically higher controlled substance donation rate (P = .002) compared with communities with 10,000 or more residents. Permanent drug donation boxes can be an effective mechanism to remove controlled substances from community settings. Rural and urban community residents should be provided convenient and timely access to drug disposal options.

  2. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13–19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System. Method Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all intentional exposures from 2007 through 2009 were used to describe adolescent prescription opioid (oxycodone, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol) and stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamines) exposures. Results A total of 16,209 intentional adolescent exposures to prescription drugs were identified, 68% to opioids and 32% to stimulants. The mean age was 16.6 years (SD ± 1.7 years). Slightly more than half (52.4%) of drug mentions involved females. The five most frequently misused or abused drugs were hydrocodone (32%), amphetamines (18%), oxycodone (15%), methylphenidate (14%), and tramadol (11%). Of all exposures, 38%were classified as suspected suicidal. Of adolescents who intentionally exposed themselves to prescription drugs, 30% were treated in a health care facility, 2,792 of whom were admitted to the hospital, including 1,293 to the intensive care unit. A total of 17.2% of intentional exposures were associated with no effect, 38.9% minor effects, 23.3% moderate effects, 3.6% major effects, and 0.1% were associated with death. Oxycodone and methadone were associated with the most deaths. No deaths were associated with exposures to stimulants. Conclusions Prescription drug misuse and abuse poses an important health problem and results in thousands of hospitalizations of adolescents per year. Further work is needed to develop focused interventions and educational programs to prevent prescription drug abuse and misuse by adolescents. PMID:23357446

  3. Content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products; requirements for pregnancy and lactation labeling. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing the content and format of the "Pregnancy," "Labor and delivery," and "Nursing mothers" subsections of the "Use in Specific Populations" section of the labeling for human prescription drug and biological products. The final rule requires the removal of the pregnancy categories A, B, C, D, and X from all human prescription drug and biological product labeling. For human prescription drug and biological products subject to the Agency's 2006 Physician Labeling Rule, the final rule requires that the labeling include a summary of the risks of using a drug during pregnancy and lactation, a discussion of the data supporting that summary, and relevant information to help health care providers make prescribing decisions and counsel women about the use of drugs during pregnancy and lactation. The final rule eliminates the "Labor and delivery" subsection because information about labor and delivery is included in the "Pregnancy" subsection. The final rule requires that the labeling include relevant information about pregnancy testing, contraception, and infertility for health care providers prescribing for females and males of reproductive potential. The final rule creates a consistent format for providing information about the risks and benefits of prescription drug and/or biological product use during pregnancy and lactation and by females and males of reproductive potential. These revisions will facilitate prescriber counseling for these populations.

  4. Understanding drugs and behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parrott, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xi Part I Drugs and Their Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Psychoactive drugs: introduction and overview . . . . . . . . 2 The brain...

  5. Descriptive analysis of primary package labels from commercially available prescription solid oral dosage form drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermak, Todd E; Lambert, Bruce L

    2009-01-01

    To describe formats used by manufacturers to display drug names on primary package labels for prescription solid oral dosage forms. Cross-sectional study. Independent community pharmacy in rural Indiana. The images were collected in February 2006. Not applicable. High-resolution digital photos were taken of 918 primary package labels (422 brand name and 496 generic) from all solid oral dosage forms stocked in an independent community pharmacy. We coded the images for the presence or absence of specific typographical characteristics used to distinguish the name of the drug. We also coded for the presence or absence of an image of the product on the label. Frequency of various typographical characteristics used to display the drug name(s) on a primary package label. Manufacturers use a wide variety of techniques to increase the distinctiveness of drug names on primary package labels, including color, boldface, underlining, italics, capitalization, highlighting, use of abbreviations, and use of parentheses to differentiate the generic name of the drug, as well as use of images of the drug product. The frequency of use of the different techniques varied substantially (e.g., boldface fonts used in nearly 98% of brand-name labels, underlining used in only 0.2% of brand-name labels). The frequency of use of the techniques differed across brand and generic products. The lack of standardization in the typographical presentation of drug names on primary package labels of solid oral dosage forms in the United States appears to reflect underlying uncertainty about the relative effectiveness of the different techniques. Given the frequency and severity of wrong drug errors caused, at least in part, by the inability of clinicians to distinguish between similar labels, research is urgently needed to determine which technique or combination of techniques will minimize the risk of confusion.

  6. Utilization of self-medication and prescription drugs among 15-year-old children from the German GINIplus birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Salvatore; Brand, Helmut; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Wolfenstetter, Silke Britta

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to analyse paediatric drug utilization in relation to self-medication, prescription drugs, and the most reported therapeutic drug categories. Data were collected for 3013 children on their utilization of drugs (4-week prevalence) from a German birth cohort study (GINIplus, 15-year follow-up) using a self-administered questionnaire. The drugs were grouped into over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs, and were classified according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Predictors were analysed using a logistic regression model with four independent variables (gender, study area, maternal education, and parental income). Some 69% of the reported 2489 drugs were over-the-counter drugs, and 31% were prescription drugs. The 4-week prevalence for using any type of drug was 41.0%. Drug categories with high prevalence rates of use were antiinflammatory drugs (10.3%), analgesics (7.1%), and antiallergics (5.0%). Factors associated with higher use of over-the-counter drugs were female gender (OR = 1.56, p self-medicated antiallergics (positive association) and contraceptives (negative association). The use of antibiotics, methylphenidate, and drugs for thyroid therapy was associated with lower parental income. The use of over-the-counter drugs in 15-year-old children from the GINIplus birth cohort is very common and is predicted by socioeconomic factors such as maternal education. This has to be considered by health care managers when deciding about the exclusion of over-the-counter drugs (normally used for self-medication) from reimbursement or the deregulation of drug sales. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Guide to drug porphyrogenicity prediction and drug prescription in the acute porphyrias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunell, Stig; Pomp, Erik; Brun, Atle

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Many drug safety lists for acute porphyrias, largely based on anecdotal evidence, are put forward, but no methods or rationale for the risk estimates are given. Many unexplained discrepancies between the lists exist. What this study adds A standardized method for assessment of the risk that a certain drug may activate these diseases has been developed. It also allows risk assessments for drugs lacking porphyria related clinical experience. About one thousand therapeutic drugs have been classified with regard to porphyrogenicity by the proposed method, which is most valuable for the care of porphyria patients. Aims This paper addresses two common problems in the care of carriers of acute porphyria: the choice of safe drugs for pharmacotherapy and the strategy to apply when potentially unsafe drugs cannot be avoided. Methods and results A technique is presented for prediction of risk that a certain drug may activate the disease in a gene carrier for acute porphyria. It is based on a model explaining the clinical manifestations as a result of the acute overloading of a deficient enzyme within the hepatic heme biosynthetic chain. The capacity of the drug for induction of the rate-limiting enzyme in heme biosynthesis, e.g. housekeeping 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS1), is assessed by critical appraisal of reports of the outcomes of clinical use of the drug, and by theoretical criteria. The assessment occurs within the frame of a flow-scheme employing variables of increasing specificity, i.e. endocrine properties of the drug, structure and metabolism pointing to affinity to cytochrome P450, hepatic load in therapeutic use, recognized affinity to major CYP species, capacity for CYP-induction or irreversible inhibition, and capacity to activate or modulate the transduction mechanisms of nuclear receptors affecting ALAS1-gene transcription. It is proposed that in the absence of a safer alternative, an urgently needed drug not

