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Sample records for psychiatry adp nonpsychiatrists

  1. psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and into the 20th century a medical, organic approach to mental illness evolved. ... effective, psychiatry must fit the African cultural pattern.4. South Africa is a .... patient become a more mature and rational person, not merely as well as he once ... patients, for example catharsis following an emotional reliving of the trauma ...

  2. Telepsychiatry clinical decision support system used by non-psychiatrists in remote areas: Validity & reliabilityof diagnostic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Malhotra

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Diagnostic tool showed acceptable to good validity and reliability when used by non-specialists at remote sites. Our findings show that diagnostic tool of the telepsychiatry application has potential to empower non-psychiatrist doctors and paramedics to diagnose psychiatric disorders accurately and reliably in remote sites.

  3. Telepsychiatry clinical decision support system used by non-psychiatrists in remote areas: Validity & reliability of diagnostic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Sharma, Minali; Sharma, Kanu Priya; Malhotra, Akanksha; Upadhyaya, Suneet K.; Margoob, Mushtaq A.; Maqbool, Dar; Jassal, Gopal D.

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: A knowledge-based, logically-linked online telepsychiatric decision support system for diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders was developed and validated. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the application at remote sites when used by non-psychiatrists who underwent a brief training in its use through video-conferencing. Methods: The study was conducted at a nodal telepsychiatry centre, and three geographically remote peripheral centres. The diagnostic tool of application had a screening followed by detailed criteria-wise diagnostic modules for 18 psychiatric disorders. A total of 100 consecutive consenting adult outpatients attending remote telepsychiatry centres were included. To assess inter-rater reliability, patients were interviewed face to face by non-specialists at remote sites using the application (active interviewer) and simultaneously on online application via video-conferencing by a passive assessor at nodal centre. Another interviewer at the nodal centre rated the patient using Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for diagnostic validation. Results: Screening sub-module had high sensitivity (80-100%), low positive predictive values (PPV) (0.10-0.71) but high negative predictive value (NPV) (0.97-1) for most disorders. For the diagnostic sub-modules, Cohen's kappa was >0.4 for all disorders, with kappa of 0.7-1.0 for most disorders. PPV and NPV were high for most disorders. Inter-rater agreement analysis revealed kappa >0.6 for all disorders. Interpretation & conclusions: Diagnostic tool showed acceptable to good validity and reliability when used by non-specialists at remote sites. Our findings show that diagnostic tool of the telepsychiatry application has potential to empower non-psychiatrist doctors and paramedics to diagnose psychiatric disorders accurately and reliably in remote sites. PMID:29265020

  4. Specialized Training on Addictions for Physicians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontchev, Gramen V.; Housel, Timothy R.; Callahan, James F.; Kunz, Kevin B.; Miller, Michael M.; Blondell, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States accredited residency programs in addiction exist only for psychiatrists specializing in addiction psychiatry (ADP); nonpsychiatrists seeking training in addiction medicine (ADM) can train in nonaccredited "fellowships," or can receive training in some ADP programs, only to not be granted a certificate of completion of…

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some ...

  6. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ... World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association ...

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine ... American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of ...

  9. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ... More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists ...

  10. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a diagnosis, and to work with patients to develop treatment plans. Specific diagnoses are based on criteria ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ...

  11. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  12. Computational Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  13. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry

  14. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  15. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the ... practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. The first year of residency training is ...

  16. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry ...

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the ...

  18. Transcultural psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vikash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last half of the century the researchers have placed a great deal of importance on brain behavior relations. This has brought upon a huge body of knowledge but unfortunately at the cost of culture - the true roots of much of our behaviour. This general disregard of cultural factors has not only led to false generalizations but has also blocked the understanding of the real forces that motivate and shape our perceptions, attitudes, and actions. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight the trajectory of transcultural psychiatry, right from the conceptions of its idea, through flaws in methodology, assessment, treatment and to its future and its limitations.

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. The first year of ... psychiatrists also complete additional specialized training after their four years of general psychiatry training. They may become ...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD) More Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine ... symptoms and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. What Treatments Do Psychiatrists Use? Psychiatrists use a variety ...

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, ... of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of ...

  2. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on ... Light therapy is used to treat seasonal depression. Psychiatric Training To become a psychiatrist, a person must ...

  3. TOWARDS AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.W.M.

    The situation of present day psychiatry is described as being dominated by an empiricist perspective. The limitations of this perspective are analyzed and a rough sketch of the hermeneutical approach in psychiatry is offered. It is argued that a fully developed hermeneutical psychiatry implies a

  4. Studying Catabolism of Protein ADP-Ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Luca; James, Dominic I; Waddell, Ian D; Ahel, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Protein ADP-ribosylation is a conserved posttranslational modification that regulates many major cellular functions, such as DNA repair, transcription, translation, signal transduction, stress response, cell division, aging, and cell death. Protein ADP-ribosyl transferases catalyze the transfer of an ADP-ribose (ADPr) group from the β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD + ) cofactor onto a specific target protein with the subsequent release of nicotinamide. ADP-ribosylation leads to changes in protein structure, function, stability, and localization, thus defining the appropriate cellular response. Signaling processes that are mediated by modifications need to be finely tuned and eventually silenced and one of the ways to achieve this is through the action of enzymes that remove (reverse) protein ADP-ribosylation in a timely fashion such as PARG, TARG1, MACROD1, and MACROD2. Here, we describe several basic methods used to study the enzymatic activity of de-ADP-ribosylating enzymes.

  5. Preventive psychiatry: Current status in contemporary psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chadda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive psychiatry is one of the most ignored subdiscipline of psychiatry, which has got important role to play in the contemporary psychiatry. Mental disorders are very common with lifetime prevalence of about 25%, and tend to be chronic. Due to the stigma associated with mental disorders, lack of awareness, and also lack of adequate mental health resources, nearly 60%–80% of the persons suffering from mental disorders do not access mental health care services. Mental and substance use disorders have been identified as one of the major contributors to the disease-related burden and disability-adjusted life years. In this background, preventive psychiatry has an important role to play in public health sector. Since etiology of most of the mental disorders is not known, it is not possible to follow here the standard model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of public health. A concept of universal, selective, and indicated prevention has been proposed in primary prevention. Preventive approaches in psychiatry focus on evidence-based risk and protective factors, promoting quality of life, reducing stressors, and improving resilience. Such interventions, when planned targeting at specific mental disorders, have a potential to prevent mental disorders. Thus, preventive psychiatry has a crucial role to play in mental health, considering the high prevalence of mental disorders, the associated disability and burden, and a great drain on human resources.

  6. Hamlet and psychiatry intertwined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Sarah

    2018-05-01

    This article considers selected landmarks in the history of psychiatry and their impact on Hamlet productions, including Burton's Anatomy of Melancholia, Emil Kraepelin's manic-depression, Freud's oedipal complex and R.D. Laing's 'divided self'. Additionally, this article considers the way Shakespeare's Hamlet has influenced the course of psychiatry. The linkages between psychiatry and Hamlet have existed since the 17th century, and perhaps Shakespeare's Hamlet should have a place on every psychiatrist's shelf.

  7. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. ADP-ribosyl-N₃: A Versatile Precursor for Divergent Syntheses of ADP-ribosylated Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjun; Li, Qianqian; Ding, Shengqiang; Xin, Pengyang; Zhang, Yuqin; Huang, Shenlong; Zhang, Guisheng

    2017-08-14

    Adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADP-ribose) and its derivatives play important roles in a series of complex physiological procedures. The design and synthesis of artificial ADP-ribosylated compounds is an efficient way to develop valuable chemical biology tools and discover new drug candidates. However, the synthesis of ADP-ribosylated compounds is currently difficult due to structural complexity, easily broken pyrophosphate bond and high hydrophilicity. In this paper, ADP-ribosyl-N₃ was designed and synthesized for the first time. With ADP-ribosyl-N₃ as the key precursor, a divergent post-modification strategy was developed to prepare structurally diverse ADP-ribosylated compounds including novel nucleotides and peptides bearing ADP-ribosyl moieties.

  9. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric ...

  10. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ing of research on every aspect of psychiatry. A few areas where Australian research has achieved interna- tional recognition include the classification of depression, the concept of abnormal illness behaviour, treatment of anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and perinatal psychiatry. In the past it was common ...

  11. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © ...

  12. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © ...

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and ... Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 ...

  14. Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry publishes original scientific papers, review articles, short reports and opinion papers in all areas of psychiatry and related fields, such as sociology, applied anthropology and neurosciences. Vol 14, No 1 (2016). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  15. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric ...

  16. History of psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2 Internal... TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(k)-2 ADP test. (a) Actual deferral percentage (ADP) test—(1) In general—(i) ADP test formula. A cash or deferred arrangement satisfies the ADP...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and insomnia. Hypnotics – used to induce and maintain sleep. Mood stabilizers – used to treat bipolar disorder. Stimulants – ... psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is the Difference Between a Psychiatrist and Psychologist? A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological data, to make a diagnosis, and to work with ... PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric Association. All ...

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Annual Meeting Goldwater Rule Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In ...

  2. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information specifically addressed to individuals in the European Economic Area. As described in the Privacy Policy, this ... training, most psychiatrists take a voluntary written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry ...

  3. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illnesses and the relationships with genetics and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological data, to make ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and ... most psychiatrists take a voluntary written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry and ...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other medical illnesses and the relationships with genetics and family history, to evaluate medical and psychological ... PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Copyright Contact © 2018 American Psychiatric Association. All ...

  6. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mental disorders with psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association ...

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... become a psychiatrist, a person must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state ... A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline ... or troubling symptoms so the patient can function better. Depending on the extent of the problem, treatment ...

  9. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC ...

  10. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC Meetings Search ...

  11. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychiatric medications can help correct imbalances in brain chemistry that are thought to be involved in some ... additional specialized training after their four years of general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child ...

  12. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join APA General Members Residents and Fellows Medical Students International Become a Fellow APA Sites APA Publishing APA Foundation APA Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace ...

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency ...

  14. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC ...

  15. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  16. [Can psychiatry become neuropsychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosarczyk, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    Today more and more often there are prognoses that in the future psychiatry will have been absorbed by neurology. It would be thanks to the stormy progress of research on the neurophysiological, genetic and molecular foundations of mental disorders. The aim of the article is to assess the possibility as well as the supposed consequences of such an evolution of psychiatry. The considerations concern the peculiarity of the object of interest and the methods used in psychiatry in relation to the neurological object and methodology. This way the appraisal of raison d'etre of one common science: neuropsychiatry becomes possible. The question of fundamental importance for the evaluation of similarities and differences between the psychiatric and neurological perspectives is the way the psychophysical issue and especially the problem of the mind-brain relation are approached. The article presents the manners of solving these problems proposed by the contemporary philosophy of the mind. Together with parting with the full of errors and simplifications heritage of Descartes it appears the necessity to regard the presence of subjective mental states both conscious and unconscious in model of mind-brain relation. The example of such a solution is the biological naturalism of John Searle. The psychical life of the man in its subjective dimension remains the peculiar area of interests for psychiatry irrespective of the progress in research on the biological base of mental disorders. The especially valuable cognitive and therapeutic tool in this aspect is psychotherapy constituting the integral part of psychiatry. The present state of knowledge does not indicate that the psychotherapeutic wing of psychiatry can lose its importance and rather somewhat the contrary. The progress of neurobiology does not have to threaten the autonomy of psychiatry by any means and the maintenance of this autonomy depends decisively on the psychiatrists themselves.

  17. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  18. [Gottfried Benn and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, N

    1994-04-01

    As a young physician the poet Gottfried Benn (1886-1956) gave up a promising career in psychiatry after short period in practice. A psychodynamic analysis of this failure stresses the importance of the relationship of father and son in adolescence for the maturing of ego identity and ego ideal. At the beginning of this century psychiatry was a medical field with strong materialistic and biologistic positions. Benn embraced this position and tried to distance himself from his father, who was a charismatic priest with psychotherapeutic ambition. Benn experienced difficulty in competing with his father and this can be attributed to disturbances in his relationship to his mother in early childhood. The consequence was e.g. a narcissistic vulnerability in adulthood. The contrast of the splendid success in brain research with its inapplicability in routine therapy was characteristic of the state of psychiatry at the time of Benn's failure.

  19. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  20. Anthology of Venezuelan psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Portilla-Geada, Néstor de la; Téllez Pacheco, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Reception of Psychiatry in Venezuela since the 19th Century to the late 20th Century merits a historical approach. The following work proposes to research some of the very origins of Venezuelan psychiatry and its possible influence on contemporary mental health practice. Through documental research, the early works of local authors from the 19th Century through 20th Century finals: Carlos Arvelo, Lisandro Alvarado, Francisco Herrera Luque, Jose Luis Vethencourt and Jose Solanes, are subjected to study. This journey illustrates a descriptive panoramic view which allows to better comprenhend the current state of our psychiatry. In a brief introduction the most important events are described, since the arrival of Pinel's ideas, followed by the early research paperworks published and the beginnings of the academic teachings of this specialty in Venezuela and displaying the main contemporary research groups thorough the country.

  1. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  2. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Shrink rethink: rebranding psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Jim; Barber, Lee; Masson, Neil

    2017-11-01

    Negative public attitudes towards psychiatry hinder individuals coming for treatment and prevent us from attracting and retaining the very brightest and best doctors. As psychiatrists we are skilled in using science to change the thoughts and behaviours of individuals, however, we lack the skills to engage entire populations. Expertise in this field is the preserve of branding, advertising and marketing professionals. Techniques from these fields can be used to rebrand psychiatry at a variety of levels from national recruitment drives to individual clinical interactions between psychiatrists and their patients. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  4. Toward a unified nomenclature for mammalian ADP-ribosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottiger, Michael O; Hassa, Paul O; Lüscher, Bernhard; Schüler, Herwig; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2010-04-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases. It comprises the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD+ to specific amino acid residues on substrate proteins or to ADP-ribose itself. Currently, 22 human genes encoding proteins that possess an ADP-ribosyltransferase catalytic domain are known. Recent structural and enzymological evidence of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) family members demonstrate that earlier proposed names and classifications of these proteins are no longer accurate. Here we summarize these new findings and propose a new consensus nomenclature for all ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) based on the catalyzed reaction and on structural features. A unified nomenclature would facilitate communication between researchers both inside and outside the ADP-ribosylation field. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ADP Security Plan, Math Building, Room 1139

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.

    1985-08-27

    This document provides the draft copy of an updated (ADP) Security Plan for an IBM Personal Computer to be used in the Math Building at PNL for classified data base management. Using the equipment specified in this document and implementing the administrative and physical procedures as outlined will provide the secure environment necessary for this work to proceed.

  6. Dielectric, thermal and mechanical properties of ADP doped PVA composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Jagadish; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ravindrachary, V.; Rathod, Sunil G.; Sheela, T.; Naik, Ishwar

    2015-06-01

    Polymer composites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), doped with different concentrations of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) has been prepared by solution casting. The formation of complexation between ADP and PVA was confirmed with the help of Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows thermal stability of the prepared composites. Impedance analyzer study revealed the increase in dielectric constant and loss with increase the ADP concentration and the strain rate of the prepared composites decreases with ADP concentration.

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rule Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... A – Z Ask An Expert Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Coping After Disaster, Trauma Internet Gaming Share ...

  9. Psychiatry and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Pasha, Mohamed Iqbal

    2004-12-01

    To explore psychiatry in Islam, with a view to informing Western psychiatrists working with Islamic patients, and Islamic medical students studying in Western countries. The first necessary step was to acquire some understanding of Islam, Sharia and Sharia law, as the basis on which the available psychiatric literature was considered. Standard textbooks on Islam and English-language papers in the psychiatric literature were examined. Discussions with knowledgeable Muslim people were conducted. Islam shares roots with the other Abrahamic, monotheistic religions: Judaism and Christianity. A central issues is unity: the unity of God, unity with God and unity within the Islamic community. Islam is more than a religion, because it informs all aspects of behaviour and has been described as 'a comprehensive way of life'. Individualism is less important than the welfare of the community. The Sharia is a list of rules and regulations derived from authentic sources. Psychiatric services in Islam, according to Western standards, are somewhat limited. This issue is being addressed through epidemiological studies, provision of new services and policy development. Although mental health legislation is not universal, forensic psychiatry has a role, in many ways similar to that in the West. Islam is based on unity and core values of compassion, justice and benevolence. Islamic psychiatry has a proud early history, and advances are occurring. There is an opportunity for the profession of psychiatry to bridge religious, ethnic and cultural boundaries.

  10. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and ... panic disorder, PTSD, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, borderline personality disorder and eating disorders. Antipsychotic medications – used to ...

  11. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  12. Sacred radical of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L

    2007-08-01

    At least a dozen articles in this journal have referred directly to the psychiatry of Thomas Szasz, even favourably on occasions. Szasz makes no distinction between the occupational statuses of mental health workers and so his work is relevant to nurses. Szasz's central claims take on renewed vitality given recent developments in forensic care, especially in Britain. In this article, I criticize Szasz's rationale of what constitutes illness as opposed to disease. In addition, I question - in a nuanced way - his views on custodial psychiatry and his use of history to bolster his clams. I also comment on recent developments in biological research and their implications for diagnosing schizophrenia: further, I link the question of such diagnoses to Szasz's assertion that private contracts are the definitive test of what counts as mental illness. Lastly, I ask if improvements in mental health care contradict Szaszian criticisms and/or his seeming inability/unwillingness to acknowledge such changes.

  13. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to p...

  14. Reflections on contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRILL, N Q

    1956-11-01

    Valid data on the effectiveness of preventive programs in psychiatry are badly needed but cannot be obtained until reliable statistics on incidence and frequency of emotional disorders are available. There is a suggestion that clear cut neuroses are less frequent but an equally strong suggestion that psychosomatic disorders are increasing in frequency. There is a tendency to look upon the increasing freedom of some aspects of our culture as a great advance over Victorian rigidity and restraint-but to what extent is this related to seeming increases in delinquency?Parents seem to have become increasingly fearful of disciplining, training or frustrating children as a result of what is considered psychiatric teaching. Psychiatry has the responsibility for correcting such a misunderstanding. Psychotherapists who have not resolved their own dependency needs are in no position to help others with the dependency problems which underlie their neurotic difficulties. Psychotherapy involves more than just arranging the world to accommodate itself to the patient (which occasionally needs to be done). The patient too, has a responsibility for his illness and its treatment and must learn that life is characterized by the need to take some chances, by dangers, difficulties, frustrations and unknowns, as well as pleasures, safety, comfort and the familiar. The responsibility for meeting the need for psychiatric services belongs to all of medicine and not just to psychiatry.

  15. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  16. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  17. [Forensic psychiatry. Its relations to clinical psychiatry and criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, H-L

    2005-11-01

    A basic task of psychiatry is to identify and treat mentally disordered persons at risk of committing crimes. Psychiatry has an important function in preserving social peace, law, and order. How the psychiatric world handles this duty has changed with time. There have been very important changes from asylums to mental hospitals and from voluntary or involuntary inpatient treatment to outpatient care; but clinical psychiatry cannot give up forensic psychiatry. As a result of developments, inpatient care in mental hospitals often concentrates on crisis management, risk assessment, and risk management. On the other hand, forensic psychiatry has made great efforts in recent decades with special therapies for mentally disturbed criminals and collaborated closely with criminologists in developing instruments for risk assessment and prognosis of repeat offenses.

  18. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  19. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  20. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barocka, A.; Feistel, H.; Ebert, D.; Lungershausen, E.

    1993-01-01

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D 2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.) [de

  1. Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignais, P V; Vignais, P M; Defaye, G; Lauquin, G; Doussiere, J; Chabert, J; Brandolin, G

    1972-05-01

    From international conference on mechanism in bioenergetica; Bari, Italy (1 May 1972). Two specific inhibitors of the adenine nucleotide translocation, gummiferin (GUM), identified to 4-carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside (ATR), were labeled with /sup 35/S and their binding properties to whole mitochondria and inner mitochondrial membrane vesicles used to monitor changes of membrane conformation induced by ADP. (auth)

  2. ADP Analysis project for the Human Resources Management Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tureman, Robert L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The ADP (Automated Data Processing) Analysis Project was conducted for the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) of NASA's Langley Research Center. The three major areas of work in the project were computer support, automated inventory analysis, and an ADP study for the Division. The goal of the computer support work was to determine automation needs of Division personnel and help them solve computing problems. The goal of automated inventory analysis was to find a way to analyze installed software and usage on a Macintosh. Finally, the ADP functional systems study for the Division was designed to assess future HRMD needs concerning ADP organization and activities.

  3. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  4. [Ethical dilemmas of contemporary psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Pozgain, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Ethics in the contemporary psychiatry, as well as in medicine in general, is based on the two core ethical traditions: deontological and theological. Good ethical decision takes into the consideration both traditions, and is preceded with ethical dilemmas to provide the best possible care to the patients in that moment. In the article are presented most recent research results of the literature about ethical dilemmas in psychiatry. Ethical dilemmas in everyday practice as well as compliance with the patients, psychiatric consultations, informed consent, treatment of personality disorders, pharmacological investigations, forensic psychiatry, forced hospitalisation, promotion of mental health, and dealing with the stigma of the mental diseases are showed in the article. The authors emphasize the necessity of constant questioning of ethical dilemmas in the contemporary psychiatry, because of the special status of psychiatry as a potentially risky field in practice, and because of intensive pharmacological investigations in psychiatric patients.

  5. [Towards a molecular psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J R

    1988-06-01

    Recent research data from psychopharmacology, brain imaging and molecular genetics support the notion of a new psychiatric frontier: that of molecular psychiatry. Identification of different subtypes of neurotransmitter receptors and their changes in density and sensitivity in response to endogenous ligands and/or psychotropic drugs may account for the clinical expression of various behavioral phenomena, including some psychiatric disorders. Brain imaging, in particular positron-emission tomographic evaluations, are likely to change psychiatric nosology. New diagnostic elements derived from these scanners will allow to associate psychotic states to neuroreceptor changes. Molecular genetics has shown that bipolar affective disorder can be caused by a single gene. A strong linkage seems to exist between a gene locus on chromosome 11 and bipolar illness. An amyloid gene located on chromosome 21 has also been shown to be strongly related to familial Alzheimer's disease. While genetic heterogeneity limits the screening value of these findings, the powerful techniques of molecular biology have entered the field of psychiatry. Ethical issues regarding DNA immortality, gene cloning and gene therapy will strengthen this relationship.

  6. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. [Social neuroscience and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    The topics of emotion, decision-making, and consciousness have been traditionally dealt with in the humanities and social sciences. With the dissemination of noninvasive human neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and the advancement of cognitive science, neuroimaging studies focusing on emotions, social cognition, and decision-making have become established. I overviewed the history of social neurosciences. The emerging field of social brain research or social neuroscience will greatly contribute to clinical psychiatry. In the first part. I introduced our early fMRI studies on social emotions such as guilt, embarrassment, pride, and envy. Dysfunction of social emotions can be observed in various forms of psychiatric disorder, and the findings should contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions. In the second part, I introduced our recent interdisciplinary neuroscience approach combining molecular neuroimaging techniques(positron emission tomography: PET), cognitive sciences, and economics to understand the neural as well as molecular basis of altered decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders. An interdisciplinary approach combing molecular imaging techniques and cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychiatry will provide new perspectives for understanding the neurobiology of impaired decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders and drug development.

  8. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  9. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouanneau, Y.; Roby, C.; Meyer, C.M.; Vignais, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, nitrogenase is regulated by a reversible covalent modification of Fe protein or dinitrogenase reductase (Rc2). The linkage of the modifying group to inactive Rc2 was found to be sensitive to alkali and to neutral hydroxylamine. Complete release of the modifying group was achieved by incubation of inactive Rc2 in 0.4 or 1 M hydroxylamine. After hydroxylamine treatment of the Rc2 preparation, the modifying group could be isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The modifying group comigrated with ADP-ribose on both ion-exchange HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. Analyses by 31 P NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provided further evidence that the modifying group was ADP-ribose. The NMR spectrum of inactive Rc2 exhibited signals characteristic of ADP-ribose; integration of these signals allowed calculation of a molar ration ADP-ribose/Rc2 of 0.63. A hexapeptide carrying the ADP-ribose moiety was purified from a subtilisin digest of inactive Rc2. The structure of this peptide, determined by amino acid analysis and sequencing, is Gly-Arg(ADP-ribose)-Gly-Val-Ile-Thr. This structure allows identification of the binding site for ADP-ribose as Arg 101 of the polypeptide chain of Rc2. It is concluded that nitrogenase activity in R. capsulatus is regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginyl residue of dinitrogenase reductase

  10. The Multiple Effect of Agricultural Development Programme's (ADP's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper determined the multiplier effects of the use of Small Plot Adoption Technique (SPAT) by the Abia ADP on the income of Smallholder farmers in Abia State. The choice of Abia ADP for this research was purposive. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used in the selection of blocks, circles, 300 contact ...

  11. MRI in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulert, Christoph; Shenton, Martha E.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  12. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  13. [Data science in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, F E; Menger, V; Hagoort, K

    The information society is digitalising at a fast pace. New technology enables the collection of real life and real time information from sources that were inaccessible before. This creates an inordinate amount of dynamic data and, consequently, opportunities to introduce new insights and improvement of treatment in the field of psychiatry. AIM: To clarify the definition of big data and how a big data approach can reform care into a data driven, patient oriented dynamic system which is constantly learning. METHOD: Brief description of a pilot effected at the UMC Utrecht where the Cross Industry Standard Process for Interactive Data Mining (CRISP-IDM) was performed and description of applications in the future. RESULTS: The described approach and examples from literature show that there are possibilities to realise quick improvements in practice and implement new insights from existing data sources. CONCLUSION: Introduction of data science in psychiatric practice offers new prospects.

  14. Computational neurology and psychiatry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Basabdatta; Cochran, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research in computational methods for modeling and simulating brain disorders. In particular, it shows how mathematical models can be used to study the relationship between a given disorder and the specific brain structure associated with that disorder. It also describes the emerging field of computational psychiatry, including the study of pathological behavior due to impaired functional connectivity, pathophysiological activity, and/or aberrant decision-making. Further, it discusses the data analysis techniques that will be required to analyze the increasing amount of data being generated about the brain. Lastly, the book offers some tips on the application of computational models in the field of quantitative systems pharmacology. Mainly written for computational scientists eager to discover new application fields for their model, this book also benefits neurologists and psychiatrists wanting to learn about new methods.

  15. MRI in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology

    2014-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  16. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  17. Leptin and psychiatry | Moosa | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 3 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. [Concepts of inhibition in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auroux, Y; Bourrat, M M; Brun, J P

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical approach, the authors first describe the original development of the concept of inhibition in neurophysiology and then analyze the subsequent adaptations made in psychiatry around such concept including those of: -- Pavlov, Hull, Watson and the behaviorists, -- Freud and the Freudian School, -- clinicians and psychopharmacologists. The concept of inhibition has thus various meanings in psychiatry. Although some unity is achieved on the semiological level, this aspect cannot explain the extent of the process.

