Mellesdal, L; Kroken, R A; Lutro, O; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Kjelby, E; Oedegaard, K J; Jørgensen, H A; Mehlum, L
Few studies have examined rate and predictors of self-harm in discharged psychiatric patients. To investigate the rate, coding, timing, predictors and characteristics of self-harm induced somatic admission after discharge from psychiatric acute admission. Cohort study of 2827 unselected patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric acute ward during three years. Mean observation period was 2.3 years. Combined register linkage and manual data examination. Cox regression was used to investigate covariates for time to somatic admission due to self-harm, with covariates changing during follow-up entered time dependently. During the observation period, 10.5% of the patients had 792 somatic self-harm admissions. Strongest risk factors were psychiatric admission due to non-suicidal self-harm, suicide attempt and suicide ideation. The risk was increased throughout the first year of follow-up, during readmission, with increasing outpatient consultations and in patients diagnosed with recurrent depression, personality disorders, substance use disorders and anxiety/stress-related disorders. Only 49% of the somatic self-harm admissions were given hospital self-harm diagnosis. Self-harm induced somatic admissions were highly prevalent during the first year after discharge from acute psychiatric admission. Underdiagnosing of self-harm in relation to somatic self-harm admissions may cause incorrect follow-up treatments and unreliable register data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.
Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…
Lindgren, Maija; Manninen, Marko; Kalska, Hely; Mustonen, Ulla; Laajasalo, Taina; Moilanen, Kari; Huttunen, Matti O; Cannon, Tyrone D; Suvisaari, Jaana; Therman, Sebastian
We investigated the associations between clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR), psychotic-like symptoms and suicidality among adolescent psychiatric patients. The sample consisted of 54 CHR and 107 non-CHR psychiatric patients aged 15-18 in Helsinki, Finland, who were assessed at the beginning of their psychiatric treatment with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Current suicidality was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (item 9), while lifetime suicidality was evaluated from all available data, including patient files. The participants were followed for 2.8-8.9 years via the national hospital discharge register, with the follow-up outcome being intentional self-harm. Data on suicides were also gathered from the Causes of Death statistics. Only 30.5% of the adolescents had no suicidal ideation at the beginning of their treatment. CHR risk state and SIPS-assessed delusions, suspiciousness, and hallucinations were associated with higher current suicidality. Of the 154 adolescents with register follow-up, there were five (3.2%) with intentional self-harm resulting in hospital treatment, all female. CHR status was not associated with self-harm. Current suicidality, familial risk of psychosis, and SIPS decreased expression of emotions were associated with self-harm during follow-up. In a Cox regression analysis model among girls, only decreased expression of emotions remained a significant predictor of intentional self-harm. Baseline suicidality measures were not associated with transitions to psychosis. CHR status was associated with higher current suicidality but did not predict follow-up intentional self-harm in treatment-seeking adolescents. Decreased expression of emotions may indicate higher risk of intentional self-harm in adolescent treatment-seeking girls. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik
Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226
Zhand, Naista; Matheson, Katherine; Courtney, Darren
This study presents a comprehensive report of children and adolescents who engaged in self-harm during their admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit. A chart review was conducted on all admissions to an acute care psychiatric inpatient unit in a Canadian children's hospital over a one-year period. Details on patients with self-harm behaviour during the admission were recorded, including: demographics, presentation to hospital, self-harm behaviour and outcome. Baseline variables for patients with and without self-harm behaviour during admission were compared. Self-harm incidents were reported in 60 of 501 (12%) admissions during the one-year period of the study. Fourteen percent of patients (50 of 351) accounted for total number of 136 self-harm incidents. Half of these incidents (49%) occurred outside of the hospital setting, when patients were on passes. Using the Beck Lethality Scale (0-10), mean severity of the self-injury attempts was 0.33, and there were no serious negative outcomes. Self-harm behaviour during inpatient psychiatric admission is a common issue among youth, despite safety strategies in place. While self-harm behaviour is one of the most common reasons for admission to psychiatric inpatient unit, our understanding of nature of these acts during the admission and contributing factors are limited. Further research is required to better understand these factors, and to develop strategies to better support these patients.
Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo
Psychiatric illness and deliberate self-harm (DSH) are major risk factors of suicide. In largely 15 % of psychiatric admissions in Denmark, the patient had an episode of DSH within the last year before admission. This study examined the survival and predictors of suicide in a suicidal high...
Idenfors, Hans; Strömsten, Lotta M J; Renberg, Ellinor Salander
Many young people contact health services before they harm themselves intentionally. However, they often seek care for non-suicidal or non-psychiatric causes despite having suicidal thoughts. We investigated the non-psychiatric hospital diagnoses received by young people during the year before their first admission to hospital for self-harm. From a national register, we selected people who were hospitalised for an episode of self-harm during the period 1999-2009, at which time they were aged 16 to 24. We compared them with matched controls regarding the probability for having been admitted with different diagnoses during the year preceding the self-harm admission. The study included 48,705 young people (16,235 cases and 32,470 controls). Those admitted for self-harm were more likely than controls to have been hospitalised for non-psychiatric reasons, which included symptomatic diagnoses such as abdominal pain, syncope/collapse, unspecified convulsions, and chest pain. Certain chronic somatic illnesses were also overrepresented, such as epilepsy, diabetes mellitus type 1, and asthma. Symptomatic diagnoses were more common in those who had been admitted for self-harm. It is possible that psychiatric problems could have been the cause of the symptoms in some of these admissions where no underlying illness could be found, and if this was not uncovered it might lead to a delay in suicide risk assessment. For several chronic illnesses, when admitted to hospital, a psychiatric evaluation might be indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Selenius, Heidi; Leppänen Östman, Sari; Strand, Susanne
Inpatient aggression among female forensic psychiatric patients has been shown to be associated with self-harm, that is considered to be a historical risk factor for violence. Research on associations between previous or current self-harm and different types of inpatient aggression is missing. The aim of this register study was to investigate the prevalence of self-harm and the type of inpatient aggression among female forensic psychiatric inpatients, and to study whether the patients' self-harm before and/or during forensic psychiatric care is a risk factor for inpatient aggression. Female forensic psychiatric patients (n = 130) from a high security hospital were included. The results showed that 88% of the female patients had self-harmed at least once during their life and 57% had been physically and/or verbally aggressive towards staff or other patients while in care at the hospital. Self-harm before admission to the current forensic psychiatric care or repeated self-harm were not significantly associated with inpatient aggression, whereas self-harm during care was significantly associated with physical and verbal aggression directed at staff. These results pointed towards self-harm being a dynamic risk factor rather than a historical risk factor for inpatient aggression among female forensic psychiatric patients. Whether self-harm is an individual risk factor or a part of the clinical risk factor 'Symptom of major mental illness' within the HCR-20V3 must be further explored among women. Thus, addressing self-harm committed by female patients during forensic psychiatric care seems to be important in risk assessments and the management of violence, especially in reducing violence against staff in high-security forensic psychiatric services.
Verdolini, N; Murru, A; Attademo, L; Garinella, R; Pacchiarotti, I; Bonnin, C Del Mar; Samalin, L; Pauselli, L; Piselli, M; Tamantini, A; Quartesan, R; Carvalho, A F; Vieta, E; Tortorella, A
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) causes important concern in prison inmates as it worsens morbidity and increases the risk for suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of DSH in a large sample of male prisoners. A cross-sectional study evaluated male prisoners aged 18+ years. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders and with the Addiction Severity Index-Expanded Version. DSH was assessed with The Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify independent correlates of lifetime DSH. Ninety-three of 526 inmates (17.7%) reported at least 1 lifetime DSH behavior, and 58/93 (62.4%) of those reported a DSH act while in prison. After multivariable adjustment (sensitivity 41.9%, specificity 96.1%, area under the curve=0.854, 95% confidence interval CI=0.811-0.897, Pdisorders (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR=6.227, 95% CI=2.183-17.762, P=0.001), borderline personality disorder (aOR=6.004, 95% CI=3.305-10.907, Pdisorders (aOR=2.856, 95% CI=1.350-6.039, P=0.006) and misuse of multiple substances (aOR=2.024, 95% CI=1.111-3.687, P=0.021). Borderline personality disorder and misuse of multiple substances are established risk factors of DSH, but psychotic and affective disorders were also associated with DSH in male prison inmates. This points to possible DSH-related clinical sub-groups, that bear specific treatment needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rossouw, Trudie I.; Fonagy, Peter
Objective: We examined whether mentalization-based treatment for adolescents (MBT-A) is more effective than treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents who self-harm. Method: A total of 80 adolescents (85% female) consecutively presenting to mental health services with self-harm and comorbid depression were randomly allocated to either MBT-A or TAU.…
Subica, Andrew M; Allen, Jon G; Frueh, B Christopher; Elhai, Jon D; Fowler, J Christopher
Little is known about depression-anxiety comorbidity and its association with personality traits and suicide/self-harm in adult psychiatric inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI), impacting clinical assessment and treatment. This study sought to determine the symptom structure of depression-anxiety comorbidity and its relation to neuroticism, extraversion, and suicide/self-harm behaviour in this high-risk population. Nine hundred and sixty-two adults receiving inpatient care at a private psychiatric hospital completed questionnaires at admission. Confirmatory factor analyses compared a bifactor solution specifying a general distress factor and two specific depression and anxiety factors against unidimensional and correlated factors solutions. The bifactor solutions' factors were subsequently correlated with neuroticism and extraversion subscales and pre-hospitalization suicide/self-harm behaviours. The bifactor model rendered superior fit to sample data and a robust general factor - accounting for 77.61% of common item variance - providing the first evidence for a tripartite structure of depression and anxiety among adult inpatients. The bifactor solution-outputted independent general distress, depression, and anxiety factors positively correlated with neuroticism, the personality dimension corresponding to trait negative affectivity. The general distress and depression factors associated with recent self-harm, but factors showed no associations with prior suicidal behaviour. In adult psychiatric inpatients, general distress substantially underlies comorbid depression and anxiety symptom variation and may contribute to recent incidence of self-harm. Transdiagnostic assessments and interventions targeting general distress may temper depression, anxiety, and self-harm in adult inpatients. Clinical implications Depression-anxiety comorbidity symptomology in adult psychiatric inpatients is primarily composed of general distress. General distress and specific
Wimberley, Theresa; MacCabe, James H.; Laursen, Thomas M.
Objective: This study evaluated rates of all-cause mortality and self-harm in association with clozapine treatment in individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Method: A population-based cohort of 2,370 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia after Jan. 1, 1996, was followed...... until death, first episode of self-harm, emigration, or June 1, 2013. Time to all-cause death and time tofirst episode of self-harm were analyzed in Cox regression models with timevarying treatment, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates. Results: The rate of all-cause mortality...... was higher for patients not receiving clozapine than for those given clozapine (hazard ratio: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.05). This was driven mainly by periods of no antipsychotic treatment (hazard ratio: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.50-4.17), with nonsignificantly higher mortality during treatment...
Stewart, Shannon L.; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura; den Dunnen, Wendy
Background: Few studies have examined deliberate self-harm (DSH) among children in residential treatment in Canada. Most of the existing studies examined adolescent students or children from pediatric emergency departments. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of DSH among children in tertiary care residential…
Wimberley, Theresa; MacCabe, James H; Laursen, Thomas M; Sørensen, Holger J; Astrup, Aske; Horsdal, Henriette T; Gasse, Christiane; Støvring, Henrik
This study evaluated rates of all-cause mortality and self-harm in association with clozapine treatment in individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. A population-based cohort of 2,370 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia after Jan. 1, 1996, was followed until death, first episode of self-harm, emigration, or June 1, 2013. Time to all-cause death and time to first episode of self-harm were analyzed in Cox regression models with time-varying treatment, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates. The rate of all-cause mortality was higher for patients not receiving clozapine than for those given clozapine (hazard ratio: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.05). This was driven mainly by periods of no antipsychotic treatment (hazard ratio: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.50-4.17), with nonsignificantly higher mortality during treatment with other antipsychotics (hazard ratio: 1.45, 95% CI: 0.86-2.45). Excess mortality was observed in the year after clozapine discontinuation (hazard ratio: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.47-4.78). The rate of self-harm was higher for nonclozapine antipsychotics than for clozapine (hazard ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.78). The results demonstrate a nearly twofold higher mortality rate among individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia not treated with clozapine compared with clozapine-treated individuals. Furthermore, the results suggest a harmful effect of other antipsychotics regarding self-harm compared with clozapine. It remains to be investigated to what extent the observed excess mortality after clozapine discontinuation is confounded by nonadherence and other unobserved factors and to what extent it is mediated by adverse effects from recent clozapine exposure or deterioration in physical or mental health precipitated by clozapine discontinuation.
Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun
A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.…
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Anthony Charles Ruocco
Full Text Available Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT. While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, twenty-nine actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after seven months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after seven months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial prefrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the prefrontal cortex underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT.
Ruocco, Anthony C.; Rodrigo, Achala H.; McMain, Shelley F.; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Ayaz, Hasan; Links, Paul S.
Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, 29 actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after 7 months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after 7 months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial PFC and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right DLPFC even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the PFC underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT. PMID:27242484
Paula-Perez, I; Artigas-Pallares, J
... lead persons with autism to harm themselves. In this article a distinction is drawn, first of all, between self-harm related to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, and self-harm linked to other psychiatric conditions...
Hawton, Keith; Saunders, Kate E A; O'Connor, Rory C
Self-harm and suicide are major public health problems in adolescents, with rates of self-harm being high in the teenage years and suicide being the second most common cause of death in young people worldwide. Important contributors to self-harm and suicide include genetic vulnerability and psychiatric, psychological, familial, social, and cultural factors. The effects of media and contagion are also important, with the internet having an important contemporary role. Prevention of self-harm and suicide needs both universal measures aimed at young people in general and targeted initiatives focused on high-risk groups. There is little evidence of effectiveness of either psychosocial or pharmacological treatment, with particular controversy surrounding the usefulness of antidepressants. Restriction of access to means for suicide is important. Major challenges include the development of greater understanding of the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, especially mechanisms underlying contagion and the effect of new media. The identification of successful prevention initiatives aimed at young people and those at especially high risk, and the establishment of effective treatments for those who self-harm, are paramount needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Olfson, Mark
Objective: Little is known about the mental health care received by young people after an episode of deliberate self-harm. This study examined predictors of emergency department (ED) discharge, mental health assessments in the ED, and follow-up outpatient mental health care for Medicaid-covered youth with deliberate self-harm. Method: A…
Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Anna; Jabłkowska-Górecka, Karolina
The primary goal of the study was an evaluation of the dominating stress coping styles in adolescent patients with self-harm records, who were psychiatrically treated, taking into account the level of their emotional intelligence vs. the psychiatric diagnosis, the type of motives and decision involved in self-harming and the presence of suicidal attempts (SA) in the past. The secondary goal included an analysis of the correlations between particular stress coping skills and the level of emotional intelligence. The reported studies involved self-harming patients aged of 13-18 years during their psychiatric hospitalisation (n=31). The applied tools included the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Two-Dimensional Inventory of Emotional Intelligence (DINEMO). An evaluation of the correlation between stress coping styles and the levels of emotional intelligence in the studied group and the types of mental disorders did not reveal any significant differences between the evaluated subgroups. Patients, who confirmed an instrumental motive, obtained statistically significantly higher scores on the task-oriented scale vs. those who performed the acts of DSH for reactive or pathological reasons. Taking into consideration the type of decision, involved in self-harming acts, did not show any differences in the stress coping styles of the patients, however, those patients, who had planned an act of DSH, achieved statistically significantly higher scores in the OTHERS scale of the DINEMO. Patients with DSH and with SA in the past (77% studied group), achieved similar results in CISS and DINEMO vs. the self-harming patients without SA in the past. In the study group, one statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between CISS--the avoidance-oriented style--and the I in DINEMO. 1. Patients with DSH records and without SA constitute a fairly uniform group with regards to stress coping styles, taking into account the type of psychic disorders and the
Tsiachristas, Apostolos; McDaid, David; Casey, Deborah; Brand, Fiona; Leal, Jose; Park, A-La; Geulayov, Galit; Hawton, Keith
Self-harm is an extremely common reason for hospital presentation. However, few estimates have been made of the hospital costs of assessing and treating self-harm. Such information is essential for planning services and to help strengthen the case for investment in actions to reduce the frequency and effects of self-harm. In this study, we aimed to calculate the costs of hospital medical care associated with a self-harm episode and the costs of psychosocial assessment, together with identification of the key drivers of these costs. In a retrospective analysis, we estimated hospital resource use and care costs for all presentations for self-harm to the John Radcliffe Hospital (Oxford, UK), between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Episode-related data were provided by the Oxford Monitoring System for Self-harm and we linked these with financial hospital records to quantify costs. We assessed time and resources allocated to psychosocial assessments through discussion with clinical and managerial staff. We then used generalised linear models to investigate the associations between hospital costs and methods of self-harm. Between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, 1647 self-harm presentations by 1153 patients were recorded. Of these, 1623 (99%) presentations by 1140 patients could be linked with hospital finance records. 179 (16%) patients were younger than 18 years. 1150 (70%) presentations were for self-poisoning alone, 367 (22%) for self-injury alone, and 130 (8%) for a combination of methods. Psychosocial assessments were made in 75% (1234) of all episodes. The overall mean hospital cost per episode of self-harm was £809. Costs differed significantly between different types of self-harm: self-injury alone £753 (SD 2061), self-poisoning alone £806 (SD 1568), self-poisoning and self-injury £987 (SD 1823; pFoundation Trust, and Department of Health. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4
Bhat, Pookala S.; Pardal, P. K.; Diwakar, M.
Self-mutilation, the deliberate destruction occurs in a variety of psychiatric disorders.Many methods of self-destructive behavior have been described in literature. Patients of schizophrenia are known to attempt self-harm due to command hallucination, catatonic excitement or because of associated depression, however severe glossal injury by biting has not been reported so far.Authors report case of self-harm of glossal injury by biting in schizophrenia. Treatment and management issues are discussed. PMID:23271870
Guldin, Mai-Britt; Ina Siegismund Kjaersgaard, Maiken; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Thorlund Parner, Erik; Li, Jiong; Prior, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens
The loss of a close relative is a common event, yet it is associated with increased risk of serious mental health conditions. No large-scale study has explored up to now the importance of the bereaved person's relation to the deceased while accounting for gender and age. We performed a nationwide Danish cohort study using register information from 1995 through 2013 on four sub-cohorts including all persons aged ≥18 years exposed to the loss of a child, spouse, sibling or parent. We identified 1,445,378 bereaved persons, and each was matched by gender, age and family composition to five non-bereaved persons. Cumulative incidence proportions were calculated to estimate absolute differences in suicide, deliberate self-harm and psychiatric illness. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios while adjusting for potential confounders. Results revealed that the risk of suicide, deliberate self-harm and psychiatric illness was increased in the bereaved cohorts for at least 10 years after the loss, particularly during the first year. During that year, the risk difference was 18.9 events in 1,000 persons after loss of a child (95% CI: 17.6-20.1) and 16.0 events in 1,000 persons after loss of the spouse (95% CI: 15.4-16.6). Hazard ratios were generally highest after loss of a child, in younger persons, and after sudden loss by suicide, homicide or accident. One in three persons with a previous psychiatric diagnosis experienced suicide, deliberate self-harm or psychiatric illness within the first year of bereavement. In conclusion, this study shows that the risk of suicide, deliberate self-harm and psychiatric illness is high after the loss of a close relative, especially in susceptible subgroups. This suggests the need for early identification of high-risk persons displaying adjustment problems after loss of a close family member, in order to reduce the risk of serious mental health outcomes. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.
Self-Harm Intervention: Family Therapy (SHIFT), a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of family therapy versus treatment as usual for young people seen after a second or subsequent episode of self-harm.
Wright-Hughes, Alexandra; Graham, Elizabeth; Farrin, Amanda; Collinson, Michelle; Boston, Paula; Eisler, Ivan; Fortune, Sarah; Green, Jonathan; House, Allan; Owens, David; Simic, Mima; Tubeuf, Sandy; Nixon, Jane; McCabe, Christopher; Kerfoot, Michael; Cottrell, David
Self-harm is common in the community with a lifetime prevalence of 13 %. It is associated with an elevated risk of overall mortality and suicide. People who harm themselves are high users of public services. Estimates of the 1-year risk of repetition vary between 5 and 15 % per year. Currently, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of clinical interventions for young people who engage in self-harm. Recent reviews have failed to demonstrate any effect on reducing repetition of self-harm among adolescents receiving a range of treatment approaches. Family factors are particularly important risk factors associated with fatal and non-fatal self-harm among children and adolescents. Family therapy focuses on the relationships, roles and communication patterns between family members, but there have been relatively few studies of specifically family-focused interventions with this population. The Self-Harm Intervention: Family Therapy (SHIFT) Trial was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme (grant no. 07/33/01) following a commissioned call for this research. SHIFT is a pragmatic, phase III, multicentre, individually randomised, controlled trial comparing Family Therapy (FT) with treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents aged 11 to 17 who have engaged in at least two episodes of self-harm. Both therapeutic interventions were delivered within the National Health Service (NHS) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in England. Participants and therapists were, of necessity, aware of treatment allocation, but the researchers were blind to the allocations to allow unbiased collection of follow-up data. Primary outcome data (repetition of self-harm leading to hospital attendance 18 months post-randomisation) were collected from the Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC), augmented by directed searches of medical records at Acute Trusts. Secondary outcome data (including suicidal intent
Full Text Available Objective To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm, in mainland Chinese adolescents.Methods Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89 from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the follow four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/d, >0 to ≤1 h/d, >1 to ≤2 h/d, and >2 h/d. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated.Results For television, >2 hours per school day was associated with greater risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73 and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19– 2.21, of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95, of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs in girls (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39, and of oppositional defiant problems (ODPs in girls (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50, compared with the reference group. Conversely, television exposure of >0 to ≤1 hour per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99 compared with the no television exposure group. For VG/CU, higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86 and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs (OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38 were associated with excessive VG/CU time (>2 h per school day in boys compared with the no VG/CU exposure group. Higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs in girls were associated with any school-day VG/CU exposure, compared to no VG/CU exposure, in both genders.Conclusion For mainland Chinese
Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts ... females hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or ...
... Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Self Harm — Cutting Self Harm — Cutting Share Print It’s difficult to watch your child ... their pain, such as in the case of cutting. Cutting (sometimes called self harm) is the act ...
Pookala S Bhat
Full Text Available Self-mutilation, the deliberate destruction occurs in a variety of psychiatric disorders.Many methods of self-destructive behavior have been described in literature. Patients of schizophrenia are known to attempt self-harm due to command hallucination, catatonic excitement or because of associated depression, however severe glossal injury by biting has not been reported so far.Authors report case of self-harm of glossal injury by biting in schizophrenia.Treatment and management issues are discussed.
Hawton, Keith; Haw, Camilla; Casey, Deborah; Bale, Liz; Brand, Fiona; Rutherford, Dorothy
Self-harm is a major healthcare problem and changes in its prevalence and characteristics can have important implications for clinical services, treatment and prevention. We analysed data on all self-harm presentations to the general hospital in Oxford between 1996 and 2010 using the Oxford Monitoring System for Self-harm. We investigated trends in prevalence, methods and repetition of self-harm, and receipt of psychosocial assessment. For patients receiving a psychosocial assessment, we investigated trends in alcohol use and misuse, prior psychiatric treatment and self-harm, problems, and suicidal intent. Rates of self-harm rose in both genders between 1996 and 2002/2003, after which they declined. There was evidence of a possible cohort effect, whereby higher rates in younger males in earlier years transferred over time to older age groups. Self-cutting, hanging and jumping became more common. Paracetamol was involved in 44.9 % of all self-poisoning episodes. Overdoses of antidepressants (particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) increased, as did those of mood stabilisers, non-opiate analgesics excluding paracetamol (e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), and non-ingestible poisons. Alcohol use in relation to self-harm and alcohol-related problems became more common, as did history of prior psychiatric treatment and, especially, of self-harm, and employment problems from 2008. Despite national guidance, the proportion of patients undergoing psychosocial assessment declined. Major changes in the extent and nature of self-harm occurred over the study period, some suggestive of increased psychopathology and others reflecting prescribing practices and changes in drinking patterns. The findings emphasise the need for psychosocial assessment following self-harm, to identify treatment needs and reduce repetition.
Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel
The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…
Borschmann, Rohan; Young, Jesse T; Moran, Paul; Spittal, Matthew J; Heffernan, Ed; Mok, Katherine; Kinner, Stuart A
Incarcerated adults are at high risk of self-harm and suicide and remain so after release into the community. The aims of this study were to estimate the number of ambulance attendances due to self-harm in adults following release from prison, and to identify factors predictive of such attendances. Baseline surveys with 1309 adults within 6 weeks of expected release from prison between 2008 and 2010 were linked prospectively with state-wide correctional, ambulance, emergency department, hospital and death records in Queensland, Australia. Associations between baseline demographic, criminal justice and mental health-related factors, and subsequent ambulance attendances resulting from self-harm, were investigated using negative binomial regression. During 4691 person-years of follow-up (median 3.86 years per participant), there were 2892 ambulance attendances in the community, of which 120 (3.9%) were due to self-harm. In multivariable analyses, being Indigenous [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.10 (95% CI 1.14-3.86)], having previously been hospitalised for psychiatric treatment [IRR: 2.65 (95% CI 1.44-4.87)], being identified by prison staff as being at risk of self-harm whilst incarcerated [IRR: 2.12 (95% CI 1.11-4.06)] and having a prior ambulance attendance due to self-harm [IRR: 3.16 (95% CI 1.31-7.61)] were associated with self-harm attendances. Ambulance attendances resulting from self-harm following release from prison are common and represent an opportunity for tertiary intervention for self-harm. The high prevalence of such attendances, in conjunction with the strong association with prior psychiatric problems, reinforces the importance of providing appropriate ambulance staff training in the assessment and management of self-harm, and mental health problems more broadly, in this vulnerable population.
Kavurma, Canem; Varol Tas, Fatma; Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Demirci, Ferhat; Akan, Pınar; Eyuboglu, Damla; Guvenir, Taner
The aim of this study was to compare serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between adolescents that harm themselves, those that receive psychiatric treatment but do not harm themselves, healthy adolescents, and childhood traumas and to investigate the relationship between traumatic experiences and serum BDNF levels. The cases were divided into two groups of 40 adolescents exhibiting self-harm behavior (self-harm/diagnosed group) and 30 adolescents receiving psychiatric treatment but not exhibiting self-harm behaviors (non self-harm/diagnosed group). The control group (healthy control group) consisted of 35 healthy adolescents with no psychiatric disorders or self-harm behaviors. The adolescents were asked to fill in the Inventory of Statements About Self Injury (ISAS) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). For BDNF measurement, blood samples were taken from the cases and controls. The serum BDNF level of self-harming adolescents who used the self-cutting method was significantly lower than that of other groups, and serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in the emotional neglect and abuse severity of self-harming adolescents during childhood. In our study, serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in emotional abuse in self-harming adolescents. This finding may indicate that neuroplasticity can be affected by a negative emotional environment during the early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
EFFECTIVENESS OF DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY VERSUS COLLABORATIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SUICIDALITY TREATMENT FOR REDUCTION OF SELF-HARM IN ADULTS WITH BORDERLINE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DISORDER
Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Wenneberg, Christina
were: severity of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, suicide ideation, and self-esteem. RESULTS: At 28 weeks, the number of participants with new self-harm in the DBT group was 21 of 57 (36.8%) versus 12 of 51 (23.5%) in the CAMS treatment (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 0.80-4.40; P = .14......BACKGROUND: Many psychological treatments have shown effect on reducing self-harm in adults with borderline personality disorder. There is a need of brief psychotherapeutical treatment alternative for suicide prevention in specialized outpatient clinics. METHODS/DESIGN: The DiaS trial was designed...... behavior therapy (DBT) versus up to 16 weeks of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) treatment. The primary composite outcome was the number of participants with a new self-harm (nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] or suicide attempt) at week 28 from baseline. Other exploratory outcomes...
Soomro, G Mustafa
Deliberate self-harm involves acts such as self-cutting or self-poisoning, carried out deliberately, with or without the intention of committing suicide. Lifetime prevalence of deliberate self-harm in Europe and the USA is about 3% to 5% of the population, and is increasing.Familial, biological and psychosocial factors may contribute. Risks are higher in women and young adults, in people who are socially isolated or deprived, and those with psychiatric or personality disorders.
Soomro, G. Mustafa; Kakhi, Sara
Deliberate self-harm involves acts such as self-cutting or self-poisoning, carried out deliberately, with or without the intention of suicide. Lifetime prevalence of deliberate self-harm in Europe and the US is about 3% to 5% of the population, and has been increasing.Familial, biological, and psychosocial factors may contribute. Risks are higher in women and young adults, in people who are socially isolated or deprived, and in those with psychiatric or personality disorders.
... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...
E. R. Black
Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.
Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum
Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled…
Saunders, Kate; Brand, Fiona; Lascelles, Karen; Hawton, Keith
The SADPERSONS Scale is commonly used as a screening tool for suicide risk in those who have self-harmed. It is also used to determine psychiatric treatment needs in those presenting to emergency departments. To date, there have been relatively few studies exploring the utility of SADPERSONS in this context. To determine whether the SADPERSONS Scale accurately predicts psychiatric hospital admission, psychiatric aftercare and repetition of self-harm at presentation to the emergency department following self-harm. SADPERSONS scores were recorded for 126 consecutive admissions to a general hospital emergency department. Clinical management outcomes following assessment were recorded, including psychiatric hospital admission, community psychiatric aftercare and repetition of self-harm in the following 6 months. Psychiatric hospital admission was required in five cases (4.0%) and community psychiatric aftercare in 70 (55.5%). 31 patients (24.6%) repeated self-harm. While the specificity of the SADPERSONS scores was greater than 90% for all outcomes, sensitivity for admission was only 2.0%, for community aftercare was 5.8% and for repetition of self-harm in the following 6 months was just 6.6%. For the purposes of suicide prevention, a low false negative rate is essential. SADPERSONS failed to identify the majority of those either requiring psychiatric admission or community psychiatric aftercare, or to predict repetition of self-harm. The scale should not be used to screen self-harm patients presenting to general hospitals. Greater emphasis should be placed on clinical assessment which takes account of the individual and dynamic nature of risk assessment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Steeg, S; Emsley, R; Carr, M; Cooper, J; Kapur, N
The care received by people presenting to hospital following self-harm varies and it is unclear how different types of treatment affect risk of further self-harm. Observational cohort data from the Manchester Self-Harm Project, UK, included 16 456 individuals presenting to an Emergency Department with self-harm between 2003 and 2011. Individuals were followed up for 12 months. We also used data from a smaller cohort of individuals presenting to 31 hospitals in England during a 3-month period in 2010/2011, followed up for 6 months. Propensity score (PS) methods were used to address observed confounding. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Following PS stratification, those who received a psychosocial assessment had a lower risk of repeat hospital attendance for self-harm than those who were not assessed [RR 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.95]. The risk was reduced most among people less likely to be assessed. Following PS matching, we found no associations between risks of repeat self-harm and admission to a medical bed, referral to outpatient psychiatry or admission to a psychiatric bed. We did not find a relationship between psychosocial assessment and repeat self-harm in the 31 centre cohort. This study shows the potential value of using novel statistical techniques in large mental health datasets to estimate treatment effects. We found that specialist psychosocial assessment may reduce the risk of repeat self-harm. This type of routine care should be provided for all individuals who present to hospital after self-harm, regardless of perceived risk.
Owen-Smith, Amanda; Bennewith, Olive; Donovan, Jenny; Evans, Jonathan; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; O'Connor, Susan; Gunnell, David
Individuals are at a greatly increased risk of suicide and self-harm in the months following discharge from psychiatric hospital, yet little is known about the reasons for this. To investigate the lived experience of psychiatric discharge and explore service users' experiences following discharge. In-depth interviews were undertaken with recently discharged service users (n = 10) in the UK to explore attitudes to discharge and experiences since leaving hospital. Informants had mixed attitudes to discharge, and those who had not felt adequately involved in discharge decisions, or disagreed with them, had experienced urges to self-harm since being discharged. Accounts revealed a number of factors that made the postdischarge period difficult; these included both the reemergence of stressors that existed prior to hospitalization and a number of stressors that were prompted or exacerbated by hospitalization. Although inferences that can be drawn from the study are limited by the small sample size, the results draw attention to a number of factors that could be investigated further to help explain the high risk of suicide and self-harm following psychiatric discharge. Findings emphasize the importance of adequate preparation for discharge and the maintenance of ongoing relationships with known service providers where possible.
Paula-Perez, I; Artigas-Pallares, J
The reasons underlying self-harm in persons with autism do not appear to have a single, straightforward and simple explanation. Biological predisposition, certain psychological states involving stress, atypical sensory processing, communication disorders, medical problems, and limited emotional regulation, among others, can lead persons with autism to harm themselves. In this article a distinction is drawn, first of all, between self-harm related to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, and self-harm linked to other psychiatric conditions. Second, a preliminary approach to an integrated model for the understanding of self-harm in autism is proposed. Some of the hypotheses put forward to account for self-harm in autism are focused on atypical sensory processing, on communication disorders and medical problems, and on emotional dysregulation. The limited number of studies conducted in this area and the inconsistency of the data resulting from them have led to great efforts being made to separate the facts from the suppositions in this subject. This modest initial proposal makes it possible to draw up a roadmap to guide and help persons with autism, their families and professionals in the process of reducing or eliminating this behaviour. It is suggested that self-harm should no longer be considered a disruptive behaviour and that it should be interpreted instead as an (inadequate) self-regulatory response to stress.
O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret V
In a sample of 242 women in treatment for severe mental illness (SMI), we used regression analysis to test the hypothesis that lifetime physical and sexual abuse would correlate with self-harm behaviors (thoughts of self-harm and suicide, self-harming behaviors, and suicide attempts) when controlling for psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, and negative appraisals of trauma. Lifetime physical abuse and alcohol use were the only significant factors in the model. Women with SMI should be screened regularly for physical abuse, alcohol use, as well as thoughts and behaviors related to self-harming behaviors. Limitations of the study include its cross-sectional design. © The Author(s) 2015.
Peh, Chao Xu; Shahwan, Shazana; Fauziana, Restria; Mahesh, Mithila V; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Zhang, YunJue; Ong, Say How; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Although child maltreatment exposure is a recognized risk factor for self-harm, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Self-harm may function as a compensatory strategy to regulate distressing emotions. This cross-sectional study examines if emotion dysregulation mediates between the severity of maltreatment exposure and self-harm, adjusting for demographic variables and depressive symptoms. Participants were 108 adolescent patients recruited from a psychiatric hospital in Singapore (mean age 17.0 years, SD=1.65; 59.3% female). Study measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Path analysis was conducted to examine the direct and indirect effects of maltreatment exposure on self-harm via emotion dysregulation, controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms. Indirect effects were tested using bootstrapped confidence intervals (CI). Results showed that self-harm was highly prevalent in our sample (75.9%). Emotion dysregulation and depressive symptoms were found to be associated with higher self-harm frequency. In addition, results from path analysis showed that the association between the severity of maltreatment exposure and self-harm frequency was significantly mediated by emotion dysregulation B=0.07, pself-harm. Notably, self-harm may represent maladaptive attempts to manage emotion dysregulation that may have resulted from maltreatment. Findings from the study have implications for the prevention and treatment of self-harm in maltreated youth. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The emergency department is an important gateway for the treatment of self-harm patients. Nurses\\' attitudes towards patients who self-harm can be negative and often nurses experience frustration, helplessness, ambivalence and antipathy. Patients are often dissatisfied with the care provided, and meeting with positive or negative attitudes greatly influences whether they seek additional help. A quantitative design was utilised to measure emergency department nurses\\' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm. The \\'Self-Harm Antipathy Scale\\
Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F
The aim of this study was to examine the weighed prevalence of self-harm and its correlates among Hong Kong nurses. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the weighted prevalence of past-year suicidality among Hong Kong nurses was found to be 14·9%. Deliberate self-harm was a significant correlate of suicidality. Nonetheless, there are few population-based studies exploring the prevalence of self-harm and its correlates among medical occupational groups in Asia. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected in Hong Kong over a four-week period from October-November 2013. Statistical methods, including binary and multivariate logistic regression models, were used to examine the weighted prevalence of self-harm and its associated factors in nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. Seventy-nine participants (9·3%) reported self-harm in the past year. Nurses aged between 25-44 were at especially high risk of self-harm. Female nurses reported self-harm more than male nurses. The most common forms of self-harm were self-cutting, striking oneself and poisoning oneself. Clinical experience, chronic illness, relationship crises with family members, a family history of self-harm, smoking, symptoms of stress and psychiatric disorder were significantly associated with nurses' self-harm. The positive correlation between psychiatric disorder and self-harm was confirmed. There is a need for a raft of self-harm prevention strategies, including a continuous monitoring system in the healthcare setting detecting and managing the risks of self-harm in nurses as part of the ordinary provision for their well-being. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Larkin, Celine; Di Blasi, Zelda; Arensman, Ella
Background Self-harm entails high costs to individuals and society in terms of suicide risk, morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Repetition of self-harm confers yet higher risk of suicide and risk assessment of self-harm patients forms a key component of the health care management of self-harm patients. To date, there has been no systematic review published which synthesises the extensive evidence on risk factors for repetition. Objective This review is intended to identify risk factors for prospective repetition of self-harm after an index self-harm presentation, irrespective of suicidal intent. Data sources PubMed, PsychInfo and Scirus were used to search for relevant publications. We included cohort studies which examining factors associated with prospective repetition among those presenting with self-harm to emergency departments. Journal articles, abstracts, letters and theses in any language published up to June 2012 were considered. Studies were quality-assessed and synthesised in narrative form. Results A total of 129 studies, including 329,001 participants, met our inclusion criteria. Some factors were studied extensively and were found to have a consistent association with repetition. These included previous self-harm, personality disorder, hopelessness, history of psychiatric treatment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and living alone. However, the sensitivity values of these measures varied greatly across studies. Psychological risk factors and protective factors have been relatively under-researched but show emerging associations with repetition. Composite risk scales tended to have high sensitivity but poor specificity. Conclusions Many risk factors for repetition of self-harm match risk factors for initiation of self-harm, but the most consistent evidence for increased risk of repetition comes from long-standing psychosocial vulnerabilities, rather than characteristics of an index episode. The current review will
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-harm entails high costs to individuals and society in terms of suicide risk, morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Repetition of self-harm confers yet higher risk of suicide and risk assessment of self-harm patients forms a key component of the health care management of self-harm patients. To date, there has been no systematic review published which synthesises the extensive evidence on risk factors for repetition. OBJECTIVE: This review is intended to identify risk factors for prospective repetition of self-harm after an index self-harm presentation, irrespective of suicidal intent. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsychInfo and Scirus were used to search for relevant publications. We included cohort studies which examining factors associated with prospective repetition among those presenting with self-harm to emergency departments. Journal articles, abstracts, letters and theses in any language published up to June 2012 were considered. Studies were quality-assessed and synthesised in narrative form. RESULTS: A total of 129 studies, including 329,001 participants, met our inclusion criteria. Some factors were studied extensively and were found to have a consistent association with repetition. These included previous self-harm, personality disorder, hopelessness, history of psychiatric treatment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and living alone. However, the sensitivity values of these measures varied greatly across studies. Psychological risk factors and protective factors have been relatively under-researched but show emerging associations with repetition. Composite risk scales tended to have high sensitivity but poor specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Many risk factors for repetition of self-harm match risk factors for initiation of self-harm, but the most consistent evidence for increased risk of repetition comes from long-standing psychosocial vulnerabilities, rather than characteristics of an index episode
Full Text Available Evidence to guide clinical management of self-harm is sparse, trials have recruited selected samples, and psychological treatments that are suggested in guidelines may not be available in routine practice.To examine how the management that patients receive in hospital relates to subsequent outcome.We identified episodes of self-harm presenting to three UK centres (Derby, Manchester, Oxford over a 10 year period (2000 to 2009. We used established data collection systems to investigate the relationship between four aspects of management (psychosocial assessment, medical admission, psychiatric admission, referral for specialist mental health follow up and repetition of self-harm within 12 months, adjusted for differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics.35,938 individuals presented with self-harm during the study period. In two of the three centres, receiving a psychosocial assessment was associated with a 40% lower risk of repetition, Hazard Ratios (95% CIs: Centre A 0.99 (0.90-1.09; Centre B 0.59 (0.48-0.74; Centre C 0.59 (0.52-0.68. There was little indication that the apparent protective effects were mediated through referral and follow up arrangements. The association between psychosocial assessment and a reduced risk of repetition appeared to be least evident in those from the most deprived areas.These findings add to the growing body of evidence that thorough assessment is central to the management of self-harm, but further work is needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms and explore the effects in different clinical subgroups.
Mehlum, Lars; Tørmoen, Anita J; Ramberg, Maria; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Laberg, Stine; Larsson, Bo S; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit
We examined whether a shortened form of dialectical behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) is more effective than enhanced usual care (EUC) to reduce self-harm in adolescents. This was a randomized study of 77 adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm treated at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics who were randomly allocated to either DBT-A or EUC. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder were made at baseline and after 9, 15, and 19 weeks (end of trial period), and frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department visits over the trial period were recorded. Treatment retention was generally good in both treatment conditions, and the use of emergency services was low. DBT-A was superior to EUC in reducing self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms. Effect sizes were large for treatment outcomes in patients who received DBT-A, whereas effect sizes were small for outcomes in patients receiving EUC. Total number of treatment contacts was found to be a partial mediator of the association between treatment and changes in the severity of suicidal ideation, whereas no mediation effects were found on the other outcomes or for total treatment time. DBT-A may be an effective intervention to reduce self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://ClinicalTrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sommerfeldt, Bente; Skårderud, Finn
The aim with this article is to provide an introduction to self-harm as a clinical phenomenon, with phenomenological descriptions and definitions, and by presenting risk factors, epidemiological data and functions of self-harm. The basis for the article is a non-systematic literature search of the electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo and EMBASE (1985 - 2008). and our own archive of literature on self-harm. There is some evidence for an increase in the prevalence of self-harm. Among possible risk factors are childhood abuse, abandonment, neglect, trauma and separation, and the affective quality of the attachment bonds in childhood. A common factor is self-harm as a bodily practice for affect regulation, and as such, it can be understood as a dysfunctional competence. To search for understanding of self-harm in individual, familiar and cultural contexts contributes to meet individuals with such tendencies with empathy and beneficial interventions.
Cheung, Gary; Foster, Gisele; de Beer, Wayne; Gee, Susan; Hawkes, Tracey; Rimkeit, Sally; Tan, Yu Mwee; Merry, Sally; Sundram, Frederick
A past history of self-harm is a significant risk factor for suicide in older people. The aims of this study are to (i) characterize older people who present with self-harm to emergency departments (EDs); and (ii) determine the predictors for repeat self-harm and suicide. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected on older people (age 65+ years), who presented to seven EDs in New Zealand following an episode of self-harm between 1st July 2010 and 30th June 2013. In addition, 12-month follow-up information on repeat self-harm and suicide was collected. The sample included 339 older people (55.2% female) with an age range of 65-96 years (mean age = 75.0; SD = 7.6). Overdose (68.7%) was the most common method of self-harm. 76.4% of the self-harm cases were classified as suicide attempts. Perceived physical illness (47.8%) and family discord (34.5%) were the most common stressors. 12.7% of older people repeated self-harm and 2.1% died by suicide within 12 months. Older people who had a positive blood alcohol reading (OR = 3.87, 95% Cl = 1.35-11.12, p = 0.012) and were already with mental health services at the index self-harm (OR = 2.73, 95% Cl = 1.20-6.25, p = 0.047) were more likely to repeat self-harm/suicide within 12 months. Older people who self-harm are at very high risk of repeat self-harm and suicide. Screening and assessment for alcohol use disorders should be routinely performed following a self-harm presentation, along with providing structured psychological treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological treatment for depression and interventions to improve the person's resilience resources.
Borschmann, Rohan; Thomas, Emma; Moran, Paul; Carroll, Megan; Heffernan, Ed; Spittal, Matthew J; Sutherland, Georgina; Alati, Rosa; Kinner, Stuart A
Prisoners are at increased risk of both self-harm and suicide compared with the general population, and the risk of suicide after release from prison is three times greater than for those still incarcerated. However, surprisingly little is known about the incidence of self-harm following release from prison. We aimed to determine the incidence of, identify risk factors for and characterise emergency department presentations resulting from self-harm in adults after release from prison. Cohort study of 1325 adults interviewed prior to release from prison, linked prospectively with State correctional and emergency department records. Data from all emergency department presentations resulting from self-harm were secondarily coded to characterise these presentations. We used negative binomial regression to identify independent predictors of such presentations. During 3192 person-years of follow-up (median 2.6 years per participant), there were 3755 emergency department presentations. In all, 83 (6.4%) participants presented due to self-harm, accounting for 165 (4.4%) presentations. The crude incidence rates of self-harm for males and females were 49.2 (95% confidence interval: [41.2, 58.7]) and 60.5 (95% confidence interval: [44.9, 81.6]) per 1000 person-years, respectively. Presenting due to self-harm was associated with being Indigenous (incidence rate ratio: 2.01; 95% confidence interval: [1.11, 3.62]), having a lifetime history of a mental disorder (incidence rate ratio: 2.13; 95% confidence interval: [1.19, 3.82]), having previously been hospitalised for psychiatric treatment (incidence rate ratio: 2.68; 95% confidence interval: [1.40, 5.14]) and having previously presented due to self-harm (incidence rate ratio: 3.91; 95% confidence interval: [1.85, 8.30]). Following release from prison, one in 15 ex-prisoners presented to an emergency department due to self-harm, within an average of 2.6 years of release. Demographic and mental health variables help to
This paper provides a review of the rates of self-harm and repeated self-harm among young people. It describes some of the risk factors associated with these behaviours and summarises some of the barriers to delivering optimal treatment. The review concludes that there is an urgent need for the delivery of respectful and evidence-based practice to all young people who present with self-harm. In addition, improved monitoring of self-harm presentations to hospitals across Australia is required in order that robust data are collected and the impact of practice change can be reliably assessed.
Dharmawardene, Vajira; Menkes, David B
We examined the extent to which ethnicity, cannabis and alcohol use could predict prevalence of violence and self-harm in an inpatient psychiatric sample. We collected demographic and clinical data in a series of 141 adult psychiatric inpatients in Hamilton, New Zealand. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test, Revised (CUDIT-R) were used to measure substance use. Clinical assessment and file review were used to verify histories of self-harm and violence. It was found that 66% had a history of violence, 54% of self-harm, and 40% of both; only 20% had neither. Cannabis use was found to significantly predict lifetime history of violence ( p = 0.02); other independent variables (gender, age, ethnicity, alcohol use, psychiatric diagnosis) did not. Self-harm was strikingly predicted by female gender ( p mentally ill, while both alcohol and cannabis use predict self-harm. Few affected patients receive specific treatment for substance use comorbidity.
Larkin, Celine; Griffin, Eve; Corcoran, Paul; McAuliffe, Carmel; Perry, Ivan J; Arensman, Ella
Alcohol misuse and alcohol consumption are significant risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study sought to identify factors associated with alcohol consumption in cases of suicide and nonfatal self-harm presentations. Suicide cases in Cork, Ireland, from September 2008 to June 2012 were identified through the Suicide Support and Information System. Emergency department presentations of self-harm in the years 2007-2013 were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland. Alcohol consumption was detected in the toxicology of 44% out of 307 suicide cases. Only younger age was significantly associated with having consumed alcohol among suicides. Alcohol consumption was noted in the case notes in 21% out of 8,145 self-harm presentations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that variables associated with having consumed alcohol in a self-harm presentation included male gender, older age, overdose as a method, not being admitted to a psychiatric ward, and presenting out-of-hours. Data was limited to routinely collected variables by the two different monitoring systems. Alcohol consumption commonly precedes suicidal behavior, and several factors differentiated alcohol-related suicidal acts. Self-harm cases, in particular, differ in profile when alcohol is consumed and may require a tailored clinical approach to minimize risk of further nonfatal or fatal self-harm.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, who present to hospital after intentionally harming themselves, do so at a higher rate than non-Maori. There have been no previous treatment trials in Maori who self harm and previous reviews of interventions in other populations have been inconclusive as existing trials have been under powered and done on unrepresentative populations. These reviews have however indicated that problem solving therapy and sending regular postcards after the self harm attempt may be an effective treatment. There is also a small literature on sense of belonging in self harm and the importance of culture. This protocol describes a pragmatic trial of a package of measures which include problem solving therapy, postcards, patient support, cultural assessment, improved access to primary care and a risk management strategy in Maori who present to hospital after self harm using a novel design. Methods We propose to use a double consent Zelen design where participants are randomised prior to giving consent to enrol a representative cohort of patients. The main outcome will be the number of Maori scoring below nine on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Secondary outcomes will be hospital repetition at one year; self reported self harm; anxiety; depression; quality of life; social function; and hospital use at three months and one year. Discussion A strength of the study is that it is a pragmatic trial which aims to recruit Maori using a Maori clinical team and protocol. It does not exclude people if English is not their first language. A potential limitation is the analysis of the results which is complex and may underestimate any effect if a large number of people refuse their consent in the group randomised to problem solving therapy as they will effectively cross over to the treatment as usual group. This study is the first randomised control trial to explicitly use cultural assessment and management. Trial
Background Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, who present to hospital after intentionally harming themselves, do so at a higher rate than non-Maori. There have been no previous treatment trials in Maori who self harm and previous reviews of interventions in other populations have been inconclusive as existing trials have been under powered and done on unrepresentative populations. These reviews have however indicated that problem solving therapy and sending regular postcards after the self harm attempt may be an effective treatment. There is also a small literature on sense of belonging in self harm and the importance of culture. This protocol describes a pragmatic trial of a package of measures which include problem solving therapy, postcards, patient support, cultural assessment, improved access to primary care and a risk management strategy in Maori who present to hospital after self harm using a novel design. Methods We propose to use a double consent Zelen design where participants are randomised prior to giving consent to enrol a representative cohort of patients. The main outcome will be the number of Maori scoring below nine on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Secondary outcomes will be hospital repetition at one year; self reported self harm; anxiety; depression; quality of life; social function; and hospital use at three months and one year. Discussion A strength of the study is that it is a pragmatic trial which aims to recruit Maori using a Maori clinical team and protocol. It does not exclude people if English is not their first language. A potential limitation is the analysis of the results which is complex and may underestimate any effect if a large number of people refuse their consent in the group randomised to problem solving therapy as they will effectively cross over to the treatment as usual group. This study is the first randomised control trial to explicitly use cultural assessment and management. Trial registration Australia and New
Gratz, Kim L; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Tull, Matthew T
Despite evidence for the efficacy of several treatments for deliberate self-harm (DSH) within borderline personality disorder (BPD), predictors of response to these treatments remain unknown. This study examined baseline demographic, clinical, and diagnostic predictors of treatment response to an adjunctive emotion regulation group therapy (ERGT) for DSH among women with BPD. A recent RCT provided evidence for the efficacy of this ERGT (relative to a treatment-as-usual only waitlist condition). Participants in this study include the full intent-to-treat sample who began ERGT (across treatment and waitlist conditions; n = 51). Baseline diagnostic and clinical data were collected at the initial assessment, and outcome measures of DSH and self-destructive behaviors, emotion dysregulation/avoidance, and BPD symptoms (among others) were administered at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3- and 9-months posttreatment. Notably, both demographic variables and characteristics of participants' ongoing therapy in the community had minimal impact on treatment response. However, several indicators of greater severity in domains relevant to this ERGT (i.e., baseline emotion dysregulation and BPD criteria, lifetime and recent DSH, and past-year hospitalization and suicide attempts) predicted better responses during treatment and follow-up across the primary targets of treatment. Likewise, several co-occurring disorders (i.e., social phobia, panic disorder, and a cluster B personality disorder) predicted greater improvements in BPD symptoms during treatment or follow-up. Finally, although co-occurring generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and cluster A and C personality disorders were associated with poorer treatment response during follow-up, most of these effects reflected a lack of continued improvements during this period (vs. worsening of symptoms).
Emma Hilton, Charlotte
To report the findings from a unique analysis of naturally occurring data regarding self-harm behaviour generated through the global social media site, Twitter. Self-harm behaviours are of global concern for health and social care practice. However, little is known about the experiences of those who harm and the attitudes of the general public towards such behaviours. A deeper, richer and more organic understanding of this is vital to informing global approaches to supporting individuals through treatment and recovery. Exploratory, qualitative design. Three hundred and sixty-two Twitter messages were subject to inductive thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: (1) celebrity influence, (2) self-harm is not a joke (with subthemes of you wouldn't laugh if you loved me and you think it's funny, I think it's cruel), (3) support for and from others, (4) eating disorders and self-harm and (5) videos and personal stories. The findings indicate that self-harm behaviour continues to be largely misunderstood by the general public and is often the source of ridicule which may contribute to delays in accessing treatment. Whilst Twitter may also provide a source of valuable support for those who self-harm, the sense of community, relatedness and understanding generated by such support may contribute to normalising self-harm and perpetuating the behaviours. Our understanding of the complexity of and aetiology and most effective treatment options for self-harm behaviours is still unclear. The findings demonstrate that there is a critical opportunity to conduct further qualitative research to better understand self-harm and to use these valuable and internationally relevant data to support the development of effective public education campaigns and personally tailored treatment options. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hadley, Wendy; Curby, Timothy W; Brown, Larry K
Adolescents with mental health conditions represent a high-risk group for substance use, deliberate self-harm (DSH), and risky sexual behavior. Mental health treatment does not uniformly decrease these risks. Effective prevention efforts are needed to offset the developmental trajectory from mental health problems to these behaviors. This study tested an adjunctive cognitive-behavioral family-based alcohol, DSH, and HIV prevention program (ASH-P) for adolescents in mental healthcare. A two group randomized design was used to compare ASH-P to an assessment only control (AO-C). Participants included 81 adolescents and a parent. Assessments were completed at pre-intervention as well as 1, 6, and 12-months post-enrollment, and included measures of family-based mechanisms and high-risk behaviors. ASH-P relative to AO-C was associated with greater improvements in most family process variables (perceptions of communication and parental disapproval of alcohol use and sexual behavior) as well as less DSH and greater refusal of sex to avoid a sexually transmitted infection. It also had a moderate (but non-significant) effect on odds of binge drinking. No differences were found in suicidal ideation, alcohol use, or sexual intercourse. ASH-P showed initial promise in preventing multiple high-risk behaviors. Further testing of prevention protocols that target multiple high-risk behaviors in clinical samples is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guertler, Anne; Reinholz, Markus; Poetschke, Julian; Steckmeier, Stephanie; Schwaiger, Hannah; Gauglitz, Gerd G
Scars resulting from deliberate self-harm (DSH) represent therapeutically challenging forms of scarring due to their highly variable patterns, with no official therapeutic guidelines available. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a non-ablative fractional Er:glass 1565 nm laser, as a potential new, minimal-invasive approach for the improvement of DSH scars. Sixteen Caucasians suffering from mature DSH scars were included in this clinical study. Patients received a total of three treatments using a non-ablative fractional 1565 nm Er:glass laser every 4 weeks, employing two passes (300 μbeams/cm 2 , 40 mJ, onto the scar; 150 μbeams/cm 2 , 50 mJ, overall area). Measurements included questionnaires (DLQI, POSAS), digital photography, and objective three-dimensional analysis using PRIMOS and VECTRA software at baseline, 1 and 6 months after treatment. PRIMOS objective measurements showed highly significant changes in scar surface with a reduction of atrophic lesions by 27.5% at 6 months follow-up (FU), a decrease in scar height by 42.7% at 6 months FU, resulting in an overall diminished skin irregularity dropping from 678.3 μm at baseline to 441.6 μm throughout the course of the study (p = ablative 1565 nm Er:glass laser represents a promising and safe approach for the therapy of DSH scars. Although these scars will never fully resolve, their appearance can be significantly improved to a cosmetically and socially more acceptable appearance.
Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.
This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…
EFFECTIVENESS OF DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY VERSUS COLLABORATIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SUICIDALITY TREATMENT FOR REDUCTION OF SELF-HARM IN ADULTS WITH BORDERLINE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DISORDER-A RANDOMIZED OBSERVER-BLINDED CLINICAL TRIAL.
Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Wenneberg, Christina; Jessen, Helle K L; Krakauer, Kristine; Gluud, Christian; Thomsen, Rasmus R; Randers, Lasse; Nordentoft, Merete
Many psychological treatments have shown effect on reducing self-harm in adults with borderline personality disorder. There is a need of brief psychotherapeutical treatment alternative for suicide prevention in specialized outpatient clinics. The DiaS trial was designed as a pragmatic single-center, two-armed, parallel-group observer-blinded, randomized clinical superiority trial. The participants had at least two criteria from the borderline personality disorder diagnosis and a recent suicide attempt (within a month). The participants were offered 16 weeks of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus up to 16 weeks of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) treatment. The primary composite outcome was the number of participants with a new self-harm (nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] or suicide attempt) at week 28 from baseline. Other exploratory outcomes were: severity of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, suicide ideation, and self-esteem. At 28 weeks, the number of participants with new self-harm in the DBT group was 21 of 57 (36.8%) versus 12 of 51 (23.5%) in the CAMS treatment (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 0.80-4.40; P = .14). When assessing the effect of DBT versus CAMS treatment on the individual components of the primary outcome, we observed no significant differences in the number of NSSI (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.70-3.90; P = .31) or number of attempted suicides (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 0.80-7.50; P = .12). In adults with borderline personality traits and disorder and a recent suicide attempt, DBT does not seem superior compared with CAMS for reduction of number of self-harm or suicide attempts. However, further randomized clinical trials may be needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Steeg, Sarah; Haigh, Matthew; Webb, Roger T; Kapur, Nav; Awenat, Yvonne; Gooding, Patricia; Pratt, Daniel; Cooper, Jayne
Hopelessness is frequently observed in people who harm themselves and is an established risk factor for nonfatal self-harm repetition and suicide. Little is known about how the presence of hopelessness in addition to other risk factors affects subsequent risk. Prospective cohort of 19,479 individuals presenting with self-harm to one of three English Emergency Departments between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2010. Repeat self-harm and suicide deaths within twelve months of the first assessed episode were identified. Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to estimate Hazard Ratios (HRs) for risk factors with and without hopelessness. A clinical impression of hopelessness was associated with increased risk of further self-harm (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.58) and suicide (HR 2.56, CI 1.10-5.96) in the year following an index episode. For individuals who were living alone or homeless, unemployed, reported problems with housing, had received psychiatric treatment in the past, were currently receiving treatment or used alcohol during the self-harm episode, an exacerbation of an already elevated risk of repetition was observed amongst those who were assessed as hopeless. Where individuals presented with forensic problems, physical health problems or bereavement, an increase in risk was only observed for those who were also assessed as hopeless. A clinical impression of hopelessness was assigned using a binary "yes"/"no" classification rather than a validated scale. Hopelessness intensifies the impact of several known risk factors for adverse outcomes following self-harm. These findings highlight the importance of identifying and therapeutically addressing this dynamic but potentially modifiable clinical risk factor during the psychosocial assessment and in subsequent care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klonsky, E. David; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Turkheimer, Eric
...) has focused on clinical and forensic populations. Studying only these populations, which typically have serious psychopathology, may lead to inflated estimates of the association between self-harm and psychiatric disorder, as well as of the...
Doyle, L; Sheridan, A; Treacy, M P
adolescents who completed the survey across 11 postprimary schools, 103 reported a history of self-harm. The most commonly endorsed reason for self-harm was to 'get relief from a terrible state of mind' (79%). Open-ended responses were consistent with scale responses with most reporting that they self-harmed to relieve distressing emotions. Discussion Findings provide support for the affect-regulation model of self-harm with support also demonstrated for the self-punishment and antidissociation models. There was little support for the interpersonal influence model suggesting that the commonly held belief that self-harm is attention-seeking is one attributed by others to young people, and not widely reported by young people themselves. Implications for practice Mental health services need to be responsive to the needs of young people who self-harm which requires eliciting and understanding the individual and multiple meanings behind self-harm to best inform treatment options. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sahlin, Hanna; Bjureberg, Johan; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Hedman, Erik; Bjärehed, Jonas; Jokinen, Jussi; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hellner, Clara
Emotion regulation group therapy (ERGT) has shown promising results in several efficacy trials. However, it has not been evaluated outside a research setting. In order to increase the availability of empirically supported treatments for individuals with borderline personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, an evaluation of ERGT in routine clinical care was conducted with therapists of different professional backgrounds who had received brief intensive training in ERGT prior to trial onset. Multi-site evaluation, using an uncontrolled open trial design with assessments at pretreatment, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. 14 adult outpatient psychiatric clinics across Sweden. Ninety-five women (mean age=25.1 years) with borderline personality disorder (both threshold and subthreshold) and repeated self-harm were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three per cent of participants completed the post-treatment assessment and 88% completed the follow-up assessment. Primary outcome was self-harm frequency as measured with the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory. Secondary outcomes included self-harm versatility, emotion dysregulation, other self-destructive behaviours, depression, anxiety, stress symptoms and interpersonal and vocational difficulties. ERGT is an adjunctive, 14-week, acceptance-based behavioural group treatment that directly targets both self-harm and its proposed underlying mechanism of emotion dysregulation. At post-treatment, intent-to-treat analyses revealed a significant improvement associated with a moderate effect size on the primary outcome of self-harm frequency (51%, reduction; Cohen's d=0.52, pself-harm versatility, emotion dysregulation, other self-destructive behaviours and general psychiatric symptomatology. These results were either maintained or further improved on at 6-month follow-up. ERGT appears to be a feasible, transportable and useful treatment for deliberate self-harm and other self-destructive behaviours, emotion dysregulation and
Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing
This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Kawahara, Yoko Yoshida; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Harada, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Yamada, Shu; Kitada, Maki; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Kensho; Watanabe, Kenjiro; Mimura, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke
We conducted a retrospective chart-review study, examining predictors of the repetition of short-term self-harm (self-harm. A total of 405 patients were enrolled and were followed-up for a subsequent one year. The incidence of repeated self-harm within one- and six- months were 6.4% and 13.1%, respectively. Cox's proportional hazards model analyses demonstrated that history of self-harm and comorbid physical illness were associated with repeated self-harm within one month. The patients who lived alone and who were directly discharged from the emergency room after referral to a psychiatrist were at higher risk for repeated self-harm within both one and six months. Living on public assistance and having been discharged from psychiatric wards within the past 12 months were associated with repetition within six months. These risk factors should be incorporated into routine assessment at an emergency room, and elaborate follow-up plan should be provided to the patients with these risk factors upon discharge from the emergency room. Further prospective studies are warranted, addressing more comprehensive factors that are associated with short-term risk for self-harm and suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rasmussen, Susan; Hawton, Keith; Philpott-Morgan, Sion; O'Connor, Rory C
Given the high rates of self-harm among adolescents, recent research has focused on a better understanding of the motives for the behavior. The present study had three aims: to investigate (a) which motives are most frequently endorsed by adolescents who report self-harm; (b) whether motives reported at baseline predict repetition of self-harm over a 6-month period; and (c) whether self-harm motives differ between boys and girls. In all, 987 school pupils aged 14-16 years completed a lifestyle and coping questionnaire at two time points 6 months apart that recorded self-harm and the associated motives. The motive "to get relief from a terrible state of mind" was the most commonly endorsed reason for self-harm (in boys and girls). Interpersonal reasons (e.g., "to frighten someone") were least commonly endorsed. Regression analyses showed that adolescents who endorsed wanting to get relief from a terrible state of mind at baseline were significantly more likely to repeat self-harm at follow-up than those adolescents who did not cite this motive. The results highlight the complex nature of self-harm. They have implications for mental health provision in educational settings, especially in relation to encouraging regulation of emotions and help-seeking.
Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas
Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…
Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Jayasena, Chandima; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala
the personal network of the drinker and lead to secondary traumatization. This can appear as emotional distress, financial difficulties and lead to domestic violence and in some cases self-harm and suicide. This interplay between alcohol and self-harm was investigated in individuals, families and communities...... in the Anuradhapura area. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore alcohol’s role in cases of self-harm in individuals, families and communities. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory study, was conducted utilizing: (i) serial, narrative, life-story interviews with 19 individuals (12 men and 7 women...... drinking to social, occasional and even first time drinking. All women had alcohol indirectly involved in their case of self-harm through the negative effects of a relative’s drinking. Findings indicate that two categories of the alcohol-self-harm complex exist, with different characteristics for men...
Oldershaw, Anna; Simic, Mima; Grima, Emanuela; Jollant, Fabrice; Richards, Clair; Taylor, Lucy; Schmidt, Ulrike
Research shows poor decision making in adolescents who self-harm and a positive correlation between decision-making abilities and duration since last self-harm episode. This exploratory study investigated whether decision making in self-harming adolescents could be improved through treatment with a novel cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). It also…
Plener, Paul L; Zohsel, Katrin; Hohm, Erika; Buchmann, Arlette F; Banaschewski, T; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Laucht, Manfred
Self-harm is highly prevalent in adolescence, often serving an emotion regulation function. Social stressors such as bullying are associated with self-harm. The neurobiological background of the relationship between social stressors and self-harm needs to be further understood to inform prevention and therapy. Participants were members of an epidemiological cohort study. 130 female participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 19. Of them, 21 reported a history of self-harm as assessed by the Youth Self Report. Psychiatric diagnoses were recorded. Participants with a history of self-harm showed significantly lower blood cortisol levels throughout the TSST. Early psychosocial adversity did not significantly differ between groups with and without self-harm, with self-harming participants reporting more childhood adversities. These results add to the limited field of studies showing an altered HPA axis activity in females with self-harm. Future studies need to address the causal mechanisms behind this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakanishi, Miharu; Endo, Kaori; Ando, Shuntaro
A suicide prevention strategy was launched in Japan in 2006 to address the high suicide rate, which had increased considerably since 1998. The national strategy from 2007 involved the enhancement of psychiatric treatment services at emergency medical facilities and supportive observation by individuals close to patients. The national suicide rate has decreased gradually since 2008; however, national information regarding the number of patients who had engaged in deliberate self-harm was absent. Therefore, the present study examined the longitudinal trend in hospital admissions due to deliberate self-harm in Japan. Data from the National Patient Survey between 1996 and 2014-a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of inpatient care every 3 years-were used. Data for 13,014 patients were included in the estimation of the number of hospital admissions due to deliberate self-harm. The results show that the estimated number of admissions due to deliberate self-harm increased from 2078 in September 1996 to 3189 in September 2008, when the national number of suicide cases peaked, and decreased to 1783 in 2014. Approximately half of the patients were admitted to hospital because of self-harm via means other than drug poisoning, which had a high mortality rate (5.6%). The proportion of patients receiving public assistance was higher in those who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (8.5%) relative to that observed in the general population. Overall, the trend in deliberate self-harm was synchronous with the number of suicide cases over time. As economic poverty has been associated with suicidal ideation and behavior and some recipients of public assistance tend to abuse psychotropic medication, the public assistance program should provide mental health support for recipients of social benefit schemes.
Patchin, Justin W; Hinduja, Sameer
Despite increased media and scholarly attention to digital forms of aggression directed toward adolescents by their peers (e.g., cyberbullying), very little research has explored digital aggression directed toward oneself. "Digital self-harm" is the anonymous online posting, sending, or otherwise sharing of hurtful content about oneself. The current study examined the extent of digital self-harm among adolescents. Survey data were obtained in 2016 from a nationally representative sample of 5,593 American middle and high school students (12-17 years old). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of participation in digital self-harm. Qualitative responses were also reviewed to better understand motivations for digital self-harm. About 6% of students have anonymously posted something online about themselves that was mean. Males were significantly more likely to report participation (7.1% compared to 5.3%). Several statistically significant correlates of involvement in digital self-harm were identified, including sexual orientation, experience with school bullying and cyberbullying, drug use, participation in various forms of adolescent deviance, and depressive symptoms. Digital self-harm is a new problem that demands additional scholarly attention. A deeper inquiry as to the motivations behind this behavior, and how it correlates to offline self-harm and suicidal ideation, can help direct mental health professionals toward informed prevention approaches. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kool, N.; van Meijel, B.; van der Bijl, J.; Koekkoek, B.; Kerkhof, A.
The attitude of nurses and treatment staff is crucial in the treatment of patients who self-harm. However, many patients experience that attitude as negative. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Attitude Towards Deliberate Self-Harm
European literature contains fictional descriptions of self-harm and self-punishment over a time span of almost 2 500 years. This article presents such descriptions, from Sofocles' tragedy about King Oedipus to contemporary literature. Particular interest is dedicated to the Austrian Nobel prize laureate Elfriede Jelinek and the Norwegian author Karl Ove Knausgård. In Jelinek's fictional universe, self-harm is particularly related to the topic of autonomy in a family context; while Knausgård describes the role of shame in triggering and sustaining self-harming behaviour.
Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Shuai; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Blanco, Carlos
The authors sought to identify risk factors for repeat self-harm and completed suicide over the following year among adults with deliberate self-harm. A national cohort of Medicaid-financed adults clinically diagnosed with deliberate self-harm (N=61,297) was followed for up to 1 year. Repeat self-harm per 1,000 person-years and suicide rates per 100,000 person-years (based on cause of death information from the National Death Index) were determined. Hazard ratios of repeat self-harm and suicide were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. During the 12 months after nonfatal self-harm, the rate of repeat self-harm was 263.2 per 1,000 person-years and the rate of completed suicide was 439.1 per 100,000 person-years, or 37.2 times higher than in a matched general population cohort. The hazard of suicide was higher after initial self-harm events involving violent as compared with nonviolent methods (hazard ratio=7.5, 95% CI=5.5-10.1), especially firearms (hazard ratio=15.86, 95% CI=10.7-23.4; computed with poisoning as reference), and to a lesser extent after events of patients who had recently received outpatient mental health care (hazard ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.2-2.0). Compared with self-harm patients using nonviolent methods, those who used violent methods were at significantly increased risk of suicide during the first 30 days after the initial event (hazard ratio=17.5, 95% CI=11.2-27.3), but not during the following 335 days. Adults treated for deliberate self-harm frequently repeat self-harm in the following year. Patients who use a violent method for their initial self-harm, especially firearms, have an exceptionally high risk of suicide, particularly right after the initial event, which highlights the importance of careful assessment and close follow-up of this group.
Neovius, Martin; Bruze, Gustaf; Jacobson, Peter; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Johansson, Kari; Granath, Fredrik; Sundström, Johan; Näslund, Ingmar; Marcus, Claude; Ottosson, Johan; Peltonen, Markku; Carlsson, Lena M S
Bariatric surgery reduces mortality, but might have adverse effects on mental health. We assessed the risk of suicide and self-harm after bariatric surgery compared with non-surgical obesity treatment. Suicide and non-fatal self-harm events retrieved from nationwide Swedish registers were examined in two cohorts. The non-randomised, prospective Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study compared bariatric surgery (n=2010; 1369 vertical-banded gastroplasty, 376 gastric banding, and 265 gastric bypass) with usual care (n=2037; recruitment 1987-2001). The second cohort consisted of individuals from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg; n=20 256 patients who had gastric bypass) matched to individuals treated with intensive lifestyle modification (n=16 162; intervention 2006-13) on baseline BMI, age, sex, education level, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, history of self-harm, substance misuse, antidepressant use, anxiolytics use, and psychiatric health-care contacts. During 68 528 person-years (median 18; IQR 14-21) in the SOS study, suicides or non-fatal self-harm events were higher in the surgery group (n=87) than in the control group (n=49; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1·78, 95% CI 1·23-2·57; p=0·0021); of these events, nine and three were suicides, respectively (3·06, 0·79-11·88; p=0·11). In analyses by primary procedure type, increased risk of suicide or non-fatal self-harm was identified for gastric bypass (3·48, 1·65-7·31; p=0·0010), gastric banding (2·43, 1·23-4·82; p=0·011), and vertical-banded gastroplasty (2·25, 1·37-3·71; p=0·0015) compared with controls. Out of nine deaths by suicide in the SOS surgery group, five occurred after gastric bypass (two primary and three converted procedures). During 149 582 person-years (median 3·9; IQR 2·8-5·2), more suicides or non-fatal self-harm events were reported in the SOReg gastric bypass group (n=341) than in the intensive lifestyle group (n=84; aHR 3·16, 2·46-4·06; pself
Majid, Madiha; Tadros, Maria; Tadros, George; Singh, Swaran; Broome, Matthew R; Upthegrove, Rachel
To explore repetition, service provision and service engagement following presentation of young people to emergency services with self-harm. 969 patients who presented to accident and emergency services after self-harm were followed up prospectively for a period of 1 year. Data on rates, method, clinical history, initial service provision, engagement and repetition (defined as re-presenting to emergency services with further self-harm) were gathered from comprehensive electronic records. Young people were less likely to repeat self-harm compared to those aged 25 and above. A psychiatric history and a history of childhood trauma were significant predictors of repetition. Young people were more likely to receive self-help as their initial service provision, and less likely to receive acute psychiatric care or a hospital admission. There were no differences in engagement with services between young people and those aged 25 and above. Younger individuals may be less vulnerable to repetition, and are less likely to represent to services with repeated self-harm. All young people who present with self-harm should be screened for mental illness and asked about childhood trauma. Whilst young people are less likely to be referred to psychiatric services, they do attend when referred. This may indicate missed opportunity for intervention.
Klonsky, E David; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Turkheimer, Eric
Research on deliberate self-harm (intentionally injuring oneself without suicidal intent) has focused on clinical and forensic populations. Studying only these populations, which typically have serious psychopathology, may lead to inflated estimates of the association between self-harm and psychiatric disorder, as well as of the prevalence of deliberate self-harm. The present study investigated the prevalence and correlates of deliberate self-harm in a large group of nonclinical subjects. Participants were 1,986 military recruits, 62% of whom were men, who were participating in a study of peer assessment of personality traits and pathology. Individuals who did and did not report a history of self-harm were compared on measures of personality and psychopathology. Approximately 4% of the participants reported a history of deliberate self-harm. Compared with participants without a history of deliberate self-harm, self-harmers scored higher on self- and peer-report measures of borderline, schizotypal, dependent, and avoidant personality disorder symptoms and reported more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Item-level analyses indicated that peers viewed self-harmers as having strange and intense emotions and a heightened sensitivity to interpersonal rejection. About one of every 25 members of a large group of relatively high-functioning nonclinical subjects reported a history of self-harm. Self-harmers had more symptoms of several personality disorders than non-self-harmers, and their performance across measures suggested that anxiety plays a prominent role in their psychopathology. Future research should investigate whether psychotherapies or psychiatric medications known to reduce symptoms of anxiety can be effective in treating deliberate self-harm.
Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David
intent. These findings emphasise the need for early identification and treatment of adolescents who self harm. PMID:25335825
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Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…
Mehlum, Lars; Ramberg, Maria; Tørmoen, Anita J; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit
We conducted a 1-year prospective follow-up study of posttreatment clinical outcomes in adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm who had been randomly allocated to receive 19 weeks of either dialectical behavior therapy adapted for adolescents (DBT-A) or enhanced usual care (EUC) at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, borderline symptoms, and global level of functioning were made at the end of the 19-week treatment period and at follow-up 1 year later. Altogether 75 of the 77 (97%) adolescents participated at both time points. Frequencies of hospitalizations, emergency department visits and other use of mental health care during the 1-year follow-up period were recorded. Change analyses were performed using mixed effects linear spline regression and mixed effect Poisson regression with robust variance. Over the 52-week follow-up period, DBT-A remained superior to EUC in reducing the frequency of self-harm. For other outcomes such as suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depressive or borderline symptoms and for the global level of functioning, inter-group differences apparent at the 19-week assessment were no longer observed, mainly due to participants in the EUC group having significantly improved on these dimensions over the follow-up year, whereas DBT-A participants remained unchanged. A stronger long-term reduction in self-harm and a more rapid recovery in suicidal ideation, depression, and borderline symptoms suggest that DBT-A may be a favorable treatment alternative for adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mehmet Emin Demirkol
Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93
Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.
The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…
Lyne, John Paul
A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
Full Text Available The state of stress and styles of coping with stress constitute an important component of life of every human being, particularly during adolescence. Effective coping mechanisms enable reduction of severity of stress experienced, while inability to manage stressful situations results in alterations in emotional and physiological domains, disturbances of mental well-being, somatic health and social functioning. Since a few years, we are witnessing a significant aggravation of the phenomenon of auto-aggression among children and adolescents, particularly in populations already undergoing psychiatric treatment. Such behaviours fulfil several functions: they may represent a way to express emotions, a means of adaptation or a style of coping with difficulties encountered in everyday life and emotional tension associated therewith. The aim of this study was to analyse predominating styles of coping with stressful situations, adopted by adolescen patients performing self-harm. The study population encompassed 35 patients, aged 16.60±0.18 years, there of 27 girls and 8 boys, hospitalised at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry of the Medical University in Łódź, who had a history of deliberate self-harm (DSH. Control group included 32 healthy volunteers aged 16.91±0.16 years, thereof 23 girls and 9 boys. In view of the size of study population, it was subdivided into subgroups depending on whether episodes of DSH were sporadic or repetitive. Data were collected using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS. This questionnaire was designed specifically to explore styles of coping with stress. Self-harming adolescents, both girls and boys, significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style. Patients with repetitive DSH (over 4 episodes significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style and/or avoidance-oriented style, particularly in the form of seeking social contacts – social diversion, as compared with those committing
Young, Myla H; Justice, Jerald V; Erdberg, Philip
In this study, 242 randomly selected male offenders who were receiving psychiatric treatment in prison were administered psychological and neuropsychological evaluations and were followed during their treatment in a prison psychiatric hospital. Offenders who harmed themselves in treatment were compared to those who did not harm themselves. Eighteen percent of offenders harmed themselves, the severity of which required medical intervention. Young age, drug abuse, absence of Axis I mental disorder but presence of Axis II borderline personality disorder identified offenders who harmed themselves. Psychopathy checklist-revised (PCL-R) total rating > or = 30 and PCL-R Factor 2 (antisocial lifestyle) rating also identified offenders who harmed themselves. Additionally, offenders who harmed themselves also were 8.36 times more likely than their cohorts to harm treatment staff. Theoretical understanding of offenders who harm themselves, the importance of considering the environmental context in identifying risk factors for self-harm, and implications for treatment are suggested.
Clements, Caroline; Jones, Steve; Morriss, Richard; Peters, Sarah; Cooper, Jayne; While, David; Kapur, Navneet
People with bipolar disorder may be at increased risk of suicidal behaviour but there are few prospective studies of self-harm in this group. Our aim was to describe the characteristics and outcome (in terms of repetition) for individuals with bipolar disorder who presented to hospital following self-harm. A nested case-control study was carried out using a large prospective self-harm database (1997-2010) in Manchester, UK. Characteristics of bipolar cases and non-bipolar controls were compared using conditional logistic regression, and outcomes were assessed via survival analyses. Bipolar cases (n=103) were more likely to repeat self-harm than controls (n=515): proportion with at least one repeat episode 58% vs. 25%, HR 3.08 (95% CI; 2.2-4.18). Previous self-harm, unemployment, contact with psychiatric services and sleep disturbance were all more common in cases than controls. Even after adjustment for known risk factors, the risk of repetition remained higher in the bipolar group (adjusted HR 1.68; 95% CI; 1.10-2.56). The study covers cases from hospital sites in Manchester, UK, and therefore only includes self-harm that was serious enough to present at hospital emergency departments. People with bipolar disorder who self-harm have a higher risk of repetition than people who self-harm more generally. Adjusting for some known risk factors moderated, but did not abolish, this finding. Other factors, such as impulsivity, may also be important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quinlivan, Leah; Cooper, Jayne; Meehan, Declan; Longson, Damien; Potokar, John; Hulme, Tom; Marsden, Jennifer; Brand, Fiona; Lange, Kezia; Riseborough, Elena; Page, Lisa; Metcalfe, Chris; Davies, Linda; O'Connor, Rory; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Kapur, Nav
BackgroundScales are widely used in psychiatric assessments following self-harm. Robust evidence for their diagnostic use is lacking.AimsTo evaluate the performance of risk scales (Manchester Self-Harm Rule, ReACT Self-Harm Rule, SAD PERSONS scale, Modified SAD PERSONS scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale); and patient and clinician estimates of risk in identifying patients who repeat self-harm within 6 months.MethodA multisite prospective cohort study was conducted of adults aged 18 years and over referred to liaison psychiatry services following self-harm. Scale a priori cut-offs were evaluated using diagnostic accuracy statistics. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to determine optimal cut-offs and compare global accuracy.ResultsIn total, 483 episodes of self-harm were included in the study. The episode-based 6-month repetition rate was 30% (n = 145). Sensitivity ranged from 1% (95% CI 0-5) for the SAD PERSONS scale, to 97% (95% CI 93-99) for the Manchester Self-Harm Rule. Positive predictive values ranged from 13% (95% CI 2-47) for the Modified SAD PERSONS Scale to 47% (95% CI 41-53) for the clinician assessment of risk. The AUC ranged from 0.55 (95% CI 0.50-0.61) for the SAD PERSONS scale to 0.74 (95% CI 0.69-0.79) for the clinician global scale. The remaining scales performed significantly worse than clinician and patient estimates of risk (Pself-harm have limited clinical utility and may waste valuable resources. Most scales performed no better than clinician or patient ratings of risk. Some performed considerably worse. Positive predictive values were modest. In line with national guidelines, risk scales should not be used to determine patient management or predict self-harm. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Lodebo, Bereket T; Möller, Jette; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Engström, Karin
Understanding the association between parental socioeconomic position and self-harm in adolescence is crucial due to its substantial magnitude and associated inequality. Most previous studies have been either of cross-sectional nature or based solely on self-reports or hospital treated self-harm. The aim of this study is to determine the association between parental socioeconomic position and self-harm among adolescents with a specific focus on gender and severity of self-harm. A total of 165,932 adolescents born 1988-1994 who lived in Stockholm at the age of 13 were followed in registers until they turned 18. Self-harm was defined as first time self-harm and severity of self-harm was defined as hospitalized or not. Socioeconomic position was defined by parental education and household income. Cox proportional hazards regression were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses showed an association between parental socioeconomic position and self-harm. Among adolescents with parents with primary and secondary education compared to tertiary parental education the HR were 1.10 (95% CI 0.97-1.24) and 1.16 (95% CI 1.08-1.25) respectively. Compared to the highest income category, adolescents from the lower income categories were 1.08 (95% CI 0.97-1.22) to 1.19 (95% CI 1.07-1.33) times more likely to self-harm. In gender-stratified analyses, an association was found only among girls. Further, restriction to severe cases eliminated the association. This study suggested that low parental socioeconomic position is associated with self-harm in adolescence, predominantly among girls. The desertion of an association among severe cases may be explained by differences in suicidal intent and underlying psychiatric diagnosis. Efforts to prevent self-harm should consider children with low parental socioeconomic position as a potential target group.
Hawton, Keith; Linsell, Louise; Adeniji, Tunde; Sariaslan, Amir; Fazel, Seena
. Risk factors for suicide after self-harm in male prisoners were older age and a previous self-harm incident of high or moderate lethality; in female inmates, a history of more than five self-harm incidents within a year was associated with subsequent suicide. The burden of self-harm in prisoners is substantial, particularly in women. Self-harm in prison is associated with subsequent suicide in this setting. Prevention and treatment of self-harm in prisoners is an essential component of suicide prevention in prisons. Wellcome Trust, National Institute for Health Research, National Offender Management Service, and Department of Health. Copyright © 2014 Hawton et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Previous follow-up studies of repeated self-harm show that the cumulative risk of repeated self-harm within one year is 5.7%–15%, with females at greatest risk. However, relatively few studies have focused on the Far East. The objective of this study was to calculate the cumulative risk of repeated self-harm over different lengths of follow-up time (3 months, 6 months, and 1–8 years), to determine factors influencing repeated self-harm and to explore the interaction between gender and self-harm methods. Methods We used self-harm patient who hospitalized due to first-time self-harm between 2000 and 2007 from 1,230 hospitals in Taiwan. Hospitalization for repeated self-harm among members of this cohort was tracked after 3 months, 6 months, and 1–8 years. Tracking continued until December 31, 2008. We analyzed the cumulative risk and risk factors of repeated self-harm by using negative binomial regression. Results Of the 39,875 individual study samples, 3,388 individuals (8.50%) were found to have repeatedly self-harmed. The cumulative risk of repeated self-harm within three months was 7.19% and within one year was 8%. Within 8 years, it was 8.70%. Females were more likely to repeatedly self-harm than males (RR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.15–1.76). The main method of self-harm was solid or liquid substances (RR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.23–2.04) or cutting or piercing (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.02–1.82), and in patients with psychiatric disorders were more likely to self-harm (RR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.48–1.75). Conclusions The key time for intervention for repeated self-harm is within three months. Appropriate prevention programs should be developed based on gender differences. PMID:22950416
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah A; Grant, Jon E
There is an ongoing debate regarding how self-harm should be classified. The aim of this study was to characterize associations between self-harm and impulsivity. Total 333 adults (mean [SD] age 22.6 (3.6) years, 61% male) were recruited from the general community. History of self-harm was quantified using the Self-Harm Inventory (SHI), which asks about 22 self-harm behaviors. Principal components analysis was used to identify latent dimensions of self-harming behaviors. Relationships between self-harm dimensions and other measