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Sample records for psychiatry linguistic stakes

  1. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  2. Of Mother Tongues and Other Tongues: The Stakes of Linguistically Inclusive Pedagogy in Minority Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa K.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses two key challenges that globalization poses to literacy research: the need for new models of literacy and literacy education, and the stakes of adopting multiliteracies pedagogies in different contexts--that is, the tensions between competing hegemonic discourses of collective identity in the public sphere of ethnolinguistic…

  3. psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and into the 20th century a medical, organic approach to mental illness evolved. ... effective, psychiatry must fit the African cultural pattern.4. South Africa is a .... patient become a more mature and rational person, not merely as well as he once ... patients, for example catharsis following an emotional reliving of the trauma ...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some ...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ... World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association ...

  6. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some ...

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine ... American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ... More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists ...

  9. Stakes Matter in Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Ertaç, Seda; Gneezy, Uri

    2011-01-01

    One of the most robust findings in experimental economics is that individuals in one-shot ultimatum games reject unfair offers. Puzzlingly, rejections have been found robust to substantial increases in stakes. By using a novel experimental design that elicits frequent low offers and uses much...... larger stakes than in the literature, we are able to examine stakes' effects over ranges of data that are heretofore unexplored. Our main result is that proportionally equivalent offers are less likely to be rejected with high stakes. In fact, our paper is the first to present evidence that as stakes...

  10. RWE sells Nafta stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    At year-end 2000, state-owned Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) signed a Memorandum of Understanding that set the conditions for the German concern RWE to purchase a 40 % stake in Nafta Gbely. This partnership agreement was meant to grant RWE participation in the management of the gas storage operator, which is controlled by SPP, and allow RWE to increase the use of Nafta's capacities. But in the 3 years since then, these objectives were not met. RWE representatives were not appointed to the Nafta Board and not a single cubic meter of RWE gas was stored at Nafta. RWE denied that it was considering leaving Nafta. Control of Nafta and SPP gradually passed to RWE's major competitors. The attitude of RWE only changed last week, when it sold its stake in Nafta to Ruhrgas under favourable conditions. Although Ruhrgas already more or less controlled Nafta via SPP, it paid RWE 62.22 million Eur for its stake. This represents a price per share of about 12.44 Eur more than RWE paid over two years ago and about double the market price. One of the possible reasons why RWE decided to leave the company is, apart from uncertainty surrounding future participation in the company management, uncertainty regarding whether there is a profit to be made on future dividends. Another reason may be the joint operation of both rivals in a number of companies. And so the Nafta trade may be part of the establishment of areas of influence

  11. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a diagnosis, and to work with patients to develop treatment plans. Specific diagnoses are based on criteria ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ...

  12. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  13. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  14. Computational Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  15. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry

  16. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the ... practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. The first year of residency training is ...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the ...

  20. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...

  1. Transcultural psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vikash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last half of the century the researchers have placed a great deal of importance on brain behavior relations. This has brought upon a huge body of knowledge but unfortunately at the cost of culture - the true roots of much of our behaviour. This general disregard of cultural factors has not only led to false generalizations but has also blocked the understanding of the real forces that motivate and shape our perceptions, attitudes, and actions. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight the trajectory of transcultural psychiatry, right from the conceptions of its idea, through flaws in methodology, assessment, treatment and to its future and its limitations.

  2. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  3. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  4. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.; Ross, Don

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in statements of this calibration puzzle is that small-stakes risk aversion is observed over all levels of wealth...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. The first year of ... psychiatrists also complete additional specialized training after their four years of general psychiatry training. They may become ...

  6. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD) More Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine ... symptoms and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. What Treatments Do Psychiatrists Use? Psychiatrists use a variety ...

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, ... of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on ... Light therapy is used to treat seasonal depression. Psychiatric Training To become a psychiatrist, a person must ...

  9. TOWARDS AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.W.M.

    The situation of present day psychiatry is described as being dominated by an empiricist perspective. The limitations of this perspective are analyzed and a rough sketch of the hermeneutical approach in psychiatry is offered. It is argued that a fully developed hermeneutical psychiatry implies a

  10. Diving in or Guarding the Tower: Mina Shaughnessy's Resistance and Capitulation to High-Stakes Writing Tests at City College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Mina Shaughnessy continues to exert powerful influences over Basic Writing practices, discourses and pedagogy thirty-five years after her death: Basic Writing remains in some ways trapped by Shaughnessy's legacy in what Min-Zhan Lu labeled as essentialism, accommodationism and linguistic innocence. High-stakes writing tests, a troubling hallmark…

  11. Preventive psychiatry: Current status in contemporary psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chadda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive psychiatry is one of the most ignored subdiscipline of psychiatry, which has got important role to play in the contemporary psychiatry. Mental disorders are very common with lifetime prevalence of about 25%, and tend to be chronic. Due to the stigma associated with mental disorders, lack of awareness, and also lack of adequate mental health resources, nearly 60%–80% of the persons suffering from mental disorders do not access mental health care services. Mental and substance use disorders have been identified as one of the major contributors to the disease-related burden and disability-adjusted life years. In this background, preventive psychiatry has an important role to play in public health sector. Since etiology of most of the mental disorders is not known, it is not possible to follow here the standard model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of public health. A concept of universal, selective, and indicated prevention has been proposed in primary prevention. Preventive approaches in psychiatry focus on evidence-based risk and protective factors, promoting quality of life, reducing stressors, and improving resilience. Such interventions, when planned targeting at specific mental disorders, have a potential to prevent mental disorders. Thus, preventive psychiatry has a crucial role to play in mental health, considering the high prevalence of mental disorders, the associated disability and burden, and a great drain on human resources.

  12. Hamlet and psychiatry intertwined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Sarah

    2018-05-01

    This article considers selected landmarks in the history of psychiatry and their impact on Hamlet productions, including Burton's Anatomy of Melancholia, Emil Kraepelin's manic-depression, Freud's oedipal complex and R.D. Laing's 'divided self'. Additionally, this article considers the way Shakespeare's Hamlet has influenced the course of psychiatry. The linkages between psychiatry and Hamlet have existed since the 17th century, and perhaps Shakespeare's Hamlet should have a place on every psychiatrist's shelf.

  13. Physical Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  14. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric ...

  16. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ing of research on every aspect of psychiatry. A few areas where Australian research has achieved interna- tional recognition include the classification of depression, the concept of abnormal illness behaviour, treatment of anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and perinatal psychiatry. In the past it was common ...

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © ...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and ... Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 ...

  20. Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry publishes original scientific papers, review articles, short reports and opinion papers in all areas of psychiatry and related fields, such as sociology, applied anthropology and neurosciences. Vol 14, No 1 (2016). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric ...

  2. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. History of psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  4. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and insomnia. Hypnotics – used to induce and maintain sleep. Mood stabilizers – used to treat bipolar disorder. Stimulants – ... psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...

  6. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is the Difference Between a Psychiatrist and Psychologist? A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological data, to make a diagnosis, and to work with ... PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric Association. All ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Annual Meeting Goldwater Rule Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In ...

  9. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information specifically addressed to individuals in the European Economic Area. As described in the Privacy Policy, this ... training, most psychiatrists take a voluntary written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry ...

  10. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illnesses and the relationships with genetics and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological data, to make ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  11. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and ... most psychiatrists take a voluntary written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry and ...

  12. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... and other medical illnesses and the relationships with genetics and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological ... PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric Association. All ...

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... mental disorders with psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association ...

  14. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... become a psychiatrist, a person must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state ... A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  15. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline ... or troubling symptoms so the patient can function better. Depending on the extent of the problem, treatment ...

  16. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC ...

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC Meetings Search ...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Psychiatric medications can help correct imbalances in brain chemistry that are thought to be involved in some ... additional specialized training after their four years of general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Join APA General Members Residents and Fellows Medical Students International Become a Fellow APA Sites APA Publishing APA Foundation APA Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace ...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

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  1. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC ...

  2. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  3. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth......, and that terminal wealth is defined as the sum of extra-lab wealth and any wealth accumulated in the lab. This assumption is often used in Expected Utility Theory, as well as popular alternatives such as RankDependent Utility theory. Another core assumption is that the small-stakes risk aversion is observed over...... all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes...

  4. [Can psychiatry become neuropsychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosarczyk, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    Today more and more often there are prognoses that in the future psychiatry will have been absorbed by neurology. It would be thanks to the stormy progress of research on the neurophysiological, genetic and molecular foundations of mental disorders. The aim of the article is to assess the possibility as well as the supposed consequences of such an evolution of psychiatry. The considerations concern the peculiarity of the object of interest and the methods used in psychiatry in relation to the neurological object and methodology. This way the appraisal of raison d'etre of one common science: neuropsychiatry becomes possible. The question of fundamental importance for the evaluation of similarities and differences between the psychiatric and neurological perspectives is the way the psychophysical issue and especially the problem of the mind-brain relation are approached. The article presents the manners of solving these problems proposed by the contemporary philosophy of the mind. Together with parting with the full of errors and simplifications heritage of Descartes it appears the necessity to regard the presence of subjective mental states both conscious and unconscious in model of mind-brain relation. The example of such a solution is the biological naturalism of John Searle. The psychical life of the man in its subjective dimension remains the peculiar area of interests for psychiatry irrespective of the progress in research on the biological base of mental disorders. The especially valuable cognitive and therapeutic tool in this aspect is psychotherapy constituting the integral part of psychiatry. The present state of knowledge does not indicate that the psychotherapeutic wing of psychiatry can lose its importance and rather somewhat the contrary. The progress of neurobiology does not have to threaten the autonomy of psychiatry by any means and the maintenance of this autonomy depends decisively on the psychiatrists themselves.

  5. A stake in the business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Chris T

    2005-09-01

    When Chris Sullivan and three friends opened the first Outback Steakhouse in March 1988, in Tampa, Florida, they were hoping it would be successful enough to spawn a few more and maybe some other kinds of restaurants as well. Since then, their chain of Australia-themed restaurants has grown to some 900 locations and counting-plus another 300 or so "concept" restaurants that operate from under Outback's corporate umbrella. Growth like that doesn't happen accidentally, Sullivan says, but it certainly wasn't part of the original plan. In this first-person account, Outback's chairman describes the organization's formula for growth and development, which is consciously rooted in the founders' belief in putting people first. They've created an organizational model in which field managers make most of the decisions, garner the rewards, and live with the consequences. Specifically, the founders believe that the most effective way to make customers happy is to first take care of the people who cook for them, serve them, and supervise operations at the restaurants. Outback servers have fewer tables to worry about than those at other restaurant chains; the cooks have bigger, cooler, better-equipped kitchens; and the supervisors work their way up the ranks toward an equity stake in the restaurant or region they run. There are no administrative layers between field managers and the executives at headquarters. Giving employees good working conditions and the chance to become owners has proved to be good business: Turnover among hourly employees is low, and Outback and its subsidiaries opened 120 restaurants last year, increasing sales by 20.1%. The company must grow in order to keep offering career opportunities to its workers; in turn, those opportunities ensure that Outbackers remain committed to making customers happy and the company successful.

  6. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  7. [Gottfried Benn and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, N

    1994-04-01

    As a young physician the poet Gottfried Benn (1886-1956) gave up a promising career in psychiatry after short period in practice. A psychodynamic analysis of this failure stresses the importance of the relationship of father and son in adolescence for the maturing of ego identity and ego ideal. At the beginning of this century psychiatry was a medical field with strong materialistic and biologistic positions. Benn embraced this position and tried to distance himself from his father, who was a charismatic priest with psychotherapeutic ambition. Benn experienced difficulty in competing with his father and this can be attributed to disturbances in his relationship to his mother in early childhood. The consequence was e.g. a narcissistic vulnerability in adulthood. The contrast of the splendid success in brain research with its inapplicability in routine therapy was characteristic of the state of psychiatry at the time of Benn's failure.

  8. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  9. Anthology of Venezuelan psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Portilla-Geada, Néstor de la; Téllez Pacheco, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Reception of Psychiatry in Venezuela since the 19th Century to the late 20th Century merits a historical approach. The following work proposes to research some of the very origins of Venezuelan psychiatry and its possible influence on contemporary mental health practice. Through documental research, the early works of local authors from the 19th Century through 20th Century finals: Carlos Arvelo, Lisandro Alvarado, Francisco Herrera Luque, Jose Luis Vethencourt and Jose Solanes, are subjected to study. This journey illustrates a descriptive panoramic view which allows to better comprenhend the current state of our psychiatry. In a brief introduction the most important events are described, since the arrival of Pinel's ideas, followed by the early research paperworks published and the beginnings of the academic teachings of this specialty in Venezuela and displaying the main contemporary research groups thorough the country.

  10. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  11. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Shrink rethink: rebranding psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Jim; Barber, Lee; Masson, Neil

    2017-11-01

    Negative public attitudes towards psychiatry hinder individuals coming for treatment and prevent us from attracting and retaining the very brightest and best doctors. As psychiatrists we are skilled in using science to change the thoughts and behaviours of individuals, however, we lack the skills to engage entire populations. Expertise in this field is the preserve of branding, advertising and marketing professionals. Techniques from these fields can be used to rebrand psychiatry at a variety of levels from national recruitment drives to individual clinical interactions between psychiatrists and their patients. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rule Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency ...

  14. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... A – Z Ask An Expert Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Coping After Disaster, Trauma Internet Gaming Share ...

  15. Psychiatry and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Pasha, Mohamed Iqbal

    2004-12-01

    To explore psychiatry in Islam, with a view to informing Western psychiatrists working with Islamic patients, and Islamic medical students studying in Western countries. The first necessary step was to acquire some understanding of Islam, Sharia and Sharia law, as the basis on which the available psychiatric literature was considered. Standard textbooks on Islam and English-language papers in the psychiatric literature were examined. Discussions with knowledgeable Muslim people were conducted. Islam shares roots with the other Abrahamic, monotheistic religions: Judaism and Christianity. A central issues is unity: the unity of God, unity with God and unity within the Islamic community. Islam is more than a religion, because it informs all aspects of behaviour and has been described as 'a comprehensive way of life'. Individualism is less important than the welfare of the community. The Sharia is a list of rules and regulations derived from authentic sources. Psychiatric services in Islam, according to Western standards, are somewhat limited. This issue is being addressed through epidemiological studies, provision of new services and policy development. Although mental health legislation is not universal, forensic psychiatry has a role, in many ways similar to that in the West. Islam is based on unity and core values of compassion, justice and benevolence. Islamic psychiatry has a proud early history, and advances are occurring. There is an opportunity for the profession of psychiatry to bridge religious, ethnic and cultural boundaries.

  16. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and ... panic disorder, PTSD, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, borderline personality disorder and eating disorders. Antipsychotic medications – used to ...

  17. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  18. High-stakes educational testing and democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between high-stakes educational testing and democracy drawn from the experiences of 20th-century high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish history of education. The article presents various concepts of democracy using leading propositions within...... the field of education. Then a sample of relevant historic case studies are examined in light of these definitions. Among other things, the article concludes that a combination of different evaluation technologies – some formative and some summative – might be the safest way to go from a democratic...

  19. The energy stakes - After Fukushima. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacona, Estelle; Taine, Jean; Tamain, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The energy question today is worldwide and depends on major geopolitical stakes (demography, development, water, health, environment, research, risks). The energy must be universally produced and distributed together with minimizing pollutions, nuclear risks and CO 2 emissions. This new edition of 'the energy stakes' is fully updated and approaches some of the main questions that any responsible citizen should ask. It comprises 3 parts dealing with: a comprehensive review of the energy question in most of countries in the world, the constraints and challenges to take up to manage energy in an optimum way, and a prospective study about the control of energy consumption and about the existing technical solutions. (J.S)

  20. Validating High-Stakes Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Makes the point that the interpretations and use of high-stakes test scores rely on policy assumptions about what should be taught and the content standards and performance standards that should be applied. The assumptions built into an assessment need to be subjected to scrutiny and criticism if a strong case is to be made for the validity of the…

  1. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  2. What Is Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  3. Sacred radical of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L

    2007-08-01

    At least a dozen articles in this journal have referred directly to the psychiatry of Thomas Szasz, even favourably on occasions. Szasz makes no distinction between the occupational statuses of mental health workers and so his work is relevant to nurses. Szasz's central claims take on renewed vitality given recent developments in forensic care, especially in Britain. In this article, I criticize Szasz's rationale of what constitutes illness as opposed to disease. In addition, I question - in a nuanced way - his views on custodial psychiatry and his use of history to bolster his clams. I also comment on recent developments in biological research and their implications for diagnosing schizophrenia: further, I link the question of such diagnoses to Szasz's assertion that private contracts are the definitive test of what counts as mental illness. Lastly, I ask if improvements in mental health care contradict Szaszian criticisms and/or his seeming inability/unwillingness to acknowledge such changes.

  4. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to p...

  5. Reflections on contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRILL, N Q

    1956-11-01

    Valid data on the effectiveness of preventive programs in psychiatry are badly needed but cannot be obtained until reliable statistics on incidence and frequency of emotional disorders are available. There is a suggestion that clear cut neuroses are less frequent but an equally strong suggestion that psychosomatic disorders are increasing in frequency. There is a tendency to look upon the increasing freedom of some aspects of our culture as a great advance over Victorian rigidity and restraint-but to what extent is this related to seeming increases in delinquency?Parents seem to have become increasingly fearful of disciplining, training or frustrating children as a result of what is considered psychiatric teaching. Psychiatry has the responsibility for correcting such a misunderstanding. Psychotherapists who have not resolved their own dependency needs are in no position to help others with the dependency problems which underlie their neurotic difficulties. Psychotherapy involves more than just arranging the world to accommodate itself to the patient (which occasionally needs to be done). The patient too, has a responsibility for his illness and its treatment and must learn that life is characterized by the need to take some chances, by dangers, difficulties, frustrations and unknowns, as well as pleasures, safety, comfort and the familiar. The responsibility for meeting the need for psychiatric services belongs to all of medicine and not just to psychiatry.

  6. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Halina

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  7. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  8. On Linguistic Abilities, Multilingualism, and Linguistic Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannàccaro Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.

  9. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  10. Raising the stakes: How students' motivation for mathematics associates with high- and low-stakes test achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simzar, Rahila M; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M

    2015-04-01

    This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students' motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students' motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students' math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students' math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students' motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes.

  11. [Forensic psychiatry. Its relations to clinical psychiatry and criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, H-L

    2005-11-01

    A basic task of psychiatry is to identify and treat mentally disordered persons at risk of committing crimes. Psychiatry has an important function in preserving social peace, law, and order. How the psychiatric world handles this duty has changed with time. There have been very important changes from asylums to mental hospitals and from voluntary or involuntary inpatient treatment to outpatient care; but clinical psychiatry cannot give up forensic psychiatry. As a result of developments, inpatient care in mental hospitals often concentrates on crisis management, risk assessment, and risk management. On the other hand, forensic psychiatry has made great efforts in recent decades with special therapies for mentally disturbed criminals and collaborated closely with criminologists in developing instruments for risk assessment and prognosis of repeat offenses.

  12. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  13. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  14. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barocka, A.; Feistel, H.; Ebert, D.; Lungershausen, E.