  19. State of psychiatry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2012-01-01

    of common mental disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 'new' diagnostic groups are represented in the treatment statistics with steeply increasing incidences, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders, especially in the outpatient part...... to the somatic specialities, handicapping development in psychiatry. Action has been taken to increase research activity in psychiatry. This is facilitated by an increasing interest among medical students and young graduate physicians attracted by the neuropsychiatric paradigm, rapidly implemented in Danish...

  20. Poly-ADP-ribosylation of proteins responds to cellular perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, F.H.A.; Sharan, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    From the results presented above it is quite obvious that poly-ADP-ribosylation reaction is a sensitive parameter to monitor cellular responses to a wide variety of perturbations. Having developed a monolayer assay system using 32 P-NAD + as a marker, it has become possible to measure levels of cellular ADP-ribosylation more precisely. It has been demonstrated that the trigger of poly-ADP-ribosylation reaction may involve different cellular components for different perturbations. In this, membrane has been found to be important. The study has been particularly informative in the realm of DNA damage and repair following qualitatively different radiation assaults. As poly-ADP-ribosylation in eukaryotic cells primarily affects chromosomal proteins, notably histones, the reaction is strongly triggered in response to single and double strand breaks in DNA. Therefore, level of cellular poly-ADP-ribosylation can potentially be used as a biosensor of radiation induced strand breaks and can be specially useful in clinical monitoring of progress of radiotherapy. The assay of poly-ADP-ribosylation, however, requires use of radiolabelled tracer, e.g. 32 P-NAD + . Due to this, study of poly-ADP-ribosylation can not be extended to monitor effects of incorporated radionuclides. In order to overcome this shortcoming and to make the assay more sensitive and quick, a Western blot immunoassay has been developed. The preliminary indications are that the immunoassay of poly-ADP-ribosylation will fulfil the requirements to use poly-ADP-ribosylation as a sensitive, convenient and clinically applicable biosensor of cell response not only to radiations but also to different perturbations. (orig.)

  1. Spectrographic study of neodymium complexing with ATP and ADP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlova, I.E.; Dobrynina, N.A.; Martynenko, L.N.

    1989-01-01

    By spectrographic method neodymium complexing with ATP and ADP in aqueous solutions at different pH values has been studied. The composition of the complexes was determined by the method of isomolar series. On the basis of analysis of absorption spectra it has been ascertained that at equimolar ratio of Nd 3+ and ATP absorption band of L278A corresponds to monocomplex, and the band of 4290 A - to biscomplex. For the complexes with ADP the absorption band of 4288 A is referred to bicomplexes. The character of ATP and ADP coordination by Nd 3+ ion is considered. Stability constants of the complexes are calculated

  2. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  4. Psychiatry and movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions.

  5. Nuclear medicine in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Slawek, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the same way that the symptoms between different diseases in psychiatry overlap, functional brain research frequently shows the same pattern of changes across diagnostic borders; on the other hand, many the other tests, e.g. psychological tests, present the same problem as mentioned above; therefore: The psychiatrist seldom applies to an NM specialist to obtain a diagnosis; instead, a nuclear medicine report will rather confirm, or less frequently exclude, the psychiatrist's diagnosis. Ideally, psychiatric patients should be rescanned after the treatment, and changes in perfusion and/or metabolism discussed between psychiatrist and NM specialist. As shown above, there are few practical applications of nuclear medicine due to low specificity and low spatial resolution, although in the aspect of functional imaging it is still superior to CT/MRI, even in their functional modalities. On the other hand, its investigational potential is still growing, as there is no imaging technique in sight which could replace metabolic and receptor studies, and also because the scope of functional imaging in psychiatric diseases is spreading from its traditional applications, like dementia or depression, towards many poorly investigated fields e.g. hypnosis, suicidal behaviour or sleep disorders. (author)

  6. Incorporating active learning in psychiatry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sonia; McLean, Loyola; Nash, Louise; Trigwell, Keith

    2017-06-01

    We aim to summarise the active learning literature in higher education and consider its relevance for postgraduate psychiatry trainees, to inform the development of a new Formal Education Course (FEC): the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) at the University of Sydney. We undertook a literature search on 'active learning', 'flipped classroom', 'problem-based learning' and 'psychiatry education'. The effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in higher education is well supported by evidence; however, there have been few psychiatry-specific studies. A new 'flipped classroom' format was developed for the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry). Postgraduate psychiatry training is an active learning environment; the pedagogical approach to FECs requires further evaluation.

  7. D.C. electrical conductivity measurements on ADP single crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Impurity added ADP crystals; density; electrical conductivity measurements. 1. Introduction ... determined by the intrinsic defects caused by thermal fluctuations in the ... beaker (corning glass vessel) and allowed to equilibrate at the desired ...

  8. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  9. Communication skills in psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel

    2015-08-01

    Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  10. Psychological medicine and the future of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Psychological medicine (liaison psychiatry) aims to integrate psychiatry into other areas of medicine. It is currently enjoying considerable expansion. The degree to which it can take advantage of this opportunity will be important not only for its own future, but also for the survival of psychiatry as a medical discipline.

  11. Psychiatry in Australia | Kaplan | South African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  12. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  13. South African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal is the leading psychiatric journal of Africa. It provides open-access scholarly reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and all with an interest in mental health. It carries empirical and conceptual research articles, reviews, editorials, and scientific letters related to psychiatry. It publishes work from various ...

  14. Which future for social psychiatry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros A.

    2008-01-01

    Social psychiatry started over a century ago under the auspices of mental and racial hygiene, but after World War II it embraced concepts of community-based care and de-institutionalization. The major psychiatric reforms in the second half of the last century were mainly based on such concepts,

  15. Improving Medication Safety in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this controlled, before-and-after study in the Department of Psychiatry in a university hospital in Denmark, was to examine the potential effects and characteristics of nurses reviewing psychiatric patients' medication records to identify potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs...

  16. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  17. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  18. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  19. Molecular characterization of a novel intracellular ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Churamani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ADP-ribosyl cyclases are remarkable enzymes capable of catalyzing multiple reactions including the synthesis of the novel and potent intracellular calcium mobilizing messengers, cyclic ADP-ribose and NAADP. Not all ADP-ribosyl cyclases however have been characterized at the molecular level. Moreover, those that have are located predominately at the outer cell surface and thus away from their cytosolic substrates.Here we report the molecular cloning of a novel expanded family of ADP-ribosyl cyclases from the sea urchin, an extensively used model organism for the study of inositol trisphosphate-independent calcium mobilization. We provide evidence that one of the isoforms (SpARC1 is a soluble protein that is targeted exclusively to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen when heterologously expressed. Catalytic activity of the recombinant protein was readily demonstrable in crude cell homogenates, even under conditions where luminal continuity was maintained.Our data reveal a new intracellular location for ADP-ribosyl cyclases and suggest that production of calcium mobilizing messengers may be compartmentalized.

  20. Biological Psychiatry Congress 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Temmingh

    2015-08-01

    . Current prescribing practices for obsessive-compulsive disorder in South Africa: Controversies and consensus C Lochner, L Taljaard, D J Stein 16. Correlates of emotional and behavioural problems in children with preinatally acquired HIV in Cape Town, South Africa K-A Louw, N Phillips, JIpser, J Hoare 17. The role of non-coding RNAs in fear extinction S Malan-Muller, L Fairbairn, W M U Daniels, M J S Dashti, E J Oakleley, M Altorfer, J Harvey, S Seedat, J Gamieldien, S M J Hemmings 18. An analysis of the management og HIV-mental illness comorbidity at the psychiatric unit of the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital M L Maodi, S T Rataemane, T Kyaw 19. The identification of novel genes in anxiety disorders: A gene X environment correlation and interaction study N W McGregor, J Dimatelis, S M J Hemmings, C J Kinnear, D J Stein, V Russel, C Lochner 20. Collaborations between conventional medicine and traditional healers: Obstacles and possibilities G Nortje, S Seedat, O Gureje 21. Thought disorder and form perception: Relationships with symptoms and cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia M R Olivier, R Emsley 22. Investigating the functional significance of genome-wide variants associated with antipsychotic treatment response E Ovenden, B Drogemoller, L van der Merwe, R Emsley, L Warnich 23. The moral and bioethical determinants of "futility" in psychiatry W P Pienaar 24. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and volumetry of the amylgdala in social anxiety disorder in the context of early developmental trauma D Rosenstein, A T Hess, J Zwart, F Ahmed-Leitao, E Meintjies, S Seedat 25. Schizoaffective disorder in an acute psychiatric unit: Profile of users and agreement with Operational Criteria (OPCRIT R R Singh, U Subramaney 26. The right to privacy and confidentiality: The ethics of expert diagnosis in the public media and the Oscar Pistorius trial C Smith 27. A birth cohort study in South Africa: A psychiatric perspective D J Stein 28. 'Womb

  1. The dream in contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M F

    2001-03-01

    This article offers selective reviews of cogent sectors of research regarding the dream in contemporary psychiatry. First, the author discusses relatively recent research (1953-1999) on the neurobiology and clinical psychophysiology of dreaming sleep; second, he reviews experimental cognitive neuroscientific studies of perception, emotion, and memory and the putative interrelationships among them in generating dream imagery; and third, he interprets psychoanalytic studies (1900-1999) on related aspects of dreams and the dream process. Exploration for interrelationships among information from these three areas entails discussion of the mind/brain problem. These considerations illuminate some of the logical and interpretive dilemmas that enter into debates about Freud's theory of the dream. The author proposes a preliminary psychobiologic concept of the dream process and discusses, in light of the foregoing considerations, the importance of collaborative research for developing a realistic perspective concerning the proper place of the dream in contemporary psychiatry.

  2. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  3. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  4. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-04-25

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  5. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented.

  6. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry.

  7. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of m...

  8. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  9. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  10. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  11. Niacin, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and genomic stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, G.J.; Stierum, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAM), commonly called niacin, are the dietary precursors for NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which is required for DNA synthesis, as well as for the activity of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1; EC 2.4.2.30) for which NAD+ is the sole

  12. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... benefit computation (including but not limited to all household members' names, addresses, dates of birth...

  13. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  14. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Positive Psychiatry: Its Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.; Rettew, David C.; Boardman, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit non-clinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (e.g., well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom - including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry Interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine, rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall healthcare of the population. PMID:26132670

  16. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  17. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  18. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany)

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  19. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry. Kraniale Computertomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkai, P [Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany); Bogerts, B [Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany)

    1993-08-13

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry. Kernspintomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K. (Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Diagnosis and research in psychiatry are increasingly availing themselves of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In comparison to computed tomography (CT), this offers the combined benefits of no exposure to radiation, high resolution, artefact-free display of structures near bone, and a sharp contrast between the grey and white brain matter, with freedom to select the section. With the exception of very anxious patients, MRI will gradually replace CT scans for a wide range of differential diagnostic investigations. Its superiority in systematic studies of psychiatric patients with discrete cerebral parenchyma lesions is already considered proven. This is illustrated on the basis of research into schizophrenia and alcoholism. (orig.)

  1. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  2. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Shoar, Saeed; Kaviani, Hosein; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Shabani, Amir; Esmaeili, Sara; Moghaddam, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics. Method In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65%) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. Results Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3% and 18.3% before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7%) students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49), and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57). Conclusion It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future career. PMID:23682250

  3. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Amini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics.Method: In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65% completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship.Results: Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3 % and 18.3 % before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7% students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49, and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57.Conclusion: It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future

  4. Symposium cellular response to DNA damage the role of poly(ADP-ribose) poly(ADP-ribose) in the cellular response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a chromatin-bound enzyme which, on activation by DNA strand breaks, catalyzes the successive transfer of ADP-ribose units from NAD to nuclear proteins. Poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is stimulated by DNA strand breaks, and the polymer may alter the structure and/or function of chromosomal proteins to facilitate the DNA repair process. Inhibitors of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase or deficiencies of the substrate, NAD, lead to retardation of the DNA repair process. When DNA strand breaks are extensive or when breaks fail to be repaired, the stimulus for activation of Poly(ADP-ribose) persists and the activated enzyme is capable of totaly consuming cellular pools of NAD. Depletion of NAD and consequent lowering of cellular ATP pools, due to activation of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, may account for rapid cell death before DNA repair takes place and before the genetic effects of DNA damage become manifest

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnosis and research in psychiatry are increasingly availing themselves of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In comparison to computed tomography (CT), this offers the combined benefits of no exposure to radiation, high resolution, artefact-free display of structures near bone, and a sharp contrast between the grey and white brain matter, with freedom to select the section. With the exception of very anxious patients, MRI will gradually replace CT scans for a wide range of differential diagnostic investigations. Its superiority in systematic studies of psychiatric patients with discrete cerebral parenchyma lesions is already considered proven. This is illustrated on the basis of research into schizophrenia and alcoholism. (orig.) [de

  6. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Bogerts, B.

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.) [de

  7. [Dualism and malaise in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebili, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterised by the confrontation of theoretical models, or dualism.The contrast between these trends has always added to the richness of this discipline, from Philippe Pinel to Henri Ey, and from Bénédict-Augustin Morel to Valentin Magnan.Today, we are faced with an epistemological malaise which is the result of the domination of neurosciences. In order to protect against the temptation to allow the domination of one of the theoretical models, a return to dualism is recommended.

  8. Genetics and Psychiatry: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Giada; Juli, Rebecca; Juli, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    Greek mythology and philosophical speculations were the first human productions on madness and psychiatry. Likewise, the origins of genetics sink their roots in a very remote and difficult time. This work tries to give an idea of the relationship between genetics and psychiatry through the myth and reality.

  9. The Psychiatry OSCE: a 20-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Brian D; Hollenberg, Elisa; McNaughton, Nancy; Hanson, Mark D; Regehr, Glenn

    2014-02-01

    Twenty years ago researchers at the University of Toronto launched the Psychiatry Skills Assessment Project (PSAP), a research program exploring Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in psychiatry. Between 1994 and 2005 PSAP produced publications on the feasibility, reliability, validity, ethics, and practical concerns of OSCEs in psychiatry. The current review has two parts: a review of the state of the art of OSCEs in psychiatry 20 years after they were introduced and documentation of the impact of the PSAP research program. A literature search identified all publications on OSCEs and psychiatry. Articles were coded thematically, and locations of agreement and controversies were identified. Bibliometric analysis identified citations of PSAP research papers, which were analyzed thematically. As of May 2013, there were 250 publications related to OSCEs in psychiatry (not including 10 PSAP papers), published in 29 different countries and ten languages. Prominent topics were the validity and acceptability of OSCEs and SPs, systems issues in adopting OSCEs in psychiatry, and the effects on learning. Eighty-eight percent of all publications cited PSAP work (300 citations). Citations were employed for four purposes: as evidence/justification (54 %); to frame replication research (14 %); to support adaptation of OSCEs in other countries and professions (15 %); and for debate (18 %). Over the past 20 years, use of OSCEs has grown steadily in psychiatry, and several national certification organizations have adopted OSCEs. PSAP work, introduced two decades ago, continues to provide a scholarly foundation for psychometric, practical, and ethical issues of interest to this field.

  10. Women and Teaching in Academic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, Laura D.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article explores past, present, and future issues for women and teaching in academic psychiatry. A small study of didactic teaching responsibilities along faculty groups in one academic psychiatry department helps to illustrate challenges and opportunities for women in psychiatric teaching settings. Background: Although women have…

  11. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  12. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  13. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  14. Against explanatory minimalism in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eThornton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticised both as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation respectively and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of level of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  15. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  16. Ethical philanthropy in academic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2006-05-01

    From an ethical perspective, psychiatrists cannot accept gifts of significant monetary value from their patients. This guideline raises important questions regarding institutional practices related to gift-giving in academic psychiatry. The first aim of this article is to explain the ethical tensions and shared ethical commitments of the professions of psychiatry and philanthropy. The second aim is to outline a series of steps that may be undertaken to assure ethical philanthropic practices within an institution, including the establishment of a committed advisory workgroup and the creation of ground rules and safeguards for gift-giving. Each situation should be evaluated for "ethical risk," and specific measures to safeguard donors should be considered. The author outlines methods to manage, minimize, or eliminate conflict of interest issues, including identification and disclosure of conflicting interests, role separation, goal clarification, confidentiality protections, proper timing, and ongoing oversight. Three case illustrations are provided and discussed. The process of institutional engagement, dialogue, and shared problem-solving is especially important. A shared, constructive ethic will be attained only if leaders and diverse stakeholders communicate the value of the new approach through their words, expectations, and actions. Through these efforts, greater attention will be given to the concerns of people with mental illness, and academic institutions may be better able to fulfill their responsibilities to this important but neglected population now and in the future.

  17. [Coercion in Psychiatry - a taboo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Ullrich; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Stippler, Stippler; Wancata, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the discussion concerning coercive measures against mentally ill is as old as psychiatry itself. The dilemma of psychiatry lies in its double role - having both a therapeutic and a regulatory function. Violence against sick and disabled people conflicts with the ethical principles of helping professions. This, however, is where the danger lies: that the violent parts of psychiatric work - which in the opinion of experts cannot be entirely avoided - are repressed or seen as taboo and are therefore more difficult to control. Comparisons between EU countries of the nature, frequency and duration of coercive measures are difficult because of the heterogeneity of regulation and differences in established practice. Scientific examination of this issue seems to be insufficient. There are only a few studies on important issues such as how patients rate these measures. An open and thorough debate about the meaning and meaninglessness of coercion and violence in psychiatric treatment would be necessary to prevent "routine violence" or the excessive use of force against the mentally ill.

  18. Regulation of chromatin structure by poly(ADP-ribosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eBeneke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of DNA with proteins in the context of chromatin has to be tightly regulated to achieve so different tasks as packaging, transcription, replication and repair. The very rapid and transient post-translational modification of proteins by poly(ADP-ribose has been shown to take part in all four. Originally identified as immediate cellular answer to a variety of genotoxic stresses, already early data indicated the ability of this highly charged nucleic acid-like polymer to modulate nucleosome structure, the basic unit of chromatin. At the same time the enzyme responsible for synthesizing poly(ADP-ribose, the zinc-finger protein poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1, was shown to control transcription initiation as basic factor TFIIC within the RNA-polymerase II machinery. Later research focused more on PARP-mediated regulation of DNA repair and cell death, but in the last few years, transcription as well as chromatin modulation has re-appeared on the scene. This review will discuss the impact of PARP1 on transcription and transcription factors, its implication in chromatin remodeling for DNA repair and probably also replication, and its role in controlling epigenetic events such as DNA methylation and the functionality of the insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor.

  19. ADP-ribosylation of transducin by pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, P.A.; Burns, D.L.; Kanaho, Y.; Liu, T.Y.; Hewlett, E.L.; Moss, J.

    1985-01-01

    Transducin, the guanyl nucleotide-binding regulatory protein of retinal rod outer segments that couples the photon receptor, rhodopsin, with the light-activated cGMP phosphodiesterase, can be resolved into two functional components, T alpha and T beta gamma. T alpha (39 kDa), which is [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin and [ 32 P]NAD in rod outer segments and in purified transducin, was also labeled by the toxin after separation from T beta gamma (36 kDa and approximately 10 kDa); neither component of T beta gamma was a pertussis toxin substrate. Labeling of T alpha was enhanced by T beta gamma and was maximal at approximately 1:1 molar ratio of T alpha : T beta gamma. Limited proteolysis by trypsin of T alpha in the presence of guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) resulted in the sequential appearance of proteins of 38 and 32 kDa. The amino terminus of both 38- and 32 -kDa proteins was leucine, whereas that of T alpha could not be identified and was assumed to be blocked. The 32 -kDa peptide was not a pertussis toxin substrate. Labeling of the 38-kDa protein was poor and was not enhanced by T beta gamma. Trypsin treatment of [ 32 P]ADP-ribosyl-T alpha produced a labeled 37-38-kDa doublet followed by appearance of radioactivity at the dye front. It appears, therefore, that, although the 38-kDa protein was poor toxin substrate, it contained the ADP-ribosylation site. Without rhodopsin, labeling of T alpha (in the presence of T beta gamma) was unaffected by Gpp(NH)p, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S), GTP, GDP, and guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) but was increased by ATP. When photolyzed rhodopsin and T beta gamma were present, Gpp(NH)p and GTP gamma S decreased [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. Thus, pertussis toxin-catalyzed [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation of T alpha was affected by nucleotides, rhodopsin and light in addition to T beta gamma

  20. The future of psychiatry as clinical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F; Lewis, David A; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F; Kupfer, David J

    2009-04-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics.The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry's mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management.

  1. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  2. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D 2 ) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D 2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D 2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3 H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3 H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABA A receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D 2 ) and the ion-channel type (GABA A ). (J.P.N.)

  3. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork.

  4. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  5. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addiction treatments. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (n = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program.

  6. [Impact of Anthropologic Psychiatry on Psychiatrie-Enquete and Psychiatric Reform in West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, Felicitas; Becker, Thomas; Fangerau, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Analysis of the perception of effects of anthropological psychiatry on the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Methods Qualitative content analysis of expert interviews and systematic literature search. Results Literary sources and expert interviews point to the impact of the anthropologic concept on discourse on and approach to those suffering from mental illness. The attention focused on the visualisation of material-social and subjective living conditions of persons with mental illness. Reform approaches of anthropological psychiatrists were perceived as a basis for the development of social psychiatry. Academic departments of psychiatry in Frankfurt (Zutt, Kulenkampff) and Heidelberg (von Baeyer, Kisker, Häfner) were considered important centres of innovation and reform. Conclusion The thinking of phenomenological-anthropological psychiatry was understood as a facilitator of the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in West Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Social challenges of contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, N

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail. The remarkable advances in neurosciences, neurobiology and genetics tend to swing the emphasis towards a more biological basis. Psychosis for example is the condition often regarded as being biologically constructed and most independent of the social context. The symptoms, however, of hallucinations and delusions in psychosis have social meaning for the person experiencing them and are primarily defined socially.2 Furthermore, vulnerability is often the result of social trauma, whether in the form of recent stressors that trigger onset, or earlier circumstances that shape cognitive and emotional style. Moreover, the approved treatment and management of long term psychiatric disorders has involved interventions that are either directly social, or psychosocial. Furthermore, doubts have also been raised by the endophenotype project,3 related to the genetics of schizophrenia. Cohen4 suggested that there may be more individual genotypic patterns associated with schizophrenia than people with schizophrenia on the planet. A recent alternative interpretation (network approach) is gaining some support. It suggests that a stressor causes symptoms that activate other symptoms, in a circular, self-reinforcing way.5 This theory moves away from psychiatric disorders being traditionally conceptualised as categorical or dimensional models. While psychiatry has shifted its focus to a more biological approach, social factors still

  8. Will Forensic Psychiatry survive DSM-5?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distorders (DSM-5) will be released in 2013, and if, as anticipated, introduces .... Apart from advertising psychiatry's ... courts, which rely greatly on precedents, but also insurance ... compulsive-impulsive disorders, and on its impact on public.

  9. Psychiatry and psychotherapy: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, J R; Ludwig, A M

    1980-01-01

    The place of psychotherapeutics in psychiatry is again in question. In many ways the situation recapitulates that of the late 19th century when psychotherapeutics first came upon the medical scene. The psychiatric hegemony over psychotherapeutics was the outcome of three fierce internecine "battles", (1) the "medicalization" of psychotherapeutics (1870-1910); (2) securing the psychiatric monopoly of psychotherapeutics (1890-1930); and (3) the "medicalization" of psychoanalysis (1920-1940). Three "revolutions" in psychiatry have occurred, since the stable halcyon 1950s, that have loosened the knot which binds psychotherapeutics to psychiatry. The emergence of specific psychopharmacologic therapies, the resurgence of the laboratory tradition (behaviorism) and the community-mental-health movement have diluted the importance of psychotherapeutics in treatment and widened the therapeutic franchise. In addition, there is evidence that the function of psychotherapeutics in society is itself changing. The future of psychotherapeutics in psychiatry is discussed in light of these developments.

  10. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Francis

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result from these disorders, because these occur mainly within primary care and secondary medical services. Difficulties in diagnosis and a tendency to regard them as purely secondary phenomena of depression, anxiety and related disorders mean that general psychiatry may continue to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. If general psychiatry embraced these disorders more fully, however, it might lead to better prevention and treatment of depression as well as helping to prevent the severe disability that may arise in association with these disorders.

  11. Modern psychiatry – a change in ethics?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-02-17

    Feb 17, 2004 ... dominate their patients' decision making in such circum- stances. Right to die. The right ... ciency of competency and rationality to be allowed to die. .... these settings. In forensic psychiatry, the role of the professional is aimed.

  12. History of psychiatry and the psychiatric profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    The present article reviews the English language literature on the history of psychiatry published within the previous year. Research has been conducted in the history of clinical syndromes, famous people and psychiatrists, psychiatric institutions, treatments and legislations. The importance of the sociocultural contexts has been shown, particularly in research emanating from Europe and North America, which addresses late 18th to late 20th century issues. Much varied and important research on the history of psychiatry is being performed around the world. This scholarship provides insight into the cultural context and ways in which psychiatry was practised in the past and can help shed light on the way in which psychiatry is conducted today.

  13. Why study the history of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R T

    1993-12-01

    The history of psychiatry is being neglected. The major psychiatric textbooks no longer offer any overview of psychiatric history. Possible reasons for this indifference are discussed. It is suggested that a knowledge of our history is not only necessary in a general intellectual sense, but also specifically in enabling us to more easily tolerate the incompleteness and ambiguity of many of our concepts. Furthermore, it may help psychiatry to more convincingly explain the reality and consequences of mental illness to a sceptical public.

  14. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    OpenAIRE

    CREED, FRANCIS

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result fr...

  15. What can philosophy do for psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article illustrates the practical impact of recent developments in the philosophy of psychiatry in five key areas: patient-centred practice, new models of service delivery, neuroscience research, psychiatric education, and the organisation of psychiatry as an international science-led discipline focused on patient care. We conclude with a note on the role of philosophy in countering the stigmatisation of mental disorder. PMID:16633476

  16. Characterization of the catalytic and noncatalytic ADP binding sites of the F1-ATPase from the thermophilic bacterium, PS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Allison, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Two classes of ADP binding sites at 20 degrees C have been characterized in the F1-ATPase from the thermophilic bacterium, PS3 (TF1). One class is comprised of three sites which saturate with [ 3 H]ADP in less than 10 s with a Kd of 10 microM which, once filled, exchange rapidly with medium ADP. The binding of ADP to these sites is dependent on Mg2+. [ 3 H]ADP bound to these sites is removed by repeated gel filtrations on centrifuge columns equilibrated with ADP free medium. The other class is comprised of a single site which saturates with [ 3 H]ADP in 30 min with a Kd of 30 microM. [ 3 H]ADP bound to this site does not exchange with medium ADP nor does it dissociate on gel filtration through centrifuge columns equilibrated with ADP free medium. Binding of [ 3 H]ADP to this site is weaker in the presence of Mg2+ where the Kd for ADP is about 100 microM. [ 3 H]ADP dissociated from this site when ATP plus Mg2+ was added to the complex while it remained bound in the presence of ATP alone or in the presence of ADP, Pi, or ADP plus Pi with or without added Mg2+. Significant amounts of ADP in the 1:1 TF1.ADP complex were converted to ATP in the presence of Pi, Mg2+, and 50% dimethyl sulfoxide. Enzyme-bound ATP synthesis was abolished by chemical modification of a specific glutamic acid residue by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, but not by modification of a specific tyrosine residue with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzofurazan. Difference circular dichroism spectra revealed that the three Mg2+ -dependent, high affinity ADP binding sites that were not stable to gel filtration were on the alpha subunits and that the single ADP binding site that was stable to gel filtration was on one of the three beta subunits

  17. A guide for developing an ADP security plan for Navy Finance Center, Cleveland, Ohio

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Daniel E.; Hodnett, Elwood Thomas, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This paper is intended to be used as a guide by personnel at the Navy Finance Center (NFC) Cleveland, Ohio in developing an Automatic Data Processing (ADP) Security Plan. An effort has been made to combine the requirements for an ADP security plan established by OPNAVINST5239.1A with pertinent information from other selected readings. The importance of the devotion of personnel, time and funds to ADP security planning has been emphas...

