This paper discusses and analyses three articles appearing in a 1942 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry. In the first, neurologist Foster Kennedy argued that 'feebleminded' people should be killed (an act which he referred to as 'euthanasia'). The rebuttal was written by psychiatrist Leo Kanner, who argued against 'euthanasia'. An unsigned editorial discussing these positions clearly sided with Kennedy: that 'euthanasia' would be appropriate in some cases, and that parents' opposition to this procedure should be the subject of psychiatric concern. The arguments are analysed and discussed within the context of eugenics and the murder of mental patients in Germany. Finally, the author points out that currently ascendant genetic theories in psychiatry could be a precursor for future proposals similar to Kennedy's.
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The Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry publishes original scientific papers, review articles, short reports and opinion papers in all areas of psychiatry and related fields, such as sociology, applied anthropology and neurosciences. Vol 14, No 1 (2016). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...
Items 1 - 50 of 53 ... Archives: African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home > Archives: African Journal of Psychiatry. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 53 Items ...
, Malan, A. S. et al, (1990). Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Liberian refugees. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 339-354. Harry, R. C. (1967) Theory of motivation. Eds. O. Princewill & R. George. Harper & Row publisher, New Uork.
The journal is the leading psychiatric journal of Africa. It provides open-access scholarly reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and all with an interest in mental health. It carries empirical and conceptual research articles, reviews, editorials, and scientific letters related to psychiatry. It publishes work from various ...
http://www.omicsgroup.org/), therefore as of 2014 AJOL will no longer be hosting this journal's future content. The journal's primary aim is the publication of review and CME papers, aimed at both primary care practitioners and specialist mental ...
South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...
African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Medical error. Merryll Vorster, Michael Berk. Abstract. South African Psychiatry ...
Murray, R M
Remarkable changes have taken place in American psychiatry over the past twenty years. The era of psychoanalytical supremacy has passed, and realism is replacing the exaggerated claims which were made of psychiatry's ability to produce personal, social, and even political change. The importance of phenomenology and accurate diagnosis is increasingly recognised, and American researchers have made many impressive contributions to psychiatric genetics and to psychopharmacology. Despite these advances, office practice generally continues to function on an outmoded model and psychiatric resources remain inequitably distributed.
Focus and Scope. The Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry publishes original scientific papers, review articles, short reports and opinion papers in all areas of psychiatry and related fields such as sociology, applied anthropology and neurosciences. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed ...
Principal Contact. Andrew Thomas Division of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA Email: email@example.com ...
Focus and Scope. The journal is the leading psychiatric journal of Africa. It provides open-access scholarly reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and all with an interest in mental health. It carries empirical and conceptual research articles, reviews, editorials, and scientific letters related to psychiatry. It publishes ...
Amering, Michaela; Schrank, Beate; Sibitz, Ingrid
The number of women in medicine generally and in psychiatry specifically has increased considerably during the past 40 years, but the lack of advancement of women in academic medicine is still concerning. This study explores the changes in female authorship patterns in three high-impact general psychiatric journals. The authors categorized articles published in 1994 and 2007 by the Archives of General Psychiatry, The American Journal of Psychiatry, and The British Journal of Psychiatry according to the characteristics of the psychiatric research and the gender of each author for all articles. Overall, the percentage of female authors increased from 24.6% in 1994 to 33.6% in 2007. The authors found the greatest increases in the percentages of female authors in the areas most relevant to an academic career-first authorship (from 17.1% in 1994 to 35.3% in 2007) and original research articles (from 18.4% in 1994 to 42.7% in 2007)-and in articles on the topic with the most growth over the same time frame-neuroimaging (from 14.7% in 1994 to 43.2% in 2007). The percentages of female authors of editorials rose from only 13.5% in 1994 to 26.2% in 2007. In 2007, women made up only 25% of the editorial boards of the journals under study (up from 16% in 1994). Despite considerable gains, women still are underrepresented in academic psychiatry, including in leadership positions. Ongoing efforts and interventions are required to promote further advances and gender equity.
African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The EEG in psychiatry: commentary. Roland Eastman. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...
Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene
Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…
South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. A proud contribution. Franco Colin. Abstract.
African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...
Haberhausen, Michael; Bachmann, Christian
The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal plays a central role in a scientist's decision where to publish his or her research results. Authors also show interest in the publication time span (time span between the submission and the online or print publication of a article). This paper presents an overview of the IF and editorial time spans of German and international child and adolescent psychiatric journals and compares them to those of journals of adult psychiatry. The authors first conducted a data bank search at the Journal Citation Reports, concerning IF and IF-development for key journals of child and adolescent psychiatry from 2002-2007. They then manually analyzed pertinent child and adolescent journals regarding the time span for publications in the year 2007. To date, nine child and adolescent psychiatric journals exist, whereof eight present with an impact factor. The IF ranges from 0.419 (praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie) to 4.655 (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry). The editorial handling time ranges between 5.4 and 13.2 months. Even though this academic discipline is "small", child and adolescent psychiatry disposes of international journals presenting with competitive IFs. Both German journals show a low IF. The editorial handling times were reasonable, but could be further reduced by offering prior online publication.
Aist, Clark S
This paper reviews a body of data that identifies underlying influences that have contributed to an evolving change in American Psychiatry toward a more positive and receptive stance toward religion and spirituality over the past three decades. This development, surprising in light of the remedicalization of psychiatry and its predominantly neuro-biological orientation, is attributed to five foundational ideas that have helped to leverage this change. These are significance of culture, creative power of ritual, psychic function of belief, neuro-biology of spirituality, and relevance of recovery narratives. The impact of these factors for psychiatric assessment and treatment is described, as well as the contribution of the Oskar Pfister legacy and award to the ongoing dialogue between religion and psychiatry. Adapted from the American Psychiatric Association's 2011 Oskar Pfister Lecture in Religion and Psychiatry.
Haslam, N; Lusher, D
Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.
Bolaños Pizarro, M; Valderrama-Zurián, J C; Dotor Alonso, M; Barquín García, E; Guevarra Orellana, C A; Aleixandre-Benavent, R
Standardization of scientific journals is a fundamental factor for a successful scientific communication, since it has repercussions on the role accomplishment of journals as research dissemination agents and expressive and representative channels of the different scientific communities. The formal characteristics of the seven psychiatric journals included in the IME (Spanish Medical Index) database in 2006 were evaluated. A specific form was designed to evaluate the 64 different characteristics of each journal, based on the IME qualitative criteria for being included. Journals having the highest overall scores were Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría with 68/82 points, followed by European Journal of Psychiatry (65/82 points), Anales de Psiquiatría (58/82 points), Psiquiatría Biológica (57/82 points) and Informaciones Psiquiátricas (45/82 points). Spanish psychiatric journals fulfill most of the requirements, although some of them could be improved, such as failures in the regularity of the publication, the English presentation of the abstracts and the paper typology specification, indication of the reception and acceptance date and lack of a clear description of the publishing process for the selection of the manuscripts and peer review.
Alarcón, Renato D; Pérez-Rincón, Héctor
Identity can be defined from different perspectives such as those from philosophy, social sciences and phenomenology. The latter entails sameness, uniqueness, distinctiveness, continuity, diversity, universality and equality connotations to define characteristics of the existence and action of individuals, institutions, entities, organizations and collectivities. In order to elaborate on the identity of Latin American Psychiatry, this chapter deals first with the identity of the Latin American continent, the result of a 'collision of cultures' with mestizaje as its most prominent collective contribution. In turn, the Latin American population (and its 'Hispanic' equivalent in other countries and regions of the world) has been the subject of a pluralistic search, and played a combined role of hope and conflict, advances and setbacks in a fascinating historical process. In such context, Latin American psychiatry offers a mixed identity, resulting from a succession of mythic-religious, moral, phenomenologico-existential, biological and social/community-based routes. Each of them are assessed, and the contributions of two eponymous figures, Honorio Delgado and Gregorio Bermann, are duly delineated. Current realities in Latin American psychiatry and mental health in socio-political, conceptual, professional, ideological, academic and heuristic areas, are examined. The chapter ends with considerations of the future of psychiatry in the continent, the postulation of a 'new synthesis' embracing the essence of contemporary neurobiological knowledge and a new, revitalized humanism in the context of a healthy eclecticism, progressive educational training and didactic programmes, and concrete contributions embodying the promise of well justified expectations.
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Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ... World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association ...
Full Text Available ... may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine ... American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of ...
Full Text Available ... of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry American Association for Emergency Psychiatry ...
Soh, Nerissa; Walter, Garry; Touyz, Stephen; Russell, Janice; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn E
To conduct a bibliometric analysis of eating disorder journals to guide journal readers and researchers when submitting their manuscripts. Several indices were used to compare journal impact and citations of articles appearing between 1996 and 2010 in six eating disorders journals and six leading general psychiatry journals. The International Journal of Eating Disorders (IJED) had the highest journal impact factor (JIF, 2.278) of the six eating disorders' journals. The general psychiatry journals had higher JIFs and received more citations per eating disorder article than the specialized journals. However, IJED published the highest number of eating disorder articles between 1996 and 2010, and 35 of these articles received at least 100 citations. Using the JIF alone to decide where to submit a manuscript is a poor strategy, as this does not take into consideration the impact an article can have within the eating disorder's field over time. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ... More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists ...
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Forensic Forum: Will Forensic Psychiatry survive DSM-5? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Kaliski, 13-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v15i1.2 ...
International psychiatry has its roots in Anglo-European societies of the 19th century. Ideas and methods on mental health and illness grew out of the modern concept of disease that had consolidated in the early ... and into the 20th century a medical, organic approach to mental ... It cannot be divorced from the history of the.
Brasch, Jennifer; Glick, Rachel Lipson; Cobb, Thomas G.; Richmond, Janet
Objective: Describe training goals, objectives and requirements in emergency psychiatry to assist residency programs in developing comprehensive training programs to ensure psychiatric residents acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to competently assess and manage patients with psychiatric emergencies. Methods: The American Association for…
Bador, Pascal; Lafouge, Thierry
International audience; Using strictly the same parameters (identical two publication years (2004-2005) and identical one-year citation window (2006)), IF 2006 was compared with h-index 2006 for two samples of "Pharmacology and Pharmacy" and "Psychiatry" journals computed from the ISI Web of Science. For the two samples, the IF and the h-index rankings of the journals are very different. The correlation coefficient between the IF and the h-index is high for Psychiatry but lower for Pharmacolo...
Juul, Dorthea; Winstead, Daniel K.; Sheiber, Stephen C.
OBJECTIVE: To report the assessment of psychopharmacology on the certification and recertification exams in general psychiatry and in the subspecialties administered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). METHODS: The ABPN's core competencies for psychiatrists were reviewed. The number of items addressing psychopharmacology or…
Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Priebe, Stefan
To explore the current state of Italian social psychiatry research as evidenced by original papers published in peer-reviewed journals 2004-2006. Electronic databases and hand searches of leading peer-reviewed journals were used to identify original research papers published in 2004-2006, addressing a social psychiatric issue, having at least one Italian author, and reporting data from Italian samples. A total of 174 papers were identified. A substantial proportion reported findings of international collaborative research. Quantitative methods dominated, with 86 papers on cross-sectional surveys. Only 18 papers showed results of intervention trials with pre and post measures. Most common target group were psychiatric patients in community mental health services which featured in 93 papers. There is a critical mass of Italian social psychiatry research, dominated by a few research centres and with considerable amount of international collaboration. The findings of this survey might reflect the relative shortage of national funding for social psychiatry research.
Faulkner, L.R.; Juul, D.; Pascuzzi, R.M.; Aminoff, M.J.; Crumrine, P.K.; DeKosky, S.T.; Jozefowicz, R.F.; Massey, J.M.; Pirzada, N.; Tilton, A.
Objective: To review the current status and recent trends in the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) specialties and neurologic subspecialties and discuss the implications of those trends for subspecialty viability. Methods: Data on numbers of residency and fellowship programs and graduates and ABPN certification candidates and diplomates were drawn from several sources, including ABPN records, Web sites of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Medical Association, and the annual medical education issues of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Results: About four-fifths of neurology graduates pursue fellowship training. While most recent neurology and child neurology graduates attempt to become certified by the ABPN, many clinical neurophysiologists elect not to do so. There appears to have been little interest in establishing fellowships in neurodevelopmental disabilities. The pass rate for fellowship graduates is equivalent to that for the “grandfathers” in clinical neurophysiology. Lower percentages of clinical neurophysiologists than specialists participate in maintenance of certification, and maintenance of certification pass rates are high. Conclusion: The initial enthusiastic interest in training and certification in some of the ABPN neurologic subspecialties appears to have slowed, and the long-term viability of those subspecialties will depend upon the answers to a number of complicated social, economic, and political questions in the new health care era. PMID:20855855
Geller, J L
The author reviewed the history of American psychiatry for the first 150 years of the American Psychiatric Association's existence (1844-1994) as reflected in remarks of the association's presidents. Presidential addresses or remarks from alternative sources were located for the 120 presidents who served the association between 1844 and 1994. The presidents' remarks on six topics-psychiatric practice, etiology of mental illness, public mental hospitals, alternatives to state hospitals (deinstitutionalization), biologic treatments, and fiscal issues were sampled and arranged chronologically. American psychiatry's history--its innovations, cyclical repetitions, and self-assessments-can be gleaned from this form of data. The presidents' remarks appear to refute the claim that organized American psychiatry has been negligent in criticizing itself.
Is Mandatory Prospective Trial Registration Working to Prevent Publication of Unregistered Trials and Selective Outcome Reporting? An Observational Study of Five Psychiatry Journals That Mandate Prospective Clinical Trial Registration.
Scott, Amelia; Rucklidge, Julia J; Mulder, Roger T
To address the bias occurring in the medical literature associated with selective outcome reporting, in 2005, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) introduced mandatory trial registration guidelines and member journals required prospective registration of trials prior to patient enrolment as a condition of publication. No research has examined whether these guidelines are impacting psychiatry publications. Our objectives were to determine the extent to which articles published in psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines were correctly prospectively registered, whether there was evidence of selective outcome reporting and changes to participant numbers, and whether there was a relationship between registration status and source of funding. Any clinical trial (as defined by ICMJE) published between 1 January 2009 and 31 July 2013 in the top five psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines (The American Journal of Psychiatry, Archives of General Psychiatry/JAMA Psychiatry, Biological Psychiatry, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry) and conducted after July 2005 (or 2007 for two journals) was included. For each identified trial, where possible we extracted trial registration information, changes to POMs between publication and registry to assess selective outcome reporting, changes to participant numbers, and funding type. Out of 3305 articles, 181 studies were identified as clinical trials requiring registration: 21 (11.6%) were deemed unregistered, 61 (33.7%) were retrospectively registered, 37 (20.4%) had unclear POMs either in the article or the registry and 2 (1.1%) were registered in an inaccessible trial registry. Only 60 (33.1%) studies were prospectively registered with clearly defined POMs; 17 of these 60 (28.3%) showed evidence of selective outcome reporting and 16 (26.7%) demonstrated a change in participant numbers of 20% or more; only 26 (14.4%) of
Hunt, Glenn E; Cleary, Michelle; Walter, Garry
There is considerable debate on the use and abuse of journal impact factors and on selecting the most appropriate indicator to assess research outcome for an individual or group of scientists. Internet searches using Web of Science and Scopus were conducted to retrieve citation data for an individual in order to calculate nine variants of Hirsch's h-index. Citations to articles published in a wide range of psychiatric journals in the periods 1995-99 and 2000-05 were analyzed using Web of Science. Comparisons were made between journal impact factor, h-index of citations from publication to 2008, and the proportion of articles cited at least 30 or 50 times. For up to 14 years post-publication, there was a strong positive relationship between journal impact factor and h-index for citations received. Journal impact factor was also compared to the percentage of articles cited at least 30 or 50 times-a comparison that showed wide variations between journals with similar impact factors. This study found that 40%-50% of the articles published in the top ten psychiatry journals ranked by impact factor acquire 30 to 50 citations within ten to fifteen years. Despite certain flaws and weaknesses, the h-index provides a better way to assess long-term performance of articles or authors than using a journal's impact factor, and it provides an alternative way to assess a journal's long-term ranking.
The author traces the history of the development of DSM-III within the larger context--intellectual, economic, scientific, and ideological--of the development of American psychiatry since World War II. Data were obtained through a literature review, investigation of archival material from the DSM-III task force and APA, and interviews with key participants. This research indicates that from the end of World War II until the mid-1970s, a broadly conceived biopsychosocial model, informed by psychoanalysis, sociological thinking, and biological knowledge, was the organizing model for American psychiatry. However, the biopsychosocial model did not clearly demarcate the mentally well from the mentally ill, and this failure led to a crisis in the legitimacy of psychiatry by the 1970s. The publication of DSM-III in 1980 represented an answer to this crisis, as the essential focus of psychiatric knowledge shifted from the clinically-based biopsychosocial model to a research-based medical model. The author concludes that while DSM-III, and the return to descriptive psychiatry which it inaugurated, has had positive consequences for the profession, at the same time it represents a significant narrowing of psychiatry's clinical gaze.
Faulkner, Larry R.; Juul, Dorthea; Andrade, Naleen N.; Brooks, Beth Ann; Colenda, Christopher C.; Guynn, Robert W.; Mrazek, David A.; Reus, Victor I.; Schneidman, Barbara S.; Shaw, Kailie R.
Objective: This article reviews the current status and recent trends in the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) psychiatric subspecialties and discusses the implications of those trends as well as several key questions whose answers may well determine subspecialty viability. Methods: Data are presented on specialty and subspecialty…
Berger, Michael; Hersov, Lionel
As the JCPP marks its 50th year of publication, this paper revisits the founding philosophy and traces the journey from the first issue through to the present. The history of the JCPP reflects the many changes that have come about in the fields of developmental psychology and child and adolescent psychiatry and the changes introduced both to meet the needs and shape the practices of clinicians and researchers. It documents the achievements of the Journal and the contributions made by many in enabling its success. As the JCPP moves forward it will enjoy the benefits of the major technological and other advances being made in research, in the evolving and expanding knowledge base, and in the modes of publication, as well as needing to manage the associated challenges that will inevitably impact on its future.
Teitge, M; Kumbier, E
Scientific journals were established in the Soviet occupied zone following WWII in order to distinguish themselves from the other occupying powers. Starting in 1949 a journal with the title "Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology" was founded as no publishing house existed in the field of psychiatry and neurology and it became necessary to establish a new journal that was competitive. The journal was primarily distributed in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1990 but the interest internationally was very limited. State affairs had a great influence from the very beginning so that the political involvement was reflected in the selection of staff, such as the publishers and the head of the editorial department and by the close interconnection between the Society for Psychiatry and Neurology of the GDR and the editorship of the journal. The publishers who were primarily responsible and the authors were at the interface of politics and science. Nevertheless, in an international comparison many parallels can be found in the orientation with respect to the content.
Otero, Paula; Marcos, Cecilia; Ferrero, Fernando
The participation of women in science increases every day. Here we estimated their participation in authorship in three Latin American pediatric journals indexed in PubMed. All articles published in 2015 in the Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría, the Jornal de Pediatría and the Revista Chilena de Pediatría were identified, and the first and last authors and the total number of authors by sex were determined. A total of 329 articles were identified. Out of 1432 authors, 59.9% were women. Also, 54.4% of all first authors and 48% of last authors were women. No significant difference was observed in female authorship ratio among the three journals. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría had a significantly lower number of women as first and last authors. Women authorship ratio across three Latin American pediatric journals reached 59.9%. Their role as first or last authors was significantly lower in the Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría.
Khawaja, Imran S; Dickmann, Patricia J; Hurwitz, Thomas D; Thuras, Paul D; Feinstein, Robert E; Douglass, Alan B; Lee, Elliott Kyung
To assess the current state of sleep medicine educational resources and training offered by North American psychiatry residency programs. In June 2013, a 9-item peer-reviewed Sleep Medicine Training Survey was administered to 39 chief residents of psychiatry residency training programs during a meeting in New York. Thirty-four percent of the participating programs offered an elective rotation in sleep medicine. A variety of innovative approaches for teaching sleep medicine were noted. The majority of the chief residents felt comfortable screening patients for obstructive sleep apnea (72%), half felt comfortable screening for restless legs syndrome (53%), and fewer than half were comfortable screening for other sleep disorders (47%). This is the first report in the last decade to provide any analysis of current sleep medicine training in North American psychiatry residency training programs. These data indicate that sleep medicine education in psychiatry residency programs is possibly in decline.
Full Text Available ... clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, ... of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of ...
Miguel Enrique Carvajal Vallejo
Full Text Available Se presenta un recorrido epistémico por losartículos publicados en la revista AmericanJournal of Psychiatry (AJP —órgano de laAmerican Psychiatric Association (APA,institución que además de agrupar a la mayoríade psiquiatras norteamericanos, es la creadora delos manuales DSM (Diagnostic and StatisticalManual of Mental Disorders—, en los cuales, alocuparse de la histeria, puede observarse surecurso a conceptos freudianos referentes alsíntoma histérico. La revisión es iniciada en 1890y finalizada en el año 1980, cuando la publicacióndel DSM-III, evacúa toda teoría etiológica sobre elpadecimiento histérico, renunciando por tanto a lateoría psicoanalítica sobre la histeria, obteniendofinalmente una fragmentación de ella, a lo largo dedicho manual, en múltiples trastornos que sepresentan en ausencia de lesión orgánica.Algunas consecuencias para la psiquiatría, elpsicoanálisis y el paciente ―histérico‖ sonobservadas. El artículo es el resultado de lainvestigación ―Recorrido epistemológico de lateoría freudiana sobre la Histeria en la psiquiatríanorteamericana‖, realizado dentro de la «Maestríaen Investigación Psicoanalítica», de laUniversidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia // An epistemic overview of the papers published inthe American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP is herepresented. The AJP is an organ of the AmericanPsychiatric Association (APA, an institution thatgroups most of the American psychiatrists and thatis also the creator of the DSM (Diagnostic andStatistical Manual of Mental Disorders. In thesepapers, when considering hysteria, the appeal toFreudian concepts concerning the hystericalsymptom can be observed. The review begins in1890 and ends in 1980, when the publication ofDSM-III evacuates every aetiological theory aboutthe hysterical condition, refusing thepsychoanalytic theory of hysteria, gettingthroughout such manual a fragmentation of thephenomenon in multiple disorders that occur in
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the perception of quality of Latin American business journals based on the judgment of relevant experts – senior professors with knowledge of Latin American research and journals. Forty-five journals were included in the study. The highest perceived quality scores were given to Academia (CLADEA – Uniandes, RAE (Fundação Getulio Vargas, and Innovar (Universidad Nacional de Colombia. When perceived quality was weighted by awareness, Academia, LABR-Latin American Business Review (University of San Diego – Coppead, and Innovar had the highest scores. Results complement a recent study by Ruiz-Torres, Penkova, and Villafane (2012 that focused on management journals published in Spanish. Analysis of results suggests that language and branding have an effect on the perception of journal quality. Implications for editors/ publishers, tenure, promotion, research grant committees, and authors are provided.
Conn, Earl Lewis
It was the purpose of this study to present an evolutionary history of the American Council on Education for Journalism (ACEJ) and to draw some conclusions about some issues now facing the council. Data for the study came from minutes of councils and associations involved in journalism accrediting, personal files, interviews, and other sources.…
Shuman, James, Ed.
This collection of 18 brief, informative news stories with datelines from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries is intended to provide students with an understanding of how the press has helped to develop and has been the beneficiary of many of the freedoms all Americans enjoy. The collection can also be used in a straight historical context as the…
Pellack, Lorraine J
The American Journal of Botany (AJB) is available on the shelves of most college and university libraries in the U.S., as well as in many faculty offices, and in research libraries affiliated with botanical gardens. This article presents information on how librarians view AJB, the role that scientific associations play in the perceived quality of the journals they publish, the unique nature of botany literature (compared to other sciences), AJB as a core journal, and a general discussion of the factors that influence librarians decisions when deciding to cancel a subscription or keep a journal in their collection.
Full Text Available ... in research or clinical practice. Psychologists treat mental disorders with psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists ...
Full Text Available ... mental disorders with psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association ...
Schmitz Weiss, Amy; de Macedo Higgins Joyce, Vanessa; Saldaña, Magdalena; Alves, Rosental Calmon
This study seeks to examine the state of investigative journalism practices used in higher education in Latin America. Using a meta-theoretical framework called the Community of Practice (CoP), this study seeks to identify whether a particular learning practice exists in this region. Based on an online survey conducted on Latin American educators…
Vitor Hugo Sambati Oliva
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em virtude de sua fácil acessibilidade, o cinema parece influenciar bastante a imagem que a sociedade faz da Psiquiatria. OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre o retrato da Psiquiatria pelos cinemas norte-americano e brasileiro. MÉTODOS: Sem limite de data, fez-se uma busca bibliográfica manual e nos seguintes bancos de dados: LILACS, MedLine, PsychLit, PsycINFO e SciELO. Usaram-se as seguintes combinações de descritores em inglês e, nas bases LILACS e SciELO, os correspondentes em português: "psychiatry" E/OU "motion pictures as topic". Estipularam-se critérios precisos de inclusão e exclusão. RESULTADOS: Vinte artigos indexados e dois livros. No cinema norte-americano, tais fontes evidenciaram um constante retrato estereotipado de diferentes aspectos da Psiquiatria, cuja imagem se mostrou ambivalente e com cinco fases distintas de sua representação. No cinema brasileiro, os escassos estudos se limitaram praticamente à fase de "Retomada" e mostraram que a maioria dos filmes apresentava algum conteúdo psicopatológico. DISCUSSÃO: Apesar da dificuldade de comparação entre as fontes encontradas, uma vez que quase todas eram descritivas, foi possível traçar um paralelo do retrato da Psiquiatria entre as películas dos Estados Unidos e as nacionais. CONCLUSÃO: A representação da Psiquiatria difere bastante entre os cinemas norte-americano e brasileiro, sobretudo pela amostra de os filmes analisados abrangerem períodos bem distintos.INTRODUCTION: As cinema has an easy accessibility, it seems to influence society's image of psychiatry. OBJECTIVES: To accomplish a systematic review of the literature about the portrayal of psychiatry in American and Brazilian films. METHODS: With no date limits, we searched the databases: LILACS, MedLine, PsychLit, PsycINFO and SciELO. We used the following terms in English and, in LILACS and SciELO, their equivalent in Portuguese: "psychiatry" AND
Hanson, Annette; Martinez, Richard; Candilis, Philip J
Psychiatrists who publish case reports are required to seek informed consent from their subjects on the basis of the ethics-related obligation to maintain patient confidentiality. Academic journals have developed editorial standards to fulfill this obligation. Forensic evaluations do not create a doctor-patient relationship in the traditional sense, and information obtained through a forensic evaluation may also be found in the public domain. This public exposure is particularly likely, given the development of open access publishing standards, online journals, and increasing professional involvement in social media. This article outlines the ethics of informed consent in published case reports for general and forensic psychiatry and offers recommendations for forensic case study publishing. The authors suggest changes in the current requirements stated in The Journal for publication of case reports. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Full Text Available ... meet with their psychiatrist periodically to monitor the effectiveness of the medication and any potential side effects. ... written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology to become a "board ...
The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of incorrect citations and its effects on the impact factor of a specific biomedical journal: the American Journal of Roentgenology. The Cited Reference Search function of Thomson Reuters' Web of Science database (formerly the Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Knowledge database) was used to identify erroneous citations. This was done by entering the journal name into the Cited Work field and entering "2011-2012" into the Cited Year(s) field. The errors in any part of the inaccurately cited references (e.g., author names, title, year, volume, issue, and page numbers) were recorded, and the types of errors (i.e., absent, deficient, or mistyped) were analyzed. Erroneous citations were corrected using the Suggest a Correction function of the Web of Science database. The effect of inaccurate citations on the impact factor of the AJR was calculated. Overall, 183 of 1055 citable articles published in 2011-2012 were inaccurately cited 423 times (mean [± SD], 2.31 ± 4.67 times; range, 1-44 times). Of these 183 articles, 110 (60.1%) were web-only articles and 44 (24.0%) were print articles. The most commonly identified errors were page number errors (44.8%) and misspelling of an author's name (20.2%). Incorrect citations adversely affected the impact factor of the AJR by 0.065 in 2012 and by 0.123 in 2013. Inaccurate citations are not infrequent in biomedical journals, yet they can be detected and corrected using the Web of Science database. Although the accuracy of references is primarily the responsibility of authors, the journal editorial office should also define a periodic inaccurate citation check task and correct erroneous citations to reclaim unnecessarily lost credit.