    1993-01-01

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D 2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.) [de

  15. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  16. [Ethical dilemmas of contemporary psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Pozgain, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Ethics in the contemporary psychiatry, as well as in medicine in general, is based on the two core ethical traditions: deontological and theological. Good ethical decision takes into the consideration both traditions, and is preceded with ethical dilemmas to provide the best possible care to the patients in that moment. In the article are presented most recent research results of the literature about ethical dilemmas in psychiatry. Ethical dilemmas in everyday practice as well as compliance with the patients, psychiatric consultations, informed consent, treatment of personality disorders, pharmacological investigations, forensic psychiatry, forced hospitalisation, promotion of mental health, and dealing with the stigma of the mental diseases are showed in the article. The authors emphasize the necessity of constant questioning of ethical dilemmas in the contemporary psychiatry, because of the special status of psychiatry as a potentially risky field in practice, and because of intensive pharmacological investigations in psychiatric patients.

  17. [Towards a molecular psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J R

    1988-06-01

    Recent research data from psychopharmacology, brain imaging and molecular genetics support the notion of a new psychiatric frontier: that of molecular psychiatry. Identification of different subtypes of neurotransmitter receptors and their changes in density and sensitivity in response to endogenous ligands and/or psychotropic drugs may account for the clinical expression of various behavioral phenomena, including some psychiatric disorders. Brain imaging, in particular positron-emission tomographic evaluations, are likely to change psychiatric nosology. New diagnostic elements derived from these scanners will allow to associate psychotic states to neuroreceptor changes. Molecular genetics has shown that bipolar affective disorder can be caused by a single gene. A strong linkage seems to exist between a gene locus on chromosome 11 and bipolar illness. An amyloid gene located on chromosome 21 has also been shown to be strongly related to familial Alzheimer's disease. While genetic heterogeneity limits the screening value of these findings, the powerful techniques of molecular biology have entered the field of psychiatry. Ethical issues regarding DNA immortality, gene cloning and gene therapy will strengthen this relationship.

  18. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. [Social neuroscience and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    The topics of emotion, decision-making, and consciousness have been traditionally dealt with in the humanities and social sciences. With the dissemination of noninvasive human neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and the advancement of cognitive science, neuroimaging studies focusing on emotions, social cognition, and decision-making have become established. I overviewed the history of social neurosciences. The emerging field of social brain research or social neuroscience will greatly contribute to clinical psychiatry. In the first part. I introduced our early fMRI studies on social emotions such as guilt, embarrassment, pride, and envy. Dysfunction of social emotions can be observed in various forms of psychiatric disorder, and the findings should contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions. In the second part, I introduced our recent interdisciplinary neuroscience approach combining molecular neuroimaging techniques(positron emission tomography: PET), cognitive sciences, and economics to understand the neural as well as molecular basis of altered decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders. An interdisciplinary approach combing molecular imaging techniques and cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychiatry will provide new perspectives for understanding the neurobiology of impaired decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders and drug development.

  20. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  1. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  2. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  3. City and energy: which common stakes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Peiffer-Smadja, Oceane; Renard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of several issues addressed during sessions hold during a year. The addressed topics have been: the interactions between forms of urban development and energy transition, energetic vulnerability in relationship with mobility, the role and participation of inhabitants in the making of the city and in energy transition (the challenge of ways of life and usages in eco-districts), stakes and consequences of a more integrated urban production, the local governance of energy. Each of these topics is discussed, and the main lessons learned are highlighted

  4. Marine renewable energies. Stakes and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Olivier; Macadre, Laura-Mae

    2012-05-01

    Marine renewable energies are able to supply carbon free energy from various ocean resources (tides, waves, currents, winds, salinity and temperature gradients). This sector, currently at an early stage of deployment, has good prospects of development in the coming years. ENEA releases a report on marine renewable energies giving a transversal vision of the associated stakes and prospects of development. Technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each marine energy are analyzed. French and European sources of funding, regulatory framework and potential environmental and social impacts are also reported

  5. Raising the Stakes: High-Stakes Testing and the Attack on Public Education in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the last almost two decades, high-stakes testing has become increasingly central to New York's schools. In the 1990s, the State Department of Education began requiring that secondary students pass five standardized exams to graduate. In 2002, the federal No Child Left Behind Act required students in grades three through eight to take math and…

  6. MRI in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulert, Christoph; Shenton, Martha E.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  7. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  8. [Data science in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, F E; Menger, V; Hagoort, K

    The information society is digitalising at a fast pace. New technology enables the collection of real life and real time information from sources that were inaccessible before. This creates an inordinate amount of dynamic data and, consequently, opportunities to introduce new insights and improvement of treatment in the field of psychiatry. AIM: To clarify the definition of big data and how a big data approach can reform care into a data driven, patient oriented dynamic system which is constantly learning. METHOD: Brief description of a pilot effected at the UMC Utrecht where the Cross Industry Standard Process for Interactive Data Mining (CRISP-IDM) was performed and description of applications in the future. RESULTS: The described approach and examples from literature show that there are possibilities to realise quick improvements in practice and implement new insights from existing data sources. CONCLUSION: Introduction of data science in psychiatric practice offers new prospects.

  9. Computational neurology and psychiatry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Basabdatta; Cochran, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research in computational methods for modeling and simulating brain disorders. In particular, it shows how mathematical models can be used to study the relationship between a given disorder and the specific brain structure associated with that disorder. It also describes the emerging field of computational psychiatry, including the study of pathological behavior due to impaired functional connectivity, pathophysiological activity, and/or aberrant decision-making. Further, it discusses the data analysis techniques that will be required to analyze the increasing amount of data being generated about the brain. Lastly, the book offers some tips on the application of computational models in the field of quantitative systems pharmacology. Mainly written for computational scientists eager to discover new application fields for their model, this book also benefits neurologists and psychiatrists wanting to learn about new methods.

  10. MRI in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology

    2014-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL are ... Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  12. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  13. Linguistic Communications 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia).

    The present compilation of papers on linguistics is the result of joint efforts by the Classical Studies, French, Japanese, Linguistics, and Russian Departments of Monash University. Selections in the Pre-Prints and Articles section include: "For/Arabic Bilingualism in the Zalingei Area," by B. Jernudd; "Prosodic Problems in a Generative Phonology…

  14. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  15. Leptin and psychiatry | Moosa | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 3 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Huntsman takes a stake in Chemplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    Huntsman Chemical (Salt Lake City) has bought a 50% stake in Australian styrenics maker Chemplex (Melbourne) from Consolidated Press Holdings (Sydney). Huntsman stepped in after a previous acquisition plan by South Africa's Sentrachem (Johannesburg) broke down because of a failure to agree on price. Chemplex has two production locations near Melbourne: West Footscray, with capacity for 100,000 m.t./year of styrene, plus polystyrene, phenol, and acetone; and Dandenong, with production of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and latex. The company was originally Monsanto Australia, before being acquired by Consolidated Press in 1988. The deal will give Huntsman its first major production position in the Asia/Pacific region, apart from a 50% stake in a 25,000-m.t./year polystyrene plant in Taiwan, with Grand Pacific Petrochemical (Taipei) as a partner. In 1991, Huntsman abandoned plans to invest in a 25,000-m.t./year polystyrene plant in Thailand with Mitsubishi Corp. and Toa (Bangkok). Huntsman Chemical has annual revenues of $1.3 billion

  17. [Concepts of inhibition in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auroux, Y; Bourrat, M M; Brun, J P

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical approach, the authors first describe the original development of the concept of inhibition in neurophysiology and then analyze the subsequent adaptations made in psychiatry around such concept including those of: -- Pavlov, Hull, Watson and the behaviorists, -- Freud and the Freudian School, -- clinicians and psychopharmacologists. The concept of inhibition has thus various meanings in psychiatry. Although some unity is achieved on the semiological level, this aspect cannot explain the extent of the process.

  18. State of psychiatry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2012-01-01

    of common mental disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 'new' diagnostic groups are represented in the treatment statistics with steeply increasing incidences, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders, especially in the outpatient part...... to the somatic specialities, handicapping development in psychiatry. Action has been taken to increase research activity in psychiatry. This is facilitated by an increasing interest among medical students and young graduate physicians attracted by the neuropsychiatric paradigm, rapidly implemented in Danish...

  19. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  20. Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes Are Large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van den Assem (Martijn); D. van Dolder (Dennie); R.H. Thaler (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe examine cooperative behavior when large sums of money are at stake, using data from the television game show Golden Balls. At the end of each episode, contestants play a variant on the classic prisoner's dilemma for large and widely ranging stakes averaging over $20,000. Cooperation

  1. Organic unity theory: an integrative mind-body theory for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A

    1997-12-01

    The potential of psychiatry as an integrative science has been impeded by an internal schism that derives from the duality of mental and physical. Organic unity theory is proposed as a conceptual framework that brings together the terms of the mind-body duality in one coherent perspective. Organic unity theory is braided of three strands: identity, which describes the relationship between mentally described events and corresponding physically described events; continuity, which describes the linguistic-conceptual system that contains both mental and physical terms; and dialectic, which describes the relationship between the empirical way of knowing that is associated with the physical domain of the linguistic-conceptual system and the hermeneutic way of knowing that is associated with the mental domain. Each strand represents an integrative formulation that resolves an aspect of mental-physical dualism into an underlying unity. After the theory is presented, its implications for psychiatry are briefly considered.

  2. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  4. Psychiatry and movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions.

  5. Nuclear medicine in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Slawek, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the same way that the symptoms between different diseases in psychiatry overlap, functional brain research frequently shows the same pattern of changes across diagnostic borders; on the other hand, many the other tests, e.g. psychological tests, present the same problem as mentioned above; therefore: The psychiatrist seldom applies to an NM specialist to obtain a diagnosis; instead, a nuclear medicine report will rather confirm, or less frequently exclude, the psychiatrist's diagnosis. Ideally, psychiatric patients should be rescanned after the treatment, and changes in perfusion and/or metabolism discussed between psychiatrist and NM specialist. As shown above, there are few practical applications of nuclear medicine due to low specificity and low spatial resolution, although in the aspect of functional imaging it is still superior to CT/MRI, even in their functional modalities. On the other hand, its investigational potential is still growing, as there is no imaging technique in sight which could replace metabolic and receptor studies, and also because the scope of functional imaging in psychiatric diseases is spreading from its traditional applications, like dementia or depression, towards many poorly investigated fields e.g. hypnosis, suicidal behaviour or sleep disorders. (author)

  6. The stakes of radiation protection: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    The benefit/risk ratio of radiological examinations, particularly with the multi-cut scanner, can be insured only if the justification and optimization principles are respected. the justification stands on the reference to the guide of good practice of imaging examinations and the respect of the public health code that imposes an exchange of written information between the requester and the achiever. The optimization stands on the dosimetry evaluation of his practice and the comparison with the diagnosis reference levels, to realize the examinations at the lowest radiological cost. The stakes are the certainty not to be harmful for the patient, the rehabilitation of the radiologist in his consultant part rather than in this performer one and the protection against eventual legal consequences. (N.C.)

  7. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  8. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  9. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  10. Incorporating active learning in psychiatry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sonia; McLean, Loyola; Nash, Louise; Trigwell, Keith

    2017-06-01

    We aim to summarise the active learning literature in higher education and consider its relevance for postgraduate psychiatry trainees, to inform the development of a new Formal Education Course (FEC): the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) at the University of Sydney. We undertook a literature search on 'active learning', 'flipped classroom', 'problem-based learning' and 'psychiatry education'. The effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in higher education is well supported by evidence; however, there have been few psychiatry-specific studies. A new 'flipped classroom' format was developed for the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry). Postgraduate psychiatry training is an active learning environment; the pedagogical approach to FECs requires further evaluation.

  11. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludlow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  12. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  13. Communication skills in psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel

    2015-08-01

    Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. Economic games on the internet: the effect of $1 stakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Amir

    Full Text Available Online labor markets such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk offer an unprecedented opportunity to run economic game experiments quickly and inexpensively. Using Mturk, we recruited 756 subjects and examined their behavior in four canonical economic games, with two payoff conditions each: a stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings were based on the outcome of the game (maximum earnings of $1; and a no-stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings are unaffected by the outcome of the game. Our results demonstrate that economic game experiments run on MTurk are comparable to those run in laboratory settings, even when using very low stakes.

  15. Economic games on the internet: the effect of $1 stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofra; Rand, David G; Gal, Ya'akov Kobi

    2012-01-01

    Online labor markets such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) offer an unprecedented opportunity to run economic game experiments quickly and inexpensively. Using Mturk, we recruited 756 subjects and examined their behavior in four canonical economic games, with two payoff conditions each: a stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings were based on the outcome of the game (maximum earnings of $1); and a no-stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings are unaffected by the outcome of the game. Our results demonstrate that economic game experiments run on MTurk are comparable to those run in laboratory settings, even when using very low stakes.

  16. Psychological medicine and the future of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Psychological medicine (liaison psychiatry) aims to integrate psychiatry into other areas of medicine. It is currently enjoying considerable expansion. The degree to which it can take advantage of this opportunity will be important not only for its own future, but also for the survival of psychiatry as a medical discipline.

  17. Psychiatry in Australia | Kaplan | South African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  18. Dwelling thermal renovation: which stakes, which solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, Paul; Demeulenaere, Laurence; Verdure, Mathieu; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Fuk Chun Wing, Dimitri; Kiefer, Noemie; Mauroux, Amelie; Charlier, Dorothee; Hini, Sihame; Pinto Silva, Kleber; Giraudet, Louis Gaetan; Nauleau, Marie-Laure; Daussin-Benichou, Jeanne-Marie; Teissier, Olivier; Finidori, Esther; Grandjean, Alain; Allibe, Benoit; Gadrat, Pierre; Couriol, Aude; Menard, Francois; Rouquette, Celine; Houriez, Guillaume; Francois, Dominique; Aubert, Celine; Canardon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes three sets of contributions. The first one addresses context and stakes. The contributions propose: a literature review on household behaviour and investments in energy efficiency, a focus on the key role of dwellings in energy transition through a comparative study of the four pathways of the National Debate for Energy Transition, and a discussion about consensus and uncertainties regarding the determining factors of heating temperature in dwellings. The second set addresses public policies and their assessment: improvement of the technical-economical assessment of the benefit of dwelling energetic renovations, discussion of the organisation and results of a survey on dwelling, equipment, and energy needs and uses, an analysis of several measures aimed at reaching objectives of energy efficiency of dwellings, a discussion of renovation works quality, a discussion of the impact of the sustainable development tax credit on thermal renovation, the optimisation of energy renovation in co-properties by third party financing, some foreign examples of policies in favour of dwelling thermal renovation. The third set of contributions addresses the needed technical, organisational and market evolutions: how the building sector can face the challenges of energy transition, the possibilities to propose innovative solutions adapted to existing housing buildings, and a comparative analysis of material and building equipment costs and market structures in Europe. Other texts are proposed in appendix: the origin of the Phebus survey, a description of incentive arrangements, and a map of climate zones in France

  19. Special COP 21 - Stakes and actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Loic; Dupain, Julien; Descamps, Olivier; Blosseville, Thomas; Connors, Anne; Canto, Albane; Robischon, Christian; Boedec, Morgan; Tubiana, Fabian; Bomstein, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    A first set of article comments and discusses the various stakes and challenges of the 21. Conference of Parties (COP 21): the negotiation process which resulted in a synthesis which is to be signed by 95 States in Paris, the elaboration of an Agenda of solutions with the commitment of enterprises and local authorities, the issue of international financing as some promises remained not kept for the support to adaptation of developing countries. A second set of articles addresses the involved actors and their technological or economic challenges: the needed evolution of energy (electricity, heat, gas, fuel) producers away from fossil energies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the strategy of the French company Engie in the field of photovoltaic, wind and more generally renewable energies, innovating trends of decentralisation of energy production (offshore wind energy, hydrogen, plasma torch, flexible photovoltaic arrays, the wind tree, the floating wind turbine, new technologies for solar arrays), the perspectives for industrial sectors concerned by energy transition (with the example of Schneider Electric), emerging technologies (oil lamp, new boilers, desalination equipment, storage of wind energy, co-generation), developments and perspectives in the transport sector (example of Renault, new technologies for hybrid propulsion, bio-refineries, reduction of fuel consumption, hybrid aircraft, and heat management in railways) and in the building sector (new standards and applications, new building materials). A last article outlines the threat that climate can be for profitability and the taking of the carbon risk into account by the insurance and financial sectors

  20. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  1. Design Optimization and Fatigue Analysis of Laser Stake Welded Connections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Anshuman; Vel, Senthil S; Caccese, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    This report summanzes research on the design and fatigue analysis of laser-stake welded connections performed at the University of Maine from January 2006 to December 2007 for the Structural Response...

  2. French government to trim direct stake in Total

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the French government has decided to slash its direct stake in partly state owned oil company Total to 5% from 31.7%, a surprise move expected to raise 10 billion francs ($1.8 billion). At the same time, other state owned entities will be asked to boost their combined 2.2% stake in Total to 10%, leaving the government with a net 15% interest in Total vs. the current 34%. Initially, state owned insurance companies Groupe des Assurances Nationales and Assurances Generale de France will be asked to hike their stakes in Total, but others could be asked to join if needed to meet the 10% target. The government the its phase-down of participation in Total, established in 1924 to manage French interests in Iraq Petroleum Co., was prompted by the evolution of the oil context, which differs greatly from what had prompted a significant stake of the state in Total's capital

  3. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  4. South African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal is the leading psychiatric journal of Africa. It provides open-access scholarly reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and all with an interest in mental health. It carries empirical and conceptual research articles, reviews, editorials, and scientific letters related to psychiatry. It publishes work from various ...

  5. Which future for social psychiatry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros A.

    2008-01-01

    Social psychiatry started over a century ago under the auspices of mental and racial hygiene, but after World War II it embraced concepts of community-based care and de-institutionalization. The major psychiatric reforms in the second half of the last century were mainly based on such concepts,

  6. Improving Medication Safety in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this controlled, before-and-after study in the Department of Psychiatry in a university hospital in Denmark, was to examine the potential effects and characteristics of nurses reviewing psychiatric patients' medication records to identify potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs...

  7. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  8. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  9. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  10. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  11. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  12. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    It could be argued that lexicography has little business with linguistic creativ- ...... The forms in which traditional proverbs are found can also vary greatly: many ... BoE has examples of the proverb every cloud has a silver lining but many more ...

  13. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  14. Untangling Linguistic Salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, Vincent; Coler, Matt; Loerts, Hanneke; Hilton, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    The concept of linguistic salience is broadly used within sociolinguistics to account for processes as diverse as language change (Kerswill & Williams, 2002) and language acquisition (Ellis, 2016) in that salient forms are e.g. more likely to undergo change, or are often acquired earlier than other

  15. Guatemalan Linguistics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Reporter, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)

  16. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  17. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  18. Perspectives in Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, John T.