  18. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from [ 32 P]NAD + to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and [ 32 P]NAD + caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins

  19. The Future of Psychiatry as Clinical Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Lewis, David A.; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics. The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry’s mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776

  20. Effects of epinephrine on ADP-induced changes in platelet inositol phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, J.D.; Keraly, C.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Epinephrine (EPI) does not aggregate rabbit platelets, but it does increase the labelling of inositol phosphate (IP) at 60s (21%, p + , in platelets prelabelled with [ 3 H] inositol. In contrast, 0.5 μM ADP which causes aggregation, increases the labelling of inositol bisphosphate (IP 2 ) by 30% (p 2 by 154% (p 2 stimulated by ADP + EPI was greater than the increase caused by ADP (p 2 due to 0.2 μM ADP + 0.6 μM EPI by 70% (p 2 by 108% (0 2 metabolism stimulated via the α-adrenergic receptor

  1. Monitoring of radon isotopes and affiliated disintegration products (ADP) in soil air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O. M.; Bogacheva, E. S.; Bouchawach, Fauzi Hadji; Chudakov, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of research is a physic and mathematical model of the process of radon determining in soil air and water by the way of its sampling for absorbent, preparation of a sample to measurement taking, ADP radiometry: Pb- 214, Bi-214 in a sample, calculation of radon activity concentration in an initial medium. The target of research is experimental determining of assignment parameters of devices, used for radon sampling and measurement of its ADP activity in relation to the methods being developed with estimation of their expected metrological performance, analysis of radon and ADP content for ecological research in relation to objectives of radon and ADP monitoring in environmental objects. (author)

  2. Discovery of novel poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors by a quantitative assay system using dot-blot with anti-poly(ADP-ribose)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Naoyuki; Ashizawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Hideaki; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is mainly regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), is a unique protein modification involved in cellular responses such as DNA repair and replication. PARG hydrolyzes glycosidic linkages of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized by PARP and liberates ADP-ribose residues. Recent studies have suggested that inhibitors of PARG are able to be potent anti-cancer drug. In order to discover the potent and specific Inhibitors of PARG, a quantitative and high-throughput screening assay system is required. However, previous PARG assay systems are not appropriate for high-throughput screening because PARG activity is measured by radioactivities of ADP-ribose residues released from radioisotope (RI)-labeled poly(ADP-ribose). In this study, we developed a non-RI and quantitative assay system for PARG activity based on dot-blot assay using anti-poly(ADP-ribose) and nitrocellulose membrane. By our method, the maximum velocity (V max ) and the michaelis constant (k m ) of PARG reaction were 4.46 μM and 128.33 μmol/min/mg, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD), known as a non-competitive PARG inhibitor, was 0.66 μM. These kinetics values were similar to those obtained by traditional PARG assays. By using our assay system, we discovered two novel PARG inhibitors that have xanthene scaffold. Thus, our quantitative and convenient method is useful for a high-throughput screening of PARG specific inhibitors.

  3. Topographic study of the ADP/ATP transport protein. Localization of ADP and atractyloside fixation sites. Identification of the antigenic domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, Francois

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this research thesis were: to determine the intramolecular localisation of binding sites of atractyloside and adenine-nucleotides; to determine whether antibodies obtained against the ADP/ATP carrier protein and isolated from beef heart mitochondria possess a reactivity specific to the organ or the species, where antigenic determinants are localized and whether there is conservation of the antigenic structure from one species to the other; to study how to follow and interpret conformational changes of the protein under the effect of ADP and inhibitors (carboxy-atractyloside or bongkrekic acid), and where the SH group unmasked by ADP and bongkrekic acid is localized [fr

  4. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  5. Attitudes of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: Effects of Training, Courses in Psychiatry, Psychiatric Experience and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Strebel, Bernd; Schilauske, Joerg; Jueptner, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and psychotherapy were examined considering the extent of their education, previous psychiatry experience, the evaluation of the course, their career intentions and socio-demographic variables. Methods: Five hundred and eight medical students in their second, fifth, ninth and tenth…

  6. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  7. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Otte, Andreas; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van

    2014-01-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  8. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  9. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  10. Correlation between increased platelet ADP aggregability and silent brain infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kenichiro; Arimoto, Hirohiko; Shirotani, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between platelet aggregability and silent brain infarcts. The study subjects were 445 people (264 men, 181 women; mean age, 53±14 years) with no neurologic signs, history of brain tumor, trauma, cerebrovascular disease, or antiplatelet medications. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was measured by the aggregation-size analytic method. Platelet aggregability was classified into 9 classes. The presence of headache/vertigo, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or smoking was elicited by questioning or blood sampling. A head MRI scan was performed, and if marked atherosclerosis or obvious stenosis in the intracranial vessels was detected, it was defined as a positive MR angiography (MRA) finding. Silent brain infarcts were detected in 26.3% of subjects. Hyperaggregability defined as that above class 6, 7, and 8 was present in 43.8%, 30.8%, and 15.7% of subjects, respectively. The risk factors for silent brain infarcts by multiple logistic regression analysis were aging, hypertension, positive MRA findings, and hyperaggregability. Platelet ADP hyperaggregability might be a risk factor for silent brain infarcts. (author)

  11. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of ADP crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Chai, Xiangxu; Sun, Yuxiang; Sui, Tingting; Sun, Xun; Xu, Xinguang

    2018-05-01

    By using the Z-scan method, we investigated the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of ADP crystal at different wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm) and different orientations ([001], [100], [110], I and II). The experimental data were fitted by NLO theory, to give out the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient β 2 and the nonlinear refractive index n 2. When the light source changed from a 40 ps, 1064 nm fundamental laser to a 30 ps, 355 nm third-harmonic-generation (THG) laser, the β 2 value increased about 5 times (0.2 × 10‑2 → 1 × 10‑2 cm GW‑1), and the n 2 value increased about 1.5 times (1.5 × 10‑16 → 2.2 × 10‑16 cm2 W‑1). Among all of the orientations, the [110] sample exhibits the smallest β 2, and the second smallest n 2. It indicates that this orientation and its surroundings will be the preferred directions for high-power laser applications of ADP crystal.

  12. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  13. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrer, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.fahrer@uni-ulm.de [Molecular Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz (Germany); Wagner, Silvia [Clinic of General, Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, ZMF, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Buerkle, Alexander [Molecular Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz (Germany); Koenigsrainer, Alfred [Clinic of General, Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, ZMF, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  14. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  15. The Level of AdpA Directly Affects Expression of Developmental Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Masiewicz, Paweł; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpASc) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpASc) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hour...

  16. Effect of ADP on slow-twitch muscle fibres of the rat: implications for muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, W A; Stephenson, D G

    2006-05-15

    Slow-twitch mechanically skinned fibres from rat soleus muscle were bathed in solutions mimicking the myoplasmic environment but containing different [ADP] (0.1 microm to 1.0 mm). The effect of ADP on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-content was determined from the magnitude of caffeine-induced force responses, while temporal changes in SR Ca2+-content allowed determination of the effective rates of the SR Ca2+-pump and of the SR Ca2+-leak. The SR Ca2+-pump rate, estimated at pCa (-log10[Ca2+]) 7.8, was reduced by 20% as the [ADP] was increased from 0.1 to 40 microm, with no further alteration when the [ADP] was increased to 1.0 mm. The SR Ca2+-leak rate constant was not altered by increasing [ADP] from 0.1 to 40 microm, but was increased by 26% when the [ADP] was elevated to 1.0 mm. This ADP-induced SR Ca2+-leak was insensitive to ruthenium red but was abolished by 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (TBQ), indicating that the leak pathway is via the SR Ca2+-pump and not the SR Ca2+-release channel. The decrease in SR Ca2+-pump rate and SR Ca2+-leak rate when [ADP] was increased led to a 40% decrease in SR Ca2+-loading capacity. Elevation of [ADP] had only minor direct effects on the contractile apparatus of slow-twitch fibres. These results suggest that ADP has only limited depressing effects on the contractility of slow-twitch muscle fibres. This is in contrast to the marked effects of ADP on force responses in fast-twitch muscle fibres and may contribute to the fatigue-resistant nature of slow-twitch muscle fibres.

  17. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation.

  18. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, P

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  19. Finnish psychiatry--past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Kari

    2012-03-01

    The history of Finnish psychiatry has been characterized by polarizations: priority in hospitals vs. outpatient care, centralized vs. decentralized organization, independent vs. integrated administration, biological vs. psychological treatments, private vs. public production, special psychiatric policies vs. general health policies. The independent psychiatric organizations on District level lasted from the 1920s until 1990. Since then, the formerly independent psychiatry was subordinated to General Hospital administration and the centralized system of state planning and financing of healthcare was gradually decentralized and run down. During the heavy Finnish economic recession of the early 1990 s, the cuts of the public sector were unfortunately focused most heavily on psychiatric services. The main focus of research and teaching has shifted from earlier emphasis on psychoanalytical approach to biological psychiatry since the late 1980s. The administrative position of psychiatry has been repeatedly changing and unstable during the last 20 years. At the level of the contents of the services, however, there have been many very positive and promising developments. Psychiatry has come closer to other specialties from its formerly isolated position, when the separate administrations have been integrated. Provision of outpatient services has increased remarkably, while the number of hospital beds has decreased radically. Interest and resources in research have increased remarkably, and numerous new and good quality psychiatric research reports are being published.

  20. File list: InP.Adp.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. Effect of heat shock on poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase and DNA repair in Drosophila cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, N.L.; Kidwell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, a chromatin-bound enzyme which attaches polyanionic chains of ADP-ribose to nuclear proteins, was found to be temperature sensitive in intact Drosophila melanogaster cells. The synthetase was completely inactivated by heat-shocking the cells at 37/sup 0/C for 5 min, a condition which had no appreciable effect on the subsequent growth of Drosophila cells at their physiological temperature. The heat-shock effect on synthetase was reversible; enzyme activity began to reappear about 2 hr post heat shock. During the 2-hr interval when poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase was absent, the cells were competent in repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA strand breaks as shown by DNA sedimentation studies on alkaline sucrose gradients. It is thus concluded that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is unnecessary for repair of DNA strand breaks introduced by irradiation. The same conclusion was reached from the fact that two inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase 3-aminobenzamide and 5-methylnicotinamide, failed to block repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA chain breaks even though both inhibitors reduced the amount of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized in cells by 50-75%. Although it was found that the repair of DNA strand breaks is independent of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis, irradiation does activate the synthetase in control cells, as shown by radioimmunoassay of poly(ADP-ribose) levels.

  1. Effect of heat shock on poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase and DNA repair in Drosophila cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, N.L.; Kidwell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, a chromatin-bound enzyme which attaches polyanionic chains of ADP-ribose to nuclear proteins, was found to be temperature sensitive in intact Drosophila melanogaster cells. The synthetase was completely inactivated by heat-shocking the cells at 37 0 C for 5 min, a condition which had no appreciable effect on the subsequent growth of Drosophila cells at their physiological temperature. The heat-shock effect on synthetase was reversible; enzyme activity began to reappear about 2 hr post heat shock. During the 2-hr interval when poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase was absent, the cells were competent in repair of γ-ray-induced DNA strand breaks as shown by DNA sedimentation studies on alkaline sucrose gradients. It is thus concluded that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is unnecessary for repair of DNA strand breaks introduced by irradiation. The same conclusion was reached from the fact that two inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase 3-aminobenzamide and 5-methylnicotinamide, failed to block repair of γ-ray-induced DNA chain breaks even though both inhibitors reduced the amount of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized in cells by 50-75%. Although it was found that the repair of DNA strand breaks is independent of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis, irradiation does activate the synthetase in control cells, as shown by radioimmunoassay of poly(ADP-ribose) levels

  2. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance of a computer system, and whose work is technically reviewed by a higher authority of the ADP-I... agency computer security programs, and also including direction and control of risk analysis and/or... the activities of the individual are not subject to technical review by higher authority in the ADP-I...

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  8. REDUCED THROMBOGENICITY OF VASCULAR PROSTHESES BY COATING WITH ADP-ASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERLEI, B; ROBINSON, PH; BAKKER, WW; Bartels, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this pilot study ADP-ase coated polyurethane (PL) vascular prostheses and noncoated (control) PU vascular prostheses (all vascular prostheses: ID 1.5 mm, length 1,5 cm) were implanted into the carotid artery of the rabbit to test wheter ADP-ase might function as an adequate anti-thrombogenic

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  1. The Dichotomy of the Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase-Like Thermozyme from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Faraone Mennella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first evidence of an ADP-ribosylating activity in Archaea was obtained in Sulfolobus solfataricus(strain MT-4 where a poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-like thermoprotein, defined with the acronymous PARPSso, was found. Similarly to the eukaryotic counterparts PARPSso cleaves beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to synthesize oligomers of ADP-ribose; cross-reacts with polyclonal anti-PARP-1 catalytic site antibodies; binds DNA. The main differences rely on the molecular mass (46.5 kDa and the thermophily of PARPSso which works at 80 °C. Despite the biochemical properties that allow correlating it to PARP enzymes, the N-terminal and partial amino acid sequences available suggest that PARPSso belongs to a different group of enzymes, the DING proteins, an item discussed in detail in this review.This finding makes PARPSso the first example of a DING protein in Archaea and extends the existence of DING proteins into all the biological kingdoms. PARPSsohas a cell peripheral localization, along with the edge of the cell membrane. The ADP-ribosylation reaction is reverted by a poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase-like activity, able to use the eukaryotic poly(ADP-ribose as a substrate too. Here we overview the research of (ADP-ribosylation in Sulfolobus solfataricus in the past thirty years and discuss the features of PARPSso common with the canonical poly(ADP-ribose polymerases, and the structure fitting with that of DING proteins.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaife, R.M. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)); Wilson, L. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)); Purich, D.L. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

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  6. Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase is Involved in the Repair of DNA Damage Due to Sulfur Mustard by a Mechanism Other Than DNA Ligase I Activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhat, K. Ramachandra; Benton, Betty J; Ray, Radharaman

    2004-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) modulates several cellular functional proteins by a mechanism in which the proteins are poly-ADP-ribosylated by transferring the ADP-ribose moieties from the enzyme substrate NAD+ to the proteins...

  7. Crystallographic and biochemical analysis of the mouse poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhi Wang

    Full Text Available Protein poly(ADP-ribosylation (PARylation regulates a number of important cellular processes. Poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG is the primary enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the poly(ADP-ribose (PAR polymer in vivo. Here we report crystal structures of the mouse PARG (mPARG catalytic domain, its complexes with ADP-ribose (ADPr and a PARG inhibitor ADP-HPD, as well as four PARG catalytic residues mutants. With these structures and biochemical analysis of 20 mPARG mutants, we provide a structural basis for understanding how the PAR polymer is recognized and hydrolyzed by mPARG. The structures and activity complementation experiment also suggest how the N-terminal flexible peptide preceding the PARG catalytic domain may regulate the enzymatic activity of PARG. This study contributes to our understanding of PARG catalytic and regulatory mechanisms as well as the rational design of PARG inhibitors.

  8. Factors influencing French medical students towards a career in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Olivier; Guicherd, William; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Bonin, Bernard; Seed, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh; Howard, Rob

    2012-09-01

    There is a need to increase the recruitment to psychiatry in France. Our aim in this study was to compare factors influencing career choice between French medical students considering and not considering psychiatry as a specialty. Quantitative cross-sectional online survey on 145 French students in their last year of medical school. 22.7% of our sample considered choosing a career in psychiatry. A preference for a career in psychiatry was associated with more frequent history of personal/familial mental illness, higher ratings of psychiatric teaching, more weeks of compulsory psychiatry teaching and placement, during which students had more often met patients in recovery and been asked their opinion on patients. Students considering psychiatry as a career also emphasized more the need for a good work-life balance, and presented better attitudes toward psychiatry. Improving opportunities of interactions between students and psychiatrists or psychiatric patients might help to improve recruitment in psychiatry.

  9. Measuring the stigma of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zäske, Harald; Cleveland, Helen-Rose

    2011-01-01

    The stigma of mental illness is a severe burden for people suffering from mental illness both in private and public life, also affecting their relatives, their close social network, and the mental health care system in terms of disciplines, providers, and institutions. Interventions against...... the stigma of mental illness employ complementary strategies (e.g., protest, education, and contact) and address different target groups (e.g., school children and teachers, journalists, stakeholders). Within this framework, the World Psychiatric Association has adopted an Action Plan with the goal...... to improve the image of psychiatry and to reduce potential stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. To evaluate such interventions, a questionnaire has been developed that assesses opinions and attitudes toward psychiatrists and psychiatry in different samples of medical specialists...

  10. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning TB

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tony B Benning Maple Ridge Mental Health Centre, Maple Ridge, BC, Canada Abstract: A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it - charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. Keywords: critique of biopsychosocial psychiatry, integrative psychiatry, George Engel

  11. Theory of mind and psychiatry: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Giap Kian; Pridmore, Saxby

    2009-04-01

    'Theory of mind' (ToM) arose from the study of primates and their social organization, and scholars in many fields - philosophy, anthropology, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience - have contributed to this expanding topic. In this paper, we provide an overview of aspects of ToM of relevance to psychiatry. We briefly describe the origins of ToM in primates and humans and some relevant neurobiology, and then touch on possible contributions to psychopathology. We searched for articles on PubMed and Medline, using the terms 'theory of mind', 'mirror neuron system' and 'psychiatry'. There is evidence that ToM deficits are important in certain psychiatric disorders. While more research is required, an appreciation of ToM will have an impact on our further understanding and management of at least some mental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  12. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  13. The eugenic legacy in psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2008-05-01

    Assumptions about genetic differences in human mental characteristics can be traced in large part to the eugenic movement, ascendant at the turn of the 20th century. This paper offers historical case studies, of 'innate general cognitive ability' and 'psychiatric genetics', in order to appraise the eugenic legacy in current psychology and psychiatry. Reviewing the work of representatives, Cyril Burt, Franz Kallmann and Eliot Slater, along with their research networks, it is argued that eugenics remains a quiet but powerful background influence in modern-day psychology and psychiatry. At the turn of the 21st century, eugenics remains an important area of inquiry, reflection and education for those in the inter-disciplinary field of social psychiatry.

  14. Undergraduate psychiatry in India: A SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Jangid, Purushottam; Sethi, Sujata

    2018-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and remains a huge burden on the society. In spite of that persons with mental illness are marginalized and mental health is largely being neglected. There is an acute shortage of mental health professionals in India, and also there is inadequate exposure to psychiatry during the medical undergraduate training in India. Moreover, the perception towards psychiatry and psychiatrists is not favorable among medical fraternity and policy makers. This is reflected in the fact that in spite of clearly deficient undergraduate psychiatry curriculum, no steps have been taken towards improving it and recommendations are not being implemented in true spirit. This review tries to identify the gaps in undergraduate curriculum, present a SWOT analysis of current situation and recommend the possible ways to address the deficiencies particularly in India. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The feminization of psychiatry? Some ruminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Martha

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the position of women in psychiatry today from the historical perspective of feminism. Feminism in medicine demands the inclusion of the traditional priorities of women: collaboration and cooperation over competition and hierarchy, compassionate care over technology and automation, flexible care for the individual in a social context over the study of units of diseased organs. These themes, in addition to the care of women and children, were prominent in the lives of early women physicians and again in the 1970s and 1980s. The number of women in psychiatry has increased. However, their influence is scant and feminist goals are again submerged. At the same time psychiatry has become increasingly interested in the organ (brain) at the expense of the individual person. Women need a new awakening. They must use their new presence to assert feminine values in patient care and protect themselves from becoming provider units on the assembly line.

  16. Loading direction regulates the affinity of ADP for kinesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Sotaro; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2003-04-01

    Kinesin is an ATP-driven molecular motor that moves processively along a microtubule. Processivity has been explained as a mechanism that involves alternating single- and double-headed binding of kinesin to microtubules coupled to the ATPase cycle of the motor. The internal load imposed between the two bound heads has been proposed to be a key factor regulating the ATPase cycle in each head. Here we show that external load imposed along the direction of motility on a single kinesin molecule enhances the binding affinity of ADP for kinesin, whereas an external load imposed against the direction of motility decreases it. This coupling between loading direction and enzymatic activity is in accord with the idea that the internal load plays a key role in the unidirectional and cooperative movement of processive motors.

  17. Disease mongering in psychiatry: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saddichha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease mongering starts at the top of recent accusations being hurled at psychiatry. It is used to refer to the attempts by pharmaceutical companies or others who have similar interests, to enlarge the market for a treatment by convincing people that they are sick and need medical intervention. This paper critically analyses the 'for' and 'against' arguments of disease mongering in psychiatric disorders, both new and old, such as Bipolar disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, female sexual dysfunction, social phobia, metabolic syndrome and road rage disorder. Keywords: disease mongeringpharmaceutical companies, psychiatry.

  18. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 2: specific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes the main areas of civil forensic psychiatry (FP) and the skills required by psychiatric experts. Some specific areas of civil FP are discussed, including tort law reform, reliability of psychiatric evidence, contentious psychiatric disorders, and the many domains of civil FP. Civil FP is an important sub-specialty component of forensic psychiatry that requires greater emphasis in the training and continuing education of psychiatrists. A process of accrediting psychiatrists as having competency in advanced civil FP may be of value.

  19. Computational Psychiatry and the Challenge of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D.; Chekroud, Adam M.; Corlett, Philip R.; Yang, Genevieve; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Schizophrenia research is plagued by enormous challenges in integrating and analyzing large datasets and difficulties developing formal theories related to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of this disorder. Computational psychiatry provides a path to enhance analyses of these large and complex datasets and to promote the development and refinement of formal models for features of this disorder. This presentation introduces the reader to the notion of computational psychiatry and describes discovery-oriented and theory-driven applications to schizophrenia involving machine learning, reinforcement learning theory, and biophysically-informed neural circuit models. PMID:28338845

  20. Preserving the Person in Contemporary Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O

    2018-06-01

    Psychodynamic psychiatry is a way of thinking that places the person at the heart of diagnostic understanding and treatment. This emphasis on unique characteristics of an individual is at odds with much of contemporary psychiatric thought, which is geared to identifying a set of criteria designed to identify discrete diagnostic categories with biological underpinnings. This article addresses component parts of the person that are linked to psychodynamic constructs and lie at the heart of diagnostic understanding and treatment in psychodynamic psychiatry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Attitude of medical students towards psychiatry: the case of Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The inability to attract medical graduates to specialize in psychiatry has always been a serious challenge to psychiatry training programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitude of medical students towards psychiatry. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 122 ...

  2. Cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Joseph B

    2004-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began to officially accredit one-year residency experiences in forensic psychiatry, which follow a 4-year residency in general psychiatry. The extra year of training, colloquially known as a fellowship, is required for candidates who wish to receive certification in the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry; since 2001, completion of a year of training in a program accredited by ACGME has been required for candidates wishing to take the ABPN forensic psychiatry subspecialty examination. With the formal recognition of the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry comes the need to examine special issues of cultural importance which apply specifically to forensic psychiatry training. This paper examines the current literature on cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry, sets out several of the societal reasons for the importance of emphasizing those issues in forensic psychiatric training, and discusses how those issues are addressed in the curriculum of one forensic psychiatry fellowship at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW). While much has been written about cross-cultural issues in general psychiatry, very little has appeared in the literature on the topic of cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry.

  3. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  4. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  5. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  6. Reduced Mutation Rate and Increased Transformability of Transposon-Free Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1-ISx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gabriel A; Renda, Brian A; Dasgupta, Aurko; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2017-09-01

    The genomes of most bacteria contain mobile DNA elements that can contribute to undesirable genetic instability in engineered cells. In particular, transposable insertion sequence (IS) elements can rapidly inactivate genes that are important for a designed function. We deleted all six copies of IS 1236 from the genome of the naturally transformable bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The natural competence of ADP1 made it possible to rapidly repair deleterious point mutations that arose during strain construction. In the resulting ADP1-ISx strain, the rates of mutations inactivating a reporter gene were reduced by 7- to 21-fold. This reduction was higher than expected from the incidence of new IS 1236 insertions found during a 300-day mutation accumulation experiment with wild-type ADP1 that was used to estimate spontaneous mutation rates in the strain. The extra improvement appears to be due in part to eliminating large deletions caused by IS 1236 activity, as the point mutation rate was unchanged in ADP1-ISx. Deletion of an error-prone polymerase ( dinP ) and a DNA damage response regulator ( umuD Ab [the umuD gene of A. baylyi ]) from the ADP1-ISx genome did not further reduce mutation rates. Surprisingly, ADP1-ISx exhibited increased transformability. This improvement may be due to less autolysis and aggregation of the engineered cells than of the wild type. Thus, deleting IS elements from the ADP1 genome led to a greater than expected increase in evolutionary reliability and unexpectedly enhanced other key strain properties, as has been observed for other clean-genome bacterial strains. ADP1-ISx is an improved chassis for metabolic engineering and other applications. IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a next-generation bacterial host for synthetic biology and genome engineering due to its ability to efficiently take up DNA from its environment during normal growth. We deleted transposable elements that are capable of copying themselves

  7. Regulation of pyruvate oxidation in blowfly flight muscle mitochondria: requirement for ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, B A; Thomas, B J; Shukla, S P; Sacktor, B

    1984-11-01

    Blowfly (Phormia regina) flight muscle mitochondria oxidized pyruvate ( + proline) in the presence of either ADP (coupled respiration) or carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP-uncoupled respiration). There was an absolute requirement for ADP (Km = 8.0 microM) when pyruvate oxidation was stimulated by FCCP in the presence of oligomycin. This requirement for ADP was limited to the oxidation of pyruvate; uncoupled alpha-glycerolphosphate oxidation proceeded maximally even in the absence of added ADP. Atractylate inhibited uncoupled pyruvate oxidation whether added before (greater than 99%) or after (95%) initiation of respiration with FCCP. In the presence of FCCP, oligomycin, and limiting concentrations of ADP (less than 110 microM), there was a shutoff in the uptake of oxygen. This inhibition of respiration was completely reversed by the addition of more ADP. Plots of net oxygen uptake as a function of the limiting ADP concentration were linear; the observed ADP/O ratio was 0.22 +/- 0.025. An ADP/O ratio of 0.2 was predicted if phosphorylation occurred only at the succinyl-CoA synthetase step of the tricarboxylate cycle. Experiments performed in the presence of limiting concentrations of ADP, and designed to monitor changes in the mitochondrial content of ADP and ATP, demonstrated that the shutoff in oxygen uptake was not due to the presence of a high intramitochondrial concentration of ATP. Indeed, ATP, added to the medium prior to the addition of FCCP, inhibited uncoupled pyruvate oxidation; the apparent KI was 0.8 mM. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that it is the intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio that is one of the controlling factors in determining the rate of flux through the tricarboxylate cycle. Changes in the mitochondrial content of citrate, isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and malate during uncoupled pyruvate oxidation in the presence of a limiting concentration of ADP were consistent with the hypothesis that the

  8. Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry as a Career Choice before and after an Undergraduate Psychiatry Internship in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…

  9. Psychiatry and Religion: Opponents or Collaborators? The Power of Spirituality in Contemporary Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2017-04-01

    Religion and psychiatry have had complicated, sometimes neutral or friendly and cooperative, sometimes competitive and antagonistic relations over their long histories. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. Psychiatry has often ignored spiritual and religious dimension in health and illness while religions influenced the treatment of mental disorders directly by defining mental disorders as evil spirit possessions and prescribing exorcism as treatment. It has been a long way to prevail looking for natural over supra-natural explanations for mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion as social practices should be regarded as allies against pseudoscientific nonsense and superstitions. This alliance is based on the next evidence: 1. religious and spiritual well-being is an important component of mental health as well as of health in general; 2. research and empirical evidence reveals that healthy-minded and distorted or sick faith are quite distinct in the effects in the lives of the faithful; 3. psychiatrists are professionally expected to always respect and be sensitive to the spiritual and religious beliefs and practices of their patients; 4. religious and spiritual beliefs and practice is very important aspect of person-centered psychiatry. The enduring task for both psychiatry and religion is to enable human beings to live their lives with courage, sense, and optimism, to strive towards creating conditions of well-being and individual, public and global mental health as well as to dispel beliefs and patterns which trap people in lives of misery and mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion in creative dialogues as allies can significantly contribute to the healing of our broken world and promoting compassionate society and empathic civilization. When psychiatry and religion see each other as opponents or even enemies this is only because of their mutual misreading and pseudoscientific

  10. Impact of duration of psychiatry rotation on medical interns’ attitude towards psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical Council of India allowed the interns to take up an extra 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry along with the mandatory posting of 15 days. The study was planned to assess the effect of the additional period of psychiatry internship on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry. Material and methods: The consenting interns were given a semi structured proforma enquiring about their age and gender and were asked to fill up Attitude Towards Psychiatry (ATP scale. The assessment was done at the beginning and then after 15 days of mandatory posting. Those participants who were willing to do an additional 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry were assessed again on the 30th day of the training. Results: Mean age of the participating interns (n=47 was 25.44±1.52 and the male female ratio was 0.8. Twenty six interns did only the 15 days mandatory psychiatry internship posting (Group 1 and the remaining 21 interns took up the additional elective 15 days posting (Group 2. At the end of the 15 days posting, Mean ATP score of the group 1 increased from 88.34±6.07 to 88.46±6.19 (p=0.80 whereas the same increased from 88.04±7.06 to 88.19±7.65 (p=0.7 in the group 2 and further increased to 91.09±8.3 at the end of the additional 15 days of elective posting (p<0.05. Conclusion: A thirty days exposure of psychiatry during internship had more favourable impact on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry.

  11. Poly(ADP-ribose) and the response of cells to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleinick, N.L.; Evans, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is stimulated by DNA damage resulting from treatment of cells with ionizing radiation, as well as with DNA-damaging chemicals. The elevated polymerase activity can be observed at doses lower than those necessary for measurable reduction in cellular NAD concentration. Several nuclear proteins, including the polymerase itself, are poly(ADP-ribosylated) at elevated levels in irradiated Chinese hamster cells. The addition of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase to irradiated cells has been found to sensitize the cells to the lethal effects of the radiation, to inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage, and to delay DNA strand break rejoining. Because of the nonspecificity of the inhibitors, however, it is as yet unknown whether their effects are directly related to the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, to interference with the poly(ADP-ribosylation) of one or more chromosomal proteins, or to effects unrelated to the poly(ADP-ribosylation) process. The data are consistent with the involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) in the repair of radiation damage, but the nature of this involvement remains to be elucidated

  12. Gait and its assessment in psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Richard D.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait.

  13. South African Journal of Psychiatry: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal is the leading psychiatric journal of Africa. It provides open-access scholarly reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and all with an interest in mental health. It carries empirical and conceptual research articles, reviews, editorials, and scientific letters related to psychiatry. It publishes ...

  14. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  15. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  16. Hda monomerization by ADP binding promotes replicase clamp-mediated DnaA-ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenta; Keyamura, Kenji; Kudo, Yuka; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2008-12-26

    ATP-DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli, and the activity of DnaA is regulated by the regulatory inactivation of the DnaA (RIDA) system. In this system, the Hda protein promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce inactive ADP-DnaA in a mechanism that is mediated by the DNA-loaded form of the replicase sliding clamp. In this study, we first revealed that hda translation uses an unusual initiation codon, CUG, located downstream of the annotated initiation codon. The CUG initiation codon could be used for restricting the Hda level, as this initiation codon has a low translation efficiency, and the cellular Hda level is only approximately 100 molecules per cell. Hda translated using the correct reading frame was purified and found to have a high RIDA activity in vitro. Moreover, we found that Hda has a high affinity for ADP but not for other nucleotides, including ATP. ADP-Hda was active in the RIDA system in vitro and stable in a monomeric state, whereas apo-Hda formed inactive homomultimers. Both ADP-Hda and apo-Hda could form complexes with the DNA-loaded clamp; however, only ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complexes were highly functional in the following interaction with DnaA. Formation of ADP-Hda was also observed in vivo, and mutant analysis suggested that ADP binding is crucial for cellular Hda activity. Thus, we propose that ADP is a crucial Hda ligand that promotes the activated conformation of the protein. ADP-dependent monomerization might enable the arginine finger of the Hda AAA+ domain to be accessible to ATP bound to the DnaA AAA+ domain.

  17. Fine-tuning of Smad protein function by poly(ADP-ribose polymerases and poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase during transforming growth factor β signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Dahl

    Full Text Available Initiation, amplitude, duration and termination of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signaling via Smad proteins is regulated by post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation. We previously reported that ADP-ribosylation of Smads by poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1 negatively influences Smad-mediated transcription. PARP-1 is known to functionally interact with PARP-2 in the nucleus and the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG can remove poly(ADP-ribose chains from target proteins. Here we aimed at analyzing possible cooperation between PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARG in regulation of TGFβ signaling.A robust cell model of TGFβ signaling, i.e. human HaCaT keratinocytes, was used. Endogenous Smad3 ADP-ribosylation and protein complexes between Smads and PARPs were studied using proximity ligation assays and co-immunoprecipitation assays, which were complemented by in vitro ADP-ribosylation assays using recombinant proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA levels and promoter-reporter assays provided quantitative analysis of gene expression in response to TGFβ stimulation and after genetic perturbations of PARP-1/-2 and PARG based on RNA interference.TGFβ signaling rapidly induces nuclear ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 that coincides with a relative enhancement of nuclear complexes of Smads with PARP-1 and PARP-2. Inversely, PARG interacts with Smads and can de-ADP-ribosylate Smad3 in vitro. PARP-1 and PARP-2 also form complexes with each other, and Smads interact and activate auto-ADP-ribosylation of both PARP-1 and PARP-2. PARP-2, similar to PARP-1, negatively regulates specific TGFβ target genes (fibronectin, Smad7 and Smad transcriptional responses, and PARG positively regulates these genes. Accordingly, inhibition of TGFβ-mediated transcription caused by silencing endogenous PARG expression could be relieved after simultaneous depletion of PARP-1.Nuclear Smad function is negatively

  18. Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase and Poly(ADP-ribose)-interacting Protein Hrp38 Regulate Pattern Formation during Drosophila Eye Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingbiao; Jarnik, Michael; Tulin, Alexei V.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila Hrp38, a homolog of human hnRNP A1, has been shown to regulate splicing, but its function can be modified by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Notwithstanding such findings, our understanding of the roles of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated Hrp38 on development is limited. Here, we have demonstrated that Hrp38 is essential for fly eye development based on a rough-eye phenotype with disorganized ommatidia observed in adult escapers of the hrp38 mutant. We also observed that Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase (Parg) loss-of-function, which caused increased Hrp38 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, also resulted in the rough-eye phenotype with disrupted ommatidial lattice and reduced number of photoreceptor cells. In addition, ectopic expression of DE-cadherin, which is required for retinal morphogenesis, fully rescued the rough-eye phenotype of the hrp38 mutant. Similarly, Parg mutant eye clones had decreased expression level of DE-cadherin with orientation defects, which is reminiscent of DE-cadherin mutant eye phenotype. Therefore, our results suggest that Hrp38 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation controls eye pattern formation via regulation of DE-cadherin expression, a finding which has implications for understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of Hrp38-related Fragile X syndrome and PARP1-related retinal degeneration diseases. PMID:23711619

  19. Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p neuroscience curriculum for a residency committed to humanistic psychiatry

  20. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp-Vickery, Jill R.; Igarashi, Robert Y.; Meyer, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization and X-ray diffraction methods for native A. tumefaciens ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and its selenomethionyl derivative are described. Two crystal forms are identified, both of which diffract to 2 Å

  1. Adrenaline potentiates PI 3-kinase in platelets stimulated with thrombin and SFRLLN: role of secreted ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Frøyset, A K; Strand, I; Vassbotn, F S; Holmsen, H

    2000-11-17

    Adrenaline significantly potentiated late thrombin- and SFRLLN-induced PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production. Furthermore, the potentiating effect of adrenaline on thrombin-induced PtdIns(3, 4)P(2) production was independent on secreted ADP, whereas, the effect of adrenaline on SFRLLN-induced PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production was completely dependent of secreted ADP. However, the ADP-dependent accumulation of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) was not required for irreversible platelet aggregation induced by SFRLLN in the presence of adrenaline. It is concluded that adrenaline can replace secreted ADP to potentiate PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production in thrombin-stimulated but not in SFRLLN-stimulated platelets, thus demonstrating a qualitative difference between platelet stimulation by thrombin and the thrombin receptor activating peptide SFRLLN.

  2. Unscheduled synthesis of DNA and poly(ADP-ribose) in human fibroblasts following DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, L.S.; Jacobson, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis has been measured in human fibroblasts under conditions of reduced rates of conversion of NAD to poly)ADP-ribose). Cells heterozygous for the xeroderma pigmentosum genotype showed normal rates of uv induced unscheduled DNA synthesis under conditions in which the rate of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis was one-half the rate of normal cells. The addition of theophylline, a potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, to the culture medium of normal cells blocked over 90% of the conversion of NAD to poly(ADP-ribose) following treatment with uv or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitro-soguanidine but did not affect the rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis

  3. Poly (ADP-ribose) catabolism in mammalian cells exposed to DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gonzalez, R.; Althaus, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    DNA damage inflicted by the alkylating agens N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoquanidine, or by UV stimulated the catabolism of protein-bound poly (ADP-ribose) in the chromatin of cultured hepatocytes. The stimulation was highest at the largest doses of DNA-damaging treatment. As a consequence, the half-life of ADP-ribosyl polymers may drop to less than 41 s. This rapid turnover contrasts with the slow catabolism of a constitutive fraction of polymers exhibiting a half-life of 7.7 h. These data suggest that post-incisional stimulation of poly (ADP-ribose) biosynthesis in DNA-excision repair is coupled with an adaptation of poly (ADP-ribose) catabolism in mammalian cells. (Author). 37 refs.; 3 figs

  4. ADP-ribosylation of membrane components by pertussis and cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro-Neto, F.A.P.; Mattera, F.; Hildebrandt, J.D.; Codina, J.; Field, J.B.; Birnbaumer, L.; Sekura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis and cholera toxins are important tools to investigate functional and structural aspects of the stimulatory (N/sub s/) and inhibitory (N/sub i/) regulatory components of adenylyl cyclase. Cholera toxin acts on N/sub s/ by ADP-ribosylating its α/sub s/ subunit; pertussis toxin acts on N/sub i/ by ADP-ribosylating its α; subunit. By using [ 32 P]NAD + and determining the transfer of its [ 32 P]ADP-ribose moiety to membrane components, it is possible to obtain information on N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A set of protocols is presented that can be used to study simultaneously and comparatively the susceptibility of N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ to be ADP-ribosylated by cholera and pertussis toxin

  5.   Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) reduces infarct size and improves porcine heart function after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids Touborg; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Thaning, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Timely reperfusion can substantially improve outcomes and the administration of cardioprotective substances during reperfusion is therefore highly attractive. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and uridine-5-triphoshat...... infusion during reperfusion reduces IS by ~20% independently from systemic release of t-PA. ADP-induced reduction in both preload and afterload could account for the beneficial myocardial effect....

  6. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  7. Something about Genetics in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetics in psychiatry is based on the application of the achievements and methods of population’s genetics, immunogenetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics and pharmacogenetics. Methods of genealogy are already known, and so are the twins method, methods of adoption. Especially present are the methods of DNA recombination discovering the location of genes on chromosomes and creating genetic maps. For now, it can be said that chromosomes 6, 22 and 8 are in the center of attention of geneticists examining the genetic background of schizophrenia[1]. Some studies also suggest an association could be made between HLA-A9 and paranoid schizophrenia. The manic-depressive disorders are more associated with a gene on the short arm of chromosome 11 and the X chromosome. Mental disorders are polygenic and conditioned multifactorial. It is because of the interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors. The conclusion of most studies is that for the repetition of psychiatric disorders in families heritable factors are more deserving than environmental factors (e.g. studies in families with adopted children, although it is impossible to clearly separate the effects of genetic factors from the effects of environmental factors. The first studies that have attempted to detect predisposition genes for complex diseases were studies of genetic connectivity. They were based on the search of loci - markers in families, which were passed on through generations in the same way as the disease. In the search for the association of complexed hereditary diseases and certain variations of genes in a candidate, the evaluation of endofenotyp can be of a great benefit. Complexed diseases are characterized by a very diverse clinical picture and valuable data could be obtained if we individually evaluate each isolated characteristic of phenotype. The aim of the evaluation of endophenotype in the case of psychiatric disorders, is to penetrate into the mechanisms

  8. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their program’s curriculum related to tobacco treatment, attitudes related to treating tobacco in psychiatry, and perceptions of residents’ skills for addressing nicotine dependence in psychiatric patients. Results Respondents were representative of the national pool. Half of the programs provided training in tobacco treatments for a median duration of 1 hour. Content areas covered varied greatly. Programs with tobacco-related training expressed more favorable attitudes toward addressing tobacco in psychiatry and were more likely to report confidence in their residents’ skills for treating nicotine dependence. Programs without tobacco training reported a lack of faculty expertise on tobacco treatments. Most training directors reported moderate to high interest in evaluating a model tobacco curriculum for psychiatry and stated they would dedicate an average of 4 hours of curriculum time. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the need for and interest in a model tobacco treatment curriculum for psychiatry residency training. Training psychiatrists offers the potential of delivering treatment to one of the largest remaining groups of smokers: patients with mental disorders. PMID:17021144

  9. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  10. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots.

  11. Psychiatry and neurology: from dualism to integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.

  12. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  13. Brain injury in a forensic psychiatry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, A; Stamenova, V; Abramowitz, C; Clarke, D; Christensen, B

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence and profile of adults with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been studied in large North American forensic mental health populations. This study investigated how adults with a documented history of TBI differed with the non-TBI forensic population with respect to demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and history of offences. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive admissions to a forensic psychiatry programme in Toronto, Canada was conducted. Information on history of TBI, psychiatric diagnoses, living environments and types of criminal offences were obtained from medical records. History of TBI was ascertained in 23% of 394 eligible patient records. Compared to those without a documented history of TBI, persons with this history were less likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia but more likely to have alcohol/substance abuse disorder. There were also differences observed with respect to offence profiles. This study provides evidence to support routine screening for a history of TBI in forensic psychiatry.

  14. Military Psychiatry: A Tri-Service Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    and Capt. Lawrence on the edge of his boot-sole. But the sights and horrors began to be fearful: stretchers were plying rapidly now, and bringing out...Year of Combat July 4l, 1942- July 4, 1943). New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. 48. Hausman , W., & Rioch, D. McK. (1967). Military Psychiatry... Summer ). Cohesion and disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II. Public Opinion Quarterly, 12, 280-315. 108. Sledge, W. H., Boydstun, J. A., Rahe

  15. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.; Fink, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives

  16. The state of psychiatry in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Marc H M; de Witte, Nele; Dom, Geert

    2012-08-01

    Belgium, at the crossroads of different cultures, developed complex governmental structures hindering the development of comprehensive mental health policies. A total of 10.2% of the gross domestic product is spent on healthcare but only 6.1% of this total expenditure goes to mental health. Although mental healthcare is largely accessible and offers high levels of quality, it is questionable whether this can be maintained, given the economic climate. The collection of epidemiological data is problematic due to the different ways registration takes place within different care systems and the complexity of the state structure and its consecutive constitutional reforms. Coming from a largely hospital-driven psychiatric care, mental healthcare reforms of past decades have created more community-based care and new care pathways, still an on-going process. Psychiatry as a profession is currently challenged. Teaching mental health issues remains extremely limited within medical schools, resources for research are disproportionally limited, and working conditions less favourable, all this compared with other specialisms. Hence few graduates choose a career in psychiatry. Changing the public perception of what psychiatry is about, redefining the identity of psychiatrists as medical specialists, and their work have become important challenges for the next future.

  17. The ATP/DNA Ratio Is a Better Indicator of Islet Cell Viability Than the ADP/ATP Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, T.M.; Wildey, G.M.; Falde, E.J.; Cline, G.W.; Maynard, K. Stewart; Ko, N.; Sotiris, J.; Naji, A.; Hering, B.J.; Papas, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time, accurate assessment of islet viability is critical for avoiding transplantation of nontherapeutic preparations. Measurements of the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio have been recently proposed as useful prospective estimates of islet cell viability and potency. However, dead cells may be rapidly depleted of both ATP and ADP, which would render the ratio incapable of accounting for dead cells. Since the DNA of dead cells is expected to remain stable over prolonged periods of time (days), we hypothesized that use of the ATP/DNA ratio would take into account dead cells and may be a better indicator of islet cell viability than the ADP/ATP ratio. We tested this hypothesis using mixtures of healthy and lethally heat-treated (HT) rat insulinoma cells and human islets. Measurements of ATP/DNA and ADP/ATP from the known mixtures of healthy and HT cells and islets were used to evaluate how well these parameters correlated with viability. The results indicated that ATP and ADP were rapidly (within 1 hour) depleted in HT cells. The fraction of HT cells in a mixture correlated linearly with the ATP/DNA ratio, whereas the ADP/ADP ratio was highly scattered, remaining effectively unchanged. Despite similar limitations in both ADP/ADP and ATP/DNA ratios, in that ATP levels may fluctuate significantly and reversibly with metabolic stress, the results indicated that ATP/DNA was a better measure of islet viability than the ADP/ATP ratio. PMID:18374063

  18. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropsychiatrie of biologische psychiatrie; een toekomstvisie in historisch perspectief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, W M; Tuinier, S

    1999-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry or Biological Psychiatry There is an urgent need to reconsider the position of psychiatry within the neurosciences because of the exploding knowledge about the relationship between brain and behaviour and the delay in implementation of new findings due to the separation of neurology and psychiatry. Biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology originate from the discovery by chance of psycho-active compounds in the early fifties and have contributed to the scientification of psychiatry. The impact of biological psychiatry for the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, however, is limited as a result of its biased orientation on neurotransmitters and receptors. The neuropsychiatric paradigm integrates knowledge from several domains, such as functional neuroanatomy, genetics and endocrinology and opens new vistas for the involvement of neuronal circuits in the initiation and maintenance of behavioural disturbances. In addition, novel and more specific treatment modalities may emerge.

  20. Rezension : Wissen um den Wahn. Foucaults Geschichte der Psychiatrie ; zu "Foucaults Geschichte der Psychiatrie"

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Aus dem umfangreichen Werk des französischen Philosophen und Sozialhistorikers Michel Foucault (1926-1984) ist ein weiteres Buch auf Deutsch erschienen. Der Band „Die Macht der Psychiatrie" geht auf eine Reihe von Vorlesungen zurück, die Foucault im Wintersemester '73/'74 am Collège de France gehalten hat. Die in Frankreich bereits im Jahr 2003 veröffentlichten 12 Vorlesungen sind der Geschichte der Psychiatrie gewidmet und konzentrieren sich vor allem auf ihre Frühphase. Wesentlich gestützt ...

  1. Attitudes of Flemish physiotherapy students towards mental health and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Michel; Peuskens, Jos

    2010-03-01

    In general, psychiatry is not very popular among healthcare providers, although no information is available concerning the attitudes of physiotherapy students towards mental heath. This study examined the attitudes of physiotherapy students towards psychiatry considering the subject's gender, previous experience with psychiatry and the impact of a specific course. This experimental study compared the attitudes of physiotherapy students (n=219) with those of students without a biomedical background (n=112) towards psychiatry. All students were between 17 and 28 years of age, and completed an established international questionnaire entitled 'Attitudes Towards Psychiatry'. Within the group of physiotherapy students, the effect of a 65-hour course on psychiatric rehabilitation on their attitudes was evaluated. Attitudes towards psychiatry were moderately positive [mean (SD) 103.3 (9.9)]. There was a small but significant difference between physiotherapy students and non-medical students (Cohen's d=0.31). Female students had a more positive attitude towards psychiatry than their male peers (Cohen's d=0.44). Prior experience with mental illness was associated with more positive attitudes (Cohen's d=0.68). Attitudes increased in positivity after completion of a psychiatry course (Cohen's d=0.72). To ensure basic physiotherapeutic treatment for the mentally ill, physiotherapy education should aim to promote positive attitudes towards mental illness as well as psychiatry. High-quality courses and personal interaction with patients are the best strategies to achieve this goal.

  2. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2007-01-01

    In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”. PMID:17949505

  3. Psychiatry in the Deep South: a pilot study of integrated training for psychiatry residents and seminary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. From 2005 to 2008, PGY-2 general-psychiatry residents and PGY-5 child-psychiatry residents (N=30) participated alongside psychology interns (N=13) and seminary students (N=41). The intervention consisted of two 3-hour sessions. Measurements addressed demographics, participants' spirituality, and attitudes toward mental illness, mental-health practitioners, and clergy. The psychiatry residents' knowledge regarding the training of clergy was significantly increased by the training sessions. The seminary students' attitudes and knowledge of psychiatry/psychology changed significantly in a positive direction. This pilot course had a positive impact on both groups of participants. This model could be modified for other psychiatry programs, to include clergy students of different religious faiths as relevant to the demographics of the training location.

  4. Accurate determination of the oxidative phosphorylation affinity for ADP in isolated mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Gouspillou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunctions appear strongly implicated in a wide range of pathologies. Therefore, there is a growing need in the determination of the normal and pathological integrated response of oxidative phosphorylation to cellular ATP demand. The present study intends to address this issue by providing a method to investigate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation affinity for ADP in isolated mitochondria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proposed method is based on the simultaneous monitoring of substrate oxidation (determined polarographically and phosphorylation (determined using the glucose-hexokinase glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-NADP(+ enzymatic system rates, coupled to the determination of actual ADP and ATP concentrations by bioluminescent assay. This enzymatic system allows the study of oxidative phosphorylation during true steady states in a wide range of ADP concentrations. We demonstrate how the application of this method allows an accurate determination of mitochondrial affinity for ADP from both oxidation (K(mVox and phosphorylation (K(mVp rates. We also demonstrate that determination of K(mVox leads to an important overestimation of the mitochondrial affinity for ADP, indicating that mitochondrial affinity for ADP should be determined using phosphorylation rate. Finally, we show how this method allows the direct and precise determination of the mitochondrial coupling efficiency. Data obtained from rat skeletal muscle and liver mitochondria illustrate the discriminating capabilities of this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because the proposed method allows the accurate determination of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation affinity for ADP in isolated mitochondria, it also opens the route to a better understanding of functional consequences of mitochondrial adaptations/dysfunctions arising in various physiological/pathophysiological conditions.

  5. [Psychiatry with open doors. Part 1: Rational for an open door for acute psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, D; Lang, U E

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reform efforts of the last decades modern acute psychiatry still stands between conflicting priorities in everyday practice. The protection of patient autonomy might conflict with a regulatory mandate of psychiatry in societal contexts and the necessity of coercive measures and involuntary treatment might become problematic with respect to presumed but contentious interests of the patient. The conflicts particularly concern questions of involuntary commitment, door closing, coercive and isolation measures. Research on the topic of therapeutic effectiveness of these practices is rare. Accordingly, the practice depends on the federal state, hospital and ward and is very heterogeneous. Epidemiological prognosis predicts an increase of psychiatric disorders; however, simultaneously in terms of medical ethics the warranty of patient autonomy, shared decision-making and informed consent in psychiatry become increasingly more important. This challenges structural and practical changes in psychiatry, particularly in situations of self and third party endangerment which are outlined and a rationale for an opening of the doors in acute psychiatric wards is provided.

  6. Shorter Psychiatry Clerkship Length Is Associated with Lower NBME Psychiatry Shelf Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Alexander, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a recent medical school curriculum change at our institution 3 years ago; specifically: shortening the Psychiatry core clerkship from 4 to 3 weeks and adding an optional 6-week core/elective combination rotation in lieu of the 3-week core. The authors aimed to determine whether clerkship length was…

  7. NADP+ enhances cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Whitsel, C.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cholera or pertussis toxin-catalyzed [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation is frequently used to estimate the concentration of the stimulatory (Ns) or inhibitory (Ni) guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase. With this assay, however, the degradation of the substrate, NAD + , by endogenous enzymes such as NAD + -glycohydrolase (NADase) present in the test membranes can influence the results. In this study the authors show that both cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation of liver membrane proteins is markedly enhanced by NADP + . The effect is concentration dependent; with 20 μM [ 32 P]NAD + as substrate maximal enhancement is obtained at 0.5-1.0 mM NADP + . The enhancement of [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation by NADP + was much greater than that by other known effectors such as Mg 2+ , phosphate or isoniazid. The effect of NADP + on ADP-ribosylation may occur by inhibition of the degradation of NAD + probably by acting as an alternate substrate for NADase. Among inhibitors tested (NADP + , isoniazid, imidazole, nicotinamide, L-Arg-methyl-ester and HgCl 2 ) to suppress NADase activity, NADP + was the most effective and, 10 mM, inhibited activity of the enzyme by about 90%. In membranes which contain substantial activities of NADase the inclusion of NADP + in the assay is necessary to obtain maximal ADP-ribosylation

  8. The ARTT motif and a unified structural understanding of substraterecognition in ADP ribosylating bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADPribosyltransferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.; Tainer, J.A.

    2001-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a widely occurring and biologically critical covalent chemical modification process in pathogenic mechanisms, intracellular signaling systems, DNA repair, and cell division. The reaction is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a target protein with nicotinamide release. A family of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic enzymes has been termed the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, in distinction to the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which catalyze the addition of multiple ADP-ribose groups to the carboxyl terminus of eukaryotic nucleoproteins. Despite the limited primary sequence homology among the different ADP-ribosyltransferases, a central cleft bearing NAD-binding pocket formed by the two perpendicular b-sheet core has been remarkably conserved between bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono- and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. The majority of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved His and catalytic Glu residues. In contrast, Diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and eukaryotic poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. The NAD-binding core of a binary toxin and a C3-like toxin family identified an ARTT motif (ADP-ribosylating turn-turn motif) that is implicated in substrate specificity and recognition by structural and mutagenic studies. Here we apply structure-based sequence alignment and comparative structural analyses of all known structures of ADP-ribosyltransfeases to suggest that this ARTT motif is functionally important in many ADP-ribosylating enzymes that bear a NAD binding cleft as characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Overall, structure-based sequence analysis reveals common core structures and conserved active sites of ADP-ribosyltransferases to support similar NAD binding mechanisms but differing mechanisms of target protein binding via sequence variations within the ARTT

  9. Measuring outcomes in psychiatry: an inpatient model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D E; Fong, M L

    1996-02-01

    This article describes a system for measuring outcomes recently implemented in the department of psychiatry of Baptist Memorial Hospital, a 78-bed inpatient and day treatment unit that represents one service line of a large, urban teaching hospital in Memphis. In June 1993 Baptist Hospital began a 15-month pilot test of PsychSentinel, a measurement tool developed by researchers in the Department of Community Medicine at the University of Connecticut. The hospital identified the following four primary goals for this pilot project: provide data for internal hospital program evaluation, provide data for external marketing in a managed care environment, satisfy requirements of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations, and generate studies that add to the literature in psychiatry and psychology. PsychSentinel is based on the standardized diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). The outcome measure assesses the change in the number of symptoms of psychopathology that occurs between admission and discharge from the hospital. Included in the nonproprietary system are risk adjustment factors, as well as access to a national reference database for comparative analysis purposes. Data collection can be done by trained ancillary staff members, with as much or as little direct physician involvement as desired. The system has proven to be both time effective and cost effective, and it provides important outcome information both at the program level and at the clinician level. After the pilot test, the staff at Baptist Memorial Hospital determined that the system met all initial objectives identified and recently adopted the system as an ongoing measure of quality patient care in the department of psychiatry.

  10. Predicting Medical Students’ Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Warnke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students’ perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small

  11. Predicting Medical Students’ Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Ingeborg; Gamma, Alex; Buadze, Maria; Schleifer, Roman; Canela, Carlos; Strebel, Bernd; Tényi, Tamás; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas; Liebrenz, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students’ perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance

  12. Predicting Medical Students' Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Ingeborg; Gamma, Alex; Buadze, Maria; Schleifer, Roman; Canela, Carlos; Strebel, Bernd; Tényi, Tamás; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas; Liebrenz, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students' perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N  = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance. The

  13. [Artificial intelligence in psychiatry-an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2018-06-18

    Artificial intelligence and the underlying methods of machine learning and neuronal networks (NN) have made dramatic progress in recent years and have allowed computers to reach superhuman performance in domains that used to be thought of as uniquely human. In this overview, the underlying methodological developments that made this possible are briefly delineated and then the applications to psychiatry in three domains are discussed: precision medicine and biomarkers, natural language processing and artificial intelligence-based psychotherapeutic interventions. In conclusion, some of the risks of this new technology are mentioned.

  14. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  15. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [de

  16. Choosing child and adolescent psychiatry: factors influencing medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum.

  17. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbins, T.W.; Gillan, C.M.; Smith, D.G.; de Wit, S.; Ersche, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    A key criticism of the main diagnostic tool in psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-IV), is that it lacks a biological footing. In this article, we argue for a biological approach to psychiatry based on ‘neurocognitive endophenotypes’, whereby changes in

  18. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  19. Psychiatry Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: Implementation and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stuart; Demaso, David R.; Kemler, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the implementation of psychiatry morbidity and mortality rounds (M&Ms) on the clinical and educational practice in a children's hospital. Methods: Attendees to monthly M&Ms between July 2005 and May 2007 included staff and trainees from psychiatry, psychology, nursing, and social work. Cases were selected based on a…

  20. Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Chipps, S Ramlall, M Mars. Abstract. Objective: Psychiatry registrars form the backbone of specialized psychiatric service provision in South Africa. Medical schools are centralized while clinical services need to be ...

  1. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength.

  2. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  3. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Arden D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  4. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  5. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  6. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  7. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  8. Choosing Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Factors Influencing Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M.; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. Conclusions: A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum. PMID:24223044

  9. An Investigation of Psychiatry Residents' Important Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jody

    2011-01-01

    This research study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of the third-year experiences of the psychiatry residents. A review of the literature identified themes and subthemes related to the third-year of psychiatry education. The study was conducted at a university health science center. Data were collected from five residents using participant…

  10. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  11. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  12. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  13. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2009-01-01

    The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g) the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a) the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b) biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c) critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d) the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e) the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f) what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a) psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b) issues in psychiatric ethics; (c) social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a) antipsychiatry revisited; (b) basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c) psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d) conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  14. Poly (ADP-ribose) metabolism in alkylated mouse L5178Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Poly ADP-ribosylation of two mouse lymphoma cell lines, L5178Y (LS) and the radiation and alkylating agent resistant derivative AII, was investigated by uptake of [ 3 H]NAD by permeabilised cells into acid-precipitable material that was sensitive to phosphodiesterase but insensitive to DNase and RNase. Basal activities in both lymphoma lines were 3-4-fold greater than in mouse L1210 leukaemia cells. However, total endogenous poly (ADP-R) polymerase activity in both L5178Y cell lines, stimulated by a large excess of DNase in the presence of Triton X-100, was less than half the activity in L1210 cells. Doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) that produced 20-50% survival of colony-forming units increased poly (ADP-R) in both lymphoma lines by only 25% compared with 377% in L1210 cells when synthesis was measured immediately after a 30-min exposure of MNU. Concentrations of 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) above 2.5 mM inhibited colony-forming ability of lymphoma cells and equally inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]formate into protein, RNA and DNA indicating that 3AB behaves as a general metabolic poison. Non-toxic concentrations of 3AB potentiated cell killing by MNU to a similar degree in both lymphoma cell lines. In conclusion, the authors have found little evidence to support the hypothesis that the differential sensitivity of LS and AII is related to poly ADP-ribosylation. Compared with other mouse cells, L5178Y cells appear deficient in poly (ADP-R) polymerase and poly (ADP-R) glycohydrolase activities

  15. The Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Marleen C; de Lange, Geertje M; Palmen, Saskia J M C

    2018-01-01

    The Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) performs rapid autopsies of donors who gave written informed consent during life for the use of their brain tissue and medical files for research. The NBB initiated the Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry (NBB-Psy), a prospective donor program for psychiatric diseases. NBB-Psy wants to expand the tissue collections in order to provide a strong incentive to increase research in psychiatry. The ultimate goal of NBB-Psy is to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders for patients, their families, and for society as a whole. NBB-Psy consists of an antemortem and postmortem donor program. This chapter focuses on the design of NBB-Psy and the antemortem donor program, where patients and relatives are actively informed on the possibility to become a brain donor. Since the initiation of NBB-Psy, the number of registered donors with a psychiatric diagnosis has increased from 149 in 2010 to 1018 in May 2016. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The historical development of psychiatry in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Srdan; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Pantović, Mihailo; Dukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Ravanić, Dragan

    2009-06-01

    The authors present the development of the concept of mental disease and treatment in Serbian medicine. Serbian medieval medicine did not acknowledge fortune telling, sorcery, the use of amulets and magical rituals and formulas. These progressive concepts were confirmed by the Church and the Serbian state in what is known as Dusan's Code. The Historical data on the establishment of the first psychiatric hospital in the Balkans "Home for the Unsound of Mind" at Guberevac, Belgrade, in 1861 and its founders is reviewed. After World War I, in 1923, the Faculty of Medicine was established in Belgrade to which the coryphaei of Serbian medicine educated in Europe, mostly in France and Germany, flocked and that same year the Psychiatry Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade was set up. Its first seat was on the premises of the Mental Hospital in Belgrade, and it became a training base and laid the foundations of the future Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Belgrade, which in time evolved into the nursery of psychiatric professionals for all of Serbia. The most important data on the further development of psychiatry up to date are presented.

  17. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J Kirmayer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobhavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery.

  18. Current perspectives on chief residents in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Christopher H; Rachal, James; Breitbach, Jill; Higgins, Michael; Warner, Carolynn; Bobo, William

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine qualitative data from outgoing chief residents in psychiatry from the 2004-2005 academic year to 1) determine common characteristics between programs, 2) examine the residents' perspectives on their experiences, and 3) determine their common leadership qualities. The authors sent out self-report surveys via e-mail to 89 outgoing chief residents who attended the APA/Lilly Chief Resident Executive Leadership Program. Fifty-three (60%) chief residents responded. Although most chief residents are senior residents, over 20% are in their third postgraduate year. Two-thirds of programs have more than one chief resident each year. Most chief residents believe that their "participating" leadership style, existing leadership skills, and interpersonal skills contributed to their overall positive experiences. Successfully performing duties as a chief resident entails functioning in a variety of roles and demands attention to leadership qualities of the individual. Developing existing leadership skills, clarifying expectations, and providing mentorship to chief residents will ensure successful transition into practice, and the advancement of the field of psychiatry.

  19. Psychiatry & the psychedelic drugs. Past, present & future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, James J H; Iliff, Jonathan; Nutt, David J

    2017-12-25

    The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting. Pre-prohibition studies in this area were sub-optimal, although a recent systematic review in unipolar mood disorder and a meta-analysis in alcoholism have both suggested efficacy. The incidence of serious adverse events appears to be low. Since 2006, there have been several pilot trials and randomised controlled trials using psychedelics (mostly psilocybin) in various non-psychotic psychiatric disorders. These have provided encouraging results that provide initial evidence of safety and efficacy, however the regulatory and legal hurdles to licensing psychedelics as medicines are formidable. This paper summarises clinical trials using psychedelics pre and post prohibition, discusses the methodological challenges of performing good quality trials in this area and considers a strategic approach to the legal and regulatory barriers to licensing psychedelics as a treatment in mainstream psychiatry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Forensic psychiatry, one subspecialty with two ethics? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveau, Gérard; Welle, Ida

    2018-04-10

    Forensic psychiatry is a particular subspecialty within psychiatry, dedicated in applying psychiatric knowledge and psychiatric training for particular legal purposes. Given that within the scope of forensic psychiatry, a third party usually intervenes in the patient-doctor relationship, an amendment of the traditional ethical principles seems justified. Thus, 47 articles, two book chapters and the guidelines produced by the World Psychiatric Association, the American Association of Psychiatry and the Law, as well as by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of psychiatrists, were analyzed. The review revealed that the ethics of correctional forensic psychiatry and those of legal forensic psychiatry do not markedly differ from each other, but they are incongruent in terms of implementation. In an effort to better understand which ethical principles apply to forensic psychiatry, a chronological review of the literature published from 1950 to 2015 was carried out. The ethics of correctional forensic psychiatry are primarily deontological. The principle of justice translates into the principle of health care equivalence, the principle of beneficence into providing the best possible care to patients, and the principle of respect of autonomy into ensuring confidentiality and informed consent. The ethics of legal forensic psychiatry are rather consequentialist. In this latter setting, the principle of justice is mainly characterized by professionalism, the principle of beneficence by objectivity and impartiality, and the principle of respect of autonomy by informed consent. However, these two distinct fields of forensic psychiatry share in common the principle of non maleficence, defined as the non collaboration of the psychiatrist in any activity leading to inhuman and degrading treatment or to the death penalty.

  1. Relationship of tightly bound ADP and ATP to control and catalysis by chloroplast ATP synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Xue, Z.; Du, Z.; Melese, T.; Boyer, P.D.

    1988-07-12

    Whether the tightly bound ADP that can cause a pronounced inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by the chloroplast ATP synthase and F/sub 1/ ATPase (CF/sub 1/) is bound at catalytic sites or at noncatalytic regulatory sites or both has been uncertain. The authors have used photolabeling by 2-azido-ATP and 2-azido-ADP to ascertain the location, with Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, of tightly bound ADP (a) that inhibits the hydrolysis of ATP by chloroplast ATP synthase, (b) that can result in an inhibited form of CF/sub 1/ that slowly regains activity during ATP hydrolysis, and (c) that arises when low concentrations of ADP markedly inhibit the hydrolysis of GTP by CF/sub 1/. The data show that in all instances the inhibition is associated with ADP binding without inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) at catalytic sites. After photophosphorylation of ADP or 2-azido-ADP with (/sup 32/P)P/sub i/, similar amounts of the corresponding triphosphates are present on washed thylakoid membranes. Trials with appropriately labeled substrates show that a small portion of the tightly bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling with an ATP moiety at noncatalytic sites but that most of the bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling with an ATP moiety at noncatalytic sites but that most of the bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling by an ADP moiety at a catalytic site. They also report the occurrence of a 1-2-min delay in the onset of the Mg/sup 2 +/-induced inhibition after addition of CF/sub 1/ to solutions containing Mg/sup 2 +/ and ATP, and that this delay is not associated with the filling of noncatalytic sites. A rapid burst of P/sub i/ formation is followed by a much lower, constant steady-state rate. The burst is not observed with GTP as a substrate or with Ca/sup 2 +/ as the activating cation.

  2. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  3. [The importance of classifications in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempérière, T

    1995-12-01

    The classifications currently used in psychiatry have different aims: to facilitate communication between researchers and clinicians at national and international levels through the use of a common language, or at least a clearly and precisely defined nomenclature; to provide a nosographical reference system which can be used in practice (diagnosis, prognosis, treatment); to optimize research by ensuring that sample cases are as homogeneous as possible; to facilitate statistical records for public health institutions. A classification is of practical interest only if it is reliable, valid and acceptable to all potential users. In recent decades, there has been a considerable systematic and coordinated effort to improve the methodological approach to classification and categorization in the field of psychiatry, including attempts to create operational definitions, field trials of inter-assessor reliability, attempts to validate the selected nosological categories by analysis of correlation between progression, treatment response, family history and additional examinations. The introduction of glossaries, and particularly of diagnostic criteria, marked a decisive step in this new approach. The key problem remains that of the validity of diagnostic criteria. Ideally, these should be based on demonstrable etiologic or pathogenic data, but such information is rarely available in psychiatry. Current classifications rely on the use of extremely diverse elements in differing degrees: descriptive criteria, evolutive criteria, etiopathogenic criteria, psychopathogenic criteria, etc. Certain syndrome-based classifications such as DSM III and its successors aim to be atheoretical and pragmatic. Others, such as ICD-10, while more eclectic than the different versions of DSM, follow suit by abandoning the terms "disease" and "illness" in favor of the more consensual "disorder". The legitimacy of classifications in the field of psychiatry has been fiercely contested, being

  4. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter Zell (left) and Dr Clifton Horne (right) are shown preparing a laser light sheet for a flow visualization test. Shown standing in the nacelle of the ADP is John Girvin, senior test engineer for Pratt & Whitney.

  11. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous

  12. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous

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  19. Multiple origins of hydrogenosomes: functional and phylogenetic evidence from the ADP/ATP carrier of the anaerobic chytrid Neocallimastix sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, F.L.M.; Boxma, B.; Tjaden, J.; Akhmanova, A.S.; Huynen, M.A.; Verbeek, F.; Tielens, A.G.; Haferkamp, I.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Vogels, G.D.; Veenhuis, M.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2002-01-01

    A mitochondrial-type ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) has been identified in the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus Neocallimastix sp. L2. Biochemical and immunocytochemical studies revealed that this ADP/ATP carrier is an integral component of hydrogenosomal membranes. Expression of the

  20. Higher cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression in familial than in sporadic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klauke, M.L.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Budczies, J.; Bult, P.; Prinzler, J.; Radke, C.; van Krieken, J.H.; Dietel, M.; Denkert, C.; Muller, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) is a key element of the single-base excision pathway for repair of DNA single-strand breaks. To compare the cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) expression between familial (BRCA1, BRCA2, or non BRCA1/2) and sporadic breast cancer, we investigated 39 sporadic

  1. Hydrofluoric Acid-Based Derivatization Strategy To Profile PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Langelier, Marie-France; Pascal, John M; Poirier, Guy G

    2018-06-11

    Despite significant advances in the development of mass spectrometry-based methods for the identification of protein ADP-ribosylation, current protocols suffer from several drawbacks that preclude their widespread applicability. Given the intrinsic heterogeneous nature of poly(ADP-ribose), a number of strategies have been developed to generate simple derivatives for effective interrogation of protein databases and site-specific localization of the modified residues. Currently, the generation of spectral signatures indicative of ADP-ribosylation rely on chemical or enzymatic conversion of the modification to a single mass increment. Still, limitations arise from the lability of the poly(ADP-ribose) remnant during tandem mass spectrometry, the varying susceptibilities of different ADP-ribose-protein bonds to chemical hydrolysis, or the context dependence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Here, we present a chemical-based derivatization method applicable to the confident identification of site-specific ADP-ribosylation by conventional mass spectrometry on any targeted amino acid residue. Using PARP-1 as a model protein, we report that treatment of ADP-ribosylated peptides with hydrofluoric acid generates a specific +132 Da mass signature that corresponds to the decomposition of mono- and poly(ADP-ribosylated) peptides into ribose adducts as a consequence of the cleavage of the phosphorus-oxygen bonds.

  2. Multiple origins of hydrogenosomes : functional and phylogenetic evidence from the ADP/ATP carrier of the anaerobic chytrid Neocallimastix sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, F; Boxma, B; Tjaden, J; Akhmanova, A; Huynen, M; Tielens, AGM; Haferkamp, [No Value; Neuhaus, HE; Vogels, G; Veenhuis, M; Hackstein, JHP; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Haferkamp, Ilka; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    A mitochondrial-type ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) has been identified in the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus Neocallimastix sp. L2. Biochemical and immunocytochemical studies revealed that this ADP/ATP carrier is an integral component of hydrogenosomal membranes. Expression of the

  3. Correlations of serum levels of leptin and other related factor (NPY, ADP) in female children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hua; Wei Chunlei; Qian Mingzhu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum levels of leptin, NPY and ADP in female children with simple obesity. Methods: Serum levels of leptin, NPY and ADP were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 32 female children with simple obesity and 35 controls. Results: The serum levels of leptin, NPY were significantly higher in the obese children than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum levels of ADP were significantly lower (P<0.01). Serum leptin levels were significantly positively correlated (r=0.6014, P<0.01) with NPY levels but were negatively correlated (r=-0.4786, P<0.01) with adiponectin (ADP) levels. Conclusion: Determination of serum leptin, NPY and ADP levels is of help for judgement of degree of obesity as wen as outcome prediction in female children. (authors)

  4. Are computational models of any use to psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J M; Moutoussis, Michael; Williams, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    Mathematically rigorous descriptions of key hypotheses and theories are becoming more common in neuroscience and are beginning to be applied to psychiatry. In this article two fictional characters, Dr. Strong and Mr. Micawber, debate the use of such computational models (CMs) in psychiatry. We present four fundamental challenges to the use of CMs in psychiatry: (a) the applicability of mathematical approaches to core concepts in psychiatry such as subjective experiences, conflict and suffering; (b) whether psychiatry is mature enough to allow informative modelling; (c) whether theoretical techniques are powerful enough to approach psychiatric problems; and (d) the issue of communicating clinical concepts to theoreticians and vice versa. We argue that CMs have yet to influence psychiatric practice, but that they help psychiatric research in two fundamental ways: (a) to build better theories integrating psychiatry with neuroscience; and (b) to enforce explicit, global and efficient testing of hypotheses through more powerful analytical methods. CMs allow the complexity of a hypothesis to be rigorously weighed against the complexity of the data. The paper concludes with a discussion of the path ahead. It points to stumbling blocks, like the poor communication between theoretical and medical communities. But it also identifies areas in which the contributions of CMs will likely be pivotal, like an understanding of social influences in psychiatry, and of the co-morbidity structure of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology; Funktionelle MRT in Psychiatrie und Neurologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Fink, G.R. (eds.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    2007-07-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives.

  6. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  7. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Damiaan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”.

  8. ADP stimulation of inositol phosphates in hepatocytes: role of conversion to ATP and stimulation of P2Y2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C Jane; Hall, John F; Boarder, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    1 Accumulation of inositol (poly)phosphates (InsP(x)) has been studied in rat hepatocytes labelled with [(3)H]inositol. Stimulation with ADP resulted in a significant increase in total [(3)H]InsP(x), whereas 2-MeSADP had only a small effect and ADPbetaS was ineffective. UTP and ITP also stimulated substantial increases in [(3)H]InsP(x). 2 The dose-response curve to ADP was largely unaltered by the presence of the P2Y(1) antagonist, adenosine-3'-phosphate-5'-phosphate (A3P5P). Similarly, inclusion of MRS 2179, a more selective P2Y(1) antagonist, had no effect on the dose-response curve to ADP. 3 The inclusion of hexokinase in the assay reduced, but did not abolish, the response to ADP. 4 HPLC analysis revealed that ADP in the medium was rapidly converted to AMP and ATP. The inclusion of hexokinase removed ATP, but exacerbated the decline in ADP concentration, leading to increased levels of AMP. 2-MeSADP was stable in the medium and ATP was largely unaffected. 5 The addition of the adenylate kinase inhibitor, diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap(5)A) significantly reduced the ADP response. HPLC analysis conducted in parallel demonstrated that this treatment inhibited conversion of ADP to ATP and AMP. 6 Inclusion of the P1 antagonist CGS 15943 had no effect on the dose-response curve to ADP. 7 These observations indicate that hepatocytes respond to ADP with an increase in inositol (poly)phosphates following conversion to ATP. P2Y(1) activation in hepatocytes does not appear to be coupled to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P(3)) production.

  9. Differential regulation by AMP and ADP of AMPK complexes containing different γ subunit isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Fiona A; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Hardie, D Grahame

    2016-01-01

    The g subunits of heterotrimeric AMPK complexes contain the binding sites for the regulatory adenine nucleotides AMP, ADP and ATP. We addressed whether complexes containing different g isoforms display different responses to adenine nucleotides by generating cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged ve...

  10. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security of...

  11. Yeast Mitochondrial ADP/ATP Carriers Are Monomeric in Detergents as Demonstrated by Differential Affinity Purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamber, Lisa; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Kunji, Edmund R.S.; Barber, L

    2007-01-01

    Most mitochondrial carriers carry out equimolar exchange of substrates and they are believed widely to exist as homo-dimers. Here we show by differential tagging that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC2 is a monomer in mild detergents. Carriers with and without six-histidine or

  12. Molecular structure of human KATP in complex with ATP and ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth Pak Kin; Chen, Jue; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2017-12-29

    In many excitable cells, KATP channels respond to intracellular adenosine nucleotides: ATP inhibits while ADP activates. We present two structures of the human pancreatic KATP channel, containing the ABC transporter SUR1 and the inward-rectifier K + channel Kir6.2, in the presence of Mg 2+ and nucleotides. These structures, referred to as quatrefoil and propeller forms, were determined by single-particle cryo-EM at 3.9 Å and 5.6 Å, respectively. In both forms, ATP occupies the inhibitory site in Kir6.2. The nucleotide-binding domains of SUR1 are dimerized with Mg 2+ -ATP in the degenerate site and Mg 2+ -ADP in the consensus site. A lasso extension forms an interface between SUR1 and Kir6.2 adjacent to the ATP site in the propeller form and is disrupted in the quatrefoil form. These structures support the role of SUR1 as an ADP sensor and highlight the lasso extension as a key regulatory element in ADP's ability to override ATP inhibition. © 2017, Lee et al.

  13. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  14. Aero-Propulsion Technology (APT) Task V Low Noise ADP Engine Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, V.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify and evaluate noise reduction technologies for advanced ducted prop propulsion systems that would allow increased capacity operation and result in an economically competitive commercial transport. The study investigated the aero/acoustic/structural advancements in fan and nacelle technology required to match or exceed the fuel burned and economic benefits of a constrained diameter large Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) compared to an unconstrained ADP propulsion system with a noise goal of 5 to 10 EPNDB reduction relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 at each of the three measuring stations namely, takeoff (cutback), approach and sideline. A second generation ADP was selected to operate within the maximum nacelle diameter constrain of 160 deg to allow installation under the wing. The impact of fan and nacelle technologies of the second generation ADP on fuel burn and direct operating costs for a typical 3000 nm mission was evaluated through use of a large, twin engine commercial airplane simulation model. The major emphasis of this study focused on fan blade aero/acoustic and structural technology evaluations and advanced nacelle designs. Results of this study have identified the testing required to verify the interactive performance of these components, along with noise characteristics, by wind tunnel testing utilizing and advanced interaction rig.

  15. Cholix Toxin, a Novel ADP-ribosylating Factor from Vibrio cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Rene; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Kimber, Matthew S.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Merrill, A. Rod (Guelph); (NIH); (UCSD)

    2008-07-15

    The ADP-ribosyltransferases are a class of enzymes that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing diseases in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report the characterization of a novel toxin from Vibrio cholerae, which we call cholix toxin. The toxin is active against mammalian cells (IC50 = 4.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml) and crustaceans (Artemia nauplii LD50 = 10 {+-} 2 {mu}g/ml). Here we show that this toxin is the third member of the diphthamide-specific class of ADP-ribose transferases and that it possesses specific ADP-ribose transferase activity against ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 2. We also describe the high resolution crystal structures of the multidomain toxin and its catalytic domain at 2.1- and 1.25-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The new structural data show that cholix toxin possesses the necessary molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm, and inhibition of protein synthesis by specific modification of elongation factor 2. The crystal structures also provide important insight into the structural basis for activation of toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. These results indicate that cholix toxin may be an important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae that likely plays a significant role in the survival of the organism in an aquatic environment.

  16. Guidelines for developing NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk management plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents guidance to NASA Computer security officials for developing ADP security risk management plans. The six components of the risk management process are identified and discussed. Guidance is presented on how to manage security risks that have been identified during a risk analysis performed at a data processing facility or during the security evaluation of an application system.

  17. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 is required for protein localization to Cajal body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kotova

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the nuclear protein known as Poly (ADP-ribose Polymerase1 (PARP1 was shown to play a key role in regulating transcription of a number of genes and controlling the nuclear sub-organelle nucleolus. PARP1 enzyme is known to catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose to a variety of nuclear proteins. At present, however, while we do know that the main acceptor for pADPr in vivo is PARP1 protein itself, by PARP1 automodification, the significance of PARP1 automodification for in vivo processes is not clear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of PARP1 auto ADP-ribosylation in dynamic nuclear processes during development. Specifically, we discovered that PARP1 automodification is required for shuttling key proteins into Cajal body (CB by protein non-covalent interaction with pADPr in vivo. We hypothesize that PARP1 protein shuttling follows a chain of events whereby, first, most unmodified PARP1 protein molecules bind to chromatin and accumulate in nucleoli, but then, second, upon automodification with poly(ADP-ribose, PARP1 interacts non-covalently with a number of nuclear proteins such that the resulting protein-pADPr complex dissociates from chromatin into CB.

  18. Further evidence for poly-ADP-ribosylated histones as DNA suppressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.L.; Geronimo, I.H.; Bender, W.; Meginniss, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    For many years histones have been considered to be the gene suppressors in eukaryotic cells. Recently, the authors have found strong evidence indicating that poly-ADP-ribosylated histones, rather than histones, are the potent inhibitors of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. They now report additional evidence for this concept: 1) using histone inhibitor isolated directly from nuclei, the authors are able to confirm their earlier findings that the inhibitor substances are sensitive to pronase, snake venom phosphodiesterase digestion and 0.1N KOH hydrolysis, and are resistant to DNase I and RNase A digestion, 2) the O.D. 260/O.D.280 ratio of the histone inhibitor is between pure protein and nuclei acid, suggesting the inhibitor substance is a nucleoprotein hybrid. This result directly supports the fact that the isolated histone inhibitor is radioactive poly (ADP-ribose) labeled, 3) commercial histones show big differences in inhibitor activity. The authors believe this reflects the variation in poly-ADP-ribosylation among commercial histones, and 4) 0.1N KOH hydrolysis eliminates the poly (ADP-ribose) radioactivity from the acceptor proteins as well as histone inhibitor activity. Yet, on gel, the inhibitor shows identical histone bands and stain intensity before and after hydrolysis, indicating the histones per se are qualitatively and quantitatively unaffected by alkaline treatment. This result strongly suggests that histones themselves are not capable of inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA synthesis

  19. Pharmacological Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases improves fitness and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirinen, E.; Canto, C.; Jo, Y.S.; Morato, L.; Zhang, H.; Menzies, K.J.; Williams, E.G.; Mouchiroud, L.; Moullan, N.; Hagberg, C.; Li, W.; Timmers, S.; Imhof, R.; Verbeek, J.; Pujol, A.; Loon, B. van; Viscomi, C.; Zeviani, M.; Schrauwen, P.; Sauve, A.A.; Schoonjans, K.; Auwerx, J.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the deletion of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (Parp)-1 gene in mice enhances oxidative metabolism, thereby protecting against diet-induced obesity. However, the therapeutic use of PARP inhibitors to enhance mitochondrial function remains to be explored. Here, we show

  20. Improved Triacylglycerol Production in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 by Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triacylglycerols are used in various purposes including food applications, cosmetics, oleochemicals and biofuels. Currently the main sources for triacylglycerol are vegetable oils, and microbial triacylglycerol has been suggested as an alternative for these. Due to the low production rates and yields of microbial processes, the role of metabolic engineering has become more significant. As a robust model organism for genetic and metabolic studies, and for the natural capability to produce triacylglycerol, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 serves as an excellent organism for modelling the effects of metabolic engineering for energy molecule biosynthesis. Results Beneficial gene deletions regarding triacylglycerol production were screened by computational means exploiting the metabolic model of ADP1. Four deletions, acr1, poxB, dgkA, and a triacylglycerol lipase were chosen to be studied experimentally both separately and concurrently by constructing a knock-out strain (MT with three of the deletions. Improvements in triacylglycerol production were observed: the strain MT produced 5.6 fold more triacylglycerol (mg/g cell dry weight compared to the wild type strain, and the proportion of triacylglycerol in total lipids was increased by 8-fold. Conclusions In silico predictions of beneficial gene deletions were verified experimentally. The chosen single and multiple gene deletions affected beneficially the natural triacylglycerol metabolism of A. baylyi ADP1. This study demonstrates the importance of single gene deletions in triacylglycerol metabolism, and proposes Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 as a model system for bioenergetic studies regarding metabolic engineering.

  1. [Mental Imagery: Neurophysiology and Implications in Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo

    2014-03-01

    To provide an explanation about what mental imagery is and some implications in psychiatry. This article is a narrative literature review. There are many terms in which imagery representations are described in different fields of research. They are defined as perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus, and can be created in any sensory modality. Their neurophysiological substrate is almost the same as the one activated during sensory perception. There is no unified theory about its function, but it is possibly the way that our brain uses and manipulates the information to respond to the environment. Mental imagery is an everyday phenomenon, and when it occurs in specific patterns it can be a sign of mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of positron emission tomography to psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Brodie, J.D.; Gomez-mont, F.

    1985-01-01

    The brain's inaccessibility has hampered investigation of the metabolic changes underlying the behavioral and psychological symptoms of psychiatric patients. Using positron emission transaxial tomography (PET) to study the functioning human brain opens the possibility of directly investigating the patterns of activity associated with mental illness. A major focus of present-day research in psychiatry has been to identify etiological agents that fit a medical model of psychiatric illness. Experiments seeking pathophysiological indices that would permit objective classification of psychiatric illnesses have failed to reveal consistent abnormalities. The lack of consistency is explained in part by research designs that deal with the brain as if it were a homogeneous organ. PET offers a unique technique for monitoring the regional biochemical activity that is associated with the different ''brain states'' and ''brain traits'' of normal subjects and psychiatric patients

  3. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  6. [Group psychotherapy. Working team in community psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, J S; Barrera, E H

    1977-01-01

    A Community Psychiatry program was begun, based on the needs and requests of a clinic (this approach is restricted because there are institutional factors that only the institution can change). The work was aimed at sensitizing the beneficiaries and change clinic factors modifiable through operative group technique. When a great deal of every day stereotypes appeared, role playing was used: as a result, people in the clinic realized how they acted and how they asked from others behaviors that they themselves found difficult to show. As results, it was found that when workers were confronted with reality, desertion from operative groups appeared, with projection of problems (them, not me), great fear of change (fantasized in different ways), group passivity and the image of the institution, that the group saw as a persecutor.

  7. Neurofeedback: One of today's techniques in psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, M; Batail, J-M; Bioulac, S; Congedo, M; Daudet, C; Drapier, D; Fovet, T; Jardri, R; Le-Van-Quyen, M; Lotte, F; Mehler, D; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Purper-Ouakil, D; Vialatte, F

    2017-04-01

    Neurofeedback is a technique that aims to teach a subject to regulate a brain parameter measured by a technical interface to modulate his/her related brain and cognitive activities. However, the use of neurofeedback as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders remains controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize and to comment the level of evidence of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback and real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback for therapeutic application in psychiatry. Literature on neurofeedback and mental disorders but also on brain computer interfaces (BCI) used in the field of neurocognitive science has been considered by the group of expert of the Neurofeedback evaluation & training (NExT) section of the French Association of biological psychiatry and neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN). Results show a potential efficacy of EEG-neurofeedback in the treatment of attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, even if this is still debated. For other mental disorders, there is too limited research to warrant the use of EEG-neurofeedback in clinical practice. Regarding fMRI neurofeedback, the level of evidence remains too weak, for now, to justify clinical use. The literature review highlights various unclear points, such as indications (psychiatric disorders, pathophysiologic rationale), protocols (brain signals targeted, learning characteristics) and techniques (EEG, fMRI, signal processing). The field of neurofeedback involves psychiatrists, neurophysiologists and researchers in the field of brain computer interfaces. Future studies should determine the criteria for optimizing neurofeedback sessions. A better understanding of the learning processes underpinning neurofeedback could be a key element to develop the use of this technique in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatry in Pakistan: 1947-2006: a new balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2007-09-01

    This review deals with the evolution of psychiatry in Pakistan since its inception in 1947. It describes the situation of psychiatric services, education and research through the years 1947-2006, presenting a picture of existing mental health scenario, suggesting the ways for improvement and comment on possible future developments. It concludes with the prediction of a revolutionary change in the current shape of psychiatry throughout the world and especially in Pakistan whereby psychiatry will change to organic-based discipline of a wider "Neurosciences".

  9. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....

  10. Psychiatrie in meervoud. De wetenschappelijke oriëntaties van de Nederlandse psychiatrie in het interbellum (1918-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Vijselaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry in multiplicity According to a widespread interpretation, the history of psychiatry is characterized by a strong opposition between biological and psychological paradigms, which would dominate consecutive periods in history. The image of a swinging pendulum is a popular metaphor to describe this idea. The culture of Dutch psychiatry in the interwar years (1918-1940 seems to gainsay this image. Psychological, biological and socials models of explanation and therapy were used alongside each other without apparent debate and conflict. Influential professors of psychiatry like H.C. Rümke (Utrecht University even pleaded for a conscious integration of these approaches. Some historians have interpreted this stance as a sign of scientific ‘vagueness’ and ‘anarchy’. Analyzing the work of three major representatives of Dutch psychiatry in the Interbellum (Leendert Bouman, Han Rümke and Lammert van der Horst, the authors (former students of the master Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities shed light on the psychiatric climate of this era, dealing with themes like the openness of psychiatry to other sciences, the interactions of psychiatry and literature, and the relationship between theory and clinical practice. As a result a further qualification of the image of the pendulum is argued for.

  11. Plasma kallikrein enhances platelet aggregation response by subthreshold doses of ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaiano, Tatiana F; Andrade, Sheila S; de Oliveira, Cleide; Silva, Mariana C C; Buri, Marcus V; Juliano, Maria A; Girão, Manoel J B C; Sampaio, Misako U; Schmaier, Alvin H; Wlodawer, Alexander; Maffei, Francisco H A; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2017-04-01

    Human plasma kallikrein (huPK) potentiates platelet responses to subthreshold doses of ADP, although huPK itself, does not induce platelet aggregation. In the present investigation, we observe that huPK pretreatment of platelets potentiates ADP-induced platelet activation by prior proteolysis of the G-protein-coupled receptor PAR-1. The potentiation of ADP-induced platelet activation by huPK is mediated by the integrin α IIb β 3 through interactions with the KGD/KGE sequence motif in huPK. Integrin α IIb β 3 is a cofactor for huPK binding to platelets to support PAR-1 hydrolysis that contributes to activation of the ADP signaling pathway. This activation pathway leads to phosphorylation of Src, AktS 473 , ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK, and to Ca 2+ release. The effect of huPK is blocked by specific antagonists of PAR-1 (SCH 19197) and α IIb β 3 (abciximab) and by synthetic peptides comprising the KGD and KGE sequence motifs of huPK. Further, recombinant plasma kallikrein inhibitor, rBbKI, also blocks this entire mechanism. These results suggest a new function for huPK. Formation of plasma kallikrein lowers the threshold for ADP-induced platelet activation. The present observations are consistent with the notion that plasma kallikrein promotes vascular disease and thrombosis in the intravascular compartment and its inhibition may ameliorate cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Palliative psychiatry for severe persistent mental illness as a new approach to psychiatry? Definition, scope, benefits, and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Manuel; Irwin, Scott A; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Hoff, Paul; Riese, Florian

    2016-07-22

    As a significant proportion of patients receiving palliative care suffer from states of anxiety, depression, delirium, or other mental symptoms, psychiatry and palliative care already collaborate closely in the palliative care of medical conditions. Despite this well-established involvement of psychiatrists in palliative care, psychiatry does not currently explicitly provide palliative care for patients with mental illness outside the context of terminal medical illness. Based on the WHO definition of palliative care, a, a working definition of palliative psychiatry is proposed. Palliative psychiatry focuses on mental health rather than medical/physical issues. We propose that the beneficiaries of palliative psychiatry are patients with severe persistent mental illness, who are at risk of therapeutic neglect and/or overly aggressive care within current paradigms. These include long-term residential care patients with severe chronic schizophrenia and insufficient quality of life, those with therapy-refractory depressions and repeated suicide attempts, and those with severe long-standing therapy-refractory anorexia nervosa. An explicitly palliative approach within psychiatry has the potential to improve quality of care, person-centredness, outcomes, and autonomy for patients with severe persistent mental illness. The first step towards a palliative psychiatry is to acknowledge those palliative approaches that already exist implicitly in psychiatry. Basic skills for a palliative psychiatry include communication of diagnosis and prognosis, symptom assessment and management, support for advance (mental health) care planning, assessment of caregiver needs, and referral to specialized services. Some of these may already be considered core skills of psychiatrists, but for a truly palliative approach they should be exercised guided by an awareness of the limited functional prognosis and lifespan of patients with severe persistent mental illness.

  13. Crossing the line--learning psychiatry at the movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Adil; O'Brien, Aileen; O'Neill, Aidan; Latham, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Special Study Modules (SSMs) have developed in response to the General Medical Council's recommendations. St George's, University of London runs a 'Psychiatry and Film' SSM for medical students on the 5-year MBBS course. Many films have plots or characters that have a mental illness. Psychiatry & filmmaking share certain skills. Both seek to understand character, motivation and behaviour. Cinema therefore has the potential to be a useful tool for medical educational purposes. Specific to psychiatry, themes such as the accuracy of portrayals of different mental illness, the psychiatrist/patient relationship and living with a mental illness can be explored. General issues such as the role of the psychiatrist in society, medical ethics, professionalism and stigma can also be usefully highlighted for consideration and debate. This may encourage medical students to consider psychiatry as a potential career specialty and help reduce negative attitudes to mental illness.

  14. Attitudes towards psychiatry of undergraduate medical students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of mental health services to all citizens of Nigeria by the year 2000 and ... and clinic consultations. Undergraduate students' attitudes towards psychiatry potentially ..... peculiar or neurotic behaviours. 9 (36.0%). 16 (64.0%).

  15. The role of psychiatry in family violence treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasić Petar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics approach to family violence treatment is discussed, as well as the roles of psychiatry in current theoretical and therapeutic approaches to this issue, including systemic family therapy, social psychiatry primarily concerned with their treatment. Studies have shown that severe mental disorders do not increase ecology, unwillingness therapy and model of protection of family violence victims that is developed in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47021

  16. The guideline "consultation psychiatry" of the Netherlands Psychiatric Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentjens, A.F.G.; Boenink, A.D.; Sno, H.N.; Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M.; Croonenborg, van J.J.; Everdingen, van J.J.E.; Feltz - Cornelis, van der C.M.; Laan, van der S.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.; Os, T.W.D.P. Van

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Netherlands Psychiatric Association authorized a guideline "consultation psychiatry." Aim: To set a standard for psychiatric consultations in nonpsychiatric settings. The main objective of the guideline is to answer three questions: Is psychiatric consultation effective and,

  17. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Forensic Forum: Will Forensic Psychiatry survive DSM-5? | Kaliski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Altered poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism impairs cellular responses to genotoxic stress in a hypomorphic mutant of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hong; Coyle, Donna L.; Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Jacobson, Myron K.

    2007-01-01

    Genotoxic stress activates nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism leading to PAR synthesis catalyzed by DNA damage activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and rapid PAR turnover by action of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). The involvement of PARP-1 and PARP-2 in responses to DNA damage has been well studied but the involvement of nuclear PARG is less well understood. To gain insights into the function of nuclear PARG in DNA damage responses, we have quantitatively studied PAR metabolism in cells derived from a hypomorphic mutant mouse model in which exons 2 and 3 of the PARG gene have been deleted (PARG-Δ2,3 cells), resulting in a nuclear PARG containing a catalytic domain but lacking the N-terminal region (A domain) of the protein. Following DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), we found that the activity of both PARG and PARPs in intact cells is increased in PARG-Δ2,3 cells. The increased PARG activity leads to decreased PARP-1 automodification with resulting increased PARP activity. The degree of PARG activation is greater than PARP, resulting in decreased PAR accumulation. Following MNNG treatment, PARG-Δ2,3 cells show reduced formation of XRCC1 foci, delayed H2AX phosphorylation, decreased DNA break intermediates during repair, and increased cell death. Our results show that a precise coordination of PARPs and PARG activities is important for normal cellular responses to DNA damage and that this coordination is defective in the absence of the PARG A domain

  20. Age-Associated Impairments in Mitochondrial ADP Sensitivity Contribute to Redox Stress in Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham P. Holloway

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: It remains unknown if mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered with aging in humans. We established an in vitro method to simultaneously determine mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 emission in skeletal muscle tissue across a range of biologically relevant ADP concentrations. Using this approach, we provide evidence that, although the capacity for mitochondrial H2O2 emission is not increased with aging, mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is impaired. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial H2O2 and the fraction of electron leak to H2O2, in the presence of virtually all ADP concentrations examined. Moreover, although prolonged resistance training in older individuals increased muscle mass, strength, and maximal mitochondrial respiration, exercise training did not alter H2O2 emission rates in the presence of ADP, the fraction of electron leak to H2O2, or the redox state of the muscle. These data establish that a reduction in mitochondrial ADP sensitivity increases mitochondrial H2O2 emission and contributes to age-associated redox stress. : Holloway et al. show that an inability of ADP to decrease mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission contributes to redox stress in skeletal muscle tissue of older individuals and that this process is not recovered following prolonged resistance-type exercise training, despite the general benefits of resistance training for muscle health. Keywords: mitochondria, aging, muscle, ROS, H2O2, ADP, respiration, bioenergetics, exercise, resistance training

  1. How to improve psychiatric services: a perspective from critical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Prasanna

    2017-09-02

    Concern has been expressed from both within and outwith psychiatry about the relative lack of improvement of mental health services. Critical psychiatry is an emerging school of thought, mainly the product of practicing clinicians, which could be useful in remedying this situation. This article outlines, for psychiatrists and doctors of other specialities, practices which could be improved, and the competencies required to achieve this, in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

  2. One patient's search for antidotes to nihilism in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A prosumer who experienced problems after misdiagnosis and mistreatment, the author searched for explanations of the short cuts inflicted on him by a mental health professional. Wanting to learn from the painful experience of willful incompetence, write to achieve closure and create a teaching tale to help other patients, the author studied the literature, read about the tradition of nihilism in psychiatry, found research reports of deviations from practice guidelines and tested three antidotes to nihilism in psychiatry.

  3. The role of psychiatry in family violence treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nastasić, Petar; Hrnčić, Jasna; Brkić, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics appro...

  4. [Audio-visual communication in the history of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, B; Remoli, V; Russo, F

    1993-12-01

    The authors analyse the evolution of visual communication in the history of psychiatry. From the 18th century oil paintings to the first dagherrotic prints until the cinematography and the modern audiovisual systems they observed an increasing diffusion of the new communication techniques in psychiatry, and described the use of the different techniques in psychiatric practice. The article ends with a brief review of the current applications of the audiovisual in therapy, training, teaching, and research.

  5. Argentine psychiatry: report on the 30th Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul

    2016-04-01

    To give a contextualised personal account of the 30th Annual Congress of the Argentine Association of Psychiatrists. Conference attendance and analysis of talks. The congress demonstrated that Argentine psychiatry is held back by oppressive political regimes and by government underfunding. The drug companies and third-party payers are entering the vacuum. Argentine trainees and consultants feel ill-prepared to meet the demands of the biomedical psychiatry. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. [Medical students and psychiatry. A survey of students' opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, F; Corsini, G; Rovida, S

    1994-06-01

    In the last years research on the didactics of Psychiatry and opinions of medical students on Psychiatry has gained great interest. The authors think that this research could be useful for the improvement of didactics, for better understanding the meanings of professional choice, the identity of psychiatrist and their relationship with colleagues in other medical field. The goal of this research work was a preliminary survey of Genoese University Medical Student's opinions about psychiatry didactics, and choice of specialization. A questionnaire was submitted to all the students who passed Clinical Psychiatry examination in the period from November 1987 to December 1988. The students were divided in two randomized groups: the first group of students (224) was submitted to the questionnaire immediately after Clinical Psychiatry examination; while to the second group of students (66) the questionnaire was mailed. The aim of the questions was to assess the student's opinions on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, the career they wanted to take up, and the difficulties of studying psychiatry: 69% of the students of the first group and 42% of the students of the second group answered the questionnaire. Female students answered that they preferred psychiatric specialization more than their male colleagues did, but the difference has no statistical importance. In most cases, the students who answered that they have taken into account psychiatry as a choice of specialisation, are more interested in medical specialties (primary care, etc.) than in surgical specialties. Most of the medical students declare some emotional troubles (anxiety, sleeplessness, problem in social relations).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. [Alex, an example of a successful transition to adult psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, Thierry

    A successful transition between child psychiatry and adult psychiatry is the result of a joint project. To ensure the continuity of the adolescent's care, the two protagonists need a common and constructive clinical interpretation, and a shared understanding of the problems, without which the transition will be difficult. The story of Alex, a young teenager cared for since early childhood, illustrates the communication methods which must be put in place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Hda Monomerization by ADP Binding Promotes Replicase Clamp-mediated DnaA-ATP Hydrolysis*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenta; Keyamura, Kenji; Kudo, Yuka; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    ATP-DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli, and the activity of DnaA is regulated by the regulatory inactivation of the DnaA (RIDA) system. In this system, the Hda protein promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce inactive ADP-DnaA in a mechanism that is mediated by the DNA-loaded form of the replicase sliding clamp. In this study, we first revealed that hda translation uses an unusual initiation codon, CUG, located downstream of the annotated initiation codon. The CUG initiation codon could be used for restricting the Hda level, as this initiation codon has a low translation efficiency, and the cellular Hda level is only ∼100 molecules per cell. Hda translated using the correct reading frame was purified and found to have a high RIDA activity in vitro. Moreover, we found that Hda has a high affinity for ADP but not for other nucleotides, including ATP. ADP-Hda was active in the RIDA system in vitro and stable in a monomeric state, whereas apo-Hda formed inactive homomultimers. Both ADP-Hda and apo-Hda could form complexes with the DNA-loaded clamp; however, only ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complexes were highly functional in the following interaction with DnaA. Formation of ADP-Hda was also observed in vivo, and mutant analysis suggested that ADP binding is crucial for cellular Hda activity. Thus, we propose that ADP is a crucial Hda ligand that promotes the activated conformation of the protein. ADP-dependent monomerization might enable the arginine finger of the Hda AAA+ domain to be accessible to ATP bound to the DnaA AAA+ domain. PMID:18977760

  9. Towards Community - Reflections on Community Psychiatry, Culture and Alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The constant transformation of  communities  and  its relationship  with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding  communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature about Community Psychiatry and Culture, Communities, and Social Inequity and Mental Health.Results: The authors start by reviewing the meaning  of  Community and the  defining principles of Community Psychiatry in their relationships with  cultural  sensitivity.  This aspect is illustrated with two examples of the impact of culture and alterity in the understanding of Mental Health and Service Organization, one at the level of International and Global Mental Health, and the other at the local communities’ level. In this context, participatory action research is highlighted.Conclusions: Psychiatry,  in  particular Community  Psychiatry,  by acknowledging a  wide  range  of  methodologies  and  being open  to transdisciplinary  models, is in a privileged position of electing communities as a field of investigation and integrate it in its praxis.

  10. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    Computer technology dominates our daily lives and has become an integral professional tool in medical practice and by extension, in psychiatry as well. The widespread use of internet technology has taken place with unprecedented speed in the history of human civilization, spreading in a few decades to all countries of the world, offering novel possibilities for transmitting information, and leading to the globalization of knowledge. However, the speed with which computer technology is becoming a part of our lives is accompanied by difficulties in integration. The continued evolution of applications often leads to the impression that to be modern and efficient we have to run continuously after developments, dedicating time and effort that we cannot often afford. At the same time, its widespread use alters the needs of our patients, and our efficiency is constantly judged in a globalized environment which, while offering new possibilities, also has new demands. The initial impression that computer technology is simply a tool that can facilitate the work of those who are willing and able to use it has been replaced by the perception that the practice of medicine, in both clinical and academic level, requires sufficient knowledge of modern technology and the development of relevant skills for ongoing training and following innovative applications. The result of this assumption is the introduction of technology courses in the curricula of medical schools in the country. This article offers a brief description of the uses of information technology in psychiatry. In particular, e-mail is one of the most popular Internet services and there is internationally an increasing pressure from the public to be able to contact their doctor by e-mail. Furthermore, almost all psychiatric journals now have a digital electronic edition, thus increasing the volume of articles published, the ease of accessing the required information, and ultimately the reduction of the time it takes a

  11. Modulated anharmonic ADPs are intrinsic to aperiodic crystals: a case study on incommensurate Rb2ZnCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Wölfel, Alexander; Schönleber, Andreas; Mondal, Swastik; Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Smaalen, Sander van

    2011-01-01

    The superspace maximum entropy method (MEM) density in combination with structure refinements has been used to uncover the modulation in incommensurate Rb 2 ZnCl 4 close to the lock-in transition. Modulated atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and modulated anharmonic ADPs are found to form an intrinsic part of the modulation. Refined values for the displacement modulation function depend on the presence or absence of modulated ADPs in the model. A combination of structure refinements, analysis of the superspace MEM density and interpretation of difference-Fourier maps has been used to characterize the incommensurate modulation of rubidium tetrachlorozincate, Rb 2 ZnCl 4 , at a temperature of T = 196 K, close to the lock-in transition at T lock-in = 192 K. The modulation is found to consist of a combination of displacement modulation functions, modulated atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and modulated third-order anharmonic ADPs. Up to fifth-order Fourier coefficients could be refined against diffraction data containing up to fifth-order satellite reflections. The center-of-charge of the atomic basins of the MEM density and the displacive modulation functions of the structure model provide equivalent descriptions of the displacive modulation. Modulations of the ADPs and anharmonic ADPs are visible in the MEM density, but extracting quantitative information about these modulations appears to be difficult. In the structure refinements the modulation parameters of the ADPs form a dependent set, and ad hoc restrictions had to be introduced in the refinements. It is suggested that modulated harmonic ADPs and modulated third-order anharmonic ADPs form an intrinsic part, however small, of incommensurately modulated structures in general. Refinements of alternate models with and without parameters for modulated ADPs lead to significant differences between the parameters of the displacement modulation in these two types of models, thus showing the modulation of ADPs to

  12. Brain SPECT in psychiatry: Delusion or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Epstein, P.; Kohn, R.; Antonino, F.; Devore-Best, S.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The need for functional information is becoming increasingly evident for proper therapeutic approaches to the treatment and follow up of psychiatric diseases. While data on this subject already exists, there is a general lack of consensus about the use of brain SPECT in this domain and also a considerable negative prejudice due to a number of factors including poor quality imaging and unrealistic expectations. Based on a large group of brain SPECT-s performed over the past 3 years we attempted to sort and refine the indications for SPECT in psychiatry. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT was performed with triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A comprehensive semiquantitative color, 3D surface as well as multi-thresholded volume display was routinely used and supplemented by automatic realignment in case of longitudinal follow-up. Results: 470 brain SPECT-s done on 432 patients were all referred by psychiatrists or neuro-psychiatrists for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diseases and ranged in age from 7 to 88 years. The most common primary reasons for referral were : attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); anxiety; obsessive-compulsive disease, depression (refractory, chronic, bipolar ), impulse control problems; oppositional defiance, post traumatic brain injury; seizures, learning difficulties, pervasive development disorders, memory loss and differential of dementia. Among common denominators were long duration of the disease, unresponsiveness to treatment, worsening of clinical status, and presence of multiple conditions at the same time. The multiparametric display used enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the brain volume which included the hemispheric surfaces; the basal ganglia (striatum) and the thalamus, several components of the limbic and paralimbic systems: anterior and posterior cingulate and their respective subdivisions, insula-s and their subdivisions, apical and mesial

  13. Frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatry patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sevda Korkmaz,1 Sevler Yildiz,1 Tuba Korucu,1 Burcu Gundogan,1 Zehra Emine Sunbul,1 Hasan Korkmaz,2 Murad Atmaca1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Purpose: Anemia could cause psychiatric symptoms such as cognitive function disorders and depression or could deteriorate an existing psychiatric condition when it is untreated. The objective of this study is to scrutinize the frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatric patients and the clinical and sociodemographic factors that could affect this frequency.Methods: All inpatients in our clinic who satisfied the study criteria and received treatment between April 2014 and April 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data for 378 patients included in the study and hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit values observed during their admission to the hospital were recorded in the forms. Male patients with an Hb level of <13 g/dL and nonpregnant female patients with an Hb level of <12 g/dL were considered as anemic.Findings: Axis 1 diagnoses demonstrated that 172 patients had depressive disorder, 51 patients had bipolar disorder, 54 patients had psychotic disorder, 33 patients had conversion disorder, 19 patients had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 25 patients had generalized anxiety disorder, and 24 patients had other psychiatric conditions. It was also determined that 25.4% of the patients suffered from anemia. Thirty-five percent of females and 10% of males were considered as anemic. The frequency of anemia was the highest among psychotic disorder patients (35%, followed by generalized anxiety disorder patients (32%, and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (26%. Anemia was diagnosed in 22% of depressive disorder patients, 25% of bipolar disorder patients, and 24% of conversion disorder patients.Results: The prevalence of anemia among chronic psychiatry patients is more frequent than the general population

  14. Personal Therapy in Psychiatry Residency Training: A National Survey of Canadian Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Halli, Priyanka; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-02-01

    The authors collected nationally representative data on Canadian residents' experiences with and perspectives on personal psychotherapy in their psychiatric training. A 43-item questionnaire was distributed electronically to all current psychiatry residents in Canada (N = 839). Four hundred residents from every program across Canada returned the survey (response rate 47.7%). The prevalence of personal therapy at any time was 55.3%, with 42.8% receiving personal therapy during residency. Of residents who undertook personal psychotherapy, 59.3% engaged in weekly therapy, 74.1% received psychodynamic psychotherapy, and 81.5% participated in long-term therapy (>1 year). Personal growth, self-understanding, and professional development were the most common reasons for engaging in personal therapy; however, one-third of residents did so to alleviate symptoms of depression, anxiety, or other mental health concerns. Time was the most important factor impeding residents from personal therapy; only 8.8% found stigma to act as a barrier. The vast majority of residents rated their experience with personal therapy as having a positive or very positive impact on their personal life (84.8%) and overall development as psychiatrists (81.8%). For 64% of respondents, personal therapy had an important or very important role in psychiatry residency training. Residents who received personal therapy rated themselves as better able to understand what happens moment by moment during therapy sessions, detect and deal with patients' emotional reactions, and constructively use their personal reactions to patients. Interest in personal therapy remains strong among psychiatry trainees in Canada. Residents who engaged in psychotherapy endorsed greater confidence in psychotherapy and rated their psychotherapy skills more favorably than those who had never been in the patient role, supporting the view of personal therapy as an important adjunct to psychotherapy training during residency.

