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Sample records for psychiatry cat scanning

  1. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

  2. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  3. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...

  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  5. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & ... stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means a scanner takes computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself ...

  6. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to do is hold still for a few minutes at a time so the pictures come out clear. ... the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  7. psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and into the 20th century a medical, organic approach to mental illness evolved. ... effective, psychiatry must fit the African cultural pattern.4. South Africa is a .... patient become a more mature and rational person, not merely as well as he once ... patients, for example catharsis following an emotional reliving of the trauma ...

  8. Use of routine computed tomography brain scanning of psychiatry patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agzarian, M.J.; Chryssidis, S.; Davies, R.P.; Pozza, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CT of the brain in patients presenting with a psychiatric condition without focal neurological signs. The reports of 397 consecutive CT brain scans of patients presenting to two acute tertiary hospital psychiatric services over a 2-year period were assessed retrospectively. Of the 397 patients, 241 had psychosis, 87 had depression, 44 had bipolar affective disorder, seven had alcohol dependence, five had dementia, and the remaining 13 had a variety of diagnoses including personality disorder and transient ischaemic attack. Findings on 377 (95%) of the CT scans showed no abnormality. Specific abnormalities were described in 20 (5%) of the CT scans. Three scans showed non-specific minor abnormalities, which, when followed up by MRI, showed no relevant abnormality. All the abnormalities shown on CT were considered to be clinically unrelated to the patient's psychiatric condition. In conclusion, the pretest probability of finding a space-occupying lesion or other pertinent abnormality in patients presenting with psychiatric illnesses in this retrospective study appears not to be greater than that of the general population. The outcome of this study could be implemented to develop a clinical pathway for limiting assessment by CT for possible organic pathology in acute psychiatric illness. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  9. CAT scanning of hydrogen-induced cracks in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.; Tapping, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Computer assisted tomography (CAT) was applied to detect small cracks caused by hydrogen ingress into carbon steel samples. The incipient cracks in the samples resulted from a quality control procedure used to test the susceptibility of carbon steel to hydrogen blistering/cracking. The method used until now to assess the extent of the cracking resulting from this test has been mechanical sectioning, polishing and microscopic examination of the sections. The CAT results are compared with the reference method and the feasibility of using CAT in the proposed application is demonstrated. (orig.)

  10. Cat-Scan and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in abnormalities of neuronal migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, G.; Marchal, G.; Decrop, E.; Van Hecke, P.; Baert, A.L.; Casaer, P.

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of the CAT-scan and MRI characteristics in 14 patients with anomalies of neuronal migration. There were 3 cases of heterotopia of the gray matter, 2 cases of agyria, 3 cases of pachygyria, 2 cases of schizencephaly and 4 cases of hemimegalencephaly. The primary advantages of MRI in comparison with CAT-scanning, are better contrast between the white and gray matter; better delineation of the cerebral cortex and the possibility of direct mutiplanar imaging. NMRI will become the investigation of choice in children with epilepsy or psychomotor retardation [fr

  11. Big cat scan: magnetic resonance imaging of the tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Thomas M.; Gregory, Richard J.W.; Litster, Annette L.; Hanger, Jonathan J.

    2004-01-01

    In August 2002, we performed MRI scans on a female juvenile Bengal tiger. We present the clinical course, imaging and autopsy findings, and some comparative anatomy of the tiger brain and skull. Magnetic resonance images of a tiger have not previously been published Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  12. Diagnostic value of saccoradiculography and of cat scan to detect stenosis of the lumbar canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrault, I.; Benoist, M.; Rocolle, J.; Busson, J.; Lassale, B.; Deburge, A.

    1987-01-01

    Radiculographic X-rays and CAT scans of 60 patients operated on for stenosis of the lumbar canal were analysed separately and retrospectively by rheumatologists, a radiologist and surgeons working jointly, without knowledge of findings revealed by surgery. Comparison of findings with a detailed surgical report reveals that in the case of central lumbar canal stenosis, CAT scan provides a higher degree of reliability (72%) in diagnosis than does radiculography (56%). With lateral stenosis of the lateral cleft, reliability of both tests is identical (62%). The diagnostic deficiencies of these two examinations are discussed as well as diagnostic criteria employed and possible avenues of research. Currently, in the case of stenosis of the lumbar canal, it is still necessary to perform both of these examinations in combination and to accept the fact that, in certain cases, only one of the two tests reveals the stenosis, to be able to attain a preoperative rate of correct diagnosis greater than 80% [fr

  13. Diagnosis of local tumor recidivations after continence excision of rectal carcinoma by means of CAT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrup, W.; Schlueter, B.; Wedell, J.; Banzhaf, G.

    1984-05-01

    On a patient collective of 19 with recurrent rectal carcinomas following previous resection and one patient with tumor recidivation after local excision of a villiferous adenoma, the demonstration of the different intra and extraluminal tumor infiltration paths by means of CAT scanning is investigated. After thorough cleaning of the intestine and additional application of a contrast enema using a watery contrast medium it is even possible to demonstrate tumor stenoses or a circumscribed thickening of the intestinal wall. With the majority of patients the tumor extends mainly outside the region of the anastomosis in the perirectal area. Early diagnosis of such perirectal infiltration therefore is decisive for the further treatment. As the possibilities of X-ray investigations of the colon and endoscopy for judging the extraluminal growth are limited, CAT scanning is an essential method in tumor aftercare.

  14. The application of 3-dimensional CAT scan reconstruction for maxillofacial deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbashi, Takeshi; Tomonari, Hiroshi; Ishii, Masahiro; Sakurai, Nobuaki; Kodachi, Ken; Kubo, Eiichi; Tsuchida, Yoshitaka; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1987-01-01

    It has been found very useful to recognize craniofacial deformities 3-dimensionally, and to observe 3-D Cat scan reconstructions that have been performed by others. Thus, starting in 1985, we have developed a 3-D CT system that combines conventional X-ray CAT scan hardware to a 3-Dimensional display software. In this paper we report on our 3-CT system, its basic algorithm, and its basic processes, i.e., the threshold process, the perspective process, the shading process and the display. The mixture shading which we have developed makes 3-D displays clearer and more natural. Also, we have applied our 3-D display to 39 cases of maxillofacial diformities. (author)

  15. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... pets CDC Podcasts Zoonoses in the Bedroom CDC People Can Catch Diseases from Their Pets CDC Helpful books and references Cat-associated outbreaks ...

  16. Boundary Element Solution of Geometrical Inverse Heat Conduction Problems for Development of IR CAT Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C. Y.; Park, C. T.; Kim, T. H.; Han, K. N.; Choe, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    A geometrical inverse heat conduction problem is solved for the development of Infrared Computerized-Axial-Tomography (IR CAT) Scan by using a boundary element method in conjunction with regularization procedure. In this problem, an overspecified temperature condition by infrared scanning is provided on the surface, and is used together with other conditions to solve the position of an unknown boundary (cavity). An auxiliary problem is introduced in the solution of this problem. By defining a hypothetical inner boundary for the auxiliary problem domain, the cavity is located interior to the domain and its position is determined by solving a potential problem. Boundary element method with regularization procedure is used to solve this problem, and the effects of regularization on the inverse solution method are investigated by means of numerical analysis

  17. CT scan and histological findings in experimental cerebral infarctions in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tetsuya

    1981-01-01

    Experimental cerebral infarctions were made in sixty-five cats by the transorbital approach. CT scanning was done at various periods after right-middle cerebral artery occlusion, and all cases were studied histopathologically. Cerebral microcirculation was studied by the carbon perfusion method, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction was studied by intravenous fluorescein administration. The iodine content of brain tissue was measured and this value was compared with the findings on CT scan. Experimental cerebral infarction was divided into four stages according to CT scan findings. These are the pre-edema stage, edema stage, edema diminishing stage, and cavity stage. The low density area (LDA) in the edema stage has a mass effect and a spongy appearance is seen histopathologically. LDA in the edema diminishing stage is localized to the extent of the macroscopic infarcted region, and macrophage (so called ''gitter cells'') and capillaries are seen. Fluorescein stain indicating the area of BBB dysfunction shows almost the same extent as the area of disturbed microcirculation indicated by impaired carbon filling. In the edema diminishing stage, there is good carbon filling in the infarcted region, and enlarged capillaries with carbon black inside are seen. The study of iodine content showed that the iodine level is very high in the infarcted region, and the level has good correlation with the number of capillaries. The mechanism of contrast enhancement in the cerebral infarction seems to be well linked to the capillaries with BBB dysfunction. This study indicates that the contrast medium leaks through the capillary wall. (author)

  18. The cognitive based approach of capacity assessment in psychiatry: a philosophical critique of the MacCAT-T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breden, Torsten Marcus; Vollmann, Jochen

    2004-12-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T) and critically examines its theoretical presuppositions. On the basis of empirical, methodological and ethical critique it is emphasised that the cognitive bias that underlies the MacCAT-T assessment needs to be modified. On the one hand it has to be admitted that the operationalisation of competence in terms of value-free categories, e.g. rational decision abilities, guarantees objectivity to a great extent; but on the other hand it bears severe problems. Firstly, the cognitive focus is in itself a normative convention in the process of anthropological value-attribution. Secondly, it misses the complexity of the decision process in real life. It is therefore suggested that values, emotions and other biographic and context specific aspects should be considered when interpreting the cognitive standards according to the MacArthur model. To fill the gap between cognitive and non-cognitive approaches the phenomenological theory of personal constructs is briefly introduced. In conclusion some main demands for further research to develop a multi-step model of competence assessment are outlined.

  19. Detection of defects in logs using computer assisted tomography (CAT) scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonner, P.D.; Lupton, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of AECL have performed a preliminary feasibility study on the applicability of computer assisted tomographic techniques to detect the internal structure of logs. Cross sections of three logs have been obtained using a medical CAT scanner. The results show that knots, rot and growth rings are easily recognized in both dry and wet logs

  20. Results from CAT/SCAN, the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Accretion-Collision Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Amato, A.; Guerra, I.; Armbruster, J.; Baccheschi, P.; Diluccio, F.; Gervasi, A.; Harabaglia, P.; Kim, W.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Margheriti, L.; Seeber, L.; Tolstoy, M.; Wilson, C. K.

    2005-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc region is the final remnant of a Western Mediterranean microplate driven by rollback. Calabria itself is an exotic block that rifted off Sardinia and opened the Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc basin in its wake. The Calabrian Arc rapidly advanced to the southeast, with subduction ahead and extension behind, following subduction rollback of the Mesozoic seafloor. The subduction zone meanwhile collided progressively with the Apulia to form the Apennines in peninsular Italy and with the Africa to form the Maghrebides in Sicily. The Calabrian Arc is where the transition from subduction to continental collision is occurring. The collisions on either side of Calabria have restricted oceanic subduction to a narrow 200-km salient with well-defined edges and seismicity that extends to over 500 km depth. The collisions have also slowed, or possibly even halted, the rapid advance of the arc. Whether rollback of the oceanic lower plate of the Ionian Sea continues and whether the upper plate of Calabria continues to move as an independent plate are both uncertain. The Calabrian-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Collision-Accretion Network (CAT/SCAN) is a passive experiment to study of the Calabrian Arc and the transition to the southern Apennines. The land deployment consisted of three phases. The initial phase included an array of 39 broadband seismometers onshore, deployed in the winter of 2003/4. In September 2004, the array was reduced to 28 broadband and 8 short-period instruments. In April 2005, the array was reduced once again to 20 broadband and 2 short-period instruments. The field deployment was completed in October 2005. Offshore, 12 broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were deployed in the beginning of October 2004. Data from 4 OBSs have been recovered so far with deployment durations from a few weeks to almost one year. Fishing activity has been strongly implicated in the early recoveries, (with one instrument returned by fishermen), and is suspected

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some ...

  2. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ... World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association ...

  3. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some ...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine ... American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of ...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ... More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists ...

  6. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a diagnosis, and to work with patients to develop treatment plans. Specific diagnoses are based on criteria ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ...

  8. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  9. Computational Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  10. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry

  11. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  12. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the ... practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. The first year of residency training is ...

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry ...

  14. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the ...

  15. Transcultural psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vikash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last half of the century the researchers have placed a great deal of importance on brain behavior relations. This has brought upon a huge body of knowledge but unfortunately at the cost of culture - the true roots of much of our behaviour. This general disregard of cultural factors has not only led to false generalizations but has also blocked the understanding of the real forces that motivate and shape our perceptions, attitudes, and actions. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight the trajectory of transcultural psychiatry, right from the conceptions of its idea, through flaws in methodology, assessment, treatment and to its future and its limitations.

  16. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT01 offshore of Cat Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys east of Cat Island, Mississippi (fig. 1). The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and provide protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, surface images, and x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2010 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first field

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. The first year of ... psychiatrists also complete additional specialized training after their four years of general psychiatry training. They may become ...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... PTSD) More Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine ... symptoms and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. What Treatments Do Psychiatrists Use? Psychiatrists use a variety ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, ... of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of ...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on ... Light therapy is used to treat seasonal depression. Psychiatric Training To become a psychiatrist, a person must ...

  1. TOWARDS AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.W.M.

    The situation of present day psychiatry is described as being dominated by an empiricist perspective. The limitations of this perspective are analyzed and a rough sketch of the hermeneutical approach in psychiatry is offered. It is argued that a fully developed hermeneutical psychiatry implies a

  2. Preventive psychiatry: Current status in contemporary psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chadda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive psychiatry is one of the most ignored subdiscipline of psychiatry, which has got important role to play in the contemporary psychiatry. Mental disorders are very common with lifetime prevalence of about 25%, and tend to be chronic. Due to the stigma associated with mental disorders, lack of awareness, and also lack of adequate mental health resources, nearly 60%–80% of the persons suffering from mental disorders do not access mental health care services. Mental and substance use disorders have been identified as one of the major contributors to the disease-related burden and disability-adjusted life years. In this background, preventive psychiatry has an important role to play in public health sector. Since etiology of most of the mental disorders is not known, it is not possible to follow here the standard model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of public health. A concept of universal, selective, and indicated prevention has been proposed in primary prevention. Preventive approaches in psychiatry focus on evidence-based risk and protective factors, promoting quality of life, reducing stressors, and improving resilience. Such interventions, when planned targeting at specific mental disorders, have a potential to prevent mental disorders. Thus, preventive psychiatry has a crucial role to play in mental health, considering the high prevalence of mental disorders, the associated disability and burden, and a great drain on human resources.

  3. Hamlet and psychiatry intertwined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Sarah

    2018-05-01

    This article considers selected landmarks in the history of psychiatry and their impact on Hamlet productions, including Burton's Anatomy of Melancholia, Emil Kraepelin's manic-depression, Freud's oedipal complex and R.D. Laing's 'divided self'. Additionally, this article considers the way Shakespeare's Hamlet has influenced the course of psychiatry. The linkages between psychiatry and Hamlet have existed since the 17th century, and perhaps Shakespeare's Hamlet should have a place on every psychiatrist's shelf.

  4. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry. Kernspintomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K. (Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Diagnosis and research in psychiatry are increasingly availing themselves of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In comparison to computed tomography (CT), this offers the combined benefits of no exposure to radiation, high resolution, artefact-free display of structures near bone, and a sharp contrast between the grey and white brain matter, with freedom to select the section. With the exception of very anxious patients, MRI will gradually replace CT scans for a wide range of differential diagnostic investigations. Its superiority in systematic studies of psychiatric patients with discrete cerebral parenchyma lesions is already considered proven. This is illustrated on the basis of research into schizophrenia and alcoholism. (orig.)

  6. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnosis and research in psychiatry are increasingly availing themselves of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In comparison to computed tomography (CT), this offers the combined benefits of no exposure to radiation, high resolution, artefact-free display of structures near bone, and a sharp contrast between the grey and white brain matter, with freedom to select the section. With the exception of very anxious patients, MRI will gradually replace CT scans for a wide range of differential diagnostic investigations. Its superiority in systematic studies of psychiatric patients with discrete cerebral parenchyma lesions is already considered proven. This is illustrated on the basis of research into schizophrenia and alcoholism. (orig.) [de

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric ...

  9. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ing of research on every aspect of psychiatry. A few areas where Australian research has achieved interna- tional recognition include the classification of depression, the concept of abnormal illness behaviour, treatment of anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and perinatal psychiatry. In the past it was common ...

  10. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © ...

  11. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © ...

  12. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and ... Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 ...

  13. Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry publishes original scientific papers, review articles, short reports and opinion papers in all areas of psychiatry and related fields, such as sociology, applied anthropology and neurosciences. Vol 14, No 1 (2016). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  14. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric ...

  15. History of psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  16. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and insomnia. Hypnotics – used to induce and maintain sleep. Mood stabilizers – used to treat bipolar disorder. Stimulants – ... psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is the Difference Between a Psychiatrist and Psychologist? A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological data, to make a diagnosis, and to work with ... PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric Association. All ...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Annual Meeting Goldwater Rule Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In ...

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... information specifically addressed to individuals in the European Economic Area. As described in the Privacy Policy, this ... training, most psychiatrists take a voluntary written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry ...

  2. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... illnesses and the relationships with genetics and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological data, to make ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  3. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and ... most psychiatrists take a voluntary written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry and ...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... and other medical illnesses and the relationships with genetics and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological ... PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric Association. All ...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... mental disorders with psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association ...

  6. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... become a psychiatrist, a person must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state ... A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline ... or troubling symptoms so the patient can function better. Depending on the extent of the problem, treatment ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC ...

  9. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC Meetings Search ...

  10. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychiatric medications can help correct imbalances in brain chemistry that are thought to be involved in some ... additional specialized training after their four years of general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child ...

  11. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Join APA General Members Residents and Fellows Medical Students International Become a Fellow APA Sites APA Publishing APA Foundation APA Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace ...

  12. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency ...

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC ...

  14. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  15. [Can psychiatry become neuropsychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosarczyk, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    Today more and more often there are prognoses that in the future psychiatry will have been absorbed by neurology. It would be thanks to the stormy progress of research on the neurophysiological, genetic and molecular foundations of mental disorders. The aim of the article is to assess the possibility as well as the supposed consequences of such an evolution of psychiatry. The considerations concern the peculiarity of the object of interest and the methods used in psychiatry in relation to the neurological object and methodology. This way the appraisal of raison d'etre of one common science: neuropsychiatry becomes possible. The question of fundamental importance for the evaluation of similarities and differences between the psychiatric and neurological perspectives is the way the psychophysical issue and especially the problem of the mind-brain relation are approached. The article presents the manners of solving these problems proposed by the contemporary philosophy of the mind. Together with parting with the full of errors and simplifications heritage of Descartes it appears the necessity to regard the presence of subjective mental states both conscious and unconscious in model of mind-brain relation. The example of such a solution is the biological naturalism of John Searle. The psychical life of the man in its subjective dimension remains the peculiar area of interests for psychiatry irrespective of the progress in research on the biological base of mental disorders. The especially valuable cognitive and therapeutic tool in this aspect is psychotherapy constituting the integral part of psychiatry. The present state of knowledge does not indicate that the psychotherapeutic wing of psychiatry can lose its importance and rather somewhat the contrary. The progress of neurobiology does not have to threaten the autonomy of psychiatry by any means and the maintenance of this autonomy depends decisively on the psychiatrists themselves.

  16. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  17. [Gottfried Benn and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, N

    1994-04-01

    As a young physician the poet Gottfried Benn (1886-1956) gave up a promising career in psychiatry after short period in practice. A psychodynamic analysis of this failure stresses the importance of the relationship of father and son in adolescence for the maturing of ego identity and ego ideal. At the beginning of this century psychiatry was a medical field with strong materialistic and biologistic positions. Benn embraced this position and tried to distance himself from his father, who was a charismatic priest with psychotherapeutic ambition. Benn experienced difficulty in competing with his father and this can be attributed to disturbances in his relationship to his mother in early childhood. The consequence was e.g. a narcissistic vulnerability in adulthood. The contrast of the splendid success in brain research with its inapplicability in routine therapy was characteristic of the state of psychiatry at the time of Benn's failure.

  18. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  19. Anthology of Venezuelan psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Portilla-Geada, Néstor de la; Téllez Pacheco, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Reception of Psychiatry in Venezuela since the 19th Century to the late 20th Century merits a historical approach. The following work proposes to research some of the very origins of Venezuelan psychiatry and its possible influence on contemporary mental health practice. Through documental research, the early works of local authors from the 19th Century through 20th Century finals: Carlos Arvelo, Lisandro Alvarado, Francisco Herrera Luque, Jose Luis Vethencourt and Jose Solanes, are subjected to study. This journey illustrates a descriptive panoramic view which allows to better comprenhend the current state of our psychiatry. In a brief introduction the most important events are described, since the arrival of Pinel's ideas, followed by the early research paperworks published and the beginnings of the academic teachings of this specialty in Venezuela and displaying the main contemporary research groups thorough the country.