  8. Potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions to patients over 45 years of age in primary care, southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few cross-sectional studies involving adults and elderly patients with major DDIs have been conducted in the primary care setting. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs in patients treated in primary care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study involving patients aged 45 years or older was conducted at 25 Basic Health Units in the city of Maringá (southern Brazil from May to December 2010. The data were collected from prescriptions at the pharmacy of the health unit at the time of the delivery of medication to the patient. After delivery, the researcher checked the electronic medical records of the patient. A total of 827 patients were investigated (mean age: 64.1; mean number of medications: 4.4. DDIs were identified in the Micromedex® database. The prevalence of potential DDIs and major DDIs was 63.0% and 12.1%, respectively. In both the univariate and multivariate analyses, the number of drugs prescribed was significantly associated with potential DDIs, with an increasing risk from three to five drugs (OR = 4.74; 95% CI: 2.90-7.73 to six or more drugs (OR = 23.03; 95% CI: 10.42-50.91. Forty drugs accounted for 122 pairs of major DDIs, the most frequent of which involved simvastatin (23.8%, captopril/enalapril (16.4% and fluoxetine (16.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first large-scale study on primary care carried out in Latin America. Based on the findings, the estimated prevalence of potential DDIs was high, whereas clinically significant DDIs occurred in a smaller proportion. Exposing patients to a greater number of prescription drugs, especially three or more, proved to be a significant predictor of DDIs. Prescribers should be more aware of potential DDIs. Future studies should assess potential DDIs in primary care over a longer period of time.

  9. The association between benzodiazepine prescription and aberrant drug-related behaviors in primary care patients receiving opioids for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Woo; Saitz, Richard; Nelson, Kerrie P; Xuan, Ziming; Liebschutz, Jane M; Lasser, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    Benzodiazepine use has been associated with addiction-related risks, but little is known about its association with aberrant drug-related behaviors in patients receiving opioids for chronic pain. The authors examined the association between receipt of a benzodiazepine prescription and 2 aberrant drug-related behaviors, early opioid refills and illicit drug (cocaine) use in patients receiving opioids for noncancer chronic pain. This was a retrospective cohort study of 847 patients with ≥1 visit to either a hospital-based primary care clinic or one of two community health centers between September 1, 2011, and August 31, 2012. All patients received ≥3 opioid prescriptions written at least 21 days apart within 6 months, and ≥1 urine drug screen during the study period. A Cox proportional hazards model estimated the hazard of a second early opioid refill, defined as an opioid prescription written 7-25 days after the previous prescription for the same drug, as a function of time-varying benzodiazepine prescription. A logistic regression model examined the relationship between benzodiazepine prescription and a positive urine test for cocaine. Models were adjusted for demographics and mental/substance use disorder diagnoses. Twenty-three percent (n = 196) of patients received ≥1 benzodiazepine prescription during the study period. Twenty-two percent (n = 183) of patients had ≥2 early opioid refills, and 11% (n = 93) had ≥1 positive urine drug tests for cocaine. Receipt of benzodiazepine prescription was associated with an increased hazard of having a second early opioid refill, adjusted hazard ratio = 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.18), but not associated with a positive cocaine test, adjusted odds ratio = 1.07 (95% CI: 0.55-2.23). Among primary care patients receiving chronic opioid therapy, benzodiazepine prescription was associated with early opioid refills but not with cocaine use. Further research should better elucidate the risks and

  10. How the US Food and Drug Administration can solve the prescription drug shortage problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Stuart O

    2013-05-01

    Drug shortages are threatening care quality and cost-containment efforts. I describe the pharmaceutical marketplace changes that have caused the problem, and propose new policies to solve it, through changing incentives for producers and purchasers. I propose a grading scheme for the Food and Drug Administration when it inspects manufacturing facilities in the United States and abroad. The inspections' focus would change from closing unsafe plants to improving production process quality, reducing the likelihood that plants will be closed-the most frequent cause of drug shortages.

  11. Visual presentations of efficacy data in direct-to-consumer prescription drug print and television advertisements: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Aikin, Kathryn J; Chowdhury, Dhuly; Moultrie, Rebecca R; Rupert, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether visual aids help people recall quantitative efficacy information in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements, and if so, which types of visual aids are most helpful. Individuals diagnosed with high cholesterol (n=2504) were randomized to view a fictional DTC print or television advertisement with no visual aid or one of four visual aids (pie chart, bar chart, table, or pictograph) depicting drug efficacy. We measured drug efficacy and risk recall, drug perceptions and attitudes, and behavioral intentions. For print advertisements, a bar chart or table, compared with no visual aid, elicited more accurate drug efficacy recall. The bar chart was better at this than the pictograph and the table was better than the pie chart. For television advertisements, any visual aid, compared with no visual aid, elicited more accurate drug efficacy recall. The bar chart was better at this than the pictograph or the table. Visual aids depicting quantitative efficacy information in DTC print and television advertisements increased drug efficacy recall, which may help people make informed decisions about prescription drugs. Adding visual aids to DTC advertising may increase the public's knowledge of how well prescription drugs work. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. How might the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 affect the financial viability of rural pharmacies? An analysis of preimplementation prescription volume and payment sources in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraher, Erin P; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Smith, Laura; Randolph, Randy; Rudolf, Matthew; Holmes, George M

    2005-01-01

    Passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) has created interest in how the legislation will affect access to prescription drugs among rural beneficiaries. Policy attention has focused to a much lesser degree on the implications of the MMA for the financial viability of rural pharmacies. This article presents descriptive information on mail-order prescriptions, volume, and payer type of retail prescriptions in rural vs urban areas. Together, these data provide a baseline for evaluating how implementation of the MMA may affect the financial viability of rural independent pharmacies. Projections of prescriptions dispensed from retail and mail-order pharmacies in 2002 for the total US and a sample of 17 states were obtained from IMS Health. The volume of mail-order prescriptions is small. Rural providers prescribed fewer retail and mail-order prescriptions per person, but more units per person. Rural areas have a higher percentage of prescriptions paid for by cash (18% vs 13%) and Medicaid (16% vs 10%) and a lower percentage of third-party payers than urban areas. Significant variation in volume and payer type exists between states. Rural, independent pharmacies may be negatively affected by MMA implementation as business shifts from cash to third-party reimbursement. The high degree of variation between states also has potentially important implications for the implementation of Prescription Drug Plan regions under MMA.

  13. Prescription of asthma medications before and during pregnancy in France: An observational drug study using the EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Anna-Belle; Didier, Alain; Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lacroix, Isabelle; Damase-Michel, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Asthma affects between 3% to 8% of pregnant women. Previous studies have suggested that women's prescriptions for asthma medications change during pregnancy. The aim was to describe the prescription of asthma medications before and during pregnancy in France. Women from the EFEMERIS, a French database assessing the drugs prescribed, dispensed and reimbursed during pregnancy, delivering between July 2004 and December 2012, were included. Women, who were dispensed asthma medications on at least two dates from 3 months prior to pregnancy through delivery, were considered. 2,977 women out of 69,205 (4%) were selected. They were prescribed 2.4 ± 1.2 different anti-asthmatic drugs with 3.5 ± 2.7 different dispensing dates. Almost 62% of the women were dispensed at least one prescription for short-acting β2-agonist (SABA), 63% at least one inhaled corticosteroid (IC), 42% a fixed-combination of an IC and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) and 8% a LABA. An increase in SABA and IC prescriptions and a decrease in fixed-combination prescriptions were observed during pregnancy compared to pre-pregnancy period. A rapid drop in prescriptions for montelukast was observed. Among the 1,507 women who were prescribed asthma medication before pregnancy, one third had a drop in dispensed asthma medications from the beginning of pregnancy. The prevalence of dispensed asthma medications varies during pregnancy. There is a decrease in the prescriptions of fixed-combinations during pregnancy and an increase in the prescriptions of ICs. It appears important to study the potential impact of such changes on fetuses and newborns.