    Intended for the student of linguistics or the structural grammarian, who must develop an awareness of their intellectual heritage, the present work surveys the study of language in ancient times, the medieval and early modern periods, the nineteenth century, and the twentieth century to 1950. (This second edition includes additional material on…

  19. Gradual linguistic summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; Kaymak, U.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, xx

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new type of protoform-based linguistic summary – the gradual summary. This new type of summaries aims in capturing the change over some time span. Such summaries can be useful in many domains, for instance in economics, e.g., "prices of X are getting smaller" in eldercare,

  20. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  1. Linguistics and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Gloria

    1983-01-01

    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  2. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  3. Agro-fuels, a cartography of stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    This document proposes a dashboard of the main issues regarding agro-fuels. Nine sheets propose basic information and data on these issues: 1- agro-fuel production and consumption in the world (ethanol, vegetable oils, perspective for demand in the transport sector), 2- energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions (energy assessments and greenhouse effect of agro-fuels, discrepancies of results between first-generation European agro-fuels, case of agro-fuels produced in Southern countries), 3- needed surfaces in Europe (land use and cultivable areas for agro-fuel production in Europe and in France, competition between food and energy crops), 4- deforestation in the South (relationship between agriculture, deforestation and agro-fuels, between deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions), 5- impacts on biodiversity (use of pesticides and fertilizers, large scale cultivations and single-crop farming, cultivation of fallow land and permanent meadows, deforestation in the South, relationship between agro-fuels and GMOs), 6- impacts on water, soil and air (water quality and availability, soil erosion, compaction and fertility loss, air quality), 7- food-related and social stakes (issue of food security, social impacts of agro-fuel production with pressure on family agriculture and issues of land property), 8- public supports and economic efficiency (public promotion of agro-fuels, agro-fuel and oil prices, assessment of the 'avoided' CO 2 ton), and 9- perspectives for second-generation agro-fuels (definitions and processes, benefits with respect to first-generation fuels, possible impacts on the environment, barriers to their development)

  4. Biological Psychiatry Congress 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Temmingh

    2015-08-01

    . Current prescribing practices for obsessive-compulsive disorder in South Africa: Controversies and consensus C Lochner, L Taljaard, D J Stein 16. Correlates of emotional and behavioural problems in children with preinatally acquired HIV in Cape Town, South Africa K-A Louw, N Phillips, JIpser, J Hoare 17. The role of non-coding RNAs in fear extinction S Malan-Muller, L Fairbairn, W M U Daniels, M J S Dashti, E J Oakleley, M Altorfer, J Harvey, S Seedat, J Gamieldien, S M J Hemmings 18. An analysis of the management og HIV-mental illness comorbidity at the psychiatric unit of the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital M L Maodi, S T Rataemane, T Kyaw 19. The identification of novel genes in anxiety disorders: A gene X environment correlation and interaction study N W McGregor, J Dimatelis, S M J Hemmings, C J Kinnear, D J Stein, V Russel, C Lochner 20. Collaborations between conventional medicine and traditional healers: Obstacles and possibilities G Nortje, S Seedat, O Gureje 21. Thought disorder and form perception: Relationships with symptoms and cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia M R Olivier, R Emsley 22. Investigating the functional significance of genome-wide variants associated with antipsychotic treatment response E Ovenden, B Drogemoller, L van der Merwe, R Emsley, L Warnich 23. The moral and bioethical determinants of "futility" in psychiatry W P Pienaar 24. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and volumetry of the amylgdala in social anxiety disorder in the context of early developmental trauma D Rosenstein, A T Hess, J Zwart, F Ahmed-Leitao, E Meintjies, S Seedat 25. Schizoaffective disorder in an acute psychiatric unit: Profile of users and agreement with Operational Criteria (OPCRIT R R Singh, U Subramaney 26. The right to privacy and confidentiality: The ethics of expert diagnosis in the public media and the Oscar Pistorius trial C Smith 27. A birth cohort study in South Africa: A psychiatric perspective D J Stein 28. 'Womb

  5. The dream in contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M F

    2001-03-01

    This article offers selective reviews of cogent sectors of research regarding the dream in contemporary psychiatry. First, the author discusses relatively recent research (1953-1999) on the neurobiology and clinical psychophysiology of dreaming sleep; second, he reviews experimental cognitive neuroscientific studies of perception, emotion, and memory and the putative interrelationships among them in generating dream imagery; and third, he interprets psychoanalytic studies (1900-1999) on related aspects of dreams and the dream process. Exploration for interrelationships among information from these three areas entails discussion of the mind/brain problem. These considerations illuminate some of the logical and interpretive dilemmas that enter into debates about Freud's theory of the dream. The author proposes a preliminary psychobiologic concept of the dream process and discusses, in light of the foregoing considerations, the importance of collaborative research for developing a realistic perspective concerning the proper place of the dream in contemporary psychiatry.

  6. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  7. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  8. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-04-25

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  9. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented.

  10. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry.

  11. Stake holders involvement in emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.

    2002-01-01

    The management of a nuclear crisis involves many actors apart from the radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. More than stakeholders involvement, what is at stake is a better co-operation and mutual understanding amongst the various actors. This mutual understanding requires that a minimal common nuclear risk culture exists. Presently, in France, the representation of the nuclear risk is split into two clear-cut misconceptions: risk denial or catastrophe, with almost nothing in between. In order to contribute to building progressively a common nuclear risk culture, the information about the risk and its management needs to be discussed and criticized by various actors, including non institutional actors who play an important role for the diffusion of the risk culture. Hence, IPSN decided in year 2000 to elaborate a specific feature allowing information and debate on the nuclear risk and its short and long terms management. It will take the form of a CD-ROM, which is currently elaborated by a task group taking into account: - the 'social expectancies', as they have been identified by a sociologist, - the available documents about the nuclear risk, the crisis and its management, which were analysed. The analysis shows that there is a need for a new type of feature. The feature contains first a common bulk which addresses all types of nuclear accidents and then, specific developments for each type of accidents occurring in different nuclear installations. Specialists in CD-ROM design are involved in the project. It is very important to design the structure of the CD-ROM in such a way as it presents the technical information in an understandable manner for non-specialists. This CD-ROM, which should be widely distributed and will serve as a support for debates, may contribute to building up progressively a common risk culture. It should help to aim at a better mutual understanding between experts and lay people whose points of view about the nuclear risk

  12. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of m...

  13. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  14. Climate change: which stakes? Stakes of climate change. Man and the trajectory of the Earth ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramy, Herve; Rogalski, Michel; Sachs, Ignacy

    2011-12-01

    A first article recalls what the greenhouse effect is, outlines that the increase of CO 2 concentration due to human activity is indisputable, that the future of the Kyoto Protocol remains hypothetical, that evolving towards a new development mode is a crucial necessity. It also addresses the issue of financing this struggle against climate change, and outlines the importance of international negotiations. A second article outlines the stakes of climate change, notably by referring to the different international summits and to the associated issues (commitments of most countries, technology transfers, and so on). The third article comments the entry into the Anthropocene as a disruption for the joint evolution of mankind and biosphere. The author outlines the need of a new planning for development, and briefly discusses the question of energies

  15. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  16. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  17. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  18. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Positive Psychiatry: Its Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.; Rettew, David C.; Boardman, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit non-clinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (e.g., well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom - including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry Interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine, rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall healthcare of the population. PMID:26132670

  1. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  2. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  3. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany)

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  4. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry. Kraniale Computertomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkai, P [Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany); Bogerts, B [Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany)

    1993-08-13

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry. Kernspintomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K. (Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Diagnosis and research in psychiatry are increasingly availing themselves of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In comparison to computed tomography (CT), this offers the combined benefits of no exposure to radiation, high resolution, artefact-free display of structures near bone, and a sharp contrast between the grey and white brain matter, with freedom to select the section. With the exception of very anxious patients, MRI will gradually replace CT scans for a wide range of differential diagnostic investigations. Its superiority in systematic studies of psychiatric patients with discrete cerebral parenchyma lesions is already considered proven. This is illustrated on the basis of research into schizophrenia and alcoholism. (orig.)

  6. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  7. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  8. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Shoar, Saeed; Kaviani, Hosein; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Shabani, Amir; Esmaeili, Sara; Moghaddam, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics. Method In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65%) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. Results Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3% and 18.3% before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7%) students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49), and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57). Conclusion It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future career. PMID:23682250

  9. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Amini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics.Method: In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65% completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship.Results: Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3 % and 18.3 % before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7% students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49, and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57.Conclusion: It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future

  10. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups.

  11. Learnability and linguistic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    of the human biological endowment for language in the form of a UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) (Chomsky, 1965). With respect to experimental design, C&T have strongly maintained that even young children know UG constraints but perform poorly in some experiments-due to the extralinguistic demands associated...... with experimental tasks, particularly those involved in presupposition accommodation and complex response planning. C&T specifically design their experiments to reduce the impact of extralinguistic demands on children's linguistic performance while at the same time providing felicitous environments for adultlike...... performance....

  12. Formal monkey linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Zuberbühler: The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under ERC grant ‘Prilang 283871’ and also from the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant ‘FN 310030_143359/1’. We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions:...

  13. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnosis and research in psychiatry are increasingly availing themselves of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In comparison to computed tomography (CT), this offers the combined benefits of no exposure to radiation, high resolution, artefact-free display of structures near bone, and a sharp contrast between the grey and white brain matter, with freedom to select the section. With the exception of very anxious patients, MRI will gradually replace CT scans for a wide range of differential diagnostic investigations. Its superiority in systematic studies of psychiatric patients with discrete cerebral parenchyma lesions is already considered proven. This is illustrated on the basis of research into schizophrenia and alcoholism. (orig.) [de

  15. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Bogerts, B.

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.) [de

  16. [Dualism and malaise in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebili, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterised by the confrontation of theoretical models, or dualism.The contrast between these trends has always added to the richness of this discipline, from Philippe Pinel to Henri Ey, and from Bénédict-Augustin Morel to Valentin Magnan.Today, we are faced with an epistemological malaise which is the result of the domination of neurosciences. In order to protect against the temptation to allow the domination of one of the theoretical models, a return to dualism is recommended.

  17. Energy storage. Stakes, technical solutions and valorization opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    As a key factor to allow the continuous growth of renewable energies, energy storage technologies are now more than ever in the spotlight. In order to grasp the stakes, understand the technology diversity, learn relevant orders of magnitudes and comprehend the close intricacy of energy storage with energy and environmental issues, ENEA has published a detailed and well-documented publication on the subject

  18. High Stakes Testing and Its Impact on Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, V. Pauline

    2002-01-01

    The movement to standardization and high-stakes testing has been driven by ideological and political concerns and has adversely affected teaching/learning, democratic discourse, and educational equity. Rural schools are hit harder because of geographic isolation and insufficient staff and resources. Testing used for purposes other than measuring…

  19. The Impact of High Stakes Testing: The Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Val; Wyatt-Smith, Claire

    2012-01-01

    High stakes testing in Australia was introduced in 2008 by way of the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Currently, every year all students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 are assessed on the same days using national tests in Reading, Writing, Language Conventions (Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation) and Numeracy. In 2010 the…

  20. Genetics and Psychiatry: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Giada; Juli, Rebecca; Juli, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    Greek mythology and philosophical speculations were the first human productions on madness and psychiatry. Likewise, the origins of genetics sink their roots in a very remote and difficult time. This work tries to give an idea of the relationship between genetics and psychiatry through the myth and reality.

  1. The Psychiatry OSCE: a 20-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Brian D; Hollenberg, Elisa; McNaughton, Nancy; Hanson, Mark D; Regehr, Glenn

    2014-02-01

    Twenty years ago researchers at the University of Toronto launched the Psychiatry Skills Assessment Project (PSAP), a research program exploring Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in psychiatry. Between 1994 and 2005 PSAP produced publications on the feasibility, reliability, validity, ethics, and practical concerns of OSCEs in psychiatry. The current review has two parts: a review of the state of the art of OSCEs in psychiatry 20 years after they were introduced and documentation of the impact of the PSAP research program. A literature search identified all publications on OSCEs and psychiatry. Articles were coded thematically, and locations of agreement and controversies were identified. Bibliometric analysis identified citations of PSAP research papers, which were analyzed thematically. As of May 2013, there were 250 publications related to OSCEs in psychiatry (not including 10 PSAP papers), published in 29 different countries and ten languages. Prominent topics were the validity and acceptability of OSCEs and SPs, systems issues in adopting OSCEs in psychiatry, and the effects on learning. Eighty-eight percent of all publications cited PSAP work (300 citations). Citations were employed for four purposes: as evidence/justification (54 %); to frame replication research (14 %); to support adaptation of OSCEs in other countries and professions (15 %); and for debate (18 %). Over the past 20 years, use of OSCEs has grown steadily in psychiatry, and several national certification organizations have adopted OSCEs. PSAP work, introduced two decades ago, continues to provide a scholarly foundation for psychometric, practical, and ethical issues of interest to this field.

  2. Women and Teaching in Academic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, Laura D.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article explores past, present, and future issues for women and teaching in academic psychiatry. A small study of didactic teaching responsibilities along faculty groups in one academic psychiatry department helps to illustrate challenges and opportunities for women in psychiatric teaching settings. Background: Although women have…

  3. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  4. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  5. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  6. Measuring Motivation in Low-Stakes Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-15-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bridgid

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern that when scores from low-stakes assessments are reported without considering student motivation as a construct of interest, biased conclusions about how much students know will result. Low motivation is a problem particularly relevant to low-stakes testing scenarios, which may be low stakes for the test taker but have…

  7. Against explanatory minimalism in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eThornton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticised both as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation respectively and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of level of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  8. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  9. Ethical philanthropy in academic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2006-05-01

    From an ethical perspective, psychiatrists cannot accept gifts of significant monetary value from their patients. This guideline raises important questions regarding institutional practices related to gift-giving in academic psychiatry. The first aim of this article is to explain the ethical tensions and shared ethical commitments of the professions of psychiatry and philanthropy. The second aim is to outline a series of steps that may be undertaken to assure ethical philanthropic practices within an institution, including the establishment of a committed advisory workgroup and the creation of ground rules and safeguards for gift-giving. Each situation should be evaluated for "ethical risk," and specific measures to safeguard donors should be considered. The author outlines methods to manage, minimize, or eliminate conflict of interest issues, including identification and disclosure of conflicting interests, role separation, goal clarification, confidentiality protections, proper timing, and ongoing oversight. Three case illustrations are provided and discussed. The process of institutional engagement, dialogue, and shared problem-solving is especially important. A shared, constructive ethic will be attained only if leaders and diverse stakeholders communicate the value of the new approach through their words, expectations, and actions. Through these efforts, greater attention will be given to the concerns of people with mental illness, and academic institutions may be better able to fulfill their responsibilities to this important but neglected population now and in the future.

  10. [Coercion in Psychiatry - a taboo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Ullrich; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Stippler, Stippler; Wancata, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the discussion concerning coercive measures against mentally ill is as old as psychiatry itself. The dilemma of psychiatry lies in its double role - having both a therapeutic and a regulatory function. Violence against sick and disabled people conflicts with the ethical principles of helping professions. This, however, is where the danger lies: that the violent parts of psychiatric work - which in the opinion of experts cannot be entirely avoided - are repressed or seen as taboo and are therefore more difficult to control. Comparisons between EU countries of the nature, frequency and duration of coercive measures are difficult because of the heterogeneity of regulation and differences in established practice. Scientific examination of this issue seems to be insufficient. There are only a few studies on important issues such as how patients rate these measures. An open and thorough debate about the meaning and meaninglessness of coercion and violence in psychiatric treatment would be necessary to prevent "routine violence" or the excessive use of force against the mentally ill.

  11. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  12. New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the issue of linguistic giftedness, somewhat neglected in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, attempting to reconceptualize, expand and update this concept in response to latest developments in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology. It first discusses contemporary perspectives on…

  13. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  14. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  15. Linguistics and the TEFL Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper asserts the "unquestionable" relevance of linguistic insights in the training of and subsequent use by teachers of English as a foreign language. Although the author agrees with Chomsky's view that linguistics has nothing to offer the teacher in the form of specific proposals for language teaching methodology, he argues that linguistics…

  16. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  17. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  18. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  19. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  20. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  1. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  2. [Multilingualism and child psychiatry: on differential diagnoses of language disorder, specific learning disorder, and selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multilingualism poses unique psychiatric problems, especially in the field of child psychiatry. The author discusses several linguistic and transcultural issues in relation to Language Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder and Selective Mutism. Linguistic characteristics of multiple language development, including so-called profile effects and code-switching, need to be understood for differential diagnosis. It is also emphasized that Language Disorder in a bilingual person is not different or worse than that in a monolingual person. Second language proficiency, cultural background and transfer from the first language all need to be considered in an evaluation for Specific Learning Disorder. Selective Mutism has to be differentiated from the silent period observed in the normal successive bilingual development. The author concludes the review by remarking on some caveats around methods of language evaluation in a multilingual person.

  3. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  4. The linguistic repudiation of Wundt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, B; Clarke, D D

    1998-08-01

    Wilhelm Wundt's influence on the development of linguistics and psychology was pervasive. The foundations for this web of influence on the sciences of mind and language were laid down in Wundt's own research program, which was quite different from other attempts at founding a new psychology, as it was deeply rooted in German philosophy. This resulted in certain gaps in Wundt's conception of mind and language. These gaps provoked a double repudiation of Wundt's theories, by linguists and psychologists. The psychological repudiation has been studied by historians of psychology, and the linguistic repudiation has been studied by historians of linguistics. The intent of this article is to bring the linguistic repudiation to the attention of historians of psychology, especially the one outlined by two important figures in the history of psychology: Karl Buhler and George Mead.

  5. [Affective dependency and psychiatry: a discord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaevel, C

    2011-02-01

    The term "loving dependence" is increasingly used by professionals of the relation of help and the patients themselves. It joins in the wider spectre of the interpersonal dependency. More and more patients suffering from this disorder are coming for psychiatric consultation. However, this notion remains vague and absent in the vocabulary of the psychiatrists. Globally, this term describes the functioning of certain patients who present a fear of not being loved and a dependency on another person. The fear of not being loved provokes a fear of abandonment or incites development of strategies to be loved (seduce, help). Dependency on another person is a consequence of the lack of confidence in the capabilities of the individual. The other person reassures them because this person does what the patient is afraid of doing, because he/she does not feel capable. The lack of confidence in own's capabilities can also incite the individual to become a perfectionist and successful. The fear of not being loved and of not being competent is determined partly in the person's childhood. These impressions are real and/or the individuals are hypersensitive. The article describes the emotional, cognitive and behavioural levels, the various types of interpersonal dependency: dependences of type "umbilical cord", "rescuer", "stereotype" and "against dependence". The objective is to specify the concept better on clinical level, with the aim of defining criteria and pathological limits. This is the first stage before beginning rigorous scientific research. The stakes are high. There are relationships with anxiety, depressive disorders, alcoholism, food behaviour disorders, suicide and somatic pathologies. Dependency seems to be the consequence of a pathological expression of the normal dimensions of the personality: the need to be loved and valued (admired). The onset of dependency occurs in stages, when the person is weakened by events of life or by depression. The impression not to

  6. Multilevel stake holder consensus building in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, Andrejs

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The increased demand of our society to its quality of life, global security and environmental safety as well as to observing a basic ethical principle of equity have advanced our attitude towards the recent proposals to develop shared multinational projects in the use of nuclear energy technologies, in particular, to: a) Siting of shared deep repositories for high-level radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel safe disposal. In turn, arrangement of multinational facilities requires to gain more complex consensus between all involved parties. Method: We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for RW deep disposal, based on self-organization (SO) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as Ashby principle of requisite variety. In the siting of a multi-national repository there appears an essential novel component of stake holder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, having possibly diverse political, economic and social interests. Main Results: Following inferences about building of multilevel consensus are developed: 1) The basis of synergetic approach to stake holder interaction - informational SO, by forming a knowledge-creating stake holder community via cooperation and competition among individuals, public bodies/groups, companies, institutions; 2) Building of international stake holder consensus could be promoted by activating and diversifying multilateral interactions between intra- and international stake

  7. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  8. The future of psychiatry as clinical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F; Lewis, David A; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F; Kupfer, David J

    2009-04-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics.The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry's mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management.