Crewe, Ivor; Norris, Pippa
Presents results of a survey comparing British and U.S. political scientists' familiarity with different journals, evaluations of journal quality, and measures of journal impact. Concludes that British and U.S. subjects agree about quality but read different sets of journals. Reports the two groups' familiarity with different literature,…
A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.
Frauenfelder, F.; Muller-Staub, M.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van
The successful application of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in inpatient psychiatry depends on whether the classification adequately describes nursing care in this setting. The present study aimed to identify nursing interventions mentioned in journal articles on psychiatric
Yang, Jin; Arant, David
This study found that Chinese journalism students and American journalism students are more different than similar in their value systems. Overall, American students give greater weight to social-interaction values and self-improvement values, and Chinese students give greater importance to morality-oriented values and competency-oriented values.…
Integrity in the publication process requires impartiality at all levels of review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN) adheres to the policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writin...
Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine ...
Full Text Available ... certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some ...
Psychiatry as a professional and scientific enterprise developed in Norway in the middle of the 19th century. During the last part of this century, four state asylums were erected, followed by several county asylums during the first part of the 20th century. From the 1870 s, institutions for private care were established, usually in the vicinity of the asylums. During the middle of the 19th century, psychiatry in Norway was influenced by "moral treatment", but during the end of the century somatic ideas prevailed. After the Second World War, Norwegian psychiatry was influenced by Dutch and British social psychiatry, followed by American psychoanalytic-oriented psychiatry during the 1960-70s. Since the 1980s, the climate changed, with more emphasis on classification and drug therapy. The new American DSM-III also influenced Norwegian psychiatry, and cognitive-behavioral therapies became more prevalent. Norwegian psychiatric research has during the last few decades been characterized by epidemiological studies, clinical follow-ups and twin research.
Chen, Michael Y; Jenkins, Charles B; Elster, Allen D
The objective of this study was to analyze trends in the number of articles from international authors submitted to or published by the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) between 1980 and 2002. More than 5000 articles published by the AJR during three 3-year periods (1980-1982, 1990-1992, and 2000-2002) were categorized by country of residence of the corresponding author, type of article, subject matter and age of patients, organ system, and radiologic technique. Additionally, 6202 manuscripts submitted to the AJR (1991-1992 and 2001-2002) were used to calculate the acceptance rates for the two 2-year periods. The percentage of articles published by the AJR from international authors was 10% (158/1610) in 1980-1982, 25% (441/1788) in 1990-1992, and 37% (602/1624) in 2000-2002 (p < 0.0001). Japanese, South Korean, and German authors achieved the largest increases during the 22 years covered by our research, and Canada had the largest decrease. The increase in international articles at the AJR was accompanied by an absolute decrease in publications from authors in the United States. Nonetheless, during 2000-2002, the acceptance rate for major papers from authors in the United States was 45% and the acceptance rate for foreign authors was 31%. During 1990-1992, the acceptance rates for major papers were 33% and 27%, respectively. The contents of the AJR reflect a continually increasing number of international articles during the past two decades.
Meng, Ruo-gu; Zhai, Yan-bing; Chen, Sen; Zhang, Yan-chang; Zhang, Yue-lun; Zhao, Jian-yun; Sun, Feng
To compare the differences on current ethical issues in the areas of epidemiological practice between China and America, to identify the major ethical problems existing in the epidemiological studies in China. Through searching and reviewing papers published on Chinese Journal of Epidemiology and American Journal of Epidemiology from Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2010, we made a comparison on ethical issues involved in the original studies that focusing on human beings. In total, 749 Chinese articles and 1221 American articles were recruited, with the following findings: (1) The proportion with announcements of "Informed consent by the subjects" was 29.24% in Chinese literature and 38.08% in the Americans (χ² = 16.02, P ethic committees" was 29.24% in Chinese, while 38.08% in American (χ² = 604.40, P ethical issues in the last 5 years. (3) Articles derived from trial studies had better involvement on ethics than those from observational studies. (4) The level on ethical issues in the American Research Institutes exceeded those in China (5) American studies also had showed better ideas on Ethic issues on biological specimens collection and privacy protection, than those in Chinese studies. Among the studies on Chinese Journal of Epidemiology, the proportion of 'informed consent' was higher than in ethical review, but both ethical review and awareness on 'informed consent' had left far behind than the American Journal of Epidemiology. This could be seen at the institution level of the writers, during specimen collection and privacy protection, as well as at the overall level. The results reminded us that the Departments of Technology Management should spend more efforts on the improvement of public education regarding ethics for researchers and to update the process of edition for Journals as well as to reinforce the rules of ethics in epidemiological research.
Dexter, Ralph W.
This article presents a brief list of journals containing information for historians and naturalists. The journals are presented in two lists from 1810-1875 and from 1876-1900. Each list is further classified into general natural history, microscopy, botany, entomology, conchology, ornithology, and geology and paleontology. (MR)
Contributes to (and draws on) journalism history, mass-culture studies, and women's history in a rhetorical analysis of a series of six full-page illustrations titled "The American Woman" run in 1897 in "The Ladies' Home Journal." Reveals how class and gender issues intersected and underscored the role of the mass media in…
Stephen J. Gould
Full Text Available This editorial article introduces the new scientific journal Exosomes and Microvesicles (EXMV , the official journal of the American Society for Exosomes and Microvesicles (ASEMV, and describes its editorial line and mission in relation to the role of the Society, the state of the art of the study of exosomes and microvesicles, and the overall approach of the publication.
Khurana, Gauri; Henderson, Schuyler; Walter, Garry; Martin, Andres
Objective: The authors reviewed and characterized conflict of interest (COI) and disclosure policies published in peer-reviewed psychiatric and nonpsychiatric journals. Methods: The authors examined peer-reviewed publications in the psychiatric (N=20) and nonpsychiatric (N=20) literature. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, they…
Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Strawbridge, Rebecca; Rampuri, Riaz; Ragunathan, Thivvia; Young, Allan H
There is an established disparity between physical and mental healthcare. Parity of research outputs has not been assessed internationally across influential medical journals. To assess parity of publication between physical and mental health, and within psychiatry. Four major medical disciplines were identified and their relative burden estimated. All publications from the highest-impact general medical journals in 2001, 2006 and 2011 were categorised accordingly. The frequency of psychiatry, cardiology, oncology and respiratory medicine articles were compared with the expected proportion (given illness burdens). Six subspecialties within psychiatry were also compared. Psychiatry was consistently and substantially underrepresented; other specialties were overrepresented. Dementia and psychosis demonstrated overrepresentation, with addiction and anxiety disorders represented proportionately and other disorders underrepresented. The underrepresentation of mood disorders increased more recently. There appears to be an important element of disparity of esteem; further action is required to achieve equivalence between mental and physical health research publications. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal
A survey was distributed by e-mail to 553 biologists who study the Neotropics, in order to identify the journals, books and researchers with the greatest influence over Latin American biology. The biologists' database of the Revista de Biología Tropical was used to obtain their addresses. One third of them answered. The Revista de Biología Tropical is considered the most influential journal in the region. The majority of other influential journals are published in developed countries. The thematic distribution of answers, as well as independent assessments found in the literature, indicate that these and other survey results are not biased by the use of the journal's database. By subject, marine and ecological journals are the most influential. In contrast with American science, there are no researchers or books that clearly dominate the field. These results hint to the subjectivity of many awards and qualifications and possibly reflect a lack of tradition regarding appearance of local scientists in the mass media, the small capacity of world wide diffusion for local research and the low priority of science in the Iberoamerican culture. Latin American journals should improve, specially through efficient communication with authors, stringent rejection of inferior manuscripts and through widespread and timely distribution. The marked dominance by male researchers may reflect the lower number of women in the field, and social inequality. Despite the absence of "superstars", there was a correlation: most scientists in the "list of outstanding researchers" were from large countries. The publication of the most influential journal in one of the smallest countries of the region might reflect the relatively long period of existence of the Revista (half a century), the lack of other alternatives in the region and the journal's inclusion in international indices. Recommendations for Latin American science include a selection of the best journals to receive financial
Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some ...
Full Text Available ... certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind ... has an advanced degree, most commonly in clinical psychology, and often has extensive training in research or ...
Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...
Full Text Available ... seem to lift or problems functioning, causing everyday life to feel distorted or out of control. Diagnosing ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ...
Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ... maintain private practices and many psychiatrists work in multiple settings. There are about 45,000 psychiatrists in ...
Anderson, Eric L.; Nordstrom, Kimberly; Wilson, Michael P.; Peltzer-Jones, Jennifer M.; Zun, Leslie; Ng, Anthony; Allen, Michael H.
Introduction In the United States, the number of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a mental health concern is significant and expected to grow. The breadth of the medical evaluation of these patients is controversial. Attempts have been made to establish a standard evaluation for these patients, but to date no nationally accepted standards exist. A task force of the American Association of Emergency Psychiatry, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine and psychiatry, and a psychologist was convened to form consensus recommendations on the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to EDs. Methods The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED (Part I) and then combined this with expert consensus (Part II). Results In Part I, we discuss terminological issues and existing evidence on medical exams and laboratory studies of psychiatric patients in the ED. Conclusion Emergency physicians should work cooperatively with psychiatric receiving facilities to decrease unnecessary testing while increasing the quality of medical screening exams for psychiatric patients who present to EDs. PMID:28210358
Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty
This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.
By the middle of the 1970s, a Max Weber revival commenced in American sociology. Almost 75 percent of the articles on Weber in the American Journal of Sociology published in the past six decades appeared in the 1970s and 1980s. The Weber revival in American sociology is a phenomenon observed in leading literature. New translations and publications are frequently indicated reasons for the renewed interest in Weber. Without dismissing this factor, it is not an entirely satisfactory explanation. This article accounts for the Weber revival in a new way. Taking the American Journal of Sociology as a case study, I argue that the Weber revival was a case of circulating knowledge. Certain historically set issues led to a reorientation of Weber, which meant that knowledge about Weber was moved, extended, and transformed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Noble, Vincente, Comp.; And Others
This annotated bibliography, developed by graduate students, examines the professional journal literature on Native Americans. The literature is largely descriptive, and focuses on the helping relationship. Much of the material comes from the following academic areas: psychology, ethnology, sociology, social work, education and anthropology.…
Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Huang, Lihua
Measured by the prevalence of journal article contributions, geographic coverage, and international collaboration, this literature review found an increasing level of globalization with respect to American social work research and contribution to the social work profession from 2000-2009. Findings suggest changes are needed in global awareness and…
Culebras, J M
The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization.
Use of the Impact Factor is currently being discarded in industrialized countries where, to name one case, up to 40% of the articles published in Nature are never cited, despite the high Impact Factor of that journal. However, it is still used in Latin America to evaluate journals and authors, potentially influencing who are given positions and who receives funding. To find out how valid the Impact Factor is for Latin American research, 1 used the database BINABITROP to see how much of the relevant literature was used to measure impact. I found that the Science Citation Index (SCI) excluded 96% of the relevant literature when measuring the impact of biological articles about Costa Rica for the studied year (2011). Therefore, the impact of Latin American science is unknown and the Impact Factor should not be used to assess how often a journal, institution or author are cited.
Fuchs, Alfred H
The American journal of Psychology celebrates 125 years of publication this year. From its inception, the Journal has attempted to record and communicate the results of research conducted in laboratories of psychology. It has also provided its readers with laboratory plans and designs for apparatus for research and demonstrations and described experimental procedures to facilitate the conduct of research. Its attention to reviews of books over a wide range of psychological topics and its inclusion of articles that provide historical perspectives on the development of psychology and its concerns broaden the context in which laboratory research is carried out. This brief overview of the Journal's history offers a perspective on the role of the Journal in, and its contributions to, the development of scientific psychology.
Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.
Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941
Bretones, Paulo S.; Jafelice, Luiz C.; Horvath, Jorge E.
This study reviews 10 years of "Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education" (RELEA), showing that the journal has become a valuable resource for publishing and highlights its pathway as scholarly journal. Furthermore, it is also a call to astronomy education specialists to consolidate their efforts considering similar journals…
Dennis, Edward A.
The Journal of Lipid Research was founded in October, 1959 and has had a long and distinguished history. It evolved from an initial concept of a loose-leaf methodology handbook to a major journal for the lipid field. Its growth has in many ways paralleled the growth and expansion of lipid research. Today, it is operated as a journal of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the forefront of biomedical research on lipids. PMID:19116414
Emmons, Nancy J.; And Others
The use of particular statistical methods over time was studied in a review of publications from the disciplines of education, psychology, and sociology. Publications studied were the: (1) "American Educational Research Journal"; (2) "Journal of Educational Psychology"; and (3) "Sociology of Education". A total of 221…
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... The editors invite scholarly manuscripts in theory and practice of all fields of education, qualitative, quantitative and clinical researches on counselling and ... feelings, family issues, battery/battering, disabilities, problem of underachievement/learning-difficulties, intellectual disabilities, behaviour disorders, ...
Peter S. Acute hamstring injuries. Am J Sports Med 1994; 12(7):395-400. Book references should be set out as follows: a. Williams G. Textbook of Sports Medicine. 2nd Edition: Butterworth, 1989: 101-104. b. Vandermere P, Russel P. Biomechanics of the hip joint. In:Nordien PE. Jeffcoat A, eds, Clinical Biomechanics.
Lehmann, Susan W; Blazek, Mary C; Popeo, Dennis M
The aging of the US population and shortage of geriatric psychiatrists mean that all medical students must be prepared to evaluate psychiatric symptoms in older patients. The authors sought to describe current geriatric psychiatry teaching practices during the psychiatry clerkship. Psychiatry clerkship directors at 110 American medical schools were surveyed about didactic and clinical experiences of geriatric psychiatry. Sixty-two (56 %) of programs responded. One fifth of programs lacked specific instruction in geriatric psychiatry. Programs were more likely to include instruction on dementia than late-life depression. Increased geriatric psychiatry educational offerings were associated with the following: number of geriatric psychiatrists on faculty, presence of a geriatric psychiatrist on the medical education committee, and inclusion of geriatric psychiatry specific items in clerkship learning objectives. Current practices in some clerkships are inadequate to prepare medical students to care for older patients with psychiatric symptoms.
Full Text Available ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...
Full Text Available ... Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More What Is Psychiatry? Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on ...
Reveiz, Ludovic; Villanueva, Eleana; Iko, Chimaraoke; Simera, Iveta
The objective of this study was to determine to what extent Latin American and Caribbean biomedical journals have endorsed and complied with clinical trial registration and reporting guidelines. A search of randomized clinical trials was carried out using the LILACS database. The randomized clinical trials identified through the search were assessed to determine whether trial registration and CONSORT guidance was mentioned. Information regarding endorsement of the ICMJE, trial registration and other reporting guidelines was extracted from the online instructions for authors of the journals included in the study. The search identified 477 references. We assessed a random sample of 240 titles of which 101 were randomized clinical trials published in 56 journals. Trial registration was reported in 19.8% of the randomized clinical trials, 6.9% were prospectively registered and 3% mentioned CONSORT. The ICMJE was mentioned by 68% of the journals and 36% of journals required trial registration. Fewer journals provided advice on reporting guidelines: CONSORT (13%), PRISMA (1.8%), STROBE (1.8%), and the EQUATOR network (3.6%). Wider endorsement of trial registration and adherence to reporting guidelines is necessary in clinical trials conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Green, Christopher D; Feinerer, Ingo
In an earlier article, we used digital historical methods to examine the first 14 volumes (1887-1903) of The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) by creating networks of the vocabularies used in every substantive article the journal published in those years. These networks showed us the major research groups that had been gathered together by the journal's founder-editor, G. Stanley Hall, and how the intellectual composition of the journal (and the discipline) changed over that 17-year period. In the present article we extended that study forward, creating networks for the next 15 volumes (1904-1918), broken into time blocks of 5 years each. Our findings, in brief, were that vision research (especially color) continued to play as consistent and prominent role in the journal as it had since the start; that memory, association, and some higher mental processes were active areas of research throughout; that Hall continued to have an on-again, off-again relationship with theoretical and philosophical psychology; that intelligence-measuring methods, psychoanalysis, and psychophysics were periodically popular enough that they each generated a cluster in 1 of the 3 time blocks; and that Titchener's participation in the editing of AJP led to its becoming the major outlet for his Structuralist research program (an absence that we noted in our earlier studies of the journal Psychological Review).
Full Text Available During the last half of the century the researchers have placed a great deal of importance on brain behavior relations. This has brought upon a huge body of knowledge but unfortunately at the cost of culture - the true roots of much of our behaviour. This general disregard of cultural factors has not only led to false generalizations but has also blocked the understanding of the real forces that motivate and shape our perceptions, attitudes, and actions. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight the trajectory of transcultural psychiatry, right from the conceptions of its idea, through flaws in methodology, assessment, treatment and to its future and its limitations.
Armstrong, April W; Idriss, Shereene Z; Kimball, Alexandra B; Bernhard, Jeffrey D
Submissions to the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (JAAD) undergo a rigorous peer-review process. However, little is known regarding the fate of manuscripts declined by the JAAD. We sought to: (1) determine the proportion of manuscripts declined by the JAAD that are subsequently published elsewhere; (2) identify the journals in which they were published; and (3) study whether the authors of declined manuscripts adopted in their final publications the changes suggested by the JAAD reviewers. We reviewed the outcomes of the 489 submissions declined by the JAAD during two 4-month periods: from March 1, 2004, to June 30, 2004, and from March 1, 2005, to June 30, 2005. Of the 981 manuscripts submitted to JAAD during the two 4-month periods studied, 489 manuscripts (50%) were declined. Among the declined manuscripts, 201 (41%) had been subsequently published in other medical journals as of March 1, 2007. Among the 55 journals that published manuscripts declined by JAAD, 23 (42%) were nondermatology journals. The median impact factor for these 55 journals was 1.638, compared with the JAAD's impact factor of 2.402. Among the declined manuscripts, Case Reports comprised the largest proportion (n = 149, 31%), followed by Original Research Reports (n = 90, 18%). Overall, 46 (51%) rejected Original Research Reports were subsequently published, compared with 145 (36%) rejected submissions in other categories that were later published (P < .01). Among the 101 subsequently published manuscripts for which full texts were available, 82% of the authors incorporated at least one change suggested by the JAAD reviewers. The manuscripts that adopted JAAD-reviewer suggestions were published in journals with higher impact factors than those that did not incorporate any JAAD-reviewer suggestions (P = .0305). It is possible that the average lag time of 28 months in this study is not sufficient for some rejected manuscripts to reach subsequent publication. Approximately half
Dr. Irina DAVID
Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the main characteristics of Western European anti - American ism – a long-standing phenomenon, which has become more powerful and widespread after the end of the Cold War – from a Romanian perspective. After a brief presentation of some of the most representative features of anti - American attitudes identified by scholars in the field, I will analyse several articles published in the last decade in two Romanian cultural journals – Revista 22 and Dilema Veche – focusing on their authors’ perception of Western European exacerbated criticism of America.
Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina
During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others.
Hewitt, David A.; Link, Jason S.; Steinich, Dave R.; Wahl, David H.; Mather, Martha E.
Recent changes in the landscape of scientific publishing prompted the Publications Overview Committee of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) to review the Society's portfolio of scientific journals. We evaluated journals based on metrics in two categories: (1) citation-based measures of the influence of a journal on the scientific literature, and (2) measures of the cost-effectiveness of a journal (citation rate adjusted for subscription cost). Over the long-term, we found that ecology journals had far stronger citation-based influence than fisheries and aquatic sciences journals, and that journals publishing primarily basic research had stronger influence than journals publishing applied research (including four AFS journals and Fisheries magazine). In evaluating the current status of fisheries and aquatic sciences journals, we found that metrics of influence and cost-effectiveness provided considerably different portrayals of journals relative to their peers. In terms of citation-based influence, we found that the AFS journal Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (TAFS) and Fisheries magazine were competitive with highly regarded peer fisheries journals, but that North American Journal of Aquaculture (NAJA) and Journal of Aquatic Animal Health (JAAH) were less influential than their peers. The citation-based influence of North American Journal of Fisheries Management (NAJFM) was intermediate between TAFS/Fisheries and NAJA/JAAH. For journals like NAJFM and NAJA, we expect that much of the scientific influence on policy and management is not captured by citations in the primary literature, and alternative methods of evaluation may be needed. All of the AFS journals ranked highly with regard to cost-effectiveness because their subscription costs are low, and these rankings are in accordance with membership needs and the strategic mission of AFS to provide broad and timely dissemination of scientific information. We conclude by suggesting
Song E. Lee
Full Text Available Abstract: The mental health of Hmong Americans has been studied since their arrival in the United States. The purpose of this metasynthesis to utilize a qualitative approach to analyze academic journal article studies that assess mental health issues in Hmong Americans. Forty-eight published articles from 1983 to 2012 were chosen for analysis. Each of the selected articles focused on Hmong participants and contained findings relevant to the psychological well-being of Hmong Americans. Results of this study revealed several common themes: trends in research, depression,anxiety, adjustment issues, family issues, substance abuse, other mental health concerns, factors linked to mental health, help seeking behavior and perceptions, effectiveness of mental health treatments, strengths and resiliency, and supportive factors.
Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.
The goal of this work is to present an analysis of articles published by the Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) since its beginning (2004) to the present. We analyzed the 59 articles available on the website of the journal (http://www.relea.ufscar.br), published in 15 issues. The articles were classified by: year of publication, issue, author's institutions, grade level, focus of the study and content. The results show that the number of articles is still small - although the journal has been initially qualified as B3 within the Journal Ranking scheme Qualis CAPES and in the latest ranking (current) advanced to the concept B1 in the Qualis, it is too early to expect an increase in the number of articles submitted. Among the main factors for the relatively low number of articles we can mention that the initially nominated Editorial Board did not succeed in a proper dissemination of the journal and call for papers, the ongoing absence of a ``critical mass'' of astronomy education researchers and the lack of publishing tradition in the area. Important aspects of the writing of articles submitted are also discussed, such as refereeing, acceptance rate of articles, participation of authors from countries other than Brazil and theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as the recent editorial restructuration of the international Editorial Board of the RELEA and the nomination of Associate Editors from Brazil. Concluding, it is possible to note the contribution to the field up to the moment through citations in other works in the field. However, it is necessary to advance with regard to: publishing more articles, articles from greater variety of Latin American countries, training of the community for a minimum quality of the writing of articles submitted for publication in a journal aimed at education research. In this sense, additional analyses of the published papers would be desirable. Finally, it is pointed out the need for greater
Varley, Christopher K.; Jibson, Michael D.; McCarthy, Mary; Benjamin, Sheldon
OBJECTIVE: The authors report a survey of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training (AADPRT) on interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatry residency programs. METHODS: American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training membership was anonymously surveyed by e-mail and by paper…
Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro
As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America.
Whelan, Emma; Asbridge, Mark; Haydt, Susan
There are public concerns regarding OxyContin (Purdue Pharma, Canada) and charges within the pain medicine community that media coverage of the drug has been biased. To analyze and compare representations of OxyContin in medical journals and North American newspapers in an attempt to shed light on how each contributes to the 'social problem' associated with OxyContin. Using searches of newspaper and medical literature databases, two samples were drawn: 924 stories published between 1995 and 2005 in 27 North American newspapers, and 197 articles published between 1995 and 2007 in 33 medical journals in the fields of addiction/substance abuse, pain/anesthesiology and general/internal medicine. The foci, themes, perspectives represented and evaluations of OxyContin presented in these texts were analyzed statistically. Newspaper coverage of OxyContin emphasized negative evaluations of the drug, focusing on abuse, addiction, crime and death rather than the use of OxyContin for the legitimate treatment of pain. Newspaper stories most often conveyed the perspectives of law enforcement and courts, and much less often represented the perspectives of physicians. However, analysis of physician perspectives represented in newspaper stories and in medical journals revealed a high degree of inconsistency, especially across the fields of pain medicine and addiction medicine. The prevalence of negative representations of OxyContin is often blamed on biased media coverage and an ignorant public. However, the proliferation of inconsistent messages regarding the drug from physicians plays a role in the drug's persistent status as a social problem.
Full Text Available ... Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental, ... medical laboratory and psychological tests which, combined with discussions with patients, help provide a picture of a ...
Full Text Available ... Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students ... Disaster, Trauma Share Your Story Suicide Prevention Warning Signs of Mental Illness What is Psychiatry? What is ...
Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... Share Your Story Suicide Prevention Warning Signs of Mental Illness What is Psychiatry? What is Mental Illness? What ...
Concept and practice of evidence-based psychiatry and its application in Nigerian psychiatry: a critical review. PO Onifade, LO Oluwole. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(1) 2006: 16-19. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
The situation of present day psychiatry is described as being dominated by an empiricist perspective. The limitations of this perspective are analyzed and a rough sketch of the hermeneutical approach in psychiatry is offered. It is argued that a fully developed hermeneutical psychiatry implies a
Perlis, Roy H; Perlis, Clifford S; Wu, Yelena; Hwang, Cindy; Joseph, Megan; Nierenberg, Andrew A
Financial conflict of interest has been reported to be prevalent in clinical trials in general medicine and associated with a greater likelihood of reporting results favorable to the intervention being studied. The extent and implications of industry sponsorship and financial conflict of interest in psychiatric clinical trials have not been investigated, to the authors' knowledge. The authors examined funding source and author financial conflict of interest in all clinical trials published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, the Archives of General Psychiatry, the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, and the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry between 2001 and 2003. Among 397 clinical trials identified, 239 (60%) reported receiving funding from a pharmaceutical company or other interested party, and 187 studies (47%) included at least one author with a reported financial conflict of interest. Among the 162 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies examined, those that reported conflict of interest were 4.9 times more likely to report positive results; this association was significant only among the subset of pharmaceutical industry-funded studies. Author conflict of interest appears to be prevalent among psychiatric clinical trials and to be associated with a greater likelihood of reporting a drug to be superior to placebo.
Emotional states derived from stimuli such as visual objects, scenes, and films, linguistic input such as words and phrases, and other inputs such as music and humor have been examined over many decades in an attempt to understand how feelings are aroused and, in turn, how they influence behavior. From early introspectionists to modern-day social, clinical, and cognitive researchers studying the ways in which affect is derived from everyday conscious and unconscious experiences and how those experiences frame our perceptions for processing future encounters with emotional stimuli, over 120 years of work has been reported in The American Journal of Psychology. The current article provides an overview of the more salient and influential of those works and articulates the ways in which the reported findings influence our current explorations of emotion and mood.
Rej, Soham; Laliberté, Vincent; Rapoport, Mark J; Seitz, Dallas; Andrew, Melissa; Davidson, Marla
In spite of a rapidly increasing need, there remains a shortage of geriatric psychiatrists in North America. The factors associated with psychiatric residents' interest in geriatric psychiatry have not yet been examined in a nationally representative sample. Cross-sectional study. Web-based online survey of Canadian psychiatry residents. 207 psychiatry residents (24.3% response rate). The main outcome was interest in becoming a geriatric psychiatrist. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to better understand what demographic, educational, and vocational variables were associated with interest in becoming a geriatric psychiatrist. A number of respondents had an interest in becoming a geriatric psychiatrist (29.0%, N = 60); in doing a geriatric psychiatry fellowship (20.3%, N = 42); or an interest in doing geriatric psychiatry as a part of the clinical practice (60.0%, N = 124). Demographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity) did not correlate with interest in geriatric psychiatry. The variables most robustly associated with interest in geriatric psychiatry were: 1) completion of geriatric psychiatry rotation(s) before the third year of residency (OR: 5.13, 95% CI: 1.23-21.4); 2) comfort working with geriatric patients and their families (OR: 18.6, 95% CI: 2.09-165.3); 3) positive experiences caring for older adults prior to medical school (OR: 12.4, 95% CI: 1.07-144.5); and 4) the presence of annual conferences in the resident's field of interest (OR: 4.50, 95% CI: 1.12-18.2). Exposing medical students and junior psychiatry residents to clinical geriatric psychiatry rotations that increase comfort in working with older adults may be potential future strategies to improve recruitment of geriatric psychiatrists. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ozçakar, Levent; Franchignoni, Franco; Negrini, Stefano; Frontera, Walter
Case reports (CRs) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. However, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, the authors discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.
Özçakar, L; Franchignoni, F; Frontera, W; Negrini, S
Case reports (CR) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side-effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. Yet, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AJPMR) and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, we discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well-written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.
