Dahl, A A; Ravindran, A; Allgulander, C; Kutcher, S P; Austin, C; Burt, T
The objective was to study the efficacy of sertraline on symptoms of psychic and somatic anxiety in patients suffering from moderate-to-severe generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Out-patients with DSM-IV GAD were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo. The psychic and somatic anxiety factors of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Quality of Life, Enjoyment, and Satisfaction Questionnaire were analyzed. Treatment with sertraline resulted in significantly greater last observation carried forward (LOCF)-endpoint improvement than placebo on both the HAM-A psychic and somatic anxiety factors. At LOCF-endpoint, all items on the HAM-A psychic factor were more improved on sertraline than placebo, as were three of seven items on the somatic factor. Reduction of secondary depressive symptoms was more correlated with endpoint improvement in quality of life than either psychic- or somatic anxiety. Sertraline treatment demonstrated efficacy for both the psychic and somatic anxiety symptoms of GAD.
Endler, N S; Kocovski, N L
State and trait anxiety theory and assessment are reviewed. The person (trait anxiety) and the situation are important in determining levels of state anxiety. The facet of trait anxiety and the stressful situation must be congruent in order to evoke increases in state anxiety. The multidimensional interaction model is reviewed and empirical research is presented. A discussion of anxiety viewed in a dimensional versus a categorical conceptualization is presented. Misconceptions regarding the multidimensionality of trait anxiety are discussed. Finally, it is concluded that anxiety should be viewed as a dimensional construct and that the multidimensionality of state and trait anxiety should be considered in both theory and assessment.
Meoni, Paolo; Hackett, David; Lader, Malcolm
We evaluated the relative efficacy of venlafaxine XR on the psychic versus somatic symptoms of anxiety in patients with generalized anxiety disorder as determined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Data were pooled and analyzed from 1,841 patients with generalized anxiety disorder who participated in five short-term (8-week) double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled studies, two of which had long-term (6-month) extensions. Somatic and psychic anxieties were studied using the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAM-A) factor scores. We examined response rates (> or =50% improvement over baseline severity score) in the overall population and in patients with mainly somatic symptomatology at baseline (somatizers). Venlafaxine XR significantly reduced factor scores for both psychic and somatic HAM-A factors compared with placebo, from the first and second weeks of treatment, respectively. Patients treated with venlafaxine XR had significantly higher rates of response than patients receiving placebo on the psychic (58% vs. 38%, Ppsychic anxiety response rates, whereas placebo-treated patients showed higher somatic compared with psychic response rates. Somatizers showed similar rates of response to the total population for the somatic factor of the HAM-A in either treatment group. Patients with generalized anxiety disorder treated with venlafaxine XR showed similar absolute rates of response on somatic and psychic symptoms, but relative to patients treated with placebo, more improvement in psychic than somatic symptoms. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
MacKenzie, Bronwyn; Levitan, Robert D
To examine whether psychic and/or somatic anxiety predict responsiveness to light therapy in women with winter Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Eighty-one women with SAD were administered a standard 10-day trial of light therapy administered for one-half hour in the early morning. Using a multiple regression model, baseline somatic and psychic anxiety item scores were used to predict percentage change scores on the 29-item SIGH-SAD post treatment. Baseline scores for weight gain, hypersomnia and the total SIGH-SAD were also included as predictor variables. The regression model was highly significant (F=4.63, df=5,75; p=.001; model R(2)=.236), with both psychic anxiety and somatic anxiety contributing significantly to the model. Consistent with prior work using anti-depressant medication in non-seasonal depression, psychic anxiety was positively correlated with outcome, while somatic anxiety negatively predicted outcome. In SAD, psychic and somatic anxiety scores at baseline appear to be independent and opposite predictors of light therapy response. These effects were independent of baseline scores for weight gain and hypersomnia, two previously established predictors of response to light. These findings may be an important consideration in the design and interpretation of light therapy studies of SAD.
Papakostas, George I; McGrath, Patrick; Stewart, Jonathan; Charles, Dana; Chen, Ying; Mischoulon, David; Dording, Christina; Fava, Maurizio
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the presence/severity of psychic and somatic anxiety symptoms predicted clinical response following a 12-week, flexible-dose (20-60 mg daily), open-label trial of fluoxetine for major depressive disorder (MDD). The presence and severity of psychic and somatic anxiety symptoms were assessed with the use of select subscales of the Symptom Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist among 518 outpatients with MDD. With the use of separate logistic regressions, we tested for the relationship between clinical response, baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) scores, and subscale scores at baseline entered separately as independent variables Overall completion, response and remission rates for the trial were 64.2%, 55.4%, and 48.9%, respectively. All subscale scores selected for this analysis significantly predicted treatment response to fluoxetine. The presence/severity of psychic and somatic anxiety symptoms of MDD at baseline predicted an increased likelihood of non-response to fluoxetine in MDD. Studies examining whether specific treatment strategies are more effective than the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for MDD patients with high levels of co-morbid psychic and somatic anxiety symptoms are warranted.
Blankstein, Kirk R.
To determine the relationship between Spielberger's measure of trait anxiety and social-interpersonal vs. physical danger trait anxiety, Ss were administered the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Lykken's Activity Preference Questionnaire (APQ). (Editor)
Lydiard, R Bruce; Rickels, Karl; Herman, Barry; Feltner, Douglas E
Prior research suggests that SSRIs may have greater efficacy for psychic compared to somatic anxiety, while benzodiazepines show greater somatic efficacy. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin (PGB) in treating psychic and somatic symptoms of anxiety. Data were combined from six short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trials of PGB in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The following PGB daily dose groups were studied: 150 mg (n=210), 300-450 mg (n=455), and 600 mg (n=406), benzodiazepines (6 mg/d lorazepam and 1.5 mg/d alprazolam, n=299), vs. placebo (n=484). Changes in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) psychic and somatic anxiety factors and individual items were analysed. Treatment with 300-600 mg PGB significantly improved both the HAMA psychic and somatic anxiety factors. In contrast, treatment with 150 mg PGB appeared to be less effective, achieving significance only on the psychic anxiety factor. PGB (300-450 mg) was associated with significant improvement on 13 out of 14 HAMA items, while treatment with 600 mg PGB was associated with significant improvement in 10 out of 14 HAMA items. Treatment with benzodiazepines was also associated with significant improvement in both psychic and somatic anxiety factors, with significant improvement occurring in 5 out of 14 HAMA items. The results of this pooled analysis indicate that both PGB and benzodiazepines had significant efficacy in treating both HAMA psychic and somatic anxiety. A dose-response effect was evident for PGB that reached a plateau at a dose of 300 mg/d.
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
Tara A Miskovich
Full Text Available Dispositional anxiety is a stable personality trait that is a key risk factor for internalizing disorders, and understanding the neural correlates of trait anxiety may help us better understand the development of these disorders. Abnormal cortical folding is thought to reflect differences in cortical connectivity occurring during brain development. Therefore, assessing gyrification may advance understanding of cortical development and organization associated with trait anxiety. Previous literature has revealed structural abnormalities in trait anxiety and related disorders, but no study to our knowledge has examined gyrification in trait anxiety. We utilized a relatively novel measure, the local gyrification index (LGI, to explore differences in gyrification as a function of trait anxiety. We obtained structural MRI scans using a 3T magnetic resonance scanner on 113 young adults. Results indicated a negative correlation between trait anxiety and LGI in the left superior parietal cortex, specifically the precuneus, reflecting less cortical complexity among those high on trait anxiety. Our findings suggest that aberrations in cortical gyrification in a key region of the default mode network is a correlate of trait anxiety and may reflect disrupted local parietal connectivity.
Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhibing; Miao, Danmin; Lu, Huijie; Zhu, Xia
Trait anxiety, which includes stress and anxiety, affects mental health. However, early studies using the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety) did not consider the participants' trait anxiety. In the present study, the hypothesis that trait anxiety would influence the results of the IAT-Anxiety was tested. A total of 148 healthy undergraduates were assessed with the Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to test explicit anxiety; they were then assessed for implicit anxiety with the IAT-Anxiety. High trait anxiety was positively correlated with negative mood; low trait anxiety tended to be associated with greater vigor and higher self-esteem. Significant main effects were found for both critical block and group among participants who received the IAT-Anxiety. Future studies of the IAT-Anxiety should consider trait anxiety as a within-subject factor for group matching to enhance the persuasiveness of the results.
Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania
The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase...
Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.
Rudaizky, Daniel; Page, Andrew C; MacLeod, Colin
Trait anxiety is an individual-difference variable reflecting variation in state-anxiety elevations resulting from exposure to a stressor. It is usually measured using questionnaire instruments, such as the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). The present research conceptually distinguishes, and independently assesses, two hypothetical dimensions of anxiety vulnerability which, it is argued, could plausibly make independent contributions to variance in trait-anxiety scores. These dimensions are anxiety reactivity, the probability of experiencing an anxiety reaction to a stressor, and anxiety perseveration, the persistence of anxiety symptoms once elicited. Participants were asked three questions about each STAI-T item. The traditional STAI-T question assessed how much of the time this symptom was experienced; the anxiety-reactivity question assessed the probability of experiencing the symptom in response to a stressor; and the anxiety-perseveration question assessed how long the symptom persisted, if elicited. Regression analysis determined that anxiety reactivity and anxiety perseveration scores both accounted for independent variance in trait-anxiety scores. It is argued that models of anxiety vulnerability should seek to differentiate both the causes and the consequences of elevated anxiety reactivity and increased anxiety perseveration.
Walsh, James J; McNally, Maria A; Skariah, Ancy; Butt, Ayesha A; Eysenck, Michael W
According to vigilance-avoidance theory, repressors have an avoidant interpretive bias, i.e., they interpret ambiguous self-relevant situations in a nonthreatening fashion. This study sought to demarcate the range of situations associated with avoidant interpretive bias in repressors. Four groups of participants, representing the four combinations of low- and high-trait anxiety and defensiveness, were identified. Those low in trait anxiety and high in defensiveness were categorized as repressors. Participants (N = 163) rated their likelihood of making both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations of 32 ambiguous scenarios over four domains: social, intellectual, physical, and health. Half the scenarios were self-relevant and half were other relevant. Brief measures of state anxiety were taken after each likelihood rating. Repressors displayed an avoidant interpretive bias for ambiguous threats in the social and intellectual domains but not the health or physical domains. This was due to repressors' low level of trait anxiety rather than their high defensiveness. Individuals high in trait anxiety are especially sensitive to situations involving social evaluation but not those characterized by danger to their health or physical well-being.
Bados, Arturo; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Balaguer, Gemma
To clarify what is actually measured by the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970), we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of various models and evaluated convergent and discriminant validity. The best fit was obtained with both a bifactor model, comprising 2 specific factors plus a general factor, and a 1-construct, 2-method model. The total score and the 2 method subscales of the STAI trait version were more strongly correlated with depression than with anxiety. In the bifactor model with 2 specific factors, the depression subscale showed stronger correlations with measures of depression than with measures of anxiety. The correlation of the hypothetical anxiety subscale with measures of depression was equivalent to or higher than its correlation with measures of anxiety. These results suggest that the questionnaire does not strictly evaluate anxiety but, rather, negative affect.
Pollyana Caldeira Leal
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test – VMST and physical threat (third molar extraction – TME. Methods Participants with various levels of trait anxiety (general trait: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; specific trait: Social Phobia Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale had their anxious state evaluated (STAI, self-evaluation of tension level, heart rate, electromyogram activity before, during and after the VMST or the TME. Results In VMST, trait anxiety correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters in all test phases. However, in TME, the only trait measurement that correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters was the Dental Anxiety Scale. Conclusion Trait anxiety correlates positively to state anxiety in situations of interpersonal threat, but not of physical threat.
Conclusion: State anxiety demonstrated greater power than trait anxiety in its relationship with physical activity. These findings suggest that clinical mental health professionals should consider state anxiety when encouraging Taiwanese adults with anxiety disorders to engage in physical activity.
Pollyana Caldeira Leal; Tiago Costa Goes; Luiz Carlos Ferreira da Silva; Flavia Teixeira-Silva
Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed...
Liu, Yang Yang
In a sample of 916 Chinese high school students, the relations among the students' perceptions of school climate and their trait test anxiety were examined. The results indicated that students' perceptions of teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships negatively predicted their trait test anxiety. Furthermore, girls had higher scores on trait test anxiety than boys.
Brown, Marceline Moulin; Range, Lillian M.
To see if trait anxiety and suicidality interfered with the ability to respond to suicidal crisis calls, 279 undergraduates completed measures of trait anxiety and suicidality in the past week, and the revised Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-2). Unexpectedly, trait anxiety (but not suicidality) correlated with better SIRI-2 scores.…
Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael; Olbrich, Dieter
Job-related anxiety, in contrast to general trait-anxiety, is by its very nature associated with problems of participation at work. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between general trait-anxiety and specific job-related anxiety and to examine whether job-anxiety and trait-anxiety are differently associated with sick leave. 190 inpatients of a psychosomatic and orthopaedic rehabilitation center with mental and somatic disorders filled in the Job-Anxiety-Scale (JAS) and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI-T). Additionally, informations on age, gender, the current duration of sick leave in weeks, employment status, duration of unemployment, and position at the workplace were collected. Highest scores of job-anxiety were found for the JAS-dimensions "job-related worries" and "health anxieties", followed by "cognitions of insufficiency," "stimulus-related anxieties," and "social anxieties." JAS and STAI-T were significantly correlated. Job-anxiety, in contrast to trait-anxiety, was significantly related to duration of sick leave. Women showed higher scores on the STAI-T but not on the JAS. It can be concluded that job-anxiety is related to but not identical with trait-anxiety. Job-anxiety is important to understand sick leave and appears as a multidimensional and clinically important phenomenon. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Wijk, Charles H
Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly - to develop a trait anxiety profile of subaquatic specialists; 2ndly - to investigate the predictive value of trait anxiety measures upon entering an occupational field; and 3rdly - to establish the reliability of these scores over time. Archival trait-anxiety data from 322 subjects were analyzed statistically. Analysis of the available scores revealed a highly homogenous as well as a very low trait anxiety profile for the investigated occupational group. Additionally, low trait anxiety was somewhat associated with success during specialist training: fewer candidates with high trait anxiety scores completed their qualification. Moreover, measurement of trait anxiety was stable over time, which suggests that when scores for this occupational group are screened, deviations from previous scores could signify a potential need for referral to an intervention from health professionals. Using the trait anxiety subscale as part of occupational health surveillance of subaquatic specialists could support prevention of accidents by identifying high-risk candidates during their annual health assessments, and referral for timeous intervention.
Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L.
The present study examined whether trait anxiety and trait anger are associated with vulnerability to emotional eating, particularly among obese individuals. Lean (n=37) and obese (n=24) participants engaged in a laboratory study where they completed measures of trait anxiety and trait anger at screening and then completed 3 counterbalanced experimental sessions involving different mood inductions (neutral, anxiety, anger). Following each mood induction, participants were provided with snack foods in a sham taste test. Models predicting snack intake revealed a significant trait anxiety × body mass index group interaction, such that high trait anxiety was positively associated with food intake for obese individuals, but not their lean counterparts. Contrary to the hypothesis, trait anger was not associated with food intake for obese or lean participants. Results suggest that trait anxiety may be a risk factor for emotional eating among obese individuals. PMID:20959131
Stahl, Stephen M; Ahmed, Saeeduddin; Haudiquet, Vincent
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic illness with psychic and somatic symptoms that do not respond uniformly in the first weeks of treatment. A post-hoc analysis of pooled data from five placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized studies in non-depressed GAD patients treated with venlafaxine extended release (ER) or placebo was performed to determine the temporal response of psychic and somatic symptoms to treatment over 8 weeks. Two of the studies included extension phases of up to 6 months, the results of which were also analyzed here. The earliest symptoms to respond included both psychic symptoms (anxious mood, tension, behavior at interview) and somatic muscular, cardiovascular, and respiratory symptoms. The last symptoms to respond included the psychic symptoms of insomnia and fear and the somatic sensory, gastrointestinal and autonomic symptoms, perhaps in part because of drug-related side effects. Continuing treatment beyond 8 weeks in venlafaxine ER responders for up to 6 months of total treatment results not only in additional improvement in early-responding symptoms, but also in the improvement of late-responding symptoms, perhaps due in part to the development of tolerance to antidepressant side effects. Serious consideration should be given to maintaining partial responders to venlafaxine ER treatment on the same treatment for > or = 3-6 months.
Nicolini, H; Bakish, D; Duenas, H; Spann, M; Erickson, J; Hallberg, C; Ball, S; Sagman, D; Russell, J M
This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine and venlafaxine extended-release (XR) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), with a secondary focus on psychic and somatic symptoms within GAD. The design was a 10-week, multi-center, double-blind placebo-controlled study of duloxetine (20 mg or 60-120 mg once daily) and venlafaxine XR (75-225 mg once daily) treatment. Efficacy was measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), which includes psychic and somatic factor scores. Tolerability was measured by occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and discontinuation rates. Adult out-patients (mean age 42.8 years; 57.1% women) with DSM-IV-defined GAD were randomly assigned to placebo (n=170), duloxetine 20 mg (n=84), duloxetine 60-120 mg (n=158) or venlafaxine XR 75-225 mg (n=169) treatment. Each of the three active treatment groups had significantly greater improvements on HAMA total score from baseline to endpoint compared with placebo (p=0.01-0.001). For the HAMA psychic factor score, both duloxetine treatment arms and venlafaxine XR demonstrated significantly greater improvement compared with placebo (p=0.01-0.001). For the HAMA somatic factor score, the mean improvement in the duloxetine 60-120 mg and venlafaxine XR groups was significantly greater than placebo (p0.05 and p0.01 respectively), whose mean improvement did not differ from the duloxetine 20 mg group (p=0.07). Groups did not differ in study discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Duloxetine and venlafaxine treatment were each efficacious for improvement of core psychic anxiety symptoms and associated somatic symptoms for adults with GAD.
Lee, W E; Wadsworth, M E J; Hotopf, M
Most research has indicated that neuroticism (or trait anxiety) is associated with only negative outcomes. Such a common, heritable and variable trait is expected to have beneficial as well as detrimental effects. We tested the hypothesis that trait anxiety in childhood reduces the risk of dying from accidental causes in early adult life. A longitudinal, population-based, birth cohort study of 4,070 men and women born in the UK in 1946. Trait anxiety as judged by teachers when the participants were 13 and 15 years old, and the neuroticism scale of a Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) when the participants were 16 years old. Outcomes were deaths, deaths from accidents, non-fatal accidents, and non-fatal accidents requiring medical intervention. Adolescents with low trait anxiety had higher rates of accident mortality to age 25 [low anxiety at 13, hazard ratio (HR) 5.9, low anxiety at 15, HR 1.8]. Low trait anxiety in adolescence was associated with decreased non-accidental mortality after age 25 (low anxiety at 13, HR 0; low anxiety at 15, HR 0.7; low neuroticism at 16, HR 0.7). High trait anxiety measured in adolescence is associated with reduced accidents and accidental death in early adulthood but higher rates of non-accidental mortality in later life.
Krauseneck, Till; Krähenmann, Olivia; Heimendahl, Jenny von; Schelling, Gustav; Padberg, Frank
Perpetual noise, pain, disturbed day-night-cycle, the inability to talk and the difficulty, especially during weaning, to differentiate alertness from sleep and dream from reality are some of the burdens ICU patients are suffering from. Additional sedation and potential sedation gaps plus the medical treatment itself put strain on critically ill humans. Those external stimuli partly cannot be handled well by the patients. Some of these factors or a combination of them, combined with a predisposition and/or insufficient coping mechanisms can result in a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Often psychiatric symptoms appear unspecific and difficult to categorize. Firstly some psychopathological cardinal symptoms are described and potential differential diagnoses are mentioned. After that the following article focuses on sleep, adjustment, depressive and the spectrum of anxiety disorders (especially generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorders, acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). The article provides prevalences, etiology and risk factors as well as symptomatology, diagnostics and therapeutic options. Those disorders can be diagnosed in ICU but also after transferring to general ward. In our own experience the transfer period is a vulnerable phase for psychopathologic symptoms. As apart from the individual suffering the course of the somatic disease as well as the rehabilitation process are impaired and the disorders have a tendency to have a chronic course, close and early collaboration of ICU physicians and psychiatrists is mandatory.
Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.
This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…
Patel, Nilam; Stoodley, Catherine; Pine, Daniel S.; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique
This study examines the influence of trait anxiety on working memory (WM) in safety and threat. Interactions between experimentally induced anxiety and WM performance (on different cognitive loads) have been reported in healthy, nonanxious subjects. Differences in trait anxiety may moderate these interactions. Accordingly, these interactions may…
Gaudry, E; Vagg, P; Spielberger, C D
High school and university students were given Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale for Children, an intelligence test, and the A-State and A-Trait Scales of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The STAI A-Stake Scale was administered under one non-stress and two stress conditions to both groups of subjects. A factor analysis of the data for the high school students identified six factors: trait anxiety; t h e e separate state anxiety factors, corresponding to each of the three administrations of the A-State Scale; a reversed-item factor; and an ability factor. A similar factor pattern emerged for the university students. The results were interpreted as providing evidence of the importance of situational stress in evoking anxiety states, and strong support for the slate-trait distinction in anxiety research.
Kant, Leo; Skogstad, Anders; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Einarsen, Ståle
Drawing on the general aggression model and theories of victimization and temperamental goodness-of-fit, we investigated trait anger and trait anxiety as antecedents of petty tyranny: employing a multilevel design with data from 84 sea captains and 177 crew members. Leader trait anger predicted subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Subordinate trait anxiety was associated with subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Theassociation between leader traitanger and subordinate-reported pe...
Van Wijk, Charles H
Objectives: Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly – to develop a trait...
Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Skinner, Timothy C.
Past research suggests that indecisiveness and trait anxiety may both decrease the likelihood of performing risk-mitigating preparatory behaviors (e.g., preparing for natural hazards) and suggests two cognitive processes (perceived control and worrying) as potential mediators. However, no single...... control over wildfire-related outcomes. Trait anxiety did not uniquely predict preparedness or perceived control, but it did uniquely predict worry, with higher trait anxiety predicting more worrying. Also, worry trended toward uniquely predicting preparedness, albeit in an unpredicted positive direction...
Full Text Available Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.
Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori
Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions. PMID:22496783
Edmondson, Donald; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Chaplin, William F; Burg, Matthew M; Stone, Arthur A; Schwartz, Joseph E
Ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of anxiety and anger/hostility were obtained every 25-30 minutes over two 24-hour periods, separated by a median of 6 months, from 165 employees at a university in the Northeast. We used a multilevel trait-state-error structural equation model to estimate: (1) the proportion of variance in EMA anxiety and anger/hostility attributable to stable trait-like individual differences; (2) the correspondence between these trait-like components of EMA anxiety and anger/hostility and traditional questionnaire measures of each construct; and (3) the test-retest correlation between two 24-hour averages obtained several months apart. After adjustment for measurement error, more than half the total variance in EMA reports of anxiety and anger/hostility is attributable to stable trait-like individual differences; however, the trait-like component of each construct is only modestly correlated with questionnaire measures of that construct. The 6-month "test-retest" correlations of latent variables representing the true 24-hour EMA average anxiety and average anger are quite high (r ≥ 0.83). This study represents the longest follow-up period over which EMA-based estimates of traits have been examined. The results suggest that although the trait component (individual differences) of EMA momentary ratings of anxiety and anger is larger than the state component, traditional self-report questionnaires of trait anxiety and anger correspond only weakly with EMA-defined traits.
Onyeizugbo, Euckay U.
Introduction: Test anxiety inhibits students from performing according to their full potential in academic setting. Objectives: This study investigated self-efficacy, gender and trait anxiety as moderators of test anxiety. Method: Two hundred and forty nine (249) psychology majors drawn from a university in Eastern Nigeria participated in the…
Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a role of amygdala in trait anxiety level, in which amygdala was typically treated as a whole. To date, it remains unknown whether the morphology of specific subregions of amygdala are associated with trait anxiety. Here, we employed a shape analysis approach to locate the association between its morphology and trait anxiety on the surface of amygdala. 24 healthy young participants were included. The boundary of amygdala for each subject was first manually outlined using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR image, followed by 3D surface reconstruction and parameterization using spherical harmonic description. Two point-wise metrics, direct displacement between the individual surface and atlas surface and its normal projection, were used to quantify the surface morphology of amygdala. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between the two surface metrics and trait anxiety levels, which were located around the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala. Our results provided localized information for the association between amygdala and trait anxiety, and suggested a central role of the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala on trait anxiety.
Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A
Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.
Booth, Robert W; Mackintosh, Bundy; Sharma, Dinkar
High trait anxious individuals tend to show biased processing of threat. Correlational evidence suggests that executive control could be used to regulate such threat-processing. On this basis, we hypothesized that trait anxiety-related cognitive biases regarding threat should be exaggerated when executive control is experimentally impaired by loading working memory. In Study 1, 68 undergraduates read ambiguous vignettes under high and low working memory load; later, their interpretations of these vignettes were assessed via a recognition test. Trait anxiety predicted biased interpretation of social threat vignettes under high working memory load, but not under low working memory load. In Study 2, 53 undergraduates completed a dot probe task with fear-conditioned Japanese characters serving as threat stimuli. Trait anxiety predicted attentional bias to the threat stimuli but, again, this only occurred under high working memory load. Interestingly however, actual eye movements toward the threat stimuli were only associated with state anxiety, and this was not moderated by working memory load, suggesting that executive control regulates biased threat-processing downstream of initial input processes such as orienting. These results suggest that cognitive loads can exacerbate trait anxiety-related cognitive biases, and therefore represent a useful tool for assessing cognitive biases in future research. More importantly, since biased threat-processing has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety, poor executive control may be a risk factor for anxiety disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Karatas, Zeynep; Arslan, Derya; Karatas, Mustafa Erdal
This study examines whether the trait and state anxiety and cursive handwriting anxiety of teachers differs according to assorted variables. The study group for this research project is composed of 381 teachers from the city of Burdur and the district centre of Bucak, Turkey. Of these participants, 44% were female and 56% were male. As for the…
van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Wood, J.J.
The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic
Asghari, Arezou; Abdul.Kadir, Rusnani bte; Elias, Habibah bte; Baba, Maznah bte
This study is aimed at examining the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between personality traits and state anxiety. The participants were 375 Iranian high school students (193 males and 182 females). The instruments used were the NEO-FFI-3 Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory. Results of the structural model showed that from the…
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.
The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed…
Mundy, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen; Rauch, Scott L; Killgore, William D S; Simon, Naomi M; Pollack, Mark H; Rosso, Isabelle M
It is well established that objective early life stressors increase risk for anxiety disorders and that environmental stressors interact with dispositional factors such as trait anxiety. There is less information on how subjective perception of stress during childhood relates to later clinical anxiety. This study tested whether childhood perceived stress and trait anxiety were independently and interactively associated with adult anxiety disorders. Forty-seven adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders (M age = 34 yr., SD = 11) and 29 healthy participants (M = 33 yr., SD = 13) completed the adult Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Global Perceived Early Life Events Scale as a measure of perceived stress during childhood. In a logistic regression model, high childhood perceived stress (β = 0.64) and trait anxiety (β = 0.11) were associated with significantly greater odds of adult anxiety disorder. The association between childhood perceived stress and adult anxiety remained significant when controlling for adult perceived stress. These findings suggest that children's perception of stress in their daily lives may be an important target of intervention to prevent the progression of stress into clinically significant anxiety.
Sehlmeyer, C; Dannlowski, U; Schöning, S; Kugel, H; Pyka, M; Pfleiderer, B; Zwitserlood, P; Schiffbauer, H; Heindel, W; Arolt, V; Konrad, C
Fear conditioning involves the amygdala as the main neural structure for learning fear responses whereas fear extinction mainly activates the inhibitory prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study we investigated whether individual differences in trait anxiety affect amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during fear conditioning and extinction. Thirty-two healthy subjects were investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 T while performing a cued fear-conditioning task. All participants completed the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). Activations of the amygdala and the dACC were examined with respect to the effects of trait anxiety. Analysis of the fMRI data demonstrated enhanced activation in fear-related brain areas, such as the insula and the ACC, during both fear conditioning and extinction. Activation of the amygdala appeared only during the late acquisition phase whereas deactivation was observed during extinction. Regression analyses revealed that highly trait-anxious subjects exhibited sustained amygdala activation and reduced dACC involvement during the extinction of conditioned responses. This study reveals that high levels of trait anxiety are associated with both increased amygdala activation and reduced dACC recruitment during the extinction of conditioned fear. This hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and the deficient cognitive control during the extinction of conditioned fear in anxious subjects reflect an increased resistance to extinct fear responses and may thereby enhance the vulnerability to developing anxiety disorders.
Sandra L Ladd
Full Text Available The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect. Participants’ trait (Study 1 and state (Study 2 anxiety were characterized with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Greater trait and state anxiety correlated with greater negative affect and lesser positive affect. In both experiments, greater anxiety was associated with a reduced mere exposure effect. Measures of fluency (response times at study and test were unrelated to the mere exposure effect. These findings support the role of affective processes in the mere exposure effect, and offer a new insight into the nature of anxiety such that anxiety is associated with a reduced experience of positive affect typically associated with familiarity.
Ladd, Sandra L; Gabrieli, John D E
The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect. Participants' trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) anxiety were characterized with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Greater trait and state anxiety correlated with greater negative affect and lesser positive affect. In both experiments, greater anxiety was associated with a reduced mere exposure effect. Measures of fluency (response times at study and test) were unrelated to the mere exposure effect. These findings support the role of affective processes in the mere exposure effect, and offer a new insight into the nature of anxiety such that anxiety is associated with a reduced experience of positive affect typically associated with familiarity.
Ahmet Canan Karakaş
Full Text Available Istighfar (seeking forgiveness of Allah and tawbah (repentance are as old as at least the human history. Anxiety is also a need of human nature. Human develops the strategies to cope with challenges. One of them is religious coping. One of the religious coping ways is istighfar. Constantly performing istighfar may make easier to deal with anxiety. Thus, in this study, the state-trait anxiety scale was applied to the final year undergraduate students. The experimental and control groups of 20 persons were comprised of students with higher anxiety level. The experimental group was told to do istighfar 100 times per day during one month. In the end of this practice, a decrease was observed in the state-trait anxiety average of experimental group.
Ping, Loh Tze; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Krishnaswamy, Saroja
Test anxiety is defined as the reaction to stimuli that is associated with an individual's experience of testing or evaluating situations. This study aims to examine the fluctuation pattern of anxiety symptoms during a clinical examination and its relationship with underlying anxiety traits. Fourth year medical students of Penang Medical College undertaking the Ophthalmology clinical examination participated in this study. First phase of the survey, on anxiety symptoms was conducted immediately after the Ophthalmology clinical examination while the second phase, on pre-existing anxiety traits was conducted six weeks later with the aid of STAI instrument. Responses for both stages were combined and analyzed. Sixty-three of 122 students responded to both phases of the study, giving a response rate of 52%. All symptoms except trembling peaked 10 minutes before the exam begun showing a downward progression with no resurgence thereafter. Students with pre-existing anxiety traits had high anxiety scores 10 minutes into the examination and while with the examiners. Anticipatory anxiety is a source of concern and can effect performance and appropriate steps should be taken to help the students with this. A few other studies should be done to conclude.
Bourne, Victoria J; Vladeanu, Matei
Recent neuropsychological studies have attempted to distinguish between different types of anxiety by contrasting patterns of brain organisation or activation; however, lateralisation for processing emotional stimuli has received relatively little attention. This study examines the relationship between strength of lateralisation for the processing of facial expressions of emotion and three measures of anxiety: state anxiety, trait anxiety and social anxiety. Across all six of the basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise) the same patterns of association were found. Participants with high levels of trait anxiety were more strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere for processing facial emotion. In contrast, participants with high levels of self-reported physiological arousal in response to social anxiety were more weakly lateralised to the right hemisphere, or even lateralised to the left hemisphere, for the processing of facial emotion. There were also sex differences in these associations: the relationships were evident for males only. The finding of distinct patterns of lateralisation for trait anxiety and self-reported physiological arousal suggests different neural circuitry for trait and social anxiety. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Parkinson's disease is a neuropsychiatric disease with multiple psychic disorders. They mainly result from a combination between neuropathological lesions and antiparkinsonian drugs. The most frequent psychic disorders are depression and psychosis. So far, pharmacological treatments of depression has been poorly evaluated. It is suggested that the first-line treatment of depression in Parkinson's disease is the class of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. The occurrence of worsening in parkinsonism and agitation in rare cases necessitates a meticulous clinical follow-up. The treatment of psychosis is based on the reduction of antiparkinsonian medications, by tapering and stopping, if necessary, the drugs with the highest risk-to-benefit ratio first. When psychosis persists despite a simple levodopa monotherapy, then an antipsychotic drug is added. Clozapine is the only officially approved drug for psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Two double blind studies showed a clear antipsychotic effect without worsening of parkinsonism. Quetiapine, another atypical neuroleptic drug without risk of blood dyscrasia may prove to be as effective than clozapine. Olanzapine and risperidone can aggravate parkinsonism and should be used only as a last resort. Future studies will precise the place of anticholinesterases in the treatment of psychosis associated with dementia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations of white matter (WM connectivity suggest an important role of the uncinate fasciculus (UF, connecting anterior temporal areas including the amygdala with prefrontal-/orbitofrontal cortices, for anxiety-related processes. Volume of the UF, however, has rarely been investigated, but may be an important measure of structural connectivity underlying limbic neuronal circuits associated with anxiety. Since UF volumetric measures are newly applied measures, it is necessary to cross-validate them using further neural and behavioral indicators of anxiety. Results In a group of 32 subjects not reporting any history of psychiatric disorders, we identified a negative correlation between left UF volume and trait anxiety, a finding that is in line with previous results. On the other hand, volume of the left amygdala, which is strongly connected with the UF, was positively correlated with trait anxiety. In addition, volumes of the left UF and left amygdala were inversely associated. Conclusions The present study emphasizes the role of the left UF as candidate WM fiber bundle associated with anxiety-related processes and suggests that fiber bundle volume is a WM measure of particular interest. Moreover, these results substantiate the structural relatedness of UF and amygdala by a non-invasive imaging method. The UF-amygdala complex may be pivotal for the control of trait anxiety.
Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E
Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables.
Hensley, Lauren; Varela, R. Enrique
This study examined the relationships between trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity and the outcome variables posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and somatic complaints following a major hurricane. Sixth and seventh graders in the New Orleans area (N=302) were surveyed 5 to 8 months following Hurricane Katrina. As expected, hurricane…
Booth, Rob; Mackintosh, Bundy; Sharma, Dinkar
High trait anxious individuals tend to show biased processing of threat. Correlational evidence suggests that executive control could be used to regulate such threat-processing. On this basis, we hypothesised that trait anxiety-related cognitive biases regarding threat should be exaggerated when executive control is experimentally impaired by loading working memory. In Study 1, 68 undergraduates read ambiguous vignettes under high and low working memory load; later, their interpretations of t...
Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel
Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation - n = 107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice. PMID:24260096
Full Text Available Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation--n = 107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice.
Bieling, P J; Antony, M M; Swinson, R P
Although the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is a popular measure of anxiety, some previous research suggests that the trait scale may assess depression, as well as anxiety. The factor structure of the trait items was initially examined using factor analytic procedures. Confirmatory factor analytic methods suggested that a hierarchical solution best fit the data, with one overall factor and two lower order factors. The lower order subscales created from this factor solution were examined in a sample of individuals diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Overall, the results offered good support for the notion that the trait scale of the STAI assesses depression, as well as anxiety. One set of items appeared to assess anxiety and worry, whereas the other assessed sadness and self-deprecation. The two subscales correlated differentially with other measures of anxiety and depression in a manner that was consistent with their content. Finally, diagnostic groups and controls could be meaningfully distinguished on these subscales. Implications for the use of this measure are discussed.
Kohn, Paul M; Kantor, Ludmila; DeCicco, Teresa L; Beck, Aaron T
We describe development of the Beck Anxiety Inventory-Trait (BAIT), a measure of trait anxiety. In Study 1 with 191 undergraduates, the BAIT correlated higher with another trait-anxiety measure than with state anxiety and trait depressiveness and lower with depressiveness than the other trait-anxiety measure did. In Study 2 (Ns of 149 undergraduates initially and 107 at 3 weeks later), the BAIT demonstrated convergent validity against the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) and self-rated trait anxiety plus discriminant validity against abstract curiosity. In Study 3 (Ns of 161 undergraduates initially and 121 at 3 weeks later), the BAIT correlated more highly with another anxiety measure than with depression, stress, positive affect, and negative affect. It also showed good internal consistency across studies and high stability in Studies 2 and 3, higher than the BAI's in Study 2. Factor analyses across studies all supported 2 factors, 1 Somatic and 1 Subjective.
Pan, Yu; Cai, Wenpeng; Dong, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Yan, Jin; Cheng, Qi
Converging evidence reveals significant increase in both state anxiety and trait anxiety during the past 2 decades among military servicemen and servicewomen in China. In the present study, we employed the Chinese version of the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to examine trait and state anxiety in Chinese military servicemen and servicewomen. We further evaluated orienting, alerting and execution inhibition using the attention network test.Healthy military servicemen and servicewomen were recruited for the present study. The STAI was used to measure both state and trait anxiety and the attention network test was done to determine reaction time and accuracy rate.Fifty-seven subjects were eligible for the study. Their mean STAI score was 3.2 ± 2.8 (range, 1-17) and 29 (50.9%) subjects were categorized into the high trait anxiety group and 28 (49.1%) subjects into the low trait anxiety group. The reaction time of the high trait anxiety group to incongruent, congruent, and neutral target was significantly longer than that of the low trait anxiety group (P trait anxiety group for incongruent, congruent, and neutral target was significantly higher than that of the low trait anxiety group (P trait anxiety, cue types, and target types on reaction time. There was significant interaction among trait anxiety, target types, and cue types. Trait anxiety and target types also had marked effect on the accurate rate. Multivariate analysis showed no marked effect of trait anxiety on the alerting, orienting, and execution inhibition subnetwork.The present study has demonstrated that military service personnel with high trait anxiety requires more time for cognitive processing of external information but exhibits enhanced reaction accuracy rate compared to those with low trait anxiety. Our findings indicate that interventional strategies to improve the psychological wellbeing of military service personnel should be implemented to improve combat mission performance.
Donzuso, Giulia; Cerasa, Antonio; Gioia, Maria C; Caracciolo, Manuela; Quattrone, Aldo
The State‐Trait Anxiety Inventory ( STAI ) and the Hamilton scale for anxiety ( HARS ) are two of the most important scales employed in clinical and psychological realms for the evaluation of anxiety...
EYSENCK, MW; VANBERKUM, J
A principal components analysis of the ten scales of the Worry Questionnaire revealed the existence of major worry factors or domains of social evaluation and physical threat, and these factors were confirmed in a subsequent item analysis. Those high in trait anxiety had much higher scores on the
Eysenck, M.W.; van Berkum, J.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/146736842
A principal components analysis of the ten scales of the Worry Questionnaire revealed the existence of major worry factors or domains of social evaluation and physical threat, and these factors were confirmed in a subsequent item analysis. Those high in trait anxiety had much higher scores on the
Bander, Ricki S.; Betz, Nancy E.
Compared the relationship of sex and sex-role differences to four measures of anxiety: math anxiety, test anxiety, and two measures of trait anxiety. Results indicate females reported higher levels of anxiety on all four scales, and a discriminant functional analysis indicated the greatest difference in math anxiety. (RC)
Doganer, Yusuf Cetin; Aydogan, Umit; Yesil, Hande Ucler; Rohrer, James Edwin; Williams, Mark Douglas; Agerter, David Charles
The aims of the present study were to evaluate possible associations between trait anxiety, dental fear and the predictors of these interactions including demographic characteristics and dental history of patients applied to the dental care center in Ankara, Turkey. A sample of 607 participants (mean age: 21.02 ± 2.32) responded to a Turkish version of the Modified Dental Fear Survey (MDFS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) and a questionnaire regarding previous negative dental experience. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between dental fear and the independent variables including trait anxiety, age groups, education level, dental visit frequency, experience and the source of dental knowledge. There was a trend for increasing in trait anxiety scores with greater levels of dental fear in a medium level of the dental fear group (OR = 1.055, 95%CI [1.025-1.086]; p dental fear group (OR = 1.090 [1.057-1.124]; p dental fear group; participants of medium dental fear level intended more likely to go to the dentist when they have a complaint instead of regularly going (odds ratio; OR = 3.177, 95%CI [1.304-7.741]; p = 0.011). Participants of high dental fear level tended to be less likely to have experienced no problem (OR = 0.476, 95%CI [0.284-0.795]; p = 0.005) than the low level of the dental fear group. We strongly indicate that higher dental fear scores have a predisposition of having high trait anxiety scores. Unpleasant dental experiences increased the risk for high dental fear levels. Patients with dental fear tended only to visit a dentist when necessary, avoiding regular visits.
Berggren, Nick; Derakshan, Nazanin
Trait anxiety is associated with selective attentional biases to threat but also with more general impairments in attentional control, primarily supported in tasks involving distractor inhibition. Here, we investigated the novel prediction that anxiety should modulate expectation formation in response to task contingencies. Participants completed a visual search task, where briefly presented color cues predicted subsequent target spatial location on the majority of trials. Responses made in the absence of conscious awareness of cue-target contingency resulted in significantly faster RTs for cue-valid versus invalid trials, but only for low anxious participants; high anxiety eliminated evidence of cueing. This finding suggests that impairments to attentional control in anxiety also affect subtle rule-based learning and predictive coding of expectation. We discuss whether a lack of prediction in anxious behavior may reflect known deficits in attentional control, or may form part of a strategy to promote effective threat detection. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi
Full Text Available Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016. Children's anxiety and parental anxiety were measured before the entrance of the patients to the operating room via Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS and Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. The data was analyzed in SPSS, version 16, using the relevant statistical tests. Results: The results of Pearson product-moment correlation test showed a positive correlation between children's anxiety and fathers' state anxiety and between children's anxiety and mothers' state anxiety (r=0.27, r=0.41; P=0.005, P=0.040, respectively. However, no statistically significant relationship was observed between children's anxiety and parents' trait anxiety, age of children, as well as parents' educational level, occupation, and level of trait anxiety. Implications for Practice: Considering the association between parents' state anxiety and children's anxiety, implementing preoperative interventions to prepare parents for surgery is recommended.
Conner, Caitlin M; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W
Comorbid anxiety is common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and parents of children with ASD are more likely to have anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between parents' state and trait anxiety and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents (n = 30) with ASD, as well as the relationship of parents' anxiety symptoms and adolescent treatment response in the context of a randomized controlled trial. Parental state anxiety correlated with severity of adolescent anxiety, and trait anxiety in parents correlated with parent-reported adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Also, parents of adolescent treatment responders experienced a decrease in their own trait anxiety. Findings highlight the importance of considering parental anxiety when targeting anxiety among youth with ASD.
Full Text Available The present study examined how the level of trait anxiety, which is a personality characteristic, influences state anxiety and penalty shoot-out performance under pressure by instruction. The high and low trait anxiety groups were selected by using Spielberger's Trait Anxiety Scale, with trait anxiety scores, and control and pressure conditions manipulated by instructions. The participants were two groups of eight university male soccer players. They individually performed 20 shots from the penalty shoot-out point, aiming at the top right and top left corner areas in the soccer goal. Each condition had 10 trials in a within-subject design. The dependent measures comprised the number of successful goals and the state anxiety scores under each instructional condition. The result showed a significant main effect of instruction. State anxiety scores increased more and the number of successful goals decreased more in high trait anxiety groups than in low trait anxiety groups under pressure instructional condition. These findings suggest that players with higher trait anxiety scores tend to experience increased state anxiety under a pressure-laden condition, and higher state anxiety interferes with goal performance.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that anxiety impairs sleep. However, due to high sleep variability in anxiety disorders, it has been difficult to state particular changes in sleep parameters caused by anxiety. Sleep profiling in an animal model with extremely high vs. low levels of trait anxiety might serve to further define sleep patterns associated with this psychopathology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sleep-wake behavior in mouse lines with high (HAB, low (LAB and normal (NAB anxiety-related behaviors was monitored for 24 h during baseline and recovery after 6 h sleep deprivation (SD. The amounts of each vigilance state, sleep architecture, and EEG spectral variations were compared between the mouse lines. In comparison to NAB mice, HAB mice slept more and exhibited consistently increased delta power during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Their sleep patterns were characterized by heavy fragmentation, reduced maintenance of wakefulness, and frequent intrusions of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In contrast, LAB mice showed a robust sleep-wake rhythm with remarkably prolonged sleep latency and a long, persistent period of wakefulness. In addition, the accumulation of delta power after SD was impaired in the LAB line, as compared to HAB mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sleep-wake patterns were significantly different between HAB and LAB mice, indicating that the genetic predisposition to extremes in trait anxiety leaves a biological scar on sleep quality. The enhanced sleep demand observed in HAB mice, with a strong drive toward REM sleep, may resemble a unique phenotype reflecting not only elevated anxiety but also a depression-like attribute.
Van Dam, Nicholas T; Gros, Daniel F; Earleywine, Mitch; Antony, Martin M
Evidence suggests that the state trait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA) may be a more pure measure of anxiety than other commonly used scales. Further, the STICSA has excellent psychometric properties in both clinical and nonclinical samples. The present study aimed to extend the utility of the STICSA-Trait version by identifying a cut-off score that could differentiate a group of clinically diagnosed anxiety disorder patients (n=398) from a group of student controls (n=439). Two receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated cut-off scores of 43 (sensitivity=.73, specificity=.74, classification accuracy=.74) and 40 (sensitivity=.80, specificity=.67, classification accuracy=.73), respectively. In a large community sample (n =6685), a score of 43 identified 11.5% of individuals as probable cases of clinical anxiety, while a score of 40 identified 17.0% of individuals as probable cases of clinical anxiety. As a result of differences in sensitivity and specificity, the present findings suggest a cut-off score of 43 is optimal to identify probable cases of clinical anxiety, while a cut-off score of 40 is optimal to screen for the possible presence of anxiety disorders.
Judge, Lawrence W; Urbina, Leslie J; Hoover, Donald L; Craig, Bruce W; Judge, Lani M; Leitzelar, Brianna M; Pearson, David R; Holtzclaw, Kara A; Bellar, David M
Judge, LW, Urbina, LJ, Hoover, DL, Craig, BW, Judge, LM, Leitzelar, BM, Pearson, DR, Holtzclaw, KA, and Bellar, DM. The impact of competitive trait anxiety on collegiate powerlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2399-2405, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between competitive trait anxiety measures and powerlifting (PL) performance. Thirty-six collegiate powerlifters on club teams from 3 universities were recruited during a competition (men = 26, women = 10; age = 19.9 ± 1.5 years; height = 172.5 ± 8.6 cm; weight = 81.4 ± 21.0 kg). The athletes were distributed across weight classes for collegiate PL (47.6 kg: 1; 51.7 kg: 1; 54.9 kg: 1; 59.8 kg: 3; 67.1 kg: 2; 74.8 kg: 7; 82.1 kg: 4; 89.8 kg: 9; 99.8 kg: 5; super heavyweight: 3). A survey containing questions about PL performance history and the 15-item Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) were administered to the participants before competing. The SCAT total was negatively correlated (r = -0.397; p = 0.02) to the athletes' percentage of best total achieved in the competition (actual performance total/best comp total × 100). Of the individual lifts, the SCAT score was negatively correlated to the personal best for bench press (r = -0.368; p = 0.03) and deadlift (r = -0.317, p = 0.05), but did not significantly correlate for squat (r = -0.182, p = 0.27). These results indicate a negative correlation between the SCAT score and athletes' personal best totals in PL. Increased SCAT scores were associated with decreased personal best PL totals. The results suggest that competitive trait anxiety may have negatively impacted performance and that some PL athletes may benefit from interventions aimed at decreasing anxiety before and during performance.
Gros, Daniel F.; Antony, Martin M.; Simms, Leonard J.; McCabe, Randi E.
The State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA; M. J. Ree, C. MacLeod, D. French, & V. Locke, 2000) was designed to assess cognitive and somatic symptoms of anxiety as they pertain to one's mood in the moment (state) and in general (trait). This study extended the previous psychometric findings to a clinical sample and…
Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando Araújo; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane
Both exaggerated and diminished reactivity to stress can be maladaptive. Previous studies have shown that performing increasingly difficult tasks leads first to increased reactivity and then to a blunted response when success is impossible. Our aim was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on cardiac and cortisol response to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in a homogeneous sample of healthy peacekeepers. We hypothesized that participants with higher trait anxiety would show blunted reactivity during the performance of an overwhelmingly difficult and stressful task. Participants (N = 50) delivered a speech and performed an arithmetic task in the presence of critical evaluators. Cortisol samples and electrocardiogram data were collected. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Military Peace Force Stressor Inventory. For heart rate, the findings showed that peacekeepers with higher trait anxiety reacted less to the speech task (p = 0.03) and to the arithmetic task (p = 0.008) than those with lower trait anxiety. Trait anxiety did not modulate cortisol responses to the task. Despite the high trait anxiety group having higher PCL-C scores than the low trait anxiety group (p anxiety had less tachycardia in response to acute psychological stress than those with lower trait anxiety. The present results point to a higher risk for more anxious individuals of a maladaptive reaction to stressful events.
Freeth, Megan; Bullock, Tom; Milne, Elizabeth
Traits associated with autism and social anxiety were assessed in a UK student population (n = 1325) using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Clinically relevant levels of autistic traits were observed in 3.3% of the cohort; 10.1% of the cohort reported clinically relevant levels of social anxiety; 1.8% of the…
de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R
Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
福井, 邦宗; 土屋, 裕睦; 豊田, 則成
The purpose of this study was to examine and clarify 1) the relationship between anxiety and competitive ability, 2) Features of trait anxiety, 3) selecting university student-athletes with superior competitive performance, in spite of being highly anxious. University student-athletes concerned with sports (n=89 43 males, 41 females) responded to the Trait Anxiety Inventory for Sport (TAIS) and to the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability (DIPCA.3). As a result, a negativ...
Kaya, Sinem; Avci, Rasit
Problem Statement: Future Anxiety (FA) and Trait Anxiety (TA) have negative effects on individuals' productivity, which can lead them to feelings of insecurity and eventually depression. Knowing more about future anxiety helps people feel more secure and produce more effectively for themselves, and eventually for society. This research examined…
Conner, Caitlin M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
Comorbid anxiety is common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and parents of children with ASD are more likely to have anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between parents' state and trait anxiety and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents (n = 30) with ASD, as well…
Neiva, Jaqueline F O; Barros, Joao A C; Meira, Cassio M
This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and goal setting on learning of the Bachman ladder. It was hypothesized that easy goals would increase learning for individuals with high trait anxiety while hard goals would increase learning for individuals with low trait anxiety. 80 high school students (40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 15 yr., SD = 1.0) filled out the Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for trait anxiety. The experiment was divided into four phases: acquisition, immediate transfer (after 5 min.), delayed transfer, and retention (after 24 hr.). On the transfer phases, the participants started climbing the ladder with the foot opposite of that used in acquisition. Participants were assigned to one of four experimental groups combining high and low anxiety traits and hard and easy goals. Variances were analyzed with repeated measurements on the last factor of all phases. The results showed the performance increased during the acquisition phase and no effects were observed in any phases.
Pajkossy, Péter; Keresztes, Attila; Racsmány, Mihály
Worrying is a key concept in describing the complex relationship between anxiety and cognitive control. On the one hand, cognitive control processes might underlie the specific tendency to engage in worrying (i.e., trait worry), conceptualized as a future-oriented mental problem-solving activity. On the other hand, the general tendency to experience the signs and symptoms of anxiety (i.e., trait anxiety) is suggested to impair cognitive control because worrisome thoughts interfere with task-relevant processing. Based on these opposing tendencies, we predicted that the effect of the two related constructs, trait anxiety and trait worry, might cancel out one another. In statistics, such instances have been termed suppressor situations. In four experiments, we found evidence for such a suppressor situation: When their shared variance was controlled, trait worry was positively whereas trait anxiety was negatively related to performance in a memory task requiring strategic, effortful retrieval. We also showed that these opposing effects are related to temporal context reinstatement. Our results suggest that trait worry and trait anxiety possess unique sources of variance, which differently relate to performance in memory tasks requiring cognitive control.
This study examined the relationship between career decision self-efficacy and personal-emotional life, including trait anxiety and positive and negative affect in a sample of 249 undergraduate students. Turkish versions of career decision self-efficacy scale-short form, positive and negative affect schedule, and trait anxiety inventory were administrated. Higher career decision self-efficacy was associated with higher positive affectivity and lower trait anxiety and negative affectivity. Trait anxiety and positive affect were the significant predictors of career decision self-efficacy. Implications for career counseling and ideas for future research were discussed.
Santangelo, G; Sacco, R; Siciliano, M; Bisecco, A; Muzzo, G; Docimo, R; De Stefano, M; Bonavita, S; Lavorgna, L; Tedeschi, G; Trojano, L; Gallo, A
The aims of the present study were to examine psychometric properties of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y-1 and STAI-Y-2, respectively) in a Multiple Sclerosis (MS) population and to identify a cut-off score to detect those MS patients with high level of state and/or trait anxiety who could be more vulnerable to development of depression and/or cognitive defects. The STAI-Y-1 and STAI-Y-2 was completed by a group of patients (n = 175) affected by MS and a group of healthy subjects (n = 150) matched for age, educational level, and gender. In MS patients internal consistency, divergent and discriminant validities were evaluated. Construct validity was examined by exploratory factor analysis for each scale. There was no missing data, no floor or ceiling effects for both scales. The two scales showed high internal consistency, good divergent, and Known-groups validities. To identify high levels of state and trait anxiety in a patient with MS, we proposed three gender specific screening cut-off values (1, 1.5, 2 SD) for the STAI-Y-1 and the STAI-Y-2. The findings showed that the STAI-Y-1 and the STAI-Y-2 are a valid tool for clinical use in MS patients and can be useful to measure the severity of anxiety and to identify those patients with high anxiety to introduce them in specific non-pharmacological intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Miaskowski, Christine; Cataldo, Janine K.; Baggott, Christina R.; West, Claudia; Dunn, Laura B.; Dhruva, Anand; Merriman, John D.; Langford, Dale J.; Kober, Kord M.; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.
Purpose Anxiety is common among cancer patients and their family caregivers (FCs) and is associated with poorer outcomes. Recently, associations between inflammation and anxiety were identified. However, the relationship between variations in cytokine genes and anxiety warrants investigation. Therefore, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics associated with trait and state anxiety were evaluated in a sample of 167 oncology patients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs. Methods Using multiple regression analyses, the associations between participants’ demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as variations in cytokine genes and trait and state anxiety were evaluated. Results In the bivariate analyses, a number of phenotypic characteristics were associated with both trait and state anxiety (e.g., age, functional status). However, some associations were specific only to trait anxiety (e.g., number of comorbid conditions) or state anxiety (e.g., participation with a FC). Variations in three cytokine genes (i.e., interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL1 receptor 2 (IL1R2), nuclear factor kappa beta 2 (NFKB2)) were associated with trait anxiety and variations in two genes (i.e., IL1R2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA)) were associated with state anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest that both trait and state anxiety need to be assessed in oncology patients and their FCs. Furthermore, variations in cytokine genes may contribute to higher levels of anxiety in oncology patients and their FCs. PMID:25249351
Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi; Malihe Shoja; Monir Ramezani; Azadeh Saki (PhD); Marjan Joodi
Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016....
The study aimed to assess the accuracy of memories of both pain and the state anxiety that accompanies experimentally induced pain and to investigate the factors that influence the memory of experimental pain. Forty-nine healthy female volunteers participated in the study. The participants received three electrocutaneous pain stimuli during the first phase of the study and rated the pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and state anxiety they felt at that moment. Trait pain anxiety was measured by the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale and the Fear of Pain Questionnaire. During the second phase of the study, three or six months later (depending on the experimental group), the participants were asked to rate the pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and state anxiety they had felt during the first phase of the study. Recalled pain intensity and unpleasantness and the state anxiety that accompanied the pain experience were remembered accurately, regardless of the recall delay. Both recalled pain intensity and unpleasantness were predicted by experienced pain, experienced and recalled state anxiety, and trait pain anxiety, that is, scores for physiological anxiety, cognitive anxiety, escape/avoidance, and severe pain. The present study demonstrates that a specific type of trait anxiety (pain anxiety) influences the memory of pain. The study is not only the first to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on the memory of experimental pain, it also is the first study to determine the effect of a specific form of anxiety (pain anxiety) on the memory of experimentally induced pain.
Mehroof, Mehwash; Griffiths, Mark D
Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study.
Monkul, E Serap; Onur, Elif; Tural, Umit; Hatch, John P; Alkın, Tunç; Yücel, Baris; Fidaner, Hüray
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of history of suffocation, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity on response to a 35% carbon dioxide (CO₂) challenge in panic disorder patients, their healthy first-degree relatives and healthy comparisons. Thirty-two patients with panic disorder, 32 first-degree relatives, and 34 healthy volunteers underwent the 35% CO₂ challenge. We assessed baseline anxiety with the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI1), and panic symptoms with the Panic Symptom List (PSL III-R). A history of suffocation was associated with greater risk of CO₂ reactivity in the combined sample. Patients had more anxiety sensitivity and state and trait anxiety than relatives and healthy comparisons; the difference between relatives and healthy comparisons was not significant. In female patients, trait anxiety predicted CO₂-induced panic. Having a CO₂-sensitive panic disorder patient as a first-degree relative did not predict CO₂-induced panic in a healthy relative. History of suffocation may be an important predictor of CO₂-induced panic. Trait anxiety may have a gender-specific relation to CO₂ reactivity. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effectiveness of a treatment for communication apprehension (CA) was examined in this study. Trait and state anxiety were examined by using community college students enrolled in four sections of a required basic speech communication course. The sample size consisted of 81 students, ranging in ages 17-82. Each student was asked to complete a trait anxiety measure (Personal Report of Communication Apprehension...
Zhang, Jie; Gao, Qi
This study evaluated the validation of STAI Trait-Anxiety Scale in suicide cases and community living controls in rural China. The participants were 392 suicides and 416 controls. Cronbach's Alpha was computed to evaluate the internal consistency. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient between Trait-Anxiety Scale and other instrument was calculated to evaluate the external validity, and the Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity. The results showed the Cronbach's Alpha was .891 and .787 respectively in case and control groups. Most of the correlations between instruments were significant. We found 2 factors in cases and 3 factors in controls. We could cautiously infer that the Trait Anxiety Scale was an adequate tool to measure trait anxiety through proxy data in suicide victims and living controls in rural China.
Pinho, Roberto Carlos Mourão; da Silva Barbosa, André Cavalcante; Caldas-Júnior, Arnaldo de França; Vasconcelos, Márcia Maria Vendiciano Barbosa; Cimões, Renata; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues Dos
The aim of this study was to compare state anxiety, trait anxiety, and dental anxiety in caregivers of patients with special needs and caregivers of pediatric patients without special needs at dental clinics. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected using a semistructured questionnaire. All respondents were older than 18 years of age. Individuals with cognitive impairment and those taking anxiolytics, antidepressants, or sleep-inducing medication were excluded from the study. The sample consisted of 55 caregivers of patients with special needs and 55 caregivers of pediatric dental patients. A questionnaire was administered to determine the sociodemographic profile of the patients based on the 2015 Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria. Anxiety regarding dental treatment was measured using the dental anxiety scale. The state-trait anxiety inventory was used to identify state and trait anxiety levels. Caregivers of individuals with disabilities had a similar level of anxiety as caregivers of pediatric dental patients. Most caregivers of individuals with disabilities were mothers with an older age and a greater frequency of trait anxiety, especially when these mothers had health problems. State anxiety was associated with a lower education level. Higher dental anxiety levels were found among caregivers with a higher level of trait anxiety, independently of the type of patient to which care was given. © 2017 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Donoyama, Nozomi; Munakata, Tsunetsugu
This questionnaire-based study of Japanese massage practitioners with visual impairment (n = 155, 126 males, 29 females, mean age = 41 years) found that measures of self-repression, helplessness and "daily hassles" were positively correlated to measures of trait anxiety. Also, trait anxiety was negatively associated with measures of…
Theodory, George C.; Day, Richard C.
The relationship between the style, trait anxiety, and experience of professors and students' grades was investigated using Fiedler's contingency theory. Results indicated professors' trait anxiety is significant influencing student grades; professors having a high Least Preferred co-worker score assigned grades negatively correlated related with…
Park, Kira; Woo, Sungbum; Park, Kibok; Kyea, Jina; Yang, Eunjoo
This study investigated trait anxiety, career exploration behaviors, and career indecision. Using longitudinal data, career exploration behavior was examined as a mediator in the relationship between trait anxiety and career indecision. Five hundred and one Korean college students completed online questionnaires at three different time points with…
Craig, Ashley; Tran, Yvonne
The relationship between chronic stuttering and anxiety has been a matter of some debate over the past two decades, with a major emphasis of research focused on examining whether people who stutter have abnormally elevated levels of trait or social anxiety. The major goal of this paper was to perform a systematic literature review and perform meta-analyses on research that has assessed (i) trait anxiety and (ii) social anxiety, in adults who stutter. Only studies that met strict inclusion criteria were selected for the meta-analyses. Two meta-analyses were conducted, the first for trait anxiety, and the second for social anxiety. Meta-analysis combines statistically the results of selected studies that meet strict design criteria, thereby clarifying the size of differences in trait and social anxiety between adults who stutter and adults who do not stutter. Meta-analytic results confirmed that adults with chronic stuttering do have substantially elevated trait and social anxiety. The overall effect size for trait and social anxiety was calculated to be .57 and .82, respectively. Trait and social anxiety are definite problems for many adults who stutter. Clinical implications of these findings for the diagnosis and treatment of adult who stutter are discussed. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the process of conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis; (b) describe the possible impact of publication bias on meta-analysis results; (c) explain the impact of a chronic disorder like stuttering on levels of trait anxiety; (d) explain the impact of stuttering on levels of social anxiety; (e) interpret the results of meta-analysis when applied to differences in anxiety between adult people who stutter and those who do not stutter; and (f) describe implications for fluency enhancing treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa
Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter "k," "f," verbs, "animals," "vehicles," "joy," and "fear." The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety.
Rezvan Sadr Mohammadi
Full Text Available The associations between exposure to traumatic events and psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety have been established. It is important that clinicians notice to this phenomenon and avoid from inappropriate interpretations and additional laboratory tests. Here, a case of 45-year-old man with Essential thrombocytosis developed after multiple psychic traumas was introduced.
Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Mahdian, Mehrdad; Bidaki, Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali
The associations between exposure to traumatic events and psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety have been established. It is important that clinicians notice to this phenomenon and avoid from inappropriate interpretations and additional laboratory tests. Here, a case of 45-year-old man with Essential thrombocytosis developed after multiple psychic traumas was introduced.
Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Mahdian, Mehrdad; Bidaki, Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali
The associations between exposure to traumatic events and psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety have been established. It is important that clinicians notice to this phenomenon and avoid from inappropriate interpretations and additional laboratory tests. Here, a case of 45-year-old man with Essential thrombocytosis developed after multiple psychic traumas was introduced.
Vigneau, François; Cormier, Stéphanie
Past studies of the factor structure of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983) have arrived at various solutions. However, a relatively strong consensus supports a four-factor (State Anxiety Present, State Anxiety Absent, Trait Anxiety Present, and Trait Anxiety Absent) structure of the scale resulting from the combination of item polarity dimensions and the original two factors (State and Trait Anxiety). In this article, we assessed the adequacy of an alternative factor model of STAI data, the two-construct, two-method model, in three large samples using confirmatory factor analysis. The results revealed a statistical advantage of the two-construct, two-method model over the one-factor model, the two-construct factor model, and the four-factor model. We discuss possible interpretational advantages of the two-construct, two-method model of the STAI.
Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C
Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.
Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C.
Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2–3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26441778
Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk
Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shimura, Akiyoshi; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Murakoshi, Akiko; Ono, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi
The association between trait anxiety and parental bonding has been suggested. However, the mechanism remains uncertain and there is no study focused on general adult population. We investigated the association and the mechanism between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety in the general adult population. A cross-sectional retrospective survey was conducted in 2014 with 853 adult volunteers from the general population. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y) were self-administered. Structural equation modelling was used for the analysis. Childhood parental bonding affected adulthood trait anxiety indirectly mediated by self-esteem. Trait anxiety was decreased by parental care and increased by parental overprotection through self-esteem. This model explained 51.1% of the variability in STAI-Y trait anxiety scores. This study suggests an important role of self-esteem as a mediator between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Niedermeier, Martin; Waanders, Robb; Menz, Verena; Wille, Maria; Kopp, Martin; Burtscher, Martin
Some mountaineers are more prone to the occurrence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) than others. State anxiety during altitude exposure might be associated with AMS development. We hypothesized that trait anxiety might be higher in AMS cases compared to non-AMS cases. The aim of the present study was to study the relationship between AMS development and trait anxiety. In an observational study design, AMS incidence during a 12-hour exposure to normobaric hypoxia (FiO2=12.6%, equivalent to 4500m) was determined by the Lake Louise Scoring System. Trait anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory) and confounding variables were assessed in a follow-up questionnaire (37months after hypoxic exposure). Twenty nine participants returned the follow-up questionnaire. AMS incidence was 38%. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses did not reveal trait anxiety as a significant variable in relation to AMS. Based on the findings of this preliminary study, there is no evidence that AMS development under normobaric conditions is related to trait anxiety. Differences to previous studies might be explained by the type of hypoxia, by different sample characteristics and by considering sleep disturbances in the calculation of the AMS score. However, future studies with larger sample sizes may help to clear the relationship between AMS development and the personality factor anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horváth, András; Montana, Xavier; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Hubain, Philippe; Szűcs, Anna; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé
Anxiety affects millions of people and has been shown to co-occur in combination with sleep disturbances, generating heavy medical costs and a huge socio-medico-economic burden. Sleep-studies in anxiety disorders are inconsistent and the effects of state and trait anxiety are unexplored. We selected 1083 patients from the database of a hospital sleep laboratory. The patients had polysomnography for different sleep disorders; their sleep initiation (sleep onset latency), sleep maintenance (total sleep time), non-rapid eye movement sleep-, and rapid eye movement sleep parameters; as well as their State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck depression scale were measured. In order to be included in our study, individuals needed to score in the low or high range on the State and/or Trait Subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. We found that both state and trait anxiety affected non-rapid eye movement sleep parameters. Sleep onset latency changes predominantly associated to state anxiety while rapid eye movement parameters related to trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Norgate, Roger; Hadwin, Julie A
Working memory skills are positively associated with academic performance. In contrast, high levels of trait anxiety are linked with educational underachievement. Based on Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory (PET), the present study investigated whether associations between anxiety and educational achievement were mediated via poor working memory performance. Fifty children aged 11-12 years completed verbal (backwards digit span; tapping the phonological store/central executive) and spatial (Corsi blocks; tapping the visuospatial sketchpad/central executive) working memory tasks. Trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Academic performance was assessed using school administered tests of reasoning (Cognitive Abilities Test) and attainment (Standard Assessment Tests). The results showed that the association between trait anxiety and academic performance was significantly mediated by verbal working memory for three of the six academic performance measures (math, quantitative and non-verbal reasoning). Spatial working memory did not significantly mediate the relationship between trait anxiety and academic performance. On average verbal working memory accounted for 51% of the association between trait anxiety and academic performance, while spatial working memory only accounted for 9%. The findings indicate that PET is a useful framework to assess the impact of children's anxiety on educational achievement.
Sliter, Michael T; Sinclair, Robert R; Yuan, Zhenyu; Mohr, Cynthia D
Despite multiple calls for research, there has been little effort to incorporate topics regarding mortality salience and death anxiety into workplace literature. As such, the goals of the current study were to (a) examine how trait differences in death anxiety relate to employee occupational health outcomes and (b) examine how death anxiety might exacerbate the negative effects of mortality salience cues experienced at work. In Study 1, we examined how death anxiety affected nurses in a multitime point survey. These results showed that trait death anxiety was associated with increased burnout and reduced engagement and that death anxiety further exacerbated the relationship between mortality salience cues (e.g., dealing with injured and dying patients) and burnout. These results were replicated and extended in Study 2, which examined the impact of death anxiety in firefighters. In this multitime point study, death anxiety related to burnout, engagement, and absenteeism. The results further showed that death anxiety moderated the relationship between mortality cues and burnout, where people high in trait death anxiety experience higher levels of burnout as a result of mortality cues than people lower in death anxiety. Across the 2 studies, despite differences in the methods (e.g., time lag; measures), the effect sizes and the form of the significant interactions were quite similar. Overall, these results highlight the importance of understanding death anxiety in the workplace, particularly in occupations where mortality salience cues are common. We discuss recommendations, such as death education and vocational counseling, and provide some avenues for future research.
Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
One of the psychological problems with highest prevalence is anxiety. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory is one of the instruments to measure it. This questionnaire assesses Trait Anxiety (understood as a personality factor that predisposes one to suffer from anxiety) and State Anxiety (refers to environment factors that protect from or generate anxiety). The questionnaire was adapted in Spain in 1982. Therefore, the goal of the study is to review the current psychometric properties of the STAI. A total of 1036 adults took part in the study. Cronbach's alpha reliability was .90 for Trait and .94 for State Anxiety. Factor analysis showed similar results compared with the original data. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias. Only one of the 40 items showed DIF problems. Lastly, a t-Test was run, comparing the original and current values; whereas Trait Anxiety varied in 1 point, State Anxiety had differences of up to 6 points. In general, this result shows that the STAI has maintained adequate psychometric properties and has also been sensitive to increased environmental stimuli that produce stress.
Gualberto Buela-Casal; Alejandro Guillén-Riquelme
Background/Objective: The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is one of the assessment instruments that are most widely used by psychologists around the world and is the seventh most broadly used by clinical psychologists in Spain...
Edwards, Mark S; Edwards, Elizabeth J; Lyvers, Michael
Few studies have focussed on the link between anxiety and inhibitory control in the absence of stimulus-driven external threat. This two-part experiment examined the interactions between (1) somatic trait anxiety, somatic situational stress (i.e. threat of electric shock), and effort, and (2) cognitive trait anxiety, cognitive situational stress (i.e. ego-threat instructions), and effort, on inhibitory processes using a Go-No-Go paradigm. Trait anxiety was operationalised using questionnaire scores and effort was operationalised using a visual analogue scale. Performance effectiveness was measured using the d' parameter from signal detection theory and processing efficiency was indexed by the ratio of d' to response time on correct trials. Results indicated that somatic trait anxiety and stress did not predict effectiveness or efficiency. Cognitive trait anxiety and stress were associated with both inhibitory effectiveness and efficiency deficits; however, contrary to expectations these deficits were evident at higher rather than lower mental effort. Results suggest a distinction between how somatic and cognitive anxiety manifest on tasks involving inhibitory control.
Jung, Jin-Yi; Kim, Kye-Hyun; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Won; Shin, Young-Chul; Oh, Kang-Seob; Shin, Eun-Hee; Lim, Se-Won
Binge eating occurs more frequently in women than in men, and is known to be related to psychological factors such as stress, depression, and anxiety. This study examined the relationship between binge eating and depression, trait anxiety, and perceived stress in Korean adolescents. Four hundred girls (aged 17-18 years) from two high schools located in Seoul completed self-report questionnaires. In total, 327 participants returned reliable responses, and were included in the final study. Binge eating was measured using the Bulimic Inventory Test Edinburgh. The questionnaire also included the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Trait Anxiety (TA) of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory (ASI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The binge-eating group had higher BMI than the control group. The binge-eating group showed higher scores than control on the PSS, BDI, ASI, and TA. The TA was most highly correlated with binge eating. From logistic regression analysis, TA was revealed to be the only factor that raised the risk of binge eating, whereas PSS, BDI, and ASI showed no statistical significance. Although binge eating was correlated with perceived stress, depression, and trait anxiety, when their influences were controlled, only binge eating appeared to be associated with trait anxiety.
Edwards, Mark S; Moore, Philippa; Champion, James C; Edwards, Elizabeth J
Attentional Control Theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situation stress combine to reduce performance efficiency on tasks requiring rapid shifts in attention. Recent evidence has also suggested that working memory capacity (WMC) might moderate this relationship. We controlled for methodological difficulties in the existing literature to investigate the relationships between trait anxiety, situational stress, and WMC on attentional shifting. Seventy undergraduate students participated in the study. Trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through a pressured counting task, and WMC was based on performance on the Automated Operation Span Task (AOSPAN). The shifting task involved a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm as the primary task and an oddball tone-discrimination task as the secondary task. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (accuracy) and processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) on the secondary task. There was no effect of anxiety, stress, or WMC in predicting performance effectiveness; however, a significant three-way interaction on processing efficiency was observed. At higher WMC, anxiety and situational stress were not associated with processing efficiency. Conversely, at lower WMC, higher trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency but only for those who reported higher situational stress; for those who reported lower situational stress higher trait anxiety predicted facilitated efficiency. Results are interpreted with respect to ACT and directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter ‘k’, ‘f’, verbs, ‘animals’, ‘vehicles’, ‘joy’ and ‘fear’. The results of 35 subjects (whole sample, and 17 subjects (9 men, 8 women selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety.
Weems, Carl F.; Pina, Armando A.; Costa, Natalie M.; Watts, Sarah E.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Cannon, Melinda F.
On the basis of theory and previous research, it was hypothesized that predisaster child trait anxiety would predict disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms, even after controlling for the number of hurricane exposure events. Results support this hypothesis and further indicate that predisaster…
Houeto, J L; Arnulf, I
Hallucinations (mainly visual), psychosis and excessive daytime sleepiness are potential side-effects of dopaminergic treatment. They may require a reduction or suppression of dopaminergic agonists, and the prescription of atypical neuroleptic agents or vigilance-enhancing drugs. The recent description of narcolepsy-like sleep onset in rapid eye movement sleep periods synchronous with hypnagogic hallucinations in patients with dopaminergic-induced psychosis or excessive daytime sleepiness, suggests that the mesodiencephalic lesions may predispose to the psychic effects of dopaminergic treatment. Disease-related mood disorders, sexual compulsions, gambling or levodopa addiction may also be amplified by the antiparkinsonian treatment. These complications illustrate the neuro-psychic aspect of Parkinson's disease: psychic troubles may result from a subtle balance between the direct effects of drugs, the pre-morbid pathological personality and the cortical and subcortical lesions.
Oluk, Sami; Ozuredi, Ozlem; Sakaci, Tansel
This descriptive study is to determine anxiety levels of university students during the learning process of global environmental problems. The scope of the research is composed of 39 students. Data were collected via a state-trait anxiety inventory. Trait anxiety inventory was applied both before and after the study whereas, state anxiety…
Iwata, N; Mishima, N; Shimizu, T; Mizoue, T; Fukuhara, M; Hidano, T; Spielberger, C D
The factor structure of Form Y of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y) was examined with 1,862 Japanese adult workers (1,509 men, 353 women). The initial principal component analysis extracted three factors based on the scree test. All 20 state (S-Anxiety) and 20 trait (T-Anxiety) items had dominant salient loadings on the first factor, which reflected "over-all anxiety." The three factors identified by an oblique (promax) rotation were labeled "anxiety-absent," "state anxiety-present," and "trait anxiety-present." All 20 items with dominant salient loadings on the first oblique factor were clearly grouped on the basis of their content, indicating the absence of anxiety. The second and third oblique factors, defined almost entirely by the STAI-Y anxiety-present items, clearly reflected the state-trait distinction in this sample of Japanese workers.
Roberts, Karen E; Hart, Trevor A; Eastwood, John D
The State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA; Ree, French, MacLeod, & Locke, 2008) is a relatively new measure of anxiety. The current research investigated the factor structure and reliability of scores on the STICSA and the validity of the interpretation of STICSA scores in a sample of undergraduate students. Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires online, including measures of anxiety, depression, affect, and social desirability. Scores on the 4 subscales of the STICSA-Trait Cognitive, Trait Somatic, State Cognitive, and State Somatic-exhibited good internal consistencies (αs ≥ .92). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a hierarchical model of the STICSA including a global anxiety factor plus 4 specific factors corresponding to the STICSA subscales. Support was also found for a four-factor model, with factors corresponding to the STICSA subscales. Pearson product-moment correlations with other measures of anxiety provided evidence of the convergent validity of the interpretation of STICSA scores, and Pearson product-moment correlations with measures of depression and affect provided evidence of the divergent validity of the interpretation of STICSA scores. The STICSA is the only existing self-report anxiety measure that contains scales measuring state and trait anxiety as well as cognitive and somatic anxiety. Comparisons between the convergent and divergent validity of test score interpretations of the STICSA and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al., 1983) revealed that the STICSA has better convergent validity with measures of somatic anxiety and better divergent validity with measures of depression and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Facial expression and gaze direction play an important role in social communication. Previous research has demonstrated the perception of anger is enhanced by direct gaze, whereas, it is unclear whether perception of fear is enhanced by averted gaze. In addition, previous research has shown the anxiety affects the processing of facial expression and gaze direction, but hasn’t measured or controlled for depression. As a result, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the impact of individual differences in anxiety and depression on perceptions of face expressions and gaze direction. The current study attempted to reexamine the effect of the anxiety level on the processing of facial expressions and gaze direction by matching participants on depression scores. A reliable psychophysical index of the range of eye gaze angles judged as being directed at oneself [the cone of direct gaze (CoDG] was used as the dependent variable in this study. Participants were stratified into high/low trait anxiety groups and asked to judge the gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces across a range of gaze directions. The result showed: (1 the perception of gaze direction was influenced by facial expression and this was modulated by trait anxiety. For the high trait anxiety group, the CoDG for angry expressions was wider than for fearful and neutral expressions, and no significant difference emerged between fearful and neutral expressions; For the low trait anxiety group, the CoDG for both angry and fearful expressions was wider than for neutral, and no significant difference emerged between angry and fearful expressions. (2 Trait anxiety modulated the perception of gaze direction only in the fearful condition, such that the fearful CoDG for the high trait anxiety group was narrower than the low trait anxiety group. This demonstrated that anxiety distinctly affected gaze perception in expressions that convey threat (angry, fearful, such that a high trait anxiety
Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael
Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Otori, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Genichiro; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Kuwayama, Yasuaki
To evaluate anxiety felt by glaucoma patients. In total, 472 glaucoma patients responded to a questionnaire on anxiety, subjective symptoms, and vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) associated with glaucoma. Anxiety was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), state anxiety (STAI-State) subscale along with our novel questionnaire, assessing visual function and subjective symptoms, specialized for glaucoma. VR-QOL was evaluated using 5 subitems from the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25). Adherence to ophthalmic antiglaucoma agents was confirmed. As indexes of visual function, corrected visual acuity (measured by eye chart), mean deviation (MD) score (measured with static perimetry), and 4 thresholds at the center of vision were determined. Stages were classified according to the Aulhorn Classification. From the STAI-State scores, the prevalence of anxiety in glaucoma patients was evaluated. We analyzed the correlation between the STAI-State and VFQ-25, anxiety, subjective symptoms, adherence, and visual function indexes. In total, 78% of glaucoma patients experienced at least an intermediate level of anxiety. The STAI-State correlated significantly with anxiety and subjective symptoms as measured by our novel questionnaire, particularly for questions "current anxiety about loss of vision" and "current anxiety in life" (r=0.468 and 0.500; both Panxiety. The STAI-State is correlated with the VR-QOL and anxiety in glaucoma patients, making it useful for understanding the anxiety present in glaucoma patients.
Donzuso, Giulia; Cerasa, Antonio; Gioia, Maria C; Caracciolo, Manuela; Quattrone, Aldo
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Hamilton scale for anxiety (HARS) are two of the most important scales employed in clinical and psychological realms for the evaluation of anxiety. Although the reliability and sensibility of these scales are widely demonstrated there is an open debate on what exactly their scores reflect. Neuroimaging provides the potential to validate the quality and reliability of clinical scales through the identification of specific biomarkers. For this reason, we evaluated the neural correlates of these two scales in a large cohort of healthy individuals using structural neuroimaging methods. Neuroimaging analysis included thickness/volume estimation of cortical and subcortical limbic structures, which were regressed on anxiety inventory scores with age and gender used for assessing discriminant validity. A total of 121 healthy subjects were evaluated. Despite the two anxiety scales, at a behavioral level, displaying significant correlations among them (HARS with STAI-state (r = 0.24; P = 0.006) and HARS with STAI-trait (r = 0.42; P anxiety-like behaviors, our neuroimaging data indicated that these scales are neurobiologically different, confirming that their scores might reflect different aspects of anxiety: the HARS is more related to subclinical expression of anxiety disorders, whereas the STAI captures sub-dimensions of personality linked to anxiety.
Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Runguo; Broster, Lucas S; Jiang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Yang, Qiwei; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Yue-Jia
According to previous literature, trait anxiety is related to the tendency to choose safety options during risk decision-making, that is, risk avoidance. In our opinion, anxious people's risk preference might actually reflect their hypersensitivity to emotional information. To examine this hypothesis, a decision-making task that could elicit the framing effect was employed. The framing effect indicates that risk preference could be modulated by emotional messages contained in the description (i.e., frame) of options. The behavioral results have showed the classic framing effect. In addition, individual level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the framing effect size. However, trait anxiety was not correlated with risk-avoidance ratio in any condition. Finally, the relationship between anxiety and the framing effect remained significant after the level of depression was also taken into account. The theoretical significance and the major limitations of this study are discussed.
Lench, Heather C; Levine, Linda J; Roe, Elisa
Psychological characteristics associated with interpreting situations as stressful can impact people's physical health. The present investigation focused on trait anxiety and achievement goals as two such characteristics that may predict health outcomes in dancers, a group prone to chronic stress and injury. Students enrolled in a university dance program (N = 109) completed measures of trait anxiety, achievement goals for dance classes, and current health at the start of an academic term. Health was assessed again at the end of the term. Greater trait anxiety predicted poorer health at the end of the term when controlling for initial health. In addition, the more dancers wanted to avoid performing worse than others (performance-avoidance goals), the poorer was their physical health at term's end. It is concluded that anxiety and performance-avoidance goals may hinder dancers' ability to cope with the physical stress associated with a dance career.
Aziz, Azizi Ab; Ahmad, Faudziah; Yusof, Nooraini; Ahmad, Farzana Kabir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd
This paper presents a temporal dynamic model of anxiety states and traits for an individual. Anxiety is a natural part of life, and most of us experience it from time to time. But for some people, anxiety can be extreme. Based on several personal characteristics, traits, and a representation of events (i.e. psychological and physiological stressors), the formal model can represent whether a human that experience certain scenarios will fall into an anxiety states condition. A number of well-known relations between events and the course of anxiety are summarized from the literature and it is shown that the model exhibits those patterns. In addition, the formal model has been mathematically analyzed to find out which stable situations exist. Finally, it is pointed out how this model can be used in therapy, supported by a software agent.
Clewett, David; Bachman, Shelby; Mather, Mara
Objective A current neuroanatomical model of anxiety posits that greater structural connectivity between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) facilitates regulatory control over the amygdala and helps reduce anxiety. However, some neuroimaging studies have reported contradictory findings, demonstrating a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and amygdala-vPFC white matter integrity. To help reconcile these findings, we tested the regulatory hypothesis of anxiety circuitry using aging as a model of white matter decline in the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Methods We used probabilistic tractography to trace connections between the amygdala and vPFC in 21 younger, 18 middle-aged, and 15 healthy older adults. The resulting tract estimates were used to extract three indices of white-matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). The relationship between these amygdala-vPFC structural connectivity measures and age and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were assessed. Results The tractography results revealed age-related decline in the FA (p = .005) and radial diffusivity (p = .002) of the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Contrary to the regulatory hypothesis, we found a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and right amygdala-vPFC FA (p = .01). Conclusion These findings argue against the notion that greater amygdala-vPFC structural integrity facilitates better anxiety outcomes in healthy adults. Instead, our results suggest that white matter degeneration in this network relates to lower anxiety in older adults. PMID:24635708
Kleberg, Johan Lundin; Högström, Jens; Nord, Martina; Bölte, Sven; Serlachius, Eva; Falck-Ytter, Terje
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) have partly overlapping symptoms. Gaze avoidance has been linked to both SAD and ASD, but little is known about differences in social attention between the two conditions. We studied eye movements in a group of treatment-seeking adolescents with SAD (N = 25), assessing SAD and ASD dimensionally. The results indicated a double dissociation between two measures of social attention and the two symptom dimensions. Controlling for social anxiety, elevated autistic traits were associated with delayed orienting to eyes presented among distractors. In contrast, elevated social anxiety levels were associated with faster orienting away from the eyes, when controlling for autistic traits. This distinction deepens our understanding of ASD and SAD.
Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R; Rotshtein, Pia
.... The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1...
Walkenhorst, Elizabeth; Crowe, Simon F
This study investigated the effects of trait anxiety and state worry on working memory performance in a normal sample. Phase one investigated the effects of trait anxiety and state worry on the capacity of specific working memory components. Phase two investigated the validity of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) Processing Efficiency Theory of worry. Sixty adult participants (40 females and 20 males with a mean age of 26 years) were assigned to a 2 (trait anxiety: Low vs. high)x2 (state worry: Low vs. high) between-subjects design. Contrary to prediction, worry did not lead to a decrement in performance on verbal working memory tasks but unexpectedly enhanced performance on visual tasks in participants with low trait anxiety (LTA). The results were also in opposition to expectations for Phase two. Individuals in the conditions of high trait anxiety and/or high state worry (LTA/HW, HTA/LW, and HTA/HW) displayed shorter response latencies than individuals in the LTA and low state worry (LTA/LW) condition on both verbal and spatial working memory (i.e., N-back) tasks. Although non-pathological worry is predominantly a verbal-linguistic activity, it may also be complemented by the processing of visual imagery which facilitates problem-solving and adaptive functions.
Jiang, Nan; Sato, Takeshi; Hara, Tomihide; Takedomi, Yaeko; Ozaki, Iwata; Yamada, Shigeto
In our study, we explored the associations among anxiety, the dimensions of Cloninger's theoretically based and empirically validated psychobiological model of personality (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI) and fatigue in order to clarify the personality risk factors for fatigue. Fifth-year students (n=89) and freshmen (n=162) at Saga Medical School and psychiatric outpatients of Saga Medical School Hospital (n=101) were investigated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Japanese version), the TCI (Japanese version), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and the self-rating Fatigue Symptom Checklist (FSC), which describe fatigue along three subscales (general, physical and psychological fatigue). Correlation and ANOVA analyses were performed in this study. The analysis identified a significant relation (Ptrait anxiety and fatigue. The TCI dimension of harm avoidance (HA) is positively correlated with both trait anxiety and fatigue (general fatigue, psychological fatigue and physical fatigue). The character dimension of self-directedness is negatively correlated with both trait anxiety and fatigue. There is an inherent relationship among trait anxiety, the temperament dimension of harm avoidance, character dimension of self-directedness and fatigue. The TCI dimensions, harm avoidance and self-directedness, might be considered as predictors for fatigue-related disorders.
Wu, Lili; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang; Hu, Tianqiang
Research examining the relationship between bullying victimization and social anxiety has mainly been conducted in Western countries, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study explores the correlation between bullying victimization and social anxiety in a Chinese context and determines the moderating roles of psychological suzhi (a mental quality characterized by being steady, essential and implicit that affects adaptive, developmental, and creative behavior) and trait resilience among victims of bullying. Data were obtained from a stratified sample of 1903 children in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. All participants completed measures of bullying victimization, social anxiety, trait resilience, and psychological suzhi. The results indicated that, after controlling for grade, residential area, and parental marital status, bullying victimization positively predicted children's social anxiety. In addition, multi-group analysis suggested that the association in girls was stronger relative to that observed in boys. Regarding underlying processes, trait resilience moderated the effect of bullying victimization on social anxiety only in girls. Further assessment of the latent interaction effects indicated that the protective effect of trait resilience was stronger for girls experiencing high, relative to low, levels of bullying victimization, and psychological suzhi buffered against the detrimental effects of bullying on children's social anxiety. Most notably, unlike the moderating effect of resilience, the buffering effect of psychological suzhi against social anxiety was most prominent when bullying victimization was low. Findings underscore the importance of enhancing trait resilience and psychological suzhi in interventions designed to reduce children's social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doty, Tracy J; Japee, Shruti; Ingvar, Martin; Ungerleider, Leslie G
Threatening faces have a privileged status in the brain, which can be reflected in a processing advantage. However, this effect varies among individuals, even healthy adults. For example, one recent study showed that fearful face detection sensitivity correlated with trait anxiety in healthy adults (S. Japee, L. Crocker, F. Carver, L. Pessoa, & L. G. Ungerleider, 2009. Individual differences in valence modulation of face-selective M170 response. Emotion, 9, 59-69). Here, we expanded on those findings by investigating whether intersubject variability in fearful face detection is also associated with state anxiety, as well as more broadly with other traits related to anxiety. To measure fearful face detection sensitivity, we used a masked face paradigm where the target face was presented for only 33 ms and was immediately followed by a neutral face mask. Subjects then rated their confidence in detecting either fear or no fear in the target face. Fearful face detection sensitivity was calculated for each subject using signal detection theory. Replicating previous results, we found a significant positive correlation between trait anxiety and fearful face detection sensitivity. However, this behavioral advantage did not correlate with state anxiety. We also found that fearful face detection sensitivity correlated with other personality measures, including neuroticism and harm avoidance. Our data suggest that fearful face detection sensitivity varies parametrically across the healthy population, is associated broadly with personality traits related to anxiety, but remains largely unaffected by situational fluctuations in anxiety. These results underscore the important contribution of anxiety-related personality traits to threat processing in healthy adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.; Donker, M.
Although it is well established that personality traits of patients with mental disorder differ significantly from the traits of other persons, differences in personality characteristics between different mental disorders have not been examined very thoroughly. In this study, we examine personality
Brown, Robin Gordon
A confusion persists in the psychoanalytic literature regarding the concept of psychic determinism. Two authors are cited in whose works the concept is identified as foundational to psychoanalysis, in the one case as a "fundamental hypothesis" (Charles Brenner) and in the other as an "underlying presupposition" or assumption (Linda A.W. Brakel). Both claims are based on a conflation of the concept Freud had in mind with a philosophical doctrine going by the same name but meaning something quite different. The philosophical doctrine has no place in psychoanalysis at all, and Freud's concept does not play a foundational role there. In a second section a restricted concept of psychic determinism is critically examined. A third section deals with the impact of that restricted concept on clinical theory and contemporary controversies about clinical practice. Finally, some possible reasons for this confusion are suggested.
Blicher, Shira; Feingold, Liat; Shany, Michal
This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension (RC), trait anxiety, and preoccupation with reading disability (RD) in 88 school children in Grades 3 through 5 and in their mothers. Children's trait anxiety had a significant direct negative relationship with RC and also mediated the association between preoccupation with RD and RC. Mothers' preoccupation with their children's RDs had a direct negative association with their children's RC. This association was also mediated through children's trait anxiety. No association was found between mothers' trait anxiety and children's RC. In a final model, RC was explained significantly by children's word reading fluency and trait anxiety as well as by their mothers' preoccupation with their children's RDs. This study extends our understanding of multicomponential models of RC by shedding light on the significant role played by anxiety- and preoccupation-related factors involving both children with RDs and their mothers.
Hoshino, Takatoshi; Tanno, Yoshihiko
The present study investigated whether the control of reflective attention in working memory (WM) is impaired in high trait anxiety individuals. We focused on the consequences of refreshing-a simple reflective process of thinking briefly about a just-activated representation in mind-on the subsequent processing of verbal stimuli. Participants performed a selective refreshing task, in which they initially refreshed or read one word from a three-word set, and then refreshed a non-selected item from the initial phrase or read aloud a new word. High trait anxiety individuals exhibited greater latencies when refreshing a word after experiencing the refreshing of a word from the same list of semantic associates. The same pattern was observed for reading a new word after prior refreshing. These findings suggest that high trait anxiety individuals have difficulty resolving interference from active distractors when directing reflective attention towards contents in WM or processing a visually presented word.
Salthouse, Timothy A
A total of 3,781 healthy adults between 18 and 97 years of age completed trait anxiety and depressive symptoms inventories and also performed a battery of cognitive tests. Consistent with recent research on cognitive abilities, the cognitive variables could be organized into a hierarchical structure, with 5 first-order abilities and a single g-factor representing the variance common to the first-order abilities at the top of the hierarchy. Analyses were conducted to determine where in this hierarchy effects associated with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms were operating. The results indicated that trait anxiety and depressive symptoms had significant relations at the highest level in the hierarchy of cognitive abilities, but few relations of either characteristic were evident on the cognitive abilities, or on measures of working memory, after controlling influences at the g-factor level.
The aim of this study is to find out the levels of anxiety of 589 day- and night-class students in higher education in Macau two weeks before the final examination period. The Chinese version of the 40-item Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lusherier, 1970) was applied in this study. The two anxiety scales are…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA, is associated with pain-related anxiety. METHODS: One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20. Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. RESULTS: The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. CONCLUSION: Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.
Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija
Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.
Enoch, M.A.; Rohrbaugh, W.; Harris, C.R. [Washington School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others
We tested the hypothesis that a heritable EEG trait, the low voltage alpha (LV), is associated with psychiatric disorders. Modest to moderate evidence for genetic linkage of both panic disorder and the low voltage alpha trait to the same region of chromosome 20q has recently been reported, raising the issue of whether there is a phenotypic correlation between these traits. A total of 124 subjects including 50 unrelated index subjects and 74 relatives were studied. Alpha EEG power was measured and EEG phenotypes were impressionistically classified. Subjects were psychiatrically interviewed using the SADS-L and blind-rated by RDC criteria. Alcoholics were four times more likely to be LV (including so-called borderline low voltage alpha) than were nonalcoholic, nonanxious subjects. Alcoholics with anxiety disorder are 10 times more likely to be LV. However, alcoholics without anxiety disorder were similar to nonalcoholics in alpha power. An anxiety disorder (panic disorder, phobia, or generalized anxiety) was found in 14/17 LV subjects as compared to 34/101 of the rest of the sample (P < 0.01). Support for these observations was found in the unrelated index subjects in whom no traits would be shared by familial clustering. Lower alpha power in anxiety disorders was not state-dependent, as indicated by the Spielberger Anxiety Scale. Familial covariance of alpha power was 0.25 (P < 0.01). These findings indicate there may be a shared factor underlying the transmissible low voltage alpha EEG variant and vulnerability to anxiety disorders with associated alcoholism. This factor is apparently not rare, because LV was found in approximately 10% of unrelated index subjects and 5% of subjects free of alcoholism and anxiety disorders. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael
Attentional control theory (ACT) describes the mechanisms associated with the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performance. We investigated the relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort on phonological performance using a simple (forward-) and complex (backward-) word span task. Ninety undergraduate students participated in the study. Predictor variables were cognitive trait anxiety, indexed using questionnaire scores; situational stress, manipulated using ego threat instructions; and perceived level of mental effort, measured using a visual analogue scale. Criterion variables (a) performance effectiveness (accuracy) and (b) processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) were analyzed in separate multiple moderated-regression analyses. The results revealed (a) no relationship between the predictors and performance effectiveness, and (b) a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency for both the simple and complex tasks, such that at higher effort, trait anxiety and situational stress did not predict processing efficiency, whereas at lower effort, higher trait anxiety was associated with lower efficiency at high situational stress, but not at low situational stress. Our results were in full support of the assumptions of ACT and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS.
Correia, Diego; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Brunialti Godard, Ana Lúcia; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli
Anxiety has been proposed to play a role in the development of alcohol addiction, but the exact mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. The present study aimed to verify the relationship between basal anxiety levels, the anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol, and ethanol intake in mice exposed to an addiction model. In one experiment Swiss mice were characterized as high-anxiety (HA), medium-anxiety (MA), or non-anxiety (NA) in the elevated plus maze and then received saline or ethanol 2 g/kg acutely and chronically and were again exposed to the same test. NA mice decreased while MA mice maintained anxiety indices over the test days, regardless of treatment. HA ethanol-treated mice showed an anxiolytic-like effect, both acutely and chronically, while the saline-treated ones maintained their basal anxiety levels. In another experiment HA and MA mice were exposed to an addiction model based on a 3-bottle free-choice paradigm (ethanol 5% and 10%, and water) consisting of four phases: acquisition (10 weeks), withdrawal (W, 2 weeks), reexposure (2 weeks), and quinine-adulteration (2 weeks). HA and MA control mice had access only to water. Mice were characterized as addicted, heavy-drinker and light-drinker [Fachin-Scheit DJ, Ribeiro AF, Pigatto G, Goeldner FO, Boerngen-Lacerda R. Development of a mouse model of ethanol addiction: naltrexone efficacy in reducing consumption but not craving. J Neural Transm 2006;113:1305-21.]. No difference was observed between HA and MA mice in their preference for and intake of ethanol. No correlation was observed between ethanol intake, during any phase, and anxiety indices measured in the basal tests and during the W phase. The differences in anxiety indices between HA and MA groups persisted in the test performed during ethanol withdrawal, suggesting a "trait" anxiety profile. The data suggest that despite the fact that high anxiety trait levels are important for the anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol, they are not a determining
Hogan, Alexandra M; Butterfield, Elinor L; Phillips, Luke; Hadwin, Julie A
The behavioral inhibition system [Gray, J. A. The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982] proposes that anxiety is associated with the processing of novel stimuli. We aimed to explore this relationship by recording auditory event-related potentials associated with unexpected novel noises in typically developing children. Children aged 10-14 years with low (n = 12) and high (n = 11) self-report trait anxiety were assessed using a novelty oddball task. The N1 associated with novel stimuli, specifically the "N1c" component maximal at temporal lobe sites, was of significantly longer latency (p = .014) and greater amplitude (p = .004) in the high compared with the low anxious group. This group difference was supported by linear correlations between N1c amplitude and trait anxiety scores. There was no effect of anxiety on the later novelty P3. These data suggest a subtle moderating role of trait anxiety on brain response to novelty, and further research with clinically anxious children is indicated.
The Utility of Measures of Child and Adolescent Anxiety: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the State?Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and the Child Behavior Checklist
Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Langley, Audra K.; Baldacci, Heidi Bechtoldt
We evaluated the ability of the Revised Children?s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the State?Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to (a) discriminate between youth with an anxiety disorder and youth without a disorder, (b) discriminate between youth with an anxiety disorder and youth with either…
Waszczuk, Monika A; Zavos, Helena M S; Antonova, Elena; Haworth, Claire M; Plomin, Robert; Eley, Thalia C
Mindfulness-based therapies have been shown to be effective in treating depression and reducing cognitive biases. Anxiety sensitivity is one cognitive bias that may play a role in the association between mindfulness and depressive symptoms. It refers to an enhanced sensitivity toward symptoms of anxiety, with a belief that these are harmful. Currently, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning the association between mindfulness, depression, and anxiety sensitivity. The aim of this study was to examine the role of genetic and environmental factors in trait mindfulness, and its genetic and environmental overlap with depressive symptoms and anxiety sensitivity. Over 2,100 16-year-old twins from a population-based study rated their mindfulness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity. Twin modeling analyses revealed that mindfulness is 32% heritable and 66% due to nonshared environmental factors, with no significant influence of shared environment. Genetic influences explained over half of the moderate phenotypic associations between low mindfulness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity. About two-thirds of genetic influences and almost all nonshared environmental influences on mindfulness were independent of depression and anxiety sensitivity. This is the first study to show that both genes and environment play an important role in the etiology of mindfulness in adolescence. Future research should identify the specific environmental factors that influence trait mindfulness during development to inform targeted treatment and resilience interventions. Shared genetic liability underpinning the co-occurrence of low mindfulness, depression, and anxiety sensitivity suggests that the biological pathways shared between these traits should also be examined. © 2015 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McNeill, Ilona M; Dunlop, Patrick D; Skinner, Timothy C; Morrison, David L
Past research suggests that indecisiveness and trait anxiety may both decrease the likelihood of performing risk-mitigating preparatory behaviors (e.g., preparing for natural hazards) and suggests two cognitive processes (perceived control and worrying) as potential mediators. However, no single study to date has examined the influence of these traits and processes together. Examining them simultaneously is necessary to gain an integrated understanding of their relationship with risk-mitigating behaviors. We therefore examined these traits and mediators in relation to wildfire preparedness in a two-wave field study among residents of wildfire-prone areas in Western Australia (total N = 223). Structural equation modeling results showed that indecisiveness uniquely predicted preparedness, with higher indecisiveness predicting lower preparedness. This relationship was fully mediated by perceived control over wildfire-related outcomes. Trait anxiety did not uniquely predict preparedness or perceived control, but it did uniquely predict worry, with higher trait anxiety predicting more worrying. Also, worry trended toward uniquely predicting preparedness, albeit in an unpredicted positive direction. This shows how the lack of performing risk-mitigating behaviors can result from distinct cognitive processes that are linked to distinct personality traits. It also highlights how simultaneous examination of multiple pathways to behavior creates a fuller understanding of its antecedents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Blicher, Shira; Feingold, Liat; Shany, Michal
This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension (RC), trait anxiety, and preoccupation with reading disability (RD) in 88 school children in Grades 3 through 5 and in their mothers. Children's trait anxiety had a significant direct negative relationship with RC and also mediated the association between preoccupation with RD…
This study examines anxiety and level of alcohol consumption among college freshman and sophomore student's to determine if state and trait anxiety are significant factors in high risk alcohol consumption or binge drinking. The State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were administered to…
A rapetiants, M G; Shkol'nik, T K; Lushchekina, E A
The influence of social deprivation on the level of trait anxiety and stress was studied in the group of 85 teenagers at the age of 15-17 years. Teenagers brought up in socially adverse conditions reveal higher scores of trait anxiety and greater stress, both at the psychological and physiological levels.
Viaud-Delmon, I; Ivanenko, Y P; Berthoz, A; Jouvent, R
Twenty-four volunteers were recruited on the basis of their trait anxiety scores (low trait anxiety [LTA] and high trait anxiety [HTA]) as assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Adaptation to conflicting visual-vestibular stimulation (VVS) was used to study integration of space-related multi-sensory information in trait anxiety. First, vestibular perception was assessed by rotating the blindfolded subjects about the vertical axis (horizontal plane rotations) on a remote-controlled mobile robot. The subjects were asked to indicate the perceived rotation by use of an angular pointer. Subjects were then immersed into the center of a visual virtual square room by means of a head-mounted display. They were asked to control the robot with a joystick in order to perform 90 degrees rotations in the virtual room. However, a gain of 0.5 was introduced between visual scene and robot rotation so that the subjects were submitted to a conflict situation in which the 90 degrees rotational visual input was concurrent with a 180 degrees vestibular input. After 45 min of training with the virtual reality display, subjects were tested again in total darkness in order to determine whether their vestibular system had been reset by the conflicting visual signals. We found significant differences in adaptation to VVS between HTA and LTA groups as well as between males and females. Subjects of the HTA group demonstrated larger adaptation than that of the LTA group. Males also showed a greater level of adaptation compared to females. Our results suggest greater visual dependence in HTA subjects. This might be important for understanding the mechanisms underlying pathological anxiety and particularly agoraphobia.
Becker, Kendra R.; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A.; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V.; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Eddy, Kamryn T.
Objective Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the “big picture.” Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Method Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination—questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)—trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Results Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. Discussion In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). PMID:28963792
Becker, Kendra R; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T
Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the "big picture." Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cirpar, Ozden Ciftçi; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Yalçinkaya, Fulya; Arikan, Osman Kürşat; Oğuztürk, Omer; Aslan, Filiz
In this study, we evaluated the continuous and state anxiety levels of mothers with children with language delay. The study group consisted of the mothers of 18 children with language delay. The control group consisted of the mothers of 29 healthy children without language delay. To gain data about mothers, a personal information form and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) form were applied to determine continuous and state-trait anxiety levels. State anxiety levels in the study group were significantly higher (by Student t-test) than that of the control group. For continuous anxiety level, no statistically significant difference was determined between two groups. In the study group, higher education levels of mothers and their husbands were associated with lower levels of both continuous and state anxiety. In the majority of the group of mothers with language delayed children and even mothers of children with normal language development, there were high levels concern. Mothers' concerns and anxiety levels may decrease with increasing levels of their education levels. We recommend providing detailed information regarding language development to the families at all stages of the childs' training programme.
Comte, Magali; Cancel, Aïda; Coull, Jennifer T; Schön, Daniele; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Boukezzi, Sarah; Rousseau, Pierre-François; Robert, Gabriel; Khalfa, Stéphanie; Guedj, Eric; Blin, Olivier; Weinberger, Daniel R; Fakra, Eric
Converging evidence points to a link between anxiety proneness and altered emotional functioning, including threat-related biases in selective attention and higher susceptibility to emotionally ambiguous stimuli. However, during these complex emotional situations, it remains unclear how trait anxiety affects the engagement of the prefrontal emotional control system and particularly the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a core region at the intersection of the limbic and prefrontal systems. Using an emotional conflict task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated in healthy subjects the relations between trait anxiety and both regional activity and functional connectivity (psychophysiological interaction) of the ACC. Higher levels of anxiety were associated with stronger task-related activation in ACC but with reduced functional connectivity between ACC and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). These results support the hypothesis that when one is faced with emotionally incompatible information, anxiety leads to inefficient high-order control, characterized by insufficient ACC-LPFC functional coupling and increases, possibly compensatory, in activation of ACC. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of the neural circuitry underlying anxiety and may offer potential treatment markers for anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Al Qaisy, Lama M.; Thawabieh, Ahmad M.
This study aimed to investigate the type of personalities that students had and the relationship between personality type with future anxiety and students' achievement. The sample of the study consisted of 304 students from Tafila Technical University and Al-Hussien Bin Talal University. The researchers used the big five scale which was developed…
Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.
Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine how wheelchair basketball players’ self-esteem and motivation levels impact on their state and trait anxiety levels. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Sport Motivation Scale and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory were applied to the athletes before a competition. Data were collected from 124 athletes with disabilities. In this study, descriptive statistical techniques, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis (enter method were used. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-esteem, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, all of which function as predicting variables, predicted 42% variance in state anxiety and 50% variance in trait anxiety. Motivation and self-esteem are the best predictors of trait and state anxiety among the premier league wheelchair basketball players. Finally, a review of factors that impact on anxiety and quality of performance such as motivation and self-esteem is provided.
van der Bruggen, C.O.; Bögels, S.M.; Zeilst, N.
The relative contribution of child and parent trait anxiety on paternal and maternal controlling behaviour was examined. Thirty-seven children, aged 8-11 years, completed two difficult Tangram puzzles, one with their father and one with their mother. Videotapes of the parent-child interactions were
Maiz, Edurne; Balluerka, Nekane
Food problems in children and adolescents often have a detrimental effect on the emotional and psychological wellbeing of their parents. However, the impact of such problems on the psychological wellbeing of children and adolescents themselves has been less widely studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children and adolescents with food neophobia differed in trait anxiety and dimensions of self-concept from their neophilic and their average peers. A community sample of 831 participants (368 males and 463 females) between the ages of 8 and 16 were classified into six groups based on scores obtained on the Spanish Child Food Neophobia Scale (i.e., neophobic, average, and neophilic) and their age (i.e., children vs. adolescents). Compared with their neophilic peers, children with food neophobia showed higher levels of trait anxiety and a poorer social, physical, and academic self-concept. Among adolescents similar results were observed for trait anxiety and physical self-concept, but instead of social and academic self-concept it was family self-concept which distinguished between neophobic and neophilic participants. These results suggest that food neophobia is associated with trait anxiety and with some dimensions of self-concept. This highlights the need to ascertain the threshold between 'normal' and 'problematic' eating behaviors, since the fact that a behavior is to some extent usual does not imply that it is harmless. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.B.; Kooreman, T.; Hoogstraten, J.
Studied the relationship between verbal-cognitive and physiological measures of dental anxiety, coping styles, and personality traits among 53 undergraduate psychology students (aged 18-31 yrs). Data were collected during 2 separate sessions. The 1st (stress) session involved continuous and
Özdemir, Gökhan; Dalkiran, Esra
This study, with the aim of identifying the predictive power of the five-factor personality traits of music teacher candidates on individual instrument performance anxiety, was designed according to the relational screening model. The study population was students attending the Music Education branch of Fine Arts Education Departments in…
Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.
Background: The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts.
M. Eikelenboom; C. Licht; dr Barbara Stringer; A.T. Beekman; B.W. Penninx; A.J. Kerkhof; prof Berno van Meijel; B. Koekkoek
Background The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide
de Vries, Jolanda; van der Steeg, Alida F.; Roukema, Jan A.
The aim was to examine the role of trait anxiety and diagnosis on depressive symptoms and fatigue in women with early stage breast cancer or benign breast problems. A prospective follow-up study was performed in order to find predictors of depressive symptoms and fatigue. From the 169 participating
van Esch, Lotje; Roukema, Jan A.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.; de Vries, Jolanda
The objectives of this study were to examine the differences in health status (HS) of women with breast cancer (BC) at different moments in time, and between women scoring high and not high on trait anxiety, and to identify possible predictors of HS 6 and 12 months after surgery. Patients (N = 223)
Barnes, Laura L. B.; Harp, Diane; Jung, Woo Sik
Conducted a reliability generalization study for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C. Spielberger, 1983) by reviewing and classifying 816 research articles. Average reliability coefficients were acceptable for both internal consistency and test-retest reliability, but variation was present among the estimates. Other differences are discussed.…
Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Runguo; Broster, Lucas S.; Jiang, Y.; xu, Rui; Yang, Qiwei; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Yue-jia
According to previous literature, trait anxiety is related to the tendency to choose safety options during risk decision-making, that is, risk avoidance. In our opinion, anxious peoples risk preference might actually reflect their hypersensitivity to emotional information. To examine this
Turgeon, Lyse; Chartrand, Elise
Examined the psychometric properties of a French version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC; C. Spielberger and others, 1973), administered to 288 French Canadian children in intermediate grades. Findings show that the STAIC is psychometrically sound. (SLD)
Pallegama, R W; Ranasinghe, A W; Weerasinghe, V S; Sitheeque, M A M
This study tested the hypothesis that muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients with cervical muscle pain exhibit greater degree of psychological distress compared with patients without cervical muscle pain and controls. Thirty-eight muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients including 10 patients with cervical muscle pain and 41 healthy individuals as controls participated in the study. State and trait anxiety levels were assessed with the Spielberger's state and trait anxiety inventory. Personality traits (extroversion, neuroticism, psychoticism and social desirability) were assessed using the Eysenck's personality questionnaire, and the pain intensities described over the muscles were recorded using a 100 mm visual analogue scale. The muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients, in general, exhibited significantly higher degrees of neuroticism and trait anxiety. The patients with cervical muscle pain demonstrated a significantly higher level of psychoticism compared with the patients without cervical muscle pain and the controls and a significantly higher state anxiety level than the controls. They also demonstrated higher pain intensities in masseter and temporalis muscles compared with patients without cervical muscle pain. It has been suggested that either subjects with psychological distress are prone to temporomandibular disorders, or psychological distress is a manifestation of existing chronic pain conditions. The present findings demand further investigations and broader approach in management, as muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients with cervical muscle pain were both physically and psychologically compromised to a greater degree compared with patients without cervical muscle pain.
Mellanby, Jane; Zimdars, Anna
A questionnaire was administered to 1,929 applicants to Oxford University, including measures of trait anxiety, behavioural response to examinations and to breakdown in relationships. 635 of these applicants were admitted to the university and of these, 383 also responded to a questionnaire administered 4 years later, just before their final…
Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M M; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F
The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts. The Netherlands Study on Depression and Anxiety included 1838 respondents with lifetime depressive and/or anxiety disorders, of whom 309 reported at least one previous suicide attempt. A univariable negative binomial regression analysis was performed to examine the association between comorbid borderline personality traits and suicide attempts. Univariable and multivariable negative binomial regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for the number of recurrent suicide attempts in four clusters (type and severity of axis-I disorders, BPD traits, determinants of suicide attempts and socio-demographics). In the total sample the suicide attempt rate ratio increased with 33% for every unit increase in BPD traits. A lifetime diagnosis of dysthymia and comorbid BPD traits, especially the symptoms anger and fights, were independently and significantly associated with recurrent suicide attempts in the final model (n=309). The screening of personality disorders was added to the NESDA assessments at the 4-year follow-up for the first time. Therefore we were not able to examine the influence of comorbid BPD traits on suicide attempts over time. Persons with a lifetime diagnosis of dysthymia combined with borderline personality traits especially difficulties in coping with anger seemed to be at high risk for recurrent suicide attempts. For clinical practice, it is recommended to screen for comorbid borderline personality traits and to strengthen the patient's coping skills with regard to anger. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Whether trait anxiety is associated with a general impairment of cognitive control is a matter of debate. This study investigated whether and how experimentally manipulated working memory (WM load modulates the relation between trait anxiety and cognitive control. This question was investigated using a dual-task design in combination with event-related potentials. Participants were required to remember either one (low WM load or six letters (high WM load while performing a flanker task. Our results showed that a high WM load disrupted participants' ability to overcome distractor interference and this effect was exacerbated for the high trait-anxious (HTA group. This exacerbation was reflected by larger interference effects (i.e., incongruent minus congruent on reaction times (RTs and N2 amplitudes for the HTA group than for the low trait-anxious group under high WM load. The two groups, however, did not differ in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant distractors under low WM load, as indicated by both RTs and N2 amplitudes. These findings underscore the significance of WM-related cognitive demand in contributing to the presence (or absence of a general cognitive control deficit in trait anxiety. Furthermore, our findings show that when limited WM resources are depleted by high WM load, HTA individuals exhibit less efficient recruitments of cognitive control required for the inhibition of distractors, therefore resulting in a greater degree of response conflict.
Full Text Available Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety.Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV] were collected.Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI.Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors.
Shehata, Ghaydaa A; El Mistikawi, Taha; Risha, Al Sayed K; Hassan, Huda S
Post-stroke patients with aphasia have higher levels of psychological distress. We aimed to find the relation between post-stroke aphasia and depression, anxiety and personality traits. One month after stroke, 61 consecutive patients with stroke were included in this study. Thirty post-stroke patients with aphasia and 31 patients without aphasia. We used the following scales a clinical-friendly: Aphasic test, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Hamilton anxiety and Beck Depression Inventory. Depression and anxiety were more prominent among patients with aphasia than stroke without aphasia. Psychosis was more prominent among post-stroke patients with aphasia. Our results may not exclusively exclude pre-morbid personality traits. Our study highlights the growing need to develop community rehabilitation services in the developing world, which address both physical and psychological morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Steven M Gillespie
Full Text Available Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1 and violent offenders (Study 2. In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs.
Gillespie, Steven M.; Mitchell, Ian J.; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R.; Rotshtein, Pia
Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1) and violent offenders (Study 2). In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs. PMID:26569411
Rezaei, Fatemeh; Hosseini Ramaghani, Nasrin Alsadat; Fazio, Rachel L
Studies have reported that the presence of a third party observer (TPO) during neuropsychological assessments negatively affects the test performance of the examinee. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a TPO and trait anxiety on neuropsychological performance according to Attentional Control Theory (ACT). A sample of college students was recruited (n = 318) and then 80 participants were selected to represent the high and low trait anxiety groups. Participants of each of group were randomly assigned to either the NTPO (non-TPO) or TPO conditions. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait measure (STAI-T), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-64), Stroop test, and Rating Scale for Mental Effort (RSME) were administered to both groups. To analyze the data, univariate ANOVAs were conducted. The results indicated that under the conditions without a TPO the group with high trait anxiety had poorer processing efficiency, but under the conditions with a TPO they had poorer processing efficiency and poorer performance effectiveness than the group with low trait anxiety. In addition, the group with low trait anxiety showed poorer processing efficiency in the TPO compared to non-TPO condition. These findings provide support for the hypotheses of ACT regarding the relation between observer presence and poorer performance on neuropsychological tests, with individuals with higher trait anxiety showing greater negative effects. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Kapsdorfer, D; Hlavacova, N; Vondrova, D; Argalasova, L; Sevcikova, L; Jezova, Daniela
At the time of school-age, the most frequent stress stimuli are related to school environment and educational process. Anxiety may play a big role in coping with stressful situations associated with school load. To approach this issue, we performed a real-life study at school during the classwork. The sample consisted of 36 healthy children aged 10 years, which were divided to low and high trait anxiety group based on the median value of the anxiety score. The investigations were carried out in the classroom during a stress condition (final exams) and non-stress condition (without any exam). In the whole sample, the condition with exam was associated with higher cortisol and lower testosterone concentrations in saliva compared to the condition without exam. The activity of salivary alpha-amylase increased at the end of the exam. Anxious children showed higher concentrations of aldosterone and lower activity of alpha-amylase compared to children with low trait anxiety. Cortisol levels were higher in anxious children in the first morning samples before starting the lessons. Children with high and low trait anxiety did not differ in extraversion, neuroticism, as well as non-verbal intelligence and school success. Thus, the anxious children at school showed a more rapid decrease of anticipatory stress-induced cortisol concentrations, higher aldosterone levels, and lower alpha-amylase activities compared to non-anxious children. These changes, particularly high concentrations of aldosterone in children with high trait anxiety, may have an impact on their psychophysiological development.
Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Dohanich, Gary P
Rodents learn to navigate mazes using various strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. The type of strategy used when learning to navigate a spatial environment is moderated by a number of factors including emotional states. Heightened anxiety states, induced by exposure to stressors or administration of anxiogenic agents, have been found to bias male rats toward the use of a striatum-based stimulus-response strategy rather than a hippocampus-based place strategy. However, no study has yet examined the relationship between natural anxiety levels, or trait anxiety, and the type of learning strategy used by rats on a dual-solution task. In the current experiment, levels of inherent anxiety were measured in an open field and compared to performance on two separate cognitive tasks, a Y-maze task that assessed place recognition memory, and a visible platform water maze task that assessed learning strategy. Results indicated that place recognition memory on the Y-maze correlated with the use of place learning strategy on the water maze. Furthermore, lower levels of trait anxiety correlated positively with better place recognition memory and with the preferred use of place learning strategy. Therefore, competency in place memory and bias in place strategy are linked to the levels of inherent anxiety in male rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Levy, Jacob J; Lounsbury, John W
To examine the Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction. Data were collected from 278 instrumentalists (i.e., brass players and percussionists) and color guard performers (e.g., dancers) representing six world class drum and bugle corps. PARTICIPANTS completed three measures: the Adolescent Personal Style Inventory was used to measure the Big Five personality factors: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness; the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire - used to assess somatic and cognitive symptoms of performance anxiety; and the Marching Arts Satisfaction - used to assess for the physical, social, and contextual environments of drum and bugle corps. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed concurrent relationships between the Big Five and performance anxiety with satisfaction. A linear combination of the Big Five traits and Performance Anxiety accounted for 36% of the total variance in satisfaction, with Extraversion, Emotional Stability, and Performance Anxiety contributing significant unique variance. The findings of the present study suggest that performers who are extraverted, conscientious, and effective at managing general stress - and performance stress in particular - find a greater sense of satisfaction with their participation in world class drum and bugle corps.
Babić, Dragan; Sinanović, Osman
To analyze the kind and the representation of psychic disorders in former prisoners of war and war veterans who were not detained in camps. The analyzed sample consisted of 160 respondents divided into two groups. A group of 100 former prisoners of war and a group of 60 war veterans who had not been detained in camps. All the respondents are males and were psychically in healthy condition prior to the war. The modified Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to diagnose traumatic experience, and a questionnaire according to the DSM IV criteria was used to diagnose posttraumatic stress disorder. The Depressiveness Scale D-92 was used to diagnose depressiveness; the questionnaire STAI was used to diagnose anxiety; CAGE Questionnaire was used to diagnose alcoholism. The former prisoners of war had traumatic experience at a higher level as compared to the war veterans who had not been detained in camps (P disorder was diagnosed in 52% of camp inmates and 31.7% of war veterans (P psychic disorders (PTSD and depressiveness) in the former prisoners of war as compared to the war veterans.
Nager, Alan L; Mahrer, Nicole E; Gold, Jeffrey I
To determine the relationship between stress indicators and state anxiety among pediatric emergency department (ED) patients, as a background to develop appropriate psychoeducational and behavioral interventions. Patients with nonchronic conditions aged 10 to 18 years completed questionnaires assessing demographics; (8) life stressors (LSs), such as death in family and marital separation/divorce; (10) anticipatory stressors (ASs) such as fear of needles, blood, or undressing; and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (a 20-item validated tool). One hundred patients completed the study: the mean age was 13.3 years; 56% were female; and 90% were Latino patients. Notable life stressors (mean, 1.83) included: change in school location (24%), change in school performance (29%), death in family (33%), and marital separation/divorce (48%). Common AS (mean, 4.76) included worry about shots (33%), strangers (41%), talking about personal problems (44%), separation from parents (51%), undressing (56%), hospitalization (57%), and pain (73%). Significant correlations were found between age and state anxiety (r, -0.21; P anxiety (r, 0.20; P anxiety (36%) were more likely to be in the ED with a complaint of pain and/or trauma, had significantly more AS (t, 2.1; P anxiety. The ED experience produces fear/anxiety, particularly in younger patients with a chief complaint of pain and/or trauma. Findings may lead to the development of psychoeducational and behavioral interventions that focus on anxiety reduction.
Sun, Yanli; Shao, Ting; Yao, Yuyou; Tao, Huihui; Ni, Lingling; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao
To analyze the associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and the prevalence of subthreshold autism trait (SAT) in preschool children. Baseline data came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). All the participants were enrolled among pregnant women who received prenatal health care in 4 municipal medical centers during Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2010. A total of 5 084 pregnant women were recruited at the beginning and 4 669 singleton live births were included until childbirth. The situation about pregnancy-specific anxiety during trimester and third trimester of women were evaluated by Pregnancy-specific Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ). Between April 2014 and April 2015, the cohort was followed up again, and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABRS) filled out by parents was used for telling the SAT children from the healthy children among 3 663 preschool children. Univariate and binary regression model was used to estimate associations between the pregnancy-related anxiety during trimester and third trimester and the subthreshold autism trait in children. During the pregnancy, the detected rates of women with pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester and the third trimester were 25.5%(935/3 663), 13.9%(501/3 592) respectively, and the detected rate of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods was 7.7%(278/3 592). There were 290 positive children with SAT and the detection rate was 7.9%. After controlling possible confounding factors including children's genders, place of residence, supplement folic acid during pregnancy, preterm birth, exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, the father (mother) cultural levels, the father (mother) nature of work and family income, the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester was the risk factor for SAT in preschool children (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.04), and there was no association between maternal
Howlett, Jonathon R; Paulus, Martin P
Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making. Another aspect of decision-making that may vary between individuals is the sensitivity of subjective utility to counterfactual outcomes (outcomes that could have occurred, but did not). We investigated decision-making in relation to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety, two traits that relate to psychiatric conditions but also vary in the general population. Subjects performed a decision-making task, in which they chose between low- and high-risk gambles to win 0, 20, or 40 points on each trial. Subjects then rated satisfaction after each outcome on a visual analog scale, indicating subjective utility. Hedonic capacity was positively associated with the subjective utility of winning 20 points but was not associated with the concavity of the subjective utility curve (constructed using the mean subjective utility of winning 0, 20, or 40 points). Consistent with economic theory, concavity of the subjective utility curve was associated with risk aversion. Hedonic capacity was independently associated with risk seeking (i.e., not mediated by the shape of the subjective utility curve), while trait anxiety was unrelated to risk preferences. Contrary to our expectations, counterfactual sensitivity was unrelated to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety. Nevertheless, trait anxiety was associated with a self-report measure of regret-proneness, suggesting that counterfactual influences may occur via a pathway that is separate
Jonathon R. Howlett
Full Text Available Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making. Another aspect of decision-making that may vary between individuals is the sensitivity of subjective utility to counterfactual outcomes (outcomes that could have occurred, but did not. We investigated decision-making in relation to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety, two traits that relate to psychiatric conditions but also vary in the general population. Subjects performed a decision-making task, in which they chose between low- and high-risk gambles to win 0, 20, or 40 points on each trial. Subjects then rated satisfaction after each outcome on a visual analog scale, indicating subjective utility. Hedonic capacity was positively associated with the subjective utility of winning 20 points but was not associated with the concavity of the subjective utility curve (constructed using the mean subjective utility of winning 0, 20, or 40 points. Consistent with economic theory, concavity of the subjective utility curve was associated with risk aversion. Hedonic capacity was independently associated with risk seeking (i.e., not mediated by the shape of the subjective utility curve, while trait anxiety was unrelated to risk preferences. Contrary to our expectations, counterfactual sensitivity was unrelated to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety. Nevertheless, trait anxiety was associated with a self-report measure of regret-proneness, suggesting that counterfactual influences may occur via a pathway
Vujičić Milena M.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of personality traits, as defined by the Big five model of personality in expressing depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years. The research was conducted on a sample of 977 secondary school students in the third and fourth grade from ten secondary schools in Niš. The gender structure of the sample was as follows: 397 boys and 607 girls. The following instruments were used in the research: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995, Big Five Inventory - BFI (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991. The results showed that the regression model constructed by personal traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience explain 26% of the criterion variable of Anxiety. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β=.34, p<0.01 . Other personal traits that contribute to the prediction of this variable at a statistically significant level are Extraversion (β =-.17, p<0.01, Agreeableness (β =-.14, p<0.01 and Conscientiousness (β =-.17, p<0.01. The same model explains 37% of the criterion variable Stress. The largest individual contribution to Stress prediction is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.57, p<0.01. The same model explains 27% of the criterion variable Anxiety as well. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.45, p<0.01, whereas a statistically significant correlation between personal traits Agreeableness (β =-.06, p<0.05 and Conscientious (β =-.12, p<0.01 exists. Results show that the difference between boys and girls in expressing Anxiety (t=-2.96, p<0.01 and Stress (t=-5.01, p<0.01 exists. These emotional states are more expressive with girls. However, there are no differences in expressing Depression
Savage, Jeanne E; Sawyers, Chelsea; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Hettema, John M
NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) domain of negative valence systems (NVS) captures constructs of negative affect such as fear and distress traditionally subsumed under the various internalizing disorders. Through its aims to capture dimensional measures that cut across diagnostic categories and are linked to underlying neurobiological systems, a large number of phenotypic constructs have been proposed as potential research targets. Since "genes" represent a central "unit of analysis" in the RDoC matrix, it is important for studies going forward to apply what is known about the genetics of these phenotypes as well as fill in the gaps of existing knowledge. This article reviews the extant genetic epidemiological data (twin studies, heritability) and molecular genetic association findings for a broad range of putative NVS phenotypic measures. We find that scant genetic epidemiological data is available for experimentally derived measures such as attentional bias, peripheral physiology, or brain-based measures of threat response. The molecular genetic basis of NVS phenotypes is in its infancy, since most studies have focused on a small number of candidate genes selected for putative association to anxiety disorders (ADs). Thus, more research is required to provide a firm understanding of the genetic aspects of anxiety-related NVS constructs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Becker, Stephen P; Shamsi, Mahin; Shakouri, Zeinab; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. A total of 341 adults (M=29years) completed a series of questionnaires related to the DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. A higher DT total score was associated with increased sleep disturbances, and higher scores for anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. In regression analyses Machiavellianism and psychopathy were predictors of sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Results indicate that specific DT traits, namely Machiavellianism and psychopathy, are associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Numerous studies have documented a significant association between symptom severity and cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder (BD). These findings advanced speculations about a potential link between the physiological stress associated with illness severity and cognitive dysfunction. To explore this hypothesis, the current study employed heart rate variability (HRV) as a physiological measure that is sensitive to the effects of chronic stress, and a scale of trait anxiety for assessing a psychological condition that is correlated with hyper sympathetic arousal. Analyses indicated that BD patients with High Illness Severity reported more symptoms of trait-anxiety (i.e., State Trait Anxiety Inventory), performed more poorly on a computerized neuropsychological battery (i.e., CNS Vital Signs), and exhibited a more constricted HRV profile (i.e., lower SDNN with elevated LF/HF ratio) than patients with Low Illness Severity. Illness severity was determined by a history of psychosis, illness duration, and number of mood episodes. A third group of healthy controls (n=22) performed better on the neuropsychological battery and exhibited a healthier HRV profile than the BD groups. This study provides preliminary evidence that illness severity and cognitive impairment in BD may be associated with state anxiety and neuro-cardiac alterations that are sensitive to physiological stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Natural Stress Relief meditation, a mental technique which is practiced for 15 minutes twice a day, aims to reduce stress and anxiety by eliciting a specific state of physiological rest along with mental alertness. The meditation is taught in a self-administered program, requiring one hour of training during the first three days, followed by the regular twice daily practice. Each 15-min. session consists in sitting quietly with closed eyes while applying a specific mental procedure. To test the effectiveness of meditation in reducing trait anxiety, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered to 25 participants four times over a 3-wk. period: one week before starting to practice the meditation, a few hours before starting, 1 wk. after, and 2 wk. after. The difference in Trait Anxiety score between pretreatment and before starting the practice was not significant, while it was significant both after the first week of practice (Cohen d=.46) and after the first 2 wk. of practice (d=.67).
de Vries, J.; van Heck, G.L.
The objective of the current study was to develop a short form of the Dutch version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Trait scale and to provide initial validation data in a sample of breast cancer patients and survivors. This short trait anxiety (A-Trait) scale was designed to reduce time
Hudson W. de Carvalho
Full Text Available Background: Dimensional models of psychopathology demonstrate that two correlated factors of fear and distress account for the covariation among depressive and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, these models tend to exclude variables relevant to psychopathology, such as temperament traits. This study examined the joint structure of DSM-IV-based major depression and anxiety disorders along with trait negative affect in a representative sample of adult individuals residing in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 3,728 individuals who were administered sections D (phobic, anxiety and panic disorders and E (depressive disorders of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and a validated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Data were analyzed using correlational and structural equation modeling. Results: Lifetime prevalence ranged from 2.4% for panic disorder to 23.2% for major depression. Most target variables were moderately correlated. A two-factor model specifying correlated fear and distress factors was retained and confirmed for models including only diagnostic variables and diagnostic variables along with trait negative affect. Conclusions: This study provides support for characterization of internalizing psychopathology and trait negative affect in terms of correlated dimensions of distress and fear. These results have potential implications for psychiatric taxonomy and for understanding the relationship between temperament and psychopathology.
Cioffi, Iacopo; Michelotti, Ambrosina; Perrotta, Stefania; Chiodini, Paolo; Ohrbach, Richard
The perception of pain varies considerably across individuals and is affected by psychological traits. This study aimed to investigate the combined effects of somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety on orthodontic pain. Five-hundred and five adults completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS). Individuals with combined STAI and SSAS scores below the 20th percentile (LASA group: five men and 12 women; mean age ± SD = 22.4 ± 1.3 yr) or above the 80th percentile (HASA group: 13 men and seven women; mean age ± SD = 23.7 ± 1.0 yr) were selected and filled in the Oral Behaviors Checklist (OBC). Orthodontic separators were placed for 5 d in order to induce experimental pain. Visual analog scales (VAS) were administered to collect ratings for occlusal discomfort, pain, and perceived stress. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured. A mixed regression model was used to evaluate pain and discomfort ratings over the 5-d duration of the study. At baseline, the LASA group had statistically significantly higher PPT values for the masseter muscle than did the HASA group. During the experimental procedure, the HASA group had statistically significantly higher discomfort and pain. A significant difference in pain ratings during the 5 d of the study was found for subjects in the HASA group. Higher OBC values were statistically significantly positively associated with pain. Somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety substantially affect experimentally induced orthodontic pain. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.
Full Text Available Recent studies suggested to approach to the analysis of the emotions and cognition from an integrating point of view rather than investigate the two constructs per se. In line with this research approach, the present study aims to investigate how emotions can affect memory processes and which cerebral areas are involved in this mechanism. We also aim to understand if and how this processing is influenced by specific personality traits, as anxiety trait. Using a rTMS measure, participants were asked to performance a memory task (a retrieval task composed by verbal material with and without emotional content. Subjects were also assessed for their anxiety trait (high and low anxiety subjects. Our study provided a strong evidence for the influence of the emotional content and personality trait on the memory processes. Secondly, the role of the Left Dorso-Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in emotional memory was pointed out with a specific function of this frontal network in managing the emotional memories.
Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Pawan; Khushu, Subash
Trait anxiety, a personality dimension, has been characterized by functional consequences such as increased distractibility, attentional bias in favor of threat-related information and hyper-responsive amygdala. However, literature on the association between resting state brain functional connectivity, as studied using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and reported anxiety levels in the sub-clinical population is limited. In the present study, we employed rs-fMRI to investigate the possible alterations in the functional integrity of Resting State Networks (RSNs) associated with trait anxiety of the healthy subjects (15 high anxious and 14 low anxious). The rs-fMRI data was analyzed using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach that was applied on 12 RSNs that were identified using FSL. High anxious subjects showed significantly reduced functional connectivity in regions of the default mode network (posterior cingulate gyrus, middle and superior temporal gyrus, planum polare, supramarginal gyrus, temporal pole, angular gyrus and lateral occipital gyrus) which has been suggested to be involved in episodic memory, theory of mind, self-evaluation, and introspection, and perceptual systems including medial visual network, auditory network and another network involving temporal, parieto-occipital and frontal regions. Reduction in resting state connectivity in regions of the perceptual networks might underlie the perceptual, attentional and working memory deficits associated with trait anxiety. To our knowledge, this is the first study to relate trait anxiety to resting state connectivity using independent component analysis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
McClure, Margaret M; Parmenter, Megan
The current study investigates the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood trauma, trait anxiety, depression, and anxious attachment in college students. Ninety-three male and 161 female undergraduate students at Fairfield University, ranging in age from 17 to 23, with a mean age of 18.8 years, participated. Participants completed five self-report inventories: The Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Adult Attachment Scale (AAS). IPV perpetration in college dating relationships was related to childhood emotional and physical abuse, emotional and physical neglect, and trait anxiety. IPV victimization in college dating relationships was related to childhood emotional and physical abuse, childhood emotional and physical neglect, and an anxious attachment style. IPV perpetration and victimization were also significantly correlated with one another. Subscale analyses suggest that childhood emotional abuse was related to being both the perpetrator and victim of verbal or emotional abuse in dating relationships. Childhood physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were related to both perpetration and victimization of physical IPV. Threatening behavior perpetration in dating relationships was related to childhood emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, and physical neglect; however, being the victim of threatening behavior was only related to childhood emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect, not childhood physical abuse. These results support the relationship between childhood trauma and dating violence in college students. They also support a role for anxiety in IPV, although trait anxiety was related to perpetration and an anxious attachment style was correlated with IPV victimization. In addition, they suggest that different experiences of childhood
Prevention aims to avoid the occurrence of psychiatric illness and disability caused by psychic disorders. The relevant interventions refer to the individual, the family context and other environmental factors. Universal and primary prevention target the entire population or a part of this (i. e. students). Secondary and selective intervention should prevent the manifestation of psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals (i. e. children with behavioral problems). Tertiary measures aim at preventing the worsening or recurrence of symptoms in individuals who already suffer from mental illness. Within the past 25 years protective and risk factors that reduce or increase the probability of occurrence of mental disorders have increasingly been identified. This results in improved prevention. The present article gives an overview of preventive measures against the most common mental disorders in the light of the current evidence base. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Weigold, Ingrid K; Robitschek, Christine
Anxiety and its disorders, often present before adulthood, have high personal and societal costs for men and women. This study tested a mediation model in which 3 forms of coping mediate the relation of 3 agentic personality characteristics (i.e., traits associated with the belief that people can effectively exercise control over their lives) to lower levels of anxiety within 1 subgroup of young adults (i.e., college students). The agentic personality characteristics were (a) hardiness, (b) personal growth initiative, and (c) coping self-efficacy. The forms of dispositional coping were (a) problem-focused, (b) emotion-focused, and (c) avoidant. Results suggest that agentic personality characteristics differentially relate to forms of coping and trait anxiety. In addition, coping appears to fully mediate the relations of the personality characteristics to anxiety. The results imply that agentic personality characteristics and coping are important in decreasing and/or protecting against anxiety, in part because of how they relate to forms of coping, and suggest the need for more research. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Strumila, Robertas; Lengvenytė, Aistė; Vainutienė, Vija; Lesinskas, Eugenijus
Psychological factors have been described as important for tinnitus severity, but attempts to incorporate them in one picture are sparse. This study investigated to what extent traits (personality), states (depressive and anxiety symptoms), sociodemographic factors and questioning environment influence tinnitus severity perception and how they interplay. Data were obtained from 212 subjects in a survey that was undertaken in 2016 at Vilnius University hospital and via internet. Measures included the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Big Five Personality Dimensions Scale and sociodemographic questions. A series of stepwise forward and multiple regression analyses were undertaken to discover how factors interconnect. Female gender, age, living in rural area, but not level of education, were found to be associated with THI and HADS. Total HADS score and of both subscales were linked to scores on THI, VAS scales and all personality traits, except agreeableness (and consciousness for anxiety). Anxiety was the most important predictor for tinnitus severity, followed by depressive symptoms. Only neuroticism from personality dimensions was a predictor of THI score, whereas THI scores did not predict scores on neuroticism. All results in scales were higher in the internet group, except agreeableness and neuroticism, while extroversion correlated negatively with THI score only in the hospital group. Tinnitus severity was highly correlated with depressive, anxiety symptoms and neuroticism. Respondents recruited through internet had higher scores on most parameters. Results emphasize the importance of psychological factors in tinnitus management.
Westerback, M. E.; Long, M. J.
Modified Form Y of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to create a 40-item self-reporting instrument using Likert scales. Test group was 39 in-service elementary school teachers; no control group. Course emphasized concepts and questions. Initial anxiety improved and gains were made in achievement of concepts.
Settipani, Cara A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Conner, Bradley T.; Kendall, Philip C.
There is limited information about the nature of anxiety among youth with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined (a) differences in the clinical characteristics of anxious youth with and without symptoms of ASD and (b) the symptoms of anxiety that best distinguish between these groups. Results indicated that anxious youth with elevated ASD symptoms had significantly more diagnoses (e.g., specific phobias), and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for social phobia (and list social concerns among their top fears) than youth without elevated ASD symptoms. At the symptom level, severity of interpersonal worry based on parent report and severity of fear of medical (doctor/dentist) visits based on youth report best differentiated ASD status. The findings inform diagnostic evaluations, case conceptualization, and treatment planning for youth with anxiety disorders and ASD symptoms. PMID:22366448
Castillo, M. I.; Cooke, M. L.; Macfarlane, B.; Aitken, L. M.
Objective: \\ud To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness and symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge in survivors of intensive care treatment. \\ud \\ud Design: \\ud Longitudinal study. \\ud \\ud Setting: \\ud One closed mixed ICU in an adult tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. \\ud \\ud Patients: \\ud Participants (n = 141) were adults (≥ 8 yr), admitted to ICU for at least 24 hours, able to communicate either verbally or nonverbally, unde...
Konishi, Yoshiaki; Tanii, Hisashi; Otowa, Takeshi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Okada, Motohiro; Okazaki, Yuji
Recent studies indicate that early-onset panic disorder (PD) may show distinct clinical characteristics. The authors compared patients with early-onset PD, patients with late-onset PD, and healthy control subjects in terms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the Val66Met polymorphism, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. In patients with early-onset PD, the STAI-T score was high in the Met/Met group, whereas the STAI-T score of the Val/Val group tended to be higher for healthy control subjects. The conflicting effect of the BDNF genotype between patients with early-onset PD and healthy control subjects suggests that the BDNF Met/Met genotype may increase trait anxiety in early-onset PD.
de Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Mendon?a-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Ant?nio Fernando Ara?jo; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes de; Silva Freire Coutinho, Evandro; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan,Eliane
Background Both exaggerated and diminished reactivity to stress can be maladaptive. Previous studies have shown that performing increasingly difficult tasks leads first to increased reactivity and then to a blunted response when success is impossible. Our aim was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on cardiac and cortisol response to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in a homogeneous sample of healthy peacekeepers. We hypothesized t...
Alekseev, A V; Shmilovich, A A
Seventy-four patients with schizoaffective disorder caused by psychic trauma (a basic group) and 51 patients with spontaneous manifestation of this disorder (a comparison group) have been studied. The prevalence of personality traits of inhibited spectrum with predisposition to affective disorders and psychogenic reactions were observed in the patients of the basic group. Situations of emotional deprivation were the most frequent content of mental stress. The psychic trauma exerts a provoking, pathoplastic and pathokinetic effect in schizoaffective disorder. Three variants of the course of schizoaffective disorder after emotional stress have been singled out: with psychogenic neurotic manifestation, with psychogenic psychotic manifestation (psychogenic reactive depression type) and with endogenous manifestation.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Body image dissatisfaction has recently been described as 'normative' for both men and women. Despite intense theoretical interest in a multidimensional concept of male body image, comprehensive models have rarely been assessed empirically. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between body image and self-esteem among men in a multivariate model. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional questionnaire study were 239 male university students (mean age: 20.3 years, SD=2.78 years, range: 18-39 years. Measures: self-reported anthropometric data, weightlifting activity, importance of appearance, perceived weight status, satisfaction with body height, Body Shape Questionnaire - Short form, Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: Structural equation modeling showed that after controlling for age, BMI, weightlifting activity, the importance of appearance, and trait anxiety, only muscle dissatisfaction predicted lower self-esteem (β=-0.11, p=0.033. Neither height dissatisfaction nor weight dissatisfaction showed significant association with selfesteem. Muscle dissatisfaction partially mediated the relationship between trait anxiety and self-esteem (β=-0.04, p=0.049, R2=0.05. The model explained 50.4% of the variance in selfesteem. Conclusions: The results emphasize that trait anxiety might be a background variable in the relationship between males' body dissatisfaction and self-esteem, which should be considered in future studies and in the course of therapy.
Muller, Cécile; Cameron, Linda D
Decisions to undergo invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures can be anxiety provoking. Individuals receive information about these procedures in one of three modalities: written text, audio (verbal description), or video. We examined whether modality influences emotional responses and testing decisions, and whether trait anxiety, a disposition linked with heightened sensitivity to threatening information, moderates these effects. New Zealand adults (N = 176) completed a trait anxiety measure before random allocation to view a text, audio, or video message about amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. Participants completed measures of child related worry, anticipated emotional distress, anticipated coping efficacy, perceived likelihood of miscarriage, and testing interest. High-anxious individuals reported greater distress and lower coping efficacy in response to the video message compared to the audio message. They also reported greater miscarriage likelihood in response to the video message compared to the text message. These findings suggest that use of video, assumed to be most informative for educating patients, could induce greater distress about prenatal testing in individuals prone to anxiety.
Simone B Sartori
Full Text Available The propensity to develop an anxiety disorder is thought to be determined by genetic and environmental factors. Here we investigated the relationship between a genetic predisposition to trait anxiety and experience-based learned fear in a psychopathological mouse model. Male CD-1 mice selectively bred for either high (HAB, or normal (NAB anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze were subjected to classical fear conditioning. During conditioning both mouse lines showed increased fear responses as assessed by freezing behaviour. However, 24 h later, HAB mice displayed more pronounced conditioned responses to both a contextual or cued stimulus when compared with NAB mice. Interestingly, 6 h and already 1 h after fear conditioning, freezing levels were high in HAB mice but not in NAB mice. These results suggest that trait anxiety determines stronger fear memory and/or a weaker ability to inhibit fear responses in the HAB line. The enhanced fear response of HAB mice was attenuated by treatment with either the α(2,3,5-subunit selective benzodiazepine partial agonist L-838,417, corticosterone or the selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L-822,429. Overall, the HAB mouse line may represent an interesting model (i for identifying biological factors underlying misguided conditioned fear responses and (ii for studying novel anxiolytic pharmacotherapies for patients with fear-associated disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias.
Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P
Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Berggren, Nick; Derakshan, Nazanin
Attentional Control Theory (ACT; Eysenck et al., 2007; Derakshan and Eysenck, 2009) posits that trait anxiety interferes with the inhibition, shifting and updating processes of working memory. Consequently, high anxious individuals are predicted to perform worse on cognitively demanding tasks requiring efficient cognitive processing. Whilst a growing number of studies have provided support for this view, the possible underlying mechanisms of this deficiency are far less understood. In particular, there is conflicting neuroscientific evidence with some work showing associations between anxiety and increased neural activity over frontal areas, while others report reduced activity. We review recent evidence that has helped elucidate the cognitive hallmarks of trait anxiety, and suggest how previous discrepancies can be accommodated within ACT's prediction that reduced cognitive efficiency may be ameliorated by strategies such as compensatory effort. Finally, we discuss if ACT's distinction on efficiency and effectiveness can be applied to threat-related processing, often shown to additively override attentional control in anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety in a Japanese youth population. Method. Japanese university students were solicited for participation in a two-wave study, with assessments performed at Time 1 (T1 and Time 2 (T2, separated by a five-month interval. A total of 184 students completed the Japanese version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI at T1 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS at T1 and T2. We posited two latent variables, trait depression and anxiety, composed of the T1 and T2 HADS depression and anxiety scores, respectively. We also posited that temperament domain traits would predict character domain traits, and that all the personality traits would be linked to trait depression and anxiety and also predict T2 depression and anxiety. Results. Structural regression modeling showed that (1 only high Novelty Seeking predicted T2 Anxiety score, (2 trait depression and anxiety were linked to high harm avoidance and low self-directedness, and (3 trait depression was linked to high self-transcendence whereas trait anxiety was linked to low reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness. Conclusion. The characteristic associations between TCI subscales and depression and anxiety were limited to the trait rather than state aspects of depression and anxiety.
The purpose of the study was to examine how wheelchair basketball players’ self-esteem and motivation levels impact on their state and trait anxiety levels. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Sport Motivation Scale and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory) were applied to the athletes before a competition. Data were collected from 124 athletes with disabilities. In this study, descriptive statistical techniques, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis (enter met...
Full Text Available Intolerance of uncertainty (IU is the tendency to interpret ambiguous situations as threatening and having negative consequences, resulting in feelings of distress and anxiety. IU has been linked to a number of anxiety disorders, and anxiety felt in the face of uncertainty may result in maladaptive behaviors such as impulsive decision making. Although there is strong evidence that anxiety and impulsivity are risk factors for addiction, there is a paucity of research examining the role of IU in this disorder. The rate of opioid addiction, in particular, has been rising steadily in recent years, which necessitates deeper understanding of risk factors in order to develop effective prevention and treatment methods. The current study tested for the first time whether opioid-dependent adults are less tolerant of uncertainty compared to a healthy comparison group. Opioid dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (n = 114 and healthy comparisons (n = 69 completed the following scales: Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Analysis revealed that these measures were positively correlated with each other and that opioid-dependent patients had significantly higher IU scores. Regression analysis revealed that anxiety mediated the relationship between IU and impulsivity. Hierarchical moderation regression found an interaction between addiction status and impulsivity on IU scores in that the relationship between these variables was only observed in the patient group. Findings suggest that IU is a feature of addiction but does not necessarily play a unique role. Further research is needed to explore the complex relationship between traits and how they may contribute to the development and maintenance of addiction.
Garami, Julia; Haber, Paul; Myers, Catherine E; Allen, Michael T; Misiak, Blazej; Frydecka, Dorota; Moustafa, Ahmed A
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to interpret ambiguous situations as threatening and having negative consequences, resulting in feelings of distress and anxiety. IU has been linked to a number of anxiety disorders, and anxiety felt in the face of uncertainty may result in maladaptive behaviors such as impulsive decision making. Although there is strong evidence that anxiety and impulsivity are risk factors for addiction, there is a paucity of research examining the role of IU in this disorder. The rate of opioid addiction, in particular, has been rising steadily in recent years, which necessitates deeper understanding of risk factors in order to develop effective prevention and treatment methods. The current study tested for the first time whether opioid-dependent adults are less tolerant of uncertainty compared to a healthy comparison group. Opioid dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (n = 114) and healthy comparisons (n = 69) completed the following scales: Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Analysis revealed that these measures were positively correlated with each other and that opioid-dependent patients had significantly higher IU scores. Regression analysis revealed that anxiety mediated the relationship between IU and impulsivity. Hierarchical moderation regression found an interaction between addiction status and impulsivity on IU scores in that the relationship between these variables was only observed in the patient group. Findings suggest that IU is a feature of addiction but does not necessarily play a unique role. Further research is needed to explore the complex relationship between traits and how they may contribute to the development and maintenance of addiction.
Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Wichary, Szymon; Gomula, Aleksandra; Pawlowski, Boguslaw
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between self-assessed social dominance trait and levels of free basal sex steroids: estradiol and testosterone, in reproductive age women. Polish urban women aged 24-35 (N = 72) filled in Trait Dominance-Submissiveness Scale (TDS) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). They also gave a single blood sample during the follicular phase of the following menstrual cycle. The blood sample was analyzed for concentration of free testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and cortisol (C). We found that self-assessed social dominance was negatively associated with free E2 and E2 to T ratio. This general relationship was moderated by Trait Anxiety. Higher social dominance was associated with lower E2 and lower E2 to T ratio in moderate and highly anxious women. No such relationship was found in low anxious women. Results of this study evidence important contribution of estradiol and question the independent role of testosterone in shaping dominance in women. They might also suggest important biological and psychological cost of maintaining high social dominance in reproductive age women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Newham, James J; Westwood, Melissa; Aplin, John D; Wittkowski, Anja
We review intervention trials that have used the State-Trait Anxiety inventory (STAI) as a measure of maternal anxiety in pregnancy in order to provide ranges in scores before and after participation in complementary therapy-based interventions to highlight the expected ranges of scores in pregnancy and determine whether anxiety in pregnancy is amenable to change when measured by the STAI. Combinations of the key words "STAI", "state anxiety", "pregnancy", "anxiety", "maternal", "stress", "outcome" and "intervention" were used to search publications between January 1970 and January 2011. Studies eligible for inclusion recruited low risk, adult women to a non-pharmacological intervention or a comparator group, and measured anxiety at baseline and post-intervention. Ten studies were eligible. Scores were routinely high compared to expected ranges in non-pregnant populations. Studies examining the immediate effects of an intervention consistently reported significantly lowered STAI scores after a single session. Likewise, studies examining the effect of interventions consisting of multiple sessions over the course of pregnancy found that those in the intervention group were more likely to show an improvement in STAI scores. Heterogeneity in type and duration of intervention prevent drawing conclusions on which were most effective in reducing anxiety. Scores on the STAI appear amenable to change during pregnancy, both after a single session and multiple sessions of interventions designed to reduce maternal anxiety. This review offers a guideline for the expected range of scores for future studies examining the efficacy of interventions in pregnancy when using the STAI. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study empirically examines the effect of sales call anxiety (SCA on salesperson performance, good performance in the form of sales volume and sales interactions. This study tested the hypothesis to identify early factors (antecedents that may affect the sales call anxiety (SCA. Initial factors suspected as the cause of anxiety in sales interactions (SCA are divided into two conditions, namely canvassing and closing condition. Canvassing consisted of meeting new people, customer with high social status, and being assertive, while the closing is a condition consisting of asking for commitment, and discussing performance with sales manager. The population in this study is all life insurance company salesperson in Palangkaraya. In this study, questionnaires were distributed to 200 people a life insurance salesperson, and then used as a sample is a total of 147 respondents who have a tendency to trait-NA. The sampling method used was purposive sampling. The analysis showed that when the salesperson must meet new customers, customers with a high social status, when they should be able to introduce himself and mission well (canvassing, when they should ask for customer commitments after several meetings and interviews with candidates customers, and when the salesperson must discuss the results of their performance with the sales manager (closing, causing anxiety for the salesperson, because when interacting with potential customers, they have a negative perception of the ability of self, negative perceptions of the mind customers in assessing their work when interacting, the emergence of physiological symptoms, and they take action "escape" of the situation, or the so-called protective action.
Full Text Available Background. Preoperative anxiety complicates treatment and requires assessment by nurses in children. Children, with or without disability, are helped when pictures are used to support communication. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of the modified short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI using a modified Talking Mats method in children undergoing day surgeries. Method. A modified short STAI with pictorial support along the lines of the Talking Mats method was pre- and postoperatively administered to 42 typically developing children aged three to nine years. The parents assessed the children’s anxiety, simultaneously and independently, by scoring the short STAI by proxy. Results. The modified short STAI showed moderate internal consistency and good construct validity in the age group seven to nine years. Conclusions. The results of this study support the use of the instrument for self-reports in children aged seven to nine years. Future research will explore the possibilities of also using this instrument for children with cognitive and communicative difficulties.
Crowley, Olga V.; McKinley, Paula S.; Burg, Matthew M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Ryff, Carol D.; Weinstein, Maxine; Seeman, Teresa E.; Sloan, Richard P.
The present study tested the hypothesis that the change in state negative affect (measured as perceived stress) after cognitive challenge moderates the relationship of trait anxiety and anger to vagal recovery from that challenge. Cardiac vagal control (assessed using heart rate variability) and respiratory rate were measured in a sample of 905 participants from the Midlife in the United States Study. Cognitive challenges consisted of computerized mental arithmetic and Stroop color-word matching tasks. Multiple regression analyses controlling for the effects of the demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors influencing cardiac vagal control showed a significant moderating effect of change in perceived stress on the relationship of trait anxiety to vagal recovery from cognitive challenges (Beta = .253, p= .013). After adjustment for respiratory rate, this effect became marginally significant (Beta = .177, p= .037). In contrast, for the relationship of trait anger to vagal recovery, this effect was not significant either before (Beta = .141, p=.257) or after (Beta = .186, p=.072) adjusting for respiratory rate. Secondary analyses revealed that among the individuals with higher levels of trait anxiety, greater reductions in perceived stress were associated with greater increases in cardiac vagal control after the challenge. In contrast, among the individuals with lower levels of trait anxiety, changes in perceived stress had no impact on vagal recovery. Therefore, change in perceived stress moderates the relationship of trait anxiety, but not trait anger, to vagal recovery from cognitive challenge. PMID:21945037
Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y.; Magiati, Iliana
The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding…
Luminița Elena ALBERT
Full Text Available The lack of sufficient scientific evidence to support the role of occlusion as an etiologic factor in craniomandibular disorders gave credit to the role of the psycho-emotional factors able to predispose to this condition and to perpetuate it. Among them, anxiety holds a prioritary position. The aim of the research was to shed light on the signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disfunction manifested in a group of patients and on their possible association with psycho-emotional characteristics (stress, anxiety. Materials and method. A cross-sectional study was performed on a group of 54 subjects (16M, 38W, by means of a screening questionnaire for craniomandibular disfunction, containing 20 questions structured on five issues: pain, disfunction, parafunction, psycho-emotional status, trauma/iatrogenic condition. For psychological examination, the STAI I and II (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires were applied. These psychometric instruments, containing 20 items, provide the current level of anxiety scores of the subject and the degree to which he/she is prone to anxiety. The NCSS Dawson edition statistical program was used to analyze the collected data. Results. The score of psycho-emotional characteristics evaluation correlates with the severity of craniomandibular disfunction (r = 0.5743. The specific score of the signs and symptoms manifested in craniomandibular disfunctions shows a good correlation with the disfunctional condition (0.7737. In the investigated group, fewer subjects assessed anxiety, however the predisposition to anxiety is the dominant trend, more evident in male subjects. Conclusions. Within the limits of this investigation, the psycho-emotional factors included in the screening questionnaire appear to play a role in defining a prioritary craniomandibular disfunctional state. At the same time, the results provided by the used psychometric instruments are less conclusive. Further studies are required, on more
Nelson, Andrea L; Purdon, Christine; Quigley, Leanne; Carriere, Jonathan; Smilek, Daniel
Although attentional biases to threatening information are thought to contribute to the development and persistence of anxiety disorders, it is not clear whether an attentional bias to threat (ABT) is driven by trait anxiety, state anxiety or an interaction between the two. ABT may also be influenced by "top down" processes of motivation to attend or avoid threat. In the current study, participants high, mid and low in trait anxiety viewed high threat-neutral, mild threat-neutral and positive-neutral image pairs for 5 seconds in both calm and anxious mood states while their eye movements were recorded. State anxiety alone, but not trait anxiety, predicted greater maintenance of attention to high threat images (relative to neutral) following the first fixation (i.e., delayed disengagement) and over the time course. Motivation was associated with the time course of attention as would be expected, such that those motivated to look towards negative images showed the greatest ABT over time, and those highly motivated to look away from negative images showed the greatest avoidance. Interestingly, those ambivalent about where to direct their attention when viewing negative images showed the greatest ABT in the first 500 ms of viewing. Implications for theory and treatment of anxiety disorders, as well as areas for further study, are discussed.
Remröd, C; Sjöström, K; Svensson, A
Onset of psoriasis may occur at any age. Early negative experiences often influence personality development, and may lead to physical disease, anxiety and depression in adulthood. Knowledge about onset of psoriasis and psychopathology is limited. To examine whether patients with early-onset psoriasis differ psychologically from patients with late-onset psoriasis, regarding personality traits, anxiety and depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed followed by self-assessment of validated questionnaires: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Psoriasis severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with early-onset psoriasis (age personality traits: SSP-embitterment, -trait irritability, -mistrust and -verbal trait aggression. Our results indicate that early detection of psychological vulnerability when treating children and adolescents with psoriasis seems to be of great importance. Traits of psychological vulnerability and pessimistic personality traits were found to be significantly associated with the early onset of psoriasis, but not with disease duration in this study. These traits may be seen as a consequence of psoriasis, and/or as individual traits modulating and impairing clinical course and efforts to cope with psoriasis. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.
Full Text Available Father-child facial resemblance is an important cue for men to evaluate paternity. Previous studies found that fathers’ perceptions of low facial resemblance with offspring lead to low confidence of paternity. Fathers’ uncertainty of paternity could cause psychological stress and anxiety, which, after a long time, may further turn into trait anxiety. Conversely, females can ensure a biological connection with offspring because of internal fertilization. The purpose of this study was thus to examine the role of parents’ gender in the effect of parents’ perceived facial resemblance with child on their trait anxiety. In this study, one hundred and fifty-one parents (father or mother from one-child families reported their facial resemblance with child and their trait anxiety. Results showed that (a males tended to perceive higher facial similarity with child than did females, and (b males’ perceived facial resemblance with child significantly predicted trait anxiety, whereas females’ perceived facial resemblance did not. These findings suggested that the uncertainty of paternity contributed to the trait anxiety of fathers, but not mothers.
Xu, Wei; Fu, Zhongfang; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Yi
Researchers and clinical practitioners have found that hoarding appears in many autism patients and that most of these patients show high anxiety and depression. There is no consensus on the relationship between autistic traits and hoarding, and little research concerning the role of negative emotions. This study investigated the relationship between autistic traits and hoarding in a large non-clinical Chinese sample. Participants were 3,229 university students (M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.6; 1,839 men) who were recruited in classroom. They completed measures of hoarding, autistic symptomology, anxiety, and depression: specifically the Saving Inventory-Revised, the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Mediating effects of anxiety and depression in the correlation between autistic traits and hoarding were also explored. There was a weak but significant correlation between autistic traits and hoarding. Significant mediating effects of anxiety and depression were observed. Hoarding in people with high autistic traits could be influenced by anxiety and depression.
Schumacher, Sonja; Oe, Misari; Wilhelm, Frank H; Rufer, Michael; Heinrichs, Markus; Weidt, Steffi; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Martin-Soelch, Chantal
Previous research has demonstrated that the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates social behaviors and reduces anxiety. However, effects of oxytocin on startle reactivity, a well-validated measure of defense system activation related to fear and anxiety, have been inconsistent. Here we investigated the influence of oxytocin on startle reactivity with particular focus on the role of trait anxiety. Forty-four healthy male participants attended two experimental sessions. They received intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in one session and placebo in the other. Startle probes were presented in combination with pictures of social and non-social content. Eye-blink startle magnitude was measured by electromyography over the musculus orbicularis oculi in response to 95 dB noise bursts. Participants were assigned to groups of high vs. low trait anxiety based on their scores on the trait form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A significant interaction effect of oxytocin with STAI confirmed that trait anxiety moderated the effect of oxytocin on startle reactivity. Post-hoc tests indicated that for participants with elevated trait anxiety, oxytocin increased startle magnitude, particularly when watching non-social pictures, while this was not the case for participants with low trait anxiety. Results indicate that effects of oxytocin on defense system activation depend on individual differences in trait anxiety. Trait anxiety may be an important moderator variable that should be considered in human studies on oxytocin effects.
Griesauer, Irene; Diao, Weifei; Ronovsky, Marianne; Elbau, Immanuel; Sartori, Simone; Singewald, Nicolas; Pollak, Daniela D
Dysregulation of circadian rhythms is a key symptom of mood disorders, including anxiety disorders and depression. Whether the circadian abnormalities observed in depressed patients are cause or consequence of the disease remains elusive. Here we aimed to explore potential disturbances of circadian rhythms in a validated genetic animal model of high trait anxiety and co-morbid depression and examine its molecular correlates. Mice selectively bred for high (HAB) and normal (NAB) anxiety- and co-segregating depression-like behavior were subjected to analysis of circadian wheel-running activity to determine light-entrained (LD) and free-running circadian (DD) rhythms and a light-induced phase shift. Clock gene expression in HAB/NAB hippocampal tissue was analyzed by qRT-PCR and verified by Western blotting. Compared to NABs, HAB mice were found to present with altered DD length of daily cycle, fragmented ultradiem rhythms, and a blunted phase shift response. Clock gene expression analysis revealed a selective reduction of Cry2 expression in hippocampal tissue of HAB mice. We provide first evidence for a dysregulation of circadian rhythms in a mouse model of anxiety and co-morbid depression which suggests an association between depression and altered circadian rhythms at the genetic level and points towards a role for Cry2.
Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; Gibson-Smith, Deborah; Van der Does, Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Brouwer, Ingeborg; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H
A range of biological, social and psychological factors, including depression and anxiety disorders, is thought to be associated with higher body mass index (BMI). Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with specific psychological vulnerabilities, like personality traits and cognitive reactivity, that may also be associated with BMI. The relationship between those psychological vulnerabilities and BMI is possibly different in people with and without depression and anxiety disorders. Therefore, we examined the relationship between personality traits, cognitive reactivity and severity of affective symptoms with BMI in people with and without depression and anxiety disorders. Data from 1249 patients with current major depressive and/or anxiety disorder and 631 healthy controls were sourced from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the associations between personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), cognitive reactivity (hopelessness, aggression, rumination, anxiety sensitivity), depression and anxiety symptoms with BMI classes (normal: 18.5-24.9, overweight: 25-29.9, and obese: ≥30kg/m(2)) and continuous BMI. Due to significant statistical interaction, analyses were stratified for healthy individuals and depressed/anxious patients. Personality traits were not consistently related to BMI. In patients, higher hopelessness and aggression reactivity and higher depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with higher BMI. In contrast, in healthy individuals lower scores on hopelessness, rumination, aggression reactivity and anxiety sensitivity were associated with higher BMI. These results suggest that, particularly in people with psychopathology, cognitive reactivity may contribute to obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja
and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...
To what extent should somatic treatment be taken into account when psychic suffering dominates? How can this care be anticipated when healthcare workers and carers are confronted with patients who do not express what they want? Greatest attention must be paid to somatic care by anticipating body function and relying on the support of the families and the skills of the professionals.
Oliveira, Cátia; Nobre, Pedro J
Despite the increasing number of studies, it is not yet clear how emotions affect sexual response in women with and without sexual problems. The aim of this study was to explore the relation among trait-affect, depression, anxiety, and sexual functioning. Participants were 237 women: 167 without sexual problems, 37 with low levels of sexual functioning, and 17 with sexual dysfunction. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Female Sexual Function Index. Results showed that women with sexual problems presented lower levels of positive trait-affect in comparison with women without sexual problems. Mediation analysis indicated that depression mediated 44% of the total effect of positive trait-affect and 83% of the total effect of negative trait-affect on sexual functioning. Moreover, anxiety (Brief Symptom Inventory subscale) mediated 18% of the total effect of positive trait-affect on sexual functioning and 61% of the total effect of negative trait-affect on sexual functioning. These results may help explain the high comorbidity among sexual dysfunction, depression, and anxiety, and raise the hypothesis that trait-affect may act as a common vulnerability factor for these clinical conditions.
Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Golmaryami, Farrah N; Marsee, Monica A
In a sample of detained male adolescents (n = 107; Mean age = 15.50; SD = 1.30), we tested whether anxiety moderated the association of CU traits with self-report and computerized measures of affective (emotional reactivity) and cognitive (affective facial recognition and Theory of Mind [ToM]) empathy. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with self-reports of affective empathy and this association was not moderated by level of anxiety. Significant interactions revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with cognitive empathy (self-report) only at high levels of anxiety, whereas CU traits were positively associated with cognitive empathy on the ToM task only at low levels of anxiety. CU traits were also associated with greater fear recognition accuracy at low levels of anxiety. Implications for understanding and treating different variants of CU traits (i.e., primary and secondary) are discussed.
DeWayne P. Williams
Full Text Available The perseverative cognition hypothesis (PCH posits that perseveration, defined as the repetitive or sustained activation of cognitive representations of a real or imagined stressor, is a primary mechanism linking psychological (or stress vulnerability with poor health and disease. Resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV is an important indicator of self-regulatory abilities, stress vulnerability and overall health. Those with lower resting vmHRV are more vulnerable to stress, and thus more likely to engage in perseverative cognition and experience subsequent negative mental health outcomes such as anxiety. Recent research suggests that rumination—one of the core mechanisms underlying perseveration—is a construct containing (at least two maladaptive (depressive and brooding and one adaptive (reflective types of rumination. However, to date, research has not examined how the association between resting vmHRV may differ between these three facets of rumination, in addition to these facets’ mechanistic role in linking lower resting vmHRV with greater trait anxiety. The current cross-sectional study explores these relationships in a sample of 203 participants (112 females, 76 ethnic minorities, mean age = 19.43, standard deviation = 1.87. Resting vmHRV was assessed during a 5-min-resting period using an Electrocardiogram (ECG. Both trait rumination (including the three facets and anxiety were assessed via self-report scales. Significant negative associations were found between resting vmHRV and maladaptive, but not adaptive, forms of perseveration. Similarly, mediation analyses showed a significant indirect relationship between resting vmHRV and anxiety through maladaptive, but not adaptive, facets of rumination. Our findings support the PCH such that those with stress vulnerability, as indexed by lower resting vmHRV, are more likely to engage in maladaptive perseverative cognition and thus experience negative outcomes such as
Williams, DeWayne P; Feeling, Nicole R; Hill, LaBarron K; Spangler, Derek P; Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F
The perseverative cognition hypothesis (PCH) posits that perseveration, defined as the repetitive or sustained activation of cognitive representations of a real or imagined stressor, is a primary mechanism linking psychological (or stress) vulnerability with poor health and disease. Resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is an important indicator of self-regulatory abilities, stress vulnerability and overall health. Those with lower resting vmHRV are more vulnerable to stress, and thus more likely to engage in perseverative cognition and experience subsequent negative mental health outcomes such as anxiety. Recent research suggests that rumination-one of the core mechanisms underlying perseveration-is a construct containing (at least) two maladaptive (depressive and brooding) and one adaptive (reflective) types of rumination. However, to date, research has not examined how the association between resting vmHRV may differ between these three facets of rumination, in addition to these facets' mechanistic role in linking lower resting vmHRV with greater trait anxiety. The current cross-sectional study explores these relationships in a sample of 203 participants (112 females, 76 ethnic minorities, mean age = 19.43, standard deviation = 1.87). Resting vmHRV was assessed during a 5-min-resting period using an Electrocardiogram (ECG). Both trait rumination (including the three facets) and anxiety were assessed via self-report scales. Significant negative associations were found between resting vmHRV and maladaptive, but not adaptive, forms of perseveration. Similarly, mediation analyses showed a significant indirect relationship between resting vmHRV and anxiety through maladaptive, but not adaptive, facets of rumination. Our findings support the PCH such that those with stress vulnerability, as indexed by lower resting vmHRV, are more likely to engage in maladaptive perseverative cognition and thus experience negative outcomes such as anxiety. Our data
Rojas-Carrasco, Karmina Elena
Background: when there is a child patient in the family, it is frequent that parents get upset. Anxiety in the mother and father could be different depending on the way each one lives the critical situation of the child patient. The purpose was to measure levels of anxiety in fathers and mothers who had a hospitalized child in an intensive care unit. Methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was applied to a group of 50 pairs of parents who had a hospitalized child in the intensive care unit in a pediatric hospital. A no probabilistic intentional sample was used. Differences between groups were analyzed by Student's t test. Results: no significant differences were obtained between mothers and fathers for both state-anxiety and trait-anxiety. Significant differences were obtained intra-groups between both kinds of anxiety. Conclusions: having a child who is chronically sick or hospitalized for intensive therapy causes similar levels of anxiety in both parents. Anxiety is significantly increased in both parents when their child is hospitalized in an intensive therapy unit.
De Vries, Jolanda; Van Heck, Guus L
The objective of the current study was to develop a short form of the Dutch version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Trait scale and to provide initial validation data in a sample of breast cancer patients and survivors. This short trait anxiety (A-Trait) scale was designed to reduce time and effort required of severely ill or handicapped patients involved in extensive assessment procedures. Another goal was to assess A-Trait with minimal overlap with content that reflects Quality of Life (QoL) and fatigue. Three groups of women either completed the original Trait scale (Groups 1 and 2) or the 10-item trait version (Group 3). In Group 1, exploratory factor analysis with the Scree test, Velicer's MAP criteria and parallel analysis as tests for factor retention, indicated a 10-item Trait version reflecting two factors: Anxiety Present and Anxiety Absent. In the other groups, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the two-factor short form provided the best fit. In all three groups Trait Anxiety was highly related to Neuroticism. The correlation between Overall QoL and General Health and the Anxiety Present short scale was lower than the correlation between Overall QoL and General Health and the full form (Z = 2.20, p = .03). With this short A-Trait scale it becomes possible to study the relationship between dispositional anxiety and clinically important outcome variables without inflating estimates of these relations through psychometric contamination.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety levels among college students engaged in active sports. 166 Pamukkale University and Ege University of School of Physical Education and Sports students who are selected simple random sampling method voluntarily participated (61 females and 105 males for the study. In the study for gathering data “Superstitious Ritual Questionnaire” and “Trait Anxiety Inventory” were used together. To examine the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety levels the Pearson product-moment coefficients of correlation was used. The results indicated that the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety level is positive and statistically significant (r=.208; p=.007. To explain whether there are significant differences between participants’ superstitious behavior in sport according to gender, Independent Sample T-test was used. Result of this analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between male and female students tendency to superstitious behaviors according to gender (t=1.15; p=.251. In conclusion study findings showed that anxiety is a factor that increases university students, engaging in active sport, superstitions behavior.
Shihata, Sarah; McEvoy, Peter M; Mullan, Barbara A
Uncertainty is central to anxiety-related pathology and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) appears to be a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a hierarchical model to identify the unique contributions of trait and disorder-specific IU (i.e., uncertainty specific to generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and panic disorder) to disorder-specific symptoms, beyond other disorder-specific cognitive vulnerabilities (i.e., negative metacognitive beliefs, fear of negative evaluation, inflated responsibility, and agoraphobic cognitions, respectively). Participants (N=506) completed a battery of online questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate model fit, as well as direct and indirect pathways. Trait and disorder-specific IU were significantly associated with multiple cognitive vulnerability factors and disorder symptoms. Indirect effects between trait IU and symptoms were observed through disorder-specific IU and cognitive vulnerabilities. The relative contribution of trait IU and disorder-specific IU to symptoms varied and theoretical and clinical implications are highlighted. Limitations include the cross-sectional design and reliance on self-report. Avenues for further research include a need for replication and extension of the model in different samples and using experimental and multi-method research methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yan, Youwei; Lin, Rongmao; Tang, Xiangdong; He, Fei; Cai, Weiling; Su, Yankui
To investigate the relationship between worry tendency and sleep quality and the mediating effect of state-trait anxiety, 1072 adolescents and young adults from Jiangxi and Fujian Provinces in China were administered questionnaires pertaining to worry tendency, sleep quality, and state-trait anxiety. The results showed significant grade differences for worry tendency, sleep quality, and state-trait anxiety. Worry tendency was negatively associated with sleep quality, which was mediated by state anxiety and trait anxiety. There is a need for interventions that aim to reduce the level of worry tendency to ensure good sleep quality and the progression from worry tendency to anxiety and to poor sleep quality. © The Author(s) 2013.
Previous research has suggested that we tend to forget information that is self-threatening--an effect known as mnemic neglect. Three experiments are reported, which examined mnemic neglect in anxiety and whether high-anxious individuals show facilitated memory for self-threatening material. In Experiment 1, high-anxious participants were found to have facilitated memory for self-threatening information in comparison to low-anxious participants. In Experiments 2 and 3 boundary conditions to this memory bias for self-threatening memories were examined, which revealed facilitated recall of self-threatening memories when this information was unmodifiable (Experiment 2) and when this information was highly diagnostic of underlying traits (Experiment 3). The findings indicate that high-anxious participants show reversed mnemic neglect effects indicating increased access to self-threatening information. The findings suggest that high-anxious individuals do show memory bias for threatening information but only under certain circumstances.
Lockefeer, J.; de Vries, J.
Background Depressive symptoms, fatigue, and low sleep quality are common symptoms during and after breast cancer (BC) treatment. In the present study, the relationship between trait anxiety and these symptoms in a long follow-up period was examined. Methods This was a prospective study.
Tumkaya, Songul; Aybek, Birsel; Celik, Metehan
In this study, the levels of hopelessness and state-trait anxiety among teacher candidates before taking the State Employees Selection Exam (KPSS) were investigated. The research was carried out with 403 volunteer teacher candidates. Of them, 271 seniors who were attending classes at Cukurova University in 2005-2006 Spring and 132 were…
Nery, Fabiano G.; Hatch, John P.; Glahn, David C.; Nicoletti, Mark A.; Monkul, E. Serap; Najt, Pablo; Fonseca, Manoela; Bowden, Charles L.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Soares, Jair C.
Temperament and character traits may determine differences in clinical presentations and outcome of bipolar disorder. We compared personality traits in bipolar patients and healthy individuals using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and sought to verify whether comorbidity with alcoholism or anxiety disorders is associated with specific personality traits. Seventy three DSM-IV bipolar patients were compared to 63 healthy individuals using the TCI. In a second step, the bipolar sample was subgrouped according to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity (alcoholism, n = 10; anxiety disorders; n = 23; alcoholism plus anxiety disorders, n = 21; no comorbidity, n = 19). Bipolar patients scored statistically higher than the healthy individuals on novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Bipolar patients with only comorbid alcoholism scored statistically lower than bipolar patients without any comorbidity on persistence. Bipolar patients with only comorbid anxiety disorders scored statistically higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness than bipolar patients without any comorbidity. Limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the small sample size, specifically in the analysis of the subgroups. However, our results suggest that bipolar patients exhibit a different personality structure than healthy individuals and that presence of psychiatric comorbidity in bipolar disorder is associated with specific personality traits. These findings suggest that personality, at least to some extent, mediates the comorbidity phenomena in bipolar disorder. PMID:17675066
Sarkar, Amar; Dowker, Ann; Cohen Kadosh, Roi
The surge in noninvasive brain stimulation studies investigating cognitive enhancement has neglected the effect of interindividual differences, such as traits, on stimulation outcomes. Using the case of mathematics anxiety in a sample of healthy human participants in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experiment, we show that identical transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) exerts opposite behavioral and physiological effects depending on individual trait levels. Mathematics anxiety is the negative emotional response elicited by numerical tasks, impairing mathematical achievement. tDCS was applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a frequent target for modulating emotional regulation. It improved reaction times on simple arithmetic decisions and decreased cortisol concentrations (a biomarker of stress) in high mathematics anxiety individuals. In contrast, tDCS impaired reaction times for low mathematics anxiety individuals and prevented a decrease in cortisol concentration compared with sham stimulation. Both groups showed a tDCS-induced side effect-impaired executive control in a flanker task-a cognitive function subserved by the stimulated region. These behavioral and physiological double dissociations have implications for brain stimulation research by highlighting the role of individual traits in experimental findings. Brain stimulation clearly does not produce uniform benefits, even applied in the same configuration during the same tasks, but may interact with traits to produce markedly opposed outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Sarkar et al.
Sotardi, Valerie A
Educational measures of anxiety focus heavily on students' experiences with tests yet overlook other assessment contexts. In this research, two brief multiscale questionnaires were developed and validated to measure trait evaluation anxiety (MTEA-12) and state evaluation anxiety (MSEA-12) for use in various assessment contexts in non-clinical, educational settings. The research included a cross-sectional analysis of self-report data using authentic assessment settings in which evaluation anxiety was measured. Instruments were tested using a validation sample of 241 first-year university students in New Zealand. Scale development included component structures for state and trait scales based on existing theoretical frameworks. Analyses using confirmatory factor analysis and descriptive statistics indicate that the scales are reliable and structurally valid. Multivariate general linear modeling using subscales from the MTEA-12, MSEA-12, and student grades suggest adequate criterion-related validity. Initial predictive validity in which one relevant MTEA-12 factor explained between 21% and 54% of the variance in three MSEA-12 factors. Results document MTEA-12 and MSEA-12 as reliable measures of trait and state dimensions of evaluation anxiety for test and writing contexts. Initial estimates suggest the scales as having promising validity, and recommendations for further validation are outlined.
Taylor, Charles T; Knapp, Sarah E; Bomyea, Jessica A; Ramsawh, Holly J; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT - they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety. Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (n = 28) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 31) completed 10 weekly individual CBT sessions. Trait positive emotionality was assessed at pre-treatment, and severity of anxiety symptoms and associated impairment was assessed throughout treatment. Participants who reported a greater propensity to experience positive emotions at pre-treatment displayed the largest reduction in anxiety symptoms as well as fewer symptoms following treatment. Positive emotions remained a robust predictor of change in symptoms when controlling for baseline depression severity. Initial evidence supports the predictive value of trait positive emotions as a prognostic indicator for CBT outcome in a GAD and PD sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jencks, Jennifer W; Burton, David L
In this project, the authors examined the relationship trait anxiety has on incarcerated male adolescents' progression from childhood exposure to violence/victimization to violent behavior. Self-report survey data were analyzed to determine the youth's levels of trait anxiety, how the degree of childhood trauma was related to their level of anxiety, as well as whether their level of anxiety affected the relationship between trauma and subsequent frequency and severity of their delinquent acts using a moderation analysis. Anxiety significantly decreased the relationship between victimization and the commission of violence (F = 15.93, p < .001).