  20. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  1. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Shrink rethink: rebranding psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Jim; Barber, Lee; Masson, Neil

    2017-11-01

    Negative public attitudes towards psychiatry hinder individuals coming for treatment and prevent us from attracting and retaining the very brightest and best doctors. As psychiatrists we are skilled in using science to change the thoughts and behaviours of individuals, however, we lack the skills to engage entire populations. Expertise in this field is the preserve of branding, advertising and marketing professionals. Techniques from these fields can be used to rebrand psychiatry at a variety of levels from national recruitment drives to individual clinical interactions between psychiatrists and their patients. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  3. Katsvanga, CAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rule Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency ...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... A – Z Ask An Expert Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Coping After Disaster, Trauma Internet Gaming Share ...

  6. Psychiatry and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Pasha, Mohamed Iqbal

    2004-12-01

    To explore psychiatry in Islam, with a view to informing Western psychiatrists working with Islamic patients, and Islamic medical students studying in Western countries. The first necessary step was to acquire some understanding of Islam, Sharia and Sharia law, as the basis on which the available psychiatric literature was considered. Standard textbooks on Islam and English-language papers in the psychiatric literature were examined. Discussions with knowledgeable Muslim people were conducted. Islam shares roots with the other Abrahamic, monotheistic religions: Judaism and Christianity. A central issues is unity: the unity of God, unity with God and unity within the Islamic community. Islam is more than a religion, because it informs all aspects of behaviour and has been described as 'a comprehensive way of life'. Individualism is less important than the welfare of the community. The Sharia is a list of rules and regulations derived from authentic sources. Psychiatric services in Islam, according to Western standards, are somewhat limited. This issue is being addressed through epidemiological studies, provision of new services and policy development. Although mental health legislation is not universal, forensic psychiatry has a role, in many ways similar to that in the West. Islam is based on unity and core values of compassion, justice and benevolence. Islamic psychiatry has a proud early history, and advances are occurring. There is an opportunity for the profession of psychiatry to bridge religious, ethnic and cultural boundaries.

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and ... panic disorder, PTSD, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, borderline personality disorder and eating disorders. Antipsychotic medications – used to ...

  8. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  9. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  10. Sacred radical of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L

    2007-08-01

    At least a dozen articles in this journal have referred directly to the psychiatry of Thomas Szasz, even favourably on occasions. Szasz makes no distinction between the occupational statuses of mental health workers and so his work is relevant to nurses. Szasz's central claims take on renewed vitality given recent developments in forensic care, especially in Britain. In this article, I criticize Szasz's rationale of what constitutes illness as opposed to disease. In addition, I question - in a nuanced way - his views on custodial psychiatry and his use of history to bolster his clams. I also comment on recent developments in biological research and their implications for diagnosing schizophrenia: further, I link the question of such diagnoses to Szasz's assertion that private contracts are the definitive test of what counts as mental illness. Lastly, I ask if improvements in mental health care contradict Szaszian criticisms and/or his seeming inability/unwillingness to acknowledge such changes.

  11. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to p...

  12. Reflections on contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRILL, N Q

    1956-11-01

    Valid data on the effectiveness of preventive programs in psychiatry are badly needed but cannot be obtained until reliable statistics on incidence and frequency of emotional disorders are available. There is a suggestion that clear cut neuroses are less frequent but an equally strong suggestion that psychosomatic disorders are increasing in frequency. There is a tendency to look upon the increasing freedom of some aspects of our culture as a great advance over Victorian rigidity and restraint-but to what extent is this related to seeming increases in delinquency?Parents seem to have become increasingly fearful of disciplining, training or frustrating children as a result of what is considered psychiatric teaching. Psychiatry has the responsibility for correcting such a misunderstanding. Psychotherapists who have not resolved their own dependency needs are in no position to help others with the dependency problems which underlie their neurotic difficulties. Psychotherapy involves more than just arranging the world to accommodate itself to the patient (which occasionally needs to be done). The patient too, has a responsibility for his illness and its treatment and must learn that life is characterized by the need to take some chances, by dangers, difficulties, frustrations and unknowns, as well as pleasures, safety, comfort and the familiar. The responsibility for meeting the need for psychiatric services belongs to all of medicine and not just to psychiatry.

  13. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  14. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  15. [Forensic psychiatry. Its relations to clinical psychiatry and criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, H-L

    2005-11-01

    A basic task of psychiatry is to identify and treat mentally disordered persons at risk of committing crimes. Psychiatry has an important function in preserving social peace, law, and order. How the psychiatric world handles this duty has changed with time. There have been very important changes from asylums to mental hospitals and from voluntary or involuntary inpatient treatment to outpatient care; but clinical psychiatry cannot give up forensic psychiatry. As a result of developments, inpatient care in mental hospitals often concentrates on crisis management, risk assessment, and risk management. On the other hand, forensic psychiatry has made great efforts in recent decades with special therapies for mentally disturbed criminals and collaborated closely with criminologists in developing instruments for risk assessment and prognosis of repeat offenses.

  16. Schroedinger's cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubkin, E [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1979-08-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a matrix format (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and Schroedinger's cat symbolizes this broader perspective.

  17. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  18. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  19. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  20. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barocka, A.; Feistel, H.; Ebert, D.; Lungershausen, E.

    1993-01-01

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D 2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.) [de

  1. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  2. [Ethical dilemmas of contemporary psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Pozgain, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Ethics in the contemporary psychiatry, as well as in medicine in general, is based on the two core ethical traditions: deontological and theological. Good ethical decision takes into the consideration both traditions, and is preceded with ethical dilemmas to provide the best possible care to the patients in that moment. In the article are presented most recent research results of the literature about ethical dilemmas in psychiatry. Ethical dilemmas in everyday practice as well as compliance with the patients, psychiatric consultations, informed consent, treatment of personality disorders, pharmacological investigations, forensic psychiatry, forced hospitalisation, promotion of mental health, and dealing with the stigma of the mental diseases are showed in the article. The authors emphasize the necessity of constant questioning of ethical dilemmas in the contemporary psychiatry, because of the special status of psychiatry as a potentially risky field in practice, and because of intensive pharmacological investigations in psychiatric patients.

  3. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  4. [Towards a molecular psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J R

    1988-06-01

    Recent research data from psychopharmacology, brain imaging and molecular genetics support the notion of a new psychiatric frontier: that of molecular psychiatry. Identification of different subtypes of neurotransmitter receptors and their changes in density and sensitivity in response to endogenous ligands and/or psychotropic drugs may account for the clinical expression of various behavioral phenomena, including some psychiatric disorders. Brain imaging, in particular positron-emission tomographic evaluations, are likely to change psychiatric nosology. New diagnostic elements derived from these scanners will allow to associate psychotic states to neuroreceptor changes. Molecular genetics has shown that bipolar affective disorder can be caused by a single gene. A strong linkage seems to exist between a gene locus on chromosome 11 and bipolar illness. An amyloid gene located on chromosome 21 has also been shown to be strongly related to familial Alzheimer's disease. While genetic heterogeneity limits the screening value of these findings, the powerful techniques of molecular biology have entered the field of psychiatry. Ethical issues regarding DNA immortality, gene cloning and gene therapy will strengthen this relationship.

  5. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. [Social neuroscience and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    The topics of emotion, decision-making, and consciousness have been traditionally dealt with in the humanities and social sciences. With the dissemination of noninvasive human neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and the advancement of cognitive science, neuroimaging studies focusing on emotions, social cognition, and decision-making have become established. I overviewed the history of social neurosciences. The emerging field of social brain research or social neuroscience will greatly contribute to clinical psychiatry. In the first part. I introduced our early fMRI studies on social emotions such as guilt, embarrassment, pride, and envy. Dysfunction of social emotions can be observed in various forms of psychiatric disorder, and the findings should contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions. In the second part, I introduced our recent interdisciplinary neuroscience approach combining molecular neuroimaging techniques(positron emission tomography: PET), cognitive sciences, and economics to understand the neural as well as molecular basis of altered decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders. An interdisciplinary approach combing molecular imaging techniques and cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychiatry will provide new perspectives for understanding the neurobiology of impaired decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders and drug development.

  7. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  8. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  9. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  10. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  11. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  12. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  14. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  15. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  16. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  17. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  18. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  19. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  20. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  1. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  2. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  3. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  5. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  6. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  7. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  8. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ...

  9. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  10. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  11. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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  12. Continuously rotating cat scanning apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A tomographic scanner with a continuously rotating source of radiation is energized by converting inertial mechanical energy to electrical energy. The mechanical-to-electrical conversion apparatus is mounted with the x-ray source to be energized on a rotating flywheel. The inertial mechanical energy stored in the rotating conversion apparatus, flywheel and x-ray source is utilized for generating electrical energy used, in turn, to energize the x-ray source

  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...

  14. MRI in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulert, Christoph; Shenton, Martha E.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  15. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  16. [Data science in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, F E; Menger, V; Hagoort, K

    The information society is digitalising at a fast pace. New technology enables the collection of real life and real time information from sources that were inaccessible before. This creates an inordinate amount of dynamic data and, consequently, opportunities to introduce new insights and improvement of treatment in the field of psychiatry. AIM: To clarify the definition of big data and how a big data approach can reform care into a data driven, patient oriented dynamic system which is constantly learning. METHOD: Brief description of a pilot effected at the UMC Utrecht where the Cross Industry Standard Process for Interactive Data Mining (CRISP-IDM) was performed and description of applications in the future. RESULTS: The described approach and examples from literature show that there are possibilities to realise quick improvements in practice and implement new insights from existing data sources. CONCLUSION: Introduction of data science in psychiatric practice offers new prospects.

  17. Computational neurology and psychiatry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Basabdatta; Cochran, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research in computational methods for modeling and simulating brain disorders. In particular, it shows how mathematical models can be used to study the relationship between a given disorder and the specific brain structure associated with that disorder. It also describes the emerging field of computational psychiatry, including the study of pathological behavior due to impaired functional connectivity, pathophysiological activity, and/or aberrant decision-making. Further, it discusses the data analysis techniques that will be required to analyze the increasing amount of data being generated about the brain. Lastly, the book offers some tips on the application of computational models in the field of quantitative systems pharmacology. Mainly written for computational scientists eager to discover new application fields for their model, this book also benefits neurologists and psychiatrists wanting to learn about new methods.

  18. MRI in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology

    2014-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  19. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  20. Leptin and psychiatry | Moosa | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 3 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. [Concepts of inhibition in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auroux, Y; Bourrat, M M; Brun, J P

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical approach, the authors first describe the original development of the concept of inhibition in neurophysiology and then analyze the subsequent adaptations made in psychiatry around such concept including those of: -- Pavlov, Hull, Watson and the behaviorists, -- Freud and the Freudian School, -- clinicians and psychopharmacologists. The concept of inhibition has thus various meanings in psychiatry. Although some unity is achieved on the semiological level, this aspect cannot explain the extent of the process.

  2. State of psychiatry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2012-01-01

    of common mental disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 'new' diagnostic groups are represented in the treatment statistics with steeply increasing incidences, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders, especially in the outpatient part...... to the somatic specialities, handicapping development in psychiatry. Action has been taken to increase research activity in psychiatry. This is facilitated by an increasing interest among medical students and young graduate physicians attracted by the neuropsychiatric paradigm, rapidly implemented in Danish...

  3. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  5. Psychiatry and movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions.

  6. Nuclear medicine in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Slawek, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the same way that the symptoms between different diseases in psychiatry overlap, functional brain research frequently shows the same pattern of changes across diagnostic borders; on the other hand, many the other tests, e.g. psychological tests, present the same problem as mentioned above; therefore: The psychiatrist seldom applies to an NM specialist to obtain a diagnosis; instead, a nuclear medicine report will rather confirm, or less frequently exclude, the psychiatrist's diagnosis. Ideally, psychiatric patients should be rescanned after the treatment, and changes in perfusion and/or metabolism discussed between psychiatrist and NM specialist. As shown above, there are few practical applications of nuclear medicine due to low specificity and low spatial resolution, although in the aspect of functional imaging it is still superior to CT/MRI, even in their functional modalities. On the other hand, its investigational potential is still growing, as there is no imaging technique in sight which could replace metabolic and receptor studies, and also because the scope of functional imaging in psychiatric diseases is spreading from its traditional applications, like dementia or depression, towards many poorly investigated fields e.g. hypnosis, suicidal behaviour or sleep disorders. (author)

  7. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.; Roberts, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  8. Incorporating active learning in psychiatry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sonia; McLean, Loyola; Nash, Louise; Trigwell, Keith

    2017-06-01

    We aim to summarise the active learning literature in higher education and consider its relevance for postgraduate psychiatry trainees, to inform the development of a new Formal Education Course (FEC): the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) at the University of Sydney. We undertook a literature search on 'active learning', 'flipped classroom', 'problem-based learning' and 'psychiatry education'. The effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in higher education is well supported by evidence; however, there have been few psychiatry-specific studies. A new 'flipped classroom' format was developed for the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry). Postgraduate psychiatry training is an active learning environment; the pedagogical approach to FECs requires further evaluation.

  9. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  10. Communication skills in psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel

    2015-08-01

    Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. Psychological medicine and the future of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Psychological medicine (liaison psychiatry) aims to integrate psychiatry into other areas of medicine. It is currently enjoying considerable expansion. The degree to which it can take advantage of this opportunity will be important not only for its own future, but also for the survival of psychiatry as a medical discipline.

  12. Psychiatry in Australia | Kaplan | South African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  13. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  14. Megaesophagus in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Mahaffey, M B; Parnell, P G; Styles, M E

    1990-03-01

    Megaesophagus was diagnosed in 2 cats. Both had a history of regurgitation, and one was dyspneic. Radiography of the thorax and abdomen revealed generalized megaesophagus and gastric distention with gas. There was no esophageal motility during fluoroscopic observation. The prognosis for cats with megaesophagus is guarded. Although they may be satisfactory pets, cats with this condition should not be used for breeding because the condition is believed to be inherited through recessive genes.

  15. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  16. South African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal is the leading psychiatric journal of Africa. It provides open-access scholarly reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and all with an interest in mental health. It carries empirical and conceptual research articles, reviews, editorials, and scientific letters related to psychiatry. It publishes work from various ...

  17. Which future for social psychiatry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros A.

    2008-01-01

    Social psychiatry started over a century ago under the auspices of mental and racial hygiene, but after World War II it embraced concepts of community-based care and de-institutionalization. The major psychiatric reforms in the second half of the last century were mainly based on such concepts,

  18. Improving Medication Safety in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this controlled, before-and-after study in the Department of Psychiatry in a university hospital in Denmark, was to examine the potential effects and characteristics of nurses reviewing psychiatric patients' medication records to identify potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs...

  19. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  20. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  1. Biological Psychiatry Congress 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Temmingh

    2015-08-01

    . Current prescribing practices for obsessive-compulsive disorder in South Africa: Controversies and consensus C Lochner, L Taljaard, D J Stein 16. Correlates of emotional and behavioural problems in children with preinatally acquired HIV in Cape Town, South Africa K-A Louw, N Phillips, JIpser, J Hoare 17. The role of non-coding RNAs in fear extinction S Malan-Muller, L Fairbairn, W M U Daniels, M J S Dashti, E J Oakleley, M Altorfer, J Harvey, S Seedat, J Gamieldien, S M J Hemmings 18. An analysis of the management og HIV-mental illness comorbidity at the psychiatric unit of the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital M L Maodi, S T Rataemane, T Kyaw 19. The identification of novel genes in anxiety disorders: A gene X environment correlation and interaction study N W McGregor, J Dimatelis, S M J Hemmings, C J Kinnear, D J Stein, V Russel, C Lochner 20. Collaborations between conventional medicine and traditional healers: Obstacles and possibilities G Nortje, S Seedat, O Gureje 21. Thought disorder and form perception: Relationships with symptoms and cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia M R Olivier, R Emsley 22. Investigating the functional significance of genome-wide variants associated with antipsychotic treatment response E Ovenden, B Drogemoller, L van der Merwe, R Emsley, L Warnich 23. The moral and bioethical determinants of "futility" in psychiatry W P Pienaar 24. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and volumetry of the amylgdala in social anxiety disorder in the context of early developmental trauma D Rosenstein, A T Hess, J Zwart, F Ahmed-Leitao, E Meintjies, S Seedat 25. Schizoaffective disorder in an acute psychiatric unit: Profile of users and agreement with Operational Criteria (OPCRIT R R Singh, U Subramaney 26. The right to privacy and confidentiality: The ethics of expert diagnosis in the public media and the Oscar Pistorius trial C Smith 27. A birth cohort study in South Africa: A psychiatric perspective D J Stein 28. 'Womb

  2. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... to have CSD and spread it to people, persons with a weakened immune system should ... Play rough with your pets because they may scratch and bite. Allow cats ...

  4. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  5. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  6. The dream in contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M F

    2001-03-01

    This article offers selective reviews of cogent sectors of research regarding the dream in contemporary psychiatry. First, the author discusses relatively recent research (1953-1999) on the neurobiology and clinical psychophysiology of dreaming sleep; second, he reviews experimental cognitive neuroscientific studies of perception, emotion, and memory and the putative interrelationships among them in generating dream imagery; and third, he interprets psychoanalytic studies (1900-1999) on related aspects of dreams and the dream process. Exploration for interrelationships among information from these three areas entails discussion of the mind/brain problem. These considerations illuminate some of the logical and interpretive dilemmas that enter into debates about Freud's theory of the dream. The author proposes a preliminary psychobiologic concept of the dream process and discusses, in light of the foregoing considerations, the importance of collaborative research for developing a realistic perspective concerning the proper place of the dream in contemporary psychiatry.

  7. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  8. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  9. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-04-25

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  10. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented.

  11. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry.

  12. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of m...

  13. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  14. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  15. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  16. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  17. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Positive Psychiatry: Its Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.; Rettew, David C.; Boardman, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit non-clinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (e.g., well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom - including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry Interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine, rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall healthcare of the population. PMID:26132670

  19. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  20. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  1. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany)

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  2. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry. Kraniale Computertomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkai, P [Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany); Bogerts, B [Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany)

    1993-08-13

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.)

  3. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  4. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  5. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  6. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Shoar, Saeed; Kaviani, Hosein; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Shabani, Amir; Esmaeili, Sara; Moghaddam, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics. Method In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65%) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. Results Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3% and 18.3% before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7%) students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49), and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57). Conclusion It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future career. PMID:23682250

  7. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Amini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics.Method: In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65% completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship.Results: Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3 % and 18.3 % before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7% students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49, and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57.Conclusion: It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future

  8. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S. M [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner.

  9. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C; Lim, S. M

    2004-01-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner

  10. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Bogerts, B.

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.) [de

  11. [Dualism and malaise in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebili, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterised by the confrontation of theoretical models, or dualism.The contrast between these trends has always added to the richness of this discipline, from Philippe Pinel to Henri Ey, and from Bénédict-Augustin Morel to Valentin Magnan.Today, we are faced with an epistemological malaise which is the result of the domination of neurosciences. In order to protect against the temptation to allow the domination of one of the theoretical models, a return to dualism is recommended.

  12. Genetics and Psychiatry: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Giada; Juli, Rebecca; Juli, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    Greek mythology and philosophical speculations were the first human productions on madness and psychiatry. Likewise, the origins of genetics sink their roots in a very remote and difficult time. This work tries to give an idea of the relationship between genetics and psychiatry through the myth and reality.

  13. The Psychiatry OSCE: a 20-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Brian D; Hollenberg, Elisa; McNaughton, Nancy; Hanson, Mark D; Regehr, Glenn

    2014-02-01

    Twenty years ago researchers at the University of Toronto launched the Psychiatry Skills Assessment Project (PSAP), a research program exploring Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in psychiatry. Between 1994 and 2005 PSAP produced publications on the feasibility, reliability, validity, ethics, and practical concerns of OSCEs in psychiatry. The current review has two parts: a review of the state of the art of OSCEs in psychiatry 20 years after they were introduced and documentation of the impact of the PSAP research program. A literature search identified all publications on OSCEs and psychiatry. Articles were coded thematically, and locations of agreement and controversies were identified. Bibliometric analysis identified citations of PSAP research papers, which were analyzed thematically. As of May 2013, there were 250 publications related to OSCEs in psychiatry (not including 10 PSAP papers), published in 29 different countries and ten languages. Prominent topics were the validity and acceptability of OSCEs and SPs, systems issues in adopting OSCEs in psychiatry, and the effects on learning. Eighty-eight percent of all publications cited PSAP work (300 citations). Citations were employed for four purposes: as evidence/justification (54 %); to frame replication research (14 %); to support adaptation of OSCEs in other countries and professions (15 %); and for debate (18 %). Over the past 20 years, use of OSCEs has grown steadily in psychiatry, and several national certification organizations have adopted OSCEs. PSAP work, introduced two decades ago, continues to provide a scholarly foundation for psychometric, practical, and ethical issues of interest to this field.

  14. Women and Teaching in Academic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, Laura D.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article explores past, present, and future issues for women and teaching in academic psychiatry. A small study of didactic teaching responsibilities along faculty groups in one academic psychiatry department helps to illustrate challenges and opportunities for women in psychiatric teaching settings. Background: Although women have…

  15. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  16. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  17. [Perspectives on patient competence in psychiatry: cognitive functions, emotions and values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruissen, A; Meynen, G; Widdershoven, G A M

    2011-01-01

    Informed consent, a central concept in the doctor-patient relationship, is only valid if it is given by a competent patient. To review the literature on competence or decision-making capacity in psychiatry. We studied the international literature and relevant Dutch material such as health acts and medical guidelines. We found a consensus in the literature about the assessment criteria and the basic principles, but we did not find any consensus about the exact definition of competence. We review a number of perspectives on competence. The conceptualisations of competence, particularly in the field of psychiatry, are still being debated. The best known clinical tool to assess patients’ capacities to make treatment decisions is the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool (MacCAT). There are three perspectives on competence: a cognitive perspective, a perspective concerning emotions and a perspective relating to values. Further research is needed in order to make the conceptual debate on competence relevant to psychiatric practice.

  18. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  19. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  20. Against explanatory minimalism in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eThornton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticised both as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation respectively and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of level of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  1. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  2. Ethical philanthropy in academic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2006-05-01

    From an ethical perspective, psychiatrists cannot accept gifts of significant monetary value from their patients. This guideline raises important questions regarding institutional practices related to gift-giving in academic psychiatry. The first aim of this article is to explain the ethical tensions and shared ethical commitments of the professions of psychiatry and philanthropy. The second aim is to outline a series of steps that may be undertaken to assure ethical philanthropic practices within an institution, including the establishment of a committed advisory workgroup and the creation of ground rules and safeguards for gift-giving. Each situation should be evaluated for "ethical risk," and specific measures to safeguard donors should be considered. The author outlines methods to manage, minimize, or eliminate conflict of interest issues, including identification and disclosure of conflicting interests, role separation, goal clarification, confidentiality protections, proper timing, and ongoing oversight. Three case illustrations are provided and discussed. The process of institutional engagement, dialogue, and shared problem-solving is especially important. A shared, constructive ethic will be attained only if leaders and diverse stakeholders communicate the value of the new approach through their words, expectations, and actions. Through these efforts, greater attention will be given to the concerns of people with mental illness, and academic institutions may be better able to fulfill their responsibilities to this important but neglected population now and in the future.

  3. [Coercion in Psychiatry - a taboo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Ullrich; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Stippler, Stippler; Wancata, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the discussion concerning coercive measures against mentally ill is as old as psychiatry itself. The dilemma of psychiatry lies in its double role - having both a therapeutic and a regulatory function. Violence against sick and disabled people conflicts with the ethical principles of helping professions. This, however, is where the danger lies: that the violent parts of psychiatric work - which in the opinion of experts cannot be entirely avoided - are repressed or seen as taboo and are therefore more difficult to control. Comparisons between EU countries of the nature, frequency and duration of coercive measures are difficult because of the heterogeneity of regulation and differences in established practice. Scientific examination of this issue seems to be insufficient. There are only a few studies on important issues such as how patients rate these measures. An open and thorough debate about the meaning and meaninglessness of coercion and violence in psychiatric treatment would be necessary to prevent "routine violence" or the excessive use of force against the mentally ill.

  4. Bell inequalities with Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the Schrodinger cat gedanken experiment a ''cat'' is in a quantum superposition of two macroscopically distinct states. There is the apparent interpretation that the ''cat'' is not in one state or the other, ''alive'' or ''dead''. Here this interpretation is proved objectively. I propose the following definition of macroscopic reality: first, that the ''cat'' is either dead or alive, the measurement revealing which; second, that measurements on other ''cats'' some distance away cannot induce the macroscopic change, ''dead'' to ''alive'' and vice versa, to the ''cat''. The predictions of quantum mechanics are shown to be incompatible with this premise. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  6. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 3v Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states

  7. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  8. The future of psychiatry as clinical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F; Lewis, David A; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F; Kupfer, David J

    2009-04-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics.The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry's mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management.

  9. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  10. Juvenile hyperthyroidism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jana M; Ehrhart, E J; Sisson, D D; Jones, M A

    2003-01-01

    An 8-month-old, male domestic shorthaired cat presented for chronic weight loss, intermittent dyspnea, chronic diarrhea, hyperactivity, and weakness. The cat had a palpable thyroid nodule and increased serum total thyroxine and 3,5,3' triiodothyronine levels. The cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, and a unilateral thyroidectomy was performed followed by radioactive iodine at a later date. The clinical signs resolved following radioactive iodine, and the cat subsequently developed clinical hypothyroidism.

  11. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D 2 ) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D 2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D 2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3 H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3 H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABA A receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D 2 ) and the ion-channel type (GABA A ). (J.P.N.)

  12. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork.

  13. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  14. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addiction treatments. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (n = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program.

  15. [Impact of Anthropologic Psychiatry on Psychiatrie-Enquete and Psychiatric Reform in West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, Felicitas; Becker, Thomas; Fangerau, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Analysis of the perception of effects of anthropological psychiatry on the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Methods Qualitative content analysis of expert interviews and systematic literature search. Results Literary sources and expert interviews point to the impact of the anthropologic concept on discourse on and approach to those suffering from mental illness. The attention focused on the visualisation of material-social and subjective living conditions of persons with mental illness. Reform approaches of anthropological psychiatrists were perceived as a basis for the development of social psychiatry. Academic departments of psychiatry in Frankfurt (Zutt, Kulenkampff) and Heidelberg (von Baeyer, Kisker, Häfner) were considered important centres of innovation and reform. Conclusion The thinking of phenomenological-anthropological psychiatry was understood as a facilitator of the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in West Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Social challenges of contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, N

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail. The remarkable advances in neurosciences, neurobiology and genetics tend to swing the emphasis towards a more biological basis. Psychosis for example is the condition often regarded as being biologically constructed and most independent of the social context. The symptoms, however, of hallucinations and delusions in psychosis have social meaning for the person experiencing them and are primarily defined socially.2 Furthermore, vulnerability is often the result of social trauma, whether in the form of recent stressors that trigger onset, or earlier circumstances that shape cognitive and emotional style. Moreover, the approved treatment and management of long term psychiatric disorders has involved interventions that are either directly social, or psychosocial. Furthermore, doubts have also been raised by the endophenotype project,3 related to the genetics of schizophrenia. Cohen4 suggested that there may be more individual genotypic patterns associated with schizophrenia than people with schizophrenia on the planet. A recent alternative interpretation (network approach) is gaining some support. It suggests that a stressor causes symptoms that activate other symptoms, in a circular, self-reinforcing way.5 This theory moves away from psychiatric disorders being traditionally conceptualised as categorical or dimensional models. While psychiatry has shifted its focus to a more biological approach, social factors still

  17. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  18. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aparicio, F.J.; Fjeld, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  19. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yun Hui; Hwang, Do Won; Kim, Jin Su; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institite of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advent of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not good enough as human image. Due to larger brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mouse or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCI. A burr hole was made at 1 cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 {mu}l was injected using 30 G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. {sup 18}F-FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville, TN) scans were performed 1, 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition, {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans were performed using human PET scanner (Gemini, Philips medical systems, CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infarction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the human PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using {sup 18}F-FDG microPET scanner.

  20. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yun Hui; Hwang, Do Won; Kim, Jin Su; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lim, Sang Moo

    2004-01-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advent of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not good enough as human image. Due to larger brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mouse or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCI. A burr hole was made at 1 cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 μl was injected using 30 G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. 18 F-FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville, TN) scans were performed 1, 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition, 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed using human PET scanner (Gemini, Philips medical systems, CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infarction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the human PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using 18 F-FDG microPET scanner

  1. Rectal duplication cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Peter H; Hagen, Regine; Willi, Barbara; Ruetten, Maja; Venzin, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    Enteric duplication is a rare developmental malformation in people, dogs and cats. The purpose of the present report is to describe the first case of a rectal duplication cyst in a 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat presenting for acute constipation and tenesmus. On rectal palpation a spherical mass compressing the lumen of the rectum could be felt in the dorsal wall of the rectum. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a well demarcated cystic lesion in the pelvic canal, dorsal to the rectum. The cyst was surgically removed via a perineal approach. No communication with the rectal lumen could be demonstrated. Histopathological examination was consistent with a rectal duplication cyst. Clinical signs resolved completely after excision of this conjoined non-communicating cystic rectal duplicate. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CT studies of brain abscesses in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, K.; Wallenfang, T.; Bohl, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cerebral abscesses were produced in 56 cats by introducing staphylococcus aureus into the white matter of one cerebral hemisphere, using a stereotaxic apparatus. The cats were treated with antibiotics and/or steroids. The size and density of the inflammatory process and the abscess ring were measured on postcontrast CT scans. Differences were found depending on the stage of the abscess, but the deviation of values was too great for determining the age of the abscess from one measurement, to be able to apply proper treatment. The size and density of the abscesses were the same on CT whether the animals were treated or not. This was contrary to the clinical picture, the measurements of edema, and the histopathological studies. (orig.)

  3. Will Forensic Psychiatry survive DSM-5?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distorders (DSM-5) will be released in 2013, and if, as anticipated, introduces .... Apart from advertising psychiatry's ... courts, which rely greatly on precedents, but also insurance ... compulsive-impulsive disorders, and on its impact on public.

  4. Psychiatry and psychotherapy: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, J R; Ludwig, A M

    1980-01-01

    The place of psychotherapeutics in psychiatry is again in question. In many ways the situation recapitulates that of the late 19th century when psychotherapeutics first came upon the medical scene. The psychiatric hegemony over psychotherapeutics was the outcome of three fierce internecine "battles", (1) the "medicalization" of psychotherapeutics (1870-1910); (2) securing the psychiatric monopoly of psychotherapeutics (1890-1930); and (3) the "medicalization" of psychoanalysis (1920-1940). Three "revolutions" in psychiatry have occurred, since the stable halcyon 1950s, that have loosened the knot which binds psychotherapeutics to psychiatry. The emergence of specific psychopharmacologic therapies, the resurgence of the laboratory tradition (behaviorism) and the community-mental-health movement have diluted the importance of psychotherapeutics in treatment and widened the therapeutic franchise. In addition, there is evidence that the function of psychotherapeutics in society is itself changing. The future of psychotherapeutics in psychiatry is discussed in light of these developments.

  5. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Francis

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result from these disorders, because these occur mainly within primary care and secondary medical services. Difficulties in diagnosis and a tendency to regard them as purely secondary phenomena of depression, anxiety and related disorders mean that general psychiatry may continue to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. If general psychiatry embraced these disorders more fully, however, it might lead to better prevention and treatment of depression as well as helping to prevent the severe disability that may arise in association with these disorders.

  6. Modern psychiatry – a change in ethics?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-02-17

    Feb 17, 2004 ... dominate their patients' decision making in such circum- stances. Right to die. The right ... ciency of competency and rationality to be allowed to die. .... these settings. In forensic psychiatry, the role of the professional is aimed.

  7. History of psychiatry and the psychiatric profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    The present article reviews the English language literature on the history of psychiatry published within the previous year. Research has been conducted in the history of clinical syndromes, famous people and psychiatrists, psychiatric institutions, treatments and legislations. The importance of the sociocultural contexts has been shown, particularly in research emanating from Europe and North America, which addresses late 18th to late 20th century issues. Much varied and important research on the history of psychiatry is being performed around the world. This scholarship provides insight into the cultural context and ways in which psychiatry was practised in the past and can help shed light on the way in which psychiatry is conducted today.

  8. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  9. Why study the history of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R T

    1993-12-01

    The history of psychiatry is being neglected. The major psychiatric textbooks no longer offer any overview of psychiatric history. Possible reasons for this indifference are discussed. It is suggested that a knowledge of our history is not only necessary in a general intellectual sense, but also specifically in enabling us to more easily tolerate the incompleteness and ambiguity of many of our concepts. Furthermore, it may help psychiatry to more convincingly explain the reality and consequences of mental illness to a sceptical public.

  10. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    OpenAIRE

    CREED, FRANCIS

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result fr...

  11. What can philosophy do for psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article illustrates the practical impact of recent developments in the philosophy of psychiatry in five key areas: patient-centred practice, new models of service delivery, neuroscience research, psychiatric education, and the organisation of psychiatry as an international science-led discipline focused on patient care. We conclude with a note on the role of philosophy in countering the stigmatisation of mental disorder. PMID:16633476

  12. The Future of Psychiatry as Clinical Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Lewis, David A.; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics. The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry’s mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776

  13. CT diagnosis of colonic lymphadenitis in the cat-scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Xiongjie; Wang Jingqun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To make a further understanding of CT manifestations of colonic lymphadenitis in the cat scratch disease (CSD). Methods: The clinical data and CT features of colonic lymphadenitis in two cases of CSD were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Both patients had cat contact history. The CT findings were colonic lymphadenitis with solid mass, and marked enhancement after contrast administration. There were no colon narrownest and necrosis of colonic mucous membranes, besides lymph node enlargement along the regional lymphatic drainage. Conclusion: Combination of the cat contact history, CT scanning is of great value in the cat scratch disease. (authors)

  14. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  15. Attitudes of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: Effects of Training, Courses in Psychiatry, Psychiatric Experience and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Strebel, Bernd; Schilauske, Joerg; Jueptner, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and psychotherapy were examined considering the extent of their education, previous psychiatry experience, the evaluation of the course, their career intentions and socio-demographic variables. Methods: Five hundred and eight medical students in their second, fifth, ninth and tenth…

  16. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  17. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Otte, Andreas; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van

    2014-01-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  18. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  19. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  20. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  1. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  2. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  3. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  4. Predictors of proximity to others in colony housed shelter cats (Felis silvestris catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Suchak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Colony housing of cats allows shelters to maximize the number of cats housed in limited space. Most research on colony-housed cats examines stress in relation to group size or enclosure size. While this is important for evaluating welfare, it is equally important to understand how cats are interacting socially in these colonies. We observed 259 adult cats housed in groups of two to eight individuals. Scan samples were used to assess how frequently individual cats were in close proximity to other cats. These data were used to measure individual differences in sociability and patterns of proximity to certain partners. We used information about the past history of the cat, which was collected upon admission to the shelter to identify predictors of time spent in proximity. There was a high degree of inter-individual variability in sociability. Strays tended to spend less time in proximity to other cats, and this effect was most pronounced in females.However, none of the information collected upon admission predicted patterns of proximity to certain partners, or which cats spent time in association witheach other. Future studies should explore the implications of differences in sociability by associating observations of social behavior and stress behaviors

  5. Behavior and Welfare of Domestic Cats Housed in Cages Larger than U.S. Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C; Buffington, C Tony

    2017-01-01

    The effect of providing additional floor space on cat behavior and welfare is not well documented. This study involved replication of an investigation of cats' responses to enhanced cage and room environments using cages of 0.56 m 2 with the same methodology but an increased space allowance of 1.1 m 2 . Singly housed adult cats (n = 59) were randomly assigned to a treatment group that was a combination of a managed or unmanaged room and an enriched or unenriched cage environment. Cats were observed for 2 days for maintenance, affiliative, and avoidant behaviors using scan sampling and 5-min, continuous focal sampling. At the end of Day 2, cats' reactions to the approach of an unfamiliar person were assessed. Cats housed in enriched/managed environments exhibited more maintenance and affiliative behaviors and fewer avoidant behaviors than cats in unmanaged/unenriched environments, suggesting that macro and micro environments may be equally relevant to the cat. Increased space did not enhance the cats' welfare outcomes, suggesting that the provision of additional cage space may not be as important to the cat as a managed housing environment.

  6. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  7. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation.

  8. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, P

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  9. Finnish psychiatry--past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Kari

    2012-03-01

    The history of Finnish psychiatry has been characterized by polarizations: priority in hospitals vs. outpatient care, centralized vs. decentralized organization, independent vs. integrated administration, biological vs. psychological treatments, private vs. public production, special psychiatric policies vs. general health policies. The independent psychiatric organizations on District level lasted from the 1920s until 1990. Since then, the formerly independent psychiatry was subordinated to General Hospital administration and the centralized system of state planning and financing of healthcare was gradually decentralized and run down. During the heavy Finnish economic recession of the early 1990 s, the cuts of the public sector were unfortunately focused most heavily on psychiatric services. The main focus of research and teaching has shifted from earlier emphasis on psychoanalytical approach to biological psychiatry since the late 1980s. The administrative position of psychiatry has been repeatedly changing and unstable during the last 20 years. At the level of the contents of the services, however, there have been many very positive and promising developments. Psychiatry has come closer to other specialties from its formerly isolated position, when the separate administrations have been integrated. Provision of outpatient services has increased remarkably, while the number of hospital beds has decreased radically. Interest and resources in research have increased remarkably, and numerous new and good quality psychiatric research reports are being published.

  10. Factors influencing French medical students towards a career in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Olivier; Guicherd, William; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Bonin, Bernard; Seed, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh; Howard, Rob

    2012-09-01

    There is a need to increase the recruitment to psychiatry in France. Our aim in this study was to compare factors influencing career choice between French medical students considering and not considering psychiatry as a specialty. Quantitative cross-sectional online survey on 145 French students in their last year of medical school. 22.7% of our sample considered choosing a career in psychiatry. A preference for a career in psychiatry was associated with more frequent history of personal/familial mental illness, higher ratings of psychiatric teaching, more weeks of compulsory psychiatry teaching and placement, during which students had more often met patients in recovery and been asked their opinion on patients. Students considering psychiatry as a career also emphasized more the need for a good work-life balance, and presented better attitudes toward psychiatry. Improving opportunities of interactions between students and psychiatrists or psychiatric patients might help to improve recruitment in psychiatry.

  11. Measuring the stigma of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zäske, Harald; Cleveland, Helen-Rose

    2011-01-01

    The stigma of mental illness is a severe burden for people suffering from mental illness both in private and public life, also affecting their relatives, their close social network, and the mental health care system in terms of disciplines, providers, and institutions. Interventions against...... the stigma of mental illness employ complementary strategies (e.g., protest, education, and contact) and address different target groups (e.g., school children and teachers, journalists, stakeholders). Within this framework, the World Psychiatric Association has adopted an Action Plan with the goal...... to improve the image of psychiatry and to reduce potential stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. To evaluate such interventions, a questionnaire has been developed that assesses opinions and attitudes toward psychiatrists and psychiatry in different samples of medical specialists...

  12. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning TB

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tony B Benning Maple Ridge Mental Health Centre, Maple Ridge, BC, Canada Abstract: A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it - charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. Keywords: critique of biopsychosocial psychiatry, integrative psychiatry, George Engel

  13. Theory of mind and psychiatry: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Giap Kian; Pridmore, Saxby

    2009-04-01

    'Theory of mind' (ToM) arose from the study of primates and their social organization, and scholars in many fields - philosophy, anthropology, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience - have contributed to this expanding topic. In this paper, we provide an overview of aspects of ToM of relevance to psychiatry. We briefly describe the origins of ToM in primates and humans and some relevant neurobiology, and then touch on possible contributions to psychopathology. We searched for articles on PubMed and Medline, using the terms 'theory of mind', 'mirror neuron system' and 'psychiatry'. There is evidence that ToM deficits are important in certain psychiatric disorders. While more research is required, an appreciation of ToM will have an impact on our further understanding and management of at least some mental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  14. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  15. The eugenic legacy in psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2008-05-01

    Assumptions about genetic differences in human mental characteristics can be traced in large part to the eugenic movement, ascendant at the turn of the 20th century. This paper offers historical case studies, of 'innate general cognitive ability' and 'psychiatric genetics', in order to appraise the eugenic legacy in current psychology and psychiatry. Reviewing the work of representatives, Cyril Burt, Franz Kallmann and Eliot Slater, along with their research networks, it is argued that eugenics remains a quiet but powerful background influence in modern-day psychology and psychiatry. At the turn of the 21st century, eugenics remains an important area of inquiry, reflection and education for those in the inter-disciplinary field of social psychiatry.

  16. Undergraduate psychiatry in India: A SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Jangid, Purushottam; Sethi, Sujata

    2018-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and remains a huge burden on the society. In spite of that persons with mental illness are marginalized and mental health is largely being neglected. There is an acute shortage of mental health professionals in India, and also there is inadequate exposure to psychiatry during the medical undergraduate training in India. Moreover, the perception towards psychiatry and psychiatrists is not favorable among medical fraternity and policy makers. This is reflected in the fact that in spite of clearly deficient undergraduate psychiatry curriculum, no steps have been taken towards improving it and recommendations are not being implemented in true spirit. This review tries to identify the gaps in undergraduate curriculum, present a SWOT analysis of current situation and recommend the possible ways to address the deficiencies particularly in India. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The feminization of psychiatry? Some ruminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Martha

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the position of women in psychiatry today from the historical perspective of feminism. Feminism in medicine demands the inclusion of the traditional priorities of women: collaboration and cooperation over competition and hierarchy, compassionate care over technology and automation, flexible care for the individual in a social context over the study of units of diseased organs. These themes, in addition to the care of women and children, were prominent in the lives of early women physicians and again in the 1970s and 1980s. The number of women in psychiatry has increased. However, their influence is scant and feminist goals are again submerged. At the same time psychiatry has become increasingly interested in the organ (brain) at the expense of the individual person. Women need a new awakening. They must use their new presence to assert feminine values in patient care and protect themselves from becoming provider units on the assembly line.