  15. Palliative psychiatry for severe persistent mental illness as a new approach to psychiatry? Definition, scope, benefits, and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Trachsel, Manuel; Irwin, Scott A; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Hoff, Paul; Riese, Florian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a significant proportion of patients receiving palliative care suffer from states of anxiety, depression, delirium, or other mental symptoms, psychiatry and palliative care already collaborate closely in the palliative care of medical conditions. Despite this well-established involvement of psychiatrists in palliative care, psychiatry does not currently explicitly provide palliative care for patients with mental illness outside the context of terminal medical illness. DISCUSSI...

  16. ‎ Factors Affecting the Choice of Psychiatry as a Specialty in ‎Psychiatry Residents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Seyed Saeed; Nayerifard‎‎, Razieh; Samimi Ardestani, Seyed Mehdi; Namjoo, Massood

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the current factors affecting the choice of ‎psychiatry as a specialty and to detect the main factors in their choice.‎ Method: This descriptive study included 75 first year psychiatry residents in the academic year of ‎‎2014/2015. A Likert-type anonymous questionnaire consisting of academic and ‎demographic data with 43 questions, which evaluated the reason for choosing ‎psychiatry as a specialty, was given to the residents.‎ Results: The participants had a positive opinion about 28 items of the questionnaire, meaning that ‎these items had a positive effect in choosing psychiatry as a specialty (questions with P ‎value less than 0.05 and a positive mean). More than 80% of the residents had a positive ‎opinion about six items of the questionnaire (amount of intellectual challenge, variety of ‎knowledge fields relevant to psychiatry, emphasis on the patient as a whole person, the ‎importance of treating mental illnesses in the future, work pressure and stress of the ‎field during residency and coordinating with the person's life style). The participants ‎had a negative opinion about two items of the questionnaire (questions with a P value ‎less than 0.05 and a negative mean). They included experiencing mental illness ‎personally through relatives or close friends as well as the income in psychiatry. ‎Moreover, 36% of the residents with a more definite opinion mentioned that they chose ‎psychiatry as a specialty because of the limitations in residency exam.‎ Conclusion: Assistants had a positive opinion about most of the questions and this positive attitude ‎seemed to be an important factor in their specialty choice. However, attending to the ‎preventing factors may increase the selection of psychiatry as a specialty.‎ PMID:27928251

  17. [The "Psychiatrie-Enquete" - the German Report on the State of Psychiatry in 1975].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzen, Asmus

    2015-10-01

    Forty years ago an expert-commission submitted a report on the deplorable state of German psychiatric care, called the "Psychiatrie-Enquete" to the Bundestag, the German parliament. The Report initiated a substantial change of Psychiatric services in the country. Inhuman treatment and living conditions were superseded. Mental hospitals were not completely abolished. But they lost their importance in favour of decentralized psychiatric services including departments at general hospitals, day hospitals and outpatient services. Custodial care was largely successfully developed into therapeutic and rehabilitative care. This article attempts a mildly critical evaluation of the Enquête 40 years after. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Contested Boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public.

  19. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  20. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Nasser; Gorji, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The history of psychological sciences and especially the ways in which related disorders were treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the West. The main objective of this article is to review the clinical approaches to psychological disorders used by practitioners in medieval Persia. Several documents still exist from which the clinical data on different psychological syndromes in medieval Persia can be ascertained. Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Internet, references from relevant articles and books, the Astan-e-Ghods Razavi Library, the Tehran University Library, the Mashhad University Library, and the files of the authors. Search terms included psychiatry, psychology, Persian, medieval, Avicenna, and pharmacotherapy. The medieval practitioners defined various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of these disorders. Medieval Persian medical writings encouraged the treatment of psychological disorders by tackling the conditions that cause or contribute to the disorder and through the use of electrical-shock therapy, phlebotomy, psychotherapy, music and color therapy, and especially prescription of long lists of medicaments. Some of the approaches of doctors in medieval Persia are accepted today, although most remain largely unexamined. With further research, more of these treatments may be shown to be of use to modern medicine.

  1. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background.

  2. Beyond the DSM: trends in psychiatry diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Russowsky Brunoni

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Although widely used in clinical practice and research, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM diagnoses have low validity: patients with different mental disorders can share similar symptoms, while those with the same diagnosis might have different symptoms. In fact, the DSM diagnostic system has been considered one of the main obstacles for further development of psychiatric research. Recently, it has been proposed that psychiatry nosology should be reframed according to a biologically-based etiology. Objectives: To review present and past endeavors of establishing an etiology-based nosology. Methods: Comprehensive review of articles on the topic. Results: From Hippocrates onwards, multiple attempts have been undertaken aiming to move etiology and nosology closer. The most recent efforts are represented by Developmental Psychopathology (DP and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC, which presents an operational matrix recommended to be used in clinical research instead of the DSM diagnoses. Discussion: The DSM-based nosology is faulty. RDoC and DP might be interesting alternatives for an etiology-based nosology. However, while DP has already brought promising results, RDoC is a novel proposal, whose advantages and disadvantages should gradually be identified in the upcoming years.

  3. Effect of oxalic acid on the optical, thermal, dielectric and mechanical behaviour of ADP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the addition, over a concentration range from 1 to 5 mol%, of oxalic acid on the growth rate, optical transparency, hardness, dielectric behaviour, and SHG efficiency of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals grown by slow evaporation method has been investigated. UV-Vis studies show that the transparency of the oxalic acid added crystals decreased gradually. Thermal studies indicate that the decomposition temperatures of the crystal are decreased in oxalic acid added ADP crystals. It is observed from the dielectric measurements that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increase with increase in temperature for all the crystals. Vicker's microhardness study reveals that the addition of higher concentration of oxalic acid decreases the hardness of the crystal. SHG efficiency of 1 mol% of oxalic acid is higher than the pure ADP.

  4. The mechanism of action of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases inhibitors and its application perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaofei; Cao Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) constitute a family of enzymes involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. It plays a vital role in many physical and physiopathological processes,, In the past ten years scientists have conducted extensive research on PARP and its inhibitors, among which the role of PARP inhihitors in radiosensitization, chemopotentiation and neuroprotection have been placed close attention. There have been several PARP inhibitors entering the clinical trials, which predicts its sound application perspectives. (authors)

  5. Interaction of cytochalasin D with actin filaments in the presence of ADP and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, M F; Criquet, P; Pantaloni, D; Korn, E D

    1986-02-15

    Cytochalasin D strongly inhibits the faster components in the reactions of actin filament depolymerization and elongation in the presence of 10 mM Tris-Cl-, pH 7.8, 0.2 mM dithiothreitol, 1 mM MgCl2, 0.1 mM CaCl2, and 0.2 mM ATP or ADP. Assuming an exclusive and total capping of the barbed end by the drug, the kinetic parameters derived at saturation by cytochalasin D refer to the pointed end and are 10-15-fold lower than at the barbed end. In ATP, the critical concentration increases with cytochalasin D up to 12-fold its value when both ends are free; as a result of the lowering of the free energy of nucleation by cytochalasin D, short oligomers of F-actin exist just above and below the critical concentration. Cytochalasin D interacts strongly with the barbed ends independently of the ADP-G-actin concentration (K = 0.5 nM-1). In contrast, the affinity of cytochalasin D decreases cooperatively with increasing ATP-G-actin concentration. These data are equally well accounted for by two different models: either cytochalasin D binds very poorly to ATP-capped filament ends whose proportion increases with actin concentration, or cytochalasin D binds equally well to ATP-ends and ADP-ends and also binds to actin dimers in ATP but not in ADP. A linear actin concentration dependence of the rate of growth was found at the pointed end, consistent with the virtual absence of an ATP cap at that end.

  6. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. © 2013.

  7. Neuropsychiatry and neuroscience education of psychiatry trainees: attitudes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon; Travis, Michael J; Cooper, Joseph J; Dickey, Chandlee C; Reardon, Claudia L

    2014-04-01

    The American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) Task Force on Neuropsychiatry and Neuroscience Education of Psychiatry Residents was established in 2011 with the charge to seek information about what the field of psychiatry considers the core topics in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience to which psychiatry residents should be exposed; whether there are any "competencies" in this area on which the field agrees; whether psychiatry departments have the internal capacity to teach these topics if they are desirable; and what the reception would be for "portable curricula" in neuroscience. The task force reviewed the literature and developed a survey instrument to be administered nationwide to all psychiatry residency program directors. The AADPRT Executive Committee assisted with the survey review, and their feedback was incorporated into the final instrument. In 2011-2012, 226 adult and child and adolescent psychiatry residency program directors responded to the survey, representing over half of all US adult and child psychiatry training directors. About three quarters indicated that faculty resources were available in their departments but 39% felt the lack of neuropsychiatry faculty and 36% felt the absence of neuroscience faculty to be significant barriers. Respectively, 64 and 60% felt that neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience knowledge were very important or critically important to the provision of excellent care. Ninety-two percent were interested in access to portable neuroscience curricula. There is widespread agreement among training directors on the importance of neuropsychiatry and neuroscience knowledge to general psychiatrists but barriers to training exist, including some programs that lack faculty resources and a dearth of portable curricula in these areas.

  8. A new approach of optimal control for a class of continuous-time chaotic systems by an online ADP algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui-Zhuo; Xiao, Wen-Dong; Wei, Qing-Lai

    2014-05-01

    We develop an online adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) based optimal control scheme for continuous-time chaotic systems. The idea is to use the ADP algorithm to obtain the optimal control input that makes the performance index function reach an optimum. The expression of the performance index function for the chaotic system is first presented. The online ADP algorithm is presented to achieve optimal control. In the ADP structure, neural networks are used to construct a critic network and an action network, which can obtain an approximate performance index function and the control input, respectively. It is proven that the critic parameter error dynamics and the closed-loop chaotic systems are uniformly ultimately bounded exponentially. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the established optimal control method.

  9. [An analysis of advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch Journal of Psychiatry ('Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, W; Kuyken, K

    2009-01-01

    Through the marketing of psychotropics the pharmaceutical industry is able to influence the way in which psychiatrists practise their profession. To look at the image of psychiatry as reflected in advertisements for psychotropics. method Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the advertisements for psychotropics in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie between 1999 and 2006. On average 6 per cent of the total number of pages was given over annually to advertisements of psychotropics. The number of pages used for these advertisements changed over the years, with a sharp decline between 2002 and 2004. Before 2002 the majority of advertisements was for antidepressants, but later most of them were for antipsychotics. Three-quarters of the illustrations for antidepressants featured women whereas three-quarters of the illustrations for antipsychotics featured men. In general, the advertisements were of an 'emotional' nature and surprisingly few of them contained any scientific information. The advertisements for psychotropics portrayed a stereotyped image implying that it is mainly women who are depressed and mainly men who are psychotic. In its advertisements the pharmaceutical industry seeks primarily emotional reactions and uses hardly any scientific arguments. We wonder if the editorial boards of scientific journals should perhaps adopt a more critical attitude to these kinds of advertisements.

  10. Class I ADP-ribosylation factors are involved in enterovirus 71 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in infants and children. Replication of enterovirus 71 depends on host cellular factors. The viral replication complex is formed in novel, cytoplasmic, vesicular compartments. It has not been elucidated which cellular pathways are hijacked by the virus to create these vesicles. Here, we investigated whether proteins associated with the cellular secretory pathway were involved in enterovirus 71 replication. We used a loss-of-function assay, based on small interfering RNA. We showed that enterovirus 71 RNA replication was dependent on the activity of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. Simultaneous depletion of ADP-ribosylation factors 1 and 3, but not three others, inhibited viral replication in cells. We also demonstrated with various techniques that the brefeldin-A-sensitive guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, GBF1, was critically important for enterovirus 71 replication. Our results suggested that enterovirus 71 replication depended on GBF1-mediated activation of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. These results revealed a connection between enterovirus 71 replication and the cellular secretory pathway; this pathway may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

  11. Yeast Mitochondrial Interactosome Model: Metabolon Membrane Proteins Complex Involved in the Channeling of ADP/ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Clémençon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a mitochondrial interactosome (MI has been currently well established in mammalian cells but the exact composition of this super-complex is not precisely known, and its organization seems to be different from that in yeast. One major difference is the absence of mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK in yeast, unlike that described in the organization model of MI, especially in cardiac, skeletal muscle and brain cells. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed description of different partner proteins involved in the synergistic ADP/ATP transport across the mitochondrial membranes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to propose a new mitochondrial interactosome model. The ADP/ATP (Aacp and inorganic phosphate (PiC carriers as well as the VDAC (or mitochondrial porin catalyze the import and export of ADP, ATP and Pi across the mitochondrial membranes. Aacp and PiC, which appear to be associated with the ATP synthase, consist of two nanomotors (F0, F1 under specific conditions and form ATP synthasome. Identification and characterization of such a complex were described for the first time by Pedersen and co-workers in 2003.

  12. Class I ADP-ribosylation factors are involved in enterovirus 71 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianmin; Du, Jiang; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in infants and children. Replication of enterovirus 71 depends on host cellular factors. The viral replication complex is formed in novel, cytoplasmic, vesicular compartments. It has not been elucidated which cellular pathways are hijacked by the virus to create these vesicles. Here, we investigated whether proteins associated with the cellular secretory pathway were involved in enterovirus 71 replication. We used a loss-of-function assay, based on small interfering RNA. We showed that enterovirus 71 RNA replication was dependent on the activity of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. Simultaneous depletion of ADP-ribosylation factors 1 and 3, but not three others, inhibited viral replication in cells. We also demonstrated with various techniques that the brefeldin-A-sensitive guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, GBF1, was critically important for enterovirus 71 replication. Our results suggested that enterovirus 71 replication depended on GBF1-mediated activation of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. These results revealed a connection between enterovirus 71 replication and the cellular secretory pathway; this pathway may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

  13. Roles of Asp179 and Glu270 in ADP-Ribosylation of Actin by Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Belyy

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin composed of the enzymatically active component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ia is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies Arg177 of actin. The previously determined crystal structure of the actin-Ia complex suggested involvement of Asp179 of actin in the ADP-ribosylation reaction. To gain more insights into the structural requirements of actin to serve as a substrate for toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation, we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, in which wild type actin was replaced by actin variants with substitutions in residues located on the Ia-actin interface. Expression of the actin mutant Arg177Lys resulted in complete resistance towards Ia. Actin mutation of Asp179 did not change Ia-induced ADP-ribosylation and growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae. By contrast, substitution of Glu270 of actin inhibited the toxic action of Ia and the ADP-ribosylation of actin. In vitro transcribed/translated human β-actin confirmed the crucial role of Glu270 in ADP-ribosylation of actin by Ia.

  14. Structure and properties of Al-MIL-53-ADP, a breathing MOF based on the aliphatic linker molecule adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Helge; Pillai, Renjith S; Siegel, Renée; Senker, Jürgen; Lieb, Alexandra; Maurin, Guillaume; Stock, Norbert

    2016-03-14

    The new aluminium based metal-organic framework [Al(OH)(O2C-C4H8-CO2)]·H2O denoted as Al-MIL-53-ADP-lp (lp stands for large pore) was synthesised under solvothermal conditions. This solid is an analogue of the archetypical aluminium terephthalate Al-MIL-53 based on the aliphatic single-chain linker molecule adipic acid (H2ADP, hexanedioic acid). In contrast to its aromatic counterparts, Al-MIL-53-ADP exhibits a structural breathing behaviour solely upon dehydration/rehydration. The crystal structure of the anhydrous compound denoted as Al-MIL-53-ADP-np (np stands for narrow pore) was determined by a combination of forcefield-based computations and Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction data while the structure of the hydrated form Al-MIL-53-ADP-lp was derived computationally by a combination of force field based methods and Density Functional Theory calculations. Both structures were further supported by (1)H, (13)C and (27)Al high-resolution NMR MAS 1D data coupled again with simulations. Al-MIL-53-ADP was further characterised by means of vibrational spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetry and water vapour sorption.

  15. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  16. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [ 3 H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with 11 C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [ 11 C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [ 11 C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [ 11 C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation was observed

  17. Longitudinal Analysis of Female Authorship of Psychiatry Articles in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden Aki, Özlem; Özçelik Eroğlu, Elçin; Uslu, Ece

    2015-03-01

    The number of women with careers in medicine and with academic positions at medical schools has increased substantially since the 1980s; however, women remain underrepresented in medical academia, which may be because of the fewer research publications authored by women. This study aimed to determine the gender distribution among Turkish authors of psychiatry articles published in international scientific journals during a 30-year period. The ISI Web of Science database was searched for all psychiatry publications between 1980 and 2009 using the search term Turkey. All articles were classified according to publication period (1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009), gender of the first and last authors, first author title, total number of authors, and type of article. In all, 1961 articles meet the study criteria. The first author of 36.5% of the articles and 34.9% of last authors were women. The percentage of female first and last authors did not differ according to publication period (p=0.57). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to examine gender and authorship of psychiatric research in Turkey. In total, 33% of academic positions in Turkish university psychiatry departments were occupied by women, which is comparable to the percentage of female first authors of psychiatric research papers from Turkey. It could be concluded that women academics in psychiatry departments from state universities are as reproductive as their male counterparts, but there is still a "gender gap" in psychiatry field in our country.

  18. Forensic psychiatry in India: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi, S; Ilango, Siva; Prabha, Lakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry, in which scientific and clinical expertise is applied to legal issues in legal contexts embracing civil, criminal, correctional, or legislative matters. Forensic psychiatry is still in an infant stage in India and other developing countries. Law is the sanctioning discipline, and Psychiatry is the therapeutic discipline. Due to various reasons, Forensic Psychiatry is reared as Cinderella in our country; "which is much neglected, ignored, misinterpreted, and misunderstood. Legislation forms an integral component in the implementation of Mental Health Care; there is a dynamic relationship between the concept of mental illness, treatment of the mentally ill, and the law. Mental Health legislation is essential in protecting the rights and dignity of persons with Mental Disorders and for implementing effectively the mental health services. "Effective mental health legislation can provide a legal frame work to integrate mental health services in the community as to overcome stigma, discrimination, and exclusion of mentally ill persons. Legislations can also create enforceable standards for high quality medical care and improve access to care and protect civil, political, social, and economic rights of the mentally ill individual, including right to access to education, employment, housing, and social security."

  19. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The political use of psychiatry: A comparison between totalitarian regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Giannuli, Aldo Sabino

    2017-03-01

    After the end of Second World War, the recent experience of the Nazi horrors stimulated a debate about the political use of psychiatry. Over the years, the focus shifted on major dictatorships of the time and especially on Soviet Union. This article aims to provide a critical review of the ways in which psychiatry was used by totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. We summarized relevant literature about political use of psychiatry in totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, with particular focus on Fascism, Nazism, Argentina dictatorship, Soviet Union and China. One of the features that are common to most of the dictatorships is that the use of psychiatry has become more prominent when the regimes have had the need to make more acceptable the imprisonment of enemies in the eyes of the world. This for example happened in the Nazi regime when sterilization and killing of psychiatric patients was explained as a kind of euthanasia, or in the Soviet Union after the formal closure of the corrective labor camps and the slow resumption of relations with the capitalistic world, or in China to justify persecution of religious minorities and preserve economic relations with Western countries. Psychiatry has been variously used by totalitarian regimes as a means of political persecution and especially when it was necessary to make acceptable to public opinion the imprisonment of political opponents.

  1. Attitudes toward neuroscience education among psychiatry residents and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94%) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91%). Nearly all (94%) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education.

  2. The implication of transcultural psychiatry for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldavsky, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the main concepts of Transcultural Psychiatry and their applications to everyday psychiatric practice. Transcultural psychiatry has undergone a conceptual reformulation in the last two decades. Having started with a comparative approach, which focused on the diverse manifestations of mental disorders among different societies, it broadened its scope, aiming at present to incorporate social and cultural aspects of illness into the clinical framework. Therefore, transcultural psychiatry now focuses more on what is called the illness experience than on the disease process, the latter understood as illness as it is viewed by health practitioners. Western medicine, of which psychiatry is a part, is grounded in positivist epistemological principles that stress the biological processes of disease. The intention of the paper is to develop an interest in alternative but also complementary ways of thinking. Modern transcultural psychiatry interprets some epidemiological and clinical aspects of major mental disorders (such as schizophrenia and depression) in a different light. However, it also distances itself from the absolute relativism of antipsychiatry, centering on clinical facts and helping clinicians in their primary task of alleviating suffering. An important contribution in addressing this task is the formulation of a cultural axis within the DSM model of multiaxial evaluation. A clinical vignette of a cultural formulation applied to a clinical discussion of a case is described.

  3. Dualism and its place in a philosophical structure for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Hane Htut

    2018-05-19

    It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers. I argue that while the neuroscientific research underpinning biological psychiatry challenges the traditional dualism of René Descartes, it does not pose any problem for the more modern dualism of David Chalmers. It is possible to take seriously the scientific claims of biological psychiatry while holding that this latter form of dualism is true. This has implications for the positioning of the mind-body problem in psychiatry. While the "easy" problem of explaining psychological processes is relevant to the aims of biological psychiatry, psychiatrists need not worry about the "hard" problem of consciousness.

  4. [Treatment of offenders with mental disorders: focusing on prison psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of

  5. A Thorn in the Flesh? Forensic Inpatients in General Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerhøj, Jette; Stølan, Liv Os; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To illuminate whether and how taking care of forensic inpatients is experienced as a burden among staff and managers in general psychiatry. DESIGN AND METHODS: Qualitative analytical strategies based on interviews and questionnaires. FINDINGS: The interplay between physical environment...... of staff identify the care of mentally disordered offenders in general psychiatric units as either "a parking space" or a very difficult or frightening course, where staff members tend to behave like pleasers in order to avoid risks of conflict or physical violence. Either way, it seems hard to provide...... sufficient mental health care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nationwide training and teaching as well as knowledge exchange between specialized forensic psychiatry and general psychiatry are recommended. Further exploration is needed on patient perspectives and on avenues to increase efficiency and decrease...

  6. Towards real persons: Clinical judgement and philosophy of psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Thornton

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the motivations for the new philosophy of psychiatry is the need to understand changing ideas in mental health care. In the last century, changes in both physical and biological theory prompted work in philosophy of physics and philosophy of biology to understand those fields better, attempts which were continuous with empirical work. At the start of this century, changes in psychiatry promise increased interest in the philosophy of psychiatry as an attempt, alongside empirical research, to understand the conceptual underpinnings of mental heath care. While philosophical methods are distinct from empirical methods, the work is truly interdisciplinary, growing organically from the complexities of demand on psychiatric care and, although philosophical, carried out by philosophers and psychiatrists alike. One focus is the nature of clinical judgement in psychiatric diagnosis. In this short note I will briefly sketch some issues that arise from a current idea: that psychiatric diagnosis should include idiographic elements.

  7. [Military psychiatry in Israel: a 50-year perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, A

    2000-05-01

    The history of military psychiatry in Israel may be divided into 2 main periods. The first extended from the War of Independence in 1948, through the Sinai, Six Day and Yom Kippur Wars. Its outstanding feature was avoidance of the issue of combat stress reaction (CSR). The Yom Kippur War made the recognition of CSR inescapable, assisted in breaking up denial, and served as a stimulus for development of the next phase of the system. This second phase was characterized by impressive progress in all areas of military psychiatry. The rich experience accumulated during the wars, together with the assimilation of a research culture which began blooming, especially in the wake of the Lebanon War, aided the development and crystallization of concepts related to combat and non-combat military psychiatry alike. The build-up of the mental health organization overlapped field deployment of the Medical Corps.