Schrock, John B; Kraeutler, Matthew J; McCarty, Eric C
Trends in author qualifications, the number of authors per article, and the internationalization of author groups in sports medicine journals have not been widely investigated. To examine trends in authorship characteristics in a single prominent sports medicine journal. Systematic review. Articles published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) in 1994, 2004, and 2014 were reviewed. For each article, the academic degree(s) of the first and last author, the total number of authors, the country of the author group, and academic institution status were recorded. A total of 708 articles met the inclusion criteria: 129 in 1994, 244 in 2004, and 335 in 2014. There were significant differences in the proportion of first authors with an MD degree (80% in 1994, 75% in 2004, 67% in 2014; P = .01), a dual MD/PhD degree (4.7% in 1994, 6.2% in 2004, 9.3% in 2014; P < .001), and a bachelor's degree (0% in 1994, 0% in 2004, 3.9% in 2014; P < .001). The proportion of last authors with an MD/PhD significantly increased over the 2 decades studied (7% in 1994, 13% in 2004, 17% in 2014; P = .01). The mean number of authors per article also significantly increased (3.8 in 1994, 4.3 in 2004, 5.8 in 2014; P < .0001). The proportion of articles published by an international group and the proportion of articles published by an academic institution increased over the 20-year span as well (both P < .0001). Within the past 2 decades, there has been a significant increase in the average number of authors per article in AJSM, as well as a higher proportion of international groups and academic institutions publishing in the journal. More nonphysicians are publishing in AJSM, with a significantly higher percentage of first authors with a bachelor's degree as their highest degree. This is likely due to a combination of a general increased interest in research as well as increased competition among medical students. These factors have likely led to larger research groups and thus a
Lövdahl, U; Riska, A; Riska, E
This study examines whether depiction of users of antidepressants in advertisements for antidepressants in the 1995 issues of the major medical journal in each of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden differs from that in the American Journal of Psychiatry. The results show that the people shown in the Danish, Finnish, and Norwegian journals are predominantly women, whereas depiction of users in the American and Swedish advertising is predominantly of couples. The portrayals in the 1995 advertising are of antidepressants as female gendered; a feature that was not seen in advertising for psychotropic drugs in the Nordic countries in the 1980s.
Rakesh Kumar Chadda
Full Text Available Preventive psychiatry is one of the most ignored subdiscipline of psychiatry, which has got important role to play in the contemporary psychiatry. Mental disorders are very common with lifetime prevalence of about 25%, and tend to be chronic. Due to the stigma associated with mental disorders, lack of awareness, and also lack of adequate mental health resources, nearly 60%–80% of the persons suffering from mental disorders do not access mental health care services. Mental and substance use disorders have been identified as one of the major contributors to the disease-related burden and disability-adjusted life years. In this background, preventive psychiatry has an important role to play in public health sector. Since etiology of most of the mental disorders is not known, it is not possible to follow here the standard model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of public health. A concept of universal, selective, and indicated prevention has been proposed in primary prevention. Preventive approaches in psychiatry focus on evidence-based risk and protective factors, promoting quality of life, reducing stressors, and improving resilience. Such interventions, when planned targeting at specific mental disorders, have a potential to prevent mental disorders. Thus, preventive psychiatry has a crucial role to play in mental health, considering the high prevalence of mental disorders, the associated disability and burden, and a great drain on human resources.
American Journalism Historians' Association.
The 24 papers in this collection discuss a variety of issues concerning the history of journalism in many countries. The papers are: "The East-Indian American Press" (Arthi Subramaniam); "The World's Oldest Magazine and Its Place in the Evolution of British Periodicals" (Sam G. Riley); "Donna Allen and the Women's…
Dingle, Arden D.
Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…
Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.
Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…
Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.
This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8
The most famous discovery, by John Cade, was the use of lithium for treatment of mania. Recently governments at state and federal level have acknowledged the effect of psychiatric illness on patients and their families. This has led to the development of programmes to improve public information and eliminate prejudice.
Leptin, a protein, is secreted mainly by adipocytes. It is important in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. It also has metabolic and neuroendocrine functions. Numerous studies have exploited the relationship between leptin levels and various psychatric conditions and treatments. To date, no conclusive ...
Kessler, Comte Harry; Drost, Julia; Kirchner, Thomas; Kostka, Alexandre; Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette; Raulff, Ulrich; Recht, Roland
Le comte Harry Kessler (1868–1937) est une figure essentielle de la vie des arts en Europe à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle. Sa triple éducation allemande, anglaise et française le voue dès l’origine à une mobilité qui devient bientôt le maître-mot de son existence de collectionneur et de mécène, de critique, de directeur de musée. Resté longtemps inédit, le Journal qu’il a tenu pendant près de soixante ans en est le dépôt et le témoin assidu. Les quelque dix mille pages manuscrites...
Reinhold Lenz, Jakob Michael
Je dois, mon cher Goethe, pour la bonne compréhension de ce que tu vas lire, te faire part avant tout de quelques informations. J’ai écrit ce journal sous les yeux de mon pire ennemi, dont j’étais tributaire, dans une langue qu’il ne comprenait pas et d’où j’ai traduit littéralement ce qui suit. Il regardait de temps en temps par-dessus mon épaule. Scipion, avec qui j’avais fait un voyage en Allemagne, avait à X une promise dont il dut à plusieurs reprises s’éloigner pour des périodes de quat...
Feb 17, 2004 ... World Association of Social Psychiatry (WASP) in association with the. South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP) with support from the. World Psychiatric Association (WPA) invites you to the. 1st Regional Congress of Social Psychiatry in Africa. Where: Caesars Convention Centre, Johannesburg, ...
ing of research on every aspect of psychiatry. A few areas where Australian research has achieved interna- tional recognition include the classification of depression, the concept of abnormal illness behaviour, treatment of anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and perinatal psychiatry. In the past it was common ...
May 20, 2004 ... 13th National Psychiatry Congress. The EEG in psychiatry. Roland Eastman. Division of Neurology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa orders. Epilepsy is primarily a clinical diagnosis, but the EEG may provide strong support by the finding of inter-ictal epi- leptogenic discharges and also be ...
Paddock, Stanton M.
As journalism educators wrestle to keep programs up-to-date in an evolving news landscape, there is value in understanding how education in an early form of multimedia journalism--photography--came to be. Little attention has been paid to the intersection of journalism education and photojournalism. This subject furnishes a unique perspective on…
Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567
An examination of top-cited articles is a tool that can be used to identify and monitor outstanding scientific research. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the characteristics of the 100 top-cited articles published in international journals dedicated to psychiatry. The Science Citation Index Expanded provided by the Thomson Reuters Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge was searched in December, 2011, and 128 journals were identified in the subject category "Psychiatry." Each journal was searched on the Web of Science under "Publication Name" and the results were sorted by category "Times Cited." The 100 top-cited articles were recorded, and the list was analyzed with regard to journals, number of citations, authors, year, institution, and country of origin. The original research articles of the 100 top-cited articles were classified into one of five categories: scale/measurement, descriptive/epidemiology, mechanism, management, and imaging. The 100 top-cited articles were cited between 26,578 and 781 times; they were published between 1957 and 2005, with the largest number (35) published in the 1990s. The articles appeared in 24 journals, with more than half published in the Archives of General Psychiatry (56), followed by the American Journal of Psychiatry (6), and Psychological Medicine (6). Articles that dealt with the development, application, or validity of measurements led the list of top-cited psychiatric publications (43) and had a significantly higher number of citations compared with the rest of the articles. The time and language of publication, field of study, country of origin, and journal in which the paper appeared are possible determinants of the likelihood of citation and impact.
Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Farias, Pablo Jose; Becker, Anne E; Like, Robert; Lu, Francis; Oryema, Nadia; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto
Since 2014, children from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras unaccompanied by their parents have fled in large numbers to the United States to escape violent crime and social disadvantage. Current mental health policies in the U.S. government's response can be improved based on guidelines from professional psychiatric and psychological organizations. These guidelines emphasize the importance of immigration and culture, raising questions into how the field of cultural psychiatry can offer conceptual frameworks and methods to research unaccompanied minor migration as a humanitarian problem. This paper conducts a policy analysis by reviewing shortcomings in the U.S. response and explores the potential contributions of cultural psychiatrists in optimizing services to address the needs of these children in the U.S. and their countries of origin.
The study of narrative has become increasingly important in the humanities and social sciences and there is a growing use of narrative in the clinical domains of medicine and psychotherapy. Narrative psychiatry is also on the rise and promises to help psychiatry be responsive to increasing critical concerns from inside and outside the field. The field of narrative is vast and cuts across a variety of disciplines. Contemporary scholars in narrative medicine build on 30 years of work in medical humanities and bioethics to rigorously understand human variables in medicine and to improve physician empathy. Narrative psychotherapists have developed a new model of psychotherapy and a meta-narrative theory of diverse mental health interventions. Psychiatrists have picked up these insights and are finding them invaluable for navigating contemporary issues in psychiatry. Narrative theory has become important in the humanities, social sciences, medicine, and psychotherapy for understanding human meaning making. Increasingly, the tools of narrative are proving valuable for psychiatry as well. Narrative psychiatry does not negate or supersede other knowledge and research in psychiatry, but it can help psychiatry understand how people use psychiatric knowledge, among other cultural resources, for making sense of psychic difficulties and psychic differences.
Full Text Available ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Patients & Families Patients & Families ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections What Is Psychiatry? Back ...
Full Text Available ... therapy is used to treat seasonal depression. Psychiatric Training To become a psychiatrist, a person must complete ... of psychiatry residency. The first year of residency training is typically in a hospital working with patients ...
Full Text Available ... and insomnia. Hypnotics – used to induce and maintain sleep. Mood stabilizers – used to treat bipolar disorder. Stimulants – ... psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...
Full Text Available ... order or perform a full range of medical laboratory and psychological tests which, combined with discussions with ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...
Full Text Available ... of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. A psychiatrist ... Coping After Disaster, Trauma Share Your Story Suicide Prevention Warning Signs of Mental Illness What is Psychiatry? ...
Full Text Available ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC ...
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Full Text Available ... illnesses and the relationships with genetics and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological data, to make ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...
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Full Text Available ... become a psychiatrist, a person must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state ... A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...
Full Text Available ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Patients & Families Patients & ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections What Is Psychiatry? ...
Ilieva, Mirolyba; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa; Thorsen, Morten
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by deficits in social cognition, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Despite an increasing scientific effort to find the pathophysiological explanations for the disea...... engineering tool in psychiatry....
Manuel Oyarzún Gómez
American Thoracic Society. Each journal editor presented a report and answered a questionnaire. RESULTS: Improving information acquisition is the main motivation for pulmonology societies to edit their own journals, whereas disseminating medical knowledge and reporting experiences are the main motivations for authors to submit papers. The most common failing in the manuscripts submitted is poor compliance with the journal guidelines. Improving author-editor-reviewer relationships would be the best strategy for improving the quality of manuscripts. Suggestions for improving Latin American journals included the following: promoting professionalism in editorial tasks; encouraging manuscript reviewers to be more meticulous; and embracing international norms for editing medical journals. The following major problems were reported: a lack of regular, appropriate periodicity of issues; a shortage of original papers that are considered 'milestones' in the specialty; a low rejection rate for submitted papers; a high turnover of editors. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, we can make the following recommendations: although many journals are available in electronic form, they should also be maintained in print form; each journal should divulge its subscription fee, even if it is included in the annual society membership dues; although each Latin American country might decide to publish its own pulmonology journal, the feasibility of publishing a multinational Latin American pulmonology journal should be explored.
Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna
Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...
Bertolín Guillén, J M
The development of psychiatry, as it happens with other medical specialties, has been linked to that of the journals dedicated to it. They are a good exponent of its state of growing or consolidation. The first psychiatric journal in Spain appeared in 1865 and 27 years later the next one was founded. None of the three journals which existed in the 19th century continued at the beginning of the 20th century. During the first three decades of this century, nine specialized journals were founded, among which the "Revista Frenopática Española" in the first place, and the "Archivos de Neurobiología" afterwards, were the most outstanding in our country and the "Revista Frenopática Española" was that of the greatest international projection. Although the importance of a constellation of prestigious journals which were not dedicated to psychiatry was decisive for the development of this discipline in our country, the professionals organized themselves in the monographic journals about this subject, linked to mental hospitals.
Wade Hampton Frost, who was a Professor of Epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University from 1919 to 1938, spurred the development of epidemiologic methods. His 6 publications in the American Journal of Hygiene, which later became the American Journal of Epidemiology, comprise a 1928 Cutter lecture on a theory of epidemics, a survey-based study of tonsillectomy and immunity to Corynebacterium diphtheriae (1931), 2 papers from a longitudinal study of the incidence of minor respiratory diseases (1933 and 1935), an attack rate ratio analysis of the decline of diphtheria in Baltimore (1936), and a 1936 lecture on the age, time, and cohort analysis of tuberculosis mortality. These 6 American Journal of Hygiene /American Journal of Epidemiology papers attest that Frost's personal evolution mirrored that of the emerging "early" epidemiology: The scope of epidemiology extended beyond the study of epidemics of acute infectious diseases, and rigorous comparative study designs and their associated quantitative methods came to light.
Corral, Irma; Johnson, Toni L; Shelton, Pheston G; Glass, Oliver
Resident physicians training in psychiatry in the U.S. are required to master a body of knowledge related to cultural psychiatry; are expected to adopt attitudes that endorse the principles of cultural competence; and finally are expected to acquire specific cultural competence skills that facilitate working effectively with diverse patients. This article first provides an overview of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies related to cultural competence, as well as the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry's (AACAP) recommendations for the cultural competence training of child/adolescent fellows. Next, numerous print and electronic resources that can be used in cultural competence education in psychiatry are reviewed and discussed. Finally, we conclude by providing recommendations for psychiatry residency programs that we culled from model cultural competence curricula.
Igoumenou, Artemis; Ebmeier, Klaus; Roberts, Nia; Fazel, Seena
Measures of research productivity are increasingly used to determine how research should be evaluated and funding decisions made. In psychiatry, citation patterns within and between countries are not known, and whether these differ by choice of citation metric. In this study, we examined publication characteristics and citation practices in articles published in 50 Web of Science indexed psychiatric and relevant clinical neurosciences journals, between January 2004 and December 2009 comprising 51,072 records that produced 375,962 citations. We compared citation patterns, including self-citations, between countries using standard x(2) tests. We found that most publications came from the USA, with Germany being second and UK third in productivity. USA articles received most citations and the highest citation rate with an average 11.5 citations per article. The UK received the second highest absolute number of citations, but came fourth by citation rate (9.7 citations/article), after the Netherlands (11.4 citations/article) and Canada (9.8 citations/article). Within the USA, Harvard University published most articles and these articles were the most cited, on average 20.0 citations per paper. In Europe, UK institutions published and were cited most often. The Institute of Psychiatry/Kings College London was the leading institution in terms of number of published records and overall citations, while Oxford University had the highest citation rate (18.5 citations/record). There were no differences between the self-citation practices of American and European researchers. Articles that examined some aspect of treatment in psychiatry were the most published. In terms of diagnosis, papers about schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were the most published and the most cited. We found large differences between and within countries in terms of their research productivity in psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. In addition, the ranking of countries and institutions differed widely
Savitt, Todd L
Volume 1 of the Journal of the National Medical Association (JNMA), published quarterly during 1909, included a good deal of space devoted to 2 key concerns: (1) building and unifying black health professionals in medicine, surgery, dentistry, and pharmacy; and (2) providing a voice for these African American health professionals to the often-hostile and racist larger world of medicine. The Journal's editor, Charles Victor Roman, and associate editor, John A. Kenney, were well suited to the task. They promoted membership in the National Medical Association (NMA), attendance at NMA annual meetings, and cooperation among the health professions. They also used the pages of the JNMA to firmly respond to the negative articles and biased, even hateful, attitudes expressed by white medical and lay people. The JNMA has continued to speak for the black medical profession over the subsequent 100 years.
Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N
Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common but heterogeneous condition in which there is a clear temporal relationship between the dementia and vascular disease. It may result from multiple large or small vessel strokes or a single strategic stroke. Subcortical ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical ...
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Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))
This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)
In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.
Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Portilla-Geada, Néstor de la; Téllez Pacheco, Pedro
Reception of Psychiatry in Venezuela since the 19th Century to the late 20th Century merits a historical approach. The following work proposes to research some of the very origins of Venezuelan psychiatry and its possible influence on contemporary mental health practice. Through documental research, the early works of local authors from the 19th Century through 20th Century finals: Carlos Arvelo, Lisandro Alvarado, Francisco Herrera Luque, Jose Luis Vethencourt and Jose Solanes, are subjected to study. This journey illustrates a descriptive panoramic view which allows to better comprenhend the current state of our psychiatry. In a brief introduction the most important events are described, since the arrival of Pinel's ideas, followed by the early research paperworks published and the beginnings of the academic teachings of this specialty in Venezuela and displaying the main contemporary research groups thorough the country.
Starting from a sketch of the basic view points from which the topic will be elucidated, the author focuses on the different logics of psychiatry and psychotherapies. The connections between the topic and the somatopsychosocial model, the intercorrelation of psycho-genetic interpretative models and indication for psychotherapy indicate an approach which is oriented towards the disordered person (and not the disorder). This concept is compared with the often used definition of psychotherapy by Strotzka. The dependence of the concept on traditions in psychiatry (Krafft-Ebing, Jaspers, Kretschmer, E. Bleuler, and M. Bleuler) and its consistency with modern multiaxial diagnostic systems (Frances et al.) are stressed. Finally the border to psychotherapeutic medicine outside psychiatry, both in theory and practice, is stressed.
Rhi, B Y
Psychiatry, Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University) was the center for psychiatry training. The Korean War (1950-1953) enabled the interchanges between. Korean and American military psychiatrist, and motivated great change in Korean psychiatry from biologic oriented German descriptive psychiatry to the American dynamic psychobiological psychiatry. The German educational clinical systems were completely displaced by the American system, when internship and residency training system was conducted since 1958. However, there were always attempts to integrate old traditional Korean wisdoms into the modern psychiatry and to introduce European approaches and knowledges in psychiatry. With the rapid industrialization and economic development of the country since the late 1960s and the prevailing social defensive attitudes towards mentally ill patients of the leaders of the military regimes the increase of private asylums appeared where many chronically ill mental patients were kept without adequate treatment. The reform of asylums in the mid 1980s was gradually proceeded by the government leading consequently to the increase of huge mental hospitals in the land. With the democratization of the political situation as well as the social welfare policy of the government in the 1990s and with the steady stimulation elicited by some NGOs Mental Health Act was enacted in 1995 and the community mental health centers were increasingly set up in several districts. In concern with research activities in psychiatry remarkable development in social cultural as well as biological fields are recognized especially since in the 1970s academic societies for the subspecialities of psychiatry have been organized which cover the various schools of psychotherapy, social psychiatry as well as many subspecialities of biological psychiatry. The number of training hospitals have been increased as the result, the number of psychiatry specialists was increased from 93 in 1956 to 1593 in 1999. KNPA (Korean
Wu, Ying; Duan, Zhiguang
With the dramatic rise in mental disorders and mental illnesses, psychiatry has become one of the fastest growing clinical medical disciplines. This has led to a rise in the number of scientific research papers being published in this field. We selected research papers in ten psychiatric journals that were published during 1983 to 2012. These ten journals were those with the top Impact Factor (IF) as indicated by the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded). We utilized information visualization software (CiteSpace) to conduct co-citation and Hierarchal clustering analysis to map knowledge domains to determine the evolution and the foci of research in this field. In the evolution of the field of psychiatry, there were four stages identified. The result of hierarchal clustering analysis revealed that the research foci in the psychiatric field were primarily studies of child and adolescent psychiatry, diagnostic and classification criteria, brain imaging and molecular genetics. The results provide information about the evolution and the foci of the research in the field of psychiatry. This information can help researchers determine the direction of the research in the field of psychiatry; Moreover, this research provides reasonable suggestions to guide research in psychiatry field and provide scientific evidence to aid in the effective prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Religious method of treatment dominated treatments of psychiatric patients until the start of twentieth century. After psychiatry was recognized as a distinct medical discipline, in nineteenth century, it begun to shift away from religious approach to the treatment of mentally ill persons. During the twentieth century, it was enriched using psychotherapy, socio-therapy and biological methods of treatment, and completely secularized. The renaissance of religion and religious influence on secular events in the beginning of 21th century and postsecular atmosphere has launched a process of desecularization of psychiatry. It can best be seen through the changes in attitude towards spiritual and religious in the process of patients' evaluation, quality of life assessment, respect for the spiritual needs of patients in the process of clinical treatment, and objective consideration of the phenomenon of religiosity by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Without the ambition to precisely explain and define this notion, the basic sketch of what a postsecular psychiatry is and what it is not will be outlined in this paper. The goal is to open a professional debate over the issue, which would contribute that psychiatry, despite the ongoing challenges and provocations, maintains its essence as a medical discipline and adequately respond to all the needs of its patients, including those related to spirituality and religion. Overcoming rigid secular framework, psychiatry becomes more human and more close to human. In this way, psychiatry does not lose its "scientific component" because the effects of spirituality, beliefs or religious practices on mental health can be scientifically investigated without crossing the boundaries between the natural and spiritual sciences. Although people often consider that science and religion contradict each other, these are by their very nature convergently moving towards the meeting point even if it is located at infinity.
Lolas Stepke, F
The need for a theory is grounded on the heterogeneity of Medicine: Of basic situation, of medical subsystems and of praxis. The relationship between theory and practice in Medicine should be considered as a task of theoretical reflection, beyond contexts, application, and orientation. As a theory of theories--metatheory--its model lies closer to a "science of actions" than a "science of objects", considered as paradigmatic forms of Medicine. The relevance of these concepts to Psychiatry is illustrated on the basis of the influence of behavioral sciences upon biomedicine, whose advancement rests with Psychiatry.
Wells, Lloyd A
I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Whitby, Gary; Sloan, William David
The study of United States journalism history has been dominated by an interpretation founded on the idea of progress. This interpretation is based on the assumption that the essential characteristics of the press are thorough, fast, accurate news reporting; enlightened, effective presentation of opinion; entertainment; and press independence and…
Conclusions: This journal provides an important platform for sharing research achievements and promoting cooperation in this field. The level of articles published is continually improving. A research cooperative network promoted by famous scholars and institutions is developing. However, cross-regional and international cooperation is relatively limited.
Brittlebank, A.; Hermans, M.; Bhugra, D.; Costa, M.; Rojnic-Kuzman, M.; Fiorillo, A.; Kurimay, T.; Hanon, C.; Wasserman, D.; Gaag, R.J. van der
Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Europeenne des Medecins Specialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an
Forensic psychiatry is still obscure a discipline amongst the practising psychiatrists; so awareness should be created in the young residents pursuing this stream. It is prudent of setting a curriculum for the general psychiatry residents to learn the relevant topics of forensic psychiatry through didactic lectures, seminars, case-discussions and witnessing case proceedings. This topic could enable budding psychiatrists to acquire the skills of the legal aspects of psychiatry. This challenging yet little known branch of medicine can rejuvenate trainee psychiatry residents to specialise further orconduct research activities.
I have had the privilege of serving as Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology from 1/1/2012 to 1/1/2015 and have been reappointed for another 3-year term. When I took over as editor, I published an editorial in AJP-Lung in which I highlighted my vision and outlined the tasks to be accomplished to transform AJP-Lung into "The best place to publish basic, translational, and hypothesis-driven clinical lung research." Herein I review our accomplishments during the first term. As promised, we review each article submitted to this journal and our reviews always help the quality and impact of every paper. We recognized the contributions of junior authors by establishing a number of awards and increased the visibility of AJP-Lung by establishing Facebook and Blog electronic pages and sponsoring symposia in scientific meetings. Our impact factor increased from 3.523 in 2011 to 4.041 in 2012 and, thanks to our calls for papers, we are receiving large numbers of high-quality papers in all aspects of pulmonary cell biology and lung diseases. The best is yet to come. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Frauenfelder, F.; Muller-Staub, M.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van
Little is known about the question if the nursing diagnosis classification of North American Nursing Association-International (NANDA-I) describes the adult inpatient psychiatric nursing care. The present study aimed to identify nursing phenomena mentioned in journal articles about the psychiatric
Schramm, Lawrence P; Schramm, Diana C; Jackson, F Wilson
Since 1953, illustrations have been inserted as "tailpieces" at the ends of articles in The American Journal of Physiology and The Journal of Applied Physiology. The drawings were made by Homer Wheelon, a member of the American Physiological Society from 1919 until his death in 1960. Forty-five years after his death, Wheelon is unknown, but he contributed 32 publications to the medical literature and trained J. Earl Thomas, an important 20th century gastrointestinal physiologist. Wheelon was born into poverty in 1883 to itinerant Methodist preachers, circumstances that guided his education and career choices. Throughout his life, Wheelon exhibited a fondness and talent for art and photography and an unusual breadth of intellectual interests and knowledge. Wheelon received a bachelor's degree from the University of Washington, then studied at the University of Oregon, Northwestern University, and St. Louis University. Earning his M.D. from St. Louis University and assuming a faculty position there, Wheelon and his graduate student, Thomas, conducted widely recognized gastrointestinal research. Returning to Seattle in 1921, Wheelon became a highly respected physician and hospital administrator, but he also found time to indulge his interest in visual art and poetry. In 1933, inspired by observing a rabbit being used in a pregnancy test, Wheelon began to write and illustrate an epic, 322-page poem, Rabbit No. 202, illustrations from which became the journals' tailpieces. The present study traces Wheelon's personal life and scientific career in an attempt to understand this complex man and the origins of his unusual poem and its drawings.
Jilek, W G
Emil Kraepelin, well known as the principal designer of modern psychiatric nosology, is less well known for his pioneering work in comparative sociocultural psychiatry. This paper is trying to document Kraepelin's role as the inaugurator of systematic investigations into culture-dependent differences in psychopathology. Despite his many responsibilities as clinician, teacher, hospital administrator and scientific author, Kraepelin considered cross-cultural comparison of such importance that he spent considerable time on the preparation of then very cumbersome overseas expeditions. His first research journey in 1904 to Southeast Asia led to the programmatic formulation of comparative psychiatry as a scientific endeavour designed to contribute to the better understanding of psychopathological processes and to a comprehensive comparative ethnopsychology ("Voelkerpsychologie"). Kraepelin's main cross-cultural research project, planned to extend to seven non-European countries and to involve many foreign colleagues, was prevented by World War I and postwar complications. One year before his unexpected death, Kraepelin conducted comparative studies with American Indian, Afro-American and Latin American patients at psychiatric institutions in the United States, Mexico and Cuba in 1925. In his writings Kraepelin commented on certain differences in the incidence and presentation of psychopathological phenomena that he considered to be due to ethnic-cultural characteristics or social conditions. This paper discusses in detail Kraepelin's observations on the pathoplastic and pathogenic effects of cultural and social factors, and demonstrates the influence of his ideas on the development of modern social and transcultural psychiatry.
Full Text Available Following the approval of OxyContin (Purdue Pharma, Canada for medical use, the media began to report the use of OxyContin as a street drug, representing the phenomenon as a social problem. Meanwhile, the pain medicine community has criticized the inaccurate and one-sided media coverage of the OxyContin problem. The authors of this study aimed to contribute to an understanding of both sides of this controversy by analyzing the coverage of OxyContin in newspapers and medical journals. The analyses revealed inconsistent messages about the drug from physicians in the news media and in medical journals, which has likely contributed to the drug’s perception as a social problem. The authors suggest ways to address the lack of medical consensus surrounding OxyContin. The results of this study may help resolve the concerns and conflicts surrounding this drug and other opioids.
measles and smallpox decimated their numbers. In Tasmania the Aboriginal people were wiped out (although their genes live on in many locals, and in recent years there has been a resurgence of cultural pride in Tasmanian Aboriginal descen- dants). The 20th century. By the start of the 20th century, psychiatry in Australia ...
Full Text Available ... APA Organization Documents and Policies Work at APA Contact Us Newsroom News Releases Message from the President Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline ...
resurgence of cultural pride in Tasmanian Aboriginal descen- dants). The 20th century. By the start of the 20th ... administered by the Royal Australian and New Zealand. College of Psychiatrists. There are over 2 000 ... psychiatry in Australia followed suit, picking up new ideas and trends. After World War I this included fever ...
Robert M Kaplan
Full Text Available Psychiatry has been practised in Australia in one form or another since the peopling of the continent, originally with the practices of the Aboriginal shamans, and later with the psychiatric treatment necessitated by convict transportation. Over most of the last half-century psychiatry has been administered by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. There are over 2 000 psychiatrists in Australia, and num- bers are expected to increase in future. As in many other countries, there is ongoing pressure between the private and public sectors, with endemic under- funding of public and community services. Despite its small number of practitioners and relative isola- tion from major centres, Australian psychiatry has a distin- guished record in the field of research. The most famous dis- covery, by John Cade, was the use of lithium for treatment of mania. Recently governments at state and federal level have acknowledged the effect of psychiatric illness on patients and their families. This has led to the development of pro- grammes to improve public information and eliminate preju- dice. It is anticipated that the practice of psychiatry will flourish in Australia and that the country will remain a leading centre of excellence in psychiatric research and training.
Full Text Available ... Schizophrenia Sleep Disorders Somatic Symptom Disorder Specific Learning Disorder More Topics A – Z Ask An Expert Coping After Disaster, Trauma Share Your Story Suicide Prevention Warning Signs of Mental Illness What is Psychiatry? What is Mental Illness? ...
Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E
In historical and epistemological terms, psychiatry is a new discipline born during the 19th century. Rooted in both the natural and social sciences, psychiatric objects of inquiry, namely mental symptoms and mental disorders, are hybrid, constituted by the blending of components arising from disparate sources of knowledge ranging from the biological to the semantic in its widest sense. This poses problems for psychiatric research and therapy. Whilst conventional pluralism may be a convenient approach to manage aspects of psychiatric practice, it lacks the capacity to analyse psychiatric objects in their entirety. For the latter, psychiatry demands a new, tailored regional epistemology. This paper outlines the main features of an epistemology specific to the needs of psychiatry. It highlights the relational approach that needs to be taken and illustrates the usefulness of this approach by analysing the structure of psychiatric objects, exploring the manner in which they may be inscribed in the brain, and identifying the need to periodically recalibrate the language of psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer
Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577
Mundt, A; Heinz, A; Ströhle, A
The center of a national medical identity in Uzbekistan is Abu Ali Ibn Sina born in 980 AD representing Islamic medicine and scientific universalism. Psychiatric institutions were founded under Russian influence starting in the late 19th century. Today, the great challenge in psychiatry is the development of a post-Soviet identity integrating Russian and Islamic traditions.
Behavioural Disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. The clinical relevance of weight in psychiatry varies. It may be:- I. an associated clinical feature, either primary, as in anorexia nervosa, or secondary as in mood, anxiety or psychotic disorders. II. a related clinical issue, as in bulimia nervosa or an eating ...
weight loss in morbidly obeses patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2002; 12: 835-40. 11. World Health Organisation. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and. Behavioural Disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. The clinical relevance of weight in psychiatry varies. It may be:- I. an associated ...
Het doel van dit onderzoek is geweest de bestudering van de bijdrage die de hedendaagse psychiatrie aan de reclassering van met de justitie in aanraking gekomen delinquenten kan leveren. In de inleiding wordt erop gewezen hoe de reclassering zich in ons land heeft ontwikkeld van een persoonlijk
plans. This text constitutes what may be called the infra- municative action ( Habermas , 1984, 1987). Communicative structure of the organization...influence on the structure of newspaper organizations. Academy of Habermas , J. (1984). The theory of communicative action, Vol. 1. Boston: Management...Journal, 27(2), 247-270. Beacon Press. Castels, M. (1986). High technology, world development, and structural Habermas , J. (1987). The theory of
Lyons, Zaza; Janca, Aleksandar
Mental illnesses are a major public health problem around the world and the prevalence and burden of common mental disorders is growing. Psychiatry is an unpopular career choice for many medical students and this impacts negatively on the supply of psychiatrists to the workforce. The psychiatry clerkship can play an important role in influencing students' attitudes towards psychiatry, either positively or negatively. However, stigma towards mental illness detracts students from considering a career in psychiatry. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an eight week psychiatry clerkship on i) student knowledge and interest in psychiatry; ii) psychiatry as a career choice; iii) attitudes towards psychiatry; and iv) perceptions of stigma towards mental illness. Year 4 medical students at the University of Western Australia completed two questionnaires, the Balon Attitudes Towards Psychiatry and the Mental Illness Clinicians Attitudes (MICA), at the beginning and end of the psychiatry clerkship. Interest in, knowledge of, and consideration of psychiatry as a career were also assessed. Non-parametric tests were used to compare baseline and follow-up differences on the Balon and MICA. Unpaired t-tests compared mean differences for interest, knowledge and psychiatry as a career. Attitudes towards psychiatry were positive at the beginning of the clerkship. Overall, there was a significant decrease in negative and stigmatising views towards mental illness post clerkship measured by the MICA, but the follow-up mean score remained close to the neutral value with views in some areas becoming more negative. There was no significant improvement in students' interest in psychiatry post clerkship, however, knowledge of psychiatry improved significantly. Numbers of students 'definitely considering' psychiatry as a career increased significantly from 7 (4.6%) students at baseline to 17 (10.5%) at follow-up. The clerkship made a modest impact on students' attitudes to
Full Text Available The study universe comprises the CeLeHis Journal, National University of Mar del Plata, which brings together the works produced by its own members as well as those by academics specialised in literary criticism from other institutions. A bibliometric study from issue 1 to 31 is proposed, with a view to completing studies formerly published in 2006 and 2014, which dealt with previuos issues. Aspects concerning citation and authorship are analysed. The results of the study and conclusions are hereby presented.
Malingering in clinical practice with specific reference to psychiatry and psychology. Frans J Hugo, Frances Hemp. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...
Neville, Julie A; Lang, Wei; Fleischer, Alan B
To assess the frequency of statistical errors in the dermatology literature. Original studies published in the Archives of Dermatology and the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology from January through December 2003 were analyzed for correctness of statistical methods and reporting of the results. Of 364 studies published, 155 included statistical analysis. Of these, 59 (38.1%) contained errors in the methods or omissions in reporting of the statistical results. Fourteen percent of the articles with statistical analysis contained errors in the methods used (considered to be more significant errors), 26.5% contained errors in the presentation of the results, and 2.6% contained errors in both. The misuse of statistical methods is prevalent in the dermatology literature, and the appropriate use of these methods is an integral component of all studies. Readers should critically analyze the methods and results of studies published in the dermatology literature.
Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna
Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698
Wayne, George J.
Psychiatry in the Soviet Union is essentially conservative, middle-of-the-road and eclectic. It rejects both extremes: radical surgical treatment such as prefrontal lobotomy, and Freudian psychoanalysis. It is Pavlovian and neurophysiological in its orientation and closely linked to Marxian philosophy; most personal problems are believed to be sociocultural in origin, and they are expected to diminish as the country moves closer toward its political and economic goals, making psychiatry progressively more circumscribed in its applications. The varieties of therapy include work therapy, aimed toward returning patients to society quickly and productively; electrosleep therapy and electroconvulsive therapy, both of which seem to be falling into disrepute; insulin-coma therapy, widely used in psychosis; hunger therapy; pharmacotherapy similar to our own but lacking in the large numbers of drugs we use; tissue therapy; psychotherapy, of limited depth and chiefly concerned with the rational, conscious elements in the patient's life. PMID:13783499
Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna
Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy.
Knoll, James L
Open access (OA) publishing makes articles available over the Internet at no charge. The OA movement had its official start in 2002 with the establishment of the Budapest Open Access Initiative. The goal of the OA movement is to remove access barriers, accelerate research, and thereby achieve its broader mission of promoting global welfare. The OA movement has made swift progress over the past decade, but has introduced a disruptive change into the scientific community. The early stages of OA publishing have raised strong apprehensions, such as reliability concerns and the emergence of so-called predatory journals. The OA initiative is both inspiring and unsettling. For the discipline of forensic psychiatry, research findings must be reliable enough to be proffered as testimony in court. The methods used by OA publishing make the resolution of the reliability problem somewhat unclear. Nevertheless, given the momentum of OA publishing, a substantial change in traditional publishing appears inevitable. The discipline of forensic psychiatry must keep abreast of this change and find innovative methods of preserving the integrity of the forensic science database. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.
Zhang, Jinghua; Chen, Xiaoou; Gao, Xin; Yang, Huizeng; Zhen, Zhong; Li, Qingwei; Lin, Yiqun; Zhao, Xiyan
The field of psychiatry has seen significant progress in recent years due to worldwide contributions. National productivity, however, in the field of psychiatry is still unclear. In our study, we investigated contributions of individual nations to the field of psychiatry. The Web of Science was used to perform a search from 2011 to 2015 on the subject category "psychiatry". The total number of articles, citations and the per capita numbers were obtained to analyze the contributions of different countries. In psychiatry journals from 2011 to 2015, 84,760 articles were published worldwide. The most productive world areas were North America, East Asia, Europe and Oceania. The percentage of articles published in high-income countries was 87.77%, middle-income countries published 12.07%, and lower-income published 0.16%. Most articles were published by the United States (32.68%); the United Kingdom was next (8.59%), which was followed by Germany (6.77%), Australia (5.87%), and Canada (4.9%). The country with the highest number of citations (243,394) was the United States. A positive correlation was found between the population/GDP and the number of publications (P GDP. The authorship of most of the psychiatry articles was from high-income countries and few papers came from low-income countries. The most productive country was the United States. However, when normalized to population size and GDP, some European and Oceania countries were most productive.
O'Shaughnessy, Roy J
Historically, the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) has not engaged in debates on public policy. In its unique position at the interface of law and medicine, AAPL is able to make important contributions to social policy involving management of violent youths. In the 1990s, increasing rates of violence among adolescents spawned a new era of research into the causes and correlates of violence in youths. The resultant data on risk factors have provided opportunities for establishing empirical assessments and risk-focused treatment programs. Community treatment programs that demonstrate a moderate effect in reducing violence have renewed optimism about the benefit of treatment over punishment. The ongoing development of methodology to assess risk for violence presents opportunities for advancement of rehabilitation. Current social policies that limit the ability to provide treatment and rehabilitation in juvenile settings should be challenged by organized psychiatry.
Confidentiality stands out in psychiatry through its multiple connotations as an intrinsic necessity in the ethics of professional relationships. Thus it represents an important characteristic of this profession and at the same time a stringent request which, through its specificity, implies a direct contact with persons in need for help. Despite being inserted in professional codes and legislative systems, confidentiality in psychiatry is far from being considered a clarified matter and does not stand aside from ethical controversy. Keeping the professional secret is often a hard task due to the pressure of the law or of other professional groups who can bring multiple justifications, including that of action for the benefit of society. The therapist is often sub- mitted to a tension caused on the one hand by the promise of keeping the professional secret and on the other hand by multiple requests of breaking the confidentiality. So the problem of confidentiality in Psychiatry deserves special attention because in this profession, more than in other branches of medicine, the gain of the patient's trust is essential in the psychotherapeutic relationship.
Jibson, Michael D.; Broquet, Karen E.; Anzia, Joan Meyer; Beresin, Eugene V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Kaye, David; Rao, Nyapati Raghu; Rostain, Anthony Leon; Sexson, Sandra B.; Summers, Richard F.
Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) announced in 2007 that general psychiatry training programs must conduct Clinical Skills Verification (CSV), consisting of observed clinical interviews and case presentations during residency, as one requirement to establish graduates' eligibility to sit for the written certification…
Ayse Devrim Basterzi
Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.
Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zäske, Harald; Cleveland, Helen-Rose
to improve the image of psychiatry and to reduce potential stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. To evaluate such interventions, a questionnaire has been developed that assesses opinions and attitudes toward psychiatrists and psychiatry in different samples of medical specialists...
Franklin, V. P.
Since its founding in April 1932, "The Journal of Negro Education" has published articles, reports, and reviews examining the results of intelligence and other mental tests given to African Americans. In these studies, historically social scientists contributing to the "JNE" sought to clarify what these intelligence tests were…
American Journalism Historians' Association.
The Mass Media section of the proceedings of this conference of journalism historians contains the following 10 papers: "Broadcast News, Cable TV and the Telcos: A Historical Examination of the Rhetorical Forces Affecting the Electronic Distribution of Information to the American Television Public" (John E. Craft and Frances R. Matera);…
Kinderman, P.; Cooke, A.
The idea and practice of ‘diagnosis’ in psychiatry has always been controversial. Controversy came to a head in the period preceding and immediately after publication of the latest version of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-5. There was widespread international discussion and debate not only in scholarly journals but in mainstream and social media, and to the formation of International DSM Response Committee and an Internationa...
Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.
A basic task of psychiatry is to identify and treat mentally disordered persons at risk of committing crimes. Psychiatry has an important function in preserving social peace, law, and order. How the psychiatric world handles this duty has changed with time. There have been very important changes from asylums to mental hospitals and from voluntary or involuntary inpatient treatment to outpatient care; but clinical psychiatry cannot give up forensic psychiatry. As a result of developments, inpatient care in mental hospitals often concentrates on crisis management, risk assessment, and risk management. On the other hand, forensic psychiatry has made great efforts in recent decades with special therapies for mentally disturbed criminals and collaborated closely with criminologists in developing instruments for risk assessment and prognosis of repeat offenses.
Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention. Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention. Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....
Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.
Francisco J. Bonilla-Escobar
Full Text Available Background: Bibliometric or scientometric studies are methodological fields focused on the structural analysis of the information contained in scientific publication and generate indicators that help identify challenges and achievements in research. We aimed to characterize the publications that used this method authored by medical students in Latin America. Methods: We reviewed articles that performed a bibliometric analysis and were published in a Latin American medical student journal, between 2001 and 2012. We analyzed the characteristics of the articles, authors and references. Linear simple regression and Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC were developed to identify trends and correlations with 95% confidence. Results: There were 12 volumes of the journal available online, with a total of 236 articles. Of these, 13 (5.5% were bibliometric studies: five original articles, four letters to the editor, two editorials, one short communication, and one review. There was a positive significant relationship between time (years and number of publications (ß1=0.16, p=0.03, PCC=63%, and citations of each article (not significant, ß1=1.3, p=0.09, PCC=49%. Conclusion: There was an increase in the number of bibliometric publications after 2008, possibly influenced by a popularization of these types of studies in Latin America. Findings should motivate new and collaborative studies in this field. Moreover, it will be necessary to clarify publication areas of interest of medical students around the world.
Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.
Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…
Cheung, Erick H
Neuroethics is a new subset of bioethics that addresses ethical issues pertaining to the brain, primarily in the fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and neuroradiology. Research in brain science is progressing at a phenomenal rate and, as a result, the acquisition and application of knowledge and technology raises ethical questions of a practical and philosophical nature. While neuroethics is developing as a distinct field of study, one area that should be addressed in greater depth is the relevance and potential impact of neurotechnology in psychiatry. New knowledge in the mind-brain conundrum and increasingly sophisticated techniques for imaging and intervening in human cognition, emotion, and behavior pose ethical issues at the intersection of technology and psychiatry. This article presents a broad survey of the new directions in neuroethics, neuroscience, and technology and considers the implications of technological advances for the practice of psychiatry in the new millennium. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2009;15:391-401).
Damjanović, Aleksandar; Milovanović, Srdjan; Crnobarić, Cvetana
Hippocrates, the "father of medicine", is the establisher of a new scientific approach in medicine. He has followed the Hellenic philosophical school that man is the measure of all things, so the "cult of health" is a part of the essence of life. He thoroughly systemized all parts of medicine. He is the establisher of positive (inductive) medicine, which throws away superstition. His approach to medicine is as that of art and natural sciences, and not only as a skill. In his teaching he uses dialectic principles, the establish concept of knowing aetiology, systematization of diagnostics and therapy. He underlined great importance of prognoses of disease based on empirics. He is the founder of holistic medicine, modern concept of psychophysiology, which significantly enabled the disclosure of the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. His teaching is persistently psychosomatic and weaves in the most modern concepts of psychiatry today. In his aphorisms he described diagnostics and enrolled the principals of treatment of different kind of psychiatry disorders as depression, mania, hysteria, neurotic disorders, psychosis and psychosomatic diseases.
Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.
Sheehan, Kathleen A
Compulsory treatment is a common, yet controversial, practice in psychiatry. This paper reviews recent studies on the use of compulsory measures in hospital, the community and special populations. Researchers continue to examine the rates and patterns of involuntary hospitalization. However, they have extended their investigations to care in the community, acknowledging it as the primary locus of treatment for most patients. Research shows that the implementation of community mental health legislation presents complex clinical and practical issues that require further investigation. Recognition that compulsory treatment is an objective event which is subjectively experienced by patients, families and clinicians has led to research investigating stakeholder views. The therapeutic relationship has been found to be an important modifier of the experience of compulsory treatment. Recent studies have also focused on specific coercive practices, such as forced medication and seclusion, and the use of these in patient subgroups, including those with eating disorders and adolescents. The debate about whether compulsory treatment is ethical continues in the literature. Compulsory treatment in psychiatry remains an ethically and clinically contentious issue. As ethical concerns are generally countered by the argument that compulsory measures can lead to beneficial clinical outcomes, further empirical investigation in this area is required.
Kallert, Thomas Wilhelm
This paper highlights issues in the field of coercion in psychiatry which have gained importance in 2007. Reviews on 'involuntary hospital admission' demonstrated negative and positive consequences on various outcome domains. Papers on 'coercion and the law' identified cross-national differences of legal regulations, or addressed justice and equality issues. Studies on the 'patient's perspective', and 'family burden of coercion' showed that involuntariness is associated with feeling excluded from participation in the treatment. A review on 'outpatient commitment' recommended the evaluation of a range of outcomes if this specific legislation is introduced. 'Coercion in special (healthcare) settings and patient subgroups' needs to be assessed in detail. This refers to somatic hospitals, establishments for mentally retarded patients, prisons, forensic settings, and coercion mechanisms for addiction treatment, eating disorders, and minors. Empirical findings in other areas focused on attitudes towards involuntary treatment; decision variables for involuntary commitment; guidelines on the use of coercive measures; and intervention programs for staff victims of patient assaults. Coercion in psychiatry is an important area for future clinical and research initiatives. Because of the linkages with legal, human rights and ethical issues, a huge number of individual questions needs to be addressed.
Kneeland, Timothy W; Warren, Carol A. B
...), or Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), developed during the 1930s in Europe, is an established procedure in contemporary American psychiatry. But it is also extremely controversial, as demonstrated by the diverse (and telling) titles of the many books and articles about ECT since the 1930s- such as The Miracle of Shock (Peck, 1974), Shock Tre...
Cunico, Laura; Fredo, Susanna; Bernini, Massimo
The review aimed to identify and analyse the future development on the topic by analysing the main themes discussed in number of scientific journal focused on Mental Health both by nurses and physicians.. 4 international journals focused on Mental health and psychiatry International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, American Journal of Psychiatry, Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry as well as two journal focused generically on health, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Lancet were scrutinized. We have analysed the papers of 2012-2015 for the specialised journals and last and first 6 months of 2012 and 2013 and 2014-2015 for the generic. Editorials, comments and contributions regarding theoretical models were exluded. From the analysis we identified 9 themes and for each theme the pertinent category. For the diagnostic grouping we used the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. A trend in research about mood disorders, schizophrenia and addictions and comorbidity emerged according to the 2099 abstracts analysed. Within medical research antidepressants were the most studied psychotropic medication and cognitive behaviour therapy was the most studied psychotherapy. Within nursing research: the nurse-patient relationship, adherence and monitoring of pharmacological therapy, the treatment planning and the working environment, the nursing training and its efficacy. The clinical research trials were twice as frequent in the medical versus nursing research where qualitative research prevails. The research challenge will be to find a new paradigm fit for the future psychiatry having at its disposition the patient's genoma, and needing to routinely use biomarkers for a personalised therapy. A further challenge might be the promotion of interprofessional research between doctors and nurses and the acquisition of new competences of health professionals needed to tackle the
Hermann, Anne Kirstine
Accounting for emerging journalistic genres is a difficult endeavor not least because there is little agreement as to what constitutes journalism itself. Doing so, however, is essential if we are to recognize changing journalistic doxas. To capture such changes, we must include a holistic framework...... journalistic epistemology, changing it through practice. In turn, the analysis reveals how journalism practices can evolve its troubled philosophical position...... require more contextual reporting, ethnographic journalism emerges in American feature journalism. Analyzed holistically, this genre is characterized as the employment of immersion strategies adopted from social science for distinct storytelling purposes. These methods, however, transform conventional...
Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L
Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.
Cox, John L; Gray, Alison J
This review considers much recent work focused around the Psychiatry for the Person Programme of the World Psychiatric Association. Yet we have also considered the wider medical context, based on recent publications familiar to us in the fields of ethics, religion, spirituality and person-centred medicine as well as 'medicine of the person' as developed by Tournier. There is an urgent need for evaluative outcome studies of person-centred care, including the narratives of service users, rigorous scientific methods and new conceptual models; and for a reformulation of the bio-psychosocial model to incorporate new knowledge in the neurosciences, philosophy, anthropology, ethics and theology. We suggest that a biosocial/psychospiritual (BSPS) approach to relationship-based healthcare should be more actively considered.
Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology
This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.
Full Text Available In psychiatry there is a traditional categorical conception stating that several disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have distinct etiologies. On the other hand, dimensional approach claims that these entities are actually the same disorder reflecting different clinical aspects of same mental disorder in the course of time. ICD and DSM classifications are based on separate categories of different mental disorders. Howewer, it is quite difficult to consider a mental disorder as a discrete entity that has absolute boundaries from other disorders. There are patients manifesting symptoms of two or more categories but do not fulfill all diagnostic criteria for any mental disorder. Dimensional approach handles the psychopathology as a continuing process and establish the patients to the different ongoing points. According to this view, in fact, multiple diagnosis reflect dimensions of the same disease.
Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel; McIntyre, Roger S
Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient's unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention. Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention. Personalized medicine in psychiatry is challenged by the current taxonomy, where the diagnostic categories are broad and great biological heterogeneity exists within each category. There is, thus, a gap between the current advanced research prospects and clinical practice, and the current taxonomy is, thus, a poor basis for biological research. The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine.
Bhattacharya, Basabdatta; Cochran, Amy
This book presents the latest research in computational methods for modeling and simulating brain disorders. In particular, it shows how mathematical models can be used to study the relationship between a given disorder and the specific brain structure associated with that disorder. It also describes the emerging field of computational psychiatry, including the study of pathological behavior due to impaired functional connectivity, pathophysiological activity, and/or aberrant decision-making. Further, it discusses the data analysis techniques that will be required to analyze the increasing amount of data being generated about the brain. Lastly, the book offers some tips on the application of computational models in the field of quantitative systems pharmacology. Mainly written for computational scientists eager to discover new application fields for their model, this book also benefits neurologists and psychiatrists wanting to learn about new methods.
Park, Jong-Il; Oh, Keun-Young; Chung, Young-Chul
This paper reports the current status of Korean psychiatry. In 2011, there were 3005 psychiatrists and 75,000 psychiatric beds. There were 84 psychiatric residency-training hospitals in 2011, which produced about 150 psychiatry board-certified doctors annually. As for academic activity, there is the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, a main association for neuropsychiatry, and 21 other research societies. Psychiatric residency is a 4-year training program, with different objectives for each grade. The Korean health system accepts National Health Insurance. When severely mentally ill patients register as having a mental disorder, they pay only 10% of their total medical costs. Private clinics usually see patients with less severe conditions such as anxiety, mood and eating disorders; general and university hospitals and special mental hospitals often deal with severe conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. One great concern is an increasing trend to depend upon pharmacotherapy and neglect the role of psychotherapy. Additionally, conflicts among medical sectors are becoming fierce as other doctors request abolition of the current law that restricts them from prescribing anti-depressants for more than 60 days. The average hospitalization period of all mental care institutions was 166 days in 2010, substantially longer compared with developed countries. To win the heart of the general public, cutting edge research to improve the quality of treatment for mental diseases, reformation of psychiatric residency training programs, public campaigns to increase awareness of mental health value, and timely reflection on policy decisions should be pursued persistently. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel
YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.
Benjamin, Sheldon; Travis, Michael J; Cooper, Joseph J; Dickey, Chandlee C; Reardon, Claudia L
The American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) Task Force on Neuropsychiatry and Neuroscience Education of Psychiatry Residents was established in 2011 with the charge to seek information about what the field of psychiatry considers the core topics in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience to which psychiatry residents should be exposed; whether there are any "competencies" in this area on which the field agrees; whether psychiatry departments have the internal capacity to teach these topics if they are desirable; and what the reception would be for "portable curricula" in neuroscience. The task force reviewed the literature and developed a survey instrument to be administered nationwide to all psychiatry residency program directors. The AADPRT Executive Committee assisted with the survey review, and their feedback was incorporated into the final instrument. In 2011-2012, 226 adult and child and adolescent psychiatry residency program directors responded to the survey, representing over half of all US adult and child psychiatry training directors. About three quarters indicated that faculty resources were available in their departments but 39% felt the lack of neuropsychiatry faculty and 36% felt the absence of neuroscience faculty to be significant barriers. Respectively, 64 and 60% felt that neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience knowledge were very important or critically important to the provision of excellent care. Ninety-two percent were interested in access to portable neuroscience curricula. There is widespread agreement among training directors on the importance of neuropsychiatry and neuroscience knowledge to general psychiatrists but barriers to training exist, including some programs that lack faculty resources and a dearth of portable curricula in these areas.
History of psychiatry can provide us with a map of the evolution of the practice and identify its major figures. A historiometric approach was taken to available history of psychiatry texts and a historical dictionary. Reliability was tested against data from the journal History of Psychiatry. Those cited in all historical accounts are characterized as major figures, whereas those cited in at least 60% of the sources are considered significant figures. An index of eminence is calculated for each significant figure. The Cronbach's α was 0.89. Seventy-four significant figures were identified, of which 18 are considered major figures. Among these, Freud, Pinel, and Kraepelin have the highest eminence-in that order. Pinel, Freud, and Kraepelin represent key moments in three epochs in the history of psychiatry: the asylum era, the first biological psychiatry, and the psychoanalytical period, respectively. The most recent historical periods are not well represented in histories of psychiatry.
Full Text Available Background: The field of child and adolescent psychiatry lags behind adult psychiatry significantly. In recent years, it has witnessed a significant increase in the publication of journals and articles. This study provides a detailed bibliometric analysis of articles published from 1980 to 2016, in the top seven journals of child and adolescent psychiatry. Methods: Using the Web of Science core collection, we selected 9,719 research papers published in seven psychiatric journals from 1980 to 2016. We utilized the Web of Science Analytics tool and Network Analysis Interface for Literature Studies (NAILS Project scripts to delineate the general trends of publication in these journals. Then, co-citation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using CiteSpace to map important papers, landmark theories and foci of research in child and adolescent psychiatry. Results: The field of child and adolescent psychiatry has experienced an increasing trend in research, which was reflected in the results of this study. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the research foci in psychiatry were primarily studies related to the design of psychometric instruments, checklists, taxonomy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, depression, PTSD, social phobia, and psychopharmacology. Moreover, several landmark studies, including the validation of a child behavior checklist, Ainsworth's empirical evidence of Bowlby's attachment theory, and adult outcomes of childhood dysregulation were published. This study also reports rapid expansion and innovation in research areas in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry from 1980-2016. Conclusions: Rapid expansion and innovation in research areas in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry has been observed, from 1980 to 2016.
Full Text Available ... Psychiatrists Residents & Medical Students Patients & Families About APA Work At ... © 2017 American Psychiatric Association. All Rights Reserved. 1000 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1825, ...
Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit
The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94%) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91%). Nearly all (94%) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education.
Pies, Ronald W
The history of psychiatry is characterized by some deep ideological and conceptual divisions, as adumbrated in Professor Hannah Decker's essay. However, the schism between "biological" and "psychosocial" models of mental illness and its treatment represents extreme positions among some psychiatrists-not the model propounded by academic psychiatry or its affiliated professional organizations. Indeed, the "biopsycho-social model" (BPSM) developed by Dr. George L. Engel has been, and remains, the foundational model for academic psychiatry, notwithstanding malign market forces that have undermined the BPSM's use in clinical practice. The BPSM is integrally related to "centralizing" and integrative trends in American psychiatry that may be traced to Franz Alexander, Karl Jaspers, and Engel himself, among others. This "Alexandrian-Jaspersian-Engelian" tradition is explored in relation to Professor Decker's "cyclical swing" model of psychiatry's history. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
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Möller, A; Hell, D
The review refers to the construct of psychopathy which is of increasing relevance for forensic psychiatry and psychology, especially empiric studies on legal prognosis and predictors of therapeutic efficacy. Psychopathy is related to early-onset delinquency, number and severeness of violent crimes, number of sexual victims in rapists, and unfavorable legal prognosis. Recent research has also indicated that the treatment of psychopaths is complicated by low levels of motivation and high rates of attrition. In psychiatric-diagnostic terms, psychopathy is related to substance abuse and dependency and to cluster A and B personality disorders (PD), especially to antisocial and borderline PD. In juvenile with "psychopathic tendencies", a relationship to impulsivity, emotional and behavioral difficulties, and learning behavior (card sorting test) had been shown and interpreted by reference to an anatomical level. In connection with these findings, the relevance of psychopathic disorder for testimonies on legal responsibility should also be discussed again. Further research on psychopathy, especially psychiatric morbidity and psychosocial functioning in non-forensic groups, is needed.
Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava
As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions.
Full Text Available In this study, we identify the systematic language varieties and discourse characteristics that are indicative of the academic writings of Chinese and American scientists. We conduct a Contrastive Corpus Analysis using the computational tool, the Gramulator, to identify indicative features in Chinese science journal abstracts as compared to American science abstracts. The results suggest that the Chinese scientists tend to employ different linguistic features from their American counterparts. Specifically, Chinese science abstracts can be characterized as non-standard varieties of English by the choice of the three items: the agent, the tense, and two major types of reporting verbs. We conclude that the results may account for the interpretation of Chinese academic writings of English as non-prototypical in terms of discourse style. This study sheds light on language varieties and methodology that may be helpful to English Language Learners as well as materials developers in countries such as China.
Full Text Available ... high blood pressure or diabetes. After completing thorough evaluations, psychiatrists can prescribe medications to help treat mental ... psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of ...
Kumar, Sonia; McLean, Loyola; Nash, Louise; Trigwell, Keith
We aim to summarise the active learning literature in higher education and consider its relevance for postgraduate psychiatry trainees, to inform the development of a new Formal Education Course (FEC): the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) at the University of Sydney. We undertook a literature search on 'active learning', 'flipped classroom', 'problem-based learning' and 'psychiatry education'. The effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in higher education is well supported by evidence; however, there have been few psychiatry-specific studies. A new 'flipped classroom' format was developed for the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry). Postgraduate psychiatry training is an active learning environment; the pedagogical approach to FECs requires further evaluation.
Singh, Ajai R
This paper outlines six important tasks for psychiatry today, which can be put in short as: Spread and scale up services;Talk;Science,Psychotherapy;Integrate; andResearch excellence. As an acronym, STSPIR. Spread and scale up services: Spreading mental health services to uncovered areas, and increasing facilities in covered areas:Mental disorders are leading cause of ill health but bottom of health agenda;Patients face widespread discrimination, human rights violations and lack of facilities;Need to stem the brain drain from developing countries;At any given point, 10% of the adult population report having some mental or behavioural disorder;In India, serious mental disorders affect nearly 80 million people, i.e. combined population of the northern top of India, including Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh;Combating imbalance between burden of demand and supply of efficient psychiatric services in all countries, especially in developing ones like India, is the first task before psychiatry today. If ever a greater role for activism were needed, this is the field;The need is to scale up effective and cost-effective treatments and preventive interventions for mental disorders.TALK: Speaking to a wider audience about positive contributions of psychiatry:Being aware of, understanding, and countering, the massive anti-psychiatry propaganda online and elsewhere;Giving a firm answer to anti-psychiatry even while understanding its transformation into mental health consumerism and opposition to reckless medicalisation;Defining normality and abnormality;Bringing about greater precision in diagnosis and care;Motivating those helped by psychiatry to speak up;Setting up informative websites and organising programmes to reduce stigma and spread mental health awareness;Setting up regular columns in psychiatry journals around the globe, called 'Patients Speak', or something similar, wherein those who have been helped get a chance to voice their
The psychiatry of the 21st century will have to be different from the psychiatry of the 20th century. The latter began its journey in a socially, compartmentalized world in which sharp categories and boundaries for the definition of mental illness were assumed to be relevant. International psychiatry completed its hegemonic hold over the territory of mental health and illness with a commanding home-stretch run of success borne in the confidence and optimism of its neurobiologic and culture free program and agenda. The world in which psychiatry now exists, however is changing rapidly and will continue to change and so of necessity will the practice of psychiatry need to change. This issue offers a guidelines and a vision of the direction that should be followed. Migration and transnational communication and awareness of cultural differences are changing the character of communities around the world. These changes considered in the context of world wide political economic factors are bringing into close physical and symbolic juxtaposition persons from distinct nations and ethnic groups. Clashes in world views, attitudes, spiritual orientation, and general philosophic and moral outlook are becoming ever-present realities of urban centers around the world. In traditional contexts and among persons who do not physically migrate, the power of communications media manages to psychologically migrate them; that is, to challenge their local, native cultural traditions about mental health with the scientific perspectives about mental health and illness. Advances in the social and cultural sciences have underscored ways in which assumptions of reductionism and universalism need to be chastened with an appreciation of human differences and humane considerations as these relate to mental health problems. The science of psychiatry of the 21st century will have to accomodate to this new creolized world of ethnic pluralism, cultural differences, and clashing perspectives between
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel
Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Sanz-Valero, Javier; Casterá, Vicente Tomás; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina
To characterize the scientific output of the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health (RPSP) as a scientific publication of reference in the public health sector in the Americas. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on the articles published in the RPSP from 1997-2012. Bibliometric indicators of productivity (documents published, languages, authorship, and indices of productivity and collaboration); impact (impact factor according to the SciELO Network, Journal Citation Report and SCImago); key words; and bibliographic references, their structure (document type and main nucleus of Bradford) and degree of obsolescence (Burton and Kebler half-life, and Price index), were analyzed. A total of 2 815 articles with a median of 3 authors and 2 institutions per article were published. The percentage of original research articles increased in 2008-2012 compared to 2003-2007 and 1997-2002 (P < 0.001). The predominant language was Spanish, displaced by English in the last 5 years. A total of 88.76% of the key words referred to the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) and had a public health and community orientation related to the Americas. The Burton and Kebler half-life of bibliographic references was 8 years, although it decreased to 5 years in 2012. The Price index was 20.47% and the nucleus of Bradford was made up of 20 mainstream journals. The percentage of self-citation was low (2.07%). The RPSP is an international publication with bibliometric indicators similar to those of the most representative Latin American health science journals, with improvements in the recent years studied that lead it to fully meet international publishing criteria.
Ramos, Raddy L; Cuoco, Joshua A; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas
Given the well-documented shortage of physicians in primary care and several other specialties, quantitative understanding of residency application and matching data among osteopathic and allopathic medical students has implications for predicting trends in the physician workforce. To estimate medical student interest in neurology and psychiatry based on numbers of applicants and matches to neurology and psychiatry osteopathic and allopathic residency programs. Also, to gauge students' previous academic experience with brain and cognitive sciences. The number of available postgraduate year 1 positions, applicants, and matches from graduating years 2011 through 2015 were collected from the National Matching Services Inc and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine for osteopathic programs and the National Resident Matching Program and the Association of American Medical Colleges for allopathic programs. To determine and compare osteopathic and allopathic medical students' interest in neurology and psychiatry, the number of positions, applicants, and matches were analyzed considering the number of total osteopathic and allopathic graduates in the given year using 2-tailed χ2 analyses with Yates correction. In addition, osteopathic and allopathic medical schools' websites were reviewed to determine whether neurology and psychiatry rotations were required. Osteopathic medical students' reported undergraduate majors were also gathered. Compared with allopathic medical students, osteopathic medical students had significantly greater interest (as measured by applicants) in neurology (χ21=11.85, Ppsychiatry (χ21=39.07, Ppsychiatry residency programs. Approximately 6% of osteopathic vs nearly 85% of allopathic medical schools had required neurology rotations. Nearly 10% of osteopathic applicants and matriculants had undergraduate coursework in brain and cognitive sciences. Osteopathic medical students demonstrated greater interest than allopathic
Psychiatry and Neuroscience and Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the Uniformed Services Uni- versity of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland...Medicine, Hypnosis , Somatoform Spectrum Disorders, Trauma, Pain, and Consultation Liaison Psychiatry. Emerson Wickwire, PhD Dr. Emerson Wickwire is
In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model. The basic principles of the model included the biological, psychological and social dimensions of the person's life and theperception that the person suffers as a whole and not as isolated organs. The doctor should use a holistic approach regardingillness and should consider his/her relation with the patient socially equal. The personality and the emotional reserves of thepatient, as well as the particular environmental conditions in which the person lives in should be taken into account. There is no doubt that the biopsychosocial model has established a more empathetic and compassionate approach in medical practice. Already since 1936, the general adaptation syndrome had been proposed by the Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist HansSeley (1907-1982), who emphasized that psychological stressful factors may have injurious consequences on health, while theresponse systems to stress may be dysregulated not only by genetic factors, but also from experiences and stressful life events,as well as by harmful behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and lack of physical exercise. Psychosocial factors may co-determine the patient's vulnerability and the illness's severity and course. The biopsychosocialmodel consider the interactions with genetic susceptibility, personality, stressful events and, generally, with the patient's socialcontext. Environmental factors increase the probability of the clinical expression of a mental disorder, play a role in the time
Uchtenhagen, Ambros A.
Social psychiatry started over a century ago under the auspices of mental and racial hygiene, but after World War II it embraced concepts of community-based care and de-institutionalization. The major psychiatric reforms in the second half of the last century were mainly based on such concepts,
Lombroso, Paul; Eng, Lenny
Describes the process by which a department of psychiatry computerized its clinical services under a single communication network. Presents the program in detail, demonstrating the recording of various clinical, administrative and demographic data. Emphasizes the value of such information for returning patients, immediate updating of information,…
Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor
Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.
Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter
The aim of this controlled, before-and-after study in the Department of Psychiatry in a university hospital in Denmark, was to examine the potential effects and characteristics of nurses reviewing psychiatric patients' medication records to identify potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs...
Andersen, Lise Marie
The view that psychiatry should be elucidating the mechanisms behind mental phenomena is gaining momentum. This view, coupled with an intuition that such mechanisms must, by nature, be biological, has inspired the field to look to cognitive neuroscience for classification of mental illnesses. One...
A revival of the dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry currently takes place in the best international journals of psychiatry. In this article, we analyse this revival and the role given to phenomenology in this context. Although this dialogue seems at first sight interesting, we show that it is problematic. It leads indeed to use phenomenology in a special way, transforming it into a discipline dealing with empirical facts, so that what is called "phenomenology" has finally nothing to do with phenomenology. This so-called phenomenology tallies however with what we have always called semiology. We try to explain the reasons why phenomenology is misused in that way. In our view, this transformation of phenomenology into an empirical and objectifying discipline is explained by the role attributed to phenomenology by contemporary authors, which is to solve the problems raised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Diambra, Joel F.; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Cochran, Jeff L.; Spurgeon, Shawn; Jarnagin, Whitney L.; Wynn, Porche'
To inform and guide their practices, counselor educators would benefit from having a clearer picture of how the research literature and professional standards of the field correspond and contrast. To elucidate this relationship, researchers analyzed 538 "Journal of Counseling and Development" articles published from 1997-2006 for fit…
American Journalism Historians' Association.
The first part of the proceedings of this conference of journalism historians contains the following 21 papers: "'Life' Magazine and the Mercury 7 Astronauts: A Historic Case of Media Control" (Ginger Rudeseal Carter); "Newspaper Contempt between the Wars" (Richard Scheidenhelm); "Crosses Holding Off a Vampire: How Four…
The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British
Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan
Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.
Fernandes, Brisa S; Williams, Leanne M; Steiner, Johann; Leboyer, Marion; Carvalho, André F; Berk, Michael
Precision medicine is a new and important topic in psychiatry. Psychiatry has not yet benefited from the advanced diagnostic and therapeutic technologies that form an integral part of other clinical specialties. Thus, the vision of precision medicine as applied to psychiatry - 'precision psychiatry' - promises to be even more transformative than in other fields of medicine, which have already lessened the translational gap. Herein, we describe 'precision psychiatry' and how its several implications promise to transform the psychiatric landscape. We pay particular attention to biomarkers and to how the development of new technologies now makes their discovery possible and timely. The adoption of the term 'precision psychiatry' will help propel the field, since the current term 'precision medicine', as applied to psychiatry, is impractical and does not appropriately distinguish the field. Naming the field 'precision psychiatry' will help establish a stronger, unique identity to what promises to be the most important area in psychiatry in years to come. In summary, we provide a wide-angle lens overview of what this new field is, suggest how to propel the field forward, and provide a vision of the near future, with 'precision psychiatry' representing a paradigm shift that promises to change the landscape of how psychiatry is currently conceived.
Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis bibliométrico de 11 185 artículos sobre sistemática de 414 revistas latinoamericanas publicadas entre 1976 y 2006 y se presentan los resultados sobre la producción general de las revistas, el país de edición y las disciplinas que incluyen. Se identifican las revistas clave, se presentan sus características y desarrollo, y se detalla la cobertura temporal, regional y temática (enfoques y taxones de cada una. Los resultados se integran y contextualizan para identificar las características más importantes del proceso de institucionalización de la disciplina.I undertook bibliographic analysis of 11 185 systematic papers from 414 Latin American journals from 1976 to 2006. I present results from journals' general production, country of publishing, and disciplines. I identify the most productive journals, their characteristics, development, and details regarding temporal, regional and topical (focus and taxa coverage. Results are discussed in terms of how they contributed to the institutionalization of the field.
. Current prescribing practices for obsessive-compulsive disorder in South Africa: Controversies and consensus C Lochner, L Taljaard, D J Stein 16. Correlates of emotional and behavioural problems in children with preinatally acquired HIV in Cape Town, South Africa K-A Louw, N Phillips, JIpser, J Hoare 17. The role of non-coding RNAs in fear extinction S Malan-Muller, L Fairbairn, W M U Daniels, M J S Dashti, E J Oakleley, M Altorfer, J Harvey, S Seedat, J Gamieldien, S M J Hemmings 18. An analysis of the management og HIV-mental illness comorbidity at the psychiatric unit of the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital M L Maodi, S T Rataemane, T Kyaw 19. The identification of novel genes in anxiety disorders: A gene X environment correlation and interaction study N W McGregor, J Dimatelis, S M J Hemmings, C J Kinnear, D J Stein, V Russel, C Lochner 20. Collaborations between conventional medicine and traditional healers: Obstacles and possibilities G Nortje, S Seedat, O Gureje 21. Thought disorder and form perception: Relationships with symptoms and cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia M R Olivier, R Emsley 22. Investigating the functional significance of genome-wide variants associated with antipsychotic treatment response E Ovenden, B Drogemoller, L van der Merwe, R Emsley, L Warnich 23. The moral and bioethical determinants of "futility" in psychiatry W P Pienaar 24. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and volumetry of the amylgdala in social anxiety disorder in the context of early developmental trauma D Rosenstein, A T Hess, J Zwart, F Ahmed-Leitao, E Meintjies, S Seedat 25. Schizoaffective disorder in an acute psychiatric unit: Profile of users and agreement with Operational Criteria (OPCRIT R R Singh, U Subramaney 26. The right to privacy and confidentiality: The ethics of expert diagnosis in the public media and the Oscar Pistorius trial C Smith 27. A birth cohort study in South Africa: A psychiatric perspective D J Stein 28. 'Womb
African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 4 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...
South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...
African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...
African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 3 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...
South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 3 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: A vision for Africa. Frank G. Njenga. Abstract. No Abstract ...
Yang, Chong; Richard, George; Durkin, Martin
The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles.
Arnold, Lauren D; Braganza, Melissa; Salih, Rondek; Colditz, Graham A
Statistical training across the continuum of medical education may not have advanced at the pace of statistical reporting in the medical literature, yet a comprehensive understanding of statistical concepts most commonly presented in current research is critical to the effective practice of Evidence Based Medicine. The objective of this content analysis was to describe statistical techniques used in a leading medical journal, JAMA, across a 20-year period, with a focus on implications for medical education. Two issues of JAMA published each month in 1990, 2000, and 2010 were randomly selected; from these, 361 articles were reviewed. Primary focus, study design, and statistical components were abstracted and examined by year of publication. The number of published RCTs and cohort studies differed significantly across years of interest, with an increasing trend of publication. The most commonly reported statistics over the 20-year period of interest included measures of morbidity and mortality, descriptive statistics, and epidemiologic outcomes. However, between 1990 and 2010, there was an increase in reporting of more advanced methods, such as multivariable regression, multilevel modeling, survival analysis, and sensitivity analysis. While this study is limited by a focus on one specific journal, a strength is that the journal examined is widely read by a range of clinical specialties and is considered a leading journal in the medical field, setting standards for published research. The increases in frequency and complexity of statistical reporting in the literature over the past two decades may suggest that moving beyond basic statistical concepts to a more comprehensive understanding of statistical methods is an important component of clinicians' ability to effectively read and use the medical research. These findings provide information to consider as medical schools and graduate medical education training programs review and revise their statistical training
Lauren D Arnold
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistical training across the continuum of medical education may not have advanced at the pace of statistical reporting in the medical literature, yet a comprehensive understanding of statistical concepts most commonly presented in current research is critical to the effective practice of Evidence Based Medicine. The objective of this content analysis was to describe statistical techniques used in a leading medical journal, JAMA, across a 20-year period, with a focus on implications for medical education. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two issues of JAMA published each month in 1990, 2000, and 2010 were randomly selected; from these, 361 articles were reviewed. Primary focus, study design, and statistical components were abstracted and examined by year of publication. The number of published RCTs and cohort studies differed significantly across years of interest, with an increasing trend of publication. The most commonly reported statistics over the 20-year period of interest included measures of morbidity and mortality, descriptive statistics, and epidemiologic outcomes. However, between 1990 and 2010, there was an increase in reporting of more advanced methods, such as multivariable regression, multilevel modeling, survival analysis, and sensitivity analysis. While this study is limited by a focus on one specific journal, a strength is that the journal examined is widely read by a range of clinical specialties and is considered a leading journal in the medical field, setting standards for published research. CONCLUSIONS: The increases in frequency and complexity of statistical reporting in the literature over the past two decades may suggest that moving beyond basic statistical concepts to a more comprehensive understanding of statistical methods is an important component of clinicians' ability to effectively read and use the medical research. These findings provide information to consider as medical schools and graduate medical education
This attempt to correlate Jung's work with practical psychiatry is concerned mainly with his conception of clinical types. Jung went far away from the provinces of clinical medicine and psychiatry for his evidence, and the possible cause for this is discussed.He expands his view of introversion and extraversion, and so the suggestion is made that for practical purposes his early limitation of these terms should be maintained. The difficulties encountered in type description by comparison and contrast are emphasized. The value of his conception of basic functions is discussed and criticized.A review is made of the personalities he describes, and a simplification of his resulting classification suggested for practical purposes. The notion is put forward that Jung describes one type in psychological adaptation much better than any others, and it is hinted that his psycho-pathological description of this type in nerve disorder constitutes his main contribution to clinical psychiatry. A review of the treatable nerve disorders suggests that this disorder has received more adequate description from Jung than any other, and reveals a unique method of investigation and therapy. This does not apply to his other descriptions. Possibly some of the vagueness attributed to Jung is because he did not give this disorder an adequate diagnosis, and an explanation for this is offered.The correlation between the simplified classification and the classification of treatable nerve disorders is close, and it is suggested that this constitutes Jung's contribution to clinical psychiatry in general. The application of Jung's principles is of daily help to the practising psychiatrist.
Bruce Kaplan, DVM
Full Text Available Dr Janis H. Audin (MSc Illinois 1975, DVM Illinois 1979, a champion of progressive veterinary medical journalism and ‘One Health’ died on 22 April 2009 following a long, courageous and difficult battle with pancreatic cancer. The world has lost a truly significant One Health leader and advocate. Under her guidance, the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA implemented a ‘one-health wonders’ column that recognised and highlighted prominent One Health individuals among the medical and veterinary medical professions in the United States. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA has lost a dedicated and gifted editor-in-chief.Dr Audin joined the editorial staff of the AVMA in 1985, as an assistant editor and was promoted to associate editor in 1989 and editor in 1994. She became the editor-in-chief of both the JAVMA and the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 1995. Prior to that, Dr Audin practised as an associate veterinarian in Calumet City, Illinois, for four years.During her tenure, Dr Audin was noted for implementing procedural and technological changes in the journal to reduce costs, improve timeliness of publications and promote readership interest and awareness. New features in the News section introduced under her leadership have made the journals more practical and public health-relevant. For instance, Dr Audin fostered the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS ‘Inspection Insights’ - a public health-oriented food safety monthly column related to meat, poultry and egg products - from 1996 through 1998. She also increased international manuscript submissions.On 23 March 2009 AVMA Executive Vice President Dr W. Ron DeHaven named Dr Audin as editor-in-chief emeritus of the Publications Division. Wisely, it also meant that Dr Audin could continue contributing to the staff effort to ensure the high quality of the AVMA scientific journals
Full Text Available Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.
Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented.
Ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry disclose a tension between complementary and conflicting issues. The field of tension extends from offenders and their criminal offence to experts, therapists and conditions of inpatient treatment. In addition, there are legal and political aspects as well as aspects concerning the public, the victims and their next of kins and finally the media. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
of common mental disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 'new' diagnostic groups are represented in the treatment statistics with steeply increasing incidences, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders, especially in the outpatient part......Danish psychiatry has gone through profound changes over the past two to three decades, reducing inpatient-based treatment and increasing outpatient treatment markedly. The number of patients treated has almost doubled, and the diagnostic profile has broadened, now including a substantial number...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Due to the large proportion of mental health problems and psychiatric disorders, research in the field of mental health is of great significance. The main objective of this study was to investigate the scientific productivity in the field of psychiatry in the Scopus database (2000-2012. Material and Methods : In this study, we tried to examine 27,516 records of articles which were published in Scopus databases during 2000-2012. Then, by using scientometric method, we surveyed authors, active institutes and leading countries in this field and along side, core journals were studied in journal citation report by using impact factor. Results : The results showed that the United States of America, England and Germany are the top countries in the field of psychiatry. Also, there are 40 core journals in this field which have an impact factor higher than 3. London Kings College with 565 articles, VA Medical Center with a total of 534 articles and Harvard Medical School with 289 articles are on the top of active institutions in the field of psychiatry. In Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences with 37 articles, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with 16 articles and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with 9 articles were the most active universities in Iran in publishing articles. Among international authors, Biederman with13% of the articles, Birmaher with12% and Vitiello with11% have a considerable role in publishing in this field. In Iran Mohammadi with 9 articles, Akhundzade with 8 articles and Amini and Qanizadeh with 7 articles were active researchers. In comparison with other countries, Iran has a light portion of the research in this field but it has shown a growing trend in publishing in recent years. Conclusion : The results of this research can be used as evidence for researchers to determine the path ahead in research and as a tool for strategic planning used in the mental health sector.
Layfayette Ronald Hubbard (1911-1986) was a colourful and prolific American writer of science fiction in the 1930s and 1940s. During the time between his two decades of productivity and his return to science fiction in 1980, Hubbard founded the Church of Scientology. In addition to its controversial status as a religion and its troubling pattern of intimidation and litigation directed towards its foes, Scientology is well known as an organised opponent to psychiatry. This paper looks at Hubbard's science fiction work to help understand the evolution of Scientology's antipsychiatry stance, as well as the alternative to psychiatry offered by Hubbard. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Price, Marilyn; Recupero, Patricia R; Strong, David R; Gutheil, Thomas G
In the past 25 years, the number of female forensic psychiatrists has increased dramatically. To assess whether there are gender differences in the practice patterns of forensic psychiatry experts, members of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law were surveyed during an annual business meeting. Women in the sample were shown to perform fewer categories of evaluation than men. Women were less likely than men to do criminal work, civil commitment/involuntary medication evaluations, and testamentary capacity evaluations, but there was no significant difference in the percentage of those performing some personal injury/disability/fitness for duty, custody, sexual harassment, or malpractice evaluations. Gender was not a significant factor in determining hourly rate. When subjects were asked to comment on whether they thought that gender was a factor in the selection of a forensic expert, 80 percent of the women, but only 41 percent of the men, believed that gender was a consideration.
Carvalho Aguiar Melo, Matias; das Chagas Medeiros, Francisco; Meireles Sales de Bruin, Veralice; Pinheiro Santana, José Abraão; Bastos Lima, Alexandre; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth
Medical residency programs are traditionally known for long working hours, which can be associated with a poor quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness. However, few studies have focused on this theme. Our objective was to investigate sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and their relation with anxiety, social phobia, and depressive symptoms. This cross-sectional observational study involved 59 psychiatry residents. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to measure the quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness ([EDS] and ESS > 10), respectively. Among the 59 psychiatry residents, 59.3% had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) and 28.8% had EDS. Poor sleep quality was associated with higher EDS (P = 0.03) and the year of residency program (P = 0.03). Only 20% of residents with poor sleep had consulted at least once for sleep problems; 54.2% had used medications for sleep; and 16.9% were using medications at the time of interview. Only 30% obtained medication during medical consultations. Poor sleep was associated with irregular sleep hours (P = 0.001) and long periods lying down without sleep (P = 0.03). Poor sleep quality was also associated with high scores of anxiety symptoms (P Psychiatry residents frequently have poor sleep quality and EDS. Considering that sleep disorders can affect quality of life, predispose to metabolic syndrome, and be associated with worse performance at work, attention to this clinical problem is needed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ozer, Urun; Ceri, Veysi; Carpar, Elif; Sancak, Baris; Yildirim, Fatma
This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the choice of psychiatry among psychiatry residents, identify the fulfillment of expectations, and assess their satisfaction level. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 98 psychiatry residents, and sociodemographic and professional data were collected. Among the reasons for choosing psychiatry, the opportunity to cultivate interest in humanities, importance of social and relational issues, and intellectual challenge were most frequently selected. The opportunity for complete use of medical training, salary, and opportunity to practice psychotherapy were the expectations least met. The largest group of participants was satisfied to have chosen psychiatry (41.5%), decided on psychiatry training after medical school (35.4%), and attached importance to becoming a clinician (70.7%). Although the satisfaction level was high in this study, addressing the areas in which expectations were not met may increase the satisfaction of psychiatry residents and the selection of psychiatry as a specialty.
Karageorge, Aspasia; Llewellyn, Anthony; Nash, Louise; Maddocks, Claire; Kaldelis, Dimitra; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Edwards, James; Kelly, Brian
In Australia and internationally, psychiatry has struggled to fill training places to keep up with demand for service. The objective of this study was to review the components of psychiatry terms and placements that determine a positive experience and potentially influence interest in vocational training in psychiatry. A literature review and narrative synthesis was undertaken on 20 papers identified as meeting inclusion criteria. The top themes contributing to positive experiences during the psychiatry term were: receiving high quality supervision; supported autonomy; and witnessing patient recovery. There was a paucity of Australian literature preventing investigation of the Australian context alone. There is a need to better understand how the junior doctor and medical student psychiatry experience influences perceptions of psychiatry and intention to specialise, especially in the Australian context. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Appleton, A; Singh, S; Eady, N; Buszewicz, M
There is no consensus regarding the optimal content of the undergraduate psychiatry curriculum as well as factors contributing to young doctors choosing a career in psychiatry. Our aim was to explore factors which had influenced psychiatry trainees' attitudes towards mental health and career choice. Qualitative in-depth interviews with 21 purposively sampled London psychiatry trainees analysed using the Framework method. Early exposure and sufficient time in undergraduate psychiatry placements were important in influencing psychiatry as a career choice and positive role models were often very influential. Integration of psychiatry with teaching about physical health was viewed positively, although concerns were raised about the potential dilution of psychiatry teaching. Foundation posts in psychiatry were very valuable in positively impacting career choice. Other suggestions included raising awareness at secondary school level, challenging negative attitudes amongst all medical educators, and promoting integration within medical specialties. Improvements in teaching psychiatry could improve medical attitudes and promote recruitment into psychiatry.
Leavitt, Howard B.; And Others
An in-depth evaluation of four Organization of American States educational journals is presented. The journals, published for distribution among Latin American countries, were "Tecnologia Educativa", "Curriculum", "Educacion de Adultors", and "La Educacion". Assessment was made of the journals' mandates, implementation procedures, and managerial…
Spinelli, Hugo; Librandi, Juan Martín; Zabala, Juan Pablo
In the 1970s and 1980s, a series of journals were founded to disseminate ideas from Latin American social medicine in various countries across the continent, during the early stage of a movement that would later become institutionalized in Brazil under the name "collective medicine." In this article, we look at the principal characteristics of those endeavors: Revista Centroamericana de Ciencias de la Salud, Saúde em Debate, Salud Problema, Revista Latinoamericana de Salud and Cuadernos Médico Sociales. We focus in particular on Cuadernos Médico Sociales, published in Rosario, Argentina. We analyze the conditions under which this publication emerged, the editorial processes it followed, and the central role played by Carlos Bloch, its founder and managing editor.
Neurolaw is a new interdisciplinary area of research which investigates, from different perspectives, the significance of the neurosciences for law. To clarify the relevance of neurolaw for forensic psychiatry. The importance of neurolaw developments for forensic psychiatry was analysed on the basis of recent literature. Some of the developments in the field of neurolaw research concern issues that are currently evaluated by forensic psychiatrists, such as risk of recidivism and legal insanity. Developments in neurolaw are relevant for forensic psychiatry in a number of ways. An important problem, not yet resolved, is to what extent psychiatry will be prepared to help in shaping these developments.
Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha
Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Lee, Min Kyeong; Shah, Andrea; Elangovan, Satheesh; Lin, Chin-Yu
The scientific community views meta-analyses and systematic reviews, in addition to well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials, as the highest echelon in the continuum of hierarchy of evidence. The objective of this study was to examine the association between different study designs and citation counts of articles published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics and Angle Orthodontist. All articles, excluding editorial comments, letters to the editor, commentaries, and special articles, that were published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics and Angle Orthodontist during the years 2004 and 2005 were examined in this study. The number of times an article was cited in the first 24 months after its publication was computed. The PubMed database was used to index the study design of the articles. The association between study design and citation counts was examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A multivariable negative binomial regression model was used to examine the association between citation count and study design along with several other confounding variables. A total of 624 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, there were 25 meta-analyses or review articles, 42 randomized clinical trials, 59 clinical trials, 48 animal studies, 64 case reports, and 386 quasiexperimental/miscellaneous study designs. The mean ± SD citation count was 1.04 ± 1.46. Nearly half of the articles (n = 311) were not cited even once during the observation period. Case reports were cited less frequently than meta-analyses or reviews (incident risk ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.72; P = .003), even after adjusting for other independent variables. Among various study designs, meta-analyses and review articles are more likely to be cited in the first 24 months after publication. This study demonstrates the importance of publishing more meta-analyses and review articles for quicker dissemination of
Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…
Falkai, P. (Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany)); Bogerts, B. (Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany))
Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.)
Open Access Pricing Models would Reduce Journal Expenditure at Most Colleges and Universities. A review of: Walters, William H. “Institutional Journal Costs in an Open Access Environment.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58.1 (2007: 108‐20.
expenditure with doctoral universities’ expenditure much higher than that of other types of institutions. No associations or trends were found when comparing journal expenditure across institutions for the four subject fields. Under the PLoS pricing model, journal expenditure at all nine institutions would be substantially reduced. If this model was adopted by all publishers they would receive only 15% of the total amount expended on journals by the institutions under the conventional pricing model. The PLoS model would affect institutions’ proportion of total expenditure, with doctoral universities paying 96% of journal expenditure compared with 86% under the conventional model. This result is directly related to publishing activities at institutions. Large research universities, where staff publish at higher rates, would pay a proportionally higher amount of the total expenditure than other types of institutions, where publishing activity is low. The equal revenue model, when compared with the conventional model, would provide substantial reductions in journal expenditure for seven of the institutions. However, under this model the largest doctoral university would see an increase in journal expenditure of 337% from conventional model expenditure: an increase primarily due to the higher publishing activity at the university. Institutions with low publishing activity and least print subscriptions would see the greatest reductions in expenditure if publishers moved from the conventional model to the equal revenue model. Up to 90% of American colleges would see a reduction in journal expenditure if publishers adopted the PLoS or the equal revenue pricing models.Conclusion – Most colleges and universities are consumers rather than producers of scholarly literature and, therefore, a shift from the conventional subscription model to a model based on publication activity will reduce their proportion of total expenditure. On the other hand, large research universities will
Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.
African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 5 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Book Review: Able-bodied: a memoir. L Asmal. Abstract.
Adiponectin and Ghrelin Metabolic Syndrome in Cuban-Americans. Int J Health Res, June 2010; 3(2): 92. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is ...
Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Shoar, Saeed; Kaviani, Hosein; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Shabani, Amir; Esmaeili, Sara; Moghaddam, Yasaman
Objective We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics. Method In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65%) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. Results Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3% and 18.3% before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7%) students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49), and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57). Conclusion It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future career. PMID:23682250
Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A
The purpose of a scaling system for specific injuries is to provide a common language to facilitate the clinical decisions and the investigative basis for this decision making. This brief overview describes the evolution of the Organ Injury Scaling (OIS) system developed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. The OIS system is based on the magnitude of anatomic disruption and is graded as 1 (minimal), 2 (mild), 3 (moderate), 4 (severe), 5 (massive), and 6 (lethal). To date, the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma OIS system has been developed for visceral and vascular injuries of the neck, chest, abdomen, and extremities. The fundamental objective of OIS is to provide a common language to describe specific organ injuries. The primary purpose of OIS is to facilitate clinical decision making and the necessary research endeavors to improve this process. A good example of this concept is the tumor, node, metastasis classification for solid organ malignancies: a system used worldwide to guide patient care and clinical investigation.
Atbaşoğlu, E Cem; Gülöksüz, Sinan
The upcoming publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), provides an opportunity to revisit the seldom-addressed methodological issues in contemporary psychiatry. We think that DSM widely determines the scientific and clinical orientation of the discipline, and therefore provides a good vantage point to critique the current psychiatric methodology. The main scientific problem is a perseverative attempt at validating descriptively defined disorders that are standardized and simplified to achieve diagnostic reliability. Lack of a single psychiatric phenomenon that is valid, i.e. natural, for initiating any reduction limits research to inductive-probabilistic methods, basically correlational analyses. Furthermore, reduction in psychiatry is typically directed at basic sciences, neglecting general medical diagnoses as possible intermediary correlates. The subcategory "Due to a General Medical Condition" is elusive, and the biopsychosocial approach does no more than strengthen the brain-disease illusion surrounding DSM definitions by justifying psychiatry as a branch of medicine while failing to stipulate detailed medical assessment and discouraging psychopathology-based clinical reasoning. It is therefore no surprise that, although our understanding of the neural basis and mechanisms of behavior has improved along with advances in the neurosciences, not a single DSM disorder has been validated by the discovery of a specific cause, pathophysiology, or structural abnormality since the adoption of the descriptive approach in 1980. New knowledge involves single traits or dimensions of mood, thought, or behavior, none of which are specific to any disorder. The optimum approach today would be to redefine the discipline as neuropsychiatry.
Clegg, Kathleen A
Gestalt theory and methods support significant behavioral change and personal growth, yet they have not been widely incorporated into modern psychiatric practice. Challenges to employing Gestalt principles in psychiatric practice exist, such as focus on diagnosis to guide treatment planning, key elements of psychiatric training, primacy of medication management in psychiatric practice, and financial pressures. However, the concepts of the co-created relational field in the here and now, the paradoxical theory of change, the cycle of experience, and the use of experiment are Gestalt concepts and methods that can be effectively applied in the modern practice of clinical psychiatry and psychiatric education.
Aggarwal, Neil K
The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine.
Lepach, Anja C; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Petermann, Franz
Neuropsychological aspects are of relevance to a variety of psychological concerns, especially in assessments. But is this trend represented in journals which do not explicitly refer to neuropsychologists? To investigate this question, publications in 2008 and 2009 editions of representative German journals on child psychology and psychiatry were bibliometrically analyzed. Main topics of neuropsychological publications were attention disorders and diagnostic issues. Neuropsychological findings support the development of assessment instruments and interventions and help improve the basic understanding of disorders and treatment limitations. For example, reduced attention or memory resources are possible hindrances for individual progress in cognitive behavioral intervention. An intensified dialogue of the disciplines is essential for developing advanced guidelines for diagnostics and therapy.
Juli, Giada; Juli, Rebecca; Juli, Luigi
Greek mythology and philosophical speculations were the first human productions on madness and psychiatry. Likewise, the origins of genetics sink their roots in a very remote and difficult time. This work tries to give an idea of the relationship between genetics and psychiatry through the myth and reality.
Coronado, Rogelio A; Riddle, Daniel L; Wurtzel, Wendy A; George, Steven Z
citations were metric studies and references in PTJ were from journals from a variety of disciplines.
Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester
Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.
Traces the history of new journalism to the pre-Civil War era of partisan and advocacy journalism and points out that "new" types of reporting have occurred throughout the history of American journalism. (RB)
Full Text Available The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticised both as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation respectively and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of level of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.
The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.
To see whether certain findings in cognitive science can serve to bridge the conceptual gap between psychiatry, particularly in its psychotherapeutic aspects, and religious/spiritual understanding. A brief review is given of certain basic differences between psychiatric understanding in its psychotherapeutic aspects, and much of Western religious/spiritual understanding. Reference is then made to certain findings in contemporary cognitive science which might challenge the implicit mind-body split of Western religious tradition and its parallel in psychotherapeutic practice. Attention is also drawn to elements in religious/spiritual tradition that run counter to this dualistic point of view. Much of contemporary religious/spiritual understanding, and of modern psychiatric understanding, especially in terms of psychotherapy, appear to exist in quite separate domains. Psychotherapy and the greater part of Western religious thinking, however, share a belief in the existence of a transcendent mind. Recent developments in cognitive science and certain spiritual traditions, challenge this implicit mind-body split, providing an opportunity for a renewed dialogue between psychiatry and religion and the possibility of collaborative research.
Meise, Ullrich; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Stippler, Stippler; Wancata, Johannes
History shows that the discussion concerning coercive measures against mentally ill is as old as psychiatry itself. The dilemma of psychiatry lies in its double role - having both a therapeutic and a regulatory function. Violence against sick and disabled people conflicts with the ethical principles of helping professions. This, however, is where the danger lies: that the violent parts of psychiatric work - which in the opinion of experts cannot be entirely avoided - are repressed or seen as taboo and are therefore more difficult to control. Comparisons between EU countries of the nature, frequency and duration of coercive measures are difficult because of the heterogeneity of regulation and differences in established practice. Scientific examination of this issue seems to be insufficient. There are only a few studies on important issues such as how patients rate these measures. An open and thorough debate about the meaning and meaninglessness of coercion and violence in psychiatric treatment would be necessary to prevent "routine violence" or the excessive use of force against the mentally ill.
Figee, M; Bervoets, C; Denys, D
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now used regularly to treat therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorders, and is being applied experimentally for refractory depression, Tourette syndrome, addiction, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism and schizophrenia. To review the effects and mechanisms of dbs and to consider the future opportunities for this type of treatment in psychiatry. We reviewed the literature using PubMed. DBS is effective and safe to use in the treatment of therapy-refractory OCD and has produced encouraging results in cases of refractory depression and Tourette syndrome. However, further investigations are needed with regard to the use of DBS for treating other psychiatric disorders. DBS influences brain networks that are relevant for a whole range of psychiatric symptoms. DBS should always be considered as possible treatment for therapy-refractory OCD. DBS often leads to marked and rapid improvement in mood, anxiety, behaviour and other psychiatric symptoms, making it a promising intervention for a variety of refractory patient groups. The development of DBS for psychiatry will benefit from our increased knowledge about how specific brain networks relate to psychiatric dysfunctioning.
Riquelme García, E; Dallal y Castillo, E
The historic development of the units that provided psychiatric care to children and adolescents, which finally yielded the first child guidance clinic early this century is briefly reviewed. We describe the organization of a child psychiatry unit within a social security institute (ISSSTE). The importance of a child psychiatrist, a psychologist and a social worker working together in a team approach to the evaluation and treatment of children is emphasized. The ISSSTE has provided psychiatric care to children and adolescents since 1961. For this purpose the Institute has five psychiatric units, four of them within a general hospital, the other in a neuropsychiatry out-patient clinic. This clinic admitted 749 new cases to the Child Psychiatry department during 1976. Up to December 1976, the total population of the clinic was 14 271 patients, of which 5 471 are children and adolescents. Last but not least, we describe an ambitious project for an in-patient unit for children and adolescents as part of a psychiatric hospital.
Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N
Computer technology dominates our daily lives and has become an integral professional tool in medical practice and by extension, in psychiatry as well. The widespread use of internet technology has taken place with unprecedented speed in the history of human civilization, spreading in a few decades to all countries of the world, offering novel possibilities for transmitting information, and leading to the globalization of knowledge. However, the speed with which computer technology is becoming a part of our lives is accompanied by difficulties in integration. The continued evolution of applications often leads to the impression that to be modern and efficient we have to run continuously after developments, dedicating time and effort that we cannot often afford. At the same time, its widespread use alters the needs of our patients, and our efficiency is constantly judged in a globalized environment which, while offering new possibilities, also has new demands. The initial impression that computer technology is simply a tool that can facilitate the work of those who are willing and able to use it has been replaced by the perception that the practice of medicine, in both clinical and academic level, requires sufficient knowledge of modern technology and the development of relevant skills for ongoing training and following innovative applications. The result of this assumption is the introduction of technology courses in the curricula of medical schools in the country. This article offers a brief description of the uses of information technology in psychiatry. In particular, e-mail is one of the most popular Internet services and there is internationally an increasing pressure from the public to be able to contact their doctor by e-mail. Furthermore, almost all psychiatric journals now have a digital electronic edition, thus increasing the volume of articles published, the ease of accessing the required information, and ultimately the reduction of the time it takes a
Cannabis and other variables affecting age at onset in a schizophrenia founder population · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JL Roos, HW Pretorius, M Karayiorgou, H Boraine, 99-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v9i2.30212 ...
Cannabis use trends in South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Peltzer, S Ramlagan, 126-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v13i4.33 ...
Cannabis use and abuse correlates in a homogeneous South African schizophrenia population · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L Koen, R Jonathan, DJH Niehaus ...
Scientific Letter: Sodium valproate for the treatment of mania in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Kumar Kar, AK Panda, A Kamboj, O Prakash. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v16i6.52 ...
Understanding DSM-5. Advice for South African practitioners · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Allgulander, 321-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v16i5.40 ...
Prevalence of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and psychiatric co-morbidity among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Walker, A Venter, A van der Walt, KGF Esterhuyse.
Opportunities for transnational and translational research in Europe · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... The outcome of Mental Health Care Users admitted under Section 40 of the South African Mental Health Care Act (No 17 of 2002) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation Part II. Activity-based costing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ABR Janse van Rensburg, W Jassat. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v14i1.65464 ...
Mental Health Stigma: What is being done to raise awareness and reduce stigma in South Africa? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Kakuma, S Kleintjes, C Lund, N Drew, A Green, AJ Flisher. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v13i2.54357 ...
Effects of Psychosocial Parameters on Adherence of Adult Nigerians to Antiretroviral Therapy · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Influence of Sociodemographic Factors on Job Burnout and Satisfaction among Eritrean Medical Workers. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Effectiveness and feasibility of telepsychiatry in resource constrained environments? A systematic review of the evidence · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J Chipps, P Brysiewicz, M Mars. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v15i4.30 ...
Primary maternal preoccupation revisited: circuits, genes, and the crucial role of early life experience · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. James F Leckman, Linda C Mayes, Donald J Cohen ...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Africa: a perspective · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in a general population sample: findings from the South African Stress and Health Study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in black and white South African women · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JH Goedecke, J Forbes, DJ Stein, 201-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v16i3.27 ...
Late Identification of Autistic Disorder in Nigeria: An Illustration with 2 Case Reports · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MA Bello-Mojeed, OC Ogun, OO Omigbodun, AO Adewuya, HTO Ladapo. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpsyc.v9i2.69920 ...
Lithium: priming the next 50 years: commentary, EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Brian H Harvey, 12-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v7i2.30160 ...
Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa: A review of data from 8 studies conducted between 2004 and 2007 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CDH Parry, A Plüddemann, B Myers, WM Wechsberg, AJ Flisher, 372- ...
Monitoring the prevalence of methamphetamine-related presentations at psychiatric hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Plüddemann, S Dada, CDH Parry, R Kader, JS Parker, H Temmingh, S van Heerden, C de ...
Inpatient management of borderline personality disorder at Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Laila Paruk, Albert B.R. Janse van Rensburg. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v22i1.678 ...
Determinants of the disposition of patients attending a psychiatric emergency department in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. II Adeosun, RA Lawal, OC Ogun, OA Owoeye, AA Adegbohun, AO Ogunlowo, TE Afolabi, 2-7 ...
Euthanasia: a problem for psychiatrists: review article · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Graeme R McLean, 10-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v7i1.30154 ...
Major depressive disorder as a co-morbid diagnosis in schizophrenia versus the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder – depressed type · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Renata Ronelle du Preez, William Charles Griffith, William Charles Griffith, Mark ...
Prevalence and clinical characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive symptoms in Afrikaner schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. F Seedat, J L Roos, H W Pretorius, ...
Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the International Personality item Pool (IPIP) Big-five Factor Markers in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Abiola, O Udofia, S Yunusa, 38-38 ...
Trends in pharmacotherapy selection for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in the Free State Province, South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... A case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus presenting as dissociative fugue · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
The Mental Health System in North-Eastern Nigeria: A WHO-AIMS Generated Assessment of the State of Mental Health in a Sub-Saharan African Region. ... Prevalence of Co-morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Clinic Sample of Children with ...
Prevalence of common phobias and their socio-demographic correlates in children and adolescents in a traditional developing society · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Bener, S Ghuloum, EE Dafeeah. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v14i2.6 ...
Guest Editorial Training undergraduate medical students in 'soft skills' - a qualitative research project at the University of Pretoria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Krüger, WJ Schurink, A-M Bergh, PM Joubert, JL Roos, CW Van Staden, GE ...
Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in South Africa A retrospective descriptive study of acute first admissions · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Neuropsychiatric Complications Associated with Interferon - Alpha -2b treatment of Malignant Melanoma · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Achalasia as a complication of bulimia nervosa: A case report · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Meryem O. Kutuk, Gulen Guler, Ali E. Tufan, Fevziye Toros, Umut Kaytanli ...
Coping with the Stress of Urban Living in the Urban Millenium: Ayo Binitie and Current Perspectives* · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Reliability and Validity of a Satisfaction Scale in a Nigerian Psychiatric Out-Patient Clinic. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Culture–bound syndromes and the neglect of cultural factors in psychopathologies among Africans · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OF Aina, O Morakinyo, 278-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v14i4.4 ...
Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L Schlebusch, 436-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v15i6.56 ...
CBT), and makes mention of the important contributions made by South Africans in this regard. An outline of the CBT approach is provided. There follows an illustration of this as applied to the treatment of depression. The effectiveness of CBT is ...
Psychiatric research in an international perspective: the role of the World Psychiatric Association · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ahmed Okasha. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...
Eating disorders in males : a review · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Amanda Caroline Freeman, 58-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v8i2.30185 ...
Sociotropic personality traits positively correlate with the severity of social anxiety · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N Fistikci, A Keyvan, Y Gorgulu, G Senyuva, E Erten, MZ Sungur, 54-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJP.550 ...
A longitudinal comparative analysis of economic and family caregiver burden due to bipolar disorder · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Zergew, D Hailemariam, A Alem, D Kebede, 191-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v11i3.30268 ...
A study of an intensive home-based treatment program and its impact on admissions in an aged-care setting: original article · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Pam Callaly, Jackie Kriz, Jeanette Suters, Kim Moon, Philip Dunn, Margaret Henry, Thomas ...
Sleep and daytime sleepiness in methylphenidate medicated and un-medicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... The psychological impact of vitiligo in adult Sudanese patients · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
The regulation of informed consent to participation in clinical research by mentally ill persons in South Africa: An overview · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Nienaber ...
sometimes serious) clinical impact should not be underestimated. Research on medication error in mental health care is limited. A review of the various studies done in relation to prescription errors is undertaken by us to understand this ...
Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria presenting with psychiatric symptoms in a Kenyan · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HM Maru, DM Ndetei, EO Amayo, ZA Kaka, 229-230.
Mental illness - stigma and discrimination in Zambia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Kapungwe, S Cooper, J Mwanza, L Mwape, A Sikwese, R Kakuma, C Lund, AJ Flisher, The Mental Health and Poverty Project MHaPP Research Programme ...
Excess of non-verbal cases of autism spectrum disorders presenting to orthodox clinical practice in Africa – a trend possibly resulting from late diagnosis and intervention · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MO Bakare, KM Munir, 118-120 ...
Sociodemographic Characteristic, Oath Taking and Psychiatric Morbidity among Rescued Female Victims of Human Trafficking in Sokoto, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Yunusa, A Obembe, U Shehu, 25-30 ...
Prevalence of stuttering in primary school children in Nsukka, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E U Onyeizugbu, 35-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpsyc.v4i1.39889 ...
Perkins, Alexis C; Choi, Joanna Mimi; Kimball, Alexa B
In recent years there has been an increasing focus on human subject protection and on documentation of ethical review in published clinical research. The JAAD clearly states in its instructions to authors, which adhere to the guidelines set forth by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, "studies involving live human subjects must have been approved by the author's Institutional Review Board or its equivalent." To determine what proportion of prospective studies on human subjects submitted to the clinical trials and therapeutics section lacked mention of review by an ethics board and to determine the outcome of these manuscripts. We reviewed 150 prospective studies submitted from July 1, 2004 to January 16, 2006 to a single associate editor, who receives the majority of reports requiring ethics board review. Of 150 prospective studies, 36% (n = 54) had no mention of ethics review or consent, whereas 15% (n = 22) mentioned consent but not ethics review. Forty-two papers were returned asking for ethics information, and of these, 48% were resubmitted with confirmation of ethics review, 22% were withdrawn, 12% were never resubmitted, 12% responded that ethical review was not obtained, and 7% were clarified as exempt from review. Of the 150 papers, 45% were from US authors and 55% were from international authors. Sixty-seven percent of US papers and 35% of international papers included ethics board information (P
them properly was their social and cultural content. The latter required giving attention to how communities defined, understood, interpreted, valued, and realised their respective values and tradi- tions in personal experience and symbolic behaviour. It was in relation to such locally shaped cultural psychologies and cultural.
Without researching psychedelic drugs for medical therapy, psychiatry is turning its back on a group of compounds that could have great potential. Without the validation of the medical profession, the psychedelic drugs, and those who take them off-license, remain archaic sentiments of the past, with the users maligned as recreational drug abusers and subject to continued negative opinion. These two disparate groups--psychiatrists and recreational psychedelic drug users--are united by their shared recognition of the healing potential of these compounds. A resolution of this conflict is essential for the future of psychiatric medicine and psychedelic culture alike. Progression will come from professionals working in the field adapting to fit a conservative paradigm. In this way, they can provide the public with important treatments and also raise the profile of expanded consciousness in mainstream society.
Juul, Dorthea; Colenda, Christopher C; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Dunn, Laura B; Hargrave, Rita; Faulkner, Larry R
The Institute of Medicine estimated that by 2030, from 10.1 to 14.4 million Americans aged 65 years or older will have mental health or substance use disorders. This article reviews the history and current status of training, certification, and practice in geriatric psychiatry against the backdrop of this "silver tsunami." The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) administered the first subspecialty examination in geriatric psychiatry in 1991, and through 2015 3,329 certificates were awarded. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education approved the training requirements in 1993. After a surge in programs and fellows, the numbers appear to have stabilized at about 57 programs and 60-65 trainees per year with fewer than half of the positions filled each year. The majority of graduates seeks and obtains ABPN certification, and the majority of those who were fellowship trained have maintained certification. Despite the unprecedented demand for mental health services for older adults, it must be acknowledged that not enough geriatric psychiatrists can be prepared to meet the needs of an aging U.S. Strategies for addressing the shortage are discussed, including undertaking subspecialty training in the fourth year of psychiatry training, increasing the time devoted to the care of older adults in undergraduate and graduate medical education, and developing alternative training pathways such as mini-fellowships. It is not clear whether more favorable Medicare reimbursement rates for those certified in geriatric psychiatry would increase the numbers seeking fellowship training. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farjo, Nadia; Turpin, David L; Coley, R Yates; Feng, Jianying
In this study, we aimed to give insight into the article review process by investigating the characteristics and the fate of manuscripts submitted to the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO). The following information was obtained for original articles submitted to the AJO-DO in 2008: (1) for rejected articles: the reasons for rejection and the journal of subsequent publication when applicable; (2) for accepted articles: the number of revisions and the time elapsed to publication; and (3) for all articles: study topic, study design, area of origin, and statistically significant findings. Findings were reported using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test for equality of proportions, and multiple regression where appropriate. Post-hoc pair-wise tests were checked against the Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing. Of the 440 original articles submitted to AJO-DO in 2008, 116 (26%) were accepted and published an average of 21 months (SD, 5 months) after acceptance. Rejected articles totaled 324 (74%), with 137 (42%) finding subsequent publication an average of 22 months (SD, 11 months) after rejection by the AJO-DO. The top 3 reasons for rejection by the AJO-DO were (1) poor study design (59% of rejected articles), (2) outdated or unoriginal topic (42%), and (3) inappropriate for the AJO-DO's audience (27%). Manuscripts rejected for poor study design had the least success for subsequent publication, whereas those rejected as inappropriate for the AJO-DO had the highest rate of publication elsewhere. Area of origin was significantly associated with acceptance by the AJO-DO, with articles from United States and Canada most likely to be accepted (P Articles from countries with the lowest publication rate in the AJO-DO had the highest publication rate elsewhere. The presence of statistically significant findings was shown to be significantly associated with acceptance by the AJO-DO (P = 0.013) but not with
Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Hunter, Iain A; Killeen, Shane
To determine the nature and frequency of distorted presentation or "spin" (ie, specific reporting strategies which highlight that the experimental treatment is beneficial, despite a statistically nonsignificant difference for the primary outcome, or distract the reader from statistically nonsignificant results) in published reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with statistically nonsignificant results for primary outcomes in surgical journals. Multiple reports have suggested that interpretation of RCT results in medical journals can be distorted by authors of published reports. Using a defined search strategy, RCTs with clearly nonsignificant results for the primary outcome (P > 0.05) form 10 high-impact factor surgical journals (Annals of Surgery, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, American Journal of Transplantation, British Journal of Surgery, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Journal of the American College of Surgeons, Endoscopy, Archives of Surgery, and Liver transplantation), published between July 2013 to July 2015, were identified. Two reviewers independently appraised each selected article using a validated, standardized data abstraction form. In all, 110 eligible RCTs with nonsignificant primary outcomes were appraised. The title was reported with spin in 8 (7%) articles. Forty-four (40%) included abstracts and 39 (35%) main texts were classified as having spin in at least 1 section. The level of spin was high in 16 (14%) abstract and 19 (19%) main-text "Conclusions" sections. Twenty-five articles (23%) recommended the intervention of interest despite a nonsignificant primary outcome. There was no relationship between trial funding source, use of statistician and article section, and the presence of spin. In RCTs with statistically nonsignificant primary outcomes published in surgical journals, the reporting and interpretation of findings was frequently inconsistent with the results.
The Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health is published bi-annually by the South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions. It has sections for reviews, original research, clinical perspectives, book reviews and news and notices. It aims to publish work in the field of child and ...
Tzeferakos, Georgios; Douzenis, Athanasios
From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born.
Pinar Guzel Ozdemir
Full Text Available Bright light treatment is a treatment modality that leads elevation of mood due to attenuation in depressive symptoms, regulation in circadian rhythm activity, increase the effect of antidepressants and amelioration in sleep quality. Bright light treatment is considered among the first-line treatments for seasonal affective disorder because of high response rates. Additionally, bright light treatment being extended to other conditions, including non-seasonal mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other behavioral syndromes is likely to have a far reached use. Side effects are often temporary and can generally be overcome by reducing exposure time. The central focus on this paper is to review the action mechanisms, efficacy, usage areas, the ways of administration and side effects of the light treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 177-188
Livas, Christos; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Ren, Yijin; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos
Objective: To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. Materials and Methods: The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European
Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.
Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…
Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends.
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail. The remarkable advances in neurosciences, neurobiology and genetics tend to swing the emphasis towards a more biological basis. Psychosis for example is the condition often regarded as being biologically constructed and most independent of the social context. The symptoms, however, of hallucinations and delusions in psychosis have social meaning for the person experiencing them and are primarily defined socially.2 Furthermore, vulnerability is often the result of social trauma, whether in the form of recent stressors that trigger onset, or earlier circumstances that shape cognitive and emotional style. Moreover, the approved treatment and management of long term psychiatric disorders has involved interventions that are either directly social, or psychosocial. Furthermore, doubts have also been raised by the endophenotype project,3 related to the genetics of schizophrenia. Cohen4 suggested that there may be more individual genotypic patterns associated with schizophrenia than people with schizophrenia on the planet. A recent alternative interpretation (network approach) is gaining some support. It suggests that a stressor causes symptoms that activate other symptoms, in a circular, self-reinforcing way.5 This theory moves away from psychiatric disorders being traditionally conceptualised as categorical or dimensional models. While psychiatry has shifted its focus to a more biological approach, social factors still
Full Text Available This article explores the impact that India had on Beat imagination with specific emphasis on Ginsberg's under-studied Indian Journals, written during his travels in India in 1962-63, and published in 1970. The earlier American literary view of India was dominated by the notion of the spiritual East, and was evoked in the high prose of Emerson and Whitman. In the new context and historical time of post-war counterculture, India came to constitute a different kind of repertoire: 1 the trope of physical travel (unlike the earlier literary forebears who had never actually visited India and its sense of encounter with the un-transcendable physical 'dirt' of India; 2 India as a new realm of the sexual (in contrast with the more traditional dominant trend of India as 'ascetic spiritual' and the intertwining of the sexual and spiritual; and 3 Experimenting with drugs to explore the spaces between pilgrimage and tourism wherein India as a whole and in itself offers alternate states of bodily being. Moving away from conventional postcolonial notions of 'representation' in modes that might still be seen as quasi-Orientalist, I read the Ginsberg's text as creating a new kind of literary and aesthetic density, mixing genres of travelogue, diary, poetry, confession, doodle, photography. Further, in contrast to the entirely uni-directional notions of Orientalist representation, I argue that this encounter re-defined Beat notions of space, sexuality, and alternate consciousness.
The directory presents data defining the scope of journalism instruction in the nation's two-year colleges. Entries for each institution are given alphabetically within states and include: journalism courses offered; journalism instructors and their background, experience, and responsibilities; student publications produced and pertinent…
Gulati, Prannay; Das, Subhash; Chavan, B S
Attitude of fresh graduates toward psychiatric patients is important to bridge the treatment gap due to mental illness. Psychiatry as a subject has been neglected in the undergraduates of MBBS. (1) To compare the attitude of medical students and interns in a medical college toward mental illness and psychiatry. (2) To assess the impact of psychiatric training on attitude toward the mentally ill person and mental illness. Cross-sectional, single assessment study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Participants consisted of medical students of 1(st) and 2(nd) year who didn't have any exposure to psychiatry and interns, who had completed their compulsory 2 week clinical posting in psychiatry. Participants were individually administered sociodemographic proforma, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), opinion about mental illness (OMI) scale, and attitude to psychiatry-29 (ATP-29) scale. Standard descriptive statistics (mean, percentage), Chi-square test. A total of 135 participants formed the study sample, with 48, 47, and 40 participants from 1(st) year, 2(nd) year and interns, respectively. Mean GHQ score was 14.03 for the entire sample. There was better outlook of interns toward psychiatry and patients with mental disorders in comparison to fresh graduate students in some areas. Overall, negative attitude toward mental illness and psychiatry was reflected. Exposure to psychiatry as per the current curriculum seems to have a limited influence in bringing a positive change in OMI and psychiatry.
Gulati, Prannay; Das, Subhash; Chavan, B. S.
Context: Attitude of fresh graduates toward psychiatric patients is important to bridge the treatment gap due to mental illness. Psychiatry as a subject has been neglected in the undergraduates of MBBS. Aims: (1) To compare the attitude of medical students and interns in a medical college toward mental illness and psychiatry. (2) To assess the impact of psychiatric training on attitude toward the mentally ill person and mental illness. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, single assessment study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods: Participants consisted of medical students of 1st and 2nd year who didn’t have any exposure to psychiatry and interns, who had completed their compulsory 2 week clinical posting in psychiatry. Participants were individually administered sociodemographic proforma, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), opinion about mental illness (OMI) scale, and attitude to psychiatry-29 (ATP-29) scale. Statistical Analysis: Standard descriptive statistics (mean, percentage), Chi-square test. Results: A total of 135 participants formed the study sample, with 48, 47, and 40 participants from 1st year, 2nd year and interns, respectively. Mean GHQ score was 14.03 for the entire sample. There was better outlook of interns toward psychiatry and patients with mental disorders in comparison to fresh graduate students in some areas. Overall, negative attitude toward mental illness and psychiatry was reflected. Conclusions: Exposure to psychiatry as per the current curriculum seems to have a limited influence in bringing a positive change in OMI and psychiatry. PMID:25316938
Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Granich, Annette; Chan, Peter; Abbey, Susan; Galbaud du Fort, Guillaume
Psychosomatic medicine (PM) is recognized as a psychiatric subspecialty in the US, but continues to be considered a focused area of general psychiatric practice in Canada. Due to the unclear status of PM in Canada, a national survey was designed to assess the perception of and training experiences in PM among psychiatry residents. Residents enrolled at one of 13 psychiatry programs in Canada participated in the study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the effect of PM training experiences and career interest in PM on the perception of PM, controlling for number of months already completed in PM, training level, and residency program. The response rate was 35%, n = 199. 68% of respondents identified PM as a definite subspecialty, with the majority of respondents believing that PM was as important a subspecialty as child (53%), forensic (67%) and geriatric psychiatry (75%). Eighty percent of the respondents believed a PM specialist should complete more than 3 months of additional training to be competent/qualified. There was significant heterogeneity in training experiences across programs, with a differential effect of certain training components-seminar, journal club-associated with a more favorable perception of PM as a subspecialty. The above results challenge the notion that PM represents only a focused area of general psychiatric practice in Canada. PM appears to require additional training beyond residency for trainees to feel competent and qualified. Results from this survey suggest Canada should follow the US lead on recognizing PM as a subspecialty. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result from these disorders, because these occur mainly within primary care and secondary medical services. Difficulties in diagnosis and a tendency to regard them as purely secondary phenomena of depression, anxiety and related disorders mean that general psychiatry may continue to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. If general psychiatry embraced these disorders more fully, however, it might lead to better prevention and treatment of depression as well as helping to prevent the severe disability that may arise in association with these disorders. PMID:17139341
Bujoreanu, Simona; White, Matthew T; Gerber, Bradley; Ibeziako, Patricia
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of timing of a psychiatry consultation during pediatric hospitalization on length of hospital stay and total hospitalization charges. The charts of 279 pediatric patients (totaling 308 consultations) referred to the psychiatry consultation liaison service at a freestanding tertiary pediatric hospital between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The variables analyzed included the following: patient demographic characteristics; dates of admission, psychiatric consultation, and discharge; psychiatric diagnoses based on the psychiatric diagnostic evaluation; psychiatric treatment disposition; and illness severity and total charges associated with the medical stay. Earlier psychiatry consultation was associated with shorter length of stay and lower hospitalization charges after adjusting for psychiatric functioning, physical illness severity, and psychiatric disposition. Poorer psychiatric functioning and milder physical illness were associated with shorter referral time. Timely involvement of psychiatry consultation services during a medical or surgical hospitalization was associated with reductions in length of stay and total hospital charges in pediatric settings. These findings have important effects on quality of care via decreasing burden on the patient and family and on the medical system resources. Educating pediatric health care providers about the importance of early psychiatry consultation regardless of physical illness severity or psychiatric acuity will likely improve resource management for patients and hospitals. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Psychiatry has long been prone to fads. The main reason is that mental illness is poorly understood and can be difficult to treat. Most diagnostic fads have involved the extension of well-known categories into broader spectra. The most prominent treatment fads have involved the overuse of pharmacological interventions and a proliferation of methods for psychotherapy. The best antidote to fads is a commitment to evidence-based psychiatry.
To consider the claim that there is a fundamental epistemological conflict between religion and psychiatry over what constitutes rational explanation, and what impediment this might be to rapprochement between the two. An epistemological gap most certainly exists, but there is a growing acceptance of the importance of religion and spirituality to psychiatry. Rapprochement may best be achieved by increasing psychiatric awareness and knowledge of the issues, and by a willingness to embrace intellectual, cultural and religious pluralism.
Mental disorders lead patients along paths of irrationality. Insanity is perceived as excessiveness, often associated with violence. Risk in psychiatry is omnipresent and nursing practice is performed within a narrow safety zone. The media coverage of sensitive situations does not help. Ensuring the patient's recovery, respecting the fundamental principles of individual freedom while assuring the utmost safety of others is the constant challenge facing caregivers in psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tucker, W M
The author proposes a simple systematic way to analyze short stories as if they were case histories. Class discussions are organized around five basic questions, stated in the article, and use Erikson's framework of life stages to translate life experiences into the language of psychic conflict. Fiction writers effectively dramatize psychological and developmental issues in a way that makes them real and memorable to psychiatric residents. Stories may be of particular value in illustrating the process of change and in exploring the topic of prognosis, which are often overlooked in more traditional teaching formats. The author has presented this approach at several recent meetings of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and workshop participants have reported success in its use, which depends on the teacher's clinical rather than literary skills.
Reynolds, Charles F.; Lewis, David A.; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Kupfer, David J.
Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics. The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry’s mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776
van der Merwe, M; Bowers, L; Jones, J; Simpson, A; Haglund, K
Many acute inpatient psychiatric wards in the UK are permanently locked, although this is contrary to the current Mental Health Act Code of Practice. To conduct a literature review of empirical articles concerning locked doors in acute psychiatric inpatient wards, an extensive literature search was performed in SAGE Journals Online, EBM Reviews, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE Psychiatry, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google, using the search terms 'open$', 'close$', '$lock$', 'door', 'ward', 'hospital', 'psychiatr', 'mental health', 'inpatient' and 'asylum'. A total of 11 empirical papers were included in the review. Both staff and patients reported advantages (e.g. preventing illegal substances from entering the ward and preventing patients from absconding and harming themselves or others) and disadvantages (e.g. making patients feel depressed, confined and creating extra work for staff) regarding locked doors. Locked wards were associated with increased patient aggression, poorer satisfaction with treatment and more severe symptoms. The limited literature available showed the urgent need for research to determine the real effects of locked doors in inpatient psychiatry.
South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: 6 June 1944 — D-Day. Irvine Eidelman. Abstract. No Abstract ...
The author focuses on a new rapidly spreading practice of publication in open-access journals. The pros and cons of open-access journals are discussed. Publishing in these journals may be cost prohibitive for educators and junior faculty members. Some authors may be lured by the ease of publishing in open-access journals (and their, at times, inflated self-description, e.g., "international", "scientific"), and their possibly valuable contributions will escape the attention of Academic Psychiatry readership in the vast sea of open-access journals. The readership may be flooded with a large number of low-quality articles (maybe not even properly peer-reviewed) from open-access journals. It may take some time to sort out what is and what is not relevant and useful. Open-access publishing represents a problematic and controversial practice and may be associated with a conflict of interest for the editors and publishers of these journals.
El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Faeroe Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Fiji, Finland, France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala ...
Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.
Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M
Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.
Cowan, W M; Kandel, E R
Neurological and psychiatric illnesses are among the most common and most serious health problems in developed societies. The most promising advances in neurological and psychiatric diseases will require advances in neuroscience for their elucidation, prevention, and treatment. Technical advances have improved methods for identifying brain regions involved during various types of cognitive activity, for tracing connections between parts of the brain, for visualizing individual neurons in living brain preparations, for recording the activities of neurons, and for studying the activity of single-ion channels and the receptors for various neurotransmitters. The most significant advances in the past 20 years have come from the application to the nervous system of molecular genetics and molecular cell biology. Discovery of the monogenic disorder responsible for Huntington disease and understanding its pathogenesis can serve as a paradigm for unraveling the much more complex, polygenic disorders responsible for such psychiatric diseases as schizophrenia, manic depressive illness, and borderline personality disorder. Thus, a new degree of cooperation between neurology and psychiatry is likely to result, especially for the treatment of patients with illnesses such as autism, mental retardation, cognitive disorders associated with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease that overlap between the 2 disciplines.
Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J
Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.
Dumin, Laura Marie
Scope and Method of Study. This study looks at 15 articles from the "American Journal of Botany"--5 articles from 1914-1918, 5 articles from 1962-1966, and 5 articles from 2004-2008--to determine if and how the use of the passive voice has changed over time. Findings and Conclusions. The ways in which the passive voice was used, and the…
Briscoe, Gregory W.; Fore-Arcand, Lisa; Levine, Ruth E.; Carlson, David L.; Spollen, John J.; Pelic, Christopher; Al-Mateen, Cheryl S.
Objective: Psychiatry clerkship training involves many learning components, one of which is acquisition of scholarly knowledge. The authors investigate the reading materials and learning methods used by clinical clerks in their preparation for the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Exam (PSE). Methods: Clerkship students…
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Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko
The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.
Fearon, R M Pasco
The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry has, I think it is fair to say, a special place in the hearts of scientists and scientist-practitioners working broadly in the field of developmental psychopathology. How would you put into words what it is we all love about the journal? Answers on a postcard please! For me, in addition to the high quality of the science, there is something unique about JCPP's open-minded, eclectic yet rigorous and methodologically pluralistic style that makes it stand out from the rest. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Pandurangi, Anand K
The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian - American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years.
The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.
Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak
Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation.
Iglesias, Sandra; Tomiello, Sara; Schneebeli, Maya; Stephan, Klaas E
Psychiatry faces fundamental challenges: based on a syndrome-based nosology, it presently lacks clinical tests to infer on disease processes that cause symptoms of individual patients and must resort to trial-and-error treatment strategies. These challenges have fueled the recent emergence of a novel field-computational psychiatry-that strives for mathematical models of disease processes at physiological and computational (information processing) levels. This review is motivated by one particular goal of computational psychiatry: the development of 'computational assays' that can be applied to behavioral or neuroimaging data from individual patients and support differential diagnosis and guiding patient-specific treatment. Because the majority of available pharmacotherapeutic approaches in psychiatry target neuromodulatory transmitters, models that infer (patho)physiological and (patho)computational actions of different neuromodulatory transmitters are of central interest for computational psychiatry. This article reviews the (many) outstanding questions on the computational roles of neuromodulators (dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline), outlines available evidence, and discusses promises and pitfalls in translating these findings to clinical applications. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1420. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1420 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
David E Linden
Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.
Ang, Giap Kian; Pridmore, Saxby
'Theory of mind' (ToM) arose from the study of primates and their social organization, and scholars in many fields - philosophy, anthropology, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience - have contributed to this expanding topic. In this paper, we provide an overview of aspects of ToM of relevance to psychiatry. We briefly describe the origins of ToM in primates and humans and some relevant neurobiology, and then touch on possible contributions to psychopathology. We searched for articles on PubMed and Medline, using the terms 'theory of mind', 'mirror neuron system' and 'psychiatry'. There is evidence that ToM deficits are important in certain psychiatric disorders. While more research is required, an appreciation of ToM will have an impact on our further understanding and management of at least some mental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Tony B Benning Maple Ridge Mental Health Centre, Maple Ridge, BC, Canada Abstract: A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it - charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. Keywords: critique of biopsychosocial psychiatry, integrative psychiatry, George Engel
Full Text Available Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry.
Andlauer, Olivier; Guicherd, William; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Bonin, Bernard; Seed, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh; Howard, Rob
There is a need to increase the recruitment to psychiatry in France. Our aim in this study was to compare factors influencing career choice between French medical students considering and not considering psychiatry as a specialty. Quantitative cross-sectional online survey on 145 French students in their last year of medical school. 22.7% of our sample considered choosing a career in psychiatry. A preference for a career in psychiatry was associated with more frequent history of personal/familial mental illness, higher ratings of psychiatric teaching, more weeks of compulsory psychiatry teaching and placement, during which students had more often met patients in recovery and been asked their opinion on patients. Students considering psychiatry as a career also emphasized more the need for a good work-life balance, and presented better attitudes toward psychiatry. Improving opportunities of interactions between students and psychiatrists or psychiatric patients might help to improve recruitment in psychiatry.
To quantitate financial conflicts of interest (FCOIs) among radiation oncology peer-reviewers, specifically editorial board members of the 3 American Society for Radiation Oncology journals. The public Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database delineates payments in 3 categories (general payments, research funding, and company ownership). After excluding non-US and non-MDs, names of board members were searched. Values of each FCOI were extracted for 2013 to 2015 and compiled. Of 85 board members, 65 (76%) received any form of payment during the overall period. The majority of delivered payments were general payments: 59 (69%) received at least 1 general payment during these 3 years. In each year, 9 board members (11%) received research funding, and 3 board members (4%) reported company ownership. Over the studied period, all board members received a sum total of $5,387,985; this was composed of $665,801 (12%) in general payments, $3,758,968 (70%) in research funding, and $963,216 (18%) in company ownership. The mean general payment and research funding amounts (all members) were $2,621 and $14,741, respectively. Median (interquartile range) general payments and research funding only in board members receiving payments were $419 ($91-$5072) and $56,250 ($13,345-$200,000), respectively. When assessing general payments according to amount, the vast majority of editorial board members received lower-quantity or no such payments, along with a smaller proportion that received higher-volume payments. The most frequent sources of general payments were Varian, Elekta, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Merck and Varian were the most frequent funding sources for research payments. In this population, the majority of FCOIs were general payments, but research funding comprised the highest monetary sums. Large-volume FCOIs do not apply to the vast majority of editorial board members, implying that the maintained integrity of academic peer-review is likely not
Brophy, Robert H; Kluck, Dylan; Marx, Robert G
In recent years, the number of articles in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) has risen dramatically, with an increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine in orthopaedics and sports medicine. Despite the increase in the number of articles published in AJSM over the past decade, the methodological quality of articles in 2011-2013 has improved relative to those in 2001-2003 and 1991-1993. Meta-analysis. All articles published in AJSM during 2011-2013 were reviewed and classified by study design. For each article, the use of pertinent methodologies, such as prospective data collection, randomization, control groups, and blinding, was recorded. The frequency of each article type and the use of evidence-based techniques were compared relative to 1991-1993 and 2001-2003 by use of Pearson χ(2) testing. The number of research articles published in AJSM more than doubled from 402 in 1991-1993 and 423 in 2001-2003 to 953 in 2011-2013. Case reports decreased from 15.2% to 10.6% to 2.1% of articles published over the study period (P < .001). Cadaveric/human studies and meta-analysis/literature review studies increased from 5.7% to 7.1% to 12.4% (P < .001) and from 0.2% to 0.9% to 2.3% (P = .01), respectively. Randomized, prospective clinical trials increased from 2.7% to 5.9% to 7.4% (P = .007). Fewer studies used retrospective compared with prospective data collection (P < .001). More studies tested an explicit hypothesis (P < .001) and used controls (P < .001), randomization (P < .001), and blinding of those assessing outcomes (P < .001). Multi-investigator trials increased (P < .001), as did the proportion of articles citing a funding source (P < .001). Despite a dramatic increase in the number of published articles, the research published in AJSM shifted toward more prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded designs during 2011-2013 compared with 2001-2003 and 1991-1993, demonstrating a continued improvement in methodological quality. © 2015 The
Darwin's evolutionary theory was the starting point for ethology, associated with an impact on scientific psychiatry. Psychiatry and ethology have common scientific and methodological prerequisites: inductive and deductive methods and "gestalt theory" as a basis for observing and describing behaviour patterns with subsequent causal analysis. There have been early endeavours to anchor ethological thinking in psychiatry but this tendency did not prevail for the following reasons: on the one hand, the methodology of ethology was immature or not applicable to man, whereas on the other hand the dominating experiential phenomenological school of Karl Jaspers and Kurt Schneider stressed the privileged position of human thinking, perception, and feeling. These fundamental categories of human existence did not appear amenable to any causal ethological analysis. Psychiatry and evolutionary biology were linked in an atrocious manner during the Nazi regime, both being abused for propaganda purposes and genocide. More recently, there is a "reconciliation" of both disciplines. In psychiatric nosology, operational, behaviour-oriented diagnostic systems have been introduced; ethology has opened up for theories of learning; new subsections like human ethology and sociobiology have evolved. The seeming incompatibility of (behavioural) biological psychiatry and experiential phenomenological psychopathology may be overcome on the basis of Konrad Lorenz' evolutionary epistemology. The functional analysis of human feeling and behaviour in psychotic disorders on the basis of Jackson's theory of the evolution and dissolution of the nervous system may serve as an example. The significance of an "ethological psychiatry" for diagnostic and therapeutical processes of psychiatric disorders derive from prognostic possibilities and the analysis of non-verbal communication in therapist-patient-interactions, but have not yet been systematically investigated.
Full Text Available A large number of psychiatry studies are conducted in India. Psychiatry studies are complex and present unique challenges in the Indian setting. Ethical issues pertaining to the risk of worsening of illness, use of placebo and validity of informed consents are commonly faced. Site selection can be difficult due to the relative paucity of ICH-GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation - Good Clinical Practice trained psychiatry investigators in India. Recruitment can be challenging due to issues such as strict eligibility criteria, (lack of availability of caregiver, illness-related considerations, etc. Assessment of the consent capacity of patients is not simple, while structured assessments are not commonly employed. As the illness fluctuates, the consent capacity may change, thus requiring continued assessment of consent capacity. Study patients run the risk of worsening of illness and suicide due to exposure to inactive treatments; this risk is counterbalanced by use of appropriate study designs, as well as the indirect psychotherapeutic support received. Psychiatry studies are associated with a high placebo response. This necessitates conduct of placebo-controlled studies despite the attendant difficulties. Also, the high placebo response is often the cause of failed trials. Rating scales are essential for assessment of drug response. Some rating instruments as well as some rater training procedures may not be suitable for the Indian setting. Technological advancements may increase the procedural complexity but improve the quality of ratings. Psychiatry studies present monitors and auditors with unique scenarios too. Utilization of psychiatry specific training and expertise is recommended to ensure successful conduct of these studies in India.
USING EXPERT JUDGMENTS TO RANK 45 LATIN AMERICAN BUSINESS JOURNALS/Utilizando avaliações de especialistas para classificar 45 publicações latinoamericanas de negócios/Usando los juicios de expertos para ranquear 45 revistas latinoamericanas de negocios
This article presents the results of a study on the perception of quality of Latin American business journals based on the judgment of relevant experts - senior professors with knowledge of Latin...
Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham; Chadda, Rakesh K; Mezzich, Juan E
Indian psychiatry has many contributions to the world psychiatry to its credit. These include active participation in the international scientific organizations, research, and also creation of the manpower resources in many other countries. India has been an active partner in the research initiatives of the World Health Organization and the World Psychiatric Association. Research by the Indian psychiatrists played an important role in recognition of the entity of acute and transient psychotic disorders, some culture bound syndromes like Dhat syndrome and understanding the role of families in care of schizophrenia and course and outcome of schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Disease mongering starts at the top of recent accusations being hurled at psychiatry. It is used to refer to the attempts by pharmaceutical companies or others who have similar interests, to enlarge the market for a treatment by convincing people that they are sick and need medical intervention. This paper critically analyses the 'for' and 'against' arguments of disease mongering in psychiatric disorders, both new and old, such as Bipolar disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, female sexual dysfunction, social phobia, metabolic syndrome and road rage disorder. Keywords: disease mongeringpharmaceutical companies, psychiatry.
Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Billingsley-Marshall, Rebecca
... and Neurosurgery, Clinical Pediatrics, Cognitive Neuropsychology, Cortex, Digital Anatomist Project/University of Washington, International Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Neuropsychologia, Philosoph...
Dr Janis H. Audin (MSc Illinois 1975, DVM Illinois 1979), a champion of progressive veterinary medical journalism and 'One Health' died on 22 April 2009 following a long, courageous and difficult battle with pancreatic cancer. The world has lost a truly significant One Health leader and advocate. Under her guidance, the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA) implemented a 'one-health wonders' column that recognised and highlighted prominent One Health individuals among the medical and veterinary medical professions in the United States. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has lost a dedicated and gifted editor-in-chief. Dr Audin joined the editorial staff of the AVMA in 1985, as an assistant editor and was promoted to associate editor in 1989 and editor in 1994. She became the editor-in-chief of both the JAVMA and the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 1995. Prior to that, Dr Audin practised as an associate veterinarian in Calumet City, Illinois, for four years. During her tenure, Dr Audin was noted for implementing procedural and technological changes in the journal to reduce costs, improve timeliness of publications and promote readership interest and awareness. New features in the News section introduced under her leadership have made the journals more practical and public health-relevant. For instance, Dr Audin fostered the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) 'Inspection Insights' - a public health-oriented food safety monthly column related to meat, poultry and egg products - from 1996 through 1998. She also increased international manuscript submissions. On 23 March 2009 AVMA Executive Vice President Dr W. Ron DeHaven named Dr Audin as editor-in-chief emeritus of the Publications Division. Wisely, it also meant that Dr Audin could continue contributing to the staff effort to ensure the high quality of the AVMA scientific journals while the Association began a
Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.
Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…
Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John
Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…
Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini
Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…
Background: The inability to attract medical graduates to specialize in psychiatry has always been a serious challenge to psychiatry training programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitude of medical students towards psychiatry. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 122 ...
One might consider that the first Spanish psychiatrists were a group of alienists, that have been forgotten for many years, who worked in isolated conditions in the asylums of the 19th Century. On the other hand, there were a group of personalities, university professors specialised in other disciplines, that were not psychiatrists but had a much greater influence than the former during the early stages of the development of Spanish psychiatry as a differentiated medical speciality. This development was produced (considerably later than in other European countries) in two successive stages: a preliminary one, with local or aborted institutions (from the 15th Century to the year 1919) and a further one, with institutions that extended throughout the entire country, and were developed between 1920 and 1936. These national institutions were the ones that defined the beginning of Spanish psychiatry. The first one, that appeared in January of 1920, was the journal Archivos de Neurobiología, that related each other, stimulated and served as on organ of expression to the remaining institutions that established this specialty. Finally, a summary is offered of the characteristics and the historical evolution of this journal emblematic of Spanish psychiatry, that is currently commemorating its 75th anniversary.
McCartney, J R
Medicine has undergone a technological explosion which presents physicians with an increased need to make difficult ethical decisions. This has been met by an equivalent development in American medical schools of efforts to teach the ethics of medical practice. The courses vary widely from school to school. It is recommended that a core curriculum of basic theory be taught in preclinical years, followed by case-centered teaching in clinical years and residency. Only with real cases can the influence of the doctor-patient relationship be appreciated. Teaching of ethics cannot be divorced from the clinical reality of the doctor-patient relationship. The emotional needs of both enter into all decisions. It is offered that consultation-liaison psychiatry, which addresses the needs of both, is an ideal focus for such teaching.
Levine, Meredith A
This article strongly supports the Goldwater Rule, a position arrived at through an exploration of journalism ethics and practice norms for reporting on public figures, and justified by three claims. First, there is a seldom-acknowledged contradiction in ethics when it comes to journalistic reporting on public figures, one that is increasingly difficult to navigate in the current media climate. Second, the goal of informing and educating the public through offering a professional opinion about the mental health of public figures is often misaligned with the realities of journalistic storytelling. Third, there are ways to inform and educate the public about mental health and public figures that do not violate the Goldwater Rule. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
In 1817, the naturalist Constantine S. Rafinesque named nine new species of mammals from the American West, indicating the recently published journal of Charles Le Raye as the primary source for his descriptions. Le Raye was purported to be a French Canadian fur trader who, as a captive of the Sioux, had traveled across broad portions of the Missouri and Yellowstone river drainages a few years before the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) traversed much of the same region. Le Raye's journal was relied upon by generations of scholars as a valuable source documenting the native peoples and natural history of the Upper Missouri river in the era just prior to European settlement. Subsequent research, however, has shown that Le Raye never existed, and his purported journal is fraudulent. Despite this, Rafinesque's creation of the names followed conventional and accepted practice at the time, and they are porentially available. Fortunately, much of the Le Raye journal was based on verifiable sources, such as Patrick Gass's published account of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Identification of the original source materials makes it possible to establish the correct application of Rafinesque's names and to determine their current status. This process reveals that the earliest scientific name for the coyote (Canis latrans Say, 1822) was Canis chlorops Rafinesque, 1817; this name is now a nomen oblitum, however, and is no longer available.
Ergun, Gul; Isik, Isil; Dikec, Gul
The object of this study is to determine the roles of psychiatry nurses within the therapeutic environment of psychiatry clinics in Turkey. This study was performed in a cross-sectional and descriptive design in 195 institutes comprising psychiatry clinics in Turkey. When the responsibilities of nurses for clinical activities were asked, the following answers were obtained: playing with patients or painting at a rate of 54,4%. It was determined that in the majority of psychiatry clinics, there were educational activities which were conducted by nurses. The researchers propose that the increase in the roles and responsibilities of nurses in such activities be supported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa
Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…
Reardon, Claudia L; Bentman, Adrienne; Cowley, Deborah S; Dunaway, Kristen; Forstein, Marshall; Girgis, Christina; Han, Jaesu; Hung, Erick; Jones, Jeralyn; Keeble, Tanya; McCarron, Robert M; Varley, Christopher K
Integrated care models are an evidence-based approach for integrating physical and behavioral health services. The American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training Integrated Care Task Force sought to describe current practices for providing training in integrated care to general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents. Directors of US general and child and adolescent psychiatric residency training programs were anonymously surveyed to examine current practices in educating their residents in integrated care. Based on themes that emerged from the survey, the authors make recommendations for integrated care education of general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents. Fifty-two of 197 (26%) general and 36 of 111 (32%) child and adolescent program directors responded. Results demonstrate that a majority of responding general psychiatry (78%) and child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) (72%) training programs offer integrated care rotations, many of which are electives for senior residents. The Veterans Health Administration (VA) and Federally Qualified Health Centers are common venues for such rotations. Sustainable funding of these rotations is a concern. Fewer than half of programs offer integrated care didactics. This report is intended to help program directors consider options for starting or optimizing their own integrated care curricula. Future research should examine the educational value, and the overall value to health care systems, of training in the integrated care model.
Full Text Available Background: Medical Council of India allowed the interns to take up an extra 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry along with the mandatory posting of 15 days. The study was planned to assess the effect of the additional period of psychiatry internship on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry. Material and methods: The consenting interns were given a semi structured proforma enquiring about their age and gender and were asked to fill up Attitude Towards Psychiatry (ATP scale. The assessment was done at the beginning and then after 15 days of mandatory posting. Those participants who were willing to do an additional 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry were assessed again on the 30th day of the training. Results: Mean age of the participating interns (n=47 was 25.44±1.52 and the male female ratio was 0.8. Twenty six interns did only the 15 days mandatory psychiatry internship posting (Group 1 and the remaining 21 interns took up the additional elective 15 days posting (Group 2. At the end of the 15 days posting, Mean ATP score of the group 1 increased from 88.34±6.07 to 88.46±6.19 (p=0.80 whereas the same increased from 88.04±7.06 to 88.19±7.65 (p=0.7 in the group 2 and further increased to 91.09±8.3 at the end of the additional 15 days of elective posting (p<0.05. Conclusion: A thirty days exposure of psychiatry during internship had more favourable impact on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry.
Seyed Saeed Sadr
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the current factors affecting the choice of psychiatry as a specialty and to detect the main factors in their choice.Method: This descriptive study included 75 first year psychiatry residents in the academic year of 2014/2015. A Likert-type anonymous questionnaire consisting of academic and demographic data with 43 questions, which evaluated the reason for choosing psychiatry as a specialty, was given to the residents.Results: The participants had a positive opinion about 28 items of the questionnaire, meaning that these items had a positive effect in choosing psychiatry as a specialty (questions with P value less than 0.05 and a positive mean. More than 80% of the residents had a positive opinion about six items of the questionnaire (amount of intellectual challenge, variety of knowledge fields relevant to psychiatry, emphasis on the patient as a whole person, the importance of treating mental illnesses in the future, work pressure and stress of the field during residency and coordinating with the person's life style. The participants had a negative opinion about two items of the questionnaire (questions with a P value less than 0.05 and a negative mean. They included experiencing mental illness personally through relatives or close friends as well as the income in psychiatry. Moreover, 36% of the residents with a more definite opinion mentioned that they chose psychiatry as a specialty because of the limitations in residency exam.Conclusion: Assistants had a positive opinion about most of the questions and this positive attitude seemed to be an important factor in their specialty choice. However, attending to the preventing factors may increase the selection of psychiatry as a specialty.
Religion and psychiatry have had complicated, sometimes neutral or friendly and cooperative, sometimes competitive and antagonistic relations over their long histories. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. Psychiatry has often ignored spiritual and religious dimension in health and illness while religions influenced the treatment of mental disorders directly by defining mental disorders as evil spirit possessions and prescribing exorcism as treatment. It has been a long way to prevail looking for natural over supra-natural explanations for mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion as social practices should be regarded as allies against pseudoscientific nonsense and superstitions. This alliance is based on the next evidence: 1. religious and spiritual well-being is an important component of mental health as well as of health in general; 2. research and empirical evidence reveals that healthy-minded and distorted or sick faith are quite distinct in the effects in the lives of the faithful; 3. psychiatrists are professionally expected to always respect and be sensitive to the spiritual and religious beliefs and practices of their patients; 4. religious and spiritual beliefs and practice is very important aspect of person-centered psychiatry. The enduring task for both psychiatry and religion is to enable human beings to live their lives with courage, sense, and optimism, to strive towards creating conditions of well-being and individual, public and global mental health as well as to dispel beliefs and patterns which trap people in lives of misery and mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion in creative dialogues as allies can significantly contribute to the healing of our broken world and promoting compassionate society and empathic civilization. When psychiatry and religion see each other as opponents or even enemies this is only because of their mutual misreading and pseudoscientific
The nuclear research in Mexico (1986-1994). Bibliometrics of papers published in journals outside of the Latin American region; La investigacion nuclear en Mexico (1986-1994). Bibliometria de trabajos publicados en revistas fuera de la region latinoamericana
Garrido R, S.A
Mexican research in nuclear science during 1986-1994 has been studied through the bibliometric analysis of the output of scientific papers published by Mexican institutions in non Latin American journals of international circulation. Bibliographic references were compiled from the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database as well as from proceedings and annual reports of Mexican research institutions within the field of interest. After careful normalization, data from the 920 detected papers were keyboarded and checked in a database used for the evaluation of the number of papers by discipline, source institutions and departments, authors, coauthors, publication year as well as publishing journals and their geographic origin, language of publication and the interactions of all these parameters. Results were expressed in reports, and summarized in tables and figures to visualize the state of this research field in Mexico. (Author)
... Chicago Learn More Close The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy ASGCT is the primary membership organization for scientists, ... Therapeutics Official Journal of the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Molecular Therapy is the leading journal for gene ...
Feb 17, 2004 ... generally poor, increasing stigma with both the mentally ill and intellectually disabled discriminated against. Diagnosis in psychiatry includes a whole range of conditions and se- .... community without the ability to cope or with the occurrence of risk behaviour places even more strain on limited resources.
In her book 'An Unquiet Mind' the psychologist Kay Jamison gives a moving ... Department of Psychiatry, University of Pretoria, Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa. Abstract: This ... psychodynamic formulation is unfortunately seldom incorporated in the psychiatric presentation of patients; guidelines are therefore ...
Bouché, Christophe; Marigaux, Sandrine; Pattedoie, Nicolas
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive treatment technique, using electromagnetism properties. It has been used for around twenty years in neurology (treatment of neuropathic pain, certain abnormal movements, Parkinson's disease), and in psychiatry (obsessive compulsive disorder, hallucinations, mood disorders, etc.). The presence and support of a nurse during the sessions is essential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
1977) requires that 'mental disorder', 'mental defect' or 'any other reason' (section 78)2 be present before issues of .... 'self defeating personality disorder'). Apart from advertising psychiatry's ongoing ... will easily distinguish between serial rapists that are just antisocial from those who apparently have a diagnosis and are ...
Stein, Dan J
ABSTRACT Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary field, comprising cognitivepsychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology. In recent years, cognitive science has become a predominant paradigm in studies of the mind. This paper reviews work at the emerging interface between cognitive science and psychiatry. It is argued that cognitive science has significant potential as an integrative framework for theorizing and researching psychiatric disorders a...
Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane
Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…
Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen
Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…
Forensic Psychiatry has a history that dates back almost two thousand years, and has evolved into a recognised discipline with a robust background of scientific enquiry, mostly because mental health care has always had an important interface with the law.1 Nevertheless, even in the developed world there are differences ...
The developments in child psychiatry in the past 25 years have been encouraging but represent only a prelude to the significant work that must be done relatively soon to meet the needs of the contemporary child. Before 1940, the desirability of multidisciplinary study of the child had been well established, and child guidance clinics had appeared.…
Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Ferguson, Britnay A
Physician assistants (PAs) are medical professionals who practice medicine with the supervision of a physician through delegated autonomy. PA school accreditation standards provide limited guidance for training PAs in psychiatry. As a result, PA students may receive inconsistent and possibly inadequate exposure to psychiatry. Providing broad and in-depth exposure to the field of psychiatry is important to attract PA students to pursue careers in psychiatry and provide a possible solution to the shortage of psychiatrists nationwide. Additionally, this level of exposure will prepare PA students who pursue careers in other fields of medicine to recognize and address their patient's psychiatric symptoms in an appropriate manner. This training can be provided by an academic department of psychiatry invested in the education of PA students. We describe a training model implemented at our university that emphasizes psychiatrist involvement in the preclinical year of PA school and full integration of PA students into the medical student psychiatry clerkship during the clinical years. The benefits and challenges to implementing this model are discussed as well.
Griffith, James L
Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p neuroscience curriculum for a residency committed to humanistic psychiatry
Sloan, D; Browne, S; Meagher, D; Lane, A; Larkin, C; Casey, P; Walsh, N; O'Callaghan, E
This study investigated the attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry, both as a subject on the medical curriculum and as a career choice. Three separate questionnaires previously validated on medical student populations were administered prior to and immediately following an 8-week clinical training programme. The results indicate that the perception of psychiatry was positive prior to clerkship and became even more so on completion of training. On completion of the clerkship, there was a rise in the proportion of students who indicated that they might choose a career in psychiatry. Attitudes toward psychiatry correlated positively with the psychiatry examination results. Those that intended to specialise in psychiatry achieved significantly higher examination scores in the psychiatry examination.
Turner, Erick H
Publication bias undermines the integrity of the evidence base by inflating apparent drug efficacy and minimizing drug harms, thus skewing the risk-benefit ratio. This paper reviews the topic of publication bias with a focus on drugs prescribed for psychiatric conditions, especially depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Publication bias is pervasive; although psychiatry/psychology may be the most seriously afflicted field, it occurs throughout medicine and science. Responsibility lies with various parties (authors as well as journals, academia as well as industry), so the motives appear to extend beyond the financial interests of drug companies. The desire for success, in combination with cognitive biases, can also influence academic authors and journals. Amid the flood of new medical information coming out each day, the attention of the news media and academic community is more likely to be captured by studies whose results are positive or newsworthy. In the peer review system, a fundamental flaw arises from the fact that authors usually write manuscripts after they know the results. This allows hindsight and other biases to come into play, so data can be "tortured until they confess" (a detailed example is given). If a "publishable" result cannot be achieved, non-publication remains an option. To address publication bias, various measures have been undertaken, including registries of clinical trials. Drug regulatory agencies can provide valuable unpublished data. It is suggested that journals borrow from the FDA review model. Because the significance of study results biases reviewers, results should be excluded from review until after a preliminary judgment of study scientific quality has been rendered, based on the original study protocol. Protocol publication can further enhance the credibility of the published literature.
8Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, The University of Melbourne & Director, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre in ... The current workshop focused on Africa and Asia, with selected editors presenting content related to their journals. ... Key words: Psychiatry; Publishing; Education; Developing countries.
Uskali, Turo; Kuutti, Heikki
This paper presents the initial results of a two-year research project, Data Journalism Work Practices, which focuses on newsrooms in Finland, the UK and the US. Data journalism or data-driven journalism has been defined simply as journalism based on large data sets (Rogers 2011; Bounegru et al. 2012.) According to our ongoing research on data journalism work methods, we can claim this has been an oversimplification. Based on six interviews of leading Finnish, American and British...
Full Text Available Abstract Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER. In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.
Abusharif, Ibrahim N.
Examining the growth, incentives, and progress of overseas campuses of major American educational institutions is an important academic pursuit. To have a complete picture, one must also consider the impact these branch campuses are having on the lives of their students. The Northwestern University in Qatar's journalism program was invited to…
Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan, Aland Islands, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Antarctica, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas ...
The Journal is published by the Centre for Contemporary Islam, based at the University of Cape Town; and is indexed in the ATLA Religion Database ® a product of the American Theological Library Association. It is committed to the publication of original research on Islam as culture and civilization. It particularly welcomes ...
Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Full Text Available Genetics in psychiatry is based on the application of the achievements and methods of population’s genetics, immunogenetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics and pharmacogenetics. Methods of genealogy are already known, and so are the twins method, methods of adoption. Especially present are the methods of DNA recombination discovering the location of genes on chromosomes and creating genetic maps. For now, it can be said that chromosomes 6, 22 and 8 are in the center of attention of geneticists examining the genetic background of schizophrenia. Some studies also suggest an association could be made between HLA-A9 and paranoid schizophrenia. The manic-depressive disorders are more associated with a gene on the short arm of chromosome 11 and the X chromosome. Mental disorders are polygenic and conditioned multifactorial. It is because of the interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors. The conclusion of most studies is that for the repetition of psychiatric disorders in families heritable factors are more deserving than environmental factors (e.g. studies in families with adopted children, although it is impossible to clearly separate the effects of genetic factors from the effects of environmental factors. The first studies that have attempted to detect predisposition genes for complex diseases were studies of genetic connectivity. They were based on the search of loci - markers in families, which were passed on through generations in the same way as the disease. In the search for the association of complexed hereditary diseases and certain variations of genes in a candidate, the evaluation of endofenotyp can be of a great benefit. Complexed diseases are characterized by a very diverse clinical picture and valuable data could be obtained if we individually evaluate each isolated characteristic of phenotype. The aim of the evaluation of endophenotype in the case of psychiatric disorders, is to penetrate into the mechanisms
Publisher uses direct and unsolicited marketing (i.e., spamming) or advertising is obtrusive (to publish articles or serve on editorial board). • No information is provided about the publisher or location; either information is missing or does not match geographical area covered by the journal (e.g., “American Journal of …
Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression not involving changes in DNA sequence and is presently an active area of research in biology and medicine. There is increasing evidence that epigenetics is involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Several studies conducted to date have suggested that psychosocial factors act by modifying epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression in the brain in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Such studies have been conducted both on brain tissues and also using peripheral tissues as substitutes for brain tissues. This article reviews such studies. Epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression in the brain appear to link one individual with another in the context of social psychiatry. Epigenetics appears to be of major importance to the field of social psychiatry.
Full Text Available Tariq Mahmood Hassan, Wasif Habib, Mir Nadeem Mazhar, Tariq Munshi Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, CanadaThere have been various opinion pieces on predicting the future of psychiatry and addressing its different domains. This editorial addresses the topic from the vantage point of neuroscientific inquiry. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM 5 however continues with the tradition of its predecessor (DSM 4 text revision [TR], addressing most diagnoses with descriptive phenomenology as opposed to attempting to change diagnoses based on causative phenomenology or response to treatment. Advances in genomics and imaging, with time, will hopefully help shape psychiatric diagnoses and classifications with a primary basis on morphology. This may in turn help improve the recruitment of academic psychiatrists to the field. In doing so, the profession will gain respect amongst its peers in other disciplines of medicine and cement its future.
Gilbert Ballet (1853-1916) was born into a medical family in the French province of Limousin. He completed a brilliant career in Paris hospitals: Resident (1875), Assistant to Professor Charcot of Salpêtrière Hospital (1882), Consultant (1884), Head of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (1890), and member of the Franch Academy of Medicine (1812). He had been teaching in the "Brain and mental diseases" course since 1891. In 1909, he held the chair of history of medicine. In 1911, he was Professor of mental diseases. He then advocated that nervous system disorders constituted a single thematic domain with two branches, organic neurology and psychiatry. He wrote a famous report on the forensic medicine assessment of criminal responsibility. His motto was "Let's use psychology as we can, not forgetting that we are physicians".
Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep
Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.
Whereas the numerous psychotherapy schools in the Freud tradition seem slightly ephemeral from the historical point of view, and whereas the intramural and extramural advocates of the philosophical, psychological psychosomatic and purely scientific aspects of psychiatry wage a constant war of competition for the recognition of their special fields and expansion of their power over others, Kraepelin's teaching, whose spirit has already survived two generations of psychiatrists, is even gaining recognition and power of persuasion. It is therefore termed orthodox, the others schismatic. The combination of an empirical phenomenology of psychiatric diseases with their biological roots places Kraepelin's psychiatry on a sure foundation which makes possible convention, uniform assessment of homologous cases, legal security in giving expert opinions and the clinical framework for experimental research.
Psychiatric patients of non-western origin leave treatment against the advice of their clinicians far more often than do their western counterparts. This article presents a theoretical framework for better understanding such clinical cases, developed from examples of psychiatric practice in different cultures. The theory is based on two meanings of the concept of culture, an elaboration of the universality-relativity dichotomy, and a view of the work of mental health care providers as involving three components: (1) building a trusting relationship with the patient; (2) making a diagnosis and treatment plan; and (3) carrying out treatment that is acceptable and meaningful to the patient. The article argues that all psychiatry is transcultural psychiatry, because a cultural gap always exists between the psychiatrist and the patient.
The author has argued that existential psychology and psychiatry are not consistent with existential philosophy, from which they derive their basic concepts. Existential philosophy treats consciousness as an epistemic and ontological absolute while existential psychology and psychiatry acknowledge the existence of unconscious mental processes. It is not possible to base a viable concept of psychodynamic psychotherapy, the nature of transference, or the efficacy of interpretation upon the radical concept of freedom, which is basic to existential philosophy. If psychiatrists wish to experiment with nonpsychoanalytic dynamic psychologies, then it is the author's opinion that the advancement of knowledge would be better served either by using existentialist concepts and principles consistently or by explicitly altering them in clearly defined ways for stated reasons, or by formulating psychodynamic hypotheses that do not lay claim to any foundation in existential philosophy.
Jovanović Aleksandar A.
Full Text Available Forensic psychiatry determination is, ordered by a court, the analysis and interpretation of medical facts with important legal implications. In that sense, psychiatrists (or neuropsychiatrists, apart from their professional expertise, must be familiar with legal, economical and social significance of medical data, so that their forensic reports are clear and useful in the context of legal procedure. This review deals with forensic psychiatry aspects of mental capacity. In the introduction of the article, the explanation of relevant concepts such as mental capacity, contractual and testamentary capacity, informed consent, undue influence and forensic determination in light of Serbian statutory law is presented. Further, the authors present basic principles of making forensic reports on mental capacity as well as contractual and testamentary capacity, and informed consent for eventual medical examination and treatment.
Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep
Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244
Kurt, H; Büchi, S; Haring, C; Pycha, R
As a medical topic psychosomatic medicine is able to look back on an almost 100-year-old tradition. Nevertheless, questions about its definition, area of application and by whom it should be practiced remains unsolved. This causes considerable tension with the field of psychiatry which has always seen psychosomatic medicine as a subspecialty of its own discipline. In the article, the development and current position of psychosomatic medicine in German speaking countries other than Germany (Austria, Switzerland and South Tyrol) is presented. While psychosomatic care is currently planned and also partially already executed in Austria, psychosomatic medicine in Switzerland is located with general practitioners on the one hand and consultation-liaison psychiatry on the other. After the radical psychiatric reform of the late 1970s in South Tyrol psychosomatic medicine proved to be a means to remove taboos regarding psychiatric institutions and the mentally ill.
Jeste, D V; Gillin, J C; Wyatt, R J
It is often stated that major biological treatments in psychiatry were discovered by accident or serendipity. Tracing the history of the concept of serendipity, we find that serendipity has been subjected to greatly divergent interpretations. According to the current usage, it is a discovery in which chance was a necessary and/or sufficient condition. With this definition, none of the discoveries of major biological treatments in psychiatry can be labeled serendipitous. The necessary factors common to these discoveries were creative minds that were variably influenced by the zeitgeist and that were persistent in their search for answers. Another important prerequisite was the availability of crucial basic knowledge of many related sciences. We conclude that chance cannot substitute for long-term research and that the latter is the most likely way to lead to valuable discoveries.
Fineberg, Sarah K; Stahl, Dylan; Corlett, Philip
We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification. Methods that test learning and memory in social contexts, collect data from real-world settings, and relate behavior to molecular and circuit networks are yielding data of particular interest. Research in BPD should focus on collaborative efforts to design and interpret experiments with direct relevance to core BPD symptoms and potential for translation to the clinic.
The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist
Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Button, Daniel; Brown, Rebecca; Hastie, Barbara
Children with life-threatening illnesses and their families may face physical, emotional, psychosocial, and spiritual challenges throughout the children's course of illness. Pediatric palliative care is designed to meet such challenges. Given the psychosocial and emotional needs of children and their families it is clear that psychiatrists can, and do, play a role in delivering pediatric palliative care. In this article the partnership between pediatric palliative care and psychiatry is explored. The authors present an overview of pediatric palliative care followed by a summary of some of the roles for psychiatry. Two innovative pediatric palliative care programs that psychiatrists may or may not be aware of are described. Finally, some challenges that are faced in further developing this partnership and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
While there has been some research into Francoist psychiatry, much work still needs to be done on the reorganization of the mental health profession within the new state. Held in Barcelona on 12, 13 and 14th January 1942, the National Neurology and Psychiatry Conference undoubtedly played a major role in the attempt to overthrow the dominant ideas in the field of Spanish psychiatry and displace its most influential figures. This article seeks to analyse the Conference's main organizational features and examine its most significant content, with the aim of evaluating its strategic importance in the context of both the psychiatrists' professional and scientific interests and their ideological and political concerns. Conference papers tackled issues such as neurology and psychiatry in wartime, vitamin deficiency and the nervous system, and new psychiatric treatments, including shock therapy. The Conference's marked ideological nature represented the beginning of a new professional dynamic, featuring the emergence or establishment of new leaders intent on laying the foundations of psychiatry during the early years of the Franco regime.
Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.
Objective Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their program’s curriculum related to tobacco treatment, attitudes related to treating tobacco in psychiatry, and perceptions of residents’ skills for addressing nicotine dependence in psychiatric patients. Results Respondents were representative of the national pool. Half of the programs provided training in tobacco treatments for a median duration of 1 hour. Content areas covered varied greatly. Programs with tobacco-related training expressed more favorable attitudes toward addressing tobacco in psychiatry and were more likely to report confidence in their residents’ skills for treating nicotine dependence. Programs without tobacco training reported a lack of faculty expertise on tobacco treatments. Most training directors reported moderate to high interest in evaluating a model tobacco curriculum for psychiatry and stated they would dedicate an average of 4 hours of curriculum time. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the need for and interest in a model tobacco treatment curriculum for psychiatry residency training. Training psychiatrists offers the potential of delivering treatment to one of the largest remaining groups of smokers: patients with mental disorders. PMID:17021144
The objective of this study was to evaluate metrics related to manuscripts rejected by AJR with and without review during 2014 and to determine their final disposition: no record of eventual publication, eventually published, published with modified authors and title, published with the same title but modified authors, and published with modified title but the same authors. A total of 1245 unsolicited manuscripts submitted from January to December 2014 were included in this retrospective analysis. Data were extracted from the AJR's manuscript submission system. Standard statistical analysis was used to assess the fate of a sample of 200 rejected manuscripts. Of the 200 manuscripts studied, 117 (59%) were published in other scientific journals (61 with revision, 56 without revision; Χ 2 = 0.329, p = 0.566). Thirty-two of the 61 manuscripts (52%) rejected after peer review were later published in other journals without changes in their titles or authors, 16 (26%) with changes only in authors, 10 (16%) with changes only in their titles, and three (5%) with changes in authors and titles. Twenty-six of the 56 manuscripts (46%) rejected without peer review were published without changes in their titles or authors, 17 (30%) with changes in authors, 11 (20%) with changes only in their titles, and two (4%) with changes in both authors and titles (p = 0.686). Ten articles were published in open access journals. Of the remaining articles, those that had been reviewed were published in journals with a mean impact factor ± SD of 2.37 ± 1.30, and those that had not been reviewed were published in journals with a mean impact factor of 2.04 ± 1.06. Analysis of the 25th and 75th percentiles revealed that values were also higher for the group rejected with review (Wilcoxon rank sum test: W = 1679, p = 0.1127). Out of 61 articles rejected for publication with review, 52.5% were published with changes to their abstracts, whereas the remaining 47.5% were unchanged. This analysis
Kamath, Ravindra M
It is important that every citizen knows the law of the state. Psychiatry and law both deal with human behaviour. This paper attempts to highlight the interplay between these two by discussing about various legislations like The Family Courts Act 1984, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985, Juvenile Justice Act 1986, Consumer Protection Act 1986, Persons with Disability Act 1995, The Maintenance and Welfare of Senior Citizens Act 2007.
Kamath, Ravindra M.
It is important that every citizen knows the law of the state. Psychiatry and law both deal with human behaviour. This paper attempts to highlight the interplay between these two by discussing about various legislations like The Family Courts Act 1984, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985, Juvenile Justice Act 1986, Consumer Protection Act 1986, Persons with Disability Act 1995, The Maintenance and Welfare of Senior Citizens Act 2007. PMID:25838729
Uvais, N. A.
Background: The belief that jinn can cause mental illness in human through afflictions or possession is widely accepted among Muslims. Belief about jinn in Muslim medical professionals, especially medical doctors has not been studied till date. Aim: To explore the belief among Muslim doctors regarding jinn and psychiatry. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among Muslim doctors using a study questionnaire. Results: Majority of the participants believed in the existence...
Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw; Kendler, Kenneth S.
Psychiatric and psychological practice and research is critically dependent on diagnosis. Yet the nature of psychiatric diagnosis and the rules by which disorders should be created and organized have been highly controversial for over 100 years. Unlike simple medical disorders (like infectious di......, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science....
Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw; Kendler, Kenneth S.
Psychiatric and psychological practice and research is critically dependent on diagnosis. Yet the nature of psychiatric diagnosis and the rules by which disorders should be created and organized have been highly controversial for over 100 years. Unlike simple medical disorders (like infectious di......, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science....
Corso, Silvia J Franco; Delgado, Marta Beatriz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos
Scientific advances and the complexity of human knowledge generate a constant need for creating new tools intended to facilitate learning in an agreeable and lasting form. Simulated patients are one of such tools in medical education. Standardized or simulated patients are actors or people vigorously trained to represent a medical history or, if possible, specific physical findings with the purpose of using such representations as an educational and evaluating supplement in clinic practice. The use of simulated patients has been very well received, particularly in the psychiatric field; however, its usefulness in areas such as psychotherapy or evaluation of residents remains questionable. A search was made in PubMed with the MESH words ("Psychiatry/education" and "Patient Simulation"); a search was also made in LILACS and scholar Google using similar words. Simulated patients are widely used throughout the world in the psychiatry field and their usefulness as an academic tool for pre-graduate students is confirmed in most of the literature reviewed. One of the main benefits of the use of this kind of patients is the acquisition of specific abilities (e.g.: medical history recording); nevertheless, its efficacy in more complex experiences like psychotherapy or certification of psychiatry residents is questioned. Notwithstanding the controversy, most of the literature reviewed confirms the benefits and acceptance of this methodology in the formation of students and psychiatrists. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Dallaghan, Gary Beck; Balon, Richard
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of burnout among Psychiatry clerkship directors. Psychiatry clerkship directors were solicited via email to complete an electronic version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and the Respondent Information Form. Fifty-four out of 110 surveys (49%) were completed. Fourteen percent of respondents scored in the "high exhaustion" category, 21.6% scored in the "low professional efficacy" category, 20.4% scored in the "high cynicism" category, and 15.1% of respondents met threshold for at least two of the three categories. Those who scored in the "low professional efficacy" category reported higher levels of salary support for research, while those who scored in the "high cynicism" category reported lower levels of salary support at a trend level. Those who scored in the "high cynicism" category were younger. Approximately 14-22 percent of psychiatry clerkship directors reported some level of burnout depending on the subscale used. Future studies should aim to better identify those clerkship directors who are at greatest risk for becoming burned out by their educational role and to clarify the link between salary support for research, age, and burnout.
Crippa, José Alexandre S; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Hallak, Jaime E C
To review the main advances related to the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoid compounds in psychiatry. A search was performed in the online databases PubMed, ScieELO, and Lilacs for studies and literature reviews concerning therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in psychiatry, especially cannabidiol, rimonabant, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and their analogues. Cannabidiol was found to have therapeutic potential with antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties, in addition to being effective in other conditions. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and its analogues were shown to have anxiolytic effects in the treatment of cannabis dependence and to function as an adjuvant in the treatment of schizophrenia, although additional studies are necessary to support this finding. Rimonabant was effective in the treatment of the subjective and physiological symptoms of cannabis intoxication and functioned as an adjuvant in the treatment of tobacco addiction. The potential to induce adverse reactions such as depression and anxiety restrained the clinical use of this CB(1) antagonist. Cannabinoids may be of great therapeutic interest to psychiatry; however, further controlled trials are necessary to confirm the existing findings and to establish the safety of such compounds.
Chan, Christopher Yi Wen; Chua, Boon Yiang; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suen, Emily Liew Kai; Lee, Jimmy
This study aims to assess the attitudes and opinions of clinicians practicing in psychiatry toward pharmacogenomic testing, and in so doing elicits possible barriers and risks to employ this technology in patient care. Doctors and pharmacists presently practicing in psychiatry were invited to participate in an anonymous web-based survey. Besides information on participant characteristics and experience in psychiatry, specific themes on pharmacogenomics including self-assessed competency, perceived usefulness in clinical situations, perceived risks and preferred mode of education were evaluated. A total of 81% of respondents believed that pharmacogenomic testing would be useful for identifying suitable treatments and 71% believed that pharmacogenomic testing would be useful for medication intolerance. However, only 46.4% felt competent to order these tests. There were significant differences in responses for gender, doctors versus pharmacists and seniority in position. A total of 94.3% of respondents were concerned about costs and 84.5% were concerned about the lack of clear guidelines on its use. A total of 98.5% of respondents were keen on learning more about the applicability of pharmacogenomics, and the most preferred format of education was a lecture (44.5%). Most clinicians acknowledge the potential of pharmacogenomic testing in clinical practice. However, concerns with regard to its cost-effectiveness and the lack of clear guidelines are possible barriers to its clinical implementation.
West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
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