  18. Diprosopia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camón, J; Ruberte, J; Ordóñez, G

    1990-05-01

    A diprosopic cat is described. In the head, two snouts, three eyes and two pinnae were present. The mandible was single and immobile because labial skin of both upper lips and single lower lip was partly fused. Superimposition of upper and lower dental arches was impossible and the mouths remained permanently open. Two incomplete oral cavities were present and the two tongues were joined at their base. The brain was duplicated in part. In the cranium only occipital and temporal bones were normal, the basisphenoid was bifurcated and the remaining bones were duplicated. Embryological mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Is Necessary Attenuation Correction for Cat Brain PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Dong Soo; Moon, Dae Hyuk

    2007-01-01

    Photon attenuation and scatter corrections (AC and SC) were necessary for quantification of human PET. However, there is no consensus on whether AC and SC are necessary for the cat brain PET imaging. Since post-injection transmission (TX) PET scans are not permitted or provided to microPET scanner users at present, additional time for performing TX scan and awaiting FDG uptake is required for attenuation and scatter corrections. Increasing probability of subject movement and possible biological effect of long term anesthesia would be the problem in additional TX scan. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of AC and SC for the quantification of cat brain PET data

  20. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  1. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  2. Disease mongering in psychiatry: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saddichha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease mongering starts at the top of recent accusations being hurled at psychiatry. It is used to refer to the attempts by pharmaceutical companies or others who have similar interests, to enlarge the market for a treatment by convincing people that they are sick and need medical intervention. This paper critically analyses the 'for' and 'against' arguments of disease mongering in psychiatric disorders, both new and old, such as Bipolar disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, female sexual dysfunction, social phobia, metabolic syndrome and road rage disorder. Keywords: disease mongeringpharmaceutical companies, psychiatry.

  3. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 2: specific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes the main areas of civil forensic psychiatry (FP) and the skills required by psychiatric experts. Some specific areas of civil FP are discussed, including tort law reform, reliability of psychiatric evidence, contentious psychiatric disorders, and the many domains of civil FP. Civil FP is an important sub-specialty component of forensic psychiatry that requires greater emphasis in the training and continuing education of psychiatrists. A process of accrediting psychiatrists as having competency in advanced civil FP may be of value.

  4. Computational Psychiatry and the Challenge of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D.; Chekroud, Adam M.; Corlett, Philip R.; Yang, Genevieve; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Schizophrenia research is plagued by enormous challenges in integrating and analyzing large datasets and difficulties developing formal theories related to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of this disorder. Computational psychiatry provides a path to enhance analyses of these large and complex datasets and to promote the development and refinement of formal models for features of this disorder. This presentation introduces the reader to the notion of computational psychiatry and describes discovery-oriented and theory-driven applications to schizophrenia involving machine learning, reinforcement learning theory, and biophysically-informed neural circuit models. PMID:28338845

  5. Preserving the Person in Contemporary Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O

    2018-06-01

    Psychodynamic psychiatry is a way of thinking that places the person at the heart of diagnostic understanding and treatment. This emphasis on unique characteristics of an individual is at odds with much of contemporary psychiatric thought, which is geared to identifying a set of criteria designed to identify discrete diagnostic categories with biological underpinnings. This article addresses component parts of the person that are linked to psychodynamic constructs and lie at the heart of diagnostic understanding and treatment in psychodynamic psychiatry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitude of medical students towards psychiatry: the case of Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The inability to attract medical graduates to specialize in psychiatry has always been a serious challenge to psychiatry training programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitude of medical students towards psychiatry. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 122 ...

  7. Cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Joseph B

    2004-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began to officially accredit one-year residency experiences in forensic psychiatry, which follow a 4-year residency in general psychiatry. The extra year of training, colloquially known as a fellowship, is required for candidates who wish to receive certification in the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry; since 2001, completion of a year of training in a program accredited by ACGME has been required for candidates wishing to take the ABPN forensic psychiatry subspecialty examination. With the formal recognition of the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry comes the need to examine special issues of cultural importance which apply specifically to forensic psychiatry training. This paper examines the current literature on cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry, sets out several of the societal reasons for the importance of emphasizing those issues in forensic psychiatric training, and discusses how those issues are addressed in the curriculum of one forensic psychiatry fellowship at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW). While much has been written about cross-cultural issues in general psychiatry, very little has appeared in the literature on the topic of cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry.

  8. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  9. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  10. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  11. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  12. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  13. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  14. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  15. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  16. CAT scanning of the ionosphere: Pros and cons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excellent Spatial coverage. Excellent Spatial coverage. Snapshots of the large scale features (km-scale) of the ionosphere. bottomside and topside. Information on remote and inaccessible regions. Inexpensive.

  17. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  18. Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry as a Career Choice before and after an Undergraduate Psychiatry Internship in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…

  19. Psychiatry and Religion: Opponents or Collaborators? The Power of Spirituality in Contemporary Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2017-04-01

    Religion and psychiatry have had complicated, sometimes neutral or friendly and cooperative, sometimes competitive and antagonistic relations over their long histories. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. Psychiatry has often ignored spiritual and religious dimension in health and illness while religions influenced the treatment of mental disorders directly by defining mental disorders as evil spirit possessions and prescribing exorcism as treatment. It has been a long way to prevail looking for natural over supra-natural explanations for mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion as social practices should be regarded as allies against pseudoscientific nonsense and superstitions. This alliance is based on the next evidence: 1. religious and spiritual well-being is an important component of mental health as well as of health in general; 2. research and empirical evidence reveals that healthy-minded and distorted or sick faith are quite distinct in the effects in the lives of the faithful; 3. psychiatrists are professionally expected to always respect and be sensitive to the spiritual and religious beliefs and practices of their patients; 4. religious and spiritual beliefs and practice is very important aspect of person-centered psychiatry. The enduring task for both psychiatry and religion is to enable human beings to live their lives with courage, sense, and optimism, to strive towards creating conditions of well-being and individual, public and global mental health as well as to dispel beliefs and patterns which trap people in lives of misery and mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion in creative dialogues as allies can significantly contribute to the healing of our broken world and promoting compassionate society and empathic civilization. When psychiatry and religion see each other as opponents or even enemies this is only because of their mutual misreading and pseudoscientific

  20. Impact of duration of psychiatry rotation on medical interns’ attitude towards psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical Council of India allowed the interns to take up an extra 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry along with the mandatory posting of 15 days. The study was planned to assess the effect of the additional period of psychiatry internship on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry. Material and methods: The consenting interns were given a semi structured proforma enquiring about their age and gender and were asked to fill up Attitude Towards Psychiatry (ATP scale. The assessment was done at the beginning and then after 15 days of mandatory posting. Those participants who were willing to do an additional 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry were assessed again on the 30th day of the training. Results: Mean age of the participating interns (n=47 was 25.44±1.52 and the male female ratio was 0.8. Twenty six interns did only the 15 days mandatory psychiatry internship posting (Group 1 and the remaining 21 interns took up the additional elective 15 days posting (Group 2. At the end of the 15 days posting, Mean ATP score of the group 1 increased from 88.34±6.07 to 88.46±6.19 (p=0.80 whereas the same increased from 88.04±7.06 to 88.19±7.65 (p=0.7 in the group 2 and further increased to 91.09±8.3 at the end of the additional 15 days of elective posting (p<0.05. Conclusion: A thirty days exposure of psychiatry during internship had more favourable impact on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry.

  1. Gait and its assessment in psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Richard D.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait.

  2. South African Journal of Psychiatry: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal is the leading psychiatric journal of Africa. It provides open-access scholarly reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and all with an interest in mental health. It carries empirical and conceptual research articles, reviews, editorials, and scientific letters related to psychiatry. It publishes ...

  3. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  4. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  5. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  6. Sonographic evaluation of epidural and intrathecal injections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Pablo E; Verdier, Natali; Zaccagnini, Andrea S; Fuensalida, Santiago E; Sclocco, Matias; Portela, Diego A; Waxman, Samanta

    2016-11-01

    To describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the caudal lumbar spine in cats and to detect ultrasound (US) signs associated with epidural or intrathecal injection. Prospective, clinical study. Twenty-six client-owned cats. Transverse (position 1) and parasagittal (position 2) two-dimensional US scanning was performed over the caudal lumbar spine in all cats. Midline distances between the identified structures were measured. Cats assigned to epidural injection (group E, n = 16) were administered a bupivacaine-morphine combination confirmed by electrical stimulation. Cats assigned to intrathecal injection (group I, n = 10) were administered a morphine-iohexol combination injected at the lumbosacral level and confirmed by lateral radiography. The total volume injected (0.3 mL kg -1 ) was divided into two equal aliquots that were injected without needle repositioning, with the US probe in positions 1 and 2, respectively. The presence or absence of a burst of color [color flow Doppler test (CFDT)], dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement were registered during and after both injections. US scanning allowed measurement of the distances between the highly visible structures inside the spinal canal. CFDT was positive for all animals in group E. In group I, intrathecal injection was confirmed in only two animals, for which the CFDT was negative; seven cats inadvertently and simultaneously were administered an epidural injection and showed a positive CFDT during the second aliquot injection, and the remaining animal was administered epidural anesthesia and was excluded from the CFDT data analysis. Dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement were present in all animals in which an epidural injection was confirmed. US examination allowed an anatomical description of the caudal lumbar spine and real-time confirmation of epidural injection by observation of a positive CFDT, dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement. © 2016 Association of Veterinary

  7. Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p neuroscience curriculum for a residency committed to humanistic psychiatry

  8. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  9. Combined acquisition technique (CAT for neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis at low specific absorption rates (SAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Biller

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT of turbo-spin-echo (TSE and echo-planar-imaging (EPI with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. RESULTS: Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen's kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82. CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (p<0.001. Mean SAR differences between TSE and CAT were 29.0 (± 5.7 % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (± 21.9 % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations. Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. CONCLUSION: T2-/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning.

  10. Radiographic and scintigraphic evidence of focal pulmonary neoplasia in three cats with hyperthyroidism: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.M.; Daniel, G.B.; Walker, M.A.; Maddux, J.M.; Jenkins, C.C.; Klebanow, E.R.; Bouley, D.M.; Dean, D.F.; Petersen, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Three cats were diagnosed as hyperthyroid based on clinical signs, historical findings, laboratory abnormalities, and basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, and/or nuclear thyroid scans. Additionally, a presumptive diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis was made in each cat based on radiographic or scintigraphic evaluation. All three cats had solitary pulmonary nodules 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter on survey thoracic radiographs; one cat also had chylous pleural effusion and pulmonary lobar consolidation. Focal pulmonary accumulation of sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) and/or radioiodine (131I) corresponding to radiographic lesions were seen in all cats. Two cats were treated with single ablative doses (1111 to 1480 MBq) of 131I; the remaining cat was euthanatized. One of the treated cats died 8 days later; the other cat was euthanatized 22 weeks following treatment. Histopathologic examination of tissue obtained at necropsy confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma in one cat and bronchogenic adenocarcinoma in two cats. Our findings indicate that increased radionuclide uptake in focal pulmonary lesions and cytologic evaluation of tissue obtained by fine-needle aspiration are not specific for thyroid tissue

  11. A case report of Dermanyssus gallinae infestation in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Antonella; Leone, Federico; Albanese, Francesco; Beccati, Massimo

    2018-04-30

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a major threat for the poultry industry; these mites also feed on the blood of many other birds, small mammals and potentially humans. Three cats with dermatitis attributed to D. gallinae infestation. Two 40-day-old kittens, living in a rural area, and one 7-year-old female indoor cat, were presented with a pruritic skin condition. Mite specimens were collected from the cats and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Cytological and histological examinations of the skin lesions were performed. A diagnosis of D. gallinae infestation was made after identification of the mites. Histological findings were compatible with eosinophilic dermatitis. Clinical improvement was noted two weeks after treatment. The two kittens showed chronic blood loss which reflects the ability of D. gallinae mites to switch host. For the indoor cat, mites were presumed to be carried by birds regularly present on the balcony of the apartment. This demonstrates that mite infestation is possible even in urban areas, through contact with birds or their abandoned nests. When birds are not present, cats or other small mammals as well as humans, can be infested. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. CAT-D-T tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Blue, T.; Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The domains of plasma fuel cycles bounded by the D-T and Cat-D, and by the D-T and SCD modes of operation are examined. These domains, referred to as, respectively, the Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation, are characterized by the number (γ) of tritons per fusion neutron available from external (to the plasma) sources. Two external tritium sources are considered - the blankets of the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) reactors and fission reactors supported by the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) driven hybrid reactors. It is found that by using 6 Li for the active material of the control elements of the fission reactors, it is possible to achieve γ values close to unity. Cat-D-T tokamaks could be designed to have smaller size, higher power density, lower magnetic field and even lower plasma temperature than Cat-D tokamaks; the difference becomes significant for γ greater than or equal to .75. The SCD-T mode of operation appears to be even more attractive. Promising applications identified for these Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation include hybrid reactors, fusion synfuel factories and fusion reactors which have difficulty in providing all their tritium needs

  13. Sonography of cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  15. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  16. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  17. Something about Genetics in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetics in psychiatry is based on the application of the achievements and methods of population’s genetics, immunogenetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics and pharmacogenetics. Methods of genealogy are already known, and so are the twins method, methods of adoption. Especially present are the methods of DNA recombination discovering the location of genes on chromosomes and creating genetic maps. For now, it can be said that chromosomes 6, 22 and 8 are in the center of attention of geneticists examining the genetic background of schizophrenia[1]. Some studies also suggest an association could be made between HLA-A9 and paranoid schizophrenia. The manic-depressive disorders are more associated with a gene on the short arm of chromosome 11 and the X chromosome. Mental disorders are polygenic and conditioned multifactorial. It is because of the interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors. The conclusion of most studies is that for the repetition of psychiatric disorders in families heritable factors are more deserving than environmental factors (e.g. studies in families with adopted children, although it is impossible to clearly separate the effects of genetic factors from the effects of environmental factors. The first studies that have attempted to detect predisposition genes for complex diseases were studies of genetic connectivity. They were based on the search of loci - markers in families, which were passed on through generations in the same way as the disease. In the search for the association of complexed hereditary diseases and certain variations of genes in a candidate, the evaluation of endofenotyp can be of a great benefit. Complexed diseases are characterized by a very diverse clinical picture and valuable data could be obtained if we individually evaluate each isolated characteristic of phenotype. The aim of the evaluation of endophenotype in the case of psychiatric disorders, is to penetrate into the mechanisms

  18. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen causes serious problems as toxication in cats in spite of being an effective and reliable analgesic and antipyretic in humans. A six months-old female cat suffering from cough was presented to examination to International Pet Hospital/Tirana/Albania when no result was obtained after one  acetaminophen tablet had been administered in order to heal the disease. Depression, grey and cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypothermia were primary clinical sign...

  19. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Omar, Z.M.

    1995-09-01

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  20. Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Salakij, Chaleow; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual Anong

    2007-06-01

    Hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural features of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina) were evaluated using complete blood cell counts with routine and cytochemical blood stains, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. No statistically significant difference was found in different genders of this animal. Unique features of blood cells in this animal were identified in hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. This study contributes to broaden hematological resources in wildlife animals and provides a guideline for identification of blood cells in the fishing cat.

  1. Acute intraparenchymal spinal cord injury in a cat due to high-rise syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Arámbulo, Robert; Nykamp, Stephanie

    2012-03-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female Bengal Red cat was evaluated for high-rise syndrome. The cat had paraplegia of the hind limbs, intact reflexes and pain perception, and hyperesthesia in the caudal thoracic area. Mentation, cranial nerve function, forelimb proprioceptive responses, and spinal reflexes were normal. There were no abnormalities on radiographs or computed tomography scan, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hyperintense intraparenchymal spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted and T2 fat saturation images.

  2. Acute intraparenchymal spinal cord injury in a cat due to high-rise syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz–Arámbulo, Robert; Nykamp, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female Bengal Red cat was evaluated for high-rise syndrome. The cat had paraplegia of the hind limbs, intact reflexes and pain perception, and hyperesthesia in the caudal thoracic area. Mentation, cranial nerve function, forelimb proprioceptive responses, and spinal reflexes were normal. There were no abnormalities on radiographs or computed tomography scan, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hyperintense intraparenchymal spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted and T2 fat...

  3. Combined Acquisition Technique (CAT) for Neuroimaging of Multiple Sclerosis at Low Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Armin; Choli, Morwan; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A.; Jakob, Peter M.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT) of turbo-spin-echo (TSE) and echo-planar-imaging (EPI) with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF) burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR) for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. Material and Methods The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL) and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. Results Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen’s kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82). CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (pCAT were 29.0 (±5.7) % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (±21.9) % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations). Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. Conclusion T2−/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning. PMID:24608106

  4. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pedrassani

    Full Text Available This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state of Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  5. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their program’s curriculum related to tobacco treatment, attitudes related to treating tobacco in psychiatry, and perceptions of residents’ skills for addressing nicotine dependence in psychiatric patients. Results Respondents were representative of the national pool. Half of the programs provided training in tobacco treatments for a median duration of 1 hour. Content areas covered varied greatly. Programs with tobacco-related training expressed more favorable attitudes toward addressing tobacco in psychiatry and were more likely to report confidence in their residents’ skills for treating nicotine dependence. Programs without tobacco training reported a lack of faculty expertise on tobacco treatments. Most training directors reported moderate to high interest in evaluating a model tobacco curriculum for psychiatry and stated they would dedicate an average of 4 hours of curriculum time. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the need for and interest in a model tobacco treatment curriculum for psychiatry residency training. Training psychiatrists offers the potential of delivering treatment to one of the largest remaining groups of smokers: patients with mental disorders. PMID:17021144

  6. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  7. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots.

  8. Psychiatry and neurology: from dualism to integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.

  9. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  10. Brain injury in a forensic psychiatry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, A; Stamenova, V; Abramowitz, C; Clarke, D; Christensen, B

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence and profile of adults with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been studied in large North American forensic mental health populations. This study investigated how adults with a documented history of TBI differed with the non-TBI forensic population with respect to demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and history of offences. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive admissions to a forensic psychiatry programme in Toronto, Canada was conducted. Information on history of TBI, psychiatric diagnoses, living environments and types of criminal offences were obtained from medical records. History of TBI was ascertained in 23% of 394 eligible patient records. Compared to those without a documented history of TBI, persons with this history were less likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia but more likely to have alcohol/substance abuse disorder. There were also differences observed with respect to offence profiles. This study provides evidence to support routine screening for a history of TBI in forensic psychiatry.

  11. Military Psychiatry: A Tri-Service Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    and Capt. Lawrence on the edge of his boot-sole. But the sights and horrors began to be fearful: stretchers were plying rapidly now, and bringing out...Year of Combat July 4l, 1942- July 4, 1943). New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. 48. Hausman , W., & Rioch, D. McK. (1967). Military Psychiatry... Summer ). Cohesion and disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II. Public Opinion Quarterly, 12, 280-315. 108. Sledge, W. H., Boydstun, J. A., Rahe

  12. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.; Fink, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives

  13. The state of psychiatry in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Marc H M; de Witte, Nele; Dom, Geert

    2012-08-01

    Belgium, at the crossroads of different cultures, developed complex governmental structures hindering the development of comprehensive mental health policies. A total of 10.2% of the gross domestic product is spent on healthcare but only 6.1% of this total expenditure goes to mental health. Although mental healthcare is largely accessible and offers high levels of quality, it is questionable whether this can be maintained, given the economic climate. The collection of epidemiological data is problematic due to the different ways registration takes place within different care systems and the complexity of the state structure and its consecutive constitutional reforms. Coming from a largely hospital-driven psychiatric care, mental healthcare reforms of past decades have created more community-based care and new care pathways, still an on-going process. Psychiatry as a profession is currently challenged. Teaching mental health issues remains extremely limited within medical schools, resources for research are disproportionally limited, and working conditions less favourable, all this compared with other specialisms. Hence few graduates choose a career in psychiatry. Changing the public perception of what psychiatry is about, redefining the identity of psychiatrists as medical specialists, and their work have become important challenges for the next future.

  14. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  15. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  16. Neuropsychiatrie of biologische psychiatrie; een toekomstvisie in historisch perspectief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, W M; Tuinier, S

    1999-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry or Biological Psychiatry There is an urgent need to reconsider the position of psychiatry within the neurosciences because of the exploding knowledge about the relationship between brain and behaviour and the delay in implementation of new findings due to the separation of neurology and psychiatry. Biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology originate from the discovery by chance of psycho-active compounds in the early fifties and have contributed to the scientification of psychiatry. The impact of biological psychiatry for the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, however, is limited as a result of its biased orientation on neurotransmitters and receptors. The neuropsychiatric paradigm integrates knowledge from several domains, such as functional neuroanatomy, genetics and endocrinology and opens new vistas for the involvement of neuronal circuits in the initiation and maintenance of behavioural disturbances. In addition, novel and more specific treatment modalities may emerge.

  17. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rezension : Wissen um den Wahn. Foucaults Geschichte der Psychiatrie ; zu "Foucaults Geschichte der Psychiatrie"

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Aus dem umfangreichen Werk des französischen Philosophen und Sozialhistorikers Michel Foucault (1926-1984) ist ein weiteres Buch auf Deutsch erschienen. Der Band „Die Macht der Psychiatrie" geht auf eine Reihe von Vorlesungen zurück, die Foucault im Wintersemester '73/'74 am Collège de France gehalten hat. Die in Frankreich bereits im Jahr 2003 veröffentlichten 12 Vorlesungen sind der Geschichte der Psychiatrie gewidmet und konzentrieren sich vor allem auf ihre Frühphase. Wesentlich gestützt ...

  19. Attitudes of Flemish physiotherapy students towards mental health and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Michel; Peuskens, Jos

    2010-03-01

    In general, psychiatry is not very popular among healthcare providers, although no information is available concerning the attitudes of physiotherapy students towards mental heath. This study examined the attitudes of physiotherapy students towards psychiatry considering the subject's gender, previous experience with psychiatry and the impact of a specific course. This experimental study compared the attitudes of physiotherapy students (n=219) with those of students without a biomedical background (n=112) towards psychiatry. All students were between 17 and 28 years of age, and completed an established international questionnaire entitled 'Attitudes Towards Psychiatry'. Within the group of physiotherapy students, the effect of a 65-hour course on psychiatric rehabilitation on their attitudes was evaluated. Attitudes towards psychiatry were moderately positive [mean (SD) 103.3 (9.9)]. There was a small but significant difference between physiotherapy students and non-medical students (Cohen's d=0.31). Female students had a more positive attitude towards psychiatry than their male peers (Cohen's d=0.44). Prior experience with mental illness was associated with more positive attitudes (Cohen's d=0.68). Attitudes increased in positivity after completion of a psychiatry course (Cohen's d=0.72). To ensure basic physiotherapeutic treatment for the mentally ill, physiotherapy education should aim to promote positive attitudes towards mental illness as well as psychiatry. High-quality courses and personal interaction with patients are the best strategies to achieve this goal.

  20. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2007-01-01

    In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”. PMID:17949505

  1. Psychiatry in the Deep South: a pilot study of integrated training for psychiatry residents and seminary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. From 2005 to 2008, PGY-2 general-psychiatry residents and PGY-5 child-psychiatry residents (N=30) participated alongside psychology interns (N=13) and seminary students (N=41). The intervention consisted of two 3-hour sessions. Measurements addressed demographics, participants' spirituality, and attitudes toward mental illness, mental-health practitioners, and clergy. The psychiatry residents' knowledge regarding the training of clergy was significantly increased by the training sessions. The seminary students' attitudes and knowledge of psychiatry/psychology changed significantly in a positive direction. This pilot course had a positive impact on both groups of participants. This model could be modified for other psychiatry programs, to include clergy students of different religious faiths as relevant to the demographics of the training location.

  2. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  3. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  4. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  5. [Psychiatry with open doors. Part 1: Rational for an open door for acute psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, D; Lang, U E

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reform efforts of the last decades modern acute psychiatry still stands between conflicting priorities in everyday practice. The protection of patient autonomy might conflict with a regulatory mandate of psychiatry in societal contexts and the necessity of coercive measures and involuntary treatment might become problematic with respect to presumed but contentious interests of the patient. The conflicts particularly concern questions of involuntary commitment, door closing, coercive and isolation measures. Research on the topic of therapeutic effectiveness of these practices is rare. Accordingly, the practice depends on the federal state, hospital and ward and is very heterogeneous. Epidemiological prognosis predicts an increase of psychiatric disorders; however, simultaneously in terms of medical ethics the warranty of patient autonomy, shared decision-making and informed consent in psychiatry become increasingly more important. This challenges structural and practical changes in psychiatry, particularly in situations of self and third party endangerment which are outlined and a rationale for an opening of the doors in acute psychiatric wards is provided.

  6. Shorter Psychiatry Clerkship Length Is Associated with Lower NBME Psychiatry Shelf Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Alexander, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a recent medical school curriculum change at our institution 3 years ago; specifically: shortening the Psychiatry core clerkship from 4 to 3 weeks and adding an optional 6-week core/elective combination rotation in lieu of the 3-week core. The authors aimed to determine whether clerkship length was…

  7. Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented from 30 cats and 36 dogs in which thymic disease was recognised clinically or on postmortem examination. The diagnoses included thymic lymphoma (19 cats, 12 dogs), thymoma (five cats, 18 dogs), thymic branchial cyst formation or cystic change (one cat, four dogs), thymic hyperplasia (two cats), congenital hypoplasia (one cat, one dog), thymic haemorrhage (one cat, one dog) and thymic amyloidosis (one cat). Thymic lymphoma occurred in younger dogs and cats, and was recorded equally among domestic shorthaired and purebred (especially Siamese) cats. Eight cats with thymic lymphoma were tested for feline leukaemia virus and four were positive. Thymoma occurred more frequently in older cats and dogs, and in Labradors and German shepherd dogs. Thymic tumours were associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (six dogs), megaoesophagus (two dogs) or interface dermatitis with basement membrane immune complex deposition (one cat). Non-neoplastic thymic diseases were associated with myasthenia gravis (one cat), pemphigus foliaceus (one cat) and superficial necrolytic dermatitis (one cat).

  8. Measuring outcomes in psychiatry: an inpatient model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D E; Fong, M L

    1996-02-01

    This article describes a system for measuring outcomes recently implemented in the department of psychiatry of Baptist Memorial Hospital, a 78-bed inpatient and day treatment unit that represents one service line of a large, urban teaching hospital in Memphis. In June 1993 Baptist Hospital began a 15-month pilot test of PsychSentinel, a measurement tool developed by researchers in the Department of Community Medicine at the University of Connecticut. The hospital identified the following four primary goals for this pilot project: provide data for internal hospital program evaluation, provide data for external marketing in a managed care environment, satisfy requirements of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations, and generate studies that add to the literature in psychiatry and psychology. PsychSentinel is based on the standardized diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). The outcome measure assesses the change in the number of symptoms of psychopathology that occurs between admission and discharge from the hospital. Included in the nonproprietary system are risk adjustment factors, as well as access to a national reference database for comparative analysis purposes. Data collection can be done by trained ancillary staff members, with as much or as little direct physician involvement as desired. The system has proven to be both time effective and cost effective, and it provides important outcome information both at the program level and at the clinician level. After the pilot test, the staff at Baptist Memorial Hospital determined that the system met all initial objectives identified and recently adopted the system as an ongoing measure of quality patient care in the department of psychiatry.

  9. Predicting Medical Students’ Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Warnke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students’ perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small

  10. Predicting Medical Students’ Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Ingeborg; Gamma, Alex; Buadze, Maria; Schleifer, Roman; Canela, Carlos; Strebel, Bernd; Tényi, Tamás; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas; Liebrenz, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students’ perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance

  11. Predicting Medical Students' Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Ingeborg; Gamma, Alex; Buadze, Maria; Schleifer, Roman; Canela, Carlos; Strebel, Bernd; Tényi, Tamás; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas; Liebrenz, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students' perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N  = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance. The

  12. [Artificial intelligence in psychiatry-an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2018-06-18

    Artificial intelligence and the underlying methods of machine learning and neuronal networks (NN) have made dramatic progress in recent years and have allowed computers to reach superhuman performance in domains that used to be thought of as uniquely human. In this overview, the underlying methodological developments that made this possible are briefly delineated and then the applications to psychiatry in three domains are discussed: precision medicine and biomarkers, natural language processing and artificial intelligence-based psychotherapeutic interventions. In conclusion, some of the risks of this new technology are mentioned.

  13. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  14. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [de

  15. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  16. Choosing child and adolescent psychiatry: factors influencing medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum.

  17. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbins, T.W.; Gillan, C.M.; Smith, D.G.; de Wit, S.; Ersche, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    A key criticism of the main diagnostic tool in psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-IV), is that it lacks a biological footing. In this article, we argue for a biological approach to psychiatry based on ‘neurocognitive endophenotypes’, whereby changes in

  18. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  19. Psychiatry Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: Implementation and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stuart; Demaso, David R.; Kemler, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the implementation of psychiatry morbidity and mortality rounds (M&Ms) on the clinical and educational practice in a children's hospital. Methods: Attendees to monthly M&Ms between July 2005 and May 2007 included staff and trainees from psychiatry, psychology, nursing, and social work. Cases were selected based on a…

  20. Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Chipps, S Ramlall, M Mars. Abstract. Objective: Psychiatry registrars form the backbone of specialized psychiatric service provision in South Africa. Medical schools are centralized while clinical services need to be ...

  1. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength.

  2. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  3. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Arden D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  4. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  5. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  6. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  7. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  8. Choosing Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Factors Influencing Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M.; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. Conclusions: A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum. PMID:24223044

  9. An Investigation of Psychiatry Residents' Important Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jody

    2011-01-01

    This research study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of the third-year experiences of the psychiatry residents. A review of the literature identified themes and subthemes related to the third-year of psychiatry education. The study was conducted at a university health science center. Data were collected from five residents using participant…

  10. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  11. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  12. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  13. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2009-01-01

    The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g) the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a) the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b) biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c) critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d) the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e) the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f) what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a) psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b) issues in psychiatric ethics; (c) social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a) antipsychiatry revisited; (b) basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c) psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d) conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  14. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions

  15. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-21

    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic...Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat Ronald C. Bell United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick

  16. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  17. Groups acting on CAT(0) cube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Niblo, Graham A.; Reeves, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    We show that groups satisfying Kazhdan's property (T) have no unbounded actions on finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complexes, and deduce that there is a locally CAT(-1) Riemannian manifold which is not homotopy equivalent to any finite dimensional, locally CAT(0) cube complex.

  18. The Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Marleen C; de Lange, Geertje M; Palmen, Saskia J M C

    2018-01-01

    The Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) performs rapid autopsies of donors who gave written informed consent during life for the use of their brain tissue and medical files for research. The NBB initiated the Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry (NBB-Psy), a prospective donor program for psychiatric diseases. NBB-Psy wants to expand the tissue collections in order to provide a strong incentive to increase research in psychiatry. The ultimate goal of NBB-Psy is to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders for patients, their families, and for society as a whole. NBB-Psy consists of an antemortem and postmortem donor program. This chapter focuses on the design of NBB-Psy and the antemortem donor program, where patients and relatives are actively informed on the possibility to become a brain donor. Since the initiation of NBB-Psy, the number of registered donors with a psychiatric diagnosis has increased from 149 in 2010 to 1018 in May 2016. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The historical development of psychiatry in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Srdan; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Pantović, Mihailo; Dukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Ravanić, Dragan

    2009-06-01

    The authors present the development of the concept of mental disease and treatment in Serbian medicine. Serbian medieval medicine did not acknowledge fortune telling, sorcery, the use of amulets and magical rituals and formulas. These progressive concepts were confirmed by the Church and the Serbian state in what is known as Dusan's Code. The Historical data on the establishment of the first psychiatric hospital in the Balkans "Home for the Unsound of Mind" at Guberevac, Belgrade, in 1861 and its founders is reviewed. After World War I, in 1923, the Faculty of Medicine was established in Belgrade to which the coryphaei of Serbian medicine educated in Europe, mostly in France and Germany, flocked and that same year the Psychiatry Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade was set up. Its first seat was on the premises of the Mental Hospital in Belgrade, and it became a training base and laid the foundations of the future Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Belgrade, which in time evolved into the nursery of psychiatric professionals for all of Serbia. The most important data on the further development of psychiatry up to date are presented.

  20. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J Kirmayer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobhavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery.

  1. Current perspectives on chief residents in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Christopher H; Rachal, James; Breitbach, Jill; Higgins, Michael; Warner, Carolynn; Bobo, William

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine qualitative data from outgoing chief residents in psychiatry from the 2004-2005 academic year to 1) determine common characteristics between programs, 2) examine the residents' perspectives on their experiences, and 3) determine their common leadership qualities. The authors sent out self-report surveys via e-mail to 89 outgoing chief residents who attended the APA/Lilly Chief Resident Executive Leadership Program. Fifty-three (60%) chief residents responded. Although most chief residents are senior residents, over 20% are in their third postgraduate year. Two-thirds of programs have more than one chief resident each year. Most chief residents believe that their "participating" leadership style, existing leadership skills, and interpersonal skills contributed to their overall positive experiences. Successfully performing duties as a chief resident entails functioning in a variety of roles and demands attention to leadership qualities of the individual. Developing existing leadership skills, clarifying expectations, and providing mentorship to chief residents will ensure successful transition into practice, and the advancement of the field of psychiatry.

  2. Psychiatry & the psychedelic drugs. Past, present & future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, James J H; Iliff, Jonathan; Nutt, David J

    2017-12-25

    The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting. Pre-prohibition studies in this area were sub-optimal, although a recent systematic review in unipolar mood disorder and a meta-analysis in alcoholism have both suggested efficacy. The incidence of serious adverse events appears to be low. Since 2006, there have been several pilot trials and randomised controlled trials using psychedelics (mostly psilocybin) in various non-psychotic psychiatric disorders. These have provided encouraging results that provide initial evidence of safety and efficacy, however the regulatory and legal hurdles to licensing psychedelics as medicines are formidable. This paper summarises clinical trials using psychedelics pre and post prohibition, discusses the methodological challenges of performing good quality trials in this area and considers a strategic approach to the legal and regulatory barriers to licensing psychedelics as a treatment in mainstream psychiatry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  4. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  5. Religiosidad catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Sierra G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estos apuntes se refieren a que en estos últimos tiempos ha habido un resurgimiento del fenómeno religioso de diversas maneras, incluso sorprendentes. Al aproximarse el tercer milenio, la posmodernidad religiosa disputa parte de la pantalla electrónica con el melodrama religioso: hoy estamos viviendo una religiosidad mediática, una religiosidad catódica.

  6. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  7. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Stella, Judith L.; Croney, Candace C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could hel...

  8. Forensic psychiatry, one subspecialty with two ethics? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveau, Gérard; Welle, Ida

    2018-04-10

    Forensic psychiatry is a particular subspecialty within psychiatry, dedicated in applying psychiatric knowledge and psychiatric training for particular legal purposes. Given that within the scope of forensic psychiatry, a third party usually intervenes in the patient-doctor relationship, an amendment of the traditional ethical principles seems justified. Thus, 47 articles, two book chapters and the guidelines produced by the World Psychiatric Association, the American Association of Psychiatry and the Law, as well as by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of psychiatrists, were analyzed. The review revealed that the ethics of correctional forensic psychiatry and those of legal forensic psychiatry do not markedly differ from each other, but they are incongruent in terms of implementation. In an effort to better understand which ethical principles apply to forensic psychiatry, a chronological review of the literature published from 1950 to 2015 was carried out. The ethics of correctional forensic psychiatry are primarily deontological. The principle of justice translates into the principle of health care equivalence, the principle of beneficence into providing the best possible care to patients, and the principle of respect of autonomy into ensuring confidentiality and informed consent. The ethics of legal forensic psychiatry are rather consequentialist. In this latter setting, the principle of justice is mainly characterized by professionalism, the principle of beneficence by objectivity and impartiality, and the principle of respect of autonomy by informed consent. However, these two distinct fields of forensic psychiatry share in common the principle of non maleficence, defined as the non collaboration of the psychiatrist in any activity leading to inhuman and degrading treatment or to the death penalty.

  9. [The importance of classifications in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempérière, T

    1995-12-01

    The classifications currently used in psychiatry have different aims: to facilitate communication between researchers and clinicians at national and international levels through the use of a common language, or at least a clearly and precisely defined nomenclature; to provide a nosographical reference system which can be used in practice (diagnosis, prognosis, treatment); to optimize research by ensuring that sample cases are as homogeneous as possible; to facilitate statistical records for public health institutions. A classification is of practical interest only if it is reliable, valid and acceptable to all potential users. In recent decades, there has been a considerable systematic and coordinated effort to improve the methodological approach to classification and categorization in the field of psychiatry, including attempts to create operational definitions, field trials of inter-assessor reliability, attempts to validate the selected nosological categories by analysis of correlation between progression, treatment response, family history and additional examinations. The introduction of glossaries, and particularly of diagnostic criteria, marked a decisive step in this new approach. The key problem remains that of the validity of diagnostic criteria. Ideally, these should be based on demonstrable etiologic or pathogenic data, but such information is rarely available in psychiatry. Current classifications rely on the use of extremely diverse elements in differing degrees: descriptive criteria, evolutive criteria, etiopathogenic criteria, psychopathogenic criteria, etc. Certain syndrome-based classifications such as DSM III and its successors aim to be atheoretical and pragmatic. Others, such as ICD-10, while more eclectic than the different versions of DSM, follow suit by abandoning the terms "disease" and "illness" in favor of the more consensual "disorder". The legitimacy of classifications in the field of psychiatry has been fiercely contested, being

  10. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  11. Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, K G; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Hendrick, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Of 13 cats histologically diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis between July 1988, and November 1989, 5(38%) were also histologically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. In cats with hepatic lipidosis alone, the signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings were generally indistinguishable from those of cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis except that cats with acute pancreatitis were more likely to be cachectic and to have coagulation abnormalities. Hepatomegaly was seen on abdominal radiographs in both groups. Of the 5 cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis, abdominal ultrasonography detected 1 cat with a hypoechoic pancreas and 5 with peritoneal effusion; those abnormalities were not seen in cats without concurrent acute pancreatitis. Cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis had only a 20% recovery rate, compared with a 50% recovery rate in cats with hepatic lipidosis alone. We conclude that cats with hepatic lipidosis should be rigorously evaluated for concurrent acute pancreatitis because of 1) the rate of disease coincidence, 2) the inability of signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings to adequately distinguish between hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis, 3) the worse prognosis associated with concurrent acute pancreatitis, and 4) the opposing nutritional strategies for hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis.

  12. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  13. Are computational models of any use to psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J M; Moutoussis, Michael; Williams, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    Mathematically rigorous descriptions of key hypotheses and theories are becoming more common in neuroscience and are beginning to be applied to psychiatry. In this article two fictional characters, Dr. Strong and Mr. Micawber, debate the use of such computational models (CMs) in psychiatry. We present four fundamental challenges to the use of CMs in psychiatry: (a) the applicability of mathematical approaches to core concepts in psychiatry such as subjective experiences, conflict and suffering; (b) whether psychiatry is mature enough to allow informative modelling; (c) whether theoretical techniques are powerful enough to approach psychiatric problems; and (d) the issue of communicating clinical concepts to theoreticians and vice versa. We argue that CMs have yet to influence psychiatric practice, but that they help psychiatric research in two fundamental ways: (a) to build better theories integrating psychiatry with neuroscience; and (b) to enforce explicit, global and efficient testing of hypotheses through more powerful analytical methods. CMs allow the complexity of a hypothesis to be rigorously weighed against the complexity of the data. The paper concludes with a discussion of the path ahead. It points to stumbling blocks, like the poor communication between theoretical and medical communities. But it also identifies areas in which the contributions of CMs will likely be pivotal, like an understanding of social influences in psychiatry, and of the co-morbidity structure of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology; Funktionelle MRT in Psychiatrie und Neurologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Fink, G.R. (eds.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    2007-07-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives.

  15. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  16. Mapping of cat albumin using monoclonal antibodies: identification of determinants common to cat and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J; Vrancken, E R; Mourad, W

    1989-01-01

    Cat and dog albumins from commercial extracts were used to produce monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Anti-cat albumin MoAb recognized both cat and dog albumin equally, as did anti-dog albumin MoAb; this confirms cross-reactivity between cat and dog. The MoAb were separated into two groups according to their epitopic specificity; they recognized two overlapping epitopes of cat albumin. Furthermore, by competitive inhibition of radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), it was shown that one MoAb group inhibited significantly the binding of human IgE antibodies (from a pool of 13 patients allergic to both cats and dogs) to insolubilized cat or dog extracts. These observations suggest that murine anti-cat or anti-dog MoAb and human IgE antibodies recognize identical or closely related determinants on cat and dog albumin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2478325

  17. Behaviour Problems of Cats Reared Individually or in Coexistence with other Animals (Cats, Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmecová N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1 households with one cat; (2 households with two cats; (3 households with three or more cats; (4 households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.

  18. Serum and urinary cystatin C in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and cats with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Damiaan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”.

  20. [Mental Imagery: Neurophysiology and Implications in Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo

    2014-03-01

    To provide an explanation about what mental imagery is and some implications in psychiatry. This article is a narrative literature review. There are many terms in which imagery representations are described in different fields of research. They are defined as perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus, and can be created in any sensory modality. Their neurophysiological substrate is almost the same as the one activated during sensory perception. There is no unified theory about its function, but it is possibly the way that our brain uses and manipulates the information to respond to the environment. Mental imagery is an everyday phenomenon, and when it occurs in specific patterns it can be a sign of mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Applications of positron emission tomography to psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Brodie, J.D.; Gomez-mont, F.

    1985-01-01

    The brain's inaccessibility has hampered investigation of the metabolic changes underlying the behavioral and psychological symptoms of psychiatric patients. Using positron emission transaxial tomography (PET) to study the functioning human brain opens the possibility of directly investigating the patterns of activity associated with mental illness. A major focus of present-day research in psychiatry has been to identify etiological agents that fit a medical model of psychiatric illness. Experiments seeking pathophysiological indices that would permit objective classification of psychiatric illnesses have failed to reveal consistent abnormalities. The lack of consistency is explained in part by research designs that deal with the brain as if it were a homogeneous organ. PET offers a unique technique for monitoring the regional biochemical activity that is associated with the different ''brain states'' and ''brain traits'' of normal subjects and psychiatric patients

  2. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  5. [Group psychotherapy. Working team in community psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, J S; Barrera, E H

    1977-01-01

    A Community Psychiatry program was begun, based on the needs and requests of a clinic (this approach is restricted because there are institutional factors that only the institution can change). The work was aimed at sensitizing the beneficiaries and change clinic factors modifiable through operative group technique. When a great deal of every day stereotypes appeared, role playing was used: as a result, people in the clinic realized how they acted and how they asked from others behaviors that they themselves found difficult to show. As results, it was found that when workers were confronted with reality, desertion from operative groups appeared, with projection of problems (them, not me), great fear of change (fantasized in different ways), group passivity and the image of the institution, that the group saw as a persecutor.

  6. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurofeedback: One of today's techniques in psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, M; Batail, J-M; Bioulac, S; Congedo, M; Daudet, C; Drapier, D; Fovet, T; Jardri, R; Le-Van-Quyen, M; Lotte, F; Mehler, D; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Purper-Ouakil, D; Vialatte, F

    2017-04-01

    Neurofeedback is a technique that aims to teach a subject to regulate a brain parameter measured by a technical interface to modulate his/her related brain and cognitive activities. However, the use of neurofeedback as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders remains controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize and to comment the level of evidence of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback and real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback for therapeutic application in psychiatry. Literature on neurofeedback and mental disorders but also on brain computer interfaces (BCI) used in the field of neurocognitive science has been considered by the group of expert of the Neurofeedback evaluation & training (NExT) section of the French Association of biological psychiatry and neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN). Results show a potential efficacy of EEG-neurofeedback in the treatment of attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, even if this is still debated. For other mental disorders, there is too limited research to warrant the use of EEG-neurofeedback in clinical practice. Regarding fMRI neurofeedback, the level of evidence remains too weak, for now, to justify clinical use. The literature review highlights various unclear points, such as indications (psychiatric disorders, pathophysiologic rationale), protocols (brain signals targeted, learning characteristics) and techniques (EEG, fMRI, signal processing). The field of neurofeedback involves psychiatrists, neurophysiologists and researchers in the field of brain computer interfaces. Future studies should determine the criteria for optimizing neurofeedback sessions. A better understanding of the learning processes underpinning neurofeedback could be a key element to develop the use of this technique in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan

    2011-01-01

    compared CT and DEXA data from 73 healthy adult neutered domestic cats. Three approaches for measuring adipose tissue percentage from full-body CT scans were explored. By examining the frequency distribution of voxels by Hounsfield unit (HU) value, it is possible to calculate a fat index (Fat...

  9. Psychiatry in Pakistan: 1947-2006: a new balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2007-09-01

    This review deals with the evolution of psychiatry in Pakistan since its inception in 1947. It describes the situation of psychiatric services, education and research through the years 1947-2006, presenting a picture of existing mental health scenario, suggesting the ways for improvement and comment on possible future developments. It concludes with the prediction of a revolutionary change in the current shape of psychiatry throughout the world and especially in Pakistan whereby psychiatry will change to organic-based discipline of a wider "Neurosciences".

  10. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....

  11. Psychiatrie in meervoud. De wetenschappelijke oriëntaties van de Nederlandse psychiatrie in het interbellum (1918-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Vijselaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry in multiplicity According to a widespread interpretation, the history of psychiatry is characterized by a strong opposition between biological and psychological paradigms, which would dominate consecutive periods in history. The image of a swinging pendulum is a popular metaphor to describe this idea. The culture of Dutch psychiatry in the interwar years (1918-1940 seems to gainsay this image. Psychological, biological and socials models of explanation and therapy were used alongside each other without apparent debate and conflict. Influential professors of psychiatry like H.C. Rümke (Utrecht University even pleaded for a conscious integration of these approaches. Some historians have interpreted this stance as a sign of scientific ‘vagueness’ and ‘anarchy’. Analyzing the work of three major representatives of Dutch psychiatry in the Interbellum (Leendert Bouman, Han Rümke and Lammert van der Horst, the authors (former students of the master Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities shed light on the psychiatric climate of this era, dealing with themes like the openness of psychiatry to other sciences, the interactions of psychiatry and literature, and the relationship between theory and clinical practice. As a result a further qualification of the image of the pendulum is argued for.

  12. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Anvik, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    A seven month old domestic shorthaired male cat was presented with a known history of acetaminophen ingestion. Clinical findings included icterus, depression, hypothermia, tachypnea and pronounced edema of the head and neck. Treatment was aimed at providing substrate to assist in conjugation of the drug and reversing methemoglobinemia. Administration of oral acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid and IV fluids was insufficient in this case due to a delay in initiation of treatment. The salient postmor...

  13. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  14. Odontogenic keratocyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Walker, K S; Mohr, F C; Murphy, B

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are derived from odontogenic epithelium, can be locally invasive and destructive and have been reported rarely in cats. A 16-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat had a 3-year history of a slowly progressive, right mandibular swelling. Intraoral dental radiographs revealed a multilocular, radiolucent, cystic mass within the right mandible that extended from the distal aspect of the canine tooth to the mesial aspect of the fourth premolar tooth. Radiographically, the mass was associated with distortion and regional destruction of the right mandibular bone and resorption of regional tooth roots. Histological examination of an incisional biopsy sample revealed multiple ruptured cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium of odontogenic origin with luminal parakeratinization and a prominent palisading basal cell layer. The cyst contained abundant orthokeratotic and parakeratotic keratin. The clinical, radiographical and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, as seen in man. This is the first report of an odontogenic keratocyst in a cat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Palliative psychiatry for severe persistent mental illness as a new approach to psychiatry? Definition, scope, benefits, and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Manuel; Irwin, Scott A; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Hoff, Paul; Riese, Florian

    2016-07-22

    As a significant proportion of patients receiving palliative care suffer from states of anxiety, depression, delirium, or other mental symptoms, psychiatry and palliative care already collaborate closely in the palliative care of medical conditions. Despite this well-established involvement of psychiatrists in palliative care, psychiatry does not currently explicitly provide palliative care for patients with mental illness outside the context of terminal medical illness. Based on the WHO definition of palliative care, a, a working definition of palliative psychiatry is proposed. Palliative psychiatry focuses on mental health rather than medical/physical issues. We propose that the beneficiaries of palliative psychiatry are patients with severe persistent mental illness, who are at risk of therapeutic neglect and/or overly aggressive care within current paradigms. These include long-term residential care patients with severe chronic schizophrenia and insufficient quality of life, those with therapy-refractory depressions and repeated suicide attempts, and those with severe long-standing therapy-refractory anorexia nervosa. An explicitly palliative approach within psychiatry has the potential to improve quality of care, person-centredness, outcomes, and autonomy for patients with severe persistent mental illness. The first step towards a palliative psychiatry is to acknowledge those palliative approaches that already exist implicitly in psychiatry. Basic skills for a palliative psychiatry include communication of diagnosis and prognosis, symptom assessment and management, support for advance (mental health) care planning, assessment of caregiver needs, and referral to specialized services. Some of these may already be considered core skills of psychiatrists, but for a truly palliative approach they should be exercised guided by an awareness of the limited functional prognosis and lifespan of patients with severe persistent mental illness.

  16. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  17. Crossing the line--learning psychiatry at the movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Adil; O'Brien, Aileen; O'Neill, Aidan; Latham, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Special Study Modules (SSMs) have developed in response to the General Medical Council's recommendations. St George's, University of London runs a 'Psychiatry and Film' SSM for medical students on the 5-year MBBS course. Many films have plots or characters that have a mental illness. Psychiatry & filmmaking share certain skills. Both seek to understand character, motivation and behaviour. Cinema therefore has the potential to be a useful tool for medical educational purposes. Specific to psychiatry, themes such as the accuracy of portrayals of different mental illness, the psychiatrist/patient relationship and living with a mental illness can be explored. General issues such as the role of the psychiatrist in society, medical ethics, professionalism and stigma can also be usefully highlighted for consideration and debate. This may encourage medical students to consider psychiatry as a potential career specialty and help reduce negative attitudes to mental illness.

  18. Attitudes towards psychiatry of undergraduate medical students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of mental health services to all citizens of Nigeria by the year 2000 and ... and clinic consultations. Undergraduate students' attitudes towards psychiatry potentially ..... peculiar or neurotic behaviours. 9 (36.0%). 16 (64.0%).

  19. The role of psychiatry in family violence treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasić Petar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics approach to family violence treatment is discussed, as well as the roles of psychiatry in current theoretical and therapeutic approaches to this issue, including systemic family therapy, social psychiatry primarily concerned with their treatment. Studies have shown that severe mental disorders do not increase ecology, unwillingness therapy and model of protection of family violence victims that is developed in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47021

  20. The guideline "consultation psychiatry" of the Netherlands Psychiatric Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentjens, A.F.G.; Boenink, A.D.; Sno, H.N.; Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M.; Croonenborg, van J.J.; Everdingen, van J.J.E.; Feltz - Cornelis, van der C.M.; Laan, van der S.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.; Os, T.W.D.P. Van

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Netherlands Psychiatric Association authorized a guideline "consultation psychiatry." Aim: To set a standard for psychiatric consultations in nonpsychiatric settings. The main objective of the guideline is to answer three questions: Is psychiatric consultation effective and,

  1. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Forensic Forum: Will Forensic Psychiatry survive DSM-5? | Kaliski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Flash photolysis of rhodopsin in the cat retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripps, H.; Mehaffey, L.; Siegel, I.M.; Ernst, W.; Kemp, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The bleaching of rhodopsin by short-duration flashes of a xenon discharge lamp was studied in vivo in the cat retina with the aid of a rapid, spectral-scan fundus reflectometer. Difference spectra recorded over a broad range of intensities showed that the bleaching efficacy of high-intensity flashes was less than that of longer duration, steady lights delivering the same amount of energy. Both the empirical results and those derived from a theoretical analysis of flash photolysis indicate that, under the conditions of these experiments, the upper limit of the flash bleaching of rhodopsin in cat is approximately 90%. Although the fact that a full bleach could not be attained is attributable to photoreversal, i.e., the photic regeneration of rhodopsin from its light-sensitive intermediates, the 90% limit is considerably higher than the 50% (or lower) value obtained under other experimental circumstances. Thus, it appears that the duration (approximately 1 ms) and spectral composition of the flash, coupled with the kinetic parameters of the thermal and photic reactions in the cat retina, reduce the light-induced regeneration of rhodopsin to approximately 10%

  4. A review of feral cat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  5. How to improve psychiatric services: a perspective from critical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Prasanna

    2017-09-02

    Concern has been expressed from both within and outwith psychiatry about the relative lack of improvement of mental health services. Critical psychiatry is an emerging school of thought, mainly the product of practicing clinicians, which could be useful in remedying this situation. This article outlines, for psychiatrists and doctors of other specialities, practices which could be improved, and the competencies required to achieve this, in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

  6. One patient's search for antidotes to nihilism in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A prosumer who experienced problems after misdiagnosis and mistreatment, the author searched for explanations of the short cuts inflicted on him by a mental health professional. Wanting to learn from the painful experience of willful incompetence, write to achieve closure and create a teaching tale to help other patients, the author studied the literature, read about the tradition of nihilism in psychiatry, found research reports of deviations from practice guidelines and tested three antidotes to nihilism in psychiatry.

  7. The role of psychiatry in family violence treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nastasić, Petar; Hrnčić, Jasna; Brkić, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics appro...

  8. [Audio-visual communication in the history of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, B; Remoli, V; Russo, F

    1993-12-01

    The authors analyse the evolution of visual communication in the history of psychiatry. From the 18th century oil paintings to the first dagherrotic prints until the cinematography and the modern audiovisual systems they observed an increasing diffusion of the new communication techniques in psychiatry, and described the use of the different techniques in psychiatric practice. The article ends with a brief review of the current applications of the audiovisual in therapy, training, teaching, and research.

  9. Argentine psychiatry: report on the 30th Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul

    2016-04-01

    To give a contextualised personal account of the 30th Annual Congress of the Argentine Association of Psychiatrists. Conference attendance and analysis of talks. The congress demonstrated that Argentine psychiatry is held back by oppressive political regimes and by government underfunding. The drug companies and third-party payers are entering the vacuum. Argentine trainees and consultants feel ill-prepared to meet the demands of the biomedical psychiatry. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  10. [Medical students and psychiatry. A survey of students' opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, F; Corsini, G; Rovida, S

    1994-06-01

    In the last years research on the didactics of Psychiatry and opinions of medical students on Psychiatry has gained great interest. The authors think that this research could be useful for the improvement of didactics, for better understanding the meanings of professional choice, the identity of psychiatrist and their relationship with colleagues in other medical field. The goal of this research work was a preliminary survey of Genoese University Medical Student's opinions about psychiatry didactics, and choice of specialization. A questionnaire was submitted to all the students who passed Clinical Psychiatry examination in the period from November 1987 to December 1988. The students were divided in two randomized groups: the first group of students (224) was submitted to the questionnaire immediately after Clinical Psychiatry examination; while to the second group of students (66) the questionnaire was mailed. The aim of the questions was to assess the student's opinions on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, the career they wanted to take up, and the difficulties of studying psychiatry: 69% of the students of the first group and 42% of the students of the second group answered the questionnaire. Female students answered that they preferred psychiatric specialization more than their male colleagues did, but the difference has no statistical importance. In most cases, the students who answered that they have taken into account psychiatry as a choice of specialisation, are more interested in medical specialties (primary care, etc.) than in surgical specialties. Most of the medical students declare some emotional troubles (anxiety, sleeplessness, problem in social relations).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. [Alex, an example of a successful transition to adult psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, Thierry

    A successful transition between child psychiatry and adult psychiatry is the result of a joint project. To ensure the continuity of the adolescent's care, the two protagonists need a common and constructive clinical interpretation, and a shared understanding of the problems, without which the transition will be difficult. The story of Alex, a young teenager cared for since early childhood, illustrates the communication methods which must be put in place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Scoping review protocol: education initiatives for medical psychiatry collaborative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nelson; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Abi Jaoude, Alexxa; Bailey, Sharon M; Bernier, Thérèse; Freeland, Alison; Hawa, Aceel; Hollenberg, Elisa; Woldemichael, Bethel; Wiljer, David

    2017-09-03

    The collaborative care model is an approach providing care to those with mental health and addictions disorders in the primary care setting. There is a robust evidence base demonstrating its clinical and cost-effectiveness in comparison with usual care; however, the transitioning to this new paradigm of care has been difficult. While there are efforts to train and prepare healthcare professionals, not much is known about the current state of collaborative care training programmes. The objective of this scoping review is to understand how widespread these collaborative care education initiatives are, how they are implemented and their impacts. The scoping review methodology uses the established review methodology by Arksey and O'Malley. The search strategy was developed by a medical librarian and will be applied in eight different databases spanning multiple disciplines. A two-stage screening process consisting of a title and abstract scan and a full-text review will be used to determine the eligibility of articles. To be included, articles must report on an existing collaborative care education initiative for healthcare providers. All articles will be independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers, and all eligible articles will be abstracted and charted in duplicate using a standardised form. The extracted data will undergo a 'narrative review' or a descriptive analysis of the contextual or process-oriented data and simple quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics. Research ethics approval is not required for this scoping review. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a collaborative care training initiative emerging from the Medical Psychiatry Alliance, a four-institution philanthropic partnership in Ontario, Canada. The results will also be presented at relevant national and international conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in

  13. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  14. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  15. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 Personnel Testing Division Defense Manpower Data Center March 2006 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hetter, R. D. "Psychometric Procedures for Administering CAT -ASVAB" (pp. 131-140) Chapter 4 Hetter, R. D., & Sympson J. B. "Item Exposure

  16. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL by Michael Glenn Coleman September 1997 Thesis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1997 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT ), designed to provide an automated tool for the anlysis of design decisions in developing client

  17. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  18. Towards Community - Reflections on Community Psychiatry, Culture and Alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The constant transformation of  communities  and  its relationship  with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding  communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature about Community Psychiatry and Culture, Communities, and Social Inequity and Mental Health.Results: The authors start by reviewing the meaning  of  Community and the  defining principles of Community Psychiatry in their relationships with  cultural  sensitivity.  This aspect is illustrated with two examples of the impact of culture and alterity in the understanding of Mental Health and Service Organization, one at the level of International and Global Mental Health, and the other at the local communities’ level. In this context, participatory action research is highlighted.Conclusions: Psychiatry,  in  particular Community  Psychiatry,  by acknowledging a  wide  range  of  methodologies  and  being open  to transdisciplinary  models, is in a privileged position of electing communities as a field of investigation and integrate it in its praxis.