  8. From Patient Discharge Summaries to an Ontology for Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Marion; Aimé, Xavier; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Charlet, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatry aims at detecting symptoms, providing diagnoses and treating mental disorders. We developed ONTOPSYCHIA, an ontology for psychiatry in three modules: social and environmental factors of mental disorders, mental disorders, and treatments. The use of ONTOPSYCHIA, associated with dedicated tools, will facilitate semantic research in Patient Discharge Summaries (PDS). To develop the first module of the ontology we propose a PDS text analysis in order to explicit psychiatry concepts. We decided to set aside classifications during the construction of the modu le, to focus only on the information contained in PDS (bottom-up approach) and to return to domain classifications solely for the enrichment phase (top-down approach). Then, we focused our work on the development of the LOVMI methodology (Les Ontologies Validées par Méthode Interactive - Ontologies Validated by Interactive Method), which aims to provide a methodological framework to validate the structure and the semantic of an ontology.

  9. Link prediction boosted psychiatry disorder classification for functional connectivity network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Mei, Xue; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Jiashuang

    2017-02-01

    Functional connectivity network (FCN) is an effective tool in psychiatry disorders classification, and represents cross-correlation of the regional blood oxygenation level dependent signal. However, FCN is often incomplete for suffering from missing and spurious edges. To accurate classify psychiatry disorders and health control with the incomplete FCN, we first `repair' the FCN with link prediction, and then exact the clustering coefficients as features to build a weak classifier for every FCN. Finally, we apply a boosting algorithm to combine these weak classifiers for improving classification accuracy. Our method tested by three datasets of psychiatry disorder, including Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The experimental results show our method not only significantly improves the classification accuracy, but also efficiently reconstructs the incomplete FCN.

  10. Quantitative Description of Medical Student Interest in Neurology and Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raddy L; Cuoco, Joshua A; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Given the well-documented shortage of physicians in primary care and several other specialties, quantitative understanding of residency application and matching data among osteopathic and allopathic medical students has implications for predicting trends in the physician workforce. To estimate medical student interest in neurology and psychiatry based on numbers of applicants and matches to neurology and psychiatry osteopathic and allopathic residency programs. Also, to gauge students' previous academic experience with brain and cognitive sciences. The number of available postgraduate year 1 positions, applicants, and matches from graduating years 2011 through 2015 were collected from the National Matching Services Inc and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine for osteopathic programs and the National Resident Matching Program and the Association of American Medical Colleges for allopathic programs. To determine and compare osteopathic and allopathic medical students' interest in neurology and psychiatry, the number of positions, applicants, and matches were analyzed considering the number of total osteopathic and allopathic graduates in the given year using 2-tailed χ2 analyses with Yates correction. In addition, osteopathic and allopathic medical schools' websites were reviewed to determine whether neurology and psychiatry rotations were required. Osteopathic medical students' reported undergraduate majors were also gathered. Compared with allopathic medical students, osteopathic medical students had significantly greater interest (as measured by applicants) in neurology (χ21=11.85, Pneurology and psychiatry residency programs. Approximately 6% of osteopathic vs nearly 85% of allopathic medical schools had required neurology rotations. Nearly 10% of osteopathic applicants and matriculants had undergraduate coursework in brain and cognitive sciences. Osteopathic medical students demonstrated greater interest than allopathic medical

  11. The importance of neuropsychopharmacology in the development of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sandor

    2014-09-01

    The author establishes that Psychiatry has been in a difficult situation especially in Hungary since closing down the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology. He reviews the most important factors which hold up the development of Psychiatry. He settles that the development of Psychiatry is inconceivable without a person's holistic approach which assumes the biological, mental, cultural-social and spiritual approach. Disturbances of perception have particular roles in the formation of psychopathological symptoms which are based on the operation of the nervous system. This fact emphasises the importance of the nervous system and the neuropsychopharmacology which we have known since the beginning of history although it is hardly half a century old. He pays the attention to the psychoactive medicine that was well-known in the ancient civilization. He reviews some of them which were actually the first neuropsychopharmacological pharmaceuticals. He emphasises the dichotomy of the psychopathological symptoms which are partly objective, partly subjective but based on the operation of the nervous system by all means. His statements not only establish a new kind of approach of both the person and the Psychiatry but enables the development of Psychiatry, the creation of a new sort of diagnostic system, eliminating the variance among the experts dealing with people, the neurologists, the psychiatrists, the psychologists, the sociologists, the philosophers and the theologians, ensuring the biological (neurological), psychological, cultural and spiritual perpetuity. The biological, genetic, psychic, cultural-social and spiritual approach, the application of nanomedicine that enable not only recognising the organic neurological bases of the psychiatric disorders that are all crucial for the future researchers but also essential in the development of the neuropsychopharmacology based on the function of the nervous system.

  12. Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors: A Missed Opportunity for Psychiatry Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Matthew N; Krystal, John H

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points. For each major, the authors determined rates of specialty choice of psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and, for comparison, internal medicine. This study employed Chi-square statistic to compare odds of various specialty choices among different majors. Among medical students with an undergraduate neuroscience major (3.5% of all medical students), only 2.3% preferred psychiatry at matriculation, compared to 21.5% who chose neurology, 13.1% neurosurgery, and 11% internal medicine. By graduation, psychiatry specialty choice increased to 5.1% among neuroscience majors while choice of neurology and neurosurgery declined. Psychology majors (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 2.60-4.47) but not neuroscience majors (OR 1.28, 0.92-1.77) were more likely than their peers to choose psychiatry. Psychiatry struggles to attract neuroscience majors to the specialty. This missed opportunity is an obstacle to developing the neuroscience literacy of the workforce and jeopardizes the neuroscientific future of our field. Several potential strategies to address the recruitment challenges exist.

  13. Pediatric bipolar disorder in an era of "mindless psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Peter I; Levin, Edmund C

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) reflects shifts in conceptualizing bipolar disorder among children and adolescents since the mid-1990s. Since then, PBD diagnoses, predominantly in the United States, have increased dramatically, and the diagnosis has attracted significant controversy. During the same period, psychiatric theory and practice has become increasingly biological. The aim of this paper is to examine the rise of PBD in terms of wider systemic influences. In the context of literature referring to paradigm shifts in psychiatry, we reviewed the psychiatric literature, media cases, and information made available by investigative committees and journalists. Social historians and prominent psychiatrists describe a paradigm shift in psychiatry over recent decades: from an era of "brainless psychiatry," when an emphasis on psychodynamic and family factors predominated to the exclusion of biological factors, to a current era of "mindless psychiatry" that emphasizes neurobiological explanations for emotional and behavioral problems with limited regard for contextual meaning. Associated with this has been a tendency within psychiatry and society to neglect trauma and attachment insecurity as etiological factors; the "atheoretical" (but by default biomedical) premise of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd and 4th eds.); the influence of the pharmaceutical industry in research, continuing medical education, and direct-to-consumer advertising; and inequality in the U.S. health system that favors "diagnostic upcoding." Harm from overmedicating children is now a cause of public concern. It can be argued that PBD as a widespread diagnosis, particularly in the United States, reflects multiple factors associated with a paradigm shift within psychiatry rather than recognition of a previously overlooked common disorder.

  14. The position of nervous diseases between internal medicine and psychiatry in the XIXth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterenshis, M V

    1999-12-01

    It is frequently said and believed that the history of clinical neurology of the 19th century has much in common with the history of psychiatry. Though neurology and psychiatry are neighboring clinical disciplines, the development of clinical neurology differs from that of psychiatry in 19th century Europe. The history of bedside neurology is that of gradual separation of nervous diseases from other internal diseases. Despite the efforts of the German psychiatrists, any influence of psychiatry on that process was very limited.

  15. Transfers to psychiatry through the consultation-liaison psychiatry service: 11 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michopoulos Ioannis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only a few reports on issues related to patient transfer from medical and surgical departments to the psychiatric ward by the consultation-liaison psychiatry service, although it is a common practice. Here, we present a study assessing the factors that influence such transfers. Method We examined the demographic and clinical backgrounds of a group of patients transferred from internal medicine and surgery to the psychiatric ward over an 11-year period. A comparison was made of this data with data obtained from a group of non-transferred patients, also seen by the same consultation-liaison psychiatry service. Results According to our findings, the typical transferred patient, either female or male, is single, divorced or widowed, lives alone, belongs to a lower socioeconomic class, presents initially with (on the whole a disturbed and disruptive behaviour, has had a recent suicide attempt with persistent suicidal ideas, suffers from a mood disorder (mainly depressive and dysthymic disorders, has a prior psychiatric history as well as a prior psychiatric inpatient treatment, and a positive diagnosis on axis II of the five axis system used for mental health diagnosis. Conclusion The transfer of a patient to the psychiatric ward is a decision depending on multiple factors. Medical diagnoses do not seem to play a major role in the transfer to the psychiatric ward. From the psychiatric diagnosis, depressive and dysthymic disorders are the most common in the transferred population, whilst the transfer is influenced by social factors regarding the patient, the patient's behaviour, the conditions in the ward she/he is treated in and any recent occurrence(s that increase the anxiety of the staff.

  16. Point-of-Care Child Psychiatry Expertise: The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Jeanne; Le, Thuy-Tien; Perrin, James M

    2015-05-01

    Since 2005, after a pilot program, the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP) has provided point-of-care psychiatry expertise and referral assistance by telephone to primary care providers. We examined its adoption and use and the practice characteristics associated with different adoption timelines and use patterns. We merged data on calls to MCPAP in 2005 to 2011 with practice data (enrollment year, panel size, regional team assignment). We categorized practices' days from enrollment to first call (adoption) (0-100, 101-365, > 365 days) and quartile of call frequency (use) (annual highest, middle, and lowest quartiles of number of calls per 1000 empanelled patients). We determined associations between adoption and use and practice characteristics using multivariate models. Among 285 practices, adoption and use varied: 55% called 0 to 100 days from enrollment and 16% called >365 days from enrollment. Practices in the highest quartile of use made a mean 15.5 calls/year per 1000 patients, whereas the lowest quartile made 0.4 calls/year per 1000 patients. Adoption within 100 days was associated with enrollment during or after 2007 (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-7.49) and assignment to the team at the pilot site (OR 4.42, 95% CI 2.16-9.04 for central Massachusetts). Highest-quartile use was associated with team assignment (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.86-6.87 for central Massachusetts) and panel size (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.31 for ≥ 10,000 vs < 2000 patients). Adoption and use of MCPAP varied widely. Timing of enrollment, assignment to the team from the program's pilot site, and panel size were associated with patterns of adoption and use. Findings may help other programs design effective implementation strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Psychiatry residents in a milieu participatory democracy: a resident's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, D

    1978-11-01

    Psychiatry residents respond with a variety of coping mechanisms to the lack of traditional structure in a milieu participatory democracy. To incorporate themselves into the system they must accept such democratic ideals as equality among staff and patients, group decision making, and free self-expression and give up some of their traditional ideas about staff and patient roles, treatment modalities, and the therapeutic environment. The author was a first-year resident in psychiatry on a university hospital inpatient therapeutic community; he discusses the conflicts between residents, who often adopt a "we-they" attitude, and the permanent staff, whose protectiveness of the ward community reflects their personal commitment to its ideals.

  18. The Contemporary Significance of the Holocaust for Australian Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael; Light, Edwina; Lipworth, Wendy; Walter, Garry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we survey briefly the components of the Holocaust directly relevant to the psychiatric profession and identify the main themes of relevance to contemporary psychiatry. The ‘euthanasia’ program; the persecution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) citizens; and the complex relationship between the psychiatric profession and Nazi state are the main themes to emerge from this survey. We then compare this period with key themes in the history of Australian psychiatry and link these themes to some of the contemporary ethical challenges the profession faces.

  19. Influence of Clerkship on Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry across Cultures: United States and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgut, F. Tuna; Polan, H. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assure adequate treatment for patients with mental illness worldwide, medical schools must impart positive attitudes toward psychiatry. The authors examined the effect of culture on changes in attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students receiving the same psychiatry clerkship curriculum in two different countries. Methods: A…

  20. What Do Psychiatric Residents Think of Addiction Psychiatry as a Career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, John A., Jr.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Levinson, Marjorie; Craig, Thomas; Eld, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors attempt to better understand the recent decline in the number of applicants to addiction psychiatry training. Methods: The Corresponding Committee on Training and Education in Addiction Psychiatry of APA's Council on Addiction Psychiatry sent out a 14-question anonymous e-mail survey to all postgraduate-year 2 (PGY-2)…

  1. Theoretical foundations and workable assumptions For cognitive behavioral music therapy in forensic psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, L.; Bogaerts, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical foundation for cognitive behavioral music therapy in forensic psychiatry. First, two cases are presented to give an insight into music therapy in forensic psychiatry. Secondly some background information on forensic psychiatry is provided. The Risk-Need-Responsivity

  2. Incorporating Active Learning into a Psychiatry Clerkship: Does It Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Mary; Arfken, Cynthia; Bridge, Patrick; Balon, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medical students' satisfaction with the psychiatry clerkship, sense of preparedness for an institutional Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE), expressed likelihood of choosing psychiatry as a specialty, and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) psychiatry shelf-examination scores were compared after a curriculum based on…

  3. Evaluating Psychiatry Residents as Physician-Managers: Development of an Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie D.; Zaretsky, Ari; Stovel, Laura; Hodges, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: With the emergence of physician-manager (PM) curricula in medical education, more effective assessment tools are needed to evaluate psychiatry trainees in this role. The aim of this study was to determine psychiatry residents', program directors', and PM educators' perceptions about PM role-assessment. Methods: Psychiatry residents at…

  4. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  5. [Impact of education program and clinical posting in psychiatry on medical students' stigmatizing attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N; Verdoux, H

    2017-06-09

    The aim of the study was to explore whether a medical student education program and clinical posting in psychiatry had an impact on medical students' stigmatizing attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatric disorders. Medical students from the University of Bordeaux were recruited during their 4-year course at the beginning of the academic education program in psychiatry. Medical students who were concomitantly in a clinical posting in wards of psychiatry or neurology were invited to participate in the study. The medical student version of the scale Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes (MICA) was used to measure their attitudes towards psychiatry and persons with psychiatric disorder. This 16-item scale is designed to measure attitudes of health care professionals towards people with mental illness, a higher score indicating more stigmatizing attitudes. Items exploring history of psychiatric disorders in close persons were added at the end of the MICA scale. The questionnaire was completed twice by each student, at the beginning and the end of the 11-week clinical posting. All questionnaires were strictly anonymized. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify the variables independently associated with MICA total score. At the beginning of the education program and clinical posting, 174 students completed the MICA scale: the mean MICA total score was equal to 46.4 (SD 6.9) in students in clinical posting in psychiatry (n=72) and 45.1 (SD 7.01) in those in neurology (n=102). At the end of the academic and clinical training, 138 students again completed the questionnaire, with mean MICA total scores equal to 41.4 (SD 8.1) in students in clinical posting in psychiatry (n=51) and 43.5 (SD 7.3) in those in neurology (n=87). Multivariate analyses showed that lower total MICA scores were independently associated with the time of assessment (lower scores at the end of education program and clinical posting) (b=-2.8; P=0.001), female gender (b=-1.8; P=0

  6. PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqi Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly (ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosylation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390, rather than PARP1 (At2g31320, makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosylation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosylation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation.

  7. Radiation-induced DNA breaks detected by immuno labelling of poly(ADP-ribose) in CHO cells. Standardization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, P.; Bidon, N.; Noel, G.; Averbeck, D.; Salamero, J.; DeMurcia, G.

    1998-01-01

    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase is an ubiquitous nuclear protein capable of binding specifically to DNA strand breaks. It synthesizes ADP-ribose polymers proportionally to DNA breaks. The actual method of reference to determine DNA double strand breaks is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but this requires many cells. It thus appeared of interest to use poly (ADP-ribos)ylation to follow and estimate γ-ray-induced DNA fragmentation at the level of isolated cells after γ-irradiation in chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). The results obtained by the immuno-labelling technique of ADP-ribose polymers were compared to those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. They show that poly (ADP-ribos)ylation reflects the occurrence of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. A clear relationship exists between the amount of ADP-ribose polymers detected and DNA double strand breaks after γ-irradiation. (authors)

  8. [Charisma and leadership: new challenges for psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, G; Ducasse, D; Attal, J; Larue, A; Macgregor, A; Brittner, M; Capdevielle, D

    2013-12-01

    New challenges arise in medicine, particularly in psychiatry. In the near future, psychiatrists' role may evolve into management of mental health care teams (GPs, nurses, psychologists…) thus creating the need for charisma and leadership. Charisma is defined as « a quality that allows it's possessor to exercise influence, authority over a group »; leadership as « the function, the position of chief, and by extension, a dominant position ». To offer some reflections on charisma and leadership and the ways to develop them in three situations common in clinical practice: dual communication (between caregivers or with patients), oral communication (e.g., during a symposium) and managing a mental health care team. Medline (1966-hits) and Web of Science (1975-hits) were explored according to the PRISMA criteria. The research paradigm was [(psychiatrist OR physician) AND mental health AND (leadership OR charisma)]. Two hundred and eighty articles were found, but only 34 corresponded to our subject and were included in the qualitative analysis. The leader must first ask himself/herself about his/her vision of the future, so as to share it with passion with his/her mental health team. Charisma and leadership are based on several values, among which we can mention: providing understandable, personalized care for the patient, in continuity and confidentiality; adapting care to the general population's request, maintaining one's own physical and mental health, submitting one's daily practice to peer review, engaging in continuous improvement of one's practices in response to new requirements, and recognizing that research and instruction are part of an M.D's professional obligations. The clinician will work on ways to develop his/her own charisma, through interactions with peers and team members, the care of his/her appearance (especially for first meetings) and workplace, and through positive reinforcement (some cognitive-behavioral techniques like assertiveness

  9. Interplay of Mg2+, ADP, and ATP in the cytosol and mitochondria: unravelling the role of Mg2+ in cell respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Elisabeth; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Douce, Roland; Bligny, Richard

    2014-10-28

    In animal and plant cells, the ATP/ADP ratio and/or energy charge are generally considered key parameters regulating metabolism and respiration. The major alternative issue of whether the cytosolic and mitochondrial concentrations of ADP and ATP directly mediate cell respiration remains unclear, however. In addition, because only free nucleotides are exchanged by the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, whereas MgADP is the substrate of ATP synthase (EC 3.6.3.14), the cytosolic and mitochondrial Mg(2+) concentrations must be considered as well. Here we developed in vivo/in vitro techniques using (31)P-NMR spectroscopy to simultaneously measure these key components in subcellular compartments. We show that heterotrophic sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells incubated in various nutrient media contain low, stable cytosolic ADP and Mg(2+) concentrations, unlike ATP. ADP is mainly free in the cytosol, but complexed by Mg(2+) in the mitochondrial matrix, where [Mg(2+)] is tenfold higher. In contrast, owing to a much higher affinity for Mg(2+), ATP is mostly complexed by Mg(2+) in both compartments. Mg(2+) starvation used to alter cytosolic and mitochondrial [Mg(2+)] reversibly increases free nucleotide concentration in the cytosol and matrix, enhances ADP at the expense of ATP, decreases coupled respiration, and stops cell growth. We conclude that the cytosolic ADP concentration, and not ATP, ATP/ADP ratio, or energy charge, controls the respiration of plant cells. The Mg(2+) concentration, remarkably constant and low in the cytosol and tenfold higher in the matrix, mediates ADP/ATP exchange between the cytosol and matrix, [MgADP]-dependent mitochondrial ATP synthase activity, and cytosolic free ADP homeostasis.

  10. THRIPS SPECIES (INSECTA: THYSANOPTERA OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM THE PARKS AND GREENHOUSES OF ADP PITESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008/2010 to ornamental plants from parks and greenhouses of ADP Pitesti relieve 12 species of thrips. One species of them, Frankliniella occidentalis was identified in greenhouses on Rosa sp., Dianthus sp. and Zantedeschia sp. In parks, the thrips species belong to 12 species, dominated by Frankliniella intonsa. All of them are polypfagous and divided in two throphic levels: primary and secondary consumers. The thrips species are mentioned for the first time in Romania on this host plant. In greenhouses are necessary intensive chemical treatments and methods of cultural hygiene to limit the F. occidentalis populations.

  11. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Methods Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. Results 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were “quite likely”, and 25% were “definitely not” considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p psychiatry before medical school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p psychiatry special study module, OR 1.45 (1.05 to 2.01, p = 0.03) or elective OR 4.28 (2.87- 6.38, p psychiatry club, OR 3.25 (2.87 to 6.38, p psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally. PMID

  12. Ataxia-telangiectasia cells are not uniformly deficient in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwelling, L.A.; Kerrigan, D.; Mattern, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of poly(adenosine diphosphoribose [poly(ADP-R)] follows the DNA strand breakage produced by a number of physical and chemical agents, including X-radiation, and may be important for repair of several types of DNA damage. The reduction or abolition of its synthesis following X-irradiation might explain the enhanced sensitivity of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells to X-ray. We have examined 8 lines of human fibroblasts (including 4 A-T lines) for stimulation of the synthesis of poly(ADP-R) by X-irradiation. Similar amounts of X-ray-stimulated synthesis of poly(ADP-R) were detected in 4 lines of A-T fibroblasts, and in fibrolasts from a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patient, a Fanconi's anemia (FA) patient and 2 normal patients. 6 lines of human lymphoblastoid lines were also examined for X-ray-stimulated poly(ADP-R) synthesis. 4 A-T lines displayed an unusually high synthesis of poly(ADP-R) in unirradiated cells compared with 2 normal lines. (orig./AJ)

  13. Ataxia-telangiectasia cells are not uniformly deficient in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis following X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwelling, L.A.; Kerrigan, D. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA). Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology); Mattern, M.R. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA). Lab. of Molecular Carcinogenesis)

    1983-04-01

    The synthesis of poly(adenosine diphosphoribose (poly(ADP-R)) follows the DNA strand breakage produced by a number of physical and chemical agents, including X-radiation, and may be important for repair of several types of DNA damage. The reduction or abolition of its synthesis following X-irradiation might explain the enhanced sensitivity of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells to X-ray. We have examined 8 lines of human fibroblasts (including 4 A-T lines) for stimulation of the synthesis of poly(ADP-R) by X-irradiation. Similar amounts of X-ray-stimulated synthesis of poly(ADP-R) were detected in 4 lines of A-T fibroblasts, and in fibrolasts from a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patient, a Fanconi's anemia (FA) patient and 2 normal patients. 6 lines of human lymphoblastoid lines were also examined for X-ray-stimulated poly(ADP-R) synthesis. 4 A-T lines displayed an unusually high synthesis of poly(ADP-R) in unirradiated cells compared with 2 normal lines.

  14. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 in polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrick, J.L.; Iglewski, W.J. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney (pyBHK) cells were cultured in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and 105 (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum. A {sup 32}P-labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (EF-2). The {sup 32}P labeling of the protein was enhanced by culturing cells in medium containing 2% serum instead of 10% serum. The {sup 32}P label was completely removed from the protein by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and the digestion product was identified as ({sup 32}P)AMP, indicating the protein was mono-ADP-ribosylated. HPLC analysis of tryptic peptides of the {sup 32}P-labeled 97-kDa protein and purified EF-2, which was ADP-ribosylated in vitro with diphtheria toxin fragment A and ({sup 32}P)NAD, demonstrated an identical labeled peptide in the two proteins. The data strongly suggest that EF-2 was endogenously ADP-ribosylated in pyBHK cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactivity in EF-2 occurred by 12 hr and remained constant over the subsequent 12 hr. It was estimated that 30-35% of the EF-2 was ADP-ribosylated in cells cultured in medium containing 2% serum. When {sup 32}P-labeled cultures were incubated in medium containing unlabeled phosphate, the {sup 32}P label was lost from the EF-2 within 30 min.

  15. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 in polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendrick, J.L.; Iglewski, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney (pyBHK) cells were cultured in medium containing [ 32 P]orthophosphate and 105 (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum. A 32 P-labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (EF-2). The 32 P labeling of the protein was enhanced by culturing cells in medium containing 2% serum instead of 10% serum. The 32 P label was completely removed from the protein by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and the digestion product was identified as [ 32 P]AMP, indicating the protein was mono-ADP-ribosylated. HPLC analysis of tryptic peptides of the 32 P-labeled 97-kDa protein and purified EF-2, which was ADP-ribosylated in vitro with diphtheria toxin fragment A and [ 32 P]NAD, demonstrated an identical labeled peptide in the two proteins. The data strongly suggest that EF-2 was endogenously ADP-ribosylated in pyBHK cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactivity in EF-2 occurred by 12 hr and remained constant over the subsequent 12 hr. It was estimated that 30-35% of the EF-2 was ADP-ribosylated in cells cultured in medium containing 2% serum. When 32 P-labeled cultures were incubated in medium containing unlabeled phosphate, the 32 P label was lost from the EF-2 within 30 min

  16. Overexpression, purification, and partial characterization of ADP-ribosyltransferases modA and modB of bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, B; Depping, R; Rüger, W

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing experimental evidence that ADP-ribosylation of host proteins is an important means to regulate gene expression of bacteriophage T4. Surprisingly, this phage codes for three different ADP-ribosyltransferases, gene products Alt, ModA, and ModB, modifying partially overlapping sets of host proteins. While gene product Alt already has been isolated as a recombinant protein and its action on host RNA polymerases and transcription regulation have been studied, the nucleotide sequences of the two mod genes was published only recently. Their mode of action in the course of the infection cycle and the consequences of the ADP-ribosylations catalyzed by these enzymes remain to be investigated. Here we describe the cloning of the genes, the overexpression, purification, and partial characterization of ADP-ribosyltransferases ModA and ModB. Both proteins seem to act independently, and the ADP-ribosyl moieties are transferred to different sets of host proteins. While gene product ModA, similarly to the Alt protein, acts also on the alpha-subunit of host RNA polymerase, the ModB activity serves another set of proteins, one of which was identified as the S1 protein associated with the 30S subunit of the E. coli ribosomes.

  17. Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Psychiatry registrars form the backbone of specialized psychiatric service provision in South Africa. Medical schools are centralized while clinical services need to be widespread and accessible. Video-conferencing has the potential to link registrars at satellite hospitals with academic centers. The study thus ...

  18. Lecture notes on behavioural sciences and psychiatry for medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    started and going. 8. It is useful to request an independent person to provide guidance on this exercise. I would suggest Professor Rachel. Jenkins, Director, WHO Collaboration Centre at the Insti- tute of Psychiatry, University of London. She has demon- strated very keen interest in mental health in developing countries.

  19. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series "International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry," an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of

  20. [The digital avatar, an assistant in adolescent psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, Xavier; Deberdt, Jean-Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The digital universe, from the internet to video games, arouses mixed feelings in parents of adolescents. However, it is possible to use the growing "digitisation" of the relationships between young people to develop care tools. Avatars or virtual characters, for example, make it possible to develop a relationship with adolescents hospitalised in child psychiatry units.