Aftanas, Ljubomir I; Pavlov, Sergey V
The main objective of the present investigation was to examine how high trait anxiety would influence cortical EEG asymmetries under non-emotional conditions and while experiencing negative emotions. The 62-channel EEG was recorded in control (n=21) and high anxiety (HA, n=18) non-patient individuals. Results showed that in HA subjects, the lowest level of arousal (eyes closed) was associated with stronger right-sided parieto-temporal theta-1 (4-6 Hz) and beta-1 (12-18 Hz) activity, whereas increased non-emotional arousal (eyes open, viewing neutral movie clip) was marked by persisting favored right hemisphere beta-1 activity. In turn, viewing aversive movie clip by the HA group led to significant lateralized decrease of the right parieto-temporal beta-1 power, which was initially higher in the emotionally neutral conditions. The EEG data suggests that asymmetrical parieto-temporal theta-1 and beta-1 EEG activity might be better interpreted in terms of Gray's BAS and BIS theory.
Kaplan, Simona C; Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W
It is well established that social anxiety (SA) has a positive relationship with neuroticism and a negative relationship with extraversion. However, findings on the relationships between SA and agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are mixed. In regard to facet-level personality traits, SA is negatively correlated with trust (a facet of agreeableness) and self-efficacy (a facet of conscientiousness). No research has examined interactions among the Big Five personality traits (e.g., extraversion) and facet levels of personality in relation to SA. In two studies using undergraduate samples (N = 502; N = 698), we examined the relationships between trust, self-efficacy, the Big Five, and SA. SA correlated positively with neuroticism, negatively with extraversion, and had weaker relationships with agreeableness, openness, and trust. In linear regression predicting SA, there was a significant interaction between trust and openness over and above gender. In addition to supporting previous research on SA and the Big Five, we found that openness is related to SA for individuals low in trust. Our results suggest that high openness may protect against the higher SA levels associated with low trust.
Brugnera, A; Zarbo, C; Adorni, R; Compare, A; Sakatani, K
Stress responses are mediated by complex patterns of cortical and autonomic activity. Earlier studies showed increased recruitment of the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and parasympathetic withdrawal during a stress task; however, it remains unclear whether these responses change in relation to different levels of psychopathological symptoms, such as trait anxiety. The present study examines the effect of a mathematical task (with a control condition and a stressful/experimental condition) on the PFC and autonomic activity, using a two-channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and an ECG monitoring system. After a preliminary screening of 65 subjects, a sample of 12 individuals (6 with the highest and 6 with the lowest scores on an anxiety questionnaire, i.e. the STAI trait) was selected. The two groups were similar regarding demographic variables (age, sex, body mass index) and baseline STAI-state scores. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare changes from baseline in oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), heart rate (HR) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) between the two groups. Individuals affected by high levels of trait anxiety showed a reduced bilateral PFC activity during the entire experimental procedure compared to those with low anxiety. No differences in NIRS channels were found between the two groups. During both conditions, RMSSD was lower among individuals affected by high levels of anxious symptoms. Finally, throughout the procedure, changes in HR were higher in the anxious group. Overall, these findings suggest a reduced PFC activity and a larger parasympathetic withdrawal during a stress task in individuals with high levels of trait anxiety compared to those with low anxiety. These results could represent a starting point for future NIRS and ECG studies on the relationship between mental disorders and acute stress responses.
This study empirically examines the effect of sales call anxiety (SCA) on salesperson performance, good performance in the form of sales volume and sales interactions. This study tested the hypothesis to identify early factors (antecedents) that may affect the sales call anxiety (SCA). Initial factors suspected as the cause of anxiety in sales interactions (SCA) are divided into two conditions, namely canvassing and closing condition. Canvassing consisted of meeting new people, customer with ...
This study empirically examines the effect of sales call anxiety (SCA) on salesperson performance, good performance in the form of sales volume and sales interactions. This study tested the hypothesis to identify early factors (antecedents) that may affect the sales call anxiety (SCA). Initial factors suspected as the cause of anxiety in sales interactions (SCA) are divided into two conditions, namely canvassing and closing condition. Canvassing consisted of meeting new people, customer with ...
Full Text Available The problems of adjusting of psychical functions are considered in sport. The methods of self-regulation are rotined in sport. The groups of emotional reactions of combat sportsmen are certain. It is set that sporting psychologists and trainers are mainly addressed to training of psychical functions. Also - the system of psychical self-regulation must be complex. It contains affecting physiological reactions and on psychical processes. Five groups of emotional reactions of combat sportsmen are marked. They are directed on development of ability without superfluous emotions to overcome extreme situations in the process of competition activity.
El-Hage, Wissam; Lamy, Céline; Goupille, Philippe; Gaillard, Philippe; Camus, Vincent
Chronic unexplained pain may be a somatic manifestation of psychological distress - often untreated distress. The association between psychic trauma, posttraumatic symptoms, psychic dissociation, and somatoform disorders is currently well documented. When examining a patient with chronic pain syndrome, it is important to consider its psychic dimension early on and to look for a history of psychic trauma. This can help avoid prolonged chronic effects and the emergence of psychiatric comorbidity. There is currently no consensual medication strategy for treatment of unexplained chronic pain syndrome. Multidisciplinary outpatient management is necessary in these complex cases, which require simultaneous medical and psychiatric referrals.
The last 20 years have seen a flood of studies of resistance, ranging from collective to individual acts of resistance, from the study of material aspects to its more ideational ones. Yet students of resistance have neglected the psychological dimension of everyday individual acts of resistance...... of Stockholm, Sweden, which is being redeveloped into a high-tech region, it offers empirical insight into the psychic life of resistance. Further, a particular resistance strategy is identified: symbolic dislocations through adherence to a boundary other than the one subjecting the self in the first place....
Nourkova, Veronika V; Vasilenko, Darya A
This paper is devoted to the mechanism of the positive construction of autobiographical memory. Positive construction consists of the spontaneous transformation of memories in the direction of the subjective enhancement of self-competence in past activities to anticipate improvement over time. We speculated that trait anxiety may indicate a failure to exhibit this mechanism that results in a deficit of affirmative self-esteem. We hypothesised that the implantation of positive self-defining memories in anxiety-evoking domains would decrease trait anxiety. One hundred twenty adults recollected three negative self-defining memories. Then, half of the participants imagined episodes of desired behaviour that differed from the originally recollected ones either in discussion or in hypnosis. Thirty participants experienced a hypnotic state without any references to memories, and the rest formed the control group. Subjects from the "Memory Implantation in Hypnosis" group became unable to distinguish the originally reported memories from the imagined ones, exhibited decreased trait anxiety scores after a 4-month delay, and reported enhanced self-esteem. In contrast, the participants from the "Hypnosis with no reference to the past" group exhibited decreased scores at a short delay but later returned to their original scores. These findings highlight the power of cured episodic-like autobiographical memory for updating the self.
Deacy, Amanda D; Gayes, Laurie A; De Lurgio, Stephen; Wallace, Dustin P
Anxiety has both state/trait and cognitive/somatic dimensions, and these distinctions may be particularly relevant for children with medical problems. This two-part study adapted the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA) and confirmed its factor structure in a sample of children in a primary care clinic. STICSA items were adapted for reading level and piloted in a small group of children. Next, 250 children (12.3 ± 2.7 years) completed the adapted version, the STICSA-C. Separate confirmatory factor analyses conducted on the State and Trait forms of the STICSA-C confirmed the two-factor structure of the original measure (i.e., cognitive and somatic anxiety) and suggested an improved parsimonious model. Support was found for use of the STICSA-C as a reasonably good internally consistent measure for assessing cognitive and somatic anxiety in pediatric samples. Further investigation of its reliability and validity with replication in pediatric populations is warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Carré, Justin M; Fisher, Patrick M; Manuck, Stephen B; Hariri, Ahmad R
.... Here, we report the novel finding that individual differences in trait anger are positively correlated with bilateral dorsal amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions, but only among men...
Ravenelle, Rebecca; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Niedzielak, Timothy; Donaldson, S Tiffany
In clinical populations, prevalence rates for a number of anxiety disorders differ between males and females and gonadal hormones are thought to contribute to these differences. While these hormones have been shown to modulate the anxiolytic effects of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam in some models, findings are inconsistent. Here, we tested for sex differences in response to anxiogenic stimuli following a 30-min diazepam (1.0mg/kg) pre-treatment in male and female rats showing high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze. Acute diazepam administration resulted in decreased anxiety-like behavior only in HAn males as demonstrated by a significant increase in percent open arm time in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Immunohistochemical analysis for parvalbumin (PV; a calcium-binding protein that selectively stains GABAergic neurons) in central amygdala (CeA), caudate putamen (CPu) and the hippocampus indicated the number of GABAergic interneurons in these areas differed across sex and anxiety trait. In the CPu, females had significantly more PV-immunoreactive (IR) cells than males, and LAn females had greater PV-IR neurons than HAn females. In the CeA, males displayed an increased number of PV-IR neurons compared to females, with no differences found between LAn and HAn. Further, trait differences were evident in the CA2 region of the hippocampus, regardless of sex. Taken together, these data suggest that gonadal hormones and trait anxiety may influence the sensitivity to the anti-anxiety effects of diazepam and these differences may be due in part to the distribution of GABA-containing interneurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bahammam, Maha A.
Objectives: To test the psychometric properties of an adapted Arabic version of the state trait anxiety-form Y (STAI-Y) in Saudi adult dental patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the published Arabic version of the STAI-Y was evaluated by 2 experienced bilingual professionals for its compatibility with Saudi culture and revised prior to testing. Three hundred and eighty-seven patients attending dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, King Abdullah University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the study. The Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of anxiety were used to assess the concurrent criterion validity. Results: The Arabic version of the STAI-Y had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.989) for state and trait subscales. Factor analysis indicated unidimensionality of the scale. Correlations between STAI-Y scores and both MDAS and VAS scores indicated strong concurrent criterion validity. Discriminant validity was supported by the findings that higher anxiety levels were present among females as opposed to males, younger individuals as compared to older individuals, and patients who do not visit the dentist unless they have a need as opposed to more frequent visitors to the dental office. Conclusion: The Arabic version of the STAI-Y has an adequate internal consistency reliability, generally similar to that reported in the international literature, suggesting it is appropriate for assessing dental anxiety in Arabic speaking populations. PMID:27279514
Bahammam, Maha A
To test the psychometric properties of an adapted Arabic version of the state trait anxiety-form Y (STAI-Y) in Saudi adult dental patients. In this cross-sectional study, the published Arabic version of the STAI-Y was evaluated by 2 experienced bilingual professionals for its compatibility with Saudi culture and revised prior to testing. Three hundred and eighty-seven patients attending dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, King Abdullah University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the study. The Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of anxiety were used to assess the concurrent criterion validity. The Arabic version of the STAI-Y had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.989) for state and trait subscales. Factor analysis indicated unidimensionality of the scale. Correlations between STAI-Y scores and both MDAS and VAS scores indicated strong concurrent criterion validity. Discriminant validity was supported by the findings that higher anxiety levels were present among females as opposed to males, younger individuals as compared to older individuals, and patients who do not visit the dentist unless they have a need as opposed to more frequent visitors to the dental office. The Arabic version of the STAI-Y has an adequate internal consistency reliability, generally similar to that reported in the international literature, suggesting it is appropriate for assessing dental anxiety in Arabic speaking populations.
The tolerant stance on 'race' by prominent Enlightenment figures was followed in the 19th century by a powerful wave of biological racism. Many of its proponents took the view that human 'races' constitute separate species, and that most non-white ones are of inferior mentality. An early opponent of this claim was James Cowles Prichard, who used mainly missionary reports in seeking to refute it. Far more extensive work was undertaken by the Herbartian psychologist Theodor Waitz, who collected ethnographic material from all over the world. It was published in six volumes - the last two after his death by his former student Georg Gerland. Waitz aim was to demonstrate the 'psychic unity' of mankind. Initially extracts from the volume on African peoples are presented in order to show how he dealt with his material. The main focus is on his first volume entitled Introduction to Anthropology, in which he elaborates his general thesis. In it Waitz maintains, against the biological racists, that mankind is a single species. Furthermore he discusses the changes from savagery to civilization, attributing them to a combination of geography and history. He was followed by Adolf Bastian who, unlike Waitz, was a great traveller with personal experience of peoples all over the globe. Both firmly believed in the psychic unity of mankind, but Bastian's approach to psychology was very different.
I M Kadyrov; O S Shirokova
The paper deals with different aspects of the psychic space in psychoanalysis. The authors suggest a classification of personality types which may be useful in a clinical-psychological research of the psychic space in patients with agora-claustrophobic disorders.
Kolesnikov, D B; Rapoport, S I; Voznesenskaia, L A
The problem of nosological forms of somatic diseases associated with psychic disorders is discussed as exemplified by gastrointestinal pathology (duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis, irritated bowl syndrome). Implication of such diseases provides a basis for regarding certain pathological conditions as specific clinical variants in which somatic and psychic constituents are integrated into a single morbid complex.
Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Bromley-Dulfano, Sarah S; Marino, Sarah E; Stathopoulos, Nicholas G; Dohanich, Gary P
Rodents solve dual-solution tasks that require navigation to a goal by adopting either a hippocampus-dependent place strategy or a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy. A variety of factors, including biological sex and emotional status, influence the choice of learning strategy. In these experiments, we investigated the relationship between learning strategy and anxiety level in male and female rats prior to the onset of puberty, before the activational effects of gonadal hormones influence these processes. In the first experiment, prepubertal male rats categorized as high in trait anxiety at 26days of age exhibited a bias toward stimulus-response strategy at 28days of age, whereas age-matched females exhibited no preference in strategy regardless of anxiety level. In the second experiment, male and female rats were separated from their dams for either 15 or 180min per day during the first 2weeks of life and tested on a battery of anxiety and cognitive tasks between 25 and 29days of age. Prolonged maternal separations for 180min were associated with impaired spatial memory on a Y-maze task in both prepubertal males and females. Furthermore, prolonged maternal separations were linked to elevated anxiety and a bias for stimulus-response strategy in prepubertal males but not females. Alternatively, brief separations from dams for 15min were associated with intact spatial memory, lower levels of anxiety, and no preference for either learning strategy in both sexes. These results provide evidence of sex-specific effects of trait anxiety and early maternal separation on the choice of learning strategy used by prepubertal rodents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thoresen, John C; Francelet, Rebecca; Coltekin, Arzu; Richter, Kai-Florian; Fabrikant, Sara I; Sandi, Carmen
Navigation through an environment is a fundamental human activity. Although group differences in navigational ability are documented (e.g., gender), little is known about traits that predict these abilities. Apart from a well-established link between mental rotational abilities and navigational learning abilities, recent studies point to an influence of trait anxiety on the formation of internal cognitive spatial representations. However, it is unknown whether trait anxiety affects the processing of information obtained through externalized representations such as maps. Here, we addressed this question by taking into account emerging evidence indicating impaired performance in executive tasks by high trait anxiety specifically in individuals with lower executive capacities. For this purpose, we tested 104 male participants, previously characterised on trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, on a newly-designed map-based route learning task, where participants matched routes presented dynamically on a city map to one presented immediately before (same/different judgments). We predicted an interaction between trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, specifically that performance in the route learning task would be negatively affected by anxiety in participants with low mental rotation ability. Importantly, and as predicted, an interaction between anxiety and mental rotation ability was observed: trait anxiety negatively affected participants with low-but not high-mental rotation ability. Our study reveals a detrimental role of trait anxiety in map-based route learning and specifies a disadvantage in the processing of map representations for high-anxious individuals with low mental rotation abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mehmed Yuksel Halil
Full Text Available This review summarizes the etiology, the species and the prevalence of pathoethological processes of psychic nature in sheltered dogs. The analysis was performed on the mandatory necessity of establishing the type of the dog’s temperament, in relation to the owners’ proper approach towards the specific animal, as well as its successful primary and secondary socialisation. A neurotic dog may exhibit chronic anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, obsessive behavior, and inappropriate responses to stimuli. Truly psychotic dogs, however, are deranged. Their behavior is acute and unpredictable.
Full Text Available Antecedentes/objetivos: El State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI es uno de los instru- mentos de evaluación más empleados por psicólogos en todo el mundo y el séptimo más utilizado por psicólogos clínicos en Espa ̃ na. Desde su creación, se han llevado a cabo varias versiones breves del mismo; pese a ello, no existe ninguna para población general con mues- tra espa ̃ nola. El objetivo del presente artículo es establecer y validar una versión breve. Método: Para ello, se aplicó el STAI completo a 1.157 adultos y 30 pacientes con trastorno de ansiedad generalizada. Mediante dichos grupos, se realizó un análisis discriminante. Resultados: Para la ansiedad estado y rasgo, respectivamente, se obtuvieron reducciones de cuatro ítems y se compararon con otras versiones breves mediante análisis factorial confirmato- rio. La versión establecida mediante análisis discriminante muestra el mejor ajuste en muestra espa ̃ nola. Conclusiones: estos ocho ítems pueden ser usados para facilitar la evaluación de la ansiedad estado y rasgo.
Török, Lilla; Szabó, Zsolt Péter; Boda-Ujlaky, Judit
Jones and Berglas (1978) define self-handicapping as any action or choice of performance setting that enhances the opportunity to externalize (or excuse) failure and to internalize (reasonably accept credit for) success (p. 406). The present study examined the role of potential precursors in the self-handicapping process. A total of 626 undergraduates from various Hungarian universities completed measures of dispositional self-handicapping, self-esteem, self-conscious emotions, trait anxiety,...
Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Kolakowski, Artur; Pisula, Agnieszka; Liwska, Monika; Zlotkowska, Malgorzata; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryliska, Anita
To evaluate anxiety level (as a trait and as a state) and the intensity of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with hyperkinetic disorder (HD) and with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD); to determine the relationship between the intensity of anxiety and depression and intensity of symptoms of HD. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and STAI questionnaire to measure state-trait anxiety were filled by 24 mothers of children with HD and 26 mothers of children without HD. Mothers of children with HD were also asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Parents and Teachers (IOWA). Teachers were asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Teachers (RCTS). 75% of HD subjects had a comorbid CD, in comparison with 19.2 % in the control group. No significant differences were found between the mothers of children with HD and the control group in the results of BDI scale and STAI questionnaire in anxiety state and anxiety trait subscales. The difference was found between mothers of children with CD and without CD in anxiety-state subscale in STAI questionnaire. No correlations were found between the number of depressive symptoms, anxiety as a state and as a trait and the results of Conners IOWA and RCTS. The presence of HD in children does not correlate with the level of depression and anxiety in their mothers. There is a relationship between the presence of CD in children and elevated levels of state anxiety in their mothers.
Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S; Winefield, Helen R; Baker, Robert A; Turnbull, Deborah A; Denollet, Johan
The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity. Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire and a measure of Type D personality traits. Postoperative cardiac morbidity was confirmed after surgery during the index hospitalization and included stroke,renal failure, ventilation>24 h, deep sternal wound infection, reoperation, arrhythmia and 30-day mortality at any location (n=59, 37.3% of total). After adjustment for age, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertension, urgency of surgery and time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass generalized anxiety disorder was associated with cardiac morbidity (odds ratio [OR]=3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-9.67, p=0.03). Adjusted analysis of personality traits revealed the NA component of Type D personality was associated with cardiac morbidity (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, p=0.03). The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire subscales were not associated with increased morbidity risk. Affective disorders, affective phenotypes, and personality traits were differentially associated with post-cardiac surgery morbidity outcomes independent of cardiac surgery morbidity risk factors. Concurrent investigation of depression and anxiety with respect to cardiac outcomes warrants further research. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Background The impact of psychological factors is often taken into account in the evaluation of quality of life. However, the effect of optimism and trait anxiety remains controversial and they are rarely studied simultaneously. We aimed to study the effect of this factor on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients after a hospitalization in relation with their chronic disease. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the SATISQOL cohort, we conducted a multicentric study, including patients hospitalized for an intervention in connection with their chronic disease. Six months after hospitalization, patients completed a generic HRQOL questionnaire (SF-36), and the STAI and LOT-R questionnaires to evaluate optimism and trait anxiety. We studied the effect of each trait on HRQOL separately, and simultaneously, taking account of their interaction in 3 models, using an ANOVA. Results In this study, 1529 patients were included in three participating hospitals and there existed wide diversity in the chronic diseases in our population. The HRQOL score increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 15,8 and 44,5 when the level of anxiety decreased (p anxiety on HRQOL and increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 3.1 and 12.7 with increasing level of optimism (anxiety and optimism on HRQOL, and their interaction, the HRQOL score for all dimensions of the SF36 increased when the level of anxiety decreased (p anxiety and optimism was significant for the Social Functioning dimension (p = 0.0021). Conclusions Optimism and trait anxiety appeared to be significantly correlated with HRQOL. Furthermore, an interaction existed between the trait anxiety and optimism for some dimensions of SF36. Contrary to optimism, it seems essential to evaluate trait anxiety in future studies about HRQOL, since it could represent a confounding factor. PMID:23914779
Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Coghlan, Michelle; Vigod, Simone
This study assessed the stability of maternal anxiety and concordance between State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores in the immediate postpartum period to 8 weeks postpartum. A population-based sample of 522 mothers completed the STAI at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the 1-week STAI in relation to identifying mothers with elevated STAI scores at 4 and 8 weeks was determined. Predictive power of the STAI was further assessed using odds ratios and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. At 1 week postpartum, 22.6% of mothers scored >40 on the STAI, decreasing to 17.2% at 4 weeks and 14.8% at 8 weeks. Using the cut-off score of >40, the 1-week STAI accurately classified 84.0% mothers at 4 weeks and 83.6% at 8 weeks with or without anxiety symptomatology. The 1-week STAI was significantly correlated to the 4-week (r=0.68, p40 were 15.2 times more likely at 4 weeks (95% CI=8.9-26.1) and 14.0 times more likely at 8 weeks (95% CI=7.9-24.8) to exhibit postpartum anxiety symptomatology. Psychiatric interviews were not completed in collaboration with the STAI and specific types of anxiety disorders were not identified. A cut-off score of >40 on the STAI administered early in the postpartum period is recommended in a 2-phase identification program in order to not miss mothers with postpartum anxiety. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Blázquez, M A; Ávila-Villanueva, M; López-Pina, J A; Zea-Sevilla, M A; Frades-Payo, B
Anxiety has negative effects on the cognitive performance and psychosocial adjustment of elderly people. Given the high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in patients suffering from cognitive impairment, it has been suggested that these symptoms may be an early marker of dementia. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is one of the most widely-used scales for evaluating anxiety in elderly people. However, inasmuch as the STAI may be difficult to apply to older people, having a short form of it would be desirable. The participants comprised 489 community-dwelling individuals aged 68 years and over. All of them were volunteers in a longitudinal study for early detection of Alzheimer' Disease (Proyecto Vallecas). The full sample was divided in two homogeneous subgroups: Group A, used to reduce the number of items and response options, and Group B, the group used to determine the psychometric properties of the new short form (STAIr). A dichotomous Rasch model was used to obtain the STAIr. No statistically significant differences for STAIr scores were found with respect to sociodemographic variables. Psychometric properties and normative data were obtained for the new short version. The STAIr is composed of 13 items and data fits the model well. Since it is short and easy to apply to elderly people, STAIr will be very useful in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Witteborg, Kristin M.; Lowe, Patricia A.; Lee, Steven W.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship among different dimensions of trait anxiety (social concerns, physiological anxiety, and worry/oversensitivity), demographic variables (age and gender), and school adjustment (attitude to school and attitude to teachers) in children and adolescents. The study participants,…
Ruiz, R H
Constructivism, more than a posture or a school concept, is a specific feature of the psychic process. The term "specific" needs to be understood taking into account two senses. On the one hand, as a first sense, one must consider it as something inherent to the psychic process. On the other, as a second sense, it means that constructivism in the psychic process has distinctive characteristics: and this make it differ from the concept of constructivism applied in other fields. The fact of considering the psychism as a "construction" lets explain those mental productions such as art and science; as well as madness and crime: possibilities and risks of that construction.
... Aging & Health A to Z Anxiety Basic Facts & Information What is anxiety and what are anxiety disorders? Sometimes a little ... in up to 40% of patients with COPD. Anxiety is often a sign of an underlying depressive disorder. Updated: November 2016 Posted: March ... Share this page with ...
Seyed Alireza Mirsane; Davood Kheirkhah; Shima Shafagh; Neda Mirbagher Ajorpaz; Javad Aminpour
Background and Objectives: Patients experience moderate to high level of anxiety before general surgery. There are differences in studies on the effect of listening Quran to decrease anxiety in general surgery patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vaghe'a Surah and its translation on the state - trait anxiety before general surgeries. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial study, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to the ex...
Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to ﬁnd the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% conﬁdence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress
Full Text Available High trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Like the disorders themselves high trait anxiety has marked phenotypic variation at the level of symptomatology and neural circuits, suggesting that there may be different symptoms and distinct neural circuits associated with risk for these disorders. To address these issues, it is essential to develop reliable animal models of trait anxiety in a non-human primate whose brain bears structural and functional similarity to humans. The present study investigated individual variation in responsivity to fearful and anxiety provoking stimuli in the common marmoset monkey. Seven out of 27 animals failed to display discriminative, conditioned cardiovascular and behavioral responses on an auditory fear discrimination task, similar to that seen in high anxious humans and rodents. Their heightened emotionality to a rubber snake was consistent with the hypothesis that they were high in trait-like anxiety. Evidence for phenotypic variation in the high anxiety group was provided by the finding that discrimination failure was predicted early in conditioning by either hyper-vigilant scanning to the cues or a reduction in blood pressure to the context, i.e. test apparatus. Given that high trait anxiety in humans can be associated with altered prefrontal cognitive functioning and previously we implicated the marmoset anterior orbitofrontal (antOFC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC in negative emotion regulation, we also tested the marmosets on two tests of cognitive flexibility differentially dependent on these two regions. While the high anxious group did not differ overall in their perseverative performance, the two distinct phenotypes were differentially correlated with reduced perseverative responding on the OFC- and vlPFC-dependent flexibility tests. Together, this study provides a new model of trait anxiety in marmosets amenable to analysis of phenotypic variation and
Divisive personal issues will continue to impede the formulation of a coherent national energy policy until we come to grips with the disagreements and anxieties behind the issues. Variations in individual anxiety profiles and limited knowledge are the major sources of conflict. A structured approach for analyzing psychic costs in the risk-cost-benefit analyses of energy options focuses on the electric-utility industry. Coupling psychic costs with economic costs requires an understanding of how social values interact to produce either risk acceptance or risk rejection. A review of the literature shows that people experiencing a continuous anxiety state may come to value the focus of their fear as a policy issue more than on loss of life. Public reaction after the Three Mile Island accident illustrates this condition. Personal bias in risk perception is variable partly because of differences in information. Information and personal values, however, can be mutually incompatible and lead to psychic conflicts. Proponents of soft energy technology, for example, are criticized for their lack of information about the associated risks and not credited for the psychic benefits of their goals. 58 references. (DCK)
Full Text Available Background: Obesity affects the cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions and usually produces mood and anxiety disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR on promoting quality of life and decreasing anxiety among the obese women. Materials and Methods: In this pre-post-test designed experimental study with a 2 mouth follow- up, 24 obese women (BMI≥30 were randomly selected in the Obesity Treatment Center in (Tehran, Iran and assigned in Experimental and Control groups. Data were collected using the questionnaires of anxiety of Spiel-Berger (1970 and quality of life of Viyear (1988. The MBSR interventions of Kabat-Zinn were performed for experimental group in 8 sessions, followed by the assessment of anxiety and quality of life. Results: The pre- post-test and follow- up scores for quality of life of participants in MBSR program, in terms of general health; physical limitations; physical function; social function; state anxiety and trait anxiety were: (7.66±0.88, 9.50±1.67, 9.58±1.66; (22.83±1.58, 27.91±1.16, 27±1.53; (4.50±0.67, 6.16±1.11, 5±0.95; (2.91± 0.28, 5.91±0.66, 5.75±0.38; (52.25±3.51, 43.08±2.39, 44±2.29 and (68.08±1.78, 46.75±1.71, 47.25±2, respectively. The scores of quality of life was significantly increased in participants in MBSR compared to the Control group (P<0.01. In addition, the scores of state and trait anxiety were significantly decreased (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results of research provide some evidence to suggest that MBSR is an appropriate therapy for promoting quality of life and decreasing anxiety in obese women.
Rydén, A; Sullivan, M; Torgerson, J S; Karlsson, J; Lindroos, A-K; Taft, C
The primary purpose was to assess personality trait differences between the severely obese seeking treatment and a mainly non-obese reference group. We also investigated gender differences and differences between obese patients and obese not seeking treatment. Personality traits were assessed using 7 of 15 scales from the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP): Somatic Anxiety, Muscular Tension, Psychastenia, Psychic Anxiety, Monotony Avoidance, Impulsiveness, and Irritability. Patients from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) intervention study (n=3270, ages 37-57, 71% women) and the SOS reference study (n=1135, 54% women) completed the survey. Data presented in this study were gathered prior to treatment. Significance tests and effects sizes were calculated. Although statistically significant differences were found between obese patients and reference subjects on nearly all personality traits, effect sizes were at most moderate. Of the three scales with moderate effects sizes, differences on Somatic Anxiety and Psychastenia could be traced to items tapping condition-specific symptoms, e.g., problems with sweating and breathing as indicators of Somatic Anxiety. Moderate differences on the Impulsiveness scale (men alone) could not be explained by item composition. Further, the obese patients differed from obese in the reference group, and both obese and reference women reported significantly higher levels on Somatic Anxiety, Muscular Tension and Psychic Anxiety compared to men (effect size: small). Our results provided no evidence of a general obese personality profile, instead considerable heterogeneity in personality traits was observed across our obese samples (treatment seekers vs non-seekers, men vs women) and generally only small differences were noted compared to a reference study population. Further research is needed to investigate if the somewhat elevated levels of Impulsiveness, particularly among male obese patients, is affected by weight loss. When
Cao, Yang; Liu, Zhengkui
As previous research utilizing Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y; STAI-Y) has mostly involved adults or clinical groups, there have been relatively few reports assessing adolescents. This study is the first using data for children and adolescents in mainland China, from a large-scale cross-sectional survey in Beijing (Sample 1) and a longitudinal survey from the Wenchuan 512 earthquake (Sample 2), to clarify the factor structure and factorial invariance of the STAI-Y, Mandarin Chinese version. As a result, only in Sample 1 did a comparison of 11 confirmatory factor analysis models indicate the best goodness-of-fit indices shown by a two-factor structure for both state and trait anxiety, with both models reaching the selected cutoff criteria. These two optimal models were used in a subsequent simultaneous confirmatory factor analysis to test four conditions of factorial invariance, using eight participant groups divided on the basis of sex and school grade (fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh to ninth). The two-factor structure state and trait anxiety models achieved the cutoff criteria for factorial invariance, with the exception of male fourth graders. Further, it was clearly shown that in comparison with the early stage of puberty, as puberty advanced the absence of state and trait anxiety gradually decreased, while scores for the presence of anxiety gradually increased. At the same time, in the case of Sample 2, which had experienced a traumatic event, as the goodness-of-fit indices for none of the 11 models reached the cutoff criteria, the factor scores showed arbitrariness and a lack of objectivity. The authors conclude that cognitive structure with regard to the STAI-Y may change with traumatic experience or the development of secondary sex characteristics at the onset of or in the stage of puberty. Also, computing the scores according to the STAI-Y manual is problematic. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and
Miyasaka, L S; Atallah, A N; Soares, B G O
valerian and placebo groups in HAM-A total scores, or in somatic and psychic factor scores. Similarly, there were no significant differences in HAM-A scores between the valerian and diazepam groups, although based on STAI-Trait scores, significantly greater symptom improvement was indicated in the diazepam group. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the number of patients reporting side effects or in dropout rates. Since only one small study is currently available, there is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions about the efficacy or safety of valerian compared with placebo or diazepam for anxiety disorders. RCTs involving larger samples and comparing valerian with placebo or other interventions used to treat of anxiety disorders, such as antidepressants, are needed.
Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of psychic problems of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory motor system disease with comprehensive impact on the patient's life. The disease is often considered an exclusively physical disease. But such approach is insufficient because the disease is accompanied by motor limitations of different intensities, by pain and by fatigue that cause considerable exhaustion to the patient. The patients often must give up their hobbies and in some cases even their jobs. In most serious cases, even common daily activities including self–servicing actions become an obstacle to the patient. It is therefore logical that the psyche of a patient with such disease is considerably strained. One of the partial goals of the study consisted in mapping the subjectively perceived quality of life of rheumatoid arthritis patients in facet 8, "negative feelings", and in ascertaining whether there is statistically significant relation to facets 1, "pain and discomfort", and 2, "energy and fatigue". Another goal consisted in comparing the subjectively perceived quality of life between men and women with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as between population of rheumatoid arthritis patients and control healthy population. The study was implemented within the research project of the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice number 120/2012/S, „Reflection of quality of life in nursing", under use of two standardized questionnaires, WHOQOL–100 and HAQ. This article presents exclusively the data acquired based on the WHOQOL–100 questionnaire. The research set consisted of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis from all over the Czech Republic. The size of the set was determined by a statistician at 200 individuals suffering from the disease, in a ratio of 150 women and 50 men. The selection set was derived from the basic set of rheumatoid arthritis patients and
Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of psychic problems of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory motor system disease with comprehensive impact on the patient's life. The disease is often considered an exclusively physical disease. But such approach is insufficient because the disease is accompanied by motor limitations of different intensities, by pain and by fatigue that cause considerable exhaustion to the patient. The patients often must give up their hobbies and in some cases even their jobs. In most serious cases, even common daily activities including self-servicing actions become an obstacle to the patient. It is therefore logical that the psyche of a patient with such disease is considerably strained. One of the partial goals of the study consisted in mapping the subjectively perceived quality of life of rheumatoid arthritis patients in facet 8, "negative feelings", and in ascertaining whether there is statistically significant relation to facets 1, "pain and discomfort", and 2, "energy and fatigue". Another goal consisted in comparing the subjectively perceived quality of life between men and women with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as between population of rheumatoid arthritis patients and control healthy population. The study was implemented within the research project of the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice number 120/2012/S, "Reflection of quality of life in nursing", under use of two standardized questionnaires, WHOQOL-100 and HAQ. This article presents exclusively the data acquired based on the WHOQOL-100 questionnaire. The research set consisted of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis from all over the Czech Republic. The size of the set was determined by a statistician at 200 individuals suffering from the disease, in a ratio of 150 women and 50 men. The selection set was derived from the basic set of rheumatoid arthritis patients and can
Kepka, Sabrina; Baumann, Cédric; Anota, Amélie; Buron, Gaelle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Auquier, Pascal; Guillemin, Francis; Mercier, Mariette
The impact of psychological factors is often taken into account in the evaluation of quality of life. However, the effect of optimism and trait anxiety remains controversial and they are rarely studied simultaneously. We aimed to study the effect of this factor on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients after a hospitalization in relation with their chronic disease. Using cross-sectional data from the SATISQOL cohort, we conducted a multicentric study, including patients hospitalized for an intervention in connection with their chronic disease. Six months after hospitalization, patients completed a generic HRQOL questionnaire (SF-36), and the STAI and LOT-R questionnaires to evaluate optimism and trait anxiety. We studied the effect of each trait on HRQOL separately, and simultaneously, taking account of their interaction in 3 models, using an ANOVA. In this study, 1529 patients were included in three participating hospitals and there existed wide diversity in the chronic diseases in our population. The HRQOL score increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 15,8 and 44,5 when the level of anxiety decreased (p optimism (optimism on HRQOL. In the model 3, assessing the effect of both anxiety and optimism on HRQOL, and their interaction, the HRQOL score for all dimensions of the SF36 increased when the level of anxiety decreased (p optimism (p optimism was significant for the Social Functioning dimension (p = 0.0021). Optimism and trait anxiety appeared to be significantly correlated with HRQOL. Furthermore, an interaction existed between the trait anxiety and optimism for some dimensions of SF36. Contrary to optimism, it seems essential to evaluate trait anxiety in future studies about HRQOL, since it could represent a confounding factor.
Amsler, F; Rabe, E; Blättler, W
To assess the somatic and psychic components of venous-type leg symptoms. The psychic versus somatic venous disease questionnaire (PsySoVDQ) was applied to 1,800 participants of the Bonn Vein Study (BVS) II. Factor analysis of the PsySoVDQ made it possible to distinguish a psychic component (PC; 5 items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.73) separate from a somatic component (SC; 4 items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.67). The PC reflected anxiety and inhibition, was prevalent in 39.8% and explained 7.3% of the BVS findings. Higher PC scores were typically found in younger, slim women of higher social status, with feelings of leg heaviness and tension, and reduced psychic quality of life. The SC prevailed in 37.4% and explained 16.5% of BVS findings. Typical SC scorers were older, overweight women with lower social status, more symptoms (including swelling), signs of chronic venous insufficiency, ultrasound-documented venous abnormalities, and reduced multidimensional quality of life. The SC's predictive accuracy for CEAP 2 and 3 (classification according to clinical findings, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) was equal to that of the BVS assessment. The PsySoVDQ identified somatic and psychic components of the widespread and frequently reported leg symptoms in the general population. Nevertheless, in the majority of subjects symptoms remained unexplained. A neuropsychological and neurobiological hypothesis is advanced. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture firstly was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether displayed word was an old or new word? And then, for old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy or neutral face during study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meaned both item and source were remembered accurately between 500 and 700ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC, there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meaned the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution, there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/ new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW, there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for successful
Rector, Neil A; Bagby, Robert Michael; Huta, Veronika; Ayearst, Lindsay E
Structural models of the mood and anxiety disorders postulate that each disorder has a shared component that can account for comorbidity and its own unique component that distinguishes it from others. The principal aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which the 30 facets of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), as measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), contribute to the identification of the unique component in mood and anxiety disorders in treatment-seeking clinical samples. Participants (N=610) were psychiatric outpatients with principal DSM-IV diagnoses (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized social phobia (GSP), panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (PD; PD/A) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results suggest that approximately half of the variance in differences between these diagnoses is associated with specific characteristics represented by the FFM facets. Unique personality profiles for the MDD, GSP, PTSD and, to a lesser extent, OCD groups emerged. Broad traits of the FFM, when broken into more narrow components at the facet level, contribute significantly to the identification of unique aspects associated with specific mood and anxiety disorders. The integration of lower and higher levels of structural examination of the mood and anxiety disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Westlye, Lars T; Bjørnebekk, Astrid; Grydeland, Håkon; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B
Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral response patterns underlying temperament and personality are established early and remain stable from childhood. Anxiety-related traits are associated with psychiatric disease and represent predisposing factors for various affective disorders, including depression and anxiety. Emotional processing relies on the structural and functional integrity of distributed neuronal circuits. Therefore, anxiety-related personality traits and associated increased risk of psychiatric disease might be rooted in structural variability in large-scale neuronal networks. To test the hypothesis that individuals with high scores on the harm avoidance (HA) subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory show reduced white matter (WM) structural integrity in distributed brain areas, including corticolimbic pathways involved in emotional processing and reappraisal. Healthy participants completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to examine the associations between HA and WM integrity across the brain. Center for the Study of Human Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. A total of 263 healthy adults aged 20 to 85 years recruited through newspaper advertisements. Neuroimaging diffusivity indexes of brain WM microstructure, including fractional anisotropy, mean and radial diffusivity, and their associations with HA. In line with our hypothesis, increased HA was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean and radial diffusivity in major WM tracts, including pathways connecting critical hubs in a corticolimbic circuit. There was no evidence of modulating effects of sex, degree of subclinical depression, alcohol consumption, general intellectual abilities, or years of education. Increased HA is associated with decreased WM microstructure, implying that structural connectivity modulates anxiety-related aspects of
Hlavacova, Natasa; Wawruch, Martin; Tisonova, Jana; Jezova, Daniela
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety and menstrual cycle phase on neuroendocrine activation during combined mental and physical stress procedure in 40 healthy female subjects. Women at the upper (anxious) and lower (nonanxious) limits of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale were exposed to the stress procedure consisting of a mental component (Stroop test) and handgrip exercise. Salivary cortisol levels, cardiovascular parameters, and cognitive performance in the Stroop test were evaluated. Stress-induced cortisol levels and the rise in systolic blood pressure were affected by both trait anxiety and menstrual cycle phase. The stress model used induced a significant cortisol elevation only in anxious women in the follicular phase. This group of women also exhibited greater increases in systolic blood pressure in response to handgrip exercise as compared to anxious ones in the luteal phase and to nonanxious women in either phase. In nonanxious women, stress-induced cortisol levels positively correlated with cognitive performance. In contrast, a negative correlation trend was observed in anxious subjects. Thus, in subjects with low but not high trait anxiety, enhanced cortisol concentrations seem to be associated with better cognitive performance. The results suggest that women with high trait anxiety exhibit greater cardiovascular and hormonal sensitivity to stress stimuli during the follicular phase.
The Relationships Between Self-Handicapping Tendency and Narcissistic Personality Traits, Anxiety Sensitivity, Social Support, Academic Achievement/Kendini sabote etme egilimi ile narsistik kisilik özellikleri, anksiyete duyarliligi, sosyal destek ve akademik basari arasindaki iliski
Ayse Kalyon; Ibrahim Dadandi; Hikmet Yazici
.... The main aim of this study is to examine relationships between self-destroying tendency and narcissistic personality traits, anxiety sensitivity, perceived social support and academic achievement...
Lee, Lewina O.; Prescott, Carol A.
Objectives The main goals of this study were: (i) to examine genotypic association of the COMT val158met polymorphism with anxiety-related traits via a meta-analysis; (ii) to examine sex and ethnicity as moderators of the association, and (iii) to evaluate whether the association differed by particular anxiety traits. Methods Association studies of the COMT val18met polymorphism and anxiety traits were identified from the PubMed or PsycInfo databases, conference abstracts and listserv postings. Exclusion criteria were: (a) pediatric samples, (b) exclusively clinical samples, and (c) samples selected for a non-anxiety phenotype. Standardized mean differences in anxiety between genotypes were aggregated to produce mean effect sizes across all available samples, and for subgroups stratified by sex and ethnicity (Caucasians vs. Asians). Construct-specific analysis was conducted to evaluate the association of COMT with neuroticism, harm avoidance, and behavioral inhibition. Results Twenty seven eligible studies (N=15,979) with available data were identified. Overall findings indicate sex-specific and ethnic-specific effects: Val homozygotes had higher neuroticism than Met homozygotes in studies of Caucasian males ( ES¯=0.13, 95%CI: 0.02 – 0.25, p = 0.03), and higher harm avoidance in studies of Asian males ( ES¯=0.43, 95%CI: 0.14 – 0.72, p = 0.004). No significant associations were found in women and effect sizes were diminished when studies were aggregated across ethnicity or anxiety traits. Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides evidence for sex and ethnicity differences in the association of the COMT val158met polymorphism with anxiety traits. Our findings contribute to current knowledge on the relation between prefrontal dopaminergic transmission and anxiety. PMID:24300663
Cottam, William J; Condon, Laura; Alshuft, Hamza; Reckziegel, Diane; Auer, Dorothee P
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) have transformed our understanding of central processing of evoked pain but the typically used block and event-related designs are not best suited to the study of ongoing pain. Here we used arterial spin labelling (ASL) for cerebral blood flow mapping to characterise the neural correlates of perceived intensity of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and its interrelation with negative affect. Twenty-six patients with painful knee OA and twenty-seven healthy controls underwent pain phenotyping and ASL MRI at 3T. Intensity of OA pain correlated positively with blood flow in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), bilateral hippocampi, bilateral amygdala, left central operculum, mid-insula, putamen and the brainstem. Additional control for trait anxiety scores reduced the pain-CBF association to the aMCC, whilst pain catastrophizing scores only explained some of the limbic correlations. In conclusion, we found that neural correlates of reported intensity of ongoing chronic pain intensity mapped to limbic-affective circuits, and that the association pattern apart from aMCC was explained by trait anxiety thus highlighting the importance of aversiveness in the experience of clinical pain.