  9. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  10. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D 2 ) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D 2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D 2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3 H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3 H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABA A receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D 2 ) and the ion-channel type (GABA A ). (J.P.N.)

  11. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork.

  12. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  13. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addiction treatments. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (n = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program.

  14. [Impact of Anthropologic Psychiatry on Psychiatrie-Enquete and Psychiatric Reform in West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, Felicitas; Becker, Thomas; Fangerau, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Analysis of the perception of effects of anthropological psychiatry on the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Methods Qualitative content analysis of expert interviews and systematic literature search. Results Literary sources and expert interviews point to the impact of the anthropologic concept on discourse on and approach to those suffering from mental illness. The attention focused on the visualisation of material-social and subjective living conditions of persons with mental illness. Reform approaches of anthropological psychiatrists were perceived as a basis for the development of social psychiatry. Academic departments of psychiatry in Frankfurt (Zutt, Kulenkampff) and Heidelberg (von Baeyer, Kisker, Häfner) were considered important centres of innovation and reform. Conclusion The thinking of phenomenological-anthropological psychiatry was understood as a facilitator of the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in West Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Social challenges of contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, N

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail. The remarkable advances in neurosciences, neurobiology and genetics tend to swing the emphasis towards a more biological basis. Psychosis for example is the condition often regarded as being biologically constructed and most independent of the social context. The symptoms, however, of hallucinations and delusions in psychosis have social meaning for the person experiencing them and are primarily defined socially.2 Furthermore, vulnerability is often the result of social trauma, whether in the form of recent stressors that trigger onset, or earlier circumstances that shape cognitive and emotional style. Moreover, the approved treatment and management of long term psychiatric disorders has involved interventions that are either directly social, or psychosocial. Furthermore, doubts have also been raised by the endophenotype project,3 related to the genetics of schizophrenia. Cohen4 suggested that there may be more individual genotypic patterns associated with schizophrenia than people with schizophrenia on the planet. A recent alternative interpretation (network approach) is gaining some support. It suggests that a stressor causes symptoms that activate other symptoms, in a circular, self-reinforcing way.5 This theory moves away from psychiatric disorders being traditionally conceptualised as categorical or dimensional models. While psychiatry has shifted its focus to a more biological approach, social factors still

  16. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  17. Risk preferences over small stakes: Evidence from deductible choice

    OpenAIRE

    Janko Gorter; Paul Schilp

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on risk preferences over small stakes. Using unique population and survey data on deductible choice in Dutch universal health insurance, we find that risk preferences are a dominant factor in decision aking. In fact, our results indicate that risk preferences are both statistically and quantitatively more significant in explaining deductible choice behavior than risk type. This finding contrasts with classical expected utility theory, as it implies risk ...

  18. Design Optimization and Fatigue Analysis of Laser Stake Welded Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    is ultimately envisioned that laser welding will be as common in the shipyard as other processes such -- as MIG, TIG and SMAW. Laser stake- welding of...input from conventional welding techniques can be detrimental to the polymer matrix composite material. In comparison, the laser welding process allows...more discrete frequencies. In the laser welding process , the photons are targeted on the work piece surface which needs to be welded . Highly

  19. Colloquium on the stakes and new realities of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Today, renewable energies represent 23% of the French energy production and should become a real advantage to overcome the greenhouse effect stakes and to optimize the durable development policy. This book brings together the interventions of the different participants to this colloquium on renewable energies. The following aspects were covered: how to make renewable energies profitable in the framework of an industrial facility; which specific renewable energy models would allow to overcome the greenhouse effect stake; how emission permits can incite to the use of renewable energies and reduce the pollution tax amount; how to take advantage of the new wastes valorization techniques in the rationalization of energy expenses; advantages and limitations of renewable energies in the on-site energy optimization; opportunities and stakes of the climate risk for renewable energies; last developments of the national regulatory framework applicable to renewable energies; status and perspectives of the European directive project on renewable energies; the suitability of renewable energies with respect to the energy needs of the industry and tertiary sectors; how to insert renewable energies in a durable development policy; how to exploit the diversity of renewable energies in order to maximize their economical and environmental potentialities; how to integrate the solar thermal and photovoltaic energies in the framework of a global environmental policy. (J.S.)

  20. LANGUE AND PAROLE IN AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE PROBLEM OF THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED AND THE FORM WHICH ANY LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION SHOULD TAKE. THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE INFLUENCE OF THE SWISS LINGUIST, FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. THE QUESTION OF "MENTALISM" IN LINGUISTICS IS REDUCED TO THE PROBLEM OF WHETHER LINGUISTIC…

  1. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  2. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: ·"1 do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  3. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  4. Will Forensic Psychiatry survive DSM-5?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distorders (DSM-5) will be released in 2013, and if, as anticipated, introduces .... Apart from advertising psychiatry's ... courts, which rely greatly on precedents, but also insurance ... compulsive-impulsive disorders, and on its impact on public.

  5. Psychiatry and psychotherapy: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, J R; Ludwig, A M

    1980-01-01

    The place of psychotherapeutics in psychiatry is again in question. In many ways the situation recapitulates that of the late 19th century when psychotherapeutics first came upon the medical scene. The psychiatric hegemony over psychotherapeutics was the outcome of three fierce internecine "battles", (1) the "medicalization" of psychotherapeutics (1870-1910); (2) securing the psychiatric monopoly of psychotherapeutics (1890-1930); and (3) the "medicalization" of psychoanalysis (1920-1940). Three "revolutions" in psychiatry have occurred, since the stable halcyon 1950s, that have loosened the knot which binds psychotherapeutics to psychiatry. The emergence of specific psychopharmacologic therapies, the resurgence of the laboratory tradition (behaviorism) and the community-mental-health movement have diluted the importance of psychotherapeutics in treatment and widened the therapeutic franchise. In addition, there is evidence that the function of psychotherapeutics in society is itself changing. The future of psychotherapeutics in psychiatry is discussed in light of these developments.

  6. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Francis

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result from these disorders, because these occur mainly within primary care and secondary medical services. Difficulties in diagnosis and a tendency to regard them as purely secondary phenomena of depression, anxiety and related disorders mean that general psychiatry may continue to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. If general psychiatry embraced these disorders more fully, however, it might lead to better prevention and treatment of depression as well as helping to prevent the severe disability that may arise in association with these disorders.

  7. Modern psychiatry – a change in ethics?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-02-17

    Feb 17, 2004 ... dominate their patients' decision making in such circum- stances. Right to die. The right ... ciency of competency and rationality to be allowed to die. .... these settings. In forensic psychiatry, the role of the professional is aimed.

  8. History of psychiatry and the psychiatric profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    The present article reviews the English language literature on the history of psychiatry published within the previous year. Research has been conducted in the history of clinical syndromes, famous people and psychiatrists, psychiatric institutions, treatments and legislations. The importance of the sociocultural contexts has been shown, particularly in research emanating from Europe and North America, which addresses late 18th to late 20th century issues. Much varied and important research on the history of psychiatry is being performed around the world. This scholarship provides insight into the cultural context and ways in which psychiatry was practised in the past and can help shed light on the way in which psychiatry is conducted today.

  9. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  14. Is Rorty a linguistic idealist?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 272-279 ISSN 1210-3055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Rorty * linguistic idealism * internal realism * intrinsic structure of reality * representation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Why study the history of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R T

    1993-12-01

    The history of psychiatry is being neglected. The major psychiatric textbooks no longer offer any overview of psychiatric history. Possible reasons for this indifference are discussed. It is suggested that a knowledge of our history is not only necessary in a general intellectual sense, but also specifically in enabling us to more easily tolerate the incompleteness and ambiguity of many of our concepts. Furthermore, it may help psychiatry to more convincingly explain the reality and consequences of mental illness to a sceptical public.

  16. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    OpenAIRE

    CREED, FRANCIS

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result fr...

  17. What can philosophy do for psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article illustrates the practical impact of recent developments in the philosophy of psychiatry in five key areas: patient-centred practice, new models of service delivery, neuroscience research, psychiatric education, and the organisation of psychiatry as an international science-led discipline focused on patient care. We conclude with a note on the role of philosophy in countering the stigmatisation of mental disorder. PMID:16633476

  18. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  19. Reconsidering the Impact of High-stakes Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years, many states have implemented high-stakes tests as part of an effort to strengthen accountability for schools, teachers, and students. Predictably, there has been vigorous disagreement regarding the contributions of such policies to increasing test scores and, more importantly, to improving student learning. A recent study by Amrein and Berliner (2002a has received a great deal of media attention. Employing various databases covering the period 1990-2000, the authors conclude that there is no evidence that states that implemented high-stakes tests demonstrated improved student achievement on various external measures such as performance on the SAT, ACT, AP, or NAEP. In a subsequent study in which they conducted a more extensive analysis of state policies (Amrein & Berliner, 2002b, they reach a similar conclusion. However, both their methodology and their findings have been challenged by a number of authors. In this article, we undertake an extended reanalysis of one component of Amrein and Berliner (2002a. We focus on the performance of states, over the period 1992 to 2000, on the NAEP mathematics assessments for grades 4 and 8. In particular, we compare the performance of the high-stakes testing states, as designated by Amrein and Berliner, with the performance of the remaining states (conditioning, of course, on a state’s participation in the relevant NAEP assessments. For each grade, when we examine the relative gains of states over the period, we find that the comparisons strongly favor the high-stakes testing states. Moreover, the results cannot be accounted for by differences between the two groups of states with respect to changes in percent of students excluded from NAEP over the same period. On the other hand, when we follow a particular cohort (grade 4, 1992 to grade 8, 1996 or grade 4, 1996 to grade 8, 2000, we find the comparisons slightly favor the low-stakes testing states, although the discrepancy can

  20. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  1. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  2. The Future of Psychiatry as Clinical Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Lewis, David A.; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics. The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry’s mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776

  3. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  4. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  5. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  6. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  7. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  8. Attitudes of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: Effects of Training, Courses in Psychiatry, Psychiatric Experience and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Strebel, Bernd; Schilauske, Joerg; Jueptner, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and psychotherapy were examined considering the extent of their education, previous psychiatry experience, the evaluation of the course, their career intentions and socio-demographic variables. Methods: Five hundred and eight medical students in their second, fifth, ninth and tenth…

  9. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  10. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Otte, Andreas; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van

    2014-01-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  11. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  12. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  13. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  14. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  15. Caucasus and the petroleum stakes of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalillosoltan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The splitting of the former USSR block in 1991 has generated a shock wave in the Caucasus area with the will of all ex-soviet republics to reach their complete independence. Because of the historical and geographical complexity of Caucasus, both geopolitical and human, this disorder has generated even more hazardous results, enhanced by the coveted oil and gas reserves of the Caspian Sea. This article analyses the petroleum stakes as factors of rivalry and instability (sovereignty of oil and gas fields, rivalries about the exploitation and transport of hydrocarbons), but also as factors of cooperation and re-composition. (J.S.)

  16. Wind power: Areva acquires a 51% stake in Multibrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    AREVA announced the acquisition of a 51% stake in Multibrid, a designer and manufacturer of multi-megawatt off-shore wind turbines based in Germany. With this acquisition, AREVA has entered into a joint venture with Prokon Nord, a German off-shore wind turbine and biomass plant developer and current owner of Multibrid. This transaction values Multibrid at euro 150 million. AREVA plans to rapidly further develop Multibrid's activities by giving the company access to its industrial resources, financial base and international commercial network. In return, Multibrid will provide AREVA with its leading-edge technology which, developed for 5 MW turbines, can achieve a very high output while reducing operating costs thanks to a simplified maintenance system. With this stake in Multibrid, AREVA aims to increase its presence on the offshore wind market that meets land settlement requirements and that should grow significantly in the years to come (from 300 MW in Europe today to an expected 1400 MW by 2011). As an exclusive supplier of Prokon Nord, Multibrid will participate in projects such as Borkum West (30 MW), the first offshore project in Germany, Borkum West 2 (400 MW), and Cote d'Albatre (105 MW), the first offshore wind farm project in France. The stake in Multibrid strengthens AREVA's strategic positioning on the CO 2 -free energy market, thanks to complementary solutions ranging from nuclear technologies to renewables. A number of recent achievements illustrate this strategy: - bio-energy (crucial energy supply in numerous rural areas): delivery of turnkey biomass power plants; ongoing construction of 10 plants in India, Thailand and Brazil; future development plans in fast-growing regions, such as Latin America; - wind power: Multibrid adds to the Group's stake in REpower and to its partnership with Suzlon for which AREVA is the number one supplier of transmission and distribution solutions for wind power; - hydrogen and fuel cells: design and manufacture of

  17. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  18. The impact of language and high-stakes testing policies on elementary school English language learners in Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Wright

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a survey of third-grade teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs in Arizona regarding school language and accountability policies—Proposition 203, which restricts bilingual education and mandates sheltered English Immersion; the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB; and Arizona LEARNS, the state’s high-stakes testing and accountability program. The instrument, consisting of 126 survey questions plus open-ended interview question, was designed to obtain teacher’s views, to ascertain the impact of these polices, and to explore their effectiveness in improving the education of ELL students. The survey was administered via telephone to 40 teacher participants from different urban, rural and reservation schools across the state. Each participant represents the elementary school in their respective school district which has the largest population of ELL students. Analyses of both quantitative and qualitative data reveal that these policies have mostly resulted in confusion in schools throughout the state over what is and is not allowed, and what constitutes quality instruction for ELLs, that there is little evidence that such policies have led to improvements in the education of ELL students, and that these policies may be causing more harm than good. Specifically, teachers report they have been given little to no guidance over what constitutes sheltered English immersion, and provide evidence that most ELL students in their schools are receiving mainstream sink-or-swim instruction. In terms of accountability, while the overwhelming majority of teachers support the general principle, they believe that high-stakes tests are inappropriate for ELLs and participants provided evidence that the focus on testing is leading to instruction practices for ELLs which fail to meet their unique linguistic and academic needs. The article concludes with suggestions for needed changes to improve the quality of

  19. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation.

  20. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, P

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  1. Finnish psychiatry--past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Kari

    2012-03-01

    The history of Finnish psychiatry has been characterized by polarizations: priority in hospitals vs. outpatient care, centralized vs. decentralized organization, independent vs. integrated administration, biological vs. psychological treatments, private vs. public production, special psychiatric policies vs. general health policies. The independent psychiatric organizations on District level lasted from the 1920s until 1990. Since then, the formerly independent psychiatry was subordinated to General Hospital administration and the centralized system of state planning and financing of healthcare was gradually decentralized and run down. During the heavy Finnish economic recession of the early 1990 s, the cuts of the public sector were unfortunately focused most heavily on psychiatric services. The main focus of research and teaching has shifted from earlier emphasis on psychoanalytical approach to biological psychiatry since the late 1980s. The administrative position of psychiatry has been repeatedly changing and unstable during the last 20 years. At the level of the contents of the services, however, there have been many very positive and promising developments. Psychiatry has come closer to other specialties from its formerly isolated position, when the separate administrations have been integrated. Provision of outpatient services has increased remarkably, while the number of hospital beds has decreased radically. Interest and resources in research have increased remarkably, and numerous new and good quality psychiatric research reports are being published.

  2. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  3. Data Acquisition and Linguistic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassel, Stephanie; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John; Staderman, William; Olive, Joseph

    All human language technology demands substantial quantities of data for system training and development, plus stable benchmark data to measure ongoing progress. While creation of high quality linguistic resources is both costly and time consuming, such data has the potential to profoundly impact not just a single evaluation program but language technology research in general. GALE's challenging performance targets demand linguistic data on a scale and complexity never before encountered. Resources cover multiple languages (Arabic, Chinese, and English) and multiple genres -- both structured (newswire and broadcast news) and unstructured (web text, including blogs and newsgroups, and broadcast conversation). These resources include significant volumes of monolingual text and speech, parallel text, and transcribed audio combined with multiple layers of linguistic annotation, ranging from word aligned parallel text and Treebanks to rich semantic annotation.

  4. Factors influencing French medical students towards a career in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Olivier; Guicherd, William; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Bonin, Bernard; Seed, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh; Howard, Rob

    2012-09-01

    There is a need to increase the recruitment to psychiatry in France. Our aim in this study was to compare factors influencing career choice between French medical students considering and not considering psychiatry as a specialty. Quantitative cross-sectional online survey on 145 French students in their last year of medical school. 22.7% of our sample considered choosing a career in psychiatry. A preference for a career in psychiatry was associated with more frequent history of personal/familial mental illness, higher ratings of psychiatric teaching, more weeks of compulsory psychiatry teaching and placement, during which students had more often met patients in recovery and been asked their opinion on patients. Students considering psychiatry as a career also emphasized more the need for a good work-life balance, and presented better attitudes toward psychiatry. Improving opportunities of interactions between students and psychiatrists or psychiatric patients might help to improve recruitment in psychiatry.

  5. Measuring the stigma of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zäske, Harald; Cleveland, Helen-Rose

    2011-01-01

    The stigma of mental illness is a severe burden for people suffering from mental illness both in private and public life, also affecting their relatives, their close social network, and the mental health care system in terms of disciplines, providers, and institutions. Interventions against...... the stigma of mental illness employ complementary strategies (e.g., protest, education, and contact) and address different target groups (e.g., school children and teachers, journalists, stakeholders). Within this framework, the World Psychiatric Association has adopted an Action Plan with the goal...... to improve the image of psychiatry and to reduce potential stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. To evaluate such interventions, a questionnaire has been developed that assesses opinions and attitudes toward psychiatrists and psychiatry in different samples of medical specialists...

  6. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning TB

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tony B Benning Maple Ridge Mental Health Centre, Maple Ridge, BC, Canada Abstract: A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it - charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. Keywords: critique of biopsychosocial psychiatry, integrative psychiatry, George Engel

  7. Theory of mind and psychiatry: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Giap Kian; Pridmore, Saxby

    2009-04-01

    'Theory of mind' (ToM) arose from the study of primates and their social organization, and scholars in many fields - philosophy, anthropology, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience - have contributed to this expanding topic. In this paper, we provide an overview of aspects of ToM of relevance to psychiatry. We briefly describe the origins of ToM in primates and humans and some relevant neurobiology, and then touch on possible contributions to psychopathology. We searched for articles on PubMed and Medline, using the terms 'theory of mind', 'mirror neuron system' and 'psychiatry'. There is evidence that ToM deficits are important in certain psychiatric disorders. While more research is required, an appreciation of ToM will have an impact on our further understanding and management of at least some mental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  8. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  9. The eugenic legacy in psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2008-05-01

    Assumptions about genetic differences in human mental characteristics can be traced in large part to the eugenic movement, ascendant at the turn of the 20th century. This paper offers historical case studies, of 'innate general cognitive ability' and 'psychiatric genetics', in order to appraise the eugenic legacy in current psychology and psychiatry. Reviewing the work of representatives, Cyril Burt, Franz Kallmann and Eliot Slater, along with their research networks, it is argued that eugenics remains a quiet but powerful background influence in modern-day psychology and psychiatry. At the turn of the 21st century, eugenics remains an important area of inquiry, reflection and education for those in the inter-disciplinary field of social psychiatry.