  14. Nonmedical prescription opioids and pathways of drug involvement in the US: Generational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Melanie; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Hu, Mei-Chen; Feng, Tianshu; Griesler, Pamela; Kandel, Denise B

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to specify (1) the position of nonmedical prescription opioids (NMPO) in drug initiation sequences among Millennials (1979-96), Generation X (1964-79), and Baby Boomers (1949-64) and (2) gender and racial/ethnic differences in sequences among Millennials. Data are from the 2013-2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (n = 73,026). We identified statistically significant drug initiation sequences involving alcohol/cigarettes, marijuana, NMPO, cocaine, and heroin using a novel method distinguishing significant sequences from patterns expected only due to correlations induced by common liability among drugs. Alcohol/cigarettes followed by marijuana was the most common sequence. NMPO or cocaine use after marijuana, and heroin use after NMPO or cocaine, differed by generation. Among successively younger generations, NMPO after marijuana and heroin after NMPO increased. Millennials were more likely to initiate NMPO than cocaine after marijuana; Generation X and Baby Boomers were less likely (odds ratios = 1.4;0.3;0.2). Millennials were more likely than Generation X and Baby Boomers to use heroin after NMPO (hazards ratios = 7.1;3.4;2.5). In each generation, heroin users were far more likely to start heroin after both NMPO and cocaine than either alone. Sequences were similar by gender. Fewer paths were significant among African-Americans. NMPOs play a more prominent role in drug initiation sequences among Millennials than prior generations. Among Millennials, NMPO use is more likely than cocaine to follow marijuana use. In all generations, transition to heroin from NMPO significantly occurs only when both NMPO and cocaine have been used. Delineation of drug sequences suggests optimal points in development for prevention and treatment efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hidden in plain sight marketing prescription drugs to consumers in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A; Herzberg, David

    2010-05-01

    Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the twentieth century. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices.

  16. Are ECG monitoring recommendations before prescription of QT-prolonging drugs applied in daily practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Rutten, Frans Hendrik; Souverein, Patrick Cyriel

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Monitoring of the QT duration by electrocardiography (ECG) prior to treatment is frequently recommended in the label of QT-prolonging drugs. It is, however, unknown how often general practitioners in daily clinical practice are adhering to these risk-minimization measures. We assessed...... the frequency of ECG measurements in patients where haloperidol was initiated in primary care. METHODS: Patients (≥18 years) with a first prescription of haloperidol in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2009-2013) were included. The proportion of ECGs made was determined in two blocks of 4 weeks......: during the exposure period when haloperidol was initiated, and during the control period, 1 year before. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate the relative risk of having an ECG in the exposure period compared with the control period. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess...

  17. The unlicensed lives of antidepressants in India: generic drugs, unqualified practitioners, and floating prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecks, Stefan; Basu, Soumita

    2009-03-01

    Antidepressant uses have been rising rapidly over the past decades. Two main theories have been advanced to explain this. One claims that socio-economic change causes a global rise of depressive illness. The other holds that European and North American corporations are aggressively marketing antidepressants to expand their global reach. Both theories assume that multinational capitalism drives rising depression rates. Based on ethnographic data from India, this article shows that antidepressants are increasingly used in this country as well, but for reasons than have been little explored yet. Taking fluoxetine (Prozac) as the main example, it is argued that the spread of antidepressants in India is ;unlicensed' by Euro-American corporations in at least three ways: (i) drug marketing is driven by Indian generic producers; (ii) fluoxetine is given by practitioners who have no license to do so; and (iii) knowledge of fluoxetine is spread through unlicensed ;floating' prescriptions that patients take from one prescriber to another.

  18. Seniors' uncertainty management of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, Denise E; Huh, Jisu

    2009-09-01

    This study provides insight into seniors' perceptions of and responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) usefulness, examines support for DTCA regulation as a type of uncertainty management, and extends and gives empirical voice to previous survey results through methodological triangulation. In-depth interview findings revealed that, for most informants, DTCA usefulness was uncertain and this uncertainty stemmed from 4 sources. The majority had negative responses to DTCA uncertainty and relied on 2 uncertainty-management strategies: information seeking from physicians, and inferences of and support for some government regulation of DTCA. Overall, the findings demonstrate the viability of uncertainty management theory (Brashers, 2001, 2007) for mass-mediated health communication, specifically DTCA. The article concludes with practical implications and research recommendations.

  19. HIDDEN in PLAIN SIGHT Marketing Prescription Drugs to Consumers in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the twentieth century. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices. PMID:20299640

  20. The Moderating Role of Age in Responses to Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jennifer G; Manika, Danae; Stout, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Age is an important factor that can influence processing of and response to health messages. Many studies examining evaluations of and responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) have incorporated age as a predictor variable, moderating variable, or sample criterion. However, findings have been inconsistent. This study attempts to add clarity to this body of research by assessing age differences in the antecedent factors of various DTCA outcomes. A multigroup structural equation modeling analysis revealed several significant differences in variable relationships between older (50+) and younger (association with attention among younger adults. Further analysis indicated that health status accounted for some but not all of the age differences. It is suggested that younger adults are more open to seeking additional information following DTCA exposure, whereas older adults remain ambivalent.

  1. Impacts of generic competition and benefit management practices on spending for prescription drugs: evidence from Medicare's Part D benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheingold, Steven; Nguyen, Nguyen Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of generic competition, increased cost-sharing, and benefit practices on utilization and spending for prescription drugs. We examined changes in Medicare price and utilization from 2007 to 2009 of all drugs in 28 therapeutic classes. The classes accounted for 80% of Medicare Part D spending in 2009 and included the 6 protected classes and 6 classes with practically no generic competition. All variables were constructed to measure each drug relative to its class at a specific plan sponsor. We estimated that the shift toward generic utilization had cut in half the rate of increase in the price of a prescription during 2007-2009. Specifically, the results showed that (1) rapid generic penetration had significantly held down costs per prescription, (2) copayment and other benefit practices shifted utilization to generics and favored brands, and (3) price increases were generally greater in less competitive classes of drugs. In many ways, Part D was implemented at a fortuitous time; since 2006, there have been relatively few new blockbuster drugs introduced, and many existing high-volume drugs used by beneficiaries were in therapeutic classes with multiple brands and generic alternatives. Under these conditions, our paper showed that plan sponsors have been able to contain costs by encouraging use of generics or drugs offering greater value within therapeutic classes. It is less clear what will happen to future Part D costs if a number of new and effective drugs for beneficiaries enter the market with no real competitors.

  2. Abrupt decline in oxycodone-caused mortality after implementation of Florida's Prescription Drug Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcher, Chris; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Goldberger, Bruce A; Cook, Robert L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2015-05-01

    In Florida, oxycodone-caused deaths declined substantially in 2012. Multiple important law enforcement, pharmaceutical, policy, and public health actions occurred concurrently, including implementation of a statewide Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP). The effects of the PDMP on oxycodone-caused mortality in Florida were evaluated. A time-series, quasi-experimental research design with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) statistical models, including internal and external covariates. Data included 120 repeated monthly observations. Monthly counts of oxycodone-caused deaths, obtained from the Florida Medical Examiners Commission (MEC) was the outcome variable. Models included market-entry of tamper-resistant oxycodone HC1 controlled release tablets (OxyContin(®)), enforcement crackdowns (Operation Pill Nation), and regulation by FL House Bill 7095, measured by the monthly count of Florida pain management clinics closed. Two approaches were used to test the PDMP's hypothesized effect: (1) a binary indicator variable (0=pre-implementation, 1=post-implementation), and (2) a continuous indicator consisting of the number of PDMP queries by health care providers. Oxycodone-caused mortality abruptly declined 25% the month after implementation of Florida's PDMP (p=0.008). The effect remained after integrating other related historical events into the model. Results indicate that for a system-wide increase of one PDMP query per health care provider, oxycodone-caused deaths declined by 0.229 persons per month (p=0.002). This is the first study to demonstrate that the PDMP had a significant effect in reducing oxycodone-caused mortality in Florida. Results have implications for national efforts to address the prescription drug epidemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Motives for illicit prescription drug use among university students: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Trevor; Holloway, Katy

    2017-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the motives for prescription drug misuse (PDM) among university students. However, the overall findings of this research are hard to decipher. Studies use different methods, they examine different drug types, the motives are phrased in various ways, and the results differ widely. In order to make sense of this body of knowledge, it is necessary to synthesise the results across studies and draw out conclusions. The research comprises a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the motives of university students for illicit use of four different types of prescription medication (stimulants, analgesics, tranquillisers and sedatives). The search for studies was conducted on six bibliographic databases with stated criteria governing search eligibility and inclusion in the final review. Overall, the most prevalent motives for PDM among university students cover some kind of personal enhancement to the user in terms of performance (in relation to sports, and academic outcomes), mental health (ability sleep, to reduce anxiety), or physical health (manage pre-existing illnesses). Fewer than half of users said that they were involved in PDM for pleasure purposes (to party, to get high, or to experiment). PDM among students might be viewed as a means of self-improvement when other means of achieving desired objectives are unavailable or restricted. A more thorough understanding of motives for PDM, especially in relation to their influence on behaviour, might help in devising university-based treatment and prevention programmes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Creating demand for prescription drugs: a content analysis of television direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; Krueger, Patrick M; Hornik, Robert C; Cronholm, Peter F; Barg, Frances K

    2007-01-01

    American television viewers see as many as 16 hours of prescription drug advertisements (ads) each year, yet no research has examined how television ads attempt to influence consumers. This information is important, because ads may not meet their educational potential, possibly prompting consumers to request prescriptions that are clinically inappropriate or more expensive than equally effective alternatives. We coded ads shown during evening news and prime time hours for factual claims they make about the target condition, how they attempt to appeal to consumers, and how they portray the medication and lifestyle behaviors in the lives of ad characters. Most ads (82%) made some factual claims and made rational arguments (86%) for product use, but few described condition causes (26%), risk factors (26%), or prevalence (25%). Emotional appeals were almost universal (95%). No ads mentioned lifestyle change as an alternative to products, though some (19%) portrayed it as an adjunct to medication. Some ads (18%) portrayed lifestyle changes as insufficient for controlling a condition. The ads often framed medication use in terms of losing (58%) and regaining control (85%) over some aspect of life and as engendering social approval (78%). Products were frequently (58%) portrayed as a medical breakthrough. Despite claims that ads serve an educational purpose, they provide limited information about the causes of a disease or who may be at risk; they show characters that have lost control over their social, emotional, or physical lives without the medication; and they minimize the value of health promotion through lifestyle changes. The ads have limited educational value and may oversell the benefits of drugs in ways that might conflict with promoting population health.

  6. Chromatography as Method for Analytical Confirmation of Paracetamol in Postmortem Material Together with Psychoactive Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscevic-Tokic, Jasmina; Tokic, Nedim; Ibrahimpasic, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in addition to aspirin is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic medication by millions of patients worldwide. It is an example that paracetamol as medicine that in the world is provided without a doctor’s prescription, can lead to death. Today paracetamol became an integral part of a heroin mixture and is very popular at the street market. The main reason for this is that it can be obtained without a prescription, it is cheap, and by most people well tolerated without side effects. It is probably used for “cutting” the pure heroin, as it says in the jargon, and in that manner from small amount of pure drug is obtained greater amount, which is then sold on the street. The goal is to identify presence of paracetamol, by analytical method of gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in postmortem material together with psychoactive substances. Material and methods: For chemical-toxicological analysis is used biological material collected trough autopsy of 20 deceased people, suspected to have died due to psychoactive substance overdose. All received samples are stored at -20 ° C until analysis at our laboratory. From processed 47 samples that were analyzed in the period from 2014 to 2015, 19 are blood samples, urine 19, 3 samples of stomach contents, and 6 samples of bile content. Deceased were middle-aged, of which only 7 were female. The tested samples were processed according to two methods of extraction. Extraction by XAD-2 resin, and the extraction by the method of salting out with sodium tungstate. Extracts of the samples were then dissolved in chloroform and continued analysis at the analytical instrument. Identification of the paracetamol presence, in the test biological samples is demonstrated by the technique of gas chromatography with mass spectometry (hereinafter referred to as GC-MS). The technique of GC-MS is a selective, sensitive and reliable, and is therefore considered a “gold standard

  7. An educational intervention on drug use in nursing homes improves health outcomes resource utilization and reduces inappropriate drug prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gollarte, Fermín; Baleriola-Júlvez, José; Ferrero-López, Isabel; Cuenllas-Díaz, Álvaro; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2014-12-01

    Inappropriate drug prescription is a common problem in people living in nursing homes and is linked to adverse health outcomes. This study assessed the effect of an educational intervention directed to nursing home physicians in reducing inappropriate prescription and improving health outcomes and resource utilization. Prospective, randomized, multicenter study. A private organization of nursing homes in Spain. Sixty nursing home physicians caring for approximately 3900 nursing home residents in 37 centers were randomized to receive an educational intervention (30) or as a control group (30). 10 hours educational program, followed by on demand support by phone. Outcomes were assessed in 1018 randomly selected nursing home residents. Appropriateness of drug use [measured by the Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions (STOPP) and Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to Right Treatment (START) criteria], incidence of selected geriatric syndromes (falls, delirium) and health resource utilization (visits to physicians and nursing homes, visits to the emergency room, days of hospitalization) were recorded for 3 months before the intervention started and 3 months after the intervention finished. O total of 716 residents finished the study (344 cared for by the intervention group physicians, 372 cared for by control physicians). Mean age was 84.4 ± 12.7 years; 73% were women. The mean number of inappropriate drugs (STOPP criteria) was higher at the end of the study in the control than in the intervention group (1.29 ± 1.56 vs 0.81 ± 1.13), as was the number of residents on 6 or more drugs (76.5% vs.67.0%), using antipsychotics (9.1% vs 3.2%) or duplicate medications (32.5% vs 9.2%). The number of fallers increased in the control group (from 19.3% to 28%) and did not significantly change in the intervention group (from 25.3% to 23.9%); the number of residents with delirium increased in the control group (from 3.8% to 9.1%) and decreased in the intervention group (from 6

  8. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... discontinuation of therapy from prescription data. Furthermore, we compared to results based on self-reported duration of HT from the Danish Nurse Cohort.Finally, we analysed the effect of HT exposure on time to breast cancer for the different prescription based exposure variables as well as for self-reported HT...... use. RESULTS: The results of time to discontinuation varied strongly across the different HT assessments. However, misclassification of HT exposure at baseline was limited and hence analysis of the effect of HT on time to breast cancer showed stability across the different exposure assessments...

  9. La vivencia de la dependencia en un consumidor de drogas psicoactivas The experience of the dependence to a psychoactive drug in a consumer drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Basso Musso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigación cualitativa, de trayectoria fenomenológica, siguiendo el referencial sociológico de Schutz, cuyo objetivo es conocer la vivencia del fenómeno de la dependencia o adicción, en un consumidor de drogas psicoactivas en tratamiento en un Centro Abierto, teniendo como base las siguientes preguntas orientadoras: ¿Cómo se inició la experiencia de consumo de drogas? ¿Cuáles fueron los motivos para consumir drogas? ¿Cómo se va instalando la dependencia a ellas? ¿Cómo se dio cuenta que se había hecho dependiente a la droga? En el discurso de los consumidores se identificaron siete categorías del referencial de Shutz, que muestran aspectos significativos de la vivencia. Al analizarlas se pudo comprender al tipo vivido del consumidor de drogas psicoactivas que presenta adicción y el entendimiento de los motivos existenciales que influyeron en la instalación de esta dependencia, profundizándose así el conocimiento del fenómeno, lo que permitirá otorgarles un mejor cuidado.Qualitative, phenomenological research following Schutz, referential sociological, whose objective is to know the experience of the phenomenon of dependence or addiction to a consumer of drugs in treatment in an open centre, based on the following questions guide path: How do you start drug experience? What were the reasons for drug use? You how is it installing dependence to them? How gave account which had become dependent drug? The speech of consumers identified seven categories Schutz, referential, that showing significant aspects of the experience. To analyze them lived type drugs featuring addiction and understanding of the existential reasons that influenced the installation of this dependency, deepening the understanding of the phenomenon, thereby granting consumer could understand better care.

  10. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  11. Trust in online prescription drug information among internet users: the impact on information search behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ajit M; Deshpande, Aparna D; Perri, Matthew; Zinkhan, George M

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of both manufacturer-controlled and independent medication-related websites has aroused concern among consumers and policy-makers concerning the trustworthiness of Web-based drug information. The authors examine consumers' trust in on-line prescription drug information and its influence on information search behavior. The study design involves a retrospective analysis of data from a 1998 national survey. The findings reveal that trust in drug information from traditional media sources such as television and newspapers transfers to the domain of the Internet. Furthermore, a greater trust in on-line prescription drug information stimulates utilization of the Internet for information search after exposure to prescription drug advertising.

  12. 76 FR 24901 - Request for Input To Inform a Possible Surgeon General Action on Prescription Drug Abuse in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Request for Input To Inform a Possible Surgeon General... work group has received expert input on the state of the science for addressing prescription drug abuse...

  13. Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs among Youth in an Appalachian Population: Prevalence, Predictors, and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David; Abadi, Melissa Harris; Johnson, Knowlton; Shamblen, Steve; Thompson, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    This article examines prevalence of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) in a sample of elementary and high school students in an Appalachian Tennessee county. We found that lifetime prevalence of NMUPD (35%) was higher than prevalence of cigarette use (28%) and marijuana use (17%), but lower than lifetime prevalence of alcohol use (46%).…

  14. Propagandas de medicamentos psicoativos: análise das informações científicas Psychoactive drug advertising: analysis of scientific information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C Mastroianni

    2008-06-01

    , medicinal drug promotion should be reliable, accurate, truthful, informative, balanced, up-to-date and capable of substantiation. The objective of the present study was to review psychoactive drug advertisements to physicians as for information consistency with the related references and accessibility of the cited references. METHODS: Data was collected in the city of Araraquara, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005. There were collected and reviewed 152 drug advertisements, a total of 304 references. References were requested directly from pharmaceutical companies' customer services and searched in UNESP (Ibict, Athenas and BIREME (SciELO, PubMed, free-access indexed journals library network and CAPES journals. Advertisement statements were checked against references using content analysis. RESULTS: Of all references cited in the advertisements studied, 66.7% were accessed. Of 639 promotional statements identified, 346 (54% were analyzed. The analysis showed that 67.7% of promotional statements in the advertisements were consistent with their references, while the remaining was either partially consistent or inconsistent. Of the material analyzed, an average 2.5 (1-28 references was cited per advertisement. In the text body, there were identified 639 pieces of information clearly associated with at least one cited reference (average 3.5 pieces of information per advertisement. CONCLUSIONS: The study results evidenced difficult access to the references. Messages on efficacy, safety and cost, among others, are not always supported by scientific studies. There is a need for regulation changes and effective monitoring of drug promotional materials.

  15. Trends in manufacturer prices of brand name prescription drugs used by older Americans--first quarter 2004 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, David J; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Raetzman, Susan O

    2004-06-01

    This Issue Brief reports on changes in manufacturers' prescription drug prices during the first three months of 2004 (January through March) for the brand name prescription drugs most widely used by Americans age 50 and over. This report is the first quarterly update in an ongoing study of changes in drug manufacturer prices-that is, manufacturers' prices charged for drugs they sold to wholesalers. A baseline study published in May 2004 by the AARP Public Policy Institute identified steady increases in the average annual manufacturer price from calendar year 2000 through calendar year 2003. This report's focus is on changes in the prices that brand name drug manufacturers charge to wholesalers for sales to retail pharmacies. The manufacturer's charge to wholesalers is the most substantial component of a prescription drug's retail price. When there is an increase in the manufacturer price to wholesalers for a brand name drug, this added cost is generally passed on as a similar percent change in the retail price to most prescription purchasers. The report presents three measures of price change (see methodological appendix). The first set of findings are annual rates of change in manufacturers' prices for widely used brand name drugs, using both rolling average and point-to-point estimates; information is presented on percentage change in manufacturer price and on potential dollar changes in consumer spending. The second set of findings are three-month percentage changes in prices (i.e., changes from December 31, 2003 through March 31, 2004); the distribution of percentage price changes is shown, as well as differences in average percentage price changes by manufacturer and by therapeutic category.

  16. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in transgender women in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Pierce, Juan; McNulty, Shawn; Heck, Ted; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Male-to-female transgender women (TGW) experience high rates of substance use and HIV. A recent substance use trend is the use of prescription medication without a doctor's consent. No research to date has examined the associations between this non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in TGW. In the present study, TGW recruited from community venues (N = 104) in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed surveys assessing demographic information, non-medical use of prescription drugs, other substance use, injection practices and sexual risk behaviour. Twenty-four per cent of the sample reported lifetime non-medical use of prescription drugs across the following categories: analgesics (21.2%), anxiolytics (14.4%), stimulants (12.5%) and sedatives (8.7%). Participants reporting non-medical use of prescription drugs were more likely to report other substance use, needle use to inject drugs, injecting silicone and sharing needles. In multivariable analyses, non-medical use of prescription drugs was associated with unprotected sex, sex after engaging in substance use, and commercial sex work, after controlling for demographic factors. Self-esteem and social support from family served as protective factors for non-medical use of prescription drugs. HIV-prevention programmes focused on TGW in the United States may wish to expand their assessment of substance use to include the use of prescription medications without a physician's consent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Role of Information Anxiety and Information Load on Processing of Prescription Drug Information Leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, Shweta S; Patel, Harshali K; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2017-10-16

    In this study, we evaluate the role of information anxiety and information load on the intention to read information from prescription drug information leaflets (PILs). These PILs were developed based on the principals of information load and consumer information processing. This was an experimental prospective repeated measures study conducted in the United States where 360 (62% response rate) university students (>18 years old) participated. Participants were presented with a scenario followed by exposure to the three drug product information sources used to operationalize information load. The three sources were: (i) current practice; (ii) pre-existing one-page text only; and (iii) interventional one-page prototype PILs designed for the study. Information anxiety was measured as anxiety experienced by the individual when encountering information. The outcome variable of intention to read PILs was defined as the likelihood that the patient will read the information provided in the leaflets. A survey questionnaire was used to capture the data and the objectives were analyzed by performing a repeated measures MANOVA using SAS version 9.3. When compared to current practice and one-page text only leaflets, one-page PILs had significantly lower scores on information anxiety (p information load (p Information anxiety and information load significantly impacted intention to read (p < 0.001). Newly developed PILs increased patient's intention to read and can help in improving the counseling services provided by pharmacists.

  18. Implications of prescription drug monitoring and medical cannabis legislation on opioid overdose mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Elyse; Gazmararian, Julie

    To determine whether specific state legislation has an effect on opioid overdose mortality rates compared to states without those types of legislation. Ecological study estimating opioid-related mortality in states with and without a prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) and/or medical cannabis legislation. Opioid-related mortality rates for 50 states and Washington DC from 2011 to 2014 were obtained from CDC WONDER. PDMP data were obtained from the National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws, and data on medical cannabis legislation from the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. The relationship between PDMPs with mandatory access provisions, medical cannabis legislation, and opioid-related mortality rates. Multivariate repeated measures analysis performed with software and services. Medical cannabis laws were associated with an increase of 21.7 percent in mean age-adjusted opioid-related mortality (p legislation produced a borderline significant decrease of 10.1 percent (p = 0.055). For every year states had both types of legislation, interaction resulted in a 0.6 percent decrease in rate (p = 0.013). When combined with the availability of medical cannabis as an alternative analgesic therapy, PDMPs may be more effective at decreasing opioid-related mortality.

  19. [The experimental drug prescription program in Andalusia [PEPSA]: procedure for recruiting participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Joan Carles; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Romero, Manuel; Gómez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Salvador; León, M Isabel; Rodríguez, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    In this field note we describe the steps followed in the process of recruiting participants for the experimental drug prescription program in Andalusia (PEPSA). This trial is a comparative, randomized, open study of the difference between intravenous heroin treatment and oral methadone for socially excluded, opiate-dependent patients, in whom other available treatments have been unsuccessful. Because this is a hidden and hard-to-reach population, a specific approach was planned to put as many patients as possible in touch with the program. A previous study of the target population's distribution in the City of Granada was performed and the city was divided into three areas. Potential participants were interviewed in squares, soup kitchens and methadone dispensaries by outreach workers and peers, who suggested they make an appointment with a PEPSA physician. Peer-driven intervention was a crucial instrument in this recruitment procedure, allowing greater access to the target population. Furthermore, this approach allowed contact with drug users who do not attend health and social services. The work of the outreach team involved educating these users in harm reduction and offering them health and social alternatives beyond the clinical trial.

  20. The Role of Continuing Medical Education in Increasing Enrollment in Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, John T; Twillman, Robert K; Breslan, Stephanie A; Schultz, Jan; Miller, Lyerka

    2017-09-01

    Opioid diversion, misuse, and abuse are rapidly growing problems in the United States; >60% of all drug overdose deaths involve an opioid. At least 49 states now have fully operational prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to support legitimate medical use of controlled substances; however, there is considerable underutilization of such programs. To increase awareness of PDMPs and their use, a continuing medical education program including 2 webcasts and a series of newsletters was offered to health care providers. Four hundred and sixty-five clinicians participated in 1 of 2 webcasts. Of those, 207 clinicians responded to a pre-survey and 64 responded to a post-survey. Slightly more than half of clinicians were registered for their state's PDMP program before the educational intervention, and although significantly more clinicians reported increased likelihood to access their state PDMP after participation, the number that actually registered only trended toward a statistically significant increase to 74% after the education (P = 0.06). Immediate post-activity evaluation also indicated that the education significantly improved clinician knowledge of the characteristics of addiction, findings in a PDMP that would suggest diversion or abuse, and strategies to complement the use of a PDMP (P education is effective for improving clinician knowledge and confidence related to opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion and effective use of a PDMP; however, the education did not result in a significant increase in enrollment in state PDMPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patrones de prescripción de antidiabéticos en un grupo de pacientes colombianos Antidiabetic drugs prescription patterns among a group of patients in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Machado Alba

    2007-08-01

    prescribed from two to four. The medications prescribed were: biguanides (67.5%, sulphonylureas (64.9%, insulin (23.5%, and thiazolidinediones (0.1%. The most common oral combination-therapies were: glibenclamide and metformin (n = 2 847, metformin and insulin (n = 510, glibenclamide and insulin (n = 148, and metformin, insulin, and glibenclamide (n = 288. Of the total, 94.3% had comorbid conditions for which they had been prescribed medication: antihypertensive drugs (in 74.4% of the cases, anti-inflammatories (61.5%, hypolipemiants (45.5%, antiulcer medications (21.0%, psychoactive drugs (16.8%, antimicrobials (14.4%, asthma medication (5.3%, and salicylic acid (2.8%. Prescriptions for comorbid conditions were more common among women than men (95.6% vs. 92.7%, P < 0.001. Undertreatment with certain medications (metformin, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and salicylic acid, and overtreatment with others (antiulcer drugs, probably exist. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences in oral therapies prescribed for diabetes across the 19 cities studied, but overall, prescription patterns are appropriate. Educational strategies should be developed to address those prescribing practices that are not appropriate, and the clinical results of the medications studied should be explored.

  2. Antipsychotic drug prescription rates among Dutch nursing homes: the influence of patient characteristics and the dementia special care unit.

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    van der Putten, M J G; Wetzels, R B; Bor, H; Zuidema, S U; Koopmans, R T C M

    2014-09-01

    To assess the differences in antipsychotic drug prescription rates in residents with dementia in dementia special care units (SCUs) of Dutch nursing homes, considering the differences in patient characteristics. As part of the Waalbed-II study, the data on antipsychotic drug use in 290 patients were collected and the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) stage, type of dementia and behaviour (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI)) were measured in 14 SCUs in nine nursing homes. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to assess the difference in antipsychotic drug prescription rates between dementia SCUs adjusted for age, gender, GDS stage, type of dementia and CMAI factor scores. Two hundred and ninety residents met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two per cent were prescribed an antipsychotic drug. Antipsychotic drugs were more often prescribed in patients with physically aggressive and non-aggressive behaviour and in patients with mixed dementia (vascular/Alzheimer's) than in patients with other types of dementia. Antipsychotic drug prescriptions significantly differed among the dementia SCUs. The odds of antipsychotic drug use for patients in the SCU with the highest prevalence of drug use were 2.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.69) times as high as for the SCU with the lowest prevalence of drug use, taking the patient characteristics into account. Antipsychotic drug use in nursing home residents with dementia is not only predicted by the type of dementia and patient behaviour, but it is independently associated with the dementia SCU at which the patient resides. This result indicates that antipsychotic drugs are not only prescribed for their clinical indications (agitation/aggression) but are associated with environmental factors that may reflect a specific nursing home prescribing culture.

  3. Benzodiazepine prescription for patients in treatment for drug use disorders: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjagvad, Christian; Clausen, Thomas; Handal, Marte; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2016-05-27

    Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to patients with drug use disorders. However, it has previously been difficult to distinguish whether this frequent prescribing was due to underlying psychiatric disorders or inappropriate prescribing. In a nationwide cohort study, we investigated the prescribing of benzodiazepines to patients with drug use disorders in connection with treatment admission. Benzodiazepine prescriptions to patients (N = 33203) aged 18 to 67 years admitting for outpatient treatment for drug use disorders in Denmark, 2000 to 2010, were studied by using linked data from nationwide health registries. Factors associated with increasing amounts of benzodiazepine use within the first year after admission were assessed by multinomial logistic regression. Proportions of very long-term benzodiazepine prescription were calculated. During the first year after admission to treatment, 26.2 % of patients were prescribed benzodiazepines. Of these, 35.5 % were prescribed benzodiazepines at dose levels that might indicate inappropriate use (>365 Defined Daily Dose per year), and 34.6 % were prescribed more than one type of benzodiazepines. Diazepam was the most commonly prescribed type. Among patients with opioid use, 43.2 % were prescribed benzodiazepines which were three times higher than for patients with cannabis (12.2 %) or central stimulating drugs (13.8 %) as their primary drug use. Admitting to treatment for a drug use disorder did not increase the specialized psychiatric treatment coverage of this patient group, disregarding use of prescribed benzodiazepines. 29.5 % were new users of prescribed benzodiazepines, and of these, 27.5 % continued into very long-term use (≥4 years after admission) during the study period. Benzodiazepines were commonly prescribed to patients admitting to treatment for drug use disorders, and included prescription of multiple and non-optimal types, high doses, and very long-term prescriptions. These findings

  4. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  5. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: Teaching Drug Marketers How to Inform Better or Spin Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Hyosun Kim’s report "Trouble Spots in Online Direct to Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters" aims to teach marketers how to avoid breaching current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines in their online drug promotion. While Kim hopes to minimise the potential for online promotion to misinform consumers and the study is carefully conducted, teaching drug marketers how to avoid the common mistakes in online drug promotion is more likely to make marketers more adept at spinning information than appropriately balancing it PMID:27239884

  6. Perceptions of Harm and Reasons for Misuse of Prescription Opioid Drugs and Reasons for Not Seeking Treatment for Physical or Emotional Pain Among a Sample of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, Deric R; Hamilton, Kelsey; Birmingham, Lauren; Oglesby, Willie H; Fischbein, Rebecca L; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-01-02

    Since the early 1990s, the United States has seen a significant increase in the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse. Despite benefits prescription opioids provide, misuse can be fatal. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, perceived harm of misuse, and reasons for misuse for physical or emotional pain instead of seeking professional medical or mental health treatment. Survey data were collected in the fall of 2013 via an online survey to a random sample of 668 students from a public Midwestern university. Lifetime prevalence of prescription opioid misuse was 9.5%. Misusers of prescription opioid drugs generally reported lower ratings of perceived harm as compared to individuals not reporting misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Primary reasons for misuse of prescription opioid drugs was to relieve pain (33.9%), "to feel good/get high" (23.2%) and experimentation (21.4%). Lifetime misuse of a prescription opioid drug for physical or emotional pain was reported by 8.1% and 2.2% of respondents, respectively. Primary reasons for misuse for physical pain included because pain was temporary, immediate relief was needed, and no health insurance/financial resources. Primary reasons for misuse for emotional pain included not wanting others to find out, embarrassment and fear. Conclusions/Importance: Reasons for misuse of prescription opioid drugs vary by type of prescription opioid drug. Reasons for not seeking treatment that ultimately lead to misuse, vary by type of pain being treated and may be important considerations in the effort to stem the misuse of prescription opioid drugs among college students.

  7. Multiple and substitute addictions involving prescription drugs misuse among 12th graders: gateway theory revisited with Market Basket Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; YoussefAgha, Ahmed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sequential patterns of drug use initiation, which included prescription drugs misuse (PDM), among 12th-grade students in Indiana. The study also tested the suitability of the data mining method Market Basket Analysis (MBA) to detect common drug use initiation sequences in large-scale surveys. Data from 2007 to 2009 Annual Surveys of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use by Indiana Children and Adolescents were used for this study. A close-ended, self-administered questionnaire was used to ask adolescents about the use of 21 substance categories and the age of first use. "Support%" and "confidence%" statistics of Market Basket Analysis detected multiple and substitute addictions, respectively. The lifetime prevalence of using any addictive substance was 73.3%, and it has been decreasing during past few years. Although the lifetime prevalence of PDM was 19.2%, it has been increasing. Males and whites were more likely to use drugs and engage in multiple addictions. Market Basket Analysis identified common drug use initiation sequences that involved 11 drugs. High levels of support existed for associations among alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, whereas associations that included prescription drugs had medium levels of support. Market Basket Analysis is useful for the detection of common substance use initiation sequences in large-scale surveys. Before initiation of prescription drugs, physicians should consider the adolescents' risk of addiction. Prevention programs should address multiple addictions, substitute addictions, common sequences in drug use initiation, sex and racial differences in PDM, and normative beliefs of parents and adolescents in relation to PDM.

  8. Gender bias in clinical research, pharmaceutical marketing, and the prescription of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Chilet-Rosell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is part of the studies of gender bias in health which together with the paradigm of evidence-based medicine shares the empirical assumption that there are inaccuracies in medical practice, in addition to a lack of rigour and transparency. It worked with the distinction between the concepts of sex and gender and between the concepts of sex-related differences and gender inequalities, in terms of applying a gender perspective in the study design and the subsequent analysis. This PhD review presents the research process conducted in Spain, which can provide an example for future research. Study I described a review of 58 clinical trials (CTs of etoricoxib to assess its compliance with the Recommendations of Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs. In Study II, key informants from professions related to different areas in drug development and pharmacovigilance held a working meeting to reach a consensus document on recommendations for the study and evaluation of gender differences in CTs in Spain. In Study III, the websites of the eight best-selling hormone replacement therapy drugs in Spain on Google first page of results were analysed. In Study IV, a logistic regression analysis was performed to compare analgesic prescription by sex in regions with a higher or lower Gender Development Index (GDI than the Spanish average. Gender biases identified in this thesis limited the legitimacy of medicine, which is not based on the best possible evidence. The results also demonstrate the existence of inequalities between men and women that are not due merely to biological differences, but are gender inequalities stemming from the social differences that exist between both sexes.

  9. Gender bias in clinical research, pharmaceutical marketing, and the prescription of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of the studies of gender bias in health which together with the paradigm of evidence-based medicine shares the empirical assumption that there are inaccuracies in medical practice, in addition to a lack of rigour and transparency. It worked with the distinction between the concepts of sex and gender and between the concepts of sex-related differences and gender inequalities, in terms of applying a gender perspective in the study design and the subsequent analysis. This PhD review presents the research process conducted in Spain, which can provide an example for future research. Study I described a review of 58 clinical trials (CTs) of etoricoxib to assess its compliance with the Recommendations of Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs. In Study II, key informants from professions related to different areas in drug development and pharmacovigilance held a working meeting to reach a consensus document on recommendations for the study and evaluation of gender differences in CTs in Spain. In Study III, the websites of the eight best-selling hormone replacement therapy drugs in Spain on Google first page of results were analysed. In Study IV, a logistic regression analysis was performed to compare analgesic prescription by sex in regions with a higher or lower Gender Development Index (GDI) than the Spanish average. Gender biases identified in this thesis limited the legitimacy of medicine, which is not based on the best possible evidence. The results also demonstrate the existence of inequalities between men and women that are not due merely to biological differences, but are gender inequalities stemming from the social differences that exist between both sexes.

  10. Sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents: Prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dennis H; Turner, Blair C; Mustanski, Brian; Phillips, Gregory L

    2017-09-28

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) may be at disproportionate risk for misusing prescription psychotropic medications compared to their heterosexual peers. However, generalizable studies specific to this age group are lacking. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents as well as to examine key correlates of misuse. Using data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we conducted stepwise multivariable weighted logistic regressions, sequentially controlling for demographics, experiences of victimization, mental health, and other illicit substance use. Adjusting for grade and race/ethnicity, female SMA and gay and unsure males had significantly elevated odds of ever misusing a prescription drug compared to heterosexual adolescents (ORs from 1.7-2.5). Most sexual orientation disparities among females remained significant with the addition of victimization and mental health covariates but attenuated completely after controlling for other illicit drug use. The effect for unsure males attenuated when victimization variables were included, but the effect for gay males remained significant through the final model. Controlling for other illicit drug use, mental health variables remained significant correlates for females whereas only forced sex was significant for males. These results suggest experiences of victimization and mental health partially account for the disparities in prescription drug misuse between SMA and heterosexual adolescents, and their effects may differ by sex. A combination of structural, individual coping, and universal drug prevention approaches should be used to make the largest impact on reducing these disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug information-seeking intention and behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisement of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Doucette, William R; Farris, Karen B; Nayakankuppam, Dhananjay

    2005-06-01

    Concerns about direct-to-consumer advertisement's (DTCA's) information quality have raised interest in patients' drug information-seeking after DTCA exposure. To identify predictors of patients' intentions and behaviors to seek drug information from physicians, pharmacists, and the Internet after DTCA exposure, using theories of planned behavior and self-efficacy. One thousand patients were randomly selected from 3,000 nationwide osteoarthritic patients. A self-administered survey examined predictors of intention including measurements of attitude toward behavior, subjective norm, perceived difficulty, self-efficacy, controllability, self-identity, intention, exposure to ads, and control variables. After 6 weeks, another survey measured respondents' information-seeking behavior. For patients exposed to DTCA, 6 multiple regressions were performed for information-seeking intention and behavior for 3 information sources: physicians, pharmacists, and the Internet. The response rates were 61.9% and 80.1% for the first survey and the second survey, respectively. Four hundred and fifty-four participants reported exposure to DTCA about arthritis prescription medicines in the previous month. Over 41% of the variance in intention and over 18% of the variance in behavior were explained by the regression procedures. The consistent positive predictors of intention were attitude toward behavior, self-identity, attitude toward DTCAs of arthritis medication, and osteoarthritis pain; while the consistent positive predictors of behavior were intention and osteoarthritis pain. The strongest predictors of intention were self-identity for physicians, subjective norm for pharmacists, and attitude toward behavior for the Internet. Perceived difficulty and self-efficacy did not predict intention, and self-efficacy and controllability did not predict behavior. DTCA-prompted drug information-seeking may be under patients' complete volitional control. To promote information searching

  12. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Movig, K.L.; Mathijssen, M.P.; Nagel, P.H.; van Egmond, T.; de Gier, J.J.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.

    The driving performance is easily impaired as a consequence of the use of alcohol and/or licit and illicit drugs. However, the role of drugs other than alcohol in motor vehicle accidents has not been well established. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between psychoactive

  13. Study Drugs and Academic Integrity: The Role of Beliefs about an Academic Honor Code in the Prediction of Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use for Academic Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kelsy B.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Conklin, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    The role of beliefs about academic integrity in college students' decisions to use nonmedical prescription drugs (NMPDs) in academic settings was examined. In Spring 2012 the authors obtained survey data from 645 participants at a small, undergraduate, private liberal arts institution in the Northeastern United States. A broadcast e-mail message…

  14. Trends and Determinants of Prescription Drug Use during Pregnancy and Postpartum in British Columbia, 2002-2011: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Smolina

    Full Text Available To describe trends, patterns, and determinants of prescription drug use during pregnancy and postpartum.This is a retrospective, population-based study of all women who gave birth between January 2002 and 31 December 2011 in British Columbia, Canada. Study population consisted of 225,973 women who had 322,219 pregnancies. We examined administrative datasets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions, hospitalizations, and medical services. Main outcome measures were filled prescriptions during pregnancy and postpartum. We used logistic regressions to examine associations between prescription drug use and maternal characteristics.Approximately two thirds of women filled a prescription during pregnancy, increasing from 60% in 2002 to 66% in 2011. The proportion of pregnant women using medicines in all three trimesters of pregnancy increased from 20% in 2002 to 27% in 2011. Use of four or more different types of prescription drug during at least one trimester increased from 8.4% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2011. Higher BMI, smoking during pregnancy, age under 25, carrying multiples, and being diagnosed with a chronic condition all significantly increased the odds of prescription drug use during pregnancy.The observed increase in the number of prescriptions and number of different drugs being dispensed suggests a trend in prescribing practices with potentially important implications for mothers, their neonates, and caregivers. Monitoring of prescribing practices and further research into the safety of most commonly prescribed medications is crucial in better understanding risks and benefits to the fetus and the mother.

  15. Nonmedical use of prescription drugs in emerging adulthood: differentiating sex from gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L.; Stewart, Breanna C.; Steele, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Fernando A.

    2016-01-01

    Male-female variations in health-behavior continue to be of national and international significance with men generally being more likely to be engaged in behaviors that enhance risk across an array of preventable diseases and injuries as well as premature deaths. The literature has identified non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) as a developing and particularly dangerous substance use behavior among college students. The literature has reported sex differences (male; female) in NMUPD but has yet to explain how gender-orientation (e.g., masculine, feminine) might impact NMUPD. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by examining the influence of gender-orientation on NMUPD. Using survey data collected during the 2013–2014 academic year from a convenience sample of college students at a mid-sized Midwestern university, we examine the association of gender-orientation with NMUPD (N=796). To do this, we separate masculine and feminine scales from the BEM Sex Role Inventory and use logistic regression to test whether masculine or feminine gender characteristics influence the likelihood of NMUPD (lifetime measure of any use and by category). This analysis shows that self-identified characteristics associated with masculinity increase the odds of NMUPD while femininity is associated with lower odds of NMUPD. Findings from this study increase our knowledge of gender-orientation and sex interactions as factors that might influence NMUPD thus demonstrating the importance of differentiating sex from gender-orientation. PMID:28090200

  16. Digital social media, youth, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs: the need for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-07-26

    The tragic death of 18-year-old Ryan Haight highlighted the ethical, public health, and youth patient safety concerns posed by illicit online nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NUPM) sourcing, leading to a federal law in an effort to address this concern. Yet despite the tragedy and resulting law, the NUPM epidemic in the United States has continued to escalate and represents a dangerous and growing trend among youth and adolescents. A critical point of access associated with youth NUPM is the Internet. Internet use among this vulnerable patient group is ubiquitous and includes new, emerging, and rapidly developing technologies-particularly social media networking (eg, Facebook and Twitter). These unregulated technologies may pose a potential risk for enabling youth NUPM behavior. In order to address limitations of current regulations and promote online safety, we advocate for legislative reform to specifically address NUPM promotion via social media and other new online platforms. Using more comprehensive and modernized federal legislation that anticipates future online developments is critical in substantively addressing youth NUPM behavior occurring through the Internet.

  17. Association between nonmedical use of prescription drugs and sleep quality in a large college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamir, Yahya A; Zullig, Keith J; Wen, Sijin; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Misra, Ranjita; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-11-13

    Poor sleep and nonmedical use (NMU) of prescription drugs (NMUPD) are both common among college students. Since lack of sleep adversely influences academic performance, this study examined the association between NMUPD and subjective sleep quality among college students. Students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data (Fall 2010, Spring 2011; N = 135,874). Associations were examined between NMUPD in four classes over the past 12 months (Antidepressant, Painkillers, Sedatives, and Stimulants), and five aspects of sleep quality (Enough Sleep, Early Awakening, Daytime Sleepiness, Difficulty Falling Asleep, and Problem with Daytime Sleepiness) in the past seven days. Any NMUPD (at least one class), NMU of stimulants specifically, and NMU of painkillers specifically were associated with getting fewer days of Enough Sleep (OR: 0.86, 0.93, and 0.84 respectively), more days of Early Awakening (OR: 1.28, 1.10, and 1.28 respectively), Daytime Sleepiness (OR: 1.23, 1.13, and 1.16 respectively), and Difficulty Falling Asleep (OR:1.32, 1.10, and 1.27 respectively) (p sleep among college students. Therefore, behavioral medicine screening and treatment of this vulnerable population should consider sleep health, NMUPD, and the potential that these problems may be comorbid.

  18. Nonmedical use of prescription drugs in emerging adulthood: differentiating sex from gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Stewart, Breanna C; Steele, Jennifer L; Wagner, Fernando A

    2016-01-01

    Male-female variations in health-behavior continue to be of national and international significance with men generally being more likely to be engaged in behaviors that enhance risk across an array of preventable diseases and injuries as well as premature deaths. The literature has identified non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) as a developing and particularly dangerous substance use behavior among college students. The literature has reported sex differences (male; female) in NMUPD bu