Luminița Elena ALBERT; Zsolt JAKAB; Sorin POPȘOR
.... The aim of the research was to shed light on the signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disfunction manifested in a group of patients and on their possible association with psycho-emotional characteristics (stress, anxiety...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationship between treatment-seeking for alcohol problems and personality traits could give useful insight in factors promoting or hindering treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between treatment-seeking for AUD, personality traits, and psychiatric co-morbidity in women. The study was based on pooled cross-sectional data from three population based samples and one clinical sample (n = 1,339. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated women with AUD, and between those with resolved and unresolved AUD. Results A stepwise logistic regression model showed that treatment-seeking for AUD was not associated with personality traits. Among women with lifetime AUD (n = 217, those who had been treated (n = 42 had significantly higher scores than untreated women (n = 175 on three personality traits of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP; somatic anxiety, muscular tension, and guilt. Women with resolved AUD, who had received treatment (n = 23 had significantly higher scores on scales measuring somatic anxiety, psychic anxiety, muscular tension, irritability, and guilt than untreated women with resolved AUD. The latter group resembled women without AUD on most personality traits. There were no differences in occurrence of lifetime psychiatric disorders between the treated and the untreated women, whereas treated women with current AUD had increased risk of lifetime anxiety (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–8.7. Conclusion Treatment-seeking was not associated with personality traits in this study. Still, it can be concluded that women with resolved AUD who had received treatment had high scores on the KSP-scales measuring psychic and somatic anxiety, tension, irritability, and feelings of guilt. This suggests that personality assessment might be a useful tool in tailoring individual treatment programs for women with AUD. Future studies need to
Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Mikutta, Christian; Kapusta, Nestor D; Hörz, Susanne; Naderer, Andrea; Thierry, Nikolaus; Leithner-Dziubas, Katharina; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Aigner, Martin
The study investigates the psychic structure and psychiatric comorbidity of chronic pain patients according to Kernberg's concept of personality organization. We assessed 48 chronic pain patients attending the Behavioural Medicine Pain Clinic in the Department of Psychiatry. Patients were diagnosed using the SCID (DSM-IV). Psychic structure was assessed using the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). At least one psychiatric diagnosis was found in 94 % of the patients, and 63 % of the patients met the criteria of at least one diagnosis of a personality disorder. In 58 % of the patients, we diagnosed a borderline personality organization, with high deficits in the dimensions of coping, defence mechanisms and identity. The high prevalence of borderline personality organization confirms the importance of a diagnostic investigation of the psychic structure and the necessity for psychotherapeutic treatment in chronic pain patients.
Beginning with Freud's concept of psychic reality as the product of external events and the patient's unconscious fantasies, the author suggests that projective identification, as described by Klein, gives an account of how these two elements combine to produce one's psychic reality. The transference is an aspect of psychic reality that represents a confusion between the patient and one of his or her objects--the analyst--brought about by projective identification. A clinical example illustrates how the patient's transformation of the analyst's interpretations through projective identification contributes to the transference. Analysis of the transference in the analytic relationship allows patients to experience their role in the formation of their experience of the world, "live" and as it happens. This promotes the integration of the patient's personality. The author compares this approach with other approaches to the transference.
Vogel, Heike; Kraemer, Maria; Rabasa, Cristina; Askevik, Kaisa; Adan, Roger A H; Dickson, Suzanne L
Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of these behavioural traits. Rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to develop an obese phenotype (Sprague-Dawley, Obese Prone, Obese Resistant, and Zucker rats) were exposed to a number of behavioural tests starting at the age of 8 weeks. We found a similar phenotype in the obesity susceptible models, Obese Prone and Zucker rats, with a lower locomotor activity, exploratory activity, and higher level of anxiety-like behaviour in comparison to the leaner Obese Resistant strain. We did not find evidence that rat strains with a genetic predisposition to obesity differed in their ability to experience reward from chocolate (in a condition place preference task). However, Zucker rats show higher motivated behaviour for sucrose compared to Obese Resistant rats when the effort required to obtain palatable food is relatively low. Together our data demonstrate that rat strains that differ in their genetic predisposition to develop obesity also differ in their performance in behavioural tests linked to anxiety, exploration, and reward and that these differences are independent of body weight. We conclude that genetic variations which determine body weight and the aforementioned behaviours co-exist but that future studies are required to identify whether (and which) common genes are involved. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
Since its creation the STAI has been cited in more than 14,000 documents, with more than 60 adaptations in different countries. In some adaptations this instrument has no clinical scores. The aim of this work is to determine if the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) has higher scores in patients diagnosed with anxiety than in general population. In addition, we want to examine if the internal consistency is adequate in anxious patient samples. We performed a literature search in Tripdatabase, Cochrane, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, PyscINFO and Scholar Google, for documents published between 2008 y 2012. We selected 131 scientific articles to compare between patients diagnosed with anxiety and general population, and 25 for the generalization of reliability. For the analysis we used Cohen's d for means comparisons (random-effects method) and Cronbach's alpha for the reliability generalization (fixed-effects method). In the groups comparision the differences in state anxiety (d=1.39; CI95%: 1.22-1.56) and in the trait anxiety (d=1.74; CI95%:1.56-1.91) were significants. The reliability for patients of some anxiety disorder was between 0.87 and 0.93. So it seems that the STAI is sensitive to the level of anxiety of the individual and reliable for patients with diagnosis of panic attack, specific phobia, social phobia, generalized social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder or acute Stress disorder.
Tluczek, Audrey; Henriques, Jeffrey B; Brown, Roger L
Identifying the most efficient and theoretically appropriate methods to assess patient anxiety in fast-paced medical environments may be beneficial for clinical purposes as well as for research. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of two previously published six-item versions of the State form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and to identify the version that would be most appropriate to use with a sample of parents who had infants with normal or abnormal newborn screens. In the current study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the fit of the two six-item forms with STAI data collected at three time points from 288 parents of 150 infants. Study groups of parents were based upon infant newborn screens and subsequent diagnostic testing to include cystic fibrosis (CF; n = 26), congenital hypothyroidism (CH; n = 39), CF Carriers (CF-C; n = 45), and healthy infants (H; n = 40). The results showed the version containing items 1, 3, 6, 15, 16, and 17 of the State form of the STAI to be a better fitting model across all three time points, and it had better internal consistency than the version containing items 5, 9, 10, 12, 17, and 20. Both short forms were highly correlated with the 20-item STAI score, and all internal consistency reliabilities were greater than .90. It was concluded that the version containing items 1, 3, 6, 15, 16, and 17 of the State Anxiety scale was a reliable and valid instrument for this study sample.
Conijn, Judith M; Emons, Wilco H M; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Pedersen, Susanne S; Sijtsma, Klaas
Self-report measures are vulnerable to concentration and motivation problems, leading to responses that may be inconsistent with the respondent's latent trait value. We investigated response consistency in a sample (N = 860) of cardiac patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and their partners who completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory on five measurement occasions. For each occasion and for both the state and trait subscales, we used the l (p) z person-fit statistic to assess response consistency. We used multilevel analysis to model the between-person and within-person differences in the repeated observations of response consistency using time-dependent (e.g., mood states) and time-invariant explanatory variables (e.g., demographic characteristics). Respondents with lower education, undergoing psychological treatment, and with more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms tended to respond less consistently. The percentages of explained variance in response consistency were small. Hence, we conclude that the results give insight into the causes of response inconsistency but that the identified explanatory variables are of limited practical value for identifying respondents at risk of producing invalid test results. We discuss explanations for the small percentage of explained variance and suggest alternative methods for studying causes of response inconsistency.
Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H
Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maladaptive Five Factor Model personality traits associated with Borderline Personality Disorder indirectly affect susceptibility to suicide ideation through increased anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns.
Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Greg J; Smith, Caitlin E; Capron, Dan W; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Wingate, LaRicka R
The current study investigated the relationship between maladaptive Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, and suicide ideation in a sample of 131 undergraduate students who were selected based on their scores on a screening questionnaire regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms. Those who endorsed elevated BPD symptoms in a pre-screen analyses completed at the beginning of each semester were oversampled in comparison to those with low or moderate symptoms. Indirect effect (mediation) results indicated that the maladaptive personality traits of anxious/uncertainty, dysregulated anger, self-disturbance, behavioral dysregulation, dissociative tendencies, distrust, manipulativeness, oppositional, and rashness had indirect effects on suicide ideation through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. All of these personality traits correlated to suicide ideation as well. The maladaptive personality traits of despondence, affective dysregulation, and fragility were positive correlates of suicide ideation and predicted suicide ideation when all traits were entered in one linear regression model, but were not indirectly related through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The implication for targeting anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns in evidence-based practices for reducing suicide risk in those with BPD is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not ...
Tsenkova, Vera K.; Albert, Michelle A.; Georgiades, Anastasia; Ryff, Carol D.
Aims We examined whether the relationship between anxiety and indicators of glucose metabolism in people without diabetes varies by race and gender. Methods Participants were 914 adults (777 white, 137 black) without diabetes in the MIDUS II study. Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. Hierarchical linear regressions stratified by race and gender examined whether anxiety was associated with glucose metabolism. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, positive relationships between anxiety and fasting glucose (p=.04), insulin (p=.01), and HOMA-IR (p=.02) but not HbA1c, were observed in black women only. Conclusions Our findings extend prior evidence about the links between psychosocial vulnerabilities and impaired glucose metabolism in black women, by documenting significant associations between anxiety and clinical indicators of glycemic control among black women without diabetes. Thus, anxiety might constitute an intervention target in black women, a subgroup disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes, its complications, and premature mortality. PMID:22587407
Havland, Ida; Lundholm, Cecilia; Lichtenstein, Paul; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Walum, Hasse; Reiss, David; Almqvist, Catarina
Background Previous studies indicate that maternal anxiety is associated with asthma in the adolescent child, but mechanisms are unclear. Objective To investigate the association between maternal anxiety and maternal, self- and register-based report of asthma in the adolescent child, and whether the association remains after control of familial confounding (shared environmental and genetic factors). Method From the Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden, 1691 mothers (1058 twins) and their adolescent child were included. The association between maternal self-reported anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) somatic or psychic anxiety) and asthma based on subjective (maternal or child report) or objective (register-based diagnosis and medication) measures were analysed using logistic regression. The children-of-twins design was used to explore whether genes or environment contribute to the association. Results Maternal BAI anxiety (OR 2.02, CI 1.15–3.55) was significantly associated with adolescent asthma reported by the mother. Maternal KSP somatic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.04–2.91) and psychic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.05–2.86) was significantly associated with breathlessness reported by the adolescent child. In contrast, maternal anxiety was not associated with increased risk for the register-based outcomes of asthma diagnosis or medication. The results remained also after adjusting for covariates and the children-of-twins analyses which indicate that the association was due to familial confounding. Conclusions We found some associations between maternal anxiety and subjectively reported offspring asthma or breathlessness which may be due to familial effects. A likely candidate for explaining this familial confounding is heritable personality traits associated with both anxiety and subjective measures of asthma. PMID:23776601
Guénolé, F; Louis, J; Creveuil, C; Montlahuc, C; Baleyte, J-M; Fourneret, P; Revol, O
Intellectually gifted children are often thought to display a high risk for psychopathology. However, this assertion has received only few direct arguments to date, and there is in fact a lack of knowledge on this subject. The aim of this study was to compare trait-anxiety - which is considered as a sensitive and early indicator of psychoaffective difficulties in children - in intellectually gifted children to the norm. One hundred and eleven children aged 8 to 12 and with an intellectual quotient (IQ) higher than 129 participated in the study. They were recruited in a hospital department of child and adolescent psychiatry and through psychologists' private practice, where they attended consultation because of academic underachievement and/or social maladjustment. All the children were examined by trained psychiatrists and psychologists: none had a present or past medical or psychiatric condition and, additionally, none had an elevated score on the French version of the Children's Depressive Rating Scale Revised (Moor & Mack, 1982). Parents filled in a questionnaire for the collection of socio-demographic data and children answered the French version of the Revised-Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS; Reynolds, 1999), a 37-items self-assessment of trait-anxiety, the psychometric properties of which have been validated in children with high IQ. Mean scores and subscores on the R-CMAS in the whole studied group and as a function of gender and age were compared to French normative data (Reynolds, 1999) by calculation of 95% confidence intervals; subgroups were compared using Student's t-tests. Proportions of children who's score and subscores exceeded anxiety cut-off norms were compared to normative data using chi-square tests. Statistical significance was considered at the Pgiftedness constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology. The studied group was a clinical one, which could limit the generalisation of the results. However, mental disorders were ruled out
As the psychic life of reading is imbued with desire, transferences and other forms of emotional turbulence, readers invariably and often unconsciously project their anxieties, hopes and worries onto the lives of fictional characters. Using the lens of psychoanalytic theory, this article explores the meanings produced in the convergence of teacher…
Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B
Anxiety disorders (separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalised anxiety disorder) are common and disabling conditions that mostly begin during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. They differ from developmentally normative or stress-induced transient anxiety by being marked (ie, out of proportion to the actual threat present) and persistent, and by impairing daily functioning. Most anxiety disorders affect almost twice as many women as men. They often co-occur with major depression, alcohol and other substance-use disorders, and personality disorders. Differential diagnosis from physical conditions-including thyroid, cardiac, and respiratory disorders, and substance intoxication and withdrawal-is imperative. If untreated, anxiety disorders tend to recur chronically. Psychological treatments, particularly cognitive behavioural therapy, and pharmacological treatments, particularly selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-noradrenaline-reuptake inhibitors, are effective, and their combination could be more effective than is treatment with either individually. More research is needed to increase access to and to develop personalised treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria Teresa de Melo Carvalho
perspective in which Freud's conceptual contributions to the definition of the traumatic neuroses are presented. Next, the points of view of early psychoanalysts, especially Sandor Ferenczi and Karl Abraham, on the subject are taken into consideration. The contribution of Jean Laplanche's theory of generalized seduction to the understanding of the concept of trauma in psychoanalysis closes the theoretical part of the article. Two clinical reports are presented as illustrations of the main ideas defended by the author, according to which every anxiety created by a traumatic event always brings about anxiety due to the internal violence of the sexual drive. This hypothesis is entirely based on Freud's ideas about anxiety, which have been adopted by Laplanche.
Full Text Available This study intends to characterize psychic atmosphere as a psychic development factor in pregnant teenagers. The case research in a qualitative approach was used within the framework of the clinical psychoanalytic method. 6 pregnant teenagers with ages between 14 and 17 years, from a low socio-economic level were chosen, whose pregnancies were not a result of sexual abuse and who belonged to the “Pregnant and breastfeeding mothers” of the Tunjuelito Secretary for Social Integration’s Local subdirection in Bogotá. Three in-depth interviews were carried out with each individual.The psychic atmosphere of the pregnant teenagers has contributed tostopping psychic development altogether in 5 cases, and to its deterioration in the other case.
Navarro-Francés, Concepción I; Arenas, M Carmen
The influence of anxiety on the effects of acute stress for the acquisition and retention of passive avoidance conditioned task was evaluated in male and female mice. Animals were categorized as high-, medium-, and low-anxiety according to their performance in the elevated plus-maze test. Subsequently, half of the mice in each group were exposed to an acute stressor and assayed in an aversive conditioning test two days later. Exposure to restraint stress before inhibitory avoidance conditioning had a differential impact on the conditioned response of males and females according to their trait anxiety. The acute stressor significantly altered the conditioned response of mice with a high-anxiety level. The long-term effect of the stressor varied for each sex; high-anxiety stressed males showed an enhanced conditioned response with respect to their controls, whereas high-anxiety stressed females presented an impaired performance. These results lead us to believe that the characterization of individuality is an important factor in understanding the interaction between stress and memory for each sex; the trait anxiety of our animals modulated the effects of stress on the conditioned response so that males and females performed in contrasting manners to the same environmental stimuli and experimental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeniffer Ortega Marín
Full Text Available Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110 using the dot-probe task. This study did not reveal an effect of trait anxiety on selective attention towards threatening stimuli. However, a significant difference was found between participants with low state anxiety and high state anxiety. Nevertheless, the effect size was small. Specifically, participants with low state anxiety showed a bias towards threatening stimuli. Overall, the findings of this research with a non-clinical sample of school children suggest that attentional biases towards threatening information, which has been repeatedly found in anxious adults, are not necessarily inherent to non-clinical anxiety in children and on the other hand, the relationship between attentional biases and anxiety in this population might be moderated by other cognitive processes.
Wojciechowska, Anna; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Studzińska, Katarzyna; Swidziński, Piotr
The case of 17 year old boy with mutational falsetto conditioned by a complex of psychic factors particulary with personality disorders and strong emotional bond with his mother was described. Phonation exercises lowered the average voice pitch. The stable results of phoniatric rehabilitation is dependent on effectiveness of psychological therapy of the whole family. Acoustic voice analysis demonstrates objectively the results of rehabilitation.
Pol, A.J.J. van de; Derksen, J.J.L.
In the introduction to his Allgemeine Psychopathologie, published in 1913, Karl Jaspers stated that psychology has little value for the psychopathologist because it focuses on all kinds of interesting matters, but not on normal psychic life. In this article we argue that today, in the year 2013,
Azar, Goudarz; Drogendijk, Rian
Previous research suggests that internationalization improves a firm's ability to innovate, but the effect of internationalizing into specific target markets or destinations on the innovation ability of firms has not been fully investigated. This study examined whether the psychic distance between
Moore, Rod; Jensen, Christina Gundlev; Andersen, Line Bæk
Explanatory models of co-morbid traits related to dental anxiety (DA) as described in the literature were tested and relative strengths analyzed in two groups of Danish adults, one with psychiatric diagnoses (n = 108) and the other healthy incoming patients at a large dental school teaching clinic...... (n = 151). Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and self-report measures representing three co-morbidity explanatory models, 1) presence of other fears; 2) anxiety sensitivity and 3) feelings of vulnerability specific to dental treatment, were collected in subscales of a 53-item questionnaire. Other items.......) versus lower or no anxiety. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses were three times more likely to have high DA and nearly two times more likely to have avoided dental treatment >2 yr.; 25.9% reported extreme DA, compared to 9.3% of controls. Models of high general fear levels, predisposing anxiety...
Sadigh, Micah R.; Himmanen, Sharon A.; Scepansky, James A.
A number of empirical studies have established that insomnia, poor or inefficient sleep, can significantly impact physical and psychological well-being of college students, as well as interfere with their academic success. A major contributor to the experience of insomnia is that of persistent anxiety. In this study, we investigated the prevalence…
Mental disorders appear to be on the rise among college students and are having a significant effect on their attrition, with anxiety identified as one of the most common presenting issues. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the relationships between separation individuation and the early maladaptive schema of approval seeking with…
The relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students; impact of negative affect and personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion.
Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Ozen, Secil; Evren, Bilge
The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion, anxiety and depression symptoms in a sample of Turkish university students (n=455). Participants were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Severity of social anxiety, depression, anxiety and neuroticism were higher among those with probable ADHD, whereas extraversion score did not differ between the groups. The severity of ADHD score, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity score, was related with the "fear or anxiety" together with low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism dimensions of personality, whereas the severity of ADHD score, both inatentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores, was related with "avoidence" together with low extraversion (introversion) dimension of personality. These findings suggest that probable ADHD and severity of ADHD symptoms are related with both "fear or anxiety" and "avoidance" of social anxiety, while personality dimensions of low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism may have an effect on this relationships among young adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bulgan, Cigdem; Odabas, Hatice Ilhan; Dal, Suzan; Meçu, Elif; Aydin, Mensure
The purpose of this study was the evaluation of state and trait anxiety levels of students in Halic University, School of Physical Education and Sports, during final exams according to their age, department and year in school. For this research, 469 students (mean age 21,17 ± 2,27) studying in 2014-2015 spring term were chosen randomly. As data…
Birtürk, Atilay; Karagün, Elif
The purpose of this study is to examine whether recreational activities have an effect on the elimination of state-trait anxiety of the students who will take the "SBS Placement Test" which is an exam for transition from secondary school to high school. For this purpose, as well as an information survey which determined the…
Bij, A.K. van der; Weerd, S. de; Cikot, R.J.L.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Braspenning, J.C.C.
OBJECTIVE: To validate the six-item short form of the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for usage in screening outcomes in a Dutch population receiving preconception counseling. METHODS: Men and women completed the 20-item full form of the STAI before (n = 310) and
Attentional Orientation Patterns toward Emotional Faces and Temperamental Correlates of Preschool Oppositional Defiant Problems: The Moderating Role of Callous-Unemotional Traits and Anxiety Symptoms.
Susa Erdogan, Georgiana; Benga, Oana; Marină, Crina
The present study examined the independent contributions and the interaction effects of oppositional defiant problems (ODD), callous unemotional traits (CU) and anxiety symptoms on attentional orienting to emotional faces, in a community sample of preschoolers. Additionally, based on Rothbart's (2007) model of temperament, we analyzed whether fine-grained dimensions of reactivity (fear, anger, discomfort, sadness, activity level, approach, high intensity pleasure, impulsivity) and self-regulation (attentional shifting, attentional focusing, inhibitory control), as well as the higher order temperamental factors of negative affectivity, surgency and effortful control are associated with CU traits and ODD-related problems. Attentional orienting to emotional faces was assessed with pictorial Dot-probe task, while teachers rated CU traits and ODD-related problems. Also, parents reported on ODD-related problems, anxiety and temperament. Results indicated significant interaction effects between ODD-related problems and CU, as well as between CU and anxiety, in predicting attentional orientation patterns for angry, fearful and happy faces. Moreover, temperamental reactivity was positively associated with CU traits and ODD-related problems, whereas temperamental self-regulation was negatively related to CU traits and ODD-related problems. Results of this study have implications for early intervention and prevention approaches targeting preschool oppositional defiant problems.
Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja
Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.
Full Text Available The impact was investigated of the intensity of a fear appeal, the valence of the medium context, and the individuals' trait anxiety and personal relevance on the responses of 197 individuals to anti-speeding advertisements. A high level of fear attracts more attention. A negative valence context leads to a more positive anti-speeding attitude. The most important moderating effect of trait anxiety is that the attitude is more positive when low-anxiety individuals are exposed to high fear appeals in a context with negative valence than in a positive context. These results were largely replicated for drivers, but not for non-drivers for whom there was only an attention-getting effect of high fear appeal. Theoretical and practical implications for anti-speeding campaigning are discussed.
Full Text Available Behavioral endophenotypes are determined by a multitude of counteracting but precisely balanced molecular and physiological mechanisms. In this study, we aim to identify potential novel molecular targets that contribute to the multigenic trait "anxiety". We used microarrays to investigate the gene expression profiles of different brain regions within the limbic system of mice which were selectively bred for either high (HAB or low (LAB anxiety-related behavior, and also show signs of comorbid depression-like behavior. We identified and confirmed sex-independent differences in the basal expression of 13 candidate genes, using tissue from the entire brain, including coronin 7 (Coro7, cathepsin B (Ctsb, muscleblind-like 1 (Mbnl1, metallothionein 1 (Mt1, solute carrier family 25 member 17 (Slc25a17, tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2, zinc finger protein 672 (Zfp672, syntaxin 3 (Stx3, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A member 2 (Abca2, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 5 (Enpp5, high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 3 (Hmgn3 and pyruvate dehydrogenase beta (Pdhb. Additionally, we confirmed brain region-specific differences in the expression of synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4.Our identification of about 90 polymorphisms in Ctsb suggested that this gene might play a critical role in shaping our mouse model's behavioral endophenotypes. Indeed, the assessment of anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors of Ctsb knock-out mice revealed an increase in depression-like behavior in females. Altogether, our results suggest that Ctsb has significant effects on emotionality, irrespective of the tested mouse strain, making it a promising target for future pharmacotherapy.
Approximately a third of cancer patients suffer from psychic symptoms recognizable by tested indicators during their illness. The most typical symptom picture is a mixed one consisting of anxiety and depression associated with changes in activity level (fatigue, over-alertness) and sleeping disturbances. According to a recent meta-analysis, some mood disorder fulfilling the DSM or ICD criteria can be diagnosed in approx. 30 to 40% of hospitalized cancer patients. The interpretation as mood disorder included all diagnoses of depression, anxiety disorders as well as mood problems of the adjustment disorder level.
Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms while controlling the effect of personality traits, depression and anxiety symptoms in Turkish university students. A total of 271 university students participated in the present study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Wender Utah Rating Short Scale (WURS-25), the Turkish version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). According to IAS, participants were separated into three groups, namely, moderate/high, mild and without IA groups. The rates of groups were 19.9% (n=54), 38.7% (n=105) and 41.3% (n=112), respectively. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IAS is positively correlated with WURS-25, ASRS (total, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales), neuroticism personality trait, depression and anxiety scores, whereas it is negatively correlated with extraversion personality trait. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that depression and anxiety symptoms, introversion and neuroticism personality traits and the severity of ADHD symptoms (particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms) are the predictors for IAS score, respectively. The severity of ADHD symptoms has predicted the severity of IA even after controlling the effect of personality traits, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. University students with severe ADHD symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms may be considered as a risk group for IA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verschoor, Ellen; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John; Markus, C Rob; King, Neil A
Serotonergic hypofunction is associated with a depressive mood state, an increased drive to eat and preference for sweet (SW) foods. High-trait anxiety individuals are characterised by a functional shortage of serotonin during stress, which in turn increases their susceptibility to experience a negative mood and an increased drive for SW foods. The present study examined whether an acute dietary manipulation, intended to increase circulating serotonin levels, alleviated the detrimental effects of a stress-inducing task on subjective appetite and mood sensations, and preference for SW foods in high-trait anxiety individuals. Thirteen high- (eleven females and two males; anxiety scores 45.5 (sd 5.9); BMI 22.9 (sd 3.0)kg/m(2)) and twelve low- (ten females and two males; anxiety scores 30.4 (sd 4.8); BMI 23.4 (sd 2.5) kg/m(2)) trait anxiety individuals participated in a placebo-controlled, two-way crossover design. Participants were provided with 40 g alpha-lactalbumin (LAC; l-tryptophan (Trp):large neutral amino acids (LNAA) ratio of 7.6) and 40 g casein (placebo) (Trp:LNAA ratio of 4.0) in the form of a snack and lunch on two test days. On both the test days, participants completed a stress-inducing task 2 h after the lunch. Mood and appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales. Changes in food hedonics for different taste and nutrient combinations were assessed using a computer task. The results demonstrated that the LAC manipulation did not exert any immediate effects on mood or appetite. However, LAC did have an effect on food hedonics in individuals with high-trait anxiety after acute stress. These individuals expressed a lower liking (P = 0.012) and SW food preference (P = 0.014) after the stressful task when supplemented with LAC.
Ommundsen, Y; Pedersen, B H
Goal orientation theory and competence motivation theory were used to examine the relationships between young athletes' achievement goals and indices of somatic and cognitive trait sport competition anxiety. Included in these analyses were also the potential mediating and moderating role of the athletes' perceived competence in sport. We examined 136 young athletes aged 13 to 18 years involved in organized sport within a community in northern Norway. Whereas no association was found between an ego oriented achievement goal and indices of anxiety, multiple regression analyses revealed that both a high task goal orientation and high perceived sport competence predicted a reduced tendency to report cognitive anxiety when competing in sport. In addition, athletes who perceived their competence in sport as high were found to be less predisposed to experiencing somatic anxiety in the form of elevated physiological arousal when competing than those who doubt their competence. The results further showed that perceived competence did not mediate or moderate the relationships between achievement goal orientations and somatic and cognitive indices of trait sport competition anxiety. The findings suggest that being task oriented in sport as well as having a sense of being competent are important in order to prevent sport competitions giving rise to elevated cognitive anxiety in young athletes.
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van Asseldonk, Mike
This study explored the relations between self-conscious emotions, personality traits, and anxiety disorders symptoms in non-clinical youths. One-hundred-and-eighteen adolescents aged 12-15 years completed the brief shame and guilt questionnaire for children (BSGQ-C) and items of the youth self-report (YSR) to measure shame and guilt, the big five personality questionnaire for children, and the youth anxiety measure for DSM-5. Results for shame indicated that this self-conscious emotion-either measured by the BSGQ-C or the YSR-was uniquely and positively associated with a broad range of anxiety disorders symptoms, and correlated positively with neuroticism and negatively with extraversion. Guilt did not show significant associations with anxiety disorders symptoms once controlling for the influence of shame, and links with personality traits varied dependent on the assessment instrument that was used (BSGQ-C or YSR). Finally, when controlling for neuroticism and extraversion, shame consistently remained a significant correlate of anxiety disorders symptoms. Altogether, these results add to the growing body of evidence indicating that high levels of shame are clearly associated with anxiety pathology.
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José
Psychotic-like experiences can be considered as a vulnerability marker for psychotic disorders. The psychometric assessment of the extended psychosis phenotype has advanced considerably in recent years, although it must continue to deepen the quality of self-reports available for its assessment in Spanish population. The main goal was to analyze the psychometric quality of the Community Assessment Psychic Experiences-42 (CAPE-42) in Spanish college students and patients with psychosis. The final sample was comprised of a total of 660 students (M = 20.3 years, SD = 2.6) and 97 patients with psychosis (M = 35.4 years, SD = 10.2). The goodness of fit indices resulting from the confirmatory factor analysis that tested the hypothesized three-dimensional model (Positive, Negative and Depressive) were not adequate. In contrast, the exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-dimensional solution. Internal consistency values for the three dimensions of the CAPE-42 ranged between 0.78 and 0.89 in the sample of students and between 0.84 and 0.93 in the patients with psychosis. The CAPE-42 scores correlated statistically significant with delusions and trait anxiety and state. These results show further evidence of validity of the CAPE-42 scores in samples of the Spanish population and support its use as a tool for the assessment of the extended psychosis phenotype.
Full Text Available Aim. To investigate sociotropic-autonomic personality characteristics and their clinical implications in social anxiety disorder (SAD. Methods. The study included 68 consecutive patients who were either being followed up on an outpatient basis or presented for the first time to the psychiatric clinics of Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery or Trakya University School of Medicine between May 2012 and May 2013, and were diagnosed primarily with generalised SAD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (SAS, Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS and a sociodemographic data collection form designed by the authors were used as primary assessment instruments. Results. The mean age (standard deviation (SD of the sample group was 23.73 (8.85 years; 37 (54.4% were female and 31 (45.6% were male. LSAS mean (SD total fear score was 63.51 (13.74, mean total avoidance score was 61.24 (14.26, BDI mean score was 16.99 (9.58, SAS mean sociotropy score was 71.06 (16.79, and mean autonomy score was 63.22 (16.04. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between SAS sociotropy scores and LSAS fear and avoidance total scores, BDI scores and all subscales of SCL-90-R (p0.05. Conclusion. Sociotropic personality characteristics in patients with SAD have been found to positively correlate with depression and social anxiety levels. Addressing this finding during treatment sessions and helping the patient increase flexibility in appraisal of social life events may have a positive impact on treatment outcome.
Papaleo, Francesco; Silverman, Jill L.; Aney, Jordan; Tian, Qingjun; Barkan, Charlotte L.; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.
BDNF regulates components of cognitive processes and has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Here we report that genetic overexpression of the BDNF mature isoform (BDNF-tg) in female mice impaired working memory functions while sparing components of fear conditioning. BDNF-tg mice also displayed reduced breeding efficiency, higher anxiety-like scores, high self-grooming, impaired prepulse inhibition, and higher susceptibility to seizures when placed in a new empty cage, as compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls. Control measures of general health, locomotor activity, motor coordination, depression-related behaviors, and sociability did not differ between genotypes. The present findings, indicating detrimental effects of life-long increased BDNF in mice, may inform human studies evaluating the role of BDNF functional genetic variations on cognitive abilities and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:21791566
Kao, Lien-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An
Anxiety trait, anxiety and depression states have all been reported to increase risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through altering cardiac autonomic regulation. Our aim was to investigate whether the relationship between harm avoidance (HA, an anxiety-related personality trait) and cardiac autonomic regulation is independent of anxiety and depression states in healthy adults. We recruited 535 physically and mentally healthy volunteers. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Tri-dimensional Personality Questionnaire. Participants were divided into high or low HA groups as discriminated by the quartile value. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). We obtained the time and frequency-domain indices of HRV including variance (total HRV), the low-frequency power (LF; 0.05-0.15 Hz), which may reflect baroreflex function, the high-frequency power (HF; 0.15-0.40 Hz), which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, as well as the LF/HF ratio. The BDI and HA scores showed associations with HRV parameters. After adjustment for the BDI scores and other control variables, HA is still associated with reduced variance, LF and HF power. Compared with the participants with low HA, those with high HA displayed significant reductions in variance, LF and HF power and a significant increase in their LF/HF ratio. This study highlights the independent role of HA in contributing to decreased autonomic cardiac regulation in healthy adults and provides a potential underlying mechanism for anxiety trait to confer increased risk for CVD.
Full Text Available The psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T and its relation to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were evaluated in a large Brazilian college student sample containing 845 women and 235 men. STAI-T scores tended to be higher for women, singles, those who work, and subjects under 30 years. Factor analysis of the STAI-T for total sample and by gender yielded two factors: the first representing a mood dimension and the second being related to worrying or cognitive aspects of anxiety. In order to study the relation between anxiety and depression measures, factor analysis of the combination of the 21 BDI items and the 20 STAI-T items was also carried out. The analysis resulted in two factors that were analyzed according to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Most of the BDI items (measuring positive affectivity and nonspecific symptoms of depression were loaded on the first factor and four STAI-T items that measure positive affectivity. The remaining STAI-T items, all of them measuring negative affect, remained in the second factor. Thus, factor 1 represents a depression dimension and factor 2 measures a mood-worrying dimension. The findings of this study suggest that, although widely used as an anxiety scale, the STAI-T in fact measures mainly a general negative affect.
Machida, Naoko; Dalsky, David J.
Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students' learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students' writing anxiety.…
Laplane, D; Baulac, M; Widlöcher, D; Dubois, B
Three patients showed dramatic psychic akinesia after recovery from toxic encephalopathy. They had no or only mild motor disorders. The spontaneous psychic akinesia was reversible when the patient was stimulated, as if there was a loss of self psychic activation. Intellectual capacities were normal. Two patients had stereotyped behaviours resembling compulsions. In all patients CT cans showed bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, mainly within the globus pallidus. Images PMID:6726263
Laplane, D; Baulac, M; Widlöcher, D; Dubois, B
Three patients showed dramatic psychic akinesia after recovery from toxic encephalopathy. They had no or only mild motor disorders. The spontaneous psychic akinesia was reversible when the patient was stimulated, as if there was a loss of self psychic activation. Intellectual capacities were normal. Two patients had stereotyped behaviours resembling compulsions. In all patients CT cans showed bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, mainly within the globus pallidus.
Shkol'nik, T K; Lushchekina, E A; Kulikov, M A; Aĭrapetiants, M G
166 teenagers in the age of 15-17 years were investigated on the influence of socially adverse conditions of education upon the level of trait anxiety and presence of stress. Teenagers who were brought up in socially unsuccessful conditions (in family with registered cases of alcoholism, violence, suicide, etc.; in family of relatives; with trustees) and also teenagers who were brought up in incomplete families show higher level of trait anxiety (even if initially they have low congenital parameters of neurotism) and more expressed stress both on psychological and physiological level in a greater degree than teenagers from family with mother and stepfather. Teenagers living in family with stepfather have parameters of anxiet similar to teenagers living in complete families.
Swinkels, Wilhelmina A M; van Emde Boas, Walter; Kuyk, Jarl; van Dyck, Richard; Spinhoven, Philip
This study was performed to investigate the relation between symptoms of interictal depression, anxiety, personality traits, and psychological dissociation with the localization and lateralization of the epileptogenic zone in patients with partial epilepsy. All patients were diagnosed according to the localization-related concept of the 1989 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes, and the localization and lateralization of the epileptogenic zone was established by using the clinical criteria for noninvasive presurgical evaluation. This resulted in 67 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 64 patients with extra-TLE. All patients were assessed on the various aspects of psychopathology by using a comprehensive battery of standardized diagnostic instruments. We did not find the hypothesized excess of psychiatric symptoms in patients with (mesial) TLE in comparison with patients with extra-TLE. We also found no differences between patients with the lateralization of epilepsy in the left versus the right hemisphere. TLE per se cannot be considered a risk factor in developing more or more severe symptoms of psychopathology in patients with partial epilepsy. Concomitant factors, such as the duration of epilepsy, seizure frequency, and frontal lobe dysfunction may play an additional role. Our findings support the hypothesis of a multifactorial explanation for the psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy.
Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Tonge, Natasha A; Weisman, Jaclyn S; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C; Bogdan, Ryan
Recent evidence suggests that reduced generosity among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in behavioral economic tasks may result from constraint in changing behavior according to interpersonal contingencies. That is, people with SAD may be slower to be more generous when the situation warrants. Conversely, more global effects on generosity may be related to interpersonal vindictiveness, a dimension only somewhat related to SAD. A total of 133 participants, 73 with the generalized form of SAD, completed self-report instruments and a behavioral economic task with simulated interpersonal (friend, romantic partner, stranger) interactions. In a separate visit, friends (n = 88) also came to the lab and rated participants on vindictiveness. Interpersonal vindictiveness was associated with reduced initial and overall giving to simulated friends. SAD predicted a lack of increased giving to a simulated friend, and attenuated an increase in giving to simulated known versus unknown players compared to participants without SAD. Friend-reported vindictiveness predicted in the same direction as diagnosis. However, the findings for SAD were less robust than those for vindictiveness. SAD is perhaps weakly related to behavioral constraint in economic tasks that simulate interpersonal interactions, whereas vindictiveness is strongly related to lower overall generosity as well as (via friend report) behavioral constraint. Further study is needed to better characterize the construct of vindictiveness. Our findings dovetail with the suggestion that SAD is related to impairment in the proposed affiliation and attachment system, but further suggest that direct study of that system may be more fruitful than focusing on disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marly de Albuquerque
Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.
García González, J; Ventura Miranda, M I; Requena Mullor, M; Parron Carreño, T; Alarcón Rodriguez, R
Many researchers have pointed out the strong relationship between maternal psychological well-being and fetal welfare during pregnancy. The impact of music interventions during pregnancy should be examined in depth, as they could have an impact on stress reduction, not only during pregnancy but also during the course of delivery, and furthermore induce fetal awareness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of music on maternal anxiety, before and after a non-stress test (NST), and the effect of music on the birthing process. The four hundred and nine pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music (n = 204) or no music (n = 205) stimulation during an NST. The primary outcome was considered as the maternal state anxiety score before and after the NST, and the secondary outcome was the birthing process. Before their NST, full-term pregnant women who had received music intervention were found to have a similar state-trait anxiety score to those from the control group, with 38.10 ± 8.8 and 38.08 ± 8.2, respectively (p = .97). After the NST, the mean state-trait anxiety score of each group was recorded, with results of 30.58 ± 13.2 for those with music intervention, and 43.11 ± 15.0 for those without music intervention (p < .001). In the control group, the NST was followed by a statistically significant increase in the state-trait anxiety score (38.08 ± 8.2 versus 43.11 ± 15.0, p < .001). However, listening to music during the NST resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the state-trait anxiety score of the study group (38.10 ± 8.8 versus 30.58 ± 13.2, OR = 0.87, p < .001). Furthermore, the first stage of labor was shorter in women who received music stimulation (OR = 0.92, p < .004). They also presented a more natural delivery beginning (spontaneous) and less medication (stimulated and induced) than those who were
Tabała, Klaudia; Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Stecz, Patryk; Kocur, Józef
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are a challenge to public health, with the sufferers experiencing a range of psychological factors affecting their health and behavior. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of anxiety, personality traits and stress-coping ability of patients with obstructive lung disease and comparison with a group of healthy controls. The research was conducted on a group of 150 people with obstructive lung diseases (asthma and COPD) and healthy controls (mean age = 56.0 ± 16.00). Four surveys were used: a sociodemographic survey, NEO-FFI Personality Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Brief Cope Inventory. Logistic regression was used to identify the investigated variables which best differentiated the healthy and sick individuals. Patients with asthma or COPD demonstrated a significantly lower level of conscientiousness, openness to experience, active coping and planning, as well as higher levels of neuroticism and a greater tendency to behavioral disengagement. Logistic regression found trait-anxiety, openness to experience, positive reframing, acceptance, humor and behavioral disengagement to be best at distinguishing people with lung diseases from healthy individuals. The results indicate the need for intervention in the psychological functioning of people with obstructive diseases.
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin
Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n=132) and Spain (n=126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native…
Awat Feizi; Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli; Fatemeh Nouri; Hamidreza Roohafza; Peyman Adibi
Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity) of anxiety (continuous) and Psychological stress (dichotomous) as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 particip...
Binsinger, Caroline; Laure, Patrick; Ambard, Marie-France
Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade) in the Vosges Department (east France) during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 %) and 956 girls (53.4 %), in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation). 722 pupils (40.3 %) reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group), whereas, 195 (10.9 %) pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group). The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg’s Scale) and trait anxiety (Spielberger’s Scale) of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation) of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than “mean - one standard deviation ”or less than “mean - two standard deviations”) was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls’. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities. Key Points A regular extra-curricular sports practice is associated to better levels of self
Binsinger, Caroline; Laure, Patrick; Ambard, Marie-France
Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade) in the Vosges Department (east France) during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 %) and 956 girls (53.4 %), in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation). 722 pupils (40.3 %) reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group), whereas, 195 (10.9 %) pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group). The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Scale) and trait anxiety (Spielberger's Scale) of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation) of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than "mean - one standard deviation "or less than "mean - two standard deviations") was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls'. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities. Key PointsA regular extra-curricular sports practice is associated to better levels of self-esteem and
Aisenson Kogan, A
Imagery is considered an important psychotherapeutic means in many contemporary systems, in an explicit way, or implicitely. Its function is at least double. On the one hand it detains the development of personal possibilities, for it raises an unreal barrier of transference when confronting new experiences, but on the other it amplifies life by extending it towards what Gaston Bachelard calls "a reality of superabundance". It represents the discovery of new facets in the external world but, much more important in psychotherapy, the revelation of unknown aspects of oneself. Thus, for explorative aims imagery is used in tests, interviews and even anamnesis, and for furthering the cure (insight and growth) in systems such as psychodrama, Desoille's waking dreams, sensitivity training and others. The question arises: what is the source of its effectivity? In my opinion it depends on two influences: 1) images, as symbols, constitute "intermediary objects" which permit a confrontation comparatively free of anxiety with oneself and above all to envisage new forms of behaviour. These can even be rehearsed in some psychodramatic techniques or in laboratories; 2) symbols give access to psychical areas which are forbidden to a conceptual approach. Therefore, I suggest that the conquest of one's reality results, paradoxically, from incursions in unreality.
Full Text Available Stress pervades daily society, often with deleterious consequences for those prone to react intensely to it. Intervention techniques to attenuate stress reactivity are thus paramount. With that goal in mind, researchers have sought to identify and alter malleable psychological dispositional variables that influence stress reactivity. Trait emotional intelligence (TEI, anxiety sensitivity (AS, and experiential avoidance (EA are increasingly receiving attention in these research efforts. The self-reported emotional component of stress reactivity has been emphasized in investigations and is our focus. Specifically, this paper overviews the role of TEI, AS, and EA in self-reported stress responses. We also discuss empirically supported psychological methods to adjust suboptimal levels of these variables in normal populations. Both psycho-educational (information, skills and mindfulness-based interventions (specific mindfulness therapies or components are covered. Findings include that (1 TEI, AS, and EA are each correlated with the emotional component of stress reactivity to both naturalistic and lab-based stressors; (2 preliminary support currently exists for psycho-educational intervention of TEI and AS but is lacking for EA; (3 adequate evidence supports mindfulness-based interventions to target EA, with very limited but encouraging findings suggesting mindfulness methods improve TEI and AS; and (4 although more research is needed, stress management approaches based on mindfulness may well target all three of these psychological variables and thus appear particularly promising. Encouragingly, some methods to modify dispositional variables (e.g., a mindfulness-based format of guided self-help are easily disseminated and potentially applicable to the general public.
Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; da Silva Lima, Natália; Lisboa, Patrícia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Silva, Juliana Oliveira; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Manhães, Alex C
The most frequently used animal models of early weaning (EW) in rodents, maternal deprivation and pharmacological inhibition of lactation, present confounding factors, such as high stress or drug side effects, that can mask or interact with the effects of milk deprivation per se. Given these limitations, the development of new models of EW may provide useful information regarding the impact of a shortened period of breastfeeding on the endocrine and nervous systems, both during development and at adulthood. Using a model of EW in which lactating Wistar rat dams are wrapped with a bandage to block access to milk during the last three days of lactation, we have recently shown that the adult offspring presented higher body mass, hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, leptin as well as insulin resistance, and higher adrenal catecholamine content at adulthood. Here, we used this EW model, which involves no pharmacological treatment or maternal separation, to analyze anxiety-like, novelty-seeking and memory/learning behavioral traits in the adult male offspring. To that end, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze, in the hole board arena and in the radial arm water maze. Except for an increased number of rearing events (a measure of vertical activity), no other behavioral differences were observed between EW and control animals. The contrasting behavioral results between the three EW models may be associated with differences in HPA axis function in the offspring at weaning, since it has been observed that bandaging does not affect corticosteronemia while maternal separation and pharmacological EW increase it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Unno, Keiko; Tanida, Naoki; Ishii, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Hoshino, Minoru; Takeda, Atsushi; Ozawa, Hayato; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Yamada, Hiroshi
Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effect on experimental animals under psychosocial stress. Anti-stress effect of theanine on humans was evaluated in 5th-year university students during pharmacy practice. The study design was a single-blind group comparison and participants (n=20) were randomly assigned to theanine or placebo groups. Theanine or placebo (lactose) tablets (200 mg, twice a day, after breakfast and lunch) were taken from 1 week prior to the pharmacy practice and continued for 10 days in the practice period. To assess the anxiety of the participants, the state-trait anxiety inventory test was carried out before the pharmacy practice. Salivary α-amylase activity (sAA) was measured as a marker of sympathetic nervous system activity. In the placebo-group, sAA in the morning (pre-practice sAA) was higher than in theanine-group during the pharmacy practice (p=0.032). Subjective stress was significantly lower in the theanine-group than in the placebo-group (p=0.020). These results suggest that theanine intake had anti-stress effect on students. Furthermore, students with higher pre-practice sAA showed significantly higher trait anxiety in both groups (p=0.015). Similarly, higher pre-practice sAA was correlated to shorter sleeping time in both groups (p=0.41×10(-3)). Stressful condition increased the level of sAA that was essentially affected by individual trait anxiety. The low levels of pre-practice sAA and subjective stress in the theanine-group suggest that theanine intake suppressed initial stress response of students assigned for a long-term commitment of pharmacy practice. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raskin, Joel; Wiltse, Curtis; Walker, Daniel; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga
Objective: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine 60mg/day versus placebo in treating elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and concurrent anxiety symptoms. Methods: Patients (≥65) were randomized to eight weeks of treatment with duloxetine 60mg/day (n=207) or placebo (n=104). Anxiety measures were analyzed for all patients, by age (Psychic Anxiety baseline score of 2, 3, or 4). Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety item 11, and the Anxiety/Somatization subscale were analyzed for all patients and subgroups by mean change from baseline to endpoint and repeated measures. Tolerability was assessed via treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), and adverse events were reported as the reason for discontinuation. The analyses presented are primarily post hoc in nature. Results: Duloxetine produced significantly greater reductions than placebo in Psychic Anxiety (least-squares mean change: -0.62 vs. -0.18, pPsychic Anxiety and Week 4 for the Anxiety/Somatization subscale. Significant improvement occurred in the Psychic Anxiety, but only the Psychic Anxiety, Anxiety/Somatization subscale, the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) total score, and several other measures. Duloxetine and placebo had similar TEAE rates and discontinuation rates due to adverse events. Conclusion: Duloxetine (60mg/day) was efficacious and tolerable in elderly patients with MDD and concurrent anxiety symptoms. PMID:20711334
Many students have anxiety about learning Chinese.Psychologists usually differentiate trait anxiety(a person’s inborn tendency to be anxious)from state anxiety(a temporary apprehension induced by a particular situation,such as examinations or public speaking in language classrooms).Language anxiety,however,is a unique and distinct kind of anxiety that can be defined as the fear or apprehension occurring when learners have to perform tasks in a target language(e.g.,Chinese)in which
Rudaizky, Daniel; MacLeod, Colin
Trait anxiety is a relatively stable disposition reflecting an individual's tendency to experience anxious symptomatology, typically measured using questionnaires such as the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). While trait anxiety commonly is considered a unitary construct, recent questionnaire research suggests that two different dimensions of anxiety vulnerability account for independent variance in trait anxiety scores. These dimensions are anxiety reactivity (AR), reflecting the intensity of anxiety reactions to stressors, and anxiety perseveration (AP), reflecting the persistence of anxiety symptoms. This study investigated whether in vivo measures of these two facets independently contribute to anxiety vulnerability. Seventy-two participants were exposed to a novel stress task designed to yield measures of AR and AP. Regression analysis determined that these in vivo measures were unrelated to each other, and each accounted for independent variance in trait anxiety scores. The implications of these findings for the assessment and understanding of anxiety vulnerability are discussed.
Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Gawęda, Łukasz
In this study we examined the hypothesis that depression and anxiety may mediate the relationship between personality traits and both positive and negative psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy adults. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to 492 healthy individuals. Multiple stepwise regression and mediation analyses were performed to examine whether depressive and anxiety symptoms influence the relationship between the TCI dimensions and positive and negative PLEs. Self-transcendence, persistence, novelty-seeking and self-directedness significantly predicted positive PLEs; self-directedness and harm avoidance were predictable for negative PLEs. Self-transcendence, self-directedness, persistence and harm avoidance also predicted the distress caused by positive PLEs, whereas self-directedness and harm avoidance predicted distress raised by negative PLEs. Depressive symptoms and the state of anxiety partially mediated the linkage between self-directedness and positive PLEs, and between self-directedness, harm avoidance and negative PLEs. Our findings confirm that the personality pattern influences both positive and negative PLEs as well as distress caused by experiencing positive and negative PLEs, and they indicate that certain personality traits may influence the development of PLEs via the emotional pathway of heightened depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakajima, Shun; Okajima, Isa; Sasai, Taeko; Kobayashi, Mina; Furudate, Naomichi; Drake, Christopher L; Roth, Thomas; Inoue, Yuichi
Our study was conducted to validate the Japanese version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST-J) and to clarify the association of the measure with trait anxiety and insomnia in healthy subjects and insomnia patients. We studied 161 healthy subjects and 177 insomnia patients who completed the FIRST-J, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI). The healthy subjects and the insomnia patients were classified, respectively, into two groups with high FIRST-J and low FIRST-J scores (divided by the median value of healthy subjects). Cronbach α coefficients of the FIRST-J in the insomnia patients and healthy subjects were 0.89 and 0.87, respectively. Factor analysis revealed that the FIRST-J had a single-factor structure. The FIRST-J score significantly correlated with all other measures in the healthy subjects, though the score only correlated with the score of the STAI in the insomnia patients. The healthy subjects with high FIRST-J scores showed higher scores of the AIS and STAI than those with low FIRST-J scores. Furthermore, insomnia patients had a higher total score of the FIRST-J than the healthy subjects. The FIRST-J is an important tool for assessing vulnerability to insomnia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade in the Vosges Department (east France during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 % and 956 girls (53.4 %, in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation. 722 pupils (40.3 % reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group, whereas, 195 (10.9 % pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group. The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Scale and trait anxiety (Spielberger's Scale of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than "mean - one standard deviation" or less than "mean - two standard deviations" was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls'. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities
Largely unacknowledged by historians of the human sciences, late-19th-century psychical researchers were actively involved in the making of fledgling academic psychology. Moreover, with few exceptions historians have failed to discuss the wider implications of the fact that the founder of academic psychology in America, William James, considered himself a psychical researcher and sought to integrate the scientific study of mediumship, telepathy and other controversial topics into the nascent discipline. Analysing the celebrated exposure of the medium Eusapia Palladino by German-born Harvard psychologist Hugo Münsterberg as a representative example, this article discusses strategies employed by psychologists in the United States to expel psychical research from the agenda of scientific psychology. It is argued that the traditional historiography of psychical research, dominated by accounts deeply averse to its very subject matter, has been part of an ongoing form of ‘boundary-work’ to bolster the scientific status of psychology. PMID:23355763
Focuses on associations between creative temperament and clinical disorder, while addressing the enigmatic and alluring nature of creativity. Considers relationships between psychic and external realities, between artists and society, and between artists and therapists. (SR)
Kleberg, Johan Lundin; Högström, Jens; Nord, Martina; Bölte, Sven; Serlachius, Eva; Falck-Ytter, Terje
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) have partly overlapping symptoms. Gaze avoidance has been linked to both SAD and ASD, but little is known about differences in social attention between the two conditions. We studied eye movements in a group of treatment-seeking adolescents with SAD (N = 25), assessing SAD and ASD…
Full Text Available Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn sceptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgements of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals’ explicit traditional (religious and non-traditional (e.g. paranormal beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g. repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group or a psychic (psychic group. The instruction influenced participants’ explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people’s interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events.
Annuschka Salima Eden
Full Text Available The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arousing-negative associated words, which was not present at the end of training. Cued recall and valence ratings revealed a memory bias for pseudowords that had been paired with arousing-negative pictures, immediately after learning and two weeks later. This held even for items that were not explicitly remembered. High anxious individuals evidenced a stronger memory bias in the cued-recall test, and their ratings were also more negative overall compared to low anxious persons. Both effects were evident, even when explicit recall was controlled for. Regarding the memory bias in anxiety prone persons, explicit memory seems to play a more crucial role than implicit memory. The study stresses the need for several time points of bias measurement during the course of learning and retrieval, as well as the employment of different measures for learning success.
Lee, Lewina O.; Knight, Bob G.
Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that emotion regulation goals motivate older adults to preferentially allocate attention to positive stimuli and away from negative stimuli. This study examined whether anxiety moderates the effect of the positivity bias on attention for threat. We employed the dot probe task to compare subliminal and supraliminal attention for threat in 103 young and 44 older adults. Regardless of anxiety, older but not younger adults demonstrated a vigilant-avoidan...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality, the serotonin transporter (5HTT polymorphisms and the occurrence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in elite athletes. 133 healthy participants completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. The mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The athlete's mental skills were assessed through the Sport Performance Psychological Inventory (IPPS-48. The occurrence of psychiatric and personality disorders was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify genotypes at the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. The 5HTTLPR s/s genotype was associated with both neuroticism (p< 0.001 and tension/anxiety symptoms according to the POMS (p<0.02, cognitive anxiety and emotional arousal control according to the IPPS-48 (p<0.01. Significant correlations were proved between neuroticism and symptoms of anxiety and depression (p<0.05. Neuroticism mediates the association between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism and symptoms of cognitive anxiety and emotional arousal control (p<0.05. These results suggest a significant interaction between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism, neuroticism and sport related stress that predict adverse mental health outcomes in athletes. Identification of homogeneous groups of athletes having predispositions to anxiety and depressive symptoms may help to implement early prevention programs.
This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's "protective shield" and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review: (1) Freud's "protective shield" describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality. (2) Anzieu's "Skin-Ego" is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. (3) Bick's "psychic skin" establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother's containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant's psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces. (4) Stern's "narrative envelope" derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualize the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes. Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic, and genetic) and recommend further investigation.
Full Text Available This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's 'protective shield' and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review:1 Freud's protective shield describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality.2 Anzieu's Skin-Ego is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. 3 Bick's psychic skin establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother’s containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant’s psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces.4 Stern's narrative envelope derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualise the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes.Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic and genetic and recommend further investigation.
Tolmunen, Tommi; Lehto, Soili M; Julkunen, Juhani; Hintikka, Jukka; Kauhanen, Jussi
We aimed to examine the impact of anxiety and somatic concerns on the mortality risk during a 23-year follow-up of a representative sample of men. Finnish men aged 42-61 years (n = 2388) were followed up for a median of 23.4 years. Anxiety was assessed using baseline scores for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Psychasthenia subscale and somatic concerns were measured with the Hypochondriasis subscale. Mortality data were obtained from the National Population Register. All-cause, injury, disease, cardiovascular, and cancer mortalities were examined as endpoints. Adjustments were performed for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, a history of cardiovascular disease, marital status, socioeconomic status, the Framingham Type A Behavior Pattern Scale, and life events during the 12 months before the baseline examination. Anxiety and somatic concerns predicted the all-cause mortality risk after full adjustments for sociodemographic background, lifestyle factors, and descriptors of somatic health. Regarding other forms of mortality, the risk ratios were significant after full adjustments in anxiety for injury and in somatic concerns for disease death. This study supported previous findings of anxiety predicting the all-cause mortality risk in men. Somatic concerns are a novel factor that needs to be taken into account while examining associations between personality and the risk of increased mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evren, Cuneyt; Cınar, Ozgul; Evren, Bilge; Ulku, Muge; Karabulut, Vahap; Umut, Gokhan
The aim of this study was to investigate the mediator roles of negative affect, aggression, and impulsivity in the association between childhood trauma and dissociation in male substance-dependent inpatients. In addition, the effect of some variables that may be related with childhood trauma and dissociation among treatment-seeking substance dependents, such as substance of choice (alcohol/drug), mean of current age, and age at regular substance use was controlled. Participants were consecutively admitted 200 male substance-dependent inpatients. Patients were investigated with the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Seventy-seven patients (38.5%) with pathologic dissociation were compared with 123 nondissociative patients (61.5%) classified by dissociative taxon membership. The dissociative group had lower age, age at regular substance use, duration of education, and higher rate of drug dependency rather than alcohol dependency. Beside higher scores on anxiety, depression, childhood trauma, aggression, and impulsivity, a larger proportion of dissociative group reported suicide attempts and self-mutilation than did the nondissociative group. Results of regression analyses suggest that severity of chronic anxiety, aggression (particularly hostility), and impulsivity were found to be mediators of association between childhood trauma and dissociation. Results suggest that, to reduce the risk of dissociation and related behavior such as suicide attempt and self-mutilation among substance dependents, chronic anxiety together with the feelings of hostility and impulsivity must be the targets of evaluation and treatment among those with history of childhood trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is essential to control physiological stress responses in mammals. Its dysfunction is related to several mental disorders, including anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to identify genetic loci underlying the endocrine regulation of the HPA axis. Method High (HAB and low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour mice were established by selective inbreeding of outbred CD-1 mice to model extremes in trait anxiety. Additionally, HAB vs. LAB mice exhibit comorbid characteristics including a differential corticosterone response upon stress exposure. We crossbred HAB and LAB lines to create F1 and F2 offspring. To identify the contribution of the endocrine phenotypes to the total phenotypic variance, we examined multiple behavioural paradigms together with corticosterone secretion-based phenotypes in F2 mice by principal component analysis. Further, to pinpoint the genomic loci of the quantitative trait of the HPA axis stress response, we conducted genome-wide multipoint oligogenic linkage analyses based on Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach as well as parametric linkage in three-generation pedigrees, followed by a two-dimensional scan for epistasis and association analysis in freely segregating F2 mice using 267 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, which were identified to consistently differ between HAB and LAB mice as genetic markers. Results HPA axis reactivity measurements and behavioural phenotypes were represented by independent principal components and demonstrated no correlation. Based on this finding, we identified one single quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 3 showing a very strong evidence for linkage (2ln (L-score > 10, LOD > 23 and significant association (lowest Bonferroni adjusted p -28 to the neuroendocrine stress response. The location of the linkage peak was estimated at 42.3 cM (95% confidence interval: 41.3 - 43.3 cM and was shown to be in
In this paper the author demonstrates the interplay of the psychic positions (paranoid-schizoid and depressive, alongside more primitive mental states) as they may appear in experiences of overwhelming anxieties relating to fragmentation and disintegration. These are examined in relation to the appearance of what has been described in the literature as 'mindless' violence. The vehicle for this demonstration is Verdi's opera Rigoletto, which the author examines using Fonagy and Target's model for the understanding of mindless violence. The opera is 'read' as a case study of the protagonist, using the drama as a reflection of Rigoletto's internal object representations. The author attempts to extend Fonagy and Target's model to include primitive mental states, in order to understand 'mindless' violence as a result of collapse of the dialectical relationship of the psychic positions, leading to the violent act as a desperate attempt at re-establishing a sense of self. From this perspective, the moment of the violent act may be seen as use of an autistic object and as supplying of autistic shape. The violence is ultimately directed against the already fragmenting self, especially cherished parts of it, however it may enable acknowledgement of repudiated, unmentalised emotions previously experienced as a void.
Full Text Available Purpose: to study recreation of sportsmen’s psychic workability under influence of psychological methods. Material: Students-sportsmen, practicing boxing and kickboxing (n=45, age17-23 years participated in he research. Express assessment methodic for “Self-feeling, activity and mood”, “Correcting tests” was used. Results: sportsmen’s subjective assessment of own state depends on the stage of competition functioning. This assessment is rather favorable in pre-competition and competition periods. In pre-competition period unconscious weakening of psychic workability happens. Psychic workability weakening in competition period is of functional character and can be reduced in post-competition period. Conclusions: application of art-therapeutic methodic results in sportsmen’s more recreated, relaxed and hardy. Singing and drawing can be used as the method of stabilization of sportsmen’s activity, mood and self-feeling.
Kadish, Yael Adira
A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed.
Alvarado, Carlos S
Some nineteenth-century hypnosis researchers did not limit their interest to the study of the conventional psychological and behavioral aspects of hypnosis, but also studied and wrote about psychic phenomena such as mental suggestion and clairvoyance. One example, and the topic of this paper, was French physician Ambroise August Liébeault (1823-1904), who influenced the Nancy school of hypnosis. Liébeault wrote about mental suggestion, clairvoyance, mediumship, and even so-called poltergeists. Some of his writings provide conventional explanations of the phenomena. Still of interest today, Liébeault's writings about psychic phenomena illustrate the overlap that existed during the nineteenth-century between hypnosis and psychic phenomena--an overlap related to the potentials of the mind and its subconscious activity.
Conijn, J.M.; Emons, W.H.M.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Pedersen, S.S.; Sijtsma, K.
Self-report measures are vulnerable to concentration and motivation problems, leading to responses that may be inconsistent with the respondent's latent trait value. We investigated response consistency in a sample (N = 860) of cardiac patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and
Brosan, Lee; Hoppitt, Laura; Shelfer, Lorna; Sillence, Alison; Mackintosh, Bundy
It is well established that anxious individuals show biases in information processing, such that they attend preferentially to threatening stimuli and interpret emotional ambiguity in a threatening way. It has also been established that these biases in attention and interpretation can causally influence anxiety. Recent advances in experimental work have involved the development of a paradigm known as Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a constellation of procedures which directly modify bias using computerised tasks. Excitingly, these procedures have been shown to reduce bias in attention to threat (CBM-A), and to promote a positive interpretive bias (CBM-I) in anxious populations; furthermore, these modifications are associated with reductions in anxiety. We believe that these techniques have the potential to create a real clinical impact for people with anxiety. Initial studies involved volunteer participants who reached criteria for clinical diagnoses to be made, but emerging evidence suggests that patients referred for therapy also benefit. For the purposes of experimentation researchers have normally looked at one procedure at a time. In order to try to maximise the potential clinical impact we wished to investigate whether the combination of the procedures would be more effective than either alone. We also wished to investigate whether the procedures could be carried out in routine clinical settings with patients referred to an out-patient psychological treatment service. We therefore carried out a pilot study using a combined approach of CBM-A and CBM-I with a sample of 13 anxious patients referred to an out-patient psychology service for cognitive therapy. The results showed successful reductions in threat related attentional and interpretive bias, as well as reductions in trait and state anxiety. Participant reports describe the procedures as acceptable, with the attentional task experienced as boring, but the interpretive one experienced as helpful. While
Krapivnitskaia, T A
In-depth clinical psychological investigation of airline pilots with neurocirculatory dystonia (n=194, mean age 38.57 +/- 0.85) and essentially healthy control pilots (n=183, mean age 38.4+/-0.92) revealed distinctive features in NCD pilots' mentality and behavior including personality, interpersonal communication, type of thinking, stress reaction, protection tactics, and mental dysfunctions. Psychic deadaptation such as symptoms of psychic asthenia, paranoia, depression, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior had a negative effect on the clinical course and led to medical disqualification of 15% of NCD pilots.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A genetic liability for anxiety-related personality traits in healthy subjects has been associated with the functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR, although the data are somewhat conflicting. Moreover, only one study has investigated the functional significance of the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 haplotypes in relation to anxiety traits in healthy subjects. We tested whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 haplotypes are linked to Harm Avoidance (HA using an association study (STUDY I and a meta-analytic approach (STUDY II. Methods STUDY I: A total of 287 unrelated Italian volunteers were screened for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 (A/G polymorphisms. Different functional haplotype combinations were also analyzed. STUDY II: A total of 44 studies were chosen for a meta-analysis of the putative association between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related personality traits. Results STUDY I: In the whole sample of 287 volunteers, we found that the SS genotype and S'S' haplotypes were associated with higher scores on HA. However, because the screening assessed by Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. showed the presence of 55 volunteers affected by depression or anxiety disorders, we analyzed the two groups ("disordered" and "healthy" separately. The data obtained did indeed confirm that in the "healthy" group, the significant effects of the SS genotype and S'S' haplotypes were lost, but they remained in the "disordered" group. STUDY II: The results of the 5-HTTLPR meta-analysis with anxiety-related traits in the whole sample confirmed the association of the SS genotype with higher anxiety-related traits scores in Caucasoids; however, when we analyzed only those studies that used structured psychiatric screening, no association was found. Conclusions This study demonstrates the relevance to perform analyses on personality traits only in DSM-IV axis I
Guénolé, Fabian; Speranza, Mario; Louis, Jacqueline; Fourneret, Pierre; Revol, Olivier; Baleyte, Jean-Marc
It is common that intellectually gifted children (IQ ≥ 130) are referred to paediatric or child neuropsychiatry clinics for socio-emotional problems and/or school underachievement or maladjustment. Among them, those displaying developmental asynchrony - a heterogeneous developmental pattern reflected in a significant verbal-performance discrepancy (SVPD) on Wechsler's intelligence profile - are thought to be more emotionally and behaviourally impaired than others. Our purpose was to investigate this clinical dichotomy using a cognitive psychopathological approach. Trait-anxiety and emotional dysregulation were investigated in two groups of referred gifted children (n = 107 and 136, respectively), a pilot-study of reasoning processes on extensive Piaget-like tasks was also performed in an additional small group (n = 12). Compared to those with a homogenous Wechsler profile, children with a SVPD exhibited: 1) a decreased prevalence of social preoccupation-anxiety (11.1% versus 27.4%; p giftedness, with developmentally asynchronous ones exhibiting more severe psychopathological features. This suggests that developmental asynchrony matters when examining emotional and behavioural problems in gifted children and call for further investigation of this profile. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lisitsina, T A; Vel'tishchev, D Iu; Krasnov, V N; Nasonov, E L
Literature data and original observations have been used to develop the rationale for the necessity of studying psychic disorders (PD) in patients with immuno-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (RD), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Special attention is given to the high frequency of disturbances of the anxiety and depression profile (DADP) in patients having RA and SLE with reference to the common provoking stress and pathogenic factors, clinical manifestations, and RD. Great importance is attributed to the degree of depression associated with inflammatory activity, pain intensity, fatigue, sleep disorders, severe functional insufficiency and low quality of life in the patients with RA and SLE. Special emphasis is laid on the influence of depression and stress factors on the survival and morality of patients with these pathologies, the necessity of their combined treatment with the participation of rheumatologists, psychiatrists and medical psychologists for the improvement of clinical course and prognosis of RD.
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity of anxiety (continuous and Psychological stress (dichotomous as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 participants who attended in the cross-sectional population-based "study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition" and completed self-administered questionnaires about demographic and life style, gastrointestinal disorders, personality traits, perceived intensity of stress, social support, and psychological outcome was analyzed using shared random effect approach in R Free software. Results: The results indicated high scores of neuroticism increase the chance of high psychological stress (odds ratio [OR] = 5.1; P < 0.001 and anxiety score (B = 1.73; P < 0.001 after adjustment for the probable confounders. In contrast, those who had higher scores of extraversion and conscientiousness experienced lower levels of anxiety score (B = −0.54 and −0.23, respectively, P < 0.001 and psychological stress (OR = 0.36 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.001. Furthermore, higher score of agreeableness had significant negative relationship with anxiety (B = −0.32, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study indicated that the scores of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness strongly predict both anxiety and psychological stress in Iranian adult population. Due to likely mechanism of genetic and environmental factors on the relationships between personality traits and psychological disorders, it is suggested to perform longitudinal studies focusing on both genetic and environmental factors in Iranian population.
Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.
Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy
Fagerberg, Tomas; Söderman, Erik; Gustavsson, J Petter; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G
Personality is considered as an important aspect that can affect symptoms and social function in persons with schizophrenia. The personality questionnaire Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) has not previously been used in psychotic disorder. To investigate if SSP has a similar internal consistency and factor structure in a psychosis population as among healthy controls and if patients with psychotic disorders differ from non-psychotic individuals in their responses to the SSP. Patients with psychotic disorders (n = 107) and healthy controls (n = 119) completed SSP. SSP scores were analyzed for internal consistency and case-control differences by Cronbach's alfa and multiple analysis of covariance, respectively. Internal consistencies among patients were overall similar to that of controls. The patients scored significantly higher in seven (Somatic trait anxiety, Psychic trait anxiety, Stress susceptibility, Lack of assertiveness, Detachment, Embitterment, Mistrust) and lower in three (Physical trait aggression, Verbal trait aggression, Adventure seeking) of the 13 scales of the inventory. In three scales (Impulsiveness, Social desirability and Trait irritability) there was no significant difference between the scoring of patients and healthy controls. The reliability estimates suggest that SSP can be used by patients with psychotic disorders in stable remission. Patients score higher on neuroticism-related scales and lower on aggression-related scales than controls, which is in accordance with earlier studies where other personality inventories were used.
Full Text Available The problem of genetic versus environmental influences in psychiatric disorders is widely discussed in biomedical literature, but remains still controversial. Familiarity has been observed in some disesase, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic attack disorder. In this study we analyse three generations of women, for a total of 4 women (a mother, her two daughters, and a granddaughter followed by our Psychiatric Department for depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study was to assess wheather there are similarities among the clinical status of the four women, and verify the relationship among those disorders. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI was administered to all the patients and the scores obtained were compared. We found out that the many aspects and psychological traits were present in all the four women. These similarities suggest the presence of a dynamic trans-generational transmission.
Priscilla Brandão Bacci Pegoraro
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To report the experience of developing a workshop proposal to assist local managers with the identification, management and prevention of primary care workers' psychic and moral exhaustion. METHOD The workshop was developed through a literature review performed between November 2014 and June 2015. The temporal cut considered studies of the ten previous years. The selection included studies describing collective interventions for situations generating psychic and moral exhaustion, preferably in primary care services. RESULTS Thirty-five articles were analyzed. The workshop provides five meetings with an average duration of one hour. The themes are: awareness; recognizing personal stress; dealing with personal stress; recognizing team stress; and dealing with team stress. The workshop is based on five key principles: detection and coping; attention to interpersonal relationships; communication; self-knowledge and mindfulness. CONCLUSION Psychic and moral exhaustion may reflect negatively on workers' health, the care, and the organization. The proposal of measures to recognize, deal with and prevent psychic and moral exhaustion is relevant and strategic in the constant search for improvement of satisfaction and quality.
Ольга Геннадьевна Лопухова
Full Text Available Purpose of the study is investigation of correlation between a content of gender appearance of image “successful person” and parameters of psychic and social adjustment of women belonging to different generations.Methodology. Subjective image “successful person” means a stable and possibly gender differentiated element of “Ideal Me” images system. It includes cognitive component (conscious and verbalization representations of typical description of successful person, and affective component (positive or negative positions in regards to image “successful person”. We have compared results of survey and valuation of 265 women belonging to different generations and staying in different social situations: involuntary unemployment situation, employment and getting professional education. Subjective and projective methods were used in survey of cognitive and affective components of “successful person” image. Valuation of psychic adjustment based on parameters of internal conflict in comparison with manifestations of anxiety, frustration, aggression, rigidity, neurotic. Data analysis used parametric and nonparametric methods, including ANOVA/MANOVA.Results. It has been discovered that level of psychic adjustment of women depends much more on proper integration of subjective “successful person” image content with individual features of self-conception than on objective “social status” (being in involuntary unemployment situation.Practical implications are psychology consulting and correction of social or psychic unadjustment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-41
Ostlund, Anette; Hensing, Gunnel; Sundh, Valter; Spak, Fredrik
The aim of this study was to analyse stability of and change in personality traits in a general population sample of women over 5 years. Specific questions were how personality traits changed after a first episode of alcohol dependence/abuse (ADA), anxiety or depression disorders and after remission of an episode. The study was based on data from a longitudinal general population-based survey titled, "Women and alcohol in Göteborg (WAG)". A total of 641 women were interviewed in 1990 or 1995 and re-interviewed after 5 years. Personality traits were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses given according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd revised edition (DSM-III-R). Mean T-scores (KSP) for the general population sample were stable between initial assessment and follow-up 5 years later. Correlations between assessments were high for most KSP scores, indicating high individual stability. For women with resolved ADA, KSP scores were normalized to five scales at the follow-up assessment: somatic anxiety, muscular tension, monotony avoidance, social desirability and irritability. Women who recovered from anxiety disorders during the follow-up had decreased scores in somatic anxiety and muscular tension and increased scores in verbal aggression. Women who developed ADA during follow-up had increased scores on the scales impulsiveness and verbal aggression. Women who developed depression during follow-up had increased monotony avoidance. Personality traits were generally stable in this adult female population but some personality traits changed in association with changes in psychiatric disorders. This knowledge could be useful in evaluation of treatment needs and treatment outcome.
Chung, K C; Springer, I; Kogler, L; Turetsky, B; Freiherr, J; Derntl, B
Androstadienone (ANDR), a bodily secreted steroid compound, is a socially relevant chemosignal that modulates subjective and (neuro)physiological responses, predominantly in females. The impact of ANDR on stress responses in males and females has not been explored. Therefore, this fMRI study aimed to examine psychosocial stress reactions induced by mental arithmetic and social evaluation on behavioral and hormonal levels (46 participants: 15 naturally cycling females in their early follicular phase (EF), 15 females on hormonal contraceptives (HC) and 16 males); and on a neural level (40 participants: 13 EF-females, 13 HC-females and 14 males) in an ANDR and placebo treatment repeated-measures design. While no gender differences emerged in subjective ratings and performance during stress, neural activation patterns differed significantly. Besides, ANDR attenuated the post-stress increase of negative mood in all participants. Region of interest analyses showed that irrespective of treatment, males showed stronger activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) than females. At the whole brain level, gender differences emerged indicating stronger fronto-parietal activation in males compared to HC-females on both treatments. Males showed stronger visual and fusiform activation than EF-females under ANDR. Both female groups did not show stronger activation than males. Further, error ratio in the ANDR-stress condition was positively associated with their post-stress cortisol level and increase in subjective stress in males; and male DLPFC activity in the ANDR-stress condition was negatively associated with trait anxiety. Surprisingly, compared to HC-females, EF-female only showed stronger activation of arousal-related areas under placebo treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that the male stress reaction under social evaluative threat was stronger than female stress reactions as a function of ANDR. More specifically, this effect on behavioral and
Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex.
The majority of medicolegal assessments in claimed psychic sequelae after accidents concerns minor traumatic events. In this case, the focus is on three questions: Was the event appropriate to cause a traumatic disturbance according to current psychiatric classification systems (especially current DSM-5)? Which psychical or physical initial injury can be proven beyond reasonable doubt ("full proof") according to German law? What is the impact of personality characteristics and competing life events in the development and maintenance of the mental disorder? Causality between mental disorders and minor traumatic events is to be confirmed especially in the case of persistent physical accident sequelae, but attention has to be paid to the differences in the various legal requirements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Leue, Anja; Rodilla, Carmen Cano; Beauducel, André
This study relates predictions on reactive and proactive cognitive control to findings on anxious apprehension/worry and ERN/Ne. We investigated whether worry-inducing stimuli in an aversive performance setting lead to a more pronounced increase of the ERN/Ne in individuals with lower anxious apprehension/worry. We also explored the N2 amplitude in the context of worry-inducing stimuli. Fifty-eight participants performed an extended Go/NoGo task. A neutral or fearful face was presented at the beginning of each trial, with the fearful face as a worry-inducing, distracting stimulus. In an aversive feedback condition, aversive feedback was provided for false or too slow responses. We found a more pronounced decrease of the ERN/Ne after worry-inducing stimuli compared to neutral stimuli in participants with lower anxious apprehension/worry. Moreover, less pronounced N2 amplitudes were associated with shorter reaction times in the aversive feedback condition. Implications for future research on error monitoring and trait-anxiety are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Moya-Albiol, L
Caring for offspring with autism spectrum disorders entails high levels of stress for a long period of time and is associated with several types of health complaints. Few studies have focused on specific effects of particular disorders in the spectrum. This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the global health of parents of people with Asperger syndrome (N = 53) compared to those of typically developing children (N = 54) through self-reported measures (medication consumption and somatic symptoms) and biological markers (cortisol awakening response [CAR]). Additionally, we analysed various psychological variables as potential predictors of caregiver health. We found that caregivers take more medication and have worse self-reported health than controls, but there were no significant differences in CAR between the groups. However, after controlling for negative affect, differences between groups in CAR reached significance. With regards to predictor variables, anxiety trait, cognitive-coping style, burden and anger temperament were significantly associated with caregiver's self-reported health. These findings underline the need to develop interventions that foster improvements in the health of caregivers, reduce their burden and enhance their quality of life.
In this paper, I apply the concept of psychic skin to analytic work with people suffering from personality disorders and psychoses. When psychoses emerge, the defensive skin which protects the ego is breached and violent unconscious forces rip through the personality. Some of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with whom I work have identified with archetypal characters such as Christ, Satan, John Lennon and the Queen. I attempt to show how the adoption of these inflated personas can serve as secondary psychic skins. Such delusional identifications can provide a protective shield to hide the denuded self and prevent intrusion from the external world. Through clinical example, I try to demonstrate how these archetypal 'second skins' can preserve life until internal and external conditions make it possible for the self to emerge. I contrast such psychotic identifications with 'thin-skinned' and 'thick-skinned' narcissism as well as 'defences of the self' in borderline states where the psychic skin may be damaged but does not disintegrate. I also look at the ways in which Jung's own personal experience was different from this and how he managed to avert psychotic breakdown. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Bootsma, R.J.; Bakker, F.C.; van Snippenberg, F.J.; Tdlohreg, C.W.
Three groups of 12 observers (a high trait anxiety group, a neutral trait anxiety group, and a low trait anxiety group) judged whether approaching balls were reachable or not under two conditions: a control condition and an anxiety condition. Under the anxiety condition, an egostressor was used to
Chubarovskiĭ, V V
This paper presents results of observational, clinico-epidemiological, and catamnestic studies including 856 adolescents and youths attending schools, professional and higher education institutions in Moscow. The data are analysed in terms of the prevalence, structure, and dynamics of different borderline psychic states depending on age. The frequency of "premorbid" psychic abnormalities in adolescents is shown to be 52.6% compared with 15.46% in youths. It is argued that subclinical psychic disorders in adolescents have more favourable prognosis and should be regarded as adaptive reactions to the processes associated with physiological pubertal crisis. Recommendations are proposed for differential primary and secondary prophylaxis of age-related premorbid psychic states.
Andrew S Fox
Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and
Fox, Andrew S; Shelton, Steven E; Oakes, Terrence R; Davidson, Richard J; Kalin, Ned H
Early theorists (Freud and Darwin) speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI) (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations) and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray) that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and depression. In
Docking, Russell A.; Thornton, Jennifer A.
The Zuckerman Affect Adjective Check List (AACL) is used to measure trait anxiety and situation-specific trait anxiety relating to peer interaction, vocational aspiration, and the learning of English, mathematics, science and social studies. The subjects were 262 grade 10 students attending an Australian metropolitan high school. Additional…
Powers, Albert R.; Kelley, Megan S.; Corlett, Philip R.
Hearing voices that are not present is a prominent symptom of serious mental illness. However, these experiences may be common in the non-help-seeking population, leading some to propose the existence of a continuum of psychosis from health to disease. Thus far, research on this continuum has focused on what is impaired in help-seeking groups. Here we focus on protective factors in non-help-seeking voice-hearers. We introduce a new study population: clairaudient psychics who receive daily auditory messages. We conducted phenomenological interviews with these subjects, as well as with patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who hear voices, people with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder who do not hear voices, and matched control subjects (without voices or a diagnosis). We found the hallucinatory experiences of psychic voice-hearers to be very similar to those of patients who were diagnosed. We employed techniques from forensic psychiatry to conclude that the psychics were not malingering. Critically, we found that this sample of non-help-seeking voice hearers were able to control the onset and offset of their voices, that they were less distressed by their voice-hearing experiences and that, the first time they admitted to voice-hearing, the reception by others was much more likely to be positive. Patients had much more negative voice-hearing experiences, were more likely to receive a negative reaction when sharing their voices with others for the first time, and this was subsequently more disruptive to their social relationships. We predict that this sub-population of healthy voice-hearers may have much to teach us about the neurobiology, cognitive psychology and ultimately the treatment of voices that are distressing. PMID:28053132
Moss, T; Eveloff, H H; Chang, A F
A series of experiments in psychic phenomena were undertaken with a 21-year-old man who claimed to have telepathic ability. An elaborate procedure was devised to render collusion between Transmitters and Receiver ineffective, if not impossible. Results tended to support the subject's claims. Several single responses are reported which seemed particularly noteworthy with respect to correlation in time and content. A Control subject, duplicating the experimental procedure, did not have the overall success rate demonstrated by the experimental subject. The authors conclude that this experiment strongly suggests the possibility of telepathy, but does not prove it.
international trade in three categories of goods among 25 major trading nations for the period 1962-2008, employing structural equation modeling, incorporating the mutual interdependence of the distance measures. Findings – Exporters’ perceptions are more important for trade in differentiated products than...... and more intense competition from foreign rivals. Originality/value – The paper employs simultaneously a statistical methodology novel to the field and – for the first time in the literature – asymmetric measures of psychic distances as perceived by importers and exporters, respectively. Applying...
Content validity of the short version of the subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Validez de contenido de versión corta de la subescala del Cuestionario State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Validade de conteúdo de versão resumida da subescala do Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado (IDATE
Full Text Available The goal was to describe the content validity of a short version of the state subscale of Spielberger's "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI", based on the original version adapted to Spanish, in Spanish patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV. The sample consisted of 16 patients receiving IMV at the Alicante Hospital (Spain, who selected the items from the full Spanish version of the STAI-state that were most relevant to them. Items 1, 5, 9, 10, 12 and 20 from the original scale are the most relevant for the Spanish patients receiving IMV and 5 of these are included in the short version of the scale (83.3% agreement. The short scale has shown adequate content validity for Spanish patients receiving IMV.Se tuvo por objetivo describir la validez de contenido de una versión corta de la subescala Estado del State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI de Spielberger, a partir de la versión original adaptada al español, en pacientes españoles con ventilación mecánica invasora (VMI. La muestra fue integrada por 16 pacientes con VMI en el hospital de Alicante (España, que seleccionaron los ítems de la versión española completa del STAI-estado de mayor relevancia para ellos. Los ítems nº: 1,5,9,10,12 y 20 de la escala original son los más relevantes para los pacientes españoles con VMI; siendo que 5 de ellos están incluidos en la versión corta de la escala (83.3% de acuerdo. La escala corta ha demostrado una adecuada validez de contenido para pacientes españoles con VMI.Teve-se como objetivo descrever a validade de conteúdo de uma versão resumida da subescala estado do State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI de Spielberger, a partir da versão original adaptada ao espanhol, em pacientes espanhóis, sob ventilação mecânica invasiva (VMI. A amostra foi composta por 16 pacientes, sob VMI, no hospital de Alicante, Espanha, que selecionaram os itens da versão espanhola completa do Idate-estado de maior relevância para eles. Os
Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland
We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…
Tarazona, Beatriz; Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Rojo-Moreno, Juan; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria
Assess levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety and dental anxiety before extraction of lower third molars and check the correlation and reliability of the scales used for the measurement of preoperative anxiety. A prospective study of patients treated with extraction of a lower third molar between September 2010 to December 2010 was carried out. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. All of them were patients of the Oral Surgery and Implantology Department (Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Valencia, Spain). Before surgery, patients had to complete a preoperative protocol with 4 scales: the STAI-T (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait) for measuring trait anxiety, the STAI-S (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) for measuring state anxiety, and DAS (Dental anxiety Scale of N. Corah) and APAIS (Amsterdam Preoperative anxiety and Information Scale) for measuring dental anxiety. Patients undergoing extractions of an impacted lower third molar showed low levels of trait anxiety and moderate levels of state anxiety and dental anxiety. Higher levels of trait anxiety were obtained for older patients. Women had higher mean levels of dental anxiety and state anxiety that men with a statistically significant difference in STAI-S scales, DAS, and APAIS. Patients with higher trait anxiety and state anxiety showed higher levels of dental anxiety. A significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) (p = 0.00) was found between the four scales used to measure anxiety. The scale showed higher correlation was STAI-S scale. The 4 scales showed high reliability (α of C.> 0.80). Patients with highest levels of trait anxiety and state anxiety, had more dental anxiety. The STAI-T, STAI-S, DAS and APAIS scales provided useful information about anxiety before the extraction of lower impacted third molars. The STAI-S is the scale with highest correlation and reliability.
Introduction: Chronic pain in rheumatology often has a psychic impact, which may aggravate the daily life of patients. Chronic neck pain, as an example, is a frequent reason for consultation. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with neck pain, and identify risk factors ...
Targ, R; Katra, J
Since ancient times, spiritual teachers have described paths and practices that a person could follow to achieve health, happiness, and peace of mind. Considerable recent research has indicated that any sort of spiritual practice is likely to improve one's prognosis for recovering from a serious illness. Many of these approaches to spirituality involve learning to quiet the mind rather than adhering to a prescribed religious belief. These meditative paths include the mystic branches of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity; Kabalistic Judaism; Sufism; and many others. What is hinted at in the subtext of these teachings is that as one learns to quiet his or her mind, one is likely to encounter psychic-seeming experiences or perceptions. For example, in The Sutras of Patanjali, the Hindu master tells us that on the way to transcendence we may experience all sorts of amazing visions, such as the ability to see into the distance, or into the future, and to diagnose illnesses and to cure them. However, we are told not to get attached to these psychic abilities--they are mere phenomena standing as stumbling blocks on the path to enlightenment. In this article, we describe the laboratory evidence for some of these remarkable phenomena and their implications for science, mental health, and peace of mind.
Guramatunhu-Mudiwa, Precious; Scherz, Susan Day
This concept article discusses the importance of developing psychic income as an administrative strategy to enhance the context of school environments and to curb high teacher turnover. The hope is to promote further debate and research in order to establish the extent to which psychic income influences retention rates in hard-to-staff schools.…
Daini, S; Bernardini, L; Manzo, A; Petrongolo, L; Rossetti, R
Our study aims to analyze typologies of psychological intervention that respond to spontaneous request of Emergency Room's users and care providers, and their distribution in relation to observed psychic disorders. 364 Subjects (134 males and 230 females), mean age 41.55 (± 22.38) reaching Emergency room were involved in this study. Data from an observation form were related to patients' triage code, their provisional diagnosis, the request of psychiatric advice and emergency outcome. Non-parametric variables were analyzed by Chi Square method, while parametric ones by ANOVA method. Patients were the more frequent users of psychological intervention, while relatives used it in lesser proportion. Anxiety Disorder was the most frequent psychiatric diagnosis associated to psychological consulting. The patient's triage code was not significantly related to frequency of consulting. The type of intervention that was most often choosen has been supportive. As to outcome, the majority of patients who consulted psychologists was discharged, while a low percentage was admitted, particularly in psychiatric wards. Psychological consulting appears related to a wider and more varied range of urgent situations than psychiatric consulting. Therefore, psychological intervention seems to be useful both to relieve hic et nunc psychological discomfort, and to help and direct sicker patients to formulate a long-term treatment plan.
Waszczuk, M.A.; Zavos, H. M. S.; Eley, T. C.
Anxiety sensitivity, a belief that symptoms of anxiety are harmful, has been proposed to influence development of panic disorder. Recent research suggests it may be a vulnerability factor for many anxiety subtypes. Moderate genetic influences have been implicated for both anxiety sensitivity and anxiety, however, little is known about the aetiology of the relationship between these traits in children. Self-reports of anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms were collected from approximately 3...
Custodero, Jeri Lyn
This study compares the state, trait, and test anxiety scores of 145 college students with and without learning disabilities against categories such as demographics, general anxiety, test anxiety, and disability experience. This study used a questionnaire and compared answers among groups. The analysis indicated that students with learning…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, panic disorder (PD with and without agoraphobia (GA, and specific phobia (SP are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5 represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. METHODS: A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD, age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA, drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and
Shang, Jing; Fu, Yuchuan; Ren, Zhengjia; Zhang, Tao; Du, Mingying; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Zhang, Wei
The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (GA), and specific phobia (SP) are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs) were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA), drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior
Walker, Lilly Schubert; And Others
Assigned 100 college students classified as high or low anxiety subjects by scores on State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to relaxation training or to imagery treatment. Found that both treatments significantly reduced cognitive anxiety; there were no significant differences between treatments. High anxiety subjects significantly decreased trait and…
Khan, Arif; Durgam, Suresh; Tang, Xiongwen; Ruth, Adam; Mathews, Maju; Gommoll, Carl P.