  19. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    Computer technology dominates our daily lives and has become an integral professional tool in medical practice and by extension, in psychiatry as well. The widespread use of internet technology has taken place with unprecedented speed in the history of human civilization, spreading in a few decades to all countries of the world, offering novel possibilities for transmitting information, and leading to the globalization of knowledge. However, the speed with which computer technology is becoming a part of our lives is accompanied by difficulties in integration. The continued evolution of applications often leads to the impression that to be modern and efficient we have to run continuously after developments, dedicating time and effort that we cannot often afford. At the same time, its widespread use alters the needs of our patients, and our efficiency is constantly judged in a globalized environment which, while offering new possibilities, also has new demands. The initial impression that computer technology is simply a tool that can facilitate the work of those who are willing and able to use it has been replaced by the perception that the practice of medicine, in both clinical and academic level, requires sufficient knowledge of modern technology and the development of relevant skills for ongoing training and following innovative applications. The result of this assumption is the introduction of technology courses in the curricula of medical schools in the country. This article offers a brief description of the uses of information technology in psychiatry. In particular, e-mail is one of the most popular Internet services and there is internationally an increasing pressure from the public to be able to contact their doctor by e-mail. Furthermore, almost all psychiatric journals now have a digital electronic edition, thus increasing the volume of articles published, the ease of accessing the required information, and ultimately the reduction of the time it takes a

  20. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  1. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.R.; Cayzer, J.; Dillon, E.A.; Smidt, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  2. Association between Characteristics of Cats and Satisfaction of Owners who Adopted Cats from an Animal Hospital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODERA, Nodoka; UCHIDA, Keiko; KAKUMA, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with 29 cat owners who adopted cats from an animal hospital in Japan. Physical characteristics were found to be important factors for the owners when choosing a cat. There were significant differences between impression of the cat for the owners at present and images of their ideal cats, and the levels of aggression and activeness of the cats at present were rated higher than their ideal cats. A significant negative correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the cat and occurrence of house soiling; thus, some behavioral problems may deteriorate the relationship between the owner and the cat. PMID:24419973

  3. Hematologic, cytochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular findings of Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Narkkong, Nual-Anong; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Pattanarangsan, Rattapan

    2008-03-01

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia and is considered extremely endangered. Little is known about the hematologic values, blood cell morphology, or hemoparasites of this species in relation to other Felidae. The objective of this study was to report basic hematologic values and describe the light microscopic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in 2 wild-caught flat-headed cats. In addition, molecular analysis was done of a Hepatozoon organism found in the neutrophils of both cats. Blood samples were collected into EDTA from the cephalic vein. A CBC, manual differential count, manual reticulocyte count, cytochemical stains (Sudan black B [SBB], alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], and beta-glucuronidase), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were done using standard methods. HCT was slightly lower and reticulocyte counts and red cell distribution width were higher than the expected values for other species of cats. Hepatozoon organisms were found in the cytoplasm of neutrophils in both cats, but the number of infected neutrophils was very low (1%-2%). Neutrophils stained strongly positive for SBB, but were negative for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. Hepatozoon-infected neutrophils were negative for SBB, but focally positive for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. By transmission electron microscopy, gamonts of Hepatozoon sp were observed in neutrophils, and rarely free in plasma. Infected neutrophils had fewer specific granules and more mitochondria compared with noninfected neutrophils. PCR products of partial 18S rRNA revealed that the isolate of Hepatozoon in the flat-headed cats was closely related to that of the frog Hepatozoon sp. These results add to our understanding of hematologic values and blood cell morphology in Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats as well as the molecular analysis of the Hepatozoon organism, and may be useful for the health management and evaluation of

  4. Brain SPECT in psychiatry: Delusion or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Epstein, P.; Kohn, R.; Antonino, F.; Devore-Best, S.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The need for functional information is becoming increasingly evident for proper therapeutic approaches to the treatment and follow up of psychiatric diseases. While data on this subject already exists, there is a general lack of consensus about the use of brain SPECT in this domain and also a considerable negative prejudice due to a number of factors including poor quality imaging and unrealistic expectations. Based on a large group of brain SPECT-s performed over the past 3 years we attempted to sort and refine the indications for SPECT in psychiatry. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT was performed with triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A comprehensive semiquantitative color, 3D surface as well as multi-thresholded volume display was routinely used and supplemented by automatic realignment in case of longitudinal follow-up. Results: 470 brain SPECT-s done on 432 patients were all referred by psychiatrists or neuro-psychiatrists for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diseases and ranged in age from 7 to 88 years. The most common primary reasons for referral were : attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); anxiety; obsessive-compulsive disease, depression (refractory, chronic, bipolar ), impulse control problems; oppositional defiance, post traumatic brain injury; seizures, learning difficulties, pervasive development disorders, memory loss and differential of dementia. Among common denominators were long duration of the disease, unresponsiveness to treatment, worsening of clinical status, and presence of multiple conditions at the same time. The multiparametric display used enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the brain volume which included the hemispheric surfaces; the basal ganglia (striatum) and the thalamus, several components of the limbic and paralimbic systems: anterior and posterior cingulate and their respective subdivisions, insula-s and their subdivisions, apical and mesial

  5. Frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatry patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sevda Korkmaz,1 Sevler Yildiz,1 Tuba Korucu,1 Burcu Gundogan,1 Zehra Emine Sunbul,1 Hasan Korkmaz,2 Murad Atmaca1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Purpose: Anemia could cause psychiatric symptoms such as cognitive function disorders and depression or could deteriorate an existing psychiatric condition when it is untreated. The objective of this study is to scrutinize the frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatric patients and the clinical and sociodemographic factors that could affect this frequency.Methods: All inpatients in our clinic who satisfied the study criteria and received treatment between April 2014 and April 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data for 378 patients included in the study and hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit values observed during their admission to the hospital were recorded in the forms. Male patients with an Hb level of <13 g/dL and nonpregnant female patients with an Hb level of <12 g/dL were considered as anemic.Findings: Axis 1 diagnoses demonstrated that 172 patients had depressive disorder, 51 patients had bipolar disorder, 54 patients had psychotic disorder, 33 patients had conversion disorder, 19 patients had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 25 patients had generalized anxiety disorder, and 24 patients had other psychiatric conditions. It was also determined that 25.4% of the patients suffered from anemia. Thirty-five percent of females and 10% of males were considered as anemic. The frequency of anemia was the highest among psychotic disorder patients (35%, followed by generalized anxiety disorder patients (32%, and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (26%. Anemia was diagnosed in 22% of depressive disorder patients, 25% of bipolar disorder patients, and 24% of conversion disorder patients.Results: The prevalence of anemia among chronic psychiatry patients is more frequent than the general population

  6. Personal Therapy in Psychiatry Residency Training: A National Survey of Canadian Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Halli, Priyanka; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-02-01

    The authors collected nationally representative data on Canadian residents' experiences with and perspectives on personal psychotherapy in their psychiatric training. A 43-item questionnaire was distributed electronically to all current psychiatry residents in Canada (N = 839). Four hundred residents from every program across Canada returned the survey (response rate 47.7%). The prevalence of personal therapy at any time was 55.3%, with 42.8% receiving personal therapy during residency. Of residents who undertook personal psychotherapy, 59.3% engaged in weekly therapy, 74.1% received psychodynamic psychotherapy, and 81.5% participated in long-term therapy (>1 year). Personal growth, self-understanding, and professional development were the most common reasons for engaging in personal therapy; however, one-third of residents did so to alleviate symptoms of depression, anxiety, or other mental health concerns. Time was the most important factor impeding residents from personal therapy; only 8.8% found stigma to act as a barrier. The vast majority of residents rated their experience with personal therapy as having a positive or very positive impact on their personal life (84.8%) and overall development as psychiatrists (81.8%). For 64% of respondents, personal therapy had an important or very important role in psychiatry residency training. Residents who received personal therapy rated themselves as better able to understand what happens moment by moment during therapy sessions, detect and deal with patients' emotional reactions, and constructively use their personal reactions to patients. Interest in personal therapy remains strong among psychiatry trainees in Canada. Residents who engaged in psychotherapy endorsed greater confidence in psychotherapy and rated their psychotherapy skills more favorably than those who had never been in the patient role, supporting the view of personal therapy as an important adjunct to psychotherapy training during residency.

  7. Palliative psychiatry for severe persistent mental illness as a new approach to psychiatry? Definition, scope, benefits, and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Trachsel, Manuel; Irwin, Scott A; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Hoff, Paul; Riese, Florian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a significant proportion of patients receiving palliative care suffer from states of anxiety, depression, delirium, or other mental symptoms, psychiatry and palliative care already collaborate closely in the palliative care of medical conditions. Despite this well-established involvement of psychiatrists in palliative care, psychiatry does not currently explicitly provide palliative care for patients with mental illness outside the context of terminal medical illness. DISCUSSI...

  8. ‎ Factors Affecting the Choice of Psychiatry as a Specialty in ‎Psychiatry Residents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Seyed Saeed; Nayerifard‎‎, Razieh; Samimi Ardestani, Seyed Mehdi; Namjoo, Massood

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the current factors affecting the choice of ‎psychiatry as a specialty and to detect the main factors in their choice.‎ Method: This descriptive study included 75 first year psychiatry residents in the academic year of ‎‎2014/2015. A Likert-type anonymous questionnaire consisting of academic and ‎demographic data with 43 questions, which evaluated the reason for choosing ‎psychiatry as a specialty, was given to the residents.‎ Results: The participants had a positive opinion about 28 items of the questionnaire, meaning that ‎these items had a positive effect in choosing psychiatry as a specialty (questions with P ‎value less than 0.05 and a positive mean). More than 80% of the residents had a positive ‎opinion about six items of the questionnaire (amount of intellectual challenge, variety of ‎knowledge fields relevant to psychiatry, emphasis on the patient as a whole person, the ‎importance of treating mental illnesses in the future, work pressure and stress of the ‎field during residency and coordinating with the person's life style). The participants ‎had a negative opinion about two items of the questionnaire (questions with a P value ‎less than 0.05 and a negative mean). They included experiencing mental illness ‎personally through relatives or close friends as well as the income in psychiatry. ‎Moreover, 36% of the residents with a more definite opinion mentioned that they chose ‎psychiatry as a specialty because of the limitations in residency exam.‎ Conclusion: Assistants had a positive opinion about most of the questions and this positive attitude ‎seemed to be an important factor in their specialty choice. However, attending to the ‎preventing factors may increase the selection of psychiatry as a specialty.‎ PMID:27928251

  9. Open-mouth jaw locking in cats: a literature review and use of computed tomography in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Anna E; Anderson, Thomas; Gracis, Margherita; Doran, Ivan; Warren-Smith, Chris; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J

    2017-11-01

    Case series summary This report summarises and reviews the published cases of open-mouth jaw locking in cats and describes three further cases. Case 1 was a 5-year-old, 5.3 kg male neutered domestic shorthair cat. CT identified changes consistent with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysplasia with osseous degenerative changes, and the cat subsequently underwent bilateral partial zygomectomy with bilateral partial coronoidectomy. Case 2 was a 10-year-old, 6.0 kg male neutered Exotic Shorthair. Aside from a fracture of the left maxillary canine tooth crown and absence of the left maxillary fourth premolar tooth, no abnormalities were found on CT scan. The cat also underwent bilateral partial zygomectomy with bilateral partial coronoidectomy. The third case was a 1-year-old, 4.0 kg male neutered Persian cat. Changes on CT were consistent with bilateral TMJ dysplasia, and the cat underwent staged bilateral partial zygomectomy with bilateral partial coronoidectomy. There was no recurrence of open-mouth jaw locking in any of the cases on long-term follow-up. Relevance and novel information Open-mouth jaw locking has been reported in cats of a wide range of ages, from 1-10 years of age. Cats with all skull types (brachycephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic) may be affected, but brachycephalic breeds seem to be over-represented. A CT scan with the jaw locked in place is recommended for diagnosis and surgical planning purposes; two of the cases reported here document the first cases of TMJ dysplasia in cats to be definitively diagnosed using CT. Trauma and symphyseal or TMJ laxity may also predispose to development of the condition. Partial coronoidectomy and partial zygomatic arch resection performed alone or in combination are generally successful at preventing recurrence. Bilateral partial zygomectomy with bilateral partial coronoidectomy has not previously been reported as a surgical treatment, and is recommended when open-mouth jaw locking occurs bilaterally.

  10. [The "Psychiatrie-Enquete" - the German Report on the State of Psychiatry in 1975].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzen, Asmus

    2015-10-01

    Forty years ago an expert-commission submitted a report on the deplorable state of German psychiatric care, called the "Psychiatrie-Enquete" to the Bundestag, the German parliament. The Report initiated a substantial change of Psychiatric services in the country. Inhuman treatment and living conditions were superseded. Mental hospitals were not completely abolished. But they lost their importance in favour of decentralized psychiatric services including departments at general hospitals, day hospitals and outpatient services. Custodial care was largely successfully developed into therapeutic and rehabilitative care. This article attempts a mildly critical evaluation of the Enquête 40 years after. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Periaortic lymphoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bree

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was presented with a 3 month history of lethargy, inappetence, dehydration, hindlimb ataxia and intermittent proprioceptive deficits in the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed low body condition score (1.75/5, pallor and bilateral basilar grade II/VI systolic heart murmur. Neurological examination revealed hindlimb ataxia, severe atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, intermittent hindlimb proprioceptive deficits and normoreflexia. Clinicopathological investigations revealed non-regenerative anaemia (haematocrit 0.17 l/l; reference interval [RI] 0.24–0.45 l/l and increased feline pancreatic lipase concentration (Spec fPL test [IDEXX] 8.3 μg/l; RI 0.1–3.5 μg/l. Feline leukaemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody tests were negative. Thoracic and abdominal imaging revealed a soft tissue structure in the area of the thoracoabdominal aorta. CT confirmed a periaortic contrast-enhancing mass extending from the level of T9–L2, with associated intervertebral infiltration at the level of T11–T12. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of a solid, white, multinodular, well-demarcated mass encircling the aorta extending from T9–L2. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma was made. Lymphoma was also identified histopathologically within the kidneys and spleen. Evidence of mild Wallerian degeneration was present within the spinal cord, indicating compression at the level of the periaortic mass. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of periaortic lymphoma in the cat. Although periaortic tumours are exceptionally rare in veterinary medicine, lymphoma should be considered as a differential in cats.

  12. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we q...

  13. In search of Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, John.

    1984-01-01

    The book explains how the paradox of Schroedinger's cat led to an understanding of reality in quantum physics. The contents of the book is divided into three parts. Part one concerns light, atoms and Bohr's atom. Quantum mechanics is discussed in Part Two, including photons and electrons, matrices and waves, and applications of quanta. The last part deals with chance and uncertainty, paradoxes and possibilities, the experimental proof of the paradoxical reality of the quantum world, and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. (U.K.)

  14. Contested Boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public.

  15. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  16. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Nasser; Gorji, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The history of psychological sciences and especially the ways in which related disorders were treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the West. The main objective of this article is to review the clinical approaches to psychological disorders used by practitioners in medieval Persia. Several documents still exist from which the clinical data on different psychological syndromes in medieval Persia can be ascertained. Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Internet, references from relevant articles and books, the Astan-e-Ghods Razavi Library, the Tehran University Library, the Mashhad University Library, and the files of the authors. Search terms included psychiatry, psychology, Persian, medieval, Avicenna, and pharmacotherapy. The medieval practitioners defined various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of these disorders. Medieval Persian medical writings encouraged the treatment of psychological disorders by tackling the conditions that cause or contribute to the disorder and through the use of electrical-shock therapy, phlebotomy, psychotherapy, music and color therapy, and especially prescription of long lists of medicaments. Some of the approaches of doctors in medieval Persia are accepted today, although most remain largely unexamined. With further research, more of these treatments may be shown to be of use to modern medicine.

  17. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background.

  18. Beyond the DSM: trends in psychiatry diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Russowsky Brunoni

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Although widely used in clinical practice and research, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM diagnoses have low validity: patients with different mental disorders can share similar symptoms, while those with the same diagnosis might have different symptoms. In fact, the DSM diagnostic system has been considered one of the main obstacles for further development of psychiatric research. Recently, it has been proposed that psychiatry nosology should be reframed according to a biologically-based etiology. Objectives: To review present and past endeavors of establishing an etiology-based nosology. Methods: Comprehensive review of articles on the topic. Results: From Hippocrates onwards, multiple attempts have been undertaken aiming to move etiology and nosology closer. The most recent efforts are represented by Developmental Psychopathology (DP and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC, which presents an operational matrix recommended to be used in clinical research instead of the DSM diagnoses. Discussion: The DSM-based nosology is faulty. RDoC and DP might be interesting alternatives for an etiology-based nosology. However, while DP has already brought promising results, RDoC is a novel proposal, whose advantages and disadvantages should gradually be identified in the upcoming years.

  19. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  20. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  1. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. © 2013.

  2. Neuropsychiatry and neuroscience education of psychiatry trainees: attitudes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon; Travis, Michael J; Cooper, Joseph J; Dickey, Chandlee C; Reardon, Claudia L

    2014-04-01

    The American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) Task Force on Neuropsychiatry and Neuroscience Education of Psychiatry Residents was established in 2011 with the charge to seek information about what the field of psychiatry considers the core topics in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience to which psychiatry residents should be exposed; whether there are any "competencies" in this area on which the field agrees; whether psychiatry departments have the internal capacity to teach these topics if they are desirable; and what the reception would be for "portable curricula" in neuroscience. The task force reviewed the literature and developed a survey instrument to be administered nationwide to all psychiatry residency program directors. The AADPRT Executive Committee assisted with the survey review, and their feedback was incorporated into the final instrument. In 2011-2012, 226 adult and child and adolescent psychiatry residency program directors responded to the survey, representing over half of all US adult and child psychiatry training directors. About three quarters indicated that faculty resources were available in their departments but 39% felt the lack of neuropsychiatry faculty and 36% felt the absence of neuroscience faculty to be significant barriers. Respectively, 64 and 60% felt that neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience knowledge were very important or critically important to the provision of excellent care. Ninety-two percent were interested in access to portable neuroscience curricula. There is widespread agreement among training directors on the importance of neuropsychiatry and neuroscience knowledge to general psychiatrists but barriers to training exist, including some programs that lack faculty resources and a dearth of portable curricula in these areas.

  3. [An analysis of advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch Journal of Psychiatry ('Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, W; Kuyken, K

    2009-01-01

    Through the marketing of psychotropics the pharmaceutical industry is able to influence the way in which psychiatrists practise their profession. To look at the image of psychiatry as reflected in advertisements for psychotropics. method Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the advertisements for psychotropics in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie between 1999 and 2006. On average 6 per cent of the total number of pages was given over annually to advertisements of psychotropics. The number of pages used for these advertisements changed over the years, with a sharp decline between 2002 and 2004. Before 2002 the majority of advertisements was for antidepressants, but later most of them were for antipsychotics. Three-quarters of the illustrations for antidepressants featured women whereas three-quarters of the illustrations for antipsychotics featured men. In general, the advertisements were of an 'emotional' nature and surprisingly few of them contained any scientific information. The advertisements for psychotropics portrayed a stereotyped image implying that it is mainly women who are depressed and mainly men who are psychotic. In its advertisements the pharmaceutical industry seeks primarily emotional reactions and uses hardly any scientific arguments. We wonder if the editorial boards of scientific journals should perhaps adopt a more critical attitude to these kinds of advertisements.

  4. Probing a gravitational cat state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)

  5. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  6. Potential value of serial cerebral SPECT scanning in the evaluation of psychiatric illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notardonato, H.; Gonzalez-Avilez, A.; Van Heertum, R.L.; O'Connell, R.A.; Yudd, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral SPECT imaging has the potential to make an important contribution to clinical psychiatry. Cerebral SPECT scanning, stimulated by the work with PET, is readily available and much less expensive than PET. This paper reports a case demonstrating the potential value of cerebral SPECT scanning with I-123 IMP, specifically in the serial evaluation of a schizophrenic patient with auditory hallucinations. The initial scan revealed focal areas of increased uptake in the caudate nuclei of the basal ganglia, and in the right temporal lobe. After pharmacological treatment with clinical improvement, the follow-up SPECT scan demonstrated significant improvement in the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical

  7. Bacterial reproductive pathogens of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J

    2012-05-01

    With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.

  8. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  9. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  10. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul

    2002-05-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  11. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  12. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  13. Mysterious quantum Cheshire cat: an illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, K.; Lippert, Th.; De Raedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We provide a mystery-free explanation for the experimentally observed facts in the neutron interferometry quantum Cheshire cat experiment of Denkmayr et al. [Nat. Comm. 5, 4492, 2014] in terms of a discrete-event simulation model, demonstrating that the quantum Cheshire cat is an illusion.

  14. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  15. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  16. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  17. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  18. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  19. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  20. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [ 3 H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with 11 C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [ 11 C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [ 11 C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [ 11 C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation was observed

  1. Longitudinal Analysis of Female Authorship of Psychiatry Articles in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden Aki, Özlem; Özçelik Eroğlu, Elçin; Uslu, Ece

    2015-03-01

    The number of women with careers in medicine and with academic positions at medical schools has increased substantially since the 1980s; however, women remain underrepresented in medical academia, which may be because of the fewer research publications authored by women. This study aimed to determine the gender distribution among Turkish authors of psychiatry articles published in international scientific journals during a 30-year period. The ISI Web of Science database was searched for all psychiatry publications between 1980 and 2009 using the search term Turkey. All articles were classified according to publication period (1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009), gender of the first and last authors, first author title, total number of authors, and type of article. In all, 1961 articles meet the study criteria. The first author of 36.5% of the articles and 34.9% of last authors were women. The percentage of female first and last authors did not differ according to publication period (p=0.57). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to examine gender and authorship of psychiatric research in Turkey. In total, 33% of academic positions in Turkish university psychiatry departments were occupied by women, which is comparable to the percentage of female first authors of psychiatric research papers from Turkey. It could be concluded that women academics in psychiatry departments from state universities are as reproductive as their male counterparts, but there is still a "gender gap" in psychiatry field in our country.

  2. Forensic psychiatry in India: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi, S; Ilango, Siva; Prabha, Lakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry, in which scientific and clinical expertise is applied to legal issues in legal contexts embracing civil, criminal, correctional, or legislative matters. Forensic psychiatry is still in an infant stage in India and other developing countries. Law is the sanctioning discipline, and Psychiatry is the therapeutic discipline. Due to various reasons, Forensic Psychiatry is reared as Cinderella in our country; "which is much neglected, ignored, misinterpreted, and misunderstood. Legislation forms an integral component in the implementation of Mental Health Care; there is a dynamic relationship between the concept of mental illness, treatment of the mentally ill, and the law. Mental Health legislation is essential in protecting the rights and dignity of persons with Mental Disorders and for implementing effectively the mental health services. "Effective mental health legislation can provide a legal frame work to integrate mental health services in the community as to overcome stigma, discrimination, and exclusion of mentally ill persons. Legislations can also create enforceable standards for high quality medical care and improve access to care and protect civil, political, social, and economic rights of the mentally ill individual, including right to access to education, employment, housing, and social security."

  3. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The political use of psychiatry: A comparison between totalitarian regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Giannuli, Aldo Sabino

    2017-03-01

    After the end of Second World War, the recent experience of the Nazi horrors stimulated a debate about the political use of psychiatry. Over the years, the focus shifted on major dictatorships of the time and especially on Soviet Union. This article aims to provide a critical review of the ways in which psychiatry was used by totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. We summarized relevant literature about political use of psychiatry in totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, with particular focus on Fascism, Nazism, Argentina dictatorship, Soviet Union and China. One of the features that are common to most of the dictatorships is that the use of psychiatry has become more prominent when the regimes have had the need to make more acceptable the imprisonment of enemies in the eyes of the world. This for example happened in the Nazi regime when sterilization and killing of psychiatric patients was explained as a kind of euthanasia, or in the Soviet Union after the formal closure of the corrective labor camps and the slow resumption of relations with the capitalistic world, or in China to justify persecution of religious minorities and preserve economic relations with Western countries. Psychiatry has been variously used by totalitarian regimes as a means of political persecution and especially when it was necessary to make acceptable to public opinion the imprisonment of political opponents.

  5. Attitudes toward neuroscience education among psychiatry residents and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94%) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91%). Nearly all (94%) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education.

  6. The implication of transcultural psychiatry for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldavsky, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the main concepts of Transcultural Psychiatry and their applications to everyday psychiatric practice. Transcultural psychiatry has undergone a conceptual reformulation in the last two decades. Having started with a comparative approach, which focused on the diverse manifestations of mental disorders among different societies, it broadened its scope, aiming at present to incorporate social and cultural aspects of illness into the clinical framework. Therefore, transcultural psychiatry now focuses more on what is called the illness experience than on the disease process, the latter understood as illness as it is viewed by health practitioners. Western medicine, of which psychiatry is a part, is grounded in positivist epistemological principles that stress the biological processes of disease. The intention of the paper is to develop an interest in alternative but also complementary ways of thinking. Modern transcultural psychiatry interprets some epidemiological and clinical aspects of major mental disorders (such as schizophrenia and depression) in a different light. However, it also distances itself from the absolute relativism of antipsychiatry, centering on clinical facts and helping clinicians in their primary task of alleviating suffering. An important contribution in addressing this task is the formulation of a cultural axis within the DSM model of multiaxial evaluation. A clinical vignette of a cultural formulation applied to a clinical discussion of a case is described.

  7. Dualism and its place in a philosophical structure for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Hane Htut

    2018-05-19

    It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers. I argue that while the neuroscientific research underpinning biological psychiatry challenges the traditional dualism of René Descartes, it does not pose any problem for the more modern dualism of David Chalmers. It is possible to take seriously the scientific claims of biological psychiatry while holding that this latter form of dualism is true. This has implications for the positioning of the mind-body problem in psychiatry. While the "easy" problem of explaining psychological processes is relevant to the aims of biological psychiatry, psychiatrists need not worry about the "hard" problem of consciousness.

  8. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  9. Interspecies Transmission of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from the Domestic Cat to the Tsushima Cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Yuko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Hamachi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirotoshi; Koga, Susumu; Komori, Mitsuru; Fushuku, Seigo; Ushinohama, Kanji; Akuzawa, Masao; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild. PMID:10438892

  10. [History of the department of Psychiatry at the University of Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    In its current form, the Département de psychiatrie at the Université de Montréal (UdeM) was created in 1964. The first person to have headed was Dr. Gerard Beaudoin… Between 1948 and 1964, several others psychiatrists were heading the Département without necessary bearing a particular title.The directors of the Département from 1951 to now were: Drs. Fernand Côté, Camille Laurin, Gerard Beaudoin, Yvon Gauthier, Arthur Amyot, Francis Borgeat, Hugues Cormier, Sylvain Palardy, Jean Hébert, and Emmanuel Stip.When the Département opened, it was the second institution in Montréal that was training psychiatrists. During the first year, there were 3 psychiatric residents, but within 20 years this number had increased to 63. From the early years, teaching psychiatry to residents, and subsequently to all UdeM medical students, has been a priority in the Département, and over the years many psychiatrists trained at UdeM have attained leadership positions elsewhere. The Département attained an early reputation for excellence in both clinical and basic research.The strengths the Département developed in its early years in clinical psychopharmacology, in basic research in neurotransmitters, sleep, cognition, forensic, and in community psychiatry have been augmented more recently with active programs in psychotherapy research, substance abuse research, psychoneuroendocrinology, developmental aspects of behavior, genetics, epigenetics as well as the study of the brain through a variety of brain scanning techniques.The history of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal is largely dependent on that of each of the institutions affiliated to the Université: the Pavillon Albert-Prévost de l'Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal (HSCM), the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) and the CHU Sainte-Justine. We must also remember that the discovery of the potentiating of lithium by antidepressants was made by Dr. Demontigny

  11. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats ( Felis silvestris catus ) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  12. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  14. [Treatment of offenders with mental disorders: focusing on prison psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of

  15. A Thorn in the Flesh? Forensic Inpatients in General Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerhøj, Jette; Stølan, Liv Os; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To illuminate whether and how taking care of forensic inpatients is experienced as a burden among staff and managers in general psychiatry. DESIGN AND METHODS: Qualitative analytical strategies based on interviews and questionnaires. FINDINGS: The interplay between physical environment...... of staff identify the care of mentally disordered offenders in general psychiatric units as either "a parking space" or a very difficult or frightening course, where staff members tend to behave like pleasers in order to avoid risks of conflict or physical violence. Either way, it seems hard to provide...... sufficient mental health care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nationwide training and teaching as well as knowledge exchange between specialized forensic psychiatry and general psychiatry are recommended. Further exploration is needed on patient perspectives and on avenues to increase efficiency and decrease...

  16. Towards real persons: Clinical judgement and philosophy of psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Thornton

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the motivations for the new philosophy of psychiatry is the need to understand changing ideas in mental health care. In the last century, changes in both physical and biological theory prompted work in philosophy of physics and philosophy of biology to understand those fields better, attempts which were continuous with empirical work. At the start of this century, changes in psychiatry promise increased interest in the philosophy of psychiatry as an attempt, alongside empirical research, to understand the conceptual underpinnings of mental heath care. While philosophical methods are distinct from empirical methods, the work is truly interdisciplinary, growing organically from the complexities of demand on psychiatric care and, although philosophical, carried out by philosophers and psychiatrists alike. One focus is the nature of clinical judgement in psychiatric diagnosis. In this short note I will briefly sketch some issues that arise from a current idea: that psychiatric diagnosis should include idiographic elements.

  17. [Military psychiatry in Israel: a 50-year perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, A

    2000-05-01

    The history of military psychiatry in Israel may be divided into 2 main periods. The first extended from the War of Independence in 1948, through the Sinai, Six Day and Yom Kippur Wars. Its outstanding feature was avoidance of the issue of combat stress reaction (CSR). The Yom Kippur War made the recognition of CSR inescapable, assisted in breaking up denial, and served as a stimulus for development of the next phase of the system. This second phase was characterized by impressive progress in all areas of military psychiatry. The rich experience accumulated during the wars, together with the assimilation of a research culture which began blooming, especially in the wake of the Lebanon War, aided the development and crystallization of concepts related to combat and non-combat military psychiatry alike. The build-up of the mental health organization overlapped field deployment of the Medical Corps.

  18. From Patient Discharge Summaries to an Ontology for Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Marion; Aimé, Xavier; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Charlet, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatry aims at detecting symptoms, providing diagnoses and treating mental disorders. We developed ONTOPSYCHIA, an ontology for psychiatry in three modules: social and environmental factors of mental disorders, mental disorders, and treatments. The use of ONTOPSYCHIA, associated with dedicated tools, will facilitate semantic research in Patient Discharge Summaries (PDS). To develop the first module of the ontology we propose a PDS text analysis in order to explicit psychiatry concepts. We decided to set aside classifications during the construction of the modu le, to focus only on the information contained in PDS (bottom-up approach) and to return to domain classifications solely for the enrichment phase (top-down approach). Then, we focused our work on the development of the LOVMI methodology (Les Ontologies Validées par Méthode Interactive - Ontologies Validated by Interactive Method), which aims to provide a methodological framework to validate the structure and the semantic of an ontology.

  19. Link prediction boosted psychiatry disorder classification for functional connectivity network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Mei, Xue; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Jiashuang

    2017-02-01

    Functional connectivity network (FCN) is an effective tool in psychiatry disorders classification, and represents cross-correlation of the regional blood oxygenation level dependent signal. However, FCN is often incomplete for suffering from missing and spurious edges. To accurate classify psychiatry disorders and health control with the incomplete FCN, we first `repair' the FCN with link prediction, and then exact the clustering coefficients as features to build a weak classifier for every FCN. Finally, we apply a boosting algorithm to combine these weak classifiers for improving classification accuracy. Our method tested by three datasets of psychiatry disorder, including Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The experimental results show our method not only significantly improves the classification accuracy, but also efficiently reconstructs the incomplete FCN.

  20. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  1. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  2. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  4. Quantitative Description of Medical Student Interest in Neurology and Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raddy L; Cuoco, Joshua A; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Given the well-documented shortage of physicians in primary care and several other specialties, quantitative understanding of residency application and matching data among osteopathic and allopathic medical students has implications for predicting trends in the physician workforce. To estimate medical student interest in neurology and psychiatry based on numbers of applicants and matches to neurology and psychiatry osteopathic and allopathic residency programs. Also, to gauge students' previous academic experience with brain and cognitive sciences. The number of available postgraduate year 1 positions, applicants, and matches from graduating years 2011 through 2015 were collected from the National Matching Services Inc and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine for osteopathic programs and the National Resident Matching Program and the Association of American Medical Colleges for allopathic programs. To determine and compare osteopathic and allopathic medical students' interest in neurology and psychiatry, the number of positions, applicants, and matches were analyzed considering the number of total osteopathic and allopathic graduates in the given year using 2-tailed χ2 analyses with Yates correction. In addition, osteopathic and allopathic medical schools' websites were reviewed to determine whether neurology and psychiatry rotations were required. Osteopathic medical students' reported undergraduate majors were also gathered. Compared with allopathic medical students, osteopathic medical students had significantly greater interest (as measured by applicants) in neurology (χ21=11.85, Pneurology and psychiatry residency programs. Approximately 6% of osteopathic vs nearly 85% of allopathic medical schools had required neurology rotations. Nearly 10% of osteopathic applicants and matriculants had undergraduate coursework in brain and cognitive sciences. Osteopathic medical students demonstrated greater interest than allopathic medical

  5. The importance of neuropsychopharmacology in the development of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sandor

    2014-09-01

    The author establishes that Psychiatry has been in a difficult situation especially in Hungary since closing down the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology. He reviews the most important factors which hold up the development of Psychiatry. He settles that the development of Psychiatry is inconceivable without a person's holistic approach which assumes the biological, mental, cultural-social and spiritual approach. Disturbances of perception have particular roles in the formation of psychopathological symptoms which are based on the operation of the nervous system. This fact emphasises the importance of the nervous system and the neuropsychopharmacology which we have known since the beginning of history although it is hardly half a century old. He pays the attention to the psychoactive medicine that was well-known in the ancient civilization. He reviews some of them which were actually the first neuropsychopharmacological pharmaceuticals. He emphasises the dichotomy of the psychopathological symptoms which are partly objective, partly subjective but based on the operation of the nervous system by all means. His statements not only establish a new kind of approach of both the person and the Psychiatry but enables the development of Psychiatry, the creation of a new sort of diagnostic system, eliminating the variance among the experts dealing with people, the neurologists, the psychiatrists, the psychologists, the sociologists, the philosophers and the theologians, ensuring the biological (neurological), psychological, cultural and spiritual perpetuity. The biological, genetic, psychic, cultural-social and spiritual approach, the application of nanomedicine that enable not only recognising the organic neurological bases of the psychiatric disorders that are all crucial for the future researchers but also essential in the development of the neuropsychopharmacology based on the function of the nervous system.

  6. Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors: A Missed Opportunity for Psychiatry Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Matthew N; Krystal, John H

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points. For each major, the authors determined rates of specialty choice of psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and, for comparison, internal medicine. This study employed Chi-square statistic to compare odds of various specialty choices among different majors. Among medical students with an undergraduate neuroscience major (3.5% of all medical students), only 2.3% preferred psychiatry at matriculation, compared to 21.5% who chose neurology, 13.1% neurosurgery, and 11% internal medicine. By graduation, psychiatry specialty choice increased to 5.1% among neuroscience majors while choice of neurology and neurosurgery declined. Psychology majors (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 2.60-4.47) but not neuroscience majors (OR 1.28, 0.92-1.77) were more likely than their peers to choose psychiatry. Psychiatry struggles to attract neuroscience majors to the specialty. This missed opportunity is an obstacle to developing the neuroscience literacy of the workforce and jeopardizes the neuroscientific future of our field. Several potential strategies to address the recruitment challenges exist.

  7. Pediatric bipolar disorder in an era of "mindless psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Peter I; Levin, Edmund C

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) reflects shifts in conceptualizing bipolar disorder among children and adolescents since the mid-1990s. Since then, PBD diagnoses, predominantly in the United States, have increased dramatically, and the diagnosis has attracted significant controversy. During the same period, psychiatric theory and practice has become increasingly biological. The aim of this paper is to examine the rise of PBD in terms of wider systemic influences. In the context of literature referring to paradigm shifts in psychiatry, we reviewed the psychiatric literature, media cases, and information made available by investigative committees and journalists. Social historians and prominent psychiatrists describe a paradigm shift in psychiatry over recent decades: from an era of "brainless psychiatry," when an emphasis on psychodynamic and family factors predominated to the exclusion of biological factors, to a current era of "mindless psychiatry" that emphasizes neurobiological explanations for emotional and behavioral problems with limited regard for contextual meaning. Associated with this has been a tendency within psychiatry and society to neglect trauma and attachment insecurity as etiological factors; the "atheoretical" (but by default biomedical) premise of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd and 4th eds.); the influence of the pharmaceutical industry in research, continuing medical education, and direct-to-consumer advertising; and inequality in the U.S. health system that favors "diagnostic upcoding." Harm from overmedicating children is now a cause of public concern. It can be argued that PBD as a widespread diagnosis, particularly in the United States, reflects multiple factors associated with a paradigm shift within psychiatry rather than recognition of a previously overlooked common disorder.

  8. Beam transfer line for food irradiation microtron at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Pradeep; Singh, Gurnam

    2003-01-01

    A 10 MeV microtron is being developed at CAT for irradiation of food products. A beam transfer line comprising a 90 deg bending magnet, a quadrupole doublet and a rectangular scanning magnet has been designed to irradiate food products from the upper side. The bending magnet has an edge angle of 22.5 deg. The length of the beam transfer line has been minimized to keep the whole unit as compact as possible. The beam optics has been optimized keeping in view the requirement of a small beam pipe aperture (25mm radius) and a large range of circular as well as elliptical beam sizes on the food product. The speed of the conveyor belt has been assumed to be very small. The results of the beam optics chosen and the variation of the linear charge density on a food product during the scanning are presented in this paper. The effects of path length variation within the scanning magnet and beam size variation during a scanning are also discussed

  9. The position of nervous diseases between internal medicine and psychiatry in the XIXth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterenshis, M V

    1999-12-01

    It is frequently said and believed that the history of clinical neurology of the 19th century has much in common with the history of psychiatry. Though neurology and psychiatry are neighboring clinical disciplines, the development of clinical neurology differs from that of psychiatry in 19th century Europe. The history of bedside neurology is that of gradual separation of nervous diseases from other internal diseases. Despite the efforts of the German psychiatrists, any influence of psychiatry on that process was very limited.

  10. Transfers to psychiatry through the consultation-liaison psychiatry service: 11 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michopoulos Ioannis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only a few reports on issues related to patient transfer from medical and surgical departments to the psychiatric ward by the consultation-liaison psychiatry service, although it is a common practice. Here, we present a study assessing the factors that influence such transfers. Method We examined the demographic and clinical backgrounds of a group of patients transferred from internal medicine and surgery to the psychiatric ward over an 11-year period. A comparison was made of this data with data obtained from a group of non-transferred patients, also seen by the same consultation-liaison psychiatry service. Results According to our findings, the typical transferred patient, either female or male, is single, divorced or widowed, lives alone, belongs to a lower socioeconomic class, presents initially with (on the whole a disturbed and disruptive behaviour, has had a recent suicide attempt with persistent suicidal ideas, suffers from a mood disorder (mainly depressive and dysthymic disorders, has a prior psychiatric history as well as a prior psychiatric inpatient treatment, and a positive diagnosis on axis II of the five axis system used for mental health diagnosis. Conclusion The transfer of a patient to the psychiatric ward is a decision depending on multiple factors. Medical diagnoses do not seem to play a major role in the transfer to the psychiatric ward. From the psychiatric diagnosis, depressive and dysthymic disorders are the most common in the transferred population, whilst the transfer is influenced by social factors regarding the patient, the patient's behaviour, the conditions in the ward she/he is treated in and any recent occurrence(s that increase the anxiety of the staff.

  11. Point-of-Care Child Psychiatry Expertise: The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Jeanne; Le, Thuy-Tien; Perrin, James M

    2015-05-01

    Since 2005, after a pilot program, the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP) has provided point-of-care psychiatry expertise and referral assistance by telephone to primary care providers. We examined its adoption and use and the practice characteristics associated with different adoption timelines and use patterns. We merged data on calls to MCPAP in 2005 to 2011 with practice data (enrollment year, panel size, regional team assignment). We categorized practices' days from enrollment to first call (adoption) (0-100, 101-365, > 365 days) and quartile of call frequency (use) (annual highest, middle, and lowest quartiles of number of calls per 1000 empanelled patients). We determined associations between adoption and use and practice characteristics using multivariate models. Among 285 practices, adoption and use varied: 55% called 0 to 100 days from enrollment and 16% called >365 days from enrollment. Practices in the highest quartile of use made a mean 15.5 calls/year per 1000 patients, whereas the lowest quartile made 0.4 calls/year per 1000 patients. Adoption within 100 days was associated with enrollment during or after 2007 (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-7.49) and assignment to the team at the pilot site (OR 4.42, 95% CI 2.16-9.04 for central Massachusetts). Highest-quartile use was associated with team assignment (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.86-6.87 for central Massachusetts) and panel size (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.31 for ≥ 10,000 vs < 2000 patients). Adoption and use of MCPAP varied widely. Timing of enrollment, assignment to the team from the program's pilot site, and panel size were associated with patterns of adoption and use. Findings may help other programs design effective implementation strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Psychiatry residents in a milieu participatory democracy: a resident's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, D

    1978-11-01

    Psychiatry residents respond with a variety of coping mechanisms to the lack of traditional structure in a milieu participatory democracy. To incorporate themselves into the system they must accept such democratic ideals as equality among staff and patients, group decision making, and free self-expression and give up some of their traditional ideas about staff and patient roles, treatment modalities, and the therapeutic environment. The author was a first-year resident in psychiatry on a university hospital inpatient therapeutic community; he discusses the conflicts between residents, who often adopt a "we-they" attitude, and the permanent staff, whose protectiveness of the ward community reflects their personal commitment to its ideals.

  13. The Contemporary Significance of the Holocaust for Australian Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael; Light, Edwina; Lipworth, Wendy; Walter, Garry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we survey briefly the components of the Holocaust directly relevant to the psychiatric profession and identify the main themes of relevance to contemporary psychiatry. The ‘euthanasia’ program; the persecution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) citizens; and the complex relationship between the psychiatric profession and Nazi state are the main themes to emerge from this survey. We then compare this period with key themes in the history of Australian psychiatry and link these themes to some of the contemporary ethical challenges the profession faces.

  14. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  15. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  16. Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A273 124 AL-TR-1991-0078 A R COCKPIT AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY M CSERIAC- CAT S JULY 1989 - DEC 1990: FINAL REPORT T R Trudy S. Abrams Cindy D. Martin...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC- CAT JUL 89 - DEC 90 PE 62202F Final Report (U) PR 7184 ,___,TA 12 6. AUTHOR(S...Boeing-developed CAT software tools, and for facilitating their use by the cockpit design community. A brief description of the overall task is given

  17. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    PRDC TR 84-33 \\Q.�d-33- \\ MICROCOMPUTER NETWOJlt FOR COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) Baldwin Quan Thomas A . Park Gary Sandahl John H...ACCEIIION NO NPRDC TR 84-33 4. TITLE (-d Sul>tlllo) MICROCOMP UTER NETWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED ADA PTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) 1. Q B. uan T. A . Park...adaptive testing ( CAT ) Bayesian sequential testing 20. ABSTitACT (Continuo on ro•••• aide II noco .. _, _., ld-tlly ,.,. t.loclt _._.) DO Computerized

  18. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Terry Marie

    2008-09-01

    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  19. Influence of Clerkship on Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry across Cultures: United States and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgut, F. Tuna; Polan, H. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assure adequate treatment for patients with mental illness worldwide, medical schools must impart positive attitudes toward psychiatry. The authors examined the effect of culture on changes in attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students receiving the same psychiatry clerkship curriculum in two different countries. Methods: A…

  20. What Do Psychiatric Residents Think of Addiction Psychiatry as a Career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, John A., Jr.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Levinson, Marjorie; Craig, Thomas; Eld, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors attempt to better understand the recent decline in the number of applicants to addiction psychiatry training. Methods: The Corresponding Committee on Training and Education in Addiction Psychiatry of APA's Council on Addiction Psychiatry sent out a 14-question anonymous e-mail survey to all postgraduate-year 2 (PGY-2)…