  10. Undergraduate psychiatry in India: A SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Jangid, Purushottam; Sethi, Sujata

    2018-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and remains a huge burden on the society. In spite of that persons with mental illness are marginalized and mental health is largely being neglected. There is an acute shortage of mental health professionals in India, and also there is inadequate exposure to psychiatry during the medical undergraduate training in India. Moreover, the perception towards psychiatry and psychiatrists is not favorable among medical fraternity and policy makers. This is reflected in the fact that in spite of clearly deficient undergraduate psychiatry curriculum, no steps have been taken towards improving it and recommendations are not being implemented in true spirit. This review tries to identify the gaps in undergraduate curriculum, present a SWOT analysis of current situation and recommend the possible ways to address the deficiencies particularly in India. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The feminization of psychiatry? Some ruminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Martha

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the position of women in psychiatry today from the historical perspective of feminism. Feminism in medicine demands the inclusion of the traditional priorities of women: collaboration and cooperation over competition and hierarchy, compassionate care over technology and automation, flexible care for the individual in a social context over the study of units of diseased organs. These themes, in addition to the care of women and children, were prominent in the lives of early women physicians and again in the 1970s and 1980s. The number of women in psychiatry has increased. However, their influence is scant and feminist goals are again submerged. At the same time psychiatry has become increasingly interested in the organ (brain) at the expense of the individual person. Women need a new awakening. They must use their new presence to assert feminine values in patient care and protect themselves from becoming provider units on the assembly line.

  12. Mathematical Approaches to Cognitive Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuluundorj Begz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive linguistics, neuro-cognitive and psychological analysis of human verbal cognition present important area of multidisciplinary research. Mathematical methods and models have been introduced in number of publications with increasing attention to these theories. In this paper we have described some possible applications of mathematical methods to cognitive linguistics. Human verbal perception and verbal mapping deal with dissipative mental structures and symmetric/asymmetric relationships between objects of perception and deep (also surface structures of language. In that’s way methods of tensor analysis are ambitious candidate to be applied to analysis of human verbal thinking and mental space.

  13. Trans-Saharan geopolitics. The game and the stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.

    2010-01-01

    The geopolitics of energy exports from the trans-Saharan region are similar to the Caspian great game' at the end of the last century. In North/West Africa as in West/Central Asia, the question of control over hydrocarbon reserves and lines of access to those reserves lies at the source of various conflicts. Rivalries are expressed through open and complex conflicts in which powers confront one another over oil-rich zones through proxy ethnic, religious or cultural groups, as dictated by the colossal economic interests at stake. The increasing number of conflicts - the Niger Delta, Darfur, the Azawak, etc. - is an illustration of this. The shock waves from this rivalry undermine regional peace and security, as well as the security of international energy supplies. The question here is to understand the game and the stakes of this trans-Saharan chess-board, to study its principal features and its energetic consequences. The national oil companies and states of the region can work around or through the geopolitical rifts caused by local rivalries and extra-regional appetites. There is therefore a need to understand the ways in which the players in the trans-Saharan 'great game' interact with one another, an to identifies the effects these interactions may have in the field of energy, in terms of potential reserves and transport projects. The TSGP is presented as an illustration of this geopolitical dynamics. (author)

  14. On Norms and Linguistic Categories in Linguistic Diversity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalization there is an increase in the appearances of languages in the multilingual linguistic landscape in urban spaces. Commentators have described this state of affairs as super-, mega- or complex diversity. Mainstream sociolinguists have argued that languages have no fixed boundaries

  15. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  16. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  17. Disease mongering in psychiatry: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saddichha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease mongering starts at the top of recent accusations being hurled at psychiatry. It is used to refer to the attempts by pharmaceutical companies or others who have similar interests, to enlarge the market for a treatment by convincing people that they are sick and need medical intervention. This paper critically analyses the 'for' and 'against' arguments of disease mongering in psychiatric disorders, both new and old, such as Bipolar disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, female sexual dysfunction, social phobia, metabolic syndrome and road rage disorder. Keywords: disease mongeringpharmaceutical companies, psychiatry.

  18. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 2: specific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes the main areas of civil forensic psychiatry (FP) and the skills required by psychiatric experts. Some specific areas of civil FP are discussed, including tort law reform, reliability of psychiatric evidence, contentious psychiatric disorders, and the many domains of civil FP. Civil FP is an important sub-specialty component of forensic psychiatry that requires greater emphasis in the training and continuing education of psychiatrists. A process of accrediting psychiatrists as having competency in advanced civil FP may be of value.

  19. Computational Psychiatry and the Challenge of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D.; Chekroud, Adam M.; Corlett, Philip R.; Yang, Genevieve; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Schizophrenia research is plagued by enormous challenges in integrating and analyzing large datasets and difficulties developing formal theories related to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of this disorder. Computational psychiatry provides a path to enhance analyses of these large and complex datasets and to promote the development and refinement of formal models for features of this disorder. This presentation introduces the reader to the notion of computational psychiatry and describes discovery-oriented and theory-driven applications to schizophrenia involving machine learning, reinforcement learning theory, and biophysically-informed neural circuit models. PMID:28338845

  20. Preserving the Person in Contemporary Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O

    2018-06-01

    Psychodynamic psychiatry is a way of thinking that places the person at the heart of diagnostic understanding and treatment. This emphasis on unique characteristics of an individual is at odds with much of contemporary psychiatric thought, which is geared to identifying a set of criteria designed to identify discrete diagnostic categories with biological underpinnings. This article addresses component parts of the person that are linked to psychodynamic constructs and lie at the heart of diagnostic understanding and treatment in psychodynamic psychiatry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Attitude of medical students towards psychiatry: the case of Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The inability to attract medical graduates to specialize in psychiatry has always been a serious challenge to psychiatry training programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitude of medical students towards psychiatry. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 122 ...

  2. Cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Joseph B

    2004-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began to officially accredit one-year residency experiences in forensic psychiatry, which follow a 4-year residency in general psychiatry. The extra year of training, colloquially known as a fellowship, is required for candidates who wish to receive certification in the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry; since 2001, completion of a year of training in a program accredited by ACGME has been required for candidates wishing to take the ABPN forensic psychiatry subspecialty examination. With the formal recognition of the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry comes the need to examine special issues of cultural importance which apply specifically to forensic psychiatry training. This paper examines the current literature on cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry, sets out several of the societal reasons for the importance of emphasizing those issues in forensic psychiatric training, and discusses how those issues are addressed in the curriculum of one forensic psychiatry fellowship at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW). While much has been written about cross-cultural issues in general psychiatry, very little has appeared in the literature on the topic of cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry.

  3. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  4. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  5. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  6. Clinical Linguistics--Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwell, Pamela

    In the past 20 years, linguistics has gained a prominent position in speech and language pathology in Britain, evolving into a new field, clinical linguistics. It includes three related areas of activity: training of speech pathologists/therapists; professional practice; and research. Linguistics and speech/language pathology have developed as…

  7. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  8. Evaluating automatically annotated treebanks for linguistic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bański, P.; Kupietz, M.; Lüngen, H.; Witt, A.; Barbaresi, A.; Biber, H.; Breiteneder, E.; Clematide, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses evaluation methods for linguists to use when employing an automatically annotated treebank as a source of linguistic evidence. While treebanks are usually evaluated with a general measure over all the data, linguistic studies often focus on a particular construction or a group

  9. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  10. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  11. Interdisciplinarity in pragmatics and linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mey, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    At the Second International Conference ‘Zeichen und System der Sprache’ (Magdeburg, September 1964), a certain East German professor took the floor during a discussion of one of the linguistic presentations. He started his comments by saying: ‘Als Mathematiker weiß ich zwar von der Sache nichts...

  12. Fuzzy linguistic model for interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Adabitabar Firozja, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy method for interpolating of smooth curves was represented. We present a novel approach to interpolate real data by applying the universal approximation method. In proposed method, fuzzy linguistic model (FLM) applied as universal approximation for any nonlinear continuous function. Finally, we give some numerical examples and compare the proposed method with spline method

  13. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  14. Saussurean structuralism and cognitive linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics (CL) is often regarded as a continuation of Saussurean structuralism. This paper explores the relationship between the two paradigms, focussing on the connection between semantics and views on the language-thought relationship. As it turns out, the similarity in this respect

  15. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  16. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  17. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  18. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  19. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  20. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  1. Hiding behind High-Stakes Testing: Meritocracy, Objectivity and Inequality in U.S. Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how high-stakes, standardised testing became the policy tool in the U.S. that it is today and discusses its role in advancing an ideology of meritocracy that fundamentally masks structural inequalities related to race and economic class. This paper first traces the early history of high-stakes testing within the U.S. context,…

  2. Student Motivation in Low-Stakes Assessment Contexts: An Exploratory Analysis in Engineering Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekamp, Frank; Pearce, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship of student motivation and achievement in low-stakes assessment contexts. Using Pearson product-moment correlations and hierarchical linear regression modelling to analyse data on 794 tertiary students who undertook a low-stakes engineering mechanics assessment (along with the questionnaire of…

  3. Small- and large-stakes risk aversion: implications of concavity calabration for decision theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, J.C.; Sadiraj, V.

    2006-01-01

    A growing literature reports the conclusions that: (a) expected utility theory does not provide a plausible theory of risk aversion for both small-stakes and large-stakes gambles; and (b) this decision theory should be replaced with an alternative theory characterized by loss aversion. This paper

  4. Learning to Label: Socialisation, Gender, and the Hidden Curriculum of High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booher-Jennings, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Although high-stakes tests play an increasing role in students' schooling experiences, scholars have not examined these tests as sites for socialisation. Drawing on qualitative data collected at an American urban primary school, this study explores what educators teach students about motivation and effort through high-stakes testing, how students…

  5. Why Has High-Stakes Testing So Easily Slipped into Contemporary American Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Berliner, David C.

    2008-01-01

    High-stakes testing is the practice of attaching important consequences to standardized test scores, and it is the engine that drives the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. The rationale for high-stakes testing is that the promise of rewards and the threat of punishments will cause teachers to work more effectively, students to be more motivated,…

  6. High-Stakes Educational Testing and Democracy--Antagonistic or Symbiotic Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that high-stakes educational testing, along with the attendant questions of power, education access, education management and social selection, cannot be considered in isolation from society at large. Thus, high-stakes testing practices bear numerous implications for democratic conditions in society. For decades, advocates of…

  7. Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry as a Career Choice before and after an Undergraduate Psychiatry Internship in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…

  8. A Fuzzy Linguistic Methodology to Deal With Unbalanced Linguistic Term Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, F.; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Martinez, L.

    2008-01-01

    Many real problems dealing with qualitative aspects use linguistic approaches to assess such aspects. In most of these problems, a uniform and symmetrical distribution of the linguistic term sets for linguistic modeling is assumed. However, there exist problems whose assessments need to be represented by means of unbalanced linguistic term sets, i.e., using term sets that are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed. The use of linguistic variables implies processes of computing with words...

  9. Psychiatry and Religion: Opponents or Collaborators? The Power of Spirituality in Contemporary Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2017-04-01

    Religion and psychiatry have had complicated, sometimes neutral or friendly and cooperative, sometimes competitive and antagonistic relations over their long histories. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. Psychiatry has often ignored spiritual and religious dimension in health and illness while religions influenced the treatment of mental disorders directly by defining mental disorders as evil spirit possessions and prescribing exorcism as treatment. It has been a long way to prevail looking for natural over supra-natural explanations for mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion as social practices should be regarded as allies against pseudoscientific nonsense and superstitions. This alliance is based on the next evidence: 1. religious and spiritual well-being is an important component of mental health as well as of health in general; 2. research and empirical evidence reveals that healthy-minded and distorted or sick faith are quite distinct in the effects in the lives of the faithful; 3. psychiatrists are professionally expected to always respect and be sensitive to the spiritual and religious beliefs and practices of their patients; 4. religious and spiritual beliefs and practice is very important aspect of person-centered psychiatry. The enduring task for both psychiatry and religion is to enable human beings to live their lives with courage, sense, and optimism, to strive towards creating conditions of well-being and individual, public and global mental health as well as to dispel beliefs and patterns which trap people in lives of misery and mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion in creative dialogues as allies can significantly contribute to the healing of our broken world and promoting compassionate society and empathic civilization. When psychiatry and religion see each other as opponents or even enemies this is only because of their mutual misreading and pseudoscientific

  10. Impact of duration of psychiatry rotation on medical interns’ attitude towards psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical Council of India allowed the interns to take up an extra 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry along with the mandatory posting of 15 days. The study was planned to assess the effect of the additional period of psychiatry internship on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry. Material and methods: The consenting interns were given a semi structured proforma enquiring about their age and gender and were asked to fill up Attitude Towards Psychiatry (ATP scale. The assessment was done at the beginning and then after 15 days of mandatory posting. Those participants who were willing to do an additional 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry were assessed again on the 30th day of the training. Results: Mean age of the participating interns (n=47 was 25.44±1.52 and the male female ratio was 0.8. Twenty six interns did only the 15 days mandatory psychiatry internship posting (Group 1 and the remaining 21 interns took up the additional elective 15 days posting (Group 2. At the end of the 15 days posting, Mean ATP score of the group 1 increased from 88.34±6.07 to 88.46±6.19 (p=0.80 whereas the same increased from 88.04±7.06 to 88.19±7.65 (p=0.7 in the group 2 and further increased to 91.09±8.3 at the end of the additional 15 days of elective posting (p<0.05. Conclusion: A thirty days exposure of psychiatry during internship had more favourable impact on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry.

  11. Gait and its assessment in psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Richard D.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait.

  12. South African Journal of Psychiatry: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal is the leading psychiatric journal of Africa. It provides open-access scholarly reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and all with an interest in mental health. It carries empirical and conceptual research articles, reviews, editorials, and scientific letters related to psychiatry. It publishes ...

  13. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  14. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  15. Oil dependence. Myths and realities of a strategic stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliand, G.; Jafalian, A.

    2005-04-01

    Using a series of regional studies, this collective book proposes to evaluate the strategic dimensions of the oil dependence and to determine its geopolitical impacts in the Middle East, Russia, China, USA and Europe. Content: the oil stakes at the beginning of the 21. century; in the center of the oil scene: the Middle East; oil dependence and US foreign policy: beyond myths; the Russian oil, instrument of influence and of alliances re-knitting; China and oil: security feelings and strategic approach; towards a European supply strategy; beyond petroleum: what alternatives; 150 years of petroleum history; the energy dependence; energy economy; automotive fuels and pollution abatement; limitation of greenhouse gas emissions; glossary; bibliography; index; Web links. (J.S.)

  16. Billions at stake in climate finance: four key lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Peter [University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Boyd, Emily [University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Huq, Saleemul

    2009-11-15

    How can we break through the impasse on the road to Copenhagen? As the climate talks stall over the size of emissions cuts and who pays for them, it is increasingly clear that funding will be key to breaking the deadlock. Guaranteeing adequate levels of climate finance will be a deal maker or breaker for the poorest nations as the December summit approaches. But on the brink of a new chapter in climate funding, with unprecedented flows at stake, donor countries need to learn from decades of aid experience – mistakes as well as successes. Failure to do this risks wasting a great opportunity to kickstart low-carbon, climate-resilient development for the world's poor.

  17. Stakes and modalities of the climatic risk covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteau, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several econometric works show that climatic volatility is at the first rank of the risk factors in several economic sectors like energy, textile, agriculture and food, tourism, leisure, building industries etc. However, climate remains an underestimated economic factor for several reasons: lack of awareness about the comparative stakes of climate risks management and market risks management, difficulties in the measurement of climate risk exposure, weak knowledge of covering techniques for private contract and organized markets, and unsolved question of risk sharing between shareholders and managers. This document analyzes the sensitivity of companies with respect to climate risk and describes the 5 steps of implementation of a climate covering policy: risk exposure measurement, risk bearing or transfer decision, definition of the optimum covering profile, choice of markets and covering instruments, efficiency measurement. A practical example is shown with its related questions. (J.S.)

  18. Biofuels: stakes, perspectives and researches; Biocarburants: enjeux, perspectives et recherches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Ballerin, D.; Montagne, X.

    2004-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) is a major intervener of the biofuels sector, from the production to the end-use in engines. In this press conference, the IFP takes stock of the technological, environmental and economical stakes of today and future biofuel production processes and of their impact on transports. This document gathers 2 presentations dealing with: IFP's research strategy on biofuels (transparencies: context; today's processes: ethanol, ETBE, bio-diesel; tomorrows processes: biomass to liquid; perspectives), bio-diesel fuel: the Axens process selected by Diester Industrie company for its Sete site project of bio-diesel production unit. The researches carried out at the IFP on biofuels and biomass are summarized in an appendix: advantage and drawbacks of biofuels, the ethanol fuel industry, the bio-diesel industry, biomass to liquid fuels, French coordinated research program, statistical data of biofuel consumption in France, Spain and Germany. (J.S.)

  19. EVALUASI PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA SMP MENGGUNAKAN MODEL COUNTENANCE STAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astin Lukum

    2015-06-01

    THE EVALUATION OF SCIENCE TEACHING ON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL USING STAKE’S COUNTENANCE MODEL Abstract The purpose of the study was to describe the science learning program on junior high school in Bone Bolanga district based on the Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 65 of 2013 about Processing Standard of Primary and Secondary Education. This study used Stake’s Countanance evaluation model. The data were collected using observation, interview and documentation techniques. The conclusion was: (1 the planning of science learning was categorized fair (68%, it was found that lesson plan was not in accordance with the learning processing standard. (2 The implementation of science learning was categorized fair (57%, that unconformitted with learning processing implementation standard. (3 Student learning outcomes have not met the completeness of minimum criteria (KKM that categorized enough (65% and (4 There were the contingency of planing learning proces and outcome. Keywords: Program Evaluation, Stake's Countenance, Science Learning

  20. Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p neuroscience curriculum for a residency committed to humanistic psychiatry

  1. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten , or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  2. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an e...

  3. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc., but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak ‘fear, be afraid’ and korkutmak ‘frighten, scare’, or Finnish istua ‘sit’ and istutta ‘seat (someone’, or Spanish sentarse ‘sit down’ and sentar ‘seat (someone’ is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where ‘seat’ is derived from ‘sit’ by addition of a suffix—is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  4. Eurasianism versus IndoGermanism: Linguistics and mythology in the 1930s' controversies over European prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroulanos, Stefanos; Phillips, Jamie

    2018-06-01

    In 1935, the Russian linguist Prince Nicolai S. Trubetskoi and the French mythologist Georges Dumézil engaged in a vicious debate over a seemingly obscure subject: the structure of Northwest Caucasian languages. Based on unknown archival material in French, German, and Russian, this essay uses the debate as a pathway into the 1930s scientific and political stakes of IndoEuropeanism - the belief that European cultures emerged through the spread of a single IndoEuropean people out of a single "motherland." Each of the two authors held strong commitments to visions of European order and its origins - in "Eurasia" for Trubetskoi and a Northern European Heimat for Dumézil. The North Caucasus, long a privileged site for Russian and European scholars, now became key to the renegotiation of the origins and reach of imagined prehistoric IndoEuropean conquerors, but also the 1930s' debate over the value of different disciplines (linguistics, mythology, archaeology, folklore studies) for the origins of language, myth, and the European deep past. As a moment in the history of modern speculations about prehistory, pursued in the shadow of Nazi scholarship, the debate transformed fields of research - notably linguistics, comparative mythology, and structuralism - and the assumptions about the shape of Europe.

  5. Framing effects are robust to linguistic disambiguation: A critical test of contemporary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Christina F; Reyna, Valerie F; Corbin, Jonathan C

    2016-02-01

    Theoretical accounts of risky choice framing effects assume that decision makers interpret framing options as extensionally equivalent, such that if 600 lives are at stake, saving 200 implies that 400 die. However, many scholars have argued that framing effects are caused, instead, by filling in pragmatically implied information. This linguistic ambiguity hypothesis is grounded in neo-Gricean pragmatics, information leakage, and schema theory. In 2 experiments, we conducted critical tests of the linguistic ambiguity hypothesis and its relation to framing. We controlled for this crucial implied information by disambiguating it using instructions and detailed examples, followed by multiple quizzes. After disambiguating missing information, we presented standard framing problems plus truncated versions, varying types of missing information. Truncations were also critical tests of prospect theory and fuzzy trace theory. Participants were not only college students, but also middle-age adults (who showed similar results). Contrary to the ambiguity hypothesis, participants who interpreted missing information as complementary to stated information nonetheless showed robust framing effects. Although adding words like "at least" can change interpretations of framing information, this form of linguistic ambiguity is not necessary to observe risky choice framing effects. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  8. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  9. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Movie Legally Multiplex Heralded As Linchpin To Growth The Shape of Cinema , Transformed At the Click of a Mouse A Peaceful Crew Puts Muppets...Linguistic Representation of Multiple Languages The formalism of WordNet has been applied to many languages from different language families, e.g. Japanese ...could be also share information gleaned from 100 reviews on Amazon.com’s Japanese and German language sites. 6.2.3 Learning Deeper Structures and Testing

  10. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  11. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  12. Something about Genetics in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetics in psychiatry is based on the application of the achievements and methods of population’s genetics, immunogenetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics and pharmacogenetics. Methods of genealogy are already known, and so are the twins method, methods of adoption. Especially present are the methods of DNA recombination discovering the location of genes on chromosomes and creating genetic maps. For now, it can be said that chromosomes 6, 22 and 8 are in the center of attention of geneticists examining the genetic background of schizophrenia[1]. Some studies also suggest an association could be made between HLA-A9 and paranoid schizophrenia. The manic-depressive disorders are more associated with a gene on the short arm of chromosome 11 and the X chromosome. Mental disorders are polygenic and conditioned multifactorial. It is because of the interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors. The conclusion of most studies is that for the repetition of psychiatric disorders in families heritable factors are more deserving than environmental factors (e.g. studies in families with adopted children, although it is impossible to clearly separate the effects of genetic factors from the effects of environmental factors. The first studies that have attempted to detect predisposition genes for complex diseases were studies of genetic connectivity. They were based on the search of loci - markers in families, which were passed on through generations in the same way as the disease. In the search for the association of complexed hereditary diseases and certain variations of genes in a candidate, the evaluation of endofenotyp can be of a great benefit. Complexed diseases are characterized by a very diverse clinical picture and valuable data could be obtained if we individually evaluate each isolated characteristic of phenotype. The aim of the evaluation of endophenotype in the case of psychiatric disorders, is to penetrate into the mechanisms

  13. Implications of Fuzziness for the Practical Management of High-Stakes Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jablonowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available High-stakes (dangerous, catastrophic risks take on a wider profile as progress unfolds. What are the impacts of technological and social change on the risk landscape? Due to the complexities and dynamics involved, we can only answer these questions approximately. By using the concept of fuzziness, we can formalize our imprecision about high-stakes risk, and therefore place their management on a stronger footing. We review here the impacts of fuzziness, i.e., knowledge imperfection, on high-stakes risk management, including its implementation via computationally intelligent decision aids.

  14. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Devin, Patrick; Tanguy, Loic; Bernard, Herve; Minon, Jean-Paul; Leclaire, Arnaud; Gilli, Ludivine; Lheureux, Yves; Pescatore, Claudio; Barbey, Pierre; Schneider, Thierry; Gay, Didier; Forest, Isabelle; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Baglan, Nicolas; Desnoyers, Bruno; Pieraccini, Michel; Poncet, Philippe; Seguin, Bertille; Calvez, Marianne; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Bancelin, Estelle; Fillion, Eric; Segura, Yannick; Vernaz, Etienne; Granier, Guy; De Preter, Peter; Petitfrere, Michael; Laye, Frederic; Nakamura, Takashi; Gin, Stephane; Lebaron-Jacobs, Laurence; Dinant, Sophie; Vacquier, Blandine; Crochon, Philippe; Griffault, Lise; Smith, Graham

    2013-10-01

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  15. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their program’s curriculum related to tobacco treatment, attitudes related to treating tobacco in psychiatry, and perceptions of residents’ skills for addressing nicotine dependence in psychiatric patients. Results Respondents were representative of the national pool. Half of the programs provided training in tobacco treatments for a median duration of 1 hour. Content areas covered varied greatly. Programs with tobacco-related training expressed more favorable attitudes toward addressing tobacco in psychiatry and were more likely to report confidence in their residents’ skills for treating nicotine dependence. Programs without tobacco training reported a lack of faculty expertise on tobacco treatments. Most training directors reported moderate to high interest in evaluating a model tobacco curriculum for psychiatry and stated they would dedicate an average of 4 hours of curriculum time. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the need for and interest in a model tobacco treatment curriculum for psychiatry residency training. Training psychiatrists offers the potential of delivering treatment to one of the largest remaining groups of smokers: patients with mental disorders. PMID:17021144

  16. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  17. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots.

  18. Psychiatry and neurology: from dualism to integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.

  19. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  20. Brain injury in a forensic psychiatry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, A; Stamenova, V; Abramowitz, C; Clarke, D; Christensen, B

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence and profile of adults with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been studied in large North American forensic mental health populations. This study investigated how adults with a documented history of TBI differed with the non-TBI forensic population with respect to demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and history of offences. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive admissions to a forensic psychiatry programme in Toronto, Canada was conducted. Information on history of TBI, psychiatric diagnoses, living environments and types of criminal offences were obtained from medical records. History of TBI was ascertained in 23% of 394 eligible patient records. Compared to those without a documented history of TBI, persons with this history were less likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia but more likely to have alcohol/substance abuse disorder. There were also differences observed with respect to offence profiles. This study provides evidence to support routine screening for a history of TBI in forensic psychiatry.

  1. Military Psychiatry: A Tri-Service Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    and Capt. Lawrence on the edge of his boot-sole. But the sights and horrors began to be fearful: stretchers were plying rapidly now, and bringing out...Year of Combat July 4l, 1942- July 4, 1943). New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. 48. Hausman , W., & Rioch, D. McK. (1967). Military Psychiatry... Summer ). Cohesion and disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II. Public Opinion Quarterly, 12, 280-315. 108. Sledge, W. H., Boydstun, J. A., Rahe

  2. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.; Fink, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives

  3. The state of psychiatry in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Marc H M; de Witte, Nele; Dom, Geert

    2012-08-01

    Belgium, at the crossroads of different cultures, developed complex governmental structures hindering the development of comprehensive mental health policies. A total of 10.2% of the gross domestic product is spent on healthcare but only 6.1% of this total expenditure goes to mental health. Although mental healthcare is largely accessible and offers high levels of quality, it is questionable whether this can be maintained, given the economic climate. The collection of epidemiological data is problematic due to the different ways registration takes place within different care systems and the complexity of the state structure and its consecutive constitutional reforms. Coming from a largely hospital-driven psychiatric care, mental healthcare reforms of past decades have created more community-based care and new care pathways, still an on-going process. Psychiatry as a profession is currently challenged. Teaching mental health issues remains extremely limited within medical schools, resources for research are disproportionally limited, and working conditions less favourable, all this compared with other specialisms. Hence few graduates choose a career in psychiatry. Changing the public perception of what psychiatry is about, redefining the identity of psychiatrists as medical specialists, and their work have become important challenges for the next future.

  4. Neuropsychiatrie of biologische psychiatrie; een toekomstvisie in historisch perspectief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, W M; Tuinier, S

    1999-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry or Biological Psychiatry There is an urgent need to reconsider the position of psychiatry within the neurosciences because of the exploding knowledge about the relationship between brain and behaviour and the delay in implementation of new findings due to the separation of neurology and psychiatry. Biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology originate from the discovery by chance of psycho-active compounds in the early fifties and have contributed to the scientification of psychiatry. The impact of biological psychiatry for the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, however, is limited as a result of its biased orientation on neurotransmitters and receptors. The neuropsychiatric paradigm integrates knowledge from several domains, such as functional neuroanatomy, genetics and endocrinology and opens new vistas for the involvement of neuronal circuits in the initiation and maintenance of behavioural disturbances. In addition, novel and more specific treatment modalities may emerge.

  5. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  6. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY AT PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOK: SOME CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gaida Winch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed how linguistic diversity is dealt with in a Portuguese textbook, where two chapters are designated to it. In these, it is pointed out that speaker ethnic origin can be manifested differently by: morphological changes; use of foreign expressions; accent in oral language. In synthesis, the linguistic diversity is dealt with through activities of identification and reproduction of linguistic varieties to be carried out by the students.

  7. What does social research say about high-stakes tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Feito Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High-stake tests, which students need to pass in order to gain a Secondary education certificate, have aroused a lot of controversy whenever they have been implemented. Especially in the USA these tests have produced a dramatic shrinking of school knowledge as they have been focused into questions posed by the very tests. At the same time, there has been a critical modification of the learning processes due to the fact that these tests encourage students to pay more attention to factual knowledge, which is far away from hands-on learning, debating in class or working in teams. In spite of certain discrepancies, by and large, research casts serious doubts about whether these tests are conductive to better academic performance. Nevertheless, the dropout rate is on the rise. More often than not, school principals have been found preventing struggling students to sit the exams. A review of the research into this matter allows us to put into context the debate surrounding external exams posed by the current education law (LOMCE: Law for the Improvement of Educational Quality passed by the parliamentary majority of the Popular Party in Spain in 2013.

  8. The stakes of the park management in the lasting quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caseau, P.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to surround the stakes of the management in the lasting quality and not to give a table of problems. The actual situation shows two characteristics; the profit margins in the nuclear industry are very small, the economic growth is small too. The advantage of the operating park on any other kind electric source is extremely strong. So it is important to keep the actual park even if operating and maintenance costs increase. If a forty years life time allows to go until 2020 and fifty years until 2030 it is possible to consider that the comparison 'installed park cost/any other production mean cost' leads to keep the actual park until 2015-2025. The first reason is an economic reason. The second reason is connected to what will happen after, that is to say the replacement conditions.To be able to define in the best conditions a new park, devoted to last 60 years or more, that is the second reason to manage the actual park in the lasting quality. (N.C)

  9. Rich, poor share stake in poverty, pollution link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCanio, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    A dirty environment and poverty go together, and this link between environmental protection and economic development is creating a new basis for international cooperation, says Stephen J. DeCanio of the University of California at Santa Barbara. open-quotes Both developed and developing countries have a stake in solving the development/environment impasse,close quotes DeCanio adds. open-quotes Furthermore, the link between these problems offers a fresh opportunity to make progress on both fronts.close quotes He says environmental protection expenditures by developed countries can be used to promote the sustainable economic growth of those countries struggling to escape from poverty. The money could be collected in several ways, he notes: from various types of environmental taxes, such as a carbon tax; from environmental user fees; from open-quotes debt-for natureclose quotes swaps; and from tradable emissions permits. Such mechanisms transfer resources to developing countries, where they can be applied to economic development-a desired objective, according to DeCanio. open-quotes The benefits of equitable worldwide growth and development outweigh any temporary loss of wealth developed countries may experience as a result of environmental transfers,close quotes he asserts

  10. High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Mathematics Instruction, Study Skills, and High Stakes Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.

  11. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  12. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  13. Rezension : Wissen um den Wahn. Foucaults Geschichte der Psychiatrie ; zu "Foucaults Geschichte der Psychiatrie"

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Aus dem umfangreichen Werk des französischen Philosophen und Sozialhistorikers Michel Foucault (1926-1984) ist ein weiteres Buch auf Deutsch erschienen. Der Band „Die Macht der Psychiatrie" geht auf eine Reihe von Vorlesungen zurück, die Foucault im Wintersemester '73/'74 am Collège de France gehalten hat. Die in Frankreich bereits im Jahr 2003 veröffentlichten 12 Vorlesungen sind der Geschichte der Psychiatrie gewidmet und konzentrieren sich vor allem auf ihre Frühphase. Wesentlich gestützt ...

  14. China’s Air Defense Identification Zone: Concept, Issues at Stake and Regional Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    early Chinese legal culture ” Karen Turner “War, Punishment, and The Law of Nature in Early Chinese Concepts of The State”, Harvard Journal of Asiatic...lack of strategic direction, moral relativism , a failure to gauge the significance of what is at stake, and distraction with events in other regions of...WORKING PAPER 1 posted 23 December 2013 CHINA’S AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE: CONCEPT , ISSUES AT STAKE AND REGIONAL IMPACT

  15. Large Stroke High Fidelity PZN-PT Single-Crystal "Stake" Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Xia, Yuexue; Lin, Dian Hua; Yao, Kui; Lim, Leong Chew

    2017-10-01

    A new piezoelectric actuator design, called "Stake" actuator, is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. As an example, the stake actuator is made of four d 32 -mode PZN-5.5%PT single crystals (SCs), each of 25 mm ( L ) ×8 mm ( W ) ×0.4 mm (T) in dimensions, bonded with the aid of polycarbonate edge guide-cum-stiffeners into a square-pipe configuration for improved bending and twisting strengths and capped with top and bottom pedestals made of 1.5-mm-thick anodized aluminum. The resultant stake actuator measured 9 mm ×9 mm ×28 mm. The hollow structure is a key design feature, which optimizes SC usage efficiency and lowers the overall cost of the actuator. The displacement-voltage responses, blocking forces, resonance characteristics of the fabricated stake actuator, as well as the load and temperature effects, are measured and discussed. Since d 32 is negative for [011]-poled SC, the "Stake" actuator contracts in the axial direction when a positive-polarity field is applied to the crystals. Biased drive is thus recommended when extensional displacement is desired. The SC stake actuator has negligible (0.13% when driven up to +300 V (i.e., 0.75 kV/mm), which is close to the rhombohedral-to-orthorhombic transformation field ( E RO ) of 0.85 kV/mm of the SC used. The stake actuator displays a stroke of [Formula: see text] (at +300 V) despite its small overall dimensions, and has a blocking force of 114 N. The SC d 32 stake actuator fabricated displays more than 30% larger axial strain than the state-of-the-art PZT stack actuators of comparable length as well as moderate blocking forces. Said actuators are thus ideal for applications when large displacements with simple open-loop control are preferred.

  16. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible...... objects (ensured by nouns) and situations (ensured by the verb)--the latter corresponding to Peirce's rhematic sign-- and in addition to the level of assertion--corresponding to Peirce's dicentic sign-- there is a third level at which verbal categories collaborate in order to make a deduction, abduction...... or induction-- corresponding to Peirce's argumentative signs....

  17. Attitudes of Flemish physiotherapy students towards mental health and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Michel; Peuskens, Jos

    2010-03-01

    In general, psychiatry is not very popular among healthcare providers, although no information is available concerning the attitudes of physiotherapy students towards mental heath. This study examined the attitudes of physiotherapy students towards psychiatry considering the subject's gender, previous experience with psychiatry and the impact of a specific course. This experimental study compared the attitudes of physiotherapy students (n=219) with those of students without a biomedical background (n=112) towards psychiatry. All students were between 17 and 28 years of age, and completed an established international questionnaire entitled 'Attitudes Towards Psychiatry'. Within the group of physiotherapy students, the effect of a 65-hour course on psychiatric rehabilitation on their attitudes was evaluated. Attitudes towards psychiatry were moderately positive [mean (SD) 103.3 (9.9)]. There was a small but significant difference between physiotherapy students and non-medical students (Cohen's d=0.31). Female students had a more positive attitude towards psychiatry than their male peers (Cohen's d=0.44). Prior experience with mental illness was associated with more positive attitudes (Cohen's d=0.68). Attitudes increased in positivity after completion of a psychiatry course (Cohen's d=0.72). To ensure basic physiotherapeutic treatment for the mentally ill, physiotherapy education should aim to promote positive attitudes towards mental illness as well as psychiatry. High-quality courses and personal interaction with patients are the best strategies to achieve this goal.

  18. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2007-01-01

    In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”. PMID:17949505

  19. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  20. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  1. Psychiatry in the Deep South: a pilot study of integrated training for psychiatry residents and seminary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. From 2005 to 2008, PGY-2 general-psychiatry residents and PGY-5 child-psychiatry residents (N=30) participated alongside psychology interns (N=13) and seminary students (N=41). The intervention consisted of two 3-hour sessions. Measurements addressed demographics, participants' spirituality, and attitudes toward mental illness, mental-health practitioners, and clergy. The psychiatry residents' knowledge regarding the training of clergy was significantly increased by the training sessions. The seminary students' attitudes and knowledge of psychiatry/psychology changed significantly in a positive direction. This pilot course had a positive impact on both groups of participants. This model could be modified for other psychiatry programs, to include clergy students of different religious faiths as relevant to the demographics of the training location.

  2. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  3. [Psychiatry with open doors. Part 1: Rational for an open door for acute psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, D; Lang, U E

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reform efforts of the last decades modern acute psychiatry still stands between conflicting priorities in everyday practice. The protection of patient autonomy might conflict with a regulatory mandate of psychiatry in societal contexts and the necessity of coercive measures and involuntary treatment might become problematic with respect to presumed but contentious interests of the patient. The conflicts particularly concern questions of involuntary commitment, door closing, coercive and isolation measures. Research on the topic of therapeutic effectiveness of these practices is rare. Accordingly, the practice depends on the federal state, hospital and ward and is very heterogeneous. Epidemiological prognosis predicts an increase of psychiatric disorders; however, simultaneously in terms of medical ethics the warranty of patient autonomy, shared decision-making and informed consent in psychiatry become increasingly more important. This challenges structural and practical changes in psychiatry, particularly in situations of self and third party endangerment which are outlined and a rationale for an opening of the doors in acute psychiatric wards is provided.

  4. Shorter Psychiatry Clerkship Length Is Associated with Lower NBME Psychiatry Shelf Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Alexander, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a recent medical school curriculum change at our institution 3 years ago; specifically: shortening the Psychiatry core clerkship from 4 to 3 weeks and adding an optional 6-week core/elective combination rotation in lieu of the 3-week core. The authors aimed to determine whether clerkship length was…

  5. Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Leisy

    2012-01-01

    Detailing a decade of life and language use in a remote Alaskan Yup'ik community, Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance provides rare insight into young people's language brokering and Indigenous people's contemporary linguistic ecologies. This book examines how two consecutive groups of youth in a Yup'ik village…

  6. MODERN LINGUISTICS, ITS DEVELOPMENT AND SCOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN LINGUISTICS STARTED WITH JONES' DISCOVERY IN 1786 THAT SANSKRIT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CLASSICAL, GERMANIC, AND CELTIC LANGUAGES, AND HAS ADVANCED TO INCLUDE THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS IN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. THE HIGHLIGHTS OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCH HAVE BEEN DE SAUSSURE'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE DIACHRONIC AND THE…

  7. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...

  8. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  9. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  10. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  11. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  12. Using the Linguistic Landscape to Bridge Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    In this article Vanessa Mari describes how she uses the linguistic landscape to bridge two or more languages with students learning English. The linguistic landscape is defined by Landry and Bourhis (1997, 25) as "the language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on…

  13. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  14. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: linguis@sun.ac.za. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  15. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  16. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  17. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  18. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  19. Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for pursuing their work. The theme of this year’s TKE is ‘Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data’. Mono- and multi-lingual term bases, which contain information about concepts (terms, definitions, examples of use, references, comments on equivalence etc.), have always made up valuable linguistic resources...

  20. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  1. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  2. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  3. Measuring outcomes in psychiatry: an inpatient model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D E; Fong, M L

    1996-02-01

    This article describes a system for measuring outcomes recently implemented in the department of psychiatry of Baptist Memorial Hospital, a 78-bed inpatient and day treatment unit that represents one service line of a large, urban teaching hospital in Memphis. In June 1993 Baptist Hospital began a 15-month pilot test of PsychSentinel, a measurement tool developed by researchers in the Department of Community Medicine at the University of Connecticut. The hospital identified the following four primary goals for this pilot project: provide data for internal hospital program evaluation, provide data for external marketing in a managed care environment, satisfy requirements of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations, and generate studies that add to the literature in psychiatry and psychology. PsychSentinel is based on the standardized diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). The outcome measure assesses the change in the number of symptoms of psychopathology that occurs between admission and discharge from the hospital. Included in the nonproprietary system are risk adjustment factors, as well as access to a national reference database for comparative analysis purposes. Data collection can be done by trained ancillary staff members, with as much or as little direct physician involvement as desired. The system has proven to be both time effective and cost effective, and it provides important outcome information both at the program level and at the clinician level. After the pilot test, the staff at Baptist Memorial Hospital determined that the system met all initial objectives identified and recently adopted the system as an ongoing measure of quality patient care in the department of psychiatry.

  4. Predicting Medical Students’ Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Warnke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students’ perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small

  5. Predicting Medical Students’ Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Ingeborg; Gamma, Alex; Buadze, Maria; Schleifer, Roman; Canela, Carlos; Strebel, Bernd; Tényi, Tamás; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas; Liebrenz, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students’ perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance

  6. Predicting Medical Students' Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Ingeborg; Gamma, Alex; Buadze, Maria; Schleifer, Roman; Canela, Carlos; Strebel, Bernd; Tényi, Tamás; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas; Liebrenz, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students' perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N  = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance. The

  7. [Artificial intelligence in psychiatry-an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2018-06-18

    Artificial intelligence and the underlying methods of machine learning and neuronal networks (NN) have made dramatic progress in recent years and have allowed computers to reach superhuman performance in domains that used to be thought of as uniquely human. In this overview, the underlying methodological developments that made this possible are briefly delineated and then the applications to psychiatry in three domains are discussed: precision medicine and biomarkers, natural language processing and artificial intelligence-based psychotherapeutic interventions. In conclusion, some of the risks of this new technology are mentioned.

  8. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  9. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [de

  10. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  11. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  12. Choosing child and adolescent psychiatry: factors influencing medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum.

  13. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbins, T.W.; Gillan, C.M.; Smith, D.G.; de Wit, S.; Ersche, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    A key criticism of the main diagnostic tool in psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-IV), is that it lacks a biological footing. In this article, we argue for a biological approach to psychiatry based on ‘neurocognitive endophenotypes’, whereby changes in

  14. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  15. Psychiatry Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: Implementation and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stuart; Demaso, David R.; Kemler, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the implementation of psychiatry morbidity and mortality rounds (M&Ms) on the clinical and educational practice in a children's hospital. Methods: Attendees to monthly M&Ms between July 2005 and May 2007 included staff and trainees from psychiatry, psychology, nursing, and social work. Cases were selected based on a…

  16. Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Chipps, S Ramlall, M Mars. Abstract. Objective: Psychiatry registrars form the backbone of specialized psychiatric service provision in South Africa. Medical schools are centralized while clinical services need to be ...

  17. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength.

  18. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  19. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Arden D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  20. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  1. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  2. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  3. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  4. Choosing Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Factors Influencing Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M.; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. Conclusions: A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum. PMID:24223044

  5. An Investigation of Psychiatry Residents' Important Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jody

    2011-01-01

    This research study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of the third-year experiences of the psychiatry residents. A review of the literature identified themes and subthemes related to the third-year of psychiatry education. The study was conducted at a university health science center. Data were collected from five residents using participant…

  6. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  7. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  8. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  9. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2009-01-01

    The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g) the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a) the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b) biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c) critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d) the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e) the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f) what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a) psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b) issues in psychiatric ethics; (c) social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a) antipsychiatry revisited; (b) basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c) psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d) conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  10. How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Hendricks, Rose K; Boroditsky, Lera

    2017-11-01

    Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  12. The Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Marleen C; de Lange, Geertje M; Palmen, Saskia J M C

    2018-01-01

    The Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) performs rapid autopsies of donors who gave written informed consent during life for the use of their brain tissue and medical files for research. The NBB initiated the Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry (NBB-Psy), a prospective donor program for psychiatric diseases. NBB-Psy wants to expand the tissue collections in order to provide a strong incentive to increase research in psychiatry. The ultimate goal of NBB-Psy is to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders for patients, their families, and for society as a whole. NBB-Psy consists of an antemortem and postmortem donor program. This chapter focuses on the design of NBB-Psy and the antemortem donor program, where patients and relatives are actively informed on the possibility to become a brain donor. Since the initiation of NBB-Psy, the number of registered donors with a psychiatric diagnosis has increased from 149 in 2010 to 1018 in May 2016. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The historical development of psychiatry in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Srdan; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Pantović, Mihailo; Dukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Ravanić, Dragan

    2009-06-01

    The authors present the development of the concept of mental disease and treatment in Serbian medicine. Serbian medieval medicine did not acknowledge fortune telling, sorcery, the use of amulets and magical rituals and formulas. These progressive concepts were confirmed by the Church and the Serbian state in what is known as Dusan's Code. The Historical data on the establishment of the first psychiatric hospital in the Balkans "Home for the Unsound of Mind" at Guberevac, Belgrade, in 1861 and its founders is reviewed. After World War I, in 1923, the Faculty of Medicine was established in Belgrade to which the coryphaei of Serbian medicine educated in Europe, mostly in France and Germany, flocked and that same year the Psychiatry Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade was set up. Its first seat was on the premises of the Mental Hospital in Belgrade, and it became a training base and laid the foundations of the future Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Belgrade, which in time evolved into the nursery of psychiatric professionals for all of Serbia. The most important data on the further development of psychiatry up to date are presented.

  14. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J Kirmayer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobhavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery.

  15. Current perspectives on chief residents in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Christopher H; Rachal, James; Breitbach, Jill; Higgins, Michael; Warner, Carolynn; Bobo, William

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine qualitative data from outgoing chief residents in psychiatry from the 2004-2005 academic year to 1) determine common characteristics between programs, 2) examine the residents' perspectives on their experiences, and 3) determine their common leadership qualities. The authors sent out self-report surveys via e-mail to 89 outgoing chief residents who attended the APA/Lilly Chief Resident Executive Leadership Program. Fifty-three (60%) chief residents responded. Although most chief residents are senior residents, over 20% are in their third postgraduate year. Two-thirds of programs have more than one chief resident each year. Most chief residents believe that their "participating" leadership style, existing leadership skills, and interpersonal skills contributed to their overall positive experiences. Successfully performing duties as a chief resident entails functioning in a variety of roles and demands attention to leadership qualities of the individual. Developing existing leadership skills, clarifying expectations, and providing mentorship to chief residents will ensure successful transition into practice, and the advancement of the field of psychiatry.

  16. Psychiatry & the psychedelic drugs. Past, present & future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, James J H; Iliff, Jonathan; Nutt, David J

    2017-12-25

    The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting. Pre-prohibition studies in this area were sub-optimal, although a recent systematic review in unipolar mood disorder and a meta-analysis in alcoholism have both suggested efficacy. The incidence of serious adverse events appears to be low. Since 2006, there have been several pilot trials and randomised controlled trials using psychedelics (mostly psilocybin) in various non-psychotic psychiatric disorders. These have provided encouraging results that provide initial evidence of safety and efficacy, however the regulatory and legal hurdles to licensing psychedelics as medicines are formidable. This paper summarises clinical trials using psychedelics pre and post prohibition, discusses the methodological challenges of performing good quality trials in this area and considers a strategic approach to the legal and regulatory barriers to licensing psychedelics as a treatment in mainstream psychiatry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Forensic psychiatry, one subspecialty with two ethics? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveau, Gérard; Welle, Ida

    2018-04-10

    Forensic psychiatry is a particular subspecialty within psychiatry, dedicated in applying psychiatric knowledge and psychiatric training for particular legal purposes. Given that within the scope of forensic psychiatry, a third party usually intervenes in the patient-doctor relationship, an amendment of the traditional ethical principles seems justified. Thus, 47 articles, two book chapters and the guidelines produced by the World Psychiatric Association, the American Association of Psychiatry and the Law, as well as by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of psychiatrists, were analyzed. The review revealed that the ethics of correctional forensic psychiatry and those of legal forensic psychiatry do not markedly differ from each other, but they are incongruent in terms of implementation. In an effort to better understand which ethical principles apply to forensic psychiatry, a chronological review of the literature published from 1950 to 2015 was carried out. The ethics of correctional forensic psychiatry are primarily deontological. The principle of justice translates into the principle of health care equivalence, the principle of beneficence into providing the best possible care to patients, and the principle of respect of autonomy into ensuring confidentiality and informed consent. The ethics of legal forensic psychiatry are rather consequentialist. In this latter setting, the principle of justice is mainly characterized by professionalism, the principle of beneficence by objectivity and impartiality, and the principle of respect of autonomy by informed consent. However, these two distinct fields of forensic psychiatry share in common the principle of non maleficence, defined as the non collaboration of the psychiatrist in any activity leading to inhuman and degrading treatment or to the death penalty.

  18. [The importance of classifications in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempérière, T

    1995-12-01

    The classifications currently used in psychiatry have different aims: to facilitate communication between researchers and clinicians at national and international levels through the use of a common language, or at least a clearly and precisely defined nomenclature; to provide a nosographical reference system which can be used in practice (diagnosis, prognosis, treatment); to optimize research by ensuring that sample cases are as homogeneous as possible; to facilitate statistical records for public health institutions. A classification is of practical interest only if it is reliable, valid and acceptable to all potential users. In recent decades, there has been a considerable systematic and coordinated effort to improve the methodological approach to classification and categorization in the field of psychiatry, including attempts to create operational definitions, field trials of inter-assessor reliability, attempts to validate the selected nosological categories by analysis of correlation between progression, treatment response, family history and additional examinations. The introduction of glossaries, and particularly of diagnostic criteria, marked a decisive step in this new approach. The key problem remains that of the validity of diagnostic criteria. Ideally, these should be based on demonstrable etiologic or pathogenic data, but such information is rarely available in psychiatry. Current classifications rely on the use of extremely diverse elements in differing degrees: descriptive criteria, evolutive criteria, etiopathogenic criteria, psychopathogenic criteria, etc. Certain syndrome-based classifications such as DSM III and its successors aim to be atheoretical and pragmatic. Others, such as ICD-10, while more eclectic than the different versions of DSM, follow suit by abandoning the terms "disease" and "illness" in favor of the more consensual "disorder". The legitimacy of classifications in the field of psychiatry has been fiercely contested, being

  19. Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerbonne, John

    2010-12-12

    We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335-357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question.

  20. The effect of $1, $5 and $10 stakes in an online dictator game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Mace, Ruth; Lamba, Shakti

    2013-01-01

    The decision rules underpinning human cooperative behaviour are often investigated under laboratory conditions using monetary incentives. A major concern with this approach is that stake size may bias subjects' decisions. This concern is particularly acute in online studies, where stakes are often far lower than those used in laboratory or field settings. We address this concern by conducting a Dictator Game using Amazon Mechanical Turk. In this two-player game, one player (the dictator) determines the division of an endowment between himself and the other player. We recruited subjects from India and the USA to play an online Dictator Game. Dictators received endowments of $1, $5 or $10. We collected two batches of data over two consecutive years. We found that players from India were less generous when playing with a $10 stake. By contrast, the effect of stake size among players from the USA was very small. This study indicates that the effects of stake size on decision making in economic games may vary across populations.

  1. The effect of $1, $5 and $10 stakes in an online dictator game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola J Raihani

    Full Text Available The decision rules underpinning human cooperative behaviour are often investigated under laboratory conditions using monetary incentives. A major concern with this approach is that stake size may bias subjects' decisions. This concern is particularly acute in online studies, where stakes are often far lower than those used in laboratory or field settings. We address this concern by conducting a Dictator Game using Amazon Mechanical Turk. In this two-player game, one player (the dictator determines the division of an endowment between himself and the other player. We recruited subjects from India and the USA to play an online Dictator Game. Dictators received endowments of $1, $5 or $10. We collected two batches of data over two consecutive years. We found that players from India were less generous when playing with a $10 stake. By contrast, the effect of stake size among players from the USA was very small. This study indicates that the effects of stake size on decision making in economic games may vary across populations.

  2. Correlates of cooperation in a one-shot high-stakes televised prisoners' dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell N Burton-Chellew

    Full Text Available Explaining cooperation between non-relatives is a puzzle for both evolutionary biology and the social sciences. In humans, cooperation is often studied in a laboratory setting using economic games such as the prisoners' dilemma. However, such experiments are sometimes criticized for being played for low stakes and by misrepresentative student samples. Golden balls is a televised game show that uses the prisoners' dilemma, with a diverse range of participants, often playing for very large stakes. We use this non-experimental dataset to investigate the factors that influence cooperation when "playing" for considerably larger stakes than found in economic experiments. The game show has earlier stages that allow for an analysis of lying and voting decisions. We found that contestants were sensitive to the stakes involved, cooperating less when the stakes were larger in both absolute and relative terms. We also found that older contestants were more likely to cooperate, that liars received less cooperative behavior, but only if they told a certain type of lie, and that physical contact was associated with reduced cooperation, whereas laughter and promises were reliable signals or cues of cooperation, but were not necessarily detected.

  3. Staking solutions to tube vibration problems (developed by Technos et Compagnie - FRANCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, E.W.; Bizard, A.; Horn, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Electric generating plant steam surface condensers have been prone to vibration induced tube failures. One common and effective method for stopping this vibration has been to insert stakes into the bundle to provide additional support. Stakes have been fabricated of a variety of rigid and semi-rigid materials of fixed dimensions. Installation difficulties and problems of incomplete tube support have been associated with this approach. New developments in the application of plastic technology has offered another approach. Stakes made of plastic tubes which are flattened, by evacuation, at the time of manufacture may now be easily inserted into the tube bundle. After insertion, the vacuum is released and the memory of the plastic causes the stakes to expand and assume their original form. The spring force of the plastic cradles the adjacent condenser tubes and stops the vibration. Developed for Electricite de France (EDF), the stakes are currently installed in 19 units of the French utility system, and two units in the United States

  4. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  5. Educational Linguistics and College English Syllabus Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-xin

    2016-01-01

    The direct application of linguistic theories to syllabus design gives rise to frequent change of syllabus type in the histo-ry of syllabus development, which makes language teachers feel difficult to adapt to, to adopt and to implement. The recognition and popularization of the new-born discipline educational linguistics servers as a method to ease the situation, especially in the college English syllabus design in China. The development and application of the fruitful achievements in educational linguis-tics is bound to provide us with a more scientific approach to syllabus design in the future.

  6. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  7. Collective Variables in Apphed Linguistics Research

    OpenAIRE

    ヘンスリー, ジョール; HENSLEY, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the key dynamic(al)systems theory concept of collective variables as it relates to developmental research in applied linguistics. Dynamic(al) systems theory is becoming prevalent in linguistic research and in the past two decades has jumped to the forefront of cutting edge in the field. One key concept in dynamic(al) systems theory is that of collective variables. In order to help properly orient this concept in the field of applied linguistics, this paper discusses the ...

  8. Does high-stakes testing increase cultural capital among low-income and racial minority students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Pyo Hong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on research from Texas and Chicago to examine whether high-stakes testing enables low-income and racial minority students to acquire cultural capital. While students' performance on state or district tests rose after the implementation of high-stakes testing and accountability policies in Texas and Chicago in the 1990s, several studies indicate that these policies seemed to have had deleterious effects on curriculum, instruction, the percentage of students excluded from the tests, and student dropout rates. As a result, the policies seemed to have had mixed effects on students' opportunities to acquire embodied and institutionalized cultural capital. These findings are consistent with the work of Shepard (2000, Darling-Hammond (2004a, and others who have written of the likely negative repercussions of high-stakes testing and accountability policies.

  9. Are computational models of any use to psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J M; Moutoussis, Michael; Williams, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    Mathematically rigorous descriptions of key hypotheses and theories are becoming more common in neuroscience and are beginning to be applied to psychiatry. In this article two fictional characters, Dr. Strong and Mr. Micawber, debate the use of such computational models (CMs) in psychiatry. We present four fundamental challenges to the use of CMs in psychiatry: (a) the applicability of mathematical approaches to core concepts in psychiatry such as subjective experiences, conflict and suffering; (b) whether psychiatry is mature enough to allow informative modelling; (c) whether theoretical techniques are powerful enough to approach psychiatric problems; and (d) the issue of communicating clinical concepts to theoreticians and vice versa. We argue that CMs have yet to influence psychiatric practice, but that they help psychiatric research in two fundamental ways: (a) to build better theories integrating psychiatry with neuroscience; and (b) to enforce explicit, global and efficient testing of hypotheses through more powerful analytical methods. CMs allow the complexity of a hypothesis to be rigorously weighed against the complexity of the data. The paper concludes with a discussion of the path ahead. It points to stumbling blocks, like the poor communication between theoretical and medical communities. But it also identifies areas in which the contributions of CMs will likely be pivotal, like an understanding of social influences in psychiatry, and of the co-morbidity structure of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology; Funktionelle MRT in Psychiatrie und Neurologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Fink, G.R. (eds.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    2007-07-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives.

  11. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  12. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Damiaan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”.

  13. Circular Interaction Between Linguistic Departments And Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Linguistik und Didaktik (Linguistics and Didactics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollay, Karl

    1974-01-01

    Briefly summarizes the papers presented at the 10th annual convention of the German Language Institute in Mannheim. The relationship between linguistic research and its applicability in the area of language instruction is discussed. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  15. Glossematik und Linguistik (Glossematics and Linguistics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoger, Alfons

    1974-01-01

    Provides a short summary on the background, current development and future perspectives of the glossematic theory of language and linguistics, as developed by Hjelmslev and those associated with him (Loosely called "the Danish school"). (Text is in German.) (DS)

  16. Zweiter Linguistischer Orientierungskurs (Second Linguistic Orientation Course)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosewitz, Uta; Wiegand, Herbert Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Report on the Second Linguistic Orientation Course sponsored by the Institut fur deutsche Sprache (Institute for the German Language) and funded by the Volkswagen Foundation; held at Mannheim, West Germany, February 21-March 3, 1972. (RS)

  17. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods, the cognitive code method and the cognitive anti-method, emerged, both drawing on .... sciences; he must have some knowledge of linguistics. ... much as the nature of the organising power that is capable of handling such data.

  18. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  19. Design and Practice: Enacting Functional Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Draws on experience with a transdisciplinary literacy project in writing development at the secondary level to address the sub-field of "writing-literacy," writing as a linguist working across an applied versus theoretical frontier. (Author/VWL)

  20. [Sociolinguistics and liaison psychiatry: a particular aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singy, P; Bourquin, C; Sulstarova, B; Weber, O

    2010-02-17

    Verbal language is a major tool of medical communication. However, its use can be problematic, namely because the speakers of a given language do not necessarily agree on the meaning of the words they exchange. This phenomenon is usually called linguistic variability. Based on a famous political and legal case and medical examples, we will show how variability is a critical source of misunderstandings and other communicational breakdowns. In addition, we will suggest some strategies which are likely to limit the impact of variability on clinician/patient interaction.

  1. A New Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic TOPSIS Method for Group Multi-Criteria Linguistic Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangling Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making is a focus point in linguistic decision making, in which the main method is based on preference ordering. This paper develops a new hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method for group multi-criteria linguistic decision making; the method is inspired by the TOPSIS method and the preference degree between two hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs. To this end, we first use the preference degree to define a pseudo-distance between two HFLTSs and analyze its properties. Then we present the positive (optimistic and negative (pessimistic information of each criterion provided by each decision maker and aggregate these by using weights of decision makers to obtain the hesitant fuzzy linguistic positive and negative ideal solutions. On the basis of the proposed pseudo-distance, we finally obtain the positive (negative ideal separation matrix and a new relative closeness degree to rank alternatives. We also design an algorithm based on the provided method to carry out hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making. An illustrative example shows the elaboration of the proposed method and comparison with the symbolic aggregation-based method, the hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic VIKOR method; it seems that the proposed method is a useful and alternative decision-making method.

  2. [Mental Imagery: Neurophysiology and Implications in Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo

    2014-03-01

    To provide an explanation about what mental imagery is and some implications in psychiatry. This article is a narrative literature review. There are many terms in which imagery representations are described in different fields of research. They are defined as perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus, and can be created in any sensory modality. Their neurophysiological substrate is almost the same as the one activated during sensory perception. There is no unified theory about its function, but it is possibly the way that our brain uses and manipulates the information to respond to the environment. Mental imagery is an everyday phenomenon, and when it occurs in specific patterns it can be a sign of mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Applications of positron emission tomography to psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Brodie, J.D.; Gomez-mont, F.

    1985-01-01

    The brain's inaccessibility has hampered investigation of the metabolic changes underlying the behavioral and psychological symptoms of psychiatric patients. Using positron emission transaxial tomography (PET) to study the functioning human brain opens the possibility of directly investigating the patterns of activity associated with mental illness. A major focus of present-day research in psychiatry has been to identify etiological agents that fit a medical model of psychiatric illness. Experiments seeking pathophysiological indices that would permit objective classification of psychiatric illnesses have failed to reveal consistent abnormalities. The lack of consistency is explained in part by research designs that deal with the brain as if it were a homogeneous organ. PET offers a unique technique for monitoring the regional biochemical activity that is associated with the different ''brain states'' and ''brain traits'' of normal subjects and psychiatric patients

  4. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  7. [Group psychotherapy. Working team in community psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, J S; Barrera, E H

    1977-01-01

    A Community Psychiatry program was begun, based on the needs and requests of a clinic (this approach is restricted because there are institutional factors that only the institution can change). The work was aimed at sensitizing the beneficiaries and change clinic factors modifiable through operative group technique. When a great deal of every day stereotypes appeared, role playing was used: as a result, people in the clinic realized how they acted and how they asked from others behaviors that they themselves found difficult to show. As results, it was found that when workers were confronted with reality, desertion from operative groups appeared, with projection of problems (them, not me), great fear of change (fantasized in different ways), group passivity and the image of the institution, that the group saw as a persecutor.

  8. The Unbalanced Linguistic Aggregation Operator in Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many linguistic aggregation methods have been proposed and applied in the linguistic decision-making problems. In practice, experts need to assess a number of values in a side of reference domain higher than in the other one; that is, experts use unbalanced linguistic values to express their evaluation for problems. In this paper, we propose a new linguistic aggregation operator to deal with unbalanced linguistic values in group decision making, we adopt 2-tuple representation model of linguistic values and linguistic hierarchies to express unbalanced linguistic values, and moreover, we present the unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted geometric operator to aggregate unbalanced linguistic evaluation values; a comparison example is given to show the advantage of our method.

  9. Neurofeedback: One of today's techniques in psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, M; Batail, J-M; Bioulac, S; Congedo, M; Daudet, C; Drapier, D; Fovet, T; Jardri, R; Le-Van-Quyen, M; Lotte, F; Mehler, D; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Purper-Ouakil, D; Vialatte, F

    2017-04-01

    Neurofeedback is a technique that aims to teach a subject to regulate a brain parameter measured by a technical interface to modulate his/her related brain and cognitive activities. However, the use of neurofeedback as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders remains controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize and to comment the level of evidence of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback and real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback for therapeutic application in psychiatry. Literature on neurofeedback and mental disorders but also on brain computer interfaces (BCI) used in the field of neurocognitive science has been considered by the group of expert of the Neurofeedback evaluation & training (NExT) section of the French Association of biological psychiatry and neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN). Results show a potential efficacy of EEG-neurofeedback in the treatment of attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, even if this is still debated. For other mental disorders, there is too limited research to warrant the use of EEG-neurofeedback in clinical practice. Regarding fMRI neurofeedback, the level of evidence remains too weak, for now, to justify clinical use. The literature review highlights various unclear points, such as indications (psychiatric disorders, pathophysiologic rationale), protocols (brain signals targeted, learning characteristics) and techniques (EEG, fMRI, signal processing). The field of neurofeedback involves psychiatrists, neurophysiologists and researchers in the field of brain computer interfaces. Future studies should determine the criteria for optimizing neurofeedback sessions. A better understanding of the learning processes underpinning neurofeedback could be a key element to develop the use of this technique in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychiatry in Pakistan: 1947-2006: a new balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2007-09-01

    This review deals with the evolution of psychiatry in Pakistan since its inception in 1947. It describes the situation of psychiatric services, education and research through the years 1947-2006, presenting a picture of existing mental health scenario, suggesting the ways for improvement and comment on possible future developments. It concludes with the prediction of a revolutionary change in the current shape of psychiatry throughout the world and especially in Pakistan whereby psychiatry will change to organic-based discipline of a wider "Neurosciences".

  11. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....

  12. Teacher and headmaster attitudes towards benchmarking and high-stakes testing in adult teaching in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    Based on research, surveys and interviews the paper traces teacher and headmaster attitudes towards the introduction of benchmarking and high-stakes language testing introduced in the wake of a neo-liberal education policy in adult teaching for migrants in Denmark in the 2000s. The findings show...... students, reduced use of both project work and non test related activities and stressful working conditions....... that the majority of teachers and headmasters reject benchmarking. Meanwhile, due to both headmasters and language teachers the introduction of high stakes language testing has had an immense impact on the organization, content and quality of adult language teaching. On the one side teachers do not necessarily...

  13. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  14. A Python Library for Historical Comparative Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Moran , Steven; List , Johann-Mattis

    2012-01-01

    Awarded best paper award; International audience; In this talk we will discuss a European Research Council funded collaborative effort to build a Python library for undertaking academic research in historical-comparative linguistics. Our aim of implementing quantitative methods, specifically in Python, is to transform historical-comparative linguistics from a primarily handcrafted scientific scholarly endeavor, performed by individual researchers, into a quantitative and collaborative field o...

  15. Ling An: LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF NPP INSTRUCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L.; Wahlstroem, B.

    2008-07-01

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  16. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  17. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  18. Psychiatrie in meervoud. De wetenschappelijke oriëntaties van de Nederlandse psychiatrie in het interbellum (1918-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Vijselaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry in multiplicity According to a widespread interpretation, the history of psychiatry is characterized by a strong opposition between biological and psychological paradigms, which would dominate consecutive periods in history. The image of a swinging pendulum is a popular metaphor to describe this idea. The culture of Dutch psychiatry in the interwar years (1918-1940 seems to gainsay this image. Psychological, biological and socials models of explanation and therapy were used alongside each other without apparent debate and conflict. Influential professors of psychiatry like H.C. Rümke (Utrecht University even pleaded for a conscious integration of these approaches. Some historians have interpreted this stance as a sign of scientific ‘vagueness’ and ‘anarchy’. Analyzing the work of three major representatives of Dutch psychiatry in the Interbellum (Leendert Bouman, Han Rümke and Lammert van der Horst, the authors (former students of the master Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities shed light on the psychiatric climate of this era, dealing with themes like the openness of psychiatry to other sciences, the interactions of psychiatry and literature, and the relationship between theory and clinical practice. As a result a further qualification of the image of the pendulum is argued for.

  19. Palliative psychiatry for severe persistent mental illness as a new approach to psychiatry? Definition, scope, benefits, and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Manuel; Irwin, Scott A; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Hoff, Paul; Riese, Florian

    2016-07-22

    As a significant proportion of patients receiving palliative care suffer from states of anxiety, depression, delirium, or other mental symptoms, psychiatry and palliative care already collaborate closely in the palliative care of medical conditions. Despite this well-established involvement of psychiatrists in palliative care, psychiatry does not currently explicitly provide palliative care for patients with mental illness outside the context of terminal medical illness. Based on the WHO definition of palliative care, a, a working definition of palliative psychiatry is proposed. Palliative psychiatry focuses on mental health rather than medical/physical issues. We propose that the beneficiaries of palliative psychiatry are patients with severe persistent mental illness, who are at risk of therapeutic neglect and/or overly aggressive care within current paradigms. These include long-term residential care patients with severe chronic schizophrenia and insufficient quality of life, those with therapy-refractory depressions and repeated suicide attempts, and those with severe long-standing therapy-refractory anorexia nervosa. An explicitly palliative approach within psychiatry has the potential to improve quality of care, person-centredness, outcomes, and autonomy for patients with severe persistent mental illness. The first step towards a palliative psychiatry is to acknowledge those palliative approaches that already exist implicitly in psychiatry. Basic skills for a palliative psychiatry include communication of diagnosis and prognosis, symptom assessment and management, support for advance (mental health) care planning, assessment of caregiver needs, and referral to specialized services. Some of these may already be considered core skills of psychiatrists, but for a truly palliative approach they should be exercised guided by an awareness of the limited functional prognosis and lifespan of patients with severe persistent mental illness.

  20. Strengthening the abilities of French-speaking NGOs. Post-2012 climate stakes. Adaptation - Energy - Deforestation, France - Africa - Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creach, Morgane; Margot, Stephanie; Connor, Richard; Angerand, Sylvain

    2007-10-01

    The first part of this report discusses the possibilities of an international response to face the challenge of adaptation to climate change (presentation of the main notions, discussion of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and international stakes about adaptation). The second part discusses the perspectives of access to energy in African countries: description of the African energy context, applications of existing mechanisms of struggle against climate change to the field of energy, stakes for post-2012 negotiations. The next part addresses the stakes of the avoided deforestation: definitions and key figures, direct and underlying causes of deforestation and assessment of the cost for slowing down or stopping it, stakes and struggle of interests about the 'avoided deforestation'. The last part reports the 'post-2012 climate stakes' workshop which addressed these same topics (access to energy in African countries, adaptation to climate change, avoided deforestation)

  1. Crossing the line--learning psychiatry at the movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Adil; O'Brien, Aileen; O'Neill, Aidan; Latham, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Special Study Modules (SSMs) have developed in response to the General Medical Council's recommendations. St George's, University of London runs a 'Psychiatry and Film' SSM for medical students on the 5-year MBBS course. Many films have plots or characters that have a mental illness. Psychiatry & filmmaking share certain skills. Both seek to understand character, motivation and behaviour. Cinema therefore has the potential to be a useful tool for medical educational purposes. Specific to psychiatry, themes such as the accuracy of portrayals of different mental illness, the psychiatrist/patient relationship and living with a mental illness can be explored. General issues such as the role of the psychiatrist in society, medical ethics, professionalism and stigma can also be usefully highlighted for consideration and debate. This may encourage medical students to consider psychiatry as a potential career specialty and help reduce negative attitudes to mental illness.

  2. Attitudes towards psychiatry of undergraduate medical students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of mental health services to all citizens of Nigeria by the year 2000 and ... and clinic consultations. Undergraduate students' attitudes towards psychiatry potentially ..... peculiar or neurotic behaviours. 9 (36.0%). 16 (64.0%).

  3. The role of psychiatry in family violence treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasić Petar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics approach to family violence treatment is discussed, as well as the roles of psychiatry in current theoretical and therapeutic approaches to this issue, including systemic family therapy, social psychiatry primarily concerned with their treatment. Studies have shown that severe mental disorders do not increase ecology, unwillingness therapy and model of protection of family violence victims that is developed in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47021

  4. The guideline "consultation psychiatry" of the Netherlands Psychiatric Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentjens, A.F.G.; Boenink, A.D.; Sno, H.N.; Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M.; Croonenborg, van J.J.; Everdingen, van J.J.E.; Feltz - Cornelis, van der C.M.; Laan, van der S.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.; Os, T.W.D.P. Van

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Netherlands Psychiatric Association authorized a guideline "consultation psychiatry." Aim: To set a standard for psychiatric consultations in nonpsychiatric settings. The main objective of the guideline is to answer three questions: Is psychiatric consultation effective and,

  5. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Forensic Forum: Will Forensic Psychiatry survive DSM-5? | Kaliski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. How to improve psychiatric services: a perspective from critical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Prasanna

    2017-09-02

    Concern has been expressed from both within and outwith psychiatry about the relative lack of improvement of mental health services. Critical psychiatry is an emerging school of thought, mainly the product of practicing clinicians, which could be useful in remedying this situation. This article outlines, for psychiatrists and doctors of other specialities, practices which could be improved, and the competencies required to achieve this, in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

  8. One patient's search for antidotes to nihilism in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A prosumer who experienced problems after misdiagnosis and mistreatment, the author searched for explanations of the short cuts inflicted on him by a mental health professional. Wanting to learn from the painful experience of willful incompetence, write to achieve closure and create a teaching tale to help other patients, the author studied the literature, read about the tradition of nihilism in psychiatry, found research reports of deviations from practice guidelines and tested three antidotes to nihilism in psychiatry.

  9. The role of psychiatry in family violence treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nastasić, Petar; Hrnčić, Jasna; Brkić, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics appro...

  10. [Audio-visual communication in the history of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, B; Remoli, V; Russo, F

    1993-12-01

    The authors analyse the evolution of visual communication in the history of psychiatry. From the 18th century oil paintings to the first dagherrotic prints until the cinematography and the modern audiovisual systems they observed an increasing diffusion of the new communication techniques in psychiatry, and described the use of the different techniques in psychiatric practice. The article ends with a brief review of the current applications of the audiovisual in therapy, training, teaching, and research.

  11. Argentine psychiatry: report on the 30th Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul

    2016-04-01

    To give a contextualised personal account of the 30th Annual Congress of the Argentine Association of Psychiatrists. Conference attendance and analysis of talks. The congress demonstrated that Argentine psychiatry is held back by oppressive political regimes and by government underfunding. The drug companies and third-party payers are entering the vacuum. Argentine trainees and consultants feel ill-prepared to meet the demands of the biomedical psychiatry. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. [Medical students and psychiatry. A survey of students' opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, F; Corsini, G; Rovida, S

    1994-06-01

    In the last years research on the didactics of Psychiatry and opinions of medical students on Psychiatry has gained great interest. The authors think that this research could be useful for the improvement of didactics, for better understanding the meanings of professional choice, the identity of psychiatrist and their relationship with colleagues in other medical field. The goal of this research work was a preliminary survey of Genoese University Medical Student's opinions about psychiatry didactics, and choice of specialization. A questionnaire was submitted to all the students who passed Clinical Psychiatry examination in the period from November 1987 to December 1988. The students were divided in two randomized groups: the first group of students (224) was submitted to the questionnaire immediately after Clinical Psychiatry examination; while to the second group of students (66) the questionnaire was mailed. The aim of the questions was to assess the student's opinions on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, the career they wanted to take up, and the difficulties of studying psychiatry: 69% of the students of the first group and 42% of the students of the second group answered the questionnaire. Female students answered that they preferred psychiatric specialization more than their male colleagues did, but the difference has no statistical importance. In most cases, the students who answered that they have taken into account psychiatry as a choice of specialisation, are more interested in medical specialties (primary care, etc.) than in surgical specialties. Most of the medical students declare some emotional troubles (anxiety, sleeplessness, problem in social relations).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. [Alex, an example of a successful transition to adult psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, Thierry

    A successful transition between child psychiatry and adult psychiatry is the result of a joint project. To ensure the continuity of the adolescent's care, the two protagonists need a common and constructive clinical interpretation, and a shared understanding of the problems, without which the transition will be difficult. The story of Alex, a young teenager cared for since early childhood, illustrates the communication methods which must be put in place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  15. Sample Undergraduate Linguistics Courses. Linguistics in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Appendix 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Society of America, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-six nontraditional undergraduate courses in linguistics are described. Course topics include: animal communication, bilingualism, sociolinguistics, introductory linguistics, language and formal reasoning, language and human conflict, language and power, language and sex, language and the brain, language planning, language typology and…

  16. The Effects of High-Stakes Testing Policy on Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard A., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined high-stakes test scores for 37,222 eighth grade students enrolled in music and/or visual arts classes and those students not enrolled in arts courses. Students enrolled in music had significantly higher mean scores than those not enrolled in music (p less than 0.001). Results for visual arts and dual arts were not as…

  17. What are the stakes of the hydroelectric power? Supplement: report on the renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document presents the regulation and the stakes concerning the hydroelectricity development in France: contribution to the greenhouse effect fight, the environment preservation, possible uses. It proposes then, a grid of a socio-economical evaluation of the projects. In this framework, the impacts of the little hydroelectric power and the possible corrective measures are described. (A.L.B.)

  18. Laser welded steel sandwich panel bridge deck development : finite element analysis and stake weld strength tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis of laser welded steel sandwich panels for use in bridge structures and : static testing of laser stake welded lap shear coupons. Steel sandwich panels consist of two face sheets : connected by a relatively low-dens...

  19. Markets, Managerialism and Teachers' Work: The Invisible Hand of High Stakes Testing in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Howard; Wood, Phil

    2013-01-01

    High stakes testing has been long established in the English school system. In this article, we seek to demonstrate how testing has become pivotal to securing the neo-liberal restructuring of schools, that commenced during the Thatcher era, and is reaching a critical point at the current time. Central to this project has been the need to assert…

  20. The Mediating Role of Textbooks in High-Stakes Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ching Yin; Andrews, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Whenever high-stakes assessment/curriculum reforms take place, new textbooks appear on the market. These textbooks inevitably play a significant mediating role in the implementation of any reform and on teaching and learning. This paper reports on a small-scale study which attempts to investigate the role of textbooks in the mediation of a…