Objective To investigate vilazodone, currently approved for major depressive disorder in adults, for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Method Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showing positive results for vilazodone (2,040 mg/d) in adult patients with GAD (DSM-IV-TR) were pooled for analyses; data were collected from June 2012 to March 2014. Post hoc outcomes in the pooled intent-to-treat population (n = 1,462) included mean change from baseline to week 8 in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) total score, psychic and somatic anxiety subscale scores, and individual item scores; HARS response (≥ 50% total score improvement) and remission (total score ≤ 7) at week 8; and category shifts, defined as HARS item score ≥ 2 at baseline (moderate to very severe symptoms) and score of 0 at week 8 (no symptoms). Results The least squares mean difference was statistically significant for vilazodone versus placebo in change from baseline to week 8 in HARS total score (−1.83, P psychic anxiety (−1.21, P psychic and somatic HARS items. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01629966, NCT01766401, NCT01844115. PMID:27486544
Agorastos, Agorastos; Skevas, Christos; Matthaei, Mario; Otte, Christian; Klemm, Maren; Richard, Gisbert; Huber, Christian G
... of “circadian misalignment,” sleep disorders, anxiety, and depression. Patients with severe glaucoma, versus glaucoma patients without visual-field defects, showed higher comorbidity with trait-anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance...
Leal Herrero, Fernando
This paper deals with the psychic disorders that frequently follow miscarriages. We specify the clinical forms under which such disorders appear and argue in favour of establishing a "Post-Abortion Syndrome" which would include the symptoms that form the basis of the psychopathological reactions that follow miscarriages. We will also study the psychological and psychopathological reactions to be found in couples -in both men and women-, who undergo fertility treatments, offering a brief description of the psychodynamic aspects that affect the couple. Furthermore, we will stress the biological and psychological risks that appear as a consequence of fertility treatments and offer an ethical evaluation of these risks, warning of the long-term consequences of human reproductive techniques.
Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta
Linkage between the central nervous system and the immune system is obvious and is accomplished through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axes. This review focuses on the effects of psychic stress in animals and humans on immune system function. The effects of stress depend on its duration, type, and intensity. Generally, mild stress enhances the immune response. The effects of stress also depend on the animal's behavioral profile, genetic background and preexposure to stressful conditions. Prenatal stress modifies the immune response of the offspring. Stress also modifies autoimmune reactions in animals and humans. Knowledge of the mediators and their receptors involved in the functioning of the HPA and SAM axes allows pharmacological intervention to alleviate the harmful effects of stress on the immune system. Our studies revealed a benefit of oral lactoferrin application in reversing stress-induced changes in the humoral and cellular immune response in mice.
Sewell, T E; Farley, F H; Sewell, F B
This study examined the relationship among state and trait anxiety, cognitive style, and mathematics achievement. The Ss were 50 junior college students enrolled in a mathematics course. The results confirmed the hypothesis that high state anxiety would be associated with poor mathematics achievement; trait anxiety showed no significant relationship to achievement. The need to develop learning aids and strategies to counteract the possible debilitating effects of state anxiety in learning and mathematics assessment was discussed.
This paper analyses the relationship between the 'elusive' science of psychical research and experimental physics in the period approximately, 1870-1930. Most studies of the relationship between psychical research and the established sciences have examined the ways in which psychical researchers used theories in the established sciences to give greater plausibility to their interpretations of such puzzling phenomena as telepathy, telekinesis and ectoplasm. A smaller literature has examined the use of laboratory instruments to produce scientific evidence for these phenomena. This paper argues that the cultures of experiment in the established science of physics could matter to psychical research in a different way: it suggests that experience of capricious effects, recalcitrant instruments and other problems of the physical laboratory made British physicists especially sympathetic towards the difficulties of the spiritualistic séance and other sites of psychical enquiry. In the wake of widely-reported claims that the mediums they had investigated had been exposed as frauds, these scientific practitioners were eventually persuaded by the merits of an older argument that human psychic subjects could not be treated like laboratory hardware. However, well into the twentieth century, they maintained that experimental physics had important lessons for psychical researchers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Sebastião de Sousa Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: The study analyzed the relationship between anxiety and inappropriate eating behaviors in adolescent female athletes. METHODS: Eighty-eight track and field athletes aged 12 to 17 years participated in the study. We used the Eating Attitudes Test-26 subscales to assess inappropriate eating behaviors and the Brazilian State - Trait Anxiety Inventory subscales to assess State and Trait anxiety. RESULTS: State - Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (p=0.18) or State - Trait Anxiety...
Libbrecht, K; Quackelbeen, J
This paper discusses the influence of Jean-Martin Charcot's views on Sigmund Freud's early theory of hysteria and the notion of psychical trauma. We consider the early history of both psychical trauma and male hysteria, for in Charcot's view traumatic hysteria and male hysteria are identical. Freud's two 1886 lectures on male hysteria, delivered after his return from Paris, are crucial to the subject because they present Freud's first impressions of Charcot and his teaching. Some of the ideas presented in the two lectures foreshadow Freud's later generalization of the etiological role of trauma and his theory of the role of psychical trauma in the genesis of hysteria; that is, each hysterical symptom is due to a psychical trauma reviving an earlier traumatic event--the so-called principle of deferred action (Nachträglichkeit). Several arguments substantiate the thesis that Freud's notion of psychical (sexual) trauma was developed in reference to Charcot's notion of traumatic hysteria, and that the early psychoanalytic theory of psychical trauma is clearly indebted to Freud's encounter with Charcot's male traumatic hysterical patients. The discussed Freudian development points out the major role of (physical) traumata in eliciting psychopathological pictures and in this way is of definite historical relevance for the present-day discussion on the traumatic nature of the so-called multiple personality syndrome and other dissociative disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorders.
Full Text Available Aim To explore psychic and psychological characteristics of patientssuffering from non- epileptic seizures and compare them with the patients suffering from epilepsy. Methods Using medical documentation 40 patients with non epileptic seizures were compared with 40 randomly selected epilepsy patients according to psychiatric and psychological report, and using psychotropic medications. Results Both psychiatric and psychological reports have shown that pathologic changes were more frequently found within the epilepsy group (n = 20 and n=7, respectively than in non-epileptic fits group (n= 18 and n=4, respectively. Six patients had neurotic disorders within the epilepsy group, versus 3 within the non-epileptic fits group. Conversion disorders were more frequently foundwithin the non-epileptic group (n=6 as compared to epilepsy group (n=2. Disorders due to acute reaction to stress occurred in six patients in the non-epileptic fits group versus three patients in theepilepsy group. Cognitive disorders were found more frequently within the epilepsy group (n=6 as compared to the non-epilepticfits group (n=1. Vulnerable character, adolescence crisis, deficitof social abilities and indifference were more frequently foundwithin the non-epileptic fits group (n=3 in comparison with theepilepsy group (n=1. Conclusion Psychiatric and psychological reports are most important elements in the diagnostic of psychogenic non-epilepticseizures.
dos Santos, Emanuella Barros; Quintans Junior, Lucindo José; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, José Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi
The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms was, respectively, 50% and 86% for individuals with fibromyalgia, and the mean trait-anxiety score was 59.38. An association was observed between trait and state anxiety. Anxiety and depression were frequent symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia. However, anxiety appeared as a secondary symptom to depression, appearing in a more severe form, and, therefore, this comorbidity should be more valued and studied.
Operating characteristics of depression and anxiety disorder phenotype dimensions and trait neuroticism: A theoretical examination of the fear and distress disorders from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety
Tully, P.J.; Wardenaar, K.J.; Penninx, B.W.
Background: The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large
Operating characteristics of depression and anxiety disorder phenotype dimensions and trait neuroticism : A theoretical examination of the fear and distress disorders from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety
Tully, Phillip J.; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Background: The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large
Albrecht, Rebecca; Löwe, Bernd; A Brünahl, Christian; Riegel, Björn
Despite its high prevalence, little is known about the aetiology and maintenance of Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS). CPPS is is considered to be a multi-causal syndrome with discomfort and pain in the pelvis. Recent literature suggests that psychosocial factors are important for understanding CPPS. For example, CPPS has been associated with deficits in mentalization and bonding experiences. Our study aims to characterize features of personality disorders according to DSM-IV and psychic structure according to OPD-2 in CPPS patients. Furthermore, we examine the association of personality aspects with urological symptoms (NIH Questionnaire) and pain perception (MPQ Questionnaire). Personality aspects were assessed in a total of 109 patients from our CPPS outpatient clinic using standardized questionnaires. To characterize CPPS patients, we compared the sample's scores with reference groups, mostly the general population. In addition, the associations between personality aspects and both the urologic symptoms and pain perception were assessed using correlations. Missing data were replaced using multiple imputation methods. Compared to reference values, we found 'experiencing emotions' and 'creating relationships' as specific deficits in CPPS patients. Furthermore, patients' self-image (more dominant, higher depressive mood) differs from the general population. A higher pain perception was correlated with deficits in most personality aspects we measured. However, this was not the case for the severity of urological symptoms. Compared to the reference values, only a few personality aspects differed in CPPS patients but there was a correlational association between different personality traits and pain perception. Despite the extend of symptoms, pain perception is associated with difficulty (emotional ability) in dealing with emotions, self-management and relationships. These personality aspects should be taken into account when planning therapy. © Georg Thieme
Operating characteristics of depression and anxiety disorder phenotype dimensions and trait neuroticism: a theoretical examination of the fear and distress disorders from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety.
Tully, Phillip J; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Penninx, Brenda W J H
The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large sample. A sample of 2981 persons underwent structured psychiatric interview; n=652 were without lifetime depression and anxiety disorder history. Participants also completed a neuroticism scale (Revised NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]), and the 30-item short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-D30) measuring anhedonic depression, anxious arousal and general distress. Maximal sensitivity and specificity was determined by the Youden Index and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) in ROC analysis. A total of 2624 completed all measures (age M=42.4 years±13.1, 1760 females [67.1%]), including 1060 (40.4%) persons who met criteria for a distress-disorder, and 973 (37.1%) who met criteria for a fear-disorder. The general distress dimension provided the highest ROC values in the detection of the distress-disorders (AUC=.814, sensitivity=71.95%, specificity=76.34%, positive predictive value=67.33, negative predictive value=80.07). None of the measures provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders with specificity values anxiety disorders may lead to inflated positive- and negative predictive values. The MASQ-D30 general distress dimension showed clinically suitable operating characteristics in the detection of distress-disorders. Neither neuroticism nor the MASQ-D30 dimensions provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: There have been numerous studies analyzing the role of psychic (and cultural distance in the internationalization process focused on relationships between distance and market selection, entry mode, or subsidiary performance. Still, cumulative findings of this body of research are mixed and inconclusive. Thus, this review aims for a rigorous presentation of past research on psychic distance, with particular focus on the aspects of international business operations affected by psychic distance in the light of empirical studies.Methodology: This review encompasses 55 papers, both empirical and conceptual, published between 1990–2015 in top IB, international marketing, and management journals. In general, the papers under review were published in 27 journals, with the vast majority of them being published in 2005 or later. The vast majority of reviewed papers are of empirical character (47 papers, while eight are conceptual.Findings: Since 2005, the number of articles published in top academic journals that featured the term “psychic distance” in the title has quadrupled. Common research topics include not only the core domain of internationalization process and performance, but also focus on understanding the concept of psychic distance, analyzing its antecedents and coping modes. Other studies have addressed the performance implications of psychic distance in conjunction with variables like strategy adaptation to foreign markets.Research limitations/implications: While the present review is limited in the number of papers taken into account, it does provide an initial overview of the structure of the field. However, the comparability of findings of different studies is limited by factors such as firm samples or presence of multicultural nations. In terms of directions for further research, promising topics include the relationship between perceived and ‘real’ distances or the effectiveness of different coping modes
Spielberger, Charles D.
In this report, the nature of anxiety is considered in historical perspective, and the concepts of trait and state anxiety are discussed. Methods for measuring these constructs are also described. In addition, hypotheses about the effects of anxiety on learning, formulated in terms of Spence-Taylor Drive Theory and Spielberger's Trait-State…
Muschalla, Beate; Glatz, Johannes; Linden, Michael
Absence of an adequate reason for anxiety is a criterion for pathological anxiety. However, the presence of danger or fear-provoking stimuli may even be a risk factor for anxiety and does not exclude that there is additionally pathological anxiety too. The question is, to what degree can heart-related anxiety be explained by the severity of illness or trait anxiety? Two hundred and nine patients (37.8% women) from a cardiology inpatient unit completed the Heart-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Progression-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Job-Anxiety-Scale and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. The severity of cardiac illness was rated by the treating cardiologists using the Multidimensional Severity of Morbidity Rating. Time absent from work due to sickness was assessed as an indicator for illness-related impairment. Heart anxiety was significantly related to progression anxiety and, to a lesser extent, trait anxiety and indicators of subjective symptoms of somatic illness. No association was found with medical ratings for prognosis, multimorbidity, or reduction in life expectancy. Heart-related anxiety is a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Although partially dependent on subjective suffering, it cannot be explained by the severity of medical illness. Treatment of health-related anxieties should focus on how to cope with subjective symptoms of illness.
Full Text Available Background: The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods: This is a preliminary cross-sectional study involving 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. The personality structure was evaluated by Rorschach′s test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results: Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group (45% vs. 3%, p < 0.001, mean and SD values are 1.65 0.15 vs. 0.43 ± 0.18 for anxiety; 55% vs. 12%, p < 0.001, mean and SD values are 1.76 ± 0.18 vs. 0.85 ± 0.25 for depression. The score observed with the STAI shows that the trait of anxiety differed between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the score values aren′t pathologic in neither group (87% vs. 42%, p < 0.05, mean and SD values are 33 ± 0.8 vs. 22 ± 0.2. Conclusions: This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated.
Sutin, Angelina R; Zonderman, Alan B; Uda, Manuela; Deiana, Barbara; Taub, Dennis D; Longo, Dan L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Terracciano, Antonio
Personality traits related to high neuroticism and low conscientiousness are consistently associated with obesity. Hormones implicated in appetite and metabolism, such as leptin, may also be related to personality and may contribute to the association between these traits and obesity. The present research examined the association between leptin and Five Factor Model personality traits. A total of 5214 participants (58% women; mean [standard deviation] age = 44.42 [15.93] years; range, 18-94 years) from the SardiNIA project completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, a comprehensive measure of personality traits, and their blood samples were assayed for leptin. As expected, lower conscientiousness was associated with higher circulating levels of leptin (r = -0.05, p obesity, whereas the relation between a proneness to anxiety and depression (high neuroticism) and obesity may be mediated through other physiological and/or behavioral pathways.
Akkok, Fusun; Guneri, Oya; Oral, Gunseli; Sumer, Zeynep
This study investigated the role of various social support variables on the state and trait anxiety levels of elementary school children. The subjects were 196 4th and 5th graders. The data were collected by the Social Support Form, State Anxiety Inventory, and Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results revealed a significant effect of living together with parents on state and trait anxiety levels: Furthermore, a positive correlation between state anxiety and love and affection for th...
浅本, 有美; 小川, 俊樹; 鈴木, 伸一
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of negative rumination in youth on death anxiety and coping with death anxiety. Subjects were 221 (102 male, 119 female) undergraduate students, who were asked to answer a scaled set of questionnaires about Negative Rumination, Coping with Death Anxiety and Death Anxiety. The result clarified that "Negative Rumination Trait" promoted "Consideration Coping", and "Consideration Coping" promoted "Death Anxiety". Moreover, it was indicated th...
Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect the treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) versus a SSRI.
Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David
To assess whether early changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for major depressive disorder. The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (National Institute of Mental Health) randomized 340 patients to Hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks, whereas the Massachusetts General Hospital study randomized 135 patients to Hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. The investigators examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. In the National Institute of Mental Health study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety (psychic) item (sertraline arm), somatic (gastrointestinal item; Hypericum arm), and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the Massachusetts General Hospital study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety (psychic; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors arm), somatic (gastrointestinal), and hypochondriasis (Hypericum arm), and anxiety (psychic) and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with the improvement in the anxiety (psychic), somatic (gastrointestinal), and somatic (general) items. The number and the type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items may help to predict remission of major depressive disorder.
Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) versus an SSRI
Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David
Objective To assess whether early changes in HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) versus an SSRI for major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (NIMH) study randomized 340 subjects to hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks. The MGH study randomized 135 subjects to hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. We examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. Results In the NIMH study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety-psychic item (sertraline arm), somatic-gastrointestinal item (hypericum arm), and somatic symptoms-general (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the MGH study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety-psychic (SSRI arm), somatic-gastrointestinal and hypochondriasis (hypericum arm), and anxiety-psychic and somatic symptoms-general (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with improvement in the anxiety-psychic, somatic-gastrointestinal, and somatic symptoms-general items. Conclusions The number and type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization items may help predict remission of MDD. PMID:21278577
Schott, H G
The concept of psychic energy is very important for the development of Sigmund Freud's theory. It is linked with the problem of psychic power. Both terms--"energy" (Energie) and "power" (Kraft)--are studied within the context of Freud's scientific work. There is a fundamental relation of introspection in practice and scientific description in theory. This relation is reconstructed in three ways: analysis of "psychic work" (psychische Arbeit) as an implication of the self-analysis in Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams"; analysis of the psychological techniques of psychotherapy Freud used; and analysis of the metapsychological theory with its concept of "psychich apparatus" (psychischer Apparat). This interpretation stresses the close relationship of Freud's personal experience as a therapist and self-analyst and his scientific theory with its neurophysiological and psychological terminology.
Langius, A; Björvell, H; Antonovsky, A
The paper proposes that Antonovsky's salutogenic orientation and his sense of coherence (SOC) concept provide a sound theoretical basis for the study and strengthening of the caring component in clinical practice. In order to study the operational utility of the concept, the 29-item SOC questionnaire (in two formats) was administered to five Swedish samples (3 groups of nurses, patients in a hospital emergency department, and a general population sample). Psychometric data are provided which test the internal and test-retest reliability of the SOC scale. A Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI) and the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) were used to test the relation between the SOC concept and personality traits. The results revealed that those with strong SOC also scored as having more general motivation and less Somatic and Psychic Anxiety as well as less Hostility. In addition the data, though in some part modest in sample size, consistently supported the view that the SOC scale is a robust instrument. Particular note is taken of its crosscultural character and of its potential utility in clinical work.
Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M.; Ellis, Steven P.; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B.; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne
Background Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Methods and Materials Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Results Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Conclusions Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. PMID:24865448
Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M; Ellis, Steven P; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne
Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Assessment and Management of Sexual Anxiety among Selected University Undergraduates. ... To ascertain the characteristics of sexual anxiety, the Sexual Anxiety Inventory (SAI), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1) were administered to 180 participants, aged 16-31 ...
Axfors, Cathrine; Sylvén, Sara; Ramklint, Mia; Skalkidou, Alkistis
Personality traits such as neuroticism can help identify pregnant women at risk of postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS). However, it is unclear whether attachment style could have an additional contribution to this risk elevation. This study aimed to examine the overlap of adult attachment insecurity and neuroticism/trait anxiety as PPDS predictors, taking into account baseline depressive symptoms. A Swedish population-based sample of pregnant women reported on adult attachment and either neuroticism (n = 1063) or trait anxiety (n = 555). Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and at six weeks and six months postpartum. Correlations between attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were calculated. Generalized linear models of PPDS tested the effect of attachment anxiety and avoidance, adjusting for neuroticism/trait anxiety and baseline depression. Logistic regression models with combined high attachment anxiety and neuroticism/trait anxiety visualized their value as risk factors beyond antenatal depression. Attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were highly correlated (r = .55-.77). Attachment anxiety exerted a partially independent effect on PPDS at six weeks (p six months (p depressed, combined high attachment anxiety and high neuroticism or trait anxiety was predictive of PPDS at both assessment points. Low acceptance rate, exclusive use of self-reports. Beyond personality, attachment anxiety had a small independent effect on the risk of PPDS. Combining items of adult attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety could prove useful in antenatal screening for high risk of PPDS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…
Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Mogg, Karin; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff
was assessed using an emotional Stroop paradigm with angry, happy and neutral faces. Trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C; Spielberger et al., 1983). There were four groups of schoolchildren (N = 67, aged 7 - 14) divided by median splits on trait anxiety...... of trait anxiety (i.e. 7-10 year-olds with STAI-C > 31). This interference effect was not evident in low trait anxious children, or in older children, irrespective of anxiety levels. There was no interference effect of happy faces. Findings suggest that cognitive maturation (i.e. age) may help moderately...
van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S
Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.
Full Text Available The science of psychical research and parapsychology stemmed, among other things, from wonder about the phenomena of spiritualism: manifestations of the deceased through mediums in séances. In the Netherlands, academic psychical research emerged in 1919, when the Studievereeniging voor Psychical Research (SPR was founded. In this paper, it is argued that a revival of the popularity of spiritualism during the war contributed to the emergence of the Dutch SPR shortly after the First World War had ended. Mass bereavement does not suffice as an explanation for the growth of the spiritualistic movement in the neutral Netherlands in the war years. It is demonstrated that in the writings of spiritualists about the First World War persistent fin-de-siècle themes can be distinguished. Before and during the First World War Dutch spiritualism was dominated by ‘ideologically’ inclined spiritualists and their more ‘critical-scientific’ counterparts were a minority. This had hindered the development of Dutch psychical research. After the war spiritualists shared their hopeful and optimistic perspective of the human soul with scholars leaning towards psychoanalytical and psychomonist ideas. This eventually led to a joint foundation of the Dutch SPR. This alignment between ideological and critical-scientific spiritualists would not last; opinions on how to handle the research subjects (i.e. mediums remained too distinct.
This article briefly reports on three early contributions to the understanding of visual agnosia as a syndrome sui generis. The authors of the respective papers worked in different fields such as physiology, ophthalmology, and neurology, and, although they were not in direct contact with each other, their results converged upon a consistent view of a nervous disorder that they called psychic blindness.
Mıngır, Tarkan; Ervatan, Zekeriya; Turgut, Namigar
Objective Anxiety is a pathological condition with a feeling of fear accompanied by somatic symptoms due to hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system. In this study, we aimed to compare perioperative anxiety status and the effects of age, gender, educational status, and The American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA) score on perioperative anxiety in patients undergoing elective surgery under spinal anaesthesia. Methods After IRB approval and signed informed consent, 100 healthy patients undergoing elective surgery under spinal anaesthesia were enrolled. The demographic data of patients and ASA scores were recorded. After spinal anaesthesia, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and anxiety levels were measured. Results The mean anxiety score in patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia indicate the presence of an intermediate level of anxiety (44.58±19.06). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between anxiety scores and age of patients with increased age (p<0.01). Statistically significant differences were found between anxiety scores of patients according to gender, and women’s anxiety scores were found to be significantly higher than in men (p<0.05). Anxiety scores did not differ significantly between education levels. A statistically significant difference was found between anxiety scores regarding ASA scores (p<0.05). Evaluation of patients revealed that the anxiety score of patients with ASA score 1 was significantly higher than the anxiety score of patients with ASA score 2. There was no significant difference between anxiety score of patients with ASA scores 2 and 3. Conclusion There is a mid-level anxiety, associated more with advanced age, female gender, and low ASA score, in patients undergoing elective surgery under spinal anaesthesia. PMID:27366419
Gottschalk, Michael G; Domschke, Katharina
In the present chapter, we review the literature focusing on oxytocin (OT)-centered research in anxiety spectrum conditions, comprising separation anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and anxiety-related endophenotypes (e.g., trust behavior, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, and state/trait anxiety). OT receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms have been implicated in gene-environment interactions with attachment style and childhood maltreatment and to influence clinical outcomes, including SAD intensity and limbic responsiveness. Epigenetic OXTR DNA methylation patterns have emerged as a link between categorical, dimensional, neuroendocrinological, and neuroimaging SAD correlates, highlighting them as potential peripheral surrogates of the central oxytocinergic tone. A pathophysiological framework of OT integrating the dynamic nature of epigenetic biomarkers and the summarized genetic and peripheral evidence is proposed. Finally, we emphasize opportunities and challenges of OT as a key network node of social interaction and fear learning in social contexts. In conjunction with multi-level investigations incorporating a dimensional understanding of social affiliation and avoidance in anxiety spectrum disorders, these concepts will help to promote research for diagnostic, state, and treatment response biomarkers of the OT system, advancing towards indicated preventive interventions and personalized treatment approaches.
Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A
Belief in paranormal psychic phenomena is widespread in the United States, with over a third of the population believing in extrasensory perception (ESP). Why do some people believe, while others are skeptical? According to the cognitive differences hypothesis, individual differences in the way people process information about the world can contribute to the creation of psychic beliefs, such as differences in memory accuracy (e.g., selectively remembering a fortune teller's correct predictions) or analytical thinking (e.g., relying on intuition rather than scrutinizing evidence). While this hypothesis is prevalent in the literature, few have attempted to empirically test it. Here, we provided the most comprehensive test of the cognitive differences hypothesis to date. In 3 studies, we used online screening to recruit groups of strong believers and strong skeptics, matched on key demographics (age, sex, and years of education). These groups were then tested in laboratory and online settings using multiple cognitive tasks and other measures. Our cognitive testing showed that there were no consistent group differences on tasks of episodic memory distortion, autobiographical memory distortion, or working memory capacity, but skeptics consistently outperformed believers on several tasks tapping analytical or logical thinking as well as vocabulary. These findings demonstrate cognitive similarities and differences between these groups and suggest that differences in analytical thinking and conceptual knowledge might contribute to the development of psychic beliefs. We also found that psychic belief was associated with greater life satisfaction, demonstrating benefits associated with psychic beliefs and highlighting the role of both cognitive and noncognitive factors in understanding these individual differences.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff
in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination......The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... anxiety questionnaires (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory and Cox and Kenardy's performance anxiety questionnaire) were used. Anxiety levels were measured before the non-surgical course (111 students from 2009) and before live-animal surgery during the surgical course (153 students from 2009...
Skinner, T. Chas; Davies, M. J.; Farooqi, A. M.
Aims: This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high...... risk of developing diabetes through general practitioners' (GPs) lists or through public media recruitment. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Between blood tests, participants completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale Short Form, the Emotional Stability Scale of the Big...... amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; SD = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64...
teachers revealed that sociotropy could predict future shyness. In a study of 255 students sociotropy scores were posi tively correlated with rated trait anxiety in situations of social evalua tion. These studies indicate that there may be an association between sociotropy-autonomy traits and anxiety disorders. Several ...
Lykouras, L; Michopoulos, J
depression and anxiety disorders, is observed. Anxiety is also a common trait in personality disorders.There is no single personality type characteristic of the morbidly obese, they differ from the general population as their self-esteem and impulse control is lower. Obese patients present with passive-dependent and passive-aggressive personality traits, as well as a trend for somatization and problem denial. Their thinking is usually dichotomous and catastrophic. Obese patients also show low cooperativeness and fail to see the self as autonomous and integrated. When trying to participate in society roles they are subject to prejudice and discrimination and should be treated with concern to help alleviate their feelings of rejection and guilt.
Sylvester, C.M.; Corbetta, M.; Raichle, M.E.; Rodebaugh, T.; Schlaggar, B L; Sheline, Y I; Zorumski, C F; Lenze, E.J.
A recent paradigm shift in systems neuroscience is the division of the human brain into functional networks. Functional networks are collections of brain regions with strongly correlated activity both at rest and during cognitive tasks, and each network is believed to implement a different aspect of cognition. Here, we propose that anxiety disorders and high trait anxiety are associated with a particular pattern of functional network dysfunction: increased functioning of the cingulo-opercular...
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Arendasy, Martin
A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical self-concept) and trait anxiety, as a general disposition to anxiety, influence experiences of anxiety as well as achievement in an examination. Participants were 284 undergraduate psychology students, 225 females and 59 males. Two weeks prior to the examination, participants completed a demographic questionnaire and measures of the STARS, the STAI, self-concept in mathematics, and interest in statistics. At the beginning of the statistics examination, students assessed their present state anxiety by the KUSTA scale. After 25 min, all examination participants gave another assessment of their anxiety at that moment. Students' examination scores were recorded. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the variables in a multivariate context. Statistics anxiety was the only variable related to state anxiety in the examination. Via state anxiety experienced before and during the examination, statistics anxiety had a negative influence on achievement. However, statistics anxiety also had a direct positive influence on achievement. This result may be explained by students' motivational goals in the specific educational setting. The results provide insight into the relationship between students' attitudes, dispositions, experiences of anxiety in the examination, and academic achievement, and give recommendations to instructors on how to support students prior to and in the examination. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.
Wallin Lundell, Inger; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Ekselius, Lisa; Georgsson, Susanne; Frans, Örjan; Helström, Lotti; Högberg, Ulf; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta
Most women who choose to terminate a pregnancy cope well following an abortion, although some women experience severe psychological distress. The general interpretation in the field is that the most consistent predictor of mental disorders after induced abortion is the mental health issues that women present with prior to the abortion. We have previously demonstrated that few women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after induced abortion. Neuroticism is one predictor of importance for PTSD, and may thus be relevant as a risk factor for the development of PTSD or PTSS after abortion. We therefore compared Neuroticism-related personality trait scores of women who developed PTSD or PTSS after abortion to those of women with no evidence of PTSD or PTSS before or after the abortion. A Swedish multi-center cohort study including six Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments, where 1294 abortion-seeking women were included. The Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) was used to evaluate PTSD and PTSS. Measurements were made at the first visit and at three and six month after the abortion. The Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) was used for assessment of Neuroticism-related personality traits. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the risk factors for development of PTSD or PTSS post abortion. Women who developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion had higher scores than the comparison group on several of the personality traits associated with Neuroticism, specifically Somatic Trait Anxiety, Psychic Trait Anxiety, Stress Susceptibility and Embitterment. Women who reported high, or very high, scores on Neuroticism had adjusted odds ratios for PTSD/PTSS development of 2.6 (CI 95% 1.2-5.6) and 2.9 (CI 95% 1.3-6.6), respectively. High scores on Neuroticism-related personality traits influence the risk of PTSD or PTSS post abortion. This finding supports the argument
Volkova, O M; Kozlovskaia, G V; Proselkova, M O
The complex of such phenomena as anxiety and fear in children of the early age and their relationship with risk factors for psychic pathology were investigated. Eighty cases of anxiety-phobic disorders in children of the first five years of life were studied. The types of behavioral and somatic reactions that allowed to reveal not only the clinically expressed phenomena of anxiety and fear but the higher readiness to them were described. The first anxiety-phobic reactions appeared at the age when emotional functions were not completely formed and might be considered as the presentations of emotional dysontogenesis. The authors assume that characteristics of fear expression in the early age allow to suspect a mental disease which might be timely diagnosed in case of its manifestation. The conclusions made in the paper may be useful for clinical practice of pediatricians, children neurologists, psychologists and psychiatrists.
Ivan, M Cristina; Amspoker, Amber B; Nadorff, Michael R; Kunik, Mark E; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy; Calleo, Jessica; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Stanley, Melinda A
To examine alcohol consumption among older primary care patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); its relationship to demographic variables, insomnia, worry, and anxiety; and its moderating role on the anxiety-insomnia relationship. We expected alcohol use to be similar to previous reports, correlate with higher anxiety and insomnia, and worsen the anxiety-insomnia relationship. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine. 223 patients, 60 years and older, with GAD. Frequency of alcohol use, insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire - Abbreviated, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait subscale, Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [SIGH-A]). Most patients endorsed alcohol use, but frequency was low. Presence and frequency were greater than in previous reports of primary care samples. Alcohol use was associated with higher education, female gender, less severe insomnia, and lower worry (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait subscale; SIGH-A). Whites reported more drinks/week than African-Americans. More drinks/week were associated with higher education and lower anxiety (SIGH-A). Weaker relationships between worry/anxiety and insomnia occurred for those drinking. Drink frequency moderated the positive association between the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated and insomnia, which was lower with higher frequency of drinking. Older adults with GAD use alcohol at an increased rate, but mild to moderate drinkers do not experience sleep difficulties. A modest amount of alcohol may minimize the association between anxiety/worry and insomnia among this group. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dillbeck, Michael C.
Two weeks of twice-daily practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique was compared with 2 weeks of twice-daily practice of passive relaxation as a means of reduction of anxiety, as measured by the Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. (Editor)
A purposeful sample of 10 first team high school rugby players and 10 male adolescents not participating in any type of sport was drawn from a high school situated in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Cognitive anxiety was measured through the administration of the State and Trait Anxiety subscales of the State-Trait ...
Jinyi, Li; Yungui, Wang
Pain and anxiety engender major psychic problems during all phases of treatment for burn patients. Analgesic alone does not allay these problems satisfactorily in these patients. Music therapy, as an important complementary and alternative therapy, has been widely used in multiple medical fields. However, its positive effect on alleviation of pain and anxiety in burn patients is undefined. The objective of this review is to summarize the feasibility, application fields, methods, and the effectiveness of music therapy in allaying pain and anxiety of burn patients during the whole course of treatment.
Bech, P; Bille, Jim; Møller, Stine Bjerrum
patients with various diagnoses, was tested. RESULTS: The PCA of the SCL-D16 and the SCL-A14 separated the core depression items from the arousal items on the SCL-D16 and the psychic anxiety items from the somatic anxiety items on the SCL-A14. According to the Mokken analyses, only the SCL-D6, the SCL-ASS8...... and the IPS5 were unidimensional. Interestingly, the same three scales displayed discriminant validity for depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The study is based on data from Denmark. This may limit the validity of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Three unidimensional...
Crescenzi, F; Scarpati, F; Cannavacciuolo, L; Pellegrino, F
Within our Medical Unit of Competent Doctor, in the last years we have registered growing number of workers with psychic disorders, which affect, to various degrees, their normal working activity. This fact has required from us a thorough re-consideration of the psycho-social risks related to employment in general, but also of other issues such as the topic of third parties' healthcare assistance as well as the type of role that interested operators are supposed to play in managing people affected by this type of risks. The current work shows the outcome of the survey which was conducted, highlighting the main critical aspects which have emerged in managing workers with psychic disorders.
Pimentel, Marcelo Gulão; Alberto, Klaus Chaves; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander
In the early nineteenth century, investigations into the nature of psychic/spiritual phenomena, like trances and the supposed acquisition of information unattainable using normal sensory channels, prompted much debate in the scientific arena. This article discusses the main explanations offered by the researchers of psychic phenomena reported between 1811 and 1860, concentrating on the two main movements in the period: magnetic somnambulism and modern spiritualism. While the investigations of these phenomena gave rise to multiple theories, they did not yield any consensus. However, they did have implications for the understanding of the mind and its disorders, especially in the areas of the unconscious and dissociation, constituting an important part of the history of psychology and psychiatry.
Freitas, Rodrigo Jácob Moreira de; Moura, Natana Abreu de; Monteiro, Ana Ruth Macêdo
Objective To reflect on violence against children and adolescents in psychic suffering, and nursing care based on social phenomenology. Method Theoretical study based on the conceptions of Alfred Schütz. Results The subject in psychic suffering shows conflicts in family relationships, and is often immersed in a biographical situation that removes their autonomy, contributing violence itself. Violence is a social phenomenon expressed through power relations in the everyday world and, through group relationships, resulting in suffering for the victims. Conclusions Studies performed by Schütz enable a new look for the nursing care/health professionals who deal with this problem by allowing them to know the biographical situation, and have full stock of knowledge about their patients, their motivations and the meanings these patients attribute to their experiences. This enables the overcoming of the biomedical model and leads to valuing interpersonal relations from the perspective of a culture of peace.
Braun, Claude M. J.; Guimond, Anik
The “psychic tonus” model or PTM  of hemispheric specialization states that the left hemisphere is a psychic and behavioral activator and that the right hemisphere is an inhibitor. The PTM predicts that the tonus of visual representation ought to manifest hemispheric specialization in the occipital lobes. Specifically PTM predicts that pathological positive visual tonus (visual hallucination) ought to be associated more frequently with right occipital lesions. PTM also predicts that pathol...
de Kernier, Nathalie; Marty, François; Devouche, Emmanuel
Suicidal acts during adolescence reveal narcissistic vulnerabilities. The author's observation concerns the quality of ego boundaries, as well as their evolution. Longitudinal studies were conducted on the basis of interviews and projective tests performed within 15 days after the suicide attempt and once again the following year. The quantitative analyses of Fisher and Cleveland's Barrier/Penetration scores on the Rorschach show the evolution of identity mechanisms. The results underscore the importance of restoring psychic containers of identity.
Every day new scientific information is appearing that cannot be explained using the classical Newtonian model and is calling for the emergence of a new paradigm that would include the explanation of such phenomena as telepathy, clairvoyance, presentiment, precognition, out of the body experiences, psychic healing, after-death communication, near-death experiences and reincarnation. The materialist paradigm which considers the brain as the sole cause of consciousness and psychic phenomena has been challenged by a new paradigm that seems to demonstrate that there is not a cause-effect relationship between brain activity and psychic phenomena but only a correlation between them, since these phenomena can be experienced without the body and appear to have an extra-cerebral origin (cosmic field, cosmic consciousness?). Of course, the brain is intensely involved in the manifestation of consciousness in our daily life but this is not equivalent to affirm that brain creates consciousness. Recent findings force us to consider a non-physical, spiritual and transpersonal aspect of reality.
Full Text Available Purpose: to work out content of individualized trainings, permitting to correct deviations in different aspects of physical, psychic and social-moral health of higher educational establishments’ students. Material: in experiment 105 boy students of 20-24 years’ age participated. All students gave conscious consent to participate in experiment. The trainings were practiced 4 times a week, 45 minutes each. Results: it is interesting that change of different personality’s features is rather long process, which in some aspects resist to changes. We showed approaches to training vitally important skills and abilities, required for adaptation to modern social cultural medium; to the simplest techniques of organization of independent health related physical culture trainings; to means of health strengthening, formation of knowledge on health related physical culture. We developed personality-oriented system of formation of psychic and social-moral health. Conclusions: the worked out approach permits to achieve real positive psychic and socially important qualities of student’s personality during one academic year.
This paper presents a tentative understanding of the characteristics of the extreme traumas, elsewhere called 'complex PTSD', that some refugees and asylum-seekers bring into therapy. It suggests that these kinds of traumas suffered during adulthood may involve a disintegration of the self and a loss of 'psychic skin'. This conceptualization is derived from the treatment of a refugee who survived multiple extreme traumas and with whom efforts were made in therapy to identify a complex methodology making use of supplementary therapeutic tools in addition to individual psychotherapy. The case demonstrates how the disintegration of self implies not only a deep somato-psychic dissociation, but also a loss of intrapsychic and interpersonal space. In the treatment this was worked through via repetition of the victim-aggressor dynamics at multiple levels. In the end, the therapeutic context was structured like a set of concentric layers, creating a 'bandage' over the patient's wounds whilst his 'psychic skin' was able to regenerate. The conditions triggered by extreme traumas in refugees challenge some of the cornerstones of individual psychoanalytic technique, as well as the idea that individual therapy may be thought of as existing in an environmental vacuum. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Mulcahy, Kylie; Hennessey, Neville; Beilby, Janet; Byrnes, Michelle
The present study examined the relationship between anxiety, attitude toward daily communication, and stuttering symptomatology in adolescent stuttering. Adolescents who stuttered (n = 19) showed significantly higher levels of trait, state and social anxiety than fluent speaking controls (n = 18). Trait and state anxiety was significantly…
As a disciple of Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke and Theodor Meynert, Sigmund Freud was familiar with 19th century physiology and neurology. He started his career with laboratory work and began later on, when being a young medic to develop an explicit psychological method for curating hysterics. These cases of hysteria ask riddles to the established medical discourse and practice. Freud's long time unpublished Entwurf einer Psychologie (1895) makes the attempt of a "psychology for the neurologist". He tried to give a sufficient theory of the psychic apparatus on the basis of natural science. At the same time he (together with Josef Breuer) published his Studies on Hysteria, which--in addition to his earlier essay on Aphasia (1891)--argued, that there is no clear cut relation between body and soul. Despite the dubious, non-reductive character of the soma-psyche-relation, Freud gave reason to search for a complex field of interrelations between the physiological and psychological knowledge, beyond the divide of natural sciences and humanities. Not until his groundbreaking Traumdeutung (1900) Freud gave up the claim of reintegrating psychological knowledge into the neuroscientific field for now. But up to his latest work he always adheres to the principal project of unifying the natural and the psychical being of the subject. In the gap between the two spheres, for long occupied by the discursive figure of the 'psycho-physical parallelism', Freud situated the Unconscious. In the passage to a psychoanalytical theory of psychic events Freud took up the model of the reflex arc well known from neurology. The transmission into psychoanalysis complexifies the unilinearity of reflexes, so that the psychic apparatus can be analysed as a cybernetic mechanism 'avant la lettre'. It is interesting enough that inhibition as well as consciousness play a key role in the regulation of the psychic apparatus. In this context Freud stresses the importance of speech and language within the
... on the bad things that could happen also fuels test anxiety. For example, someone worrying about doing poorly ... are shaking." Just like other types of anxiety, test anxiety can create a bad cycle: The more a person focuses on the negative ...
... School Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders Print A A A What's in this ... affect people of all ages — adults, children, and teens. There are many different types of anxiety disorders, with different symptoms. They all have one ...
Klein, Rachel G.
Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…
Humphris, Gerry M; Freeman, Ruth
Medline and the Social Science Index Citation databases were searched. Studies had to have used measures of dental anxiety completed by children themselves (≤16 years), been published in English and reported primary data. Non-validated measures, those using proxy measures and non-dentally specific measures were excluded. Data were extracted independently using a standardised form. Validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed, and measures were evaluated against a theoretical framework of dental anxiety. A qualitative summary of the measures is presented. Sixty studies met the inclusion criteria. These covered seven 'trait' and two 'state' measures of dental anxiety used to assess children's dental anxiety over the past decade. The findings from this systematic review can be used to help guide dental academics, clinicians, psychologists and epidemiologists to choose the most appropriate measure of dental anxiety for their intended use. Future work should involve evaluating the content and developmental validity of existing measures with further consideration given to the use of theoretical frameworks to develop this field.
The inverted-U model, facilitating and debilitating anxiety and state trait anxiety, is examined along with the relationship of these concepts to second-language learning, including English as a Second or Foreign Language. Research in the area of foreign-language classroom anxiety is also noted. (35 references) (LB)
Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.
Shows that recollections of state speaking anxiety decreased over time, and that the rate of attenuation was associated with the speaker's level of trait speaking anxiety. Finds also that recollections of state speaking anxiety (implicit memory) were attenuated over time, and that the magnitude of this decline was predicted by the speaker's level…
Objective: There is a high incidence of distressing psychological symptoms including anxiety in pregnancy. Nevertheless, predictors of distress and anxiety during pregnancy have not been well characterized. We determined whether temperament and character, trait anxiety, resilience, and social support predicted distress ...
Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry. ... In addition to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), and Dental Fear Scale (DFS), the patients were asked to answer the questions concerning previous dental experience, education level, and previous psychiatric therapy.
Sutin, Angelina R.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Uda, Manuela; Deiana, Barbara; Taub, Dennis D.; Longo, Dan L.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Terracciano, Antonio
Objective Personality traits related to high Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness are consistently associated with obesity. Hormones implicated in appetite and metabolism, such as leptin, may also be related to personality and may contribute to the association between these traits and obesity. The present research examined the association between leptin and Five Factor Model personality traits. Methods A total of 5,214 participants (58% female; Mean age = 44.42 years, SD = 15.93, range 18 to 94) from the SardiNIA project completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, a comprehensive measure of personality traits, and their blood samples were assayed for leptin. Results As expected, lower Conscientiousness was associated with higher circulating levels of leptin (r=−.05, p<.001), even after controlling for body mass index, waist circumference, or inflammatory markers (r=−.05, p<.001). Neuroticism, in contrast, was unrelated to leptin (r=.01, p=.31). Conclusions Individuals who are impulsive and lack discipline (low Conscientiousness) may develop leptin resistance, which could be one factor that contributes to obesity, whereas the relation between a proneness to anxiety and depression (high Neuroticism) and obesity may be mediated through other physiological and/or behavioral pathways. PMID:23697464
Barnes, Richard E.
A person who lacks confidence in communicating is viewed as slightly neurotic, possessing a general trait of high anxiety. The person tends to avoid interaction situations and does not initiate interactions. As a consequence, he or she probably has poor social relations and low self-concept, feels alienated from others, and finds it difficult to…
Frick, P J; Lilienfeld, S O; Ellis, M; Loney, B; Silverthorn, P
Although several theoretical models posit that low levels of anxiety are a risk factor for psychopathy and antisocial behavior, a number of studies have reported elevated levels of anxiety among antisocial individuals. Nevertheless, most investigators in this literature have not distinguished between fearfulness and trait anxiety or attempted to separate the antisocial lifestyle dimension from the callous and unemotional dimension of psychopathy. In a study of clinically referred children (N = 143), we found that (a) measures of trait anxiety and fearlessness (low fearfulness) exhibited low correlations; (b) conduct problems tended to be positively correlated with trait anxiety, whereas callous and unemotional traits tended to be negatively correlated with trait anxiety; and (c) controlling statistically for the effects of one dimension increased the divergent correlations of the other dimension with both trait anxiety and fearful inhibition. These findings bear potentially important implications for the diagnosis and etiology of psychopathy and antisocial behavior and suggest that distinctions between trait anxiety and fearful inhibition, as well as between the two dimensions of psychopathy, may help to clarify longstanding confusion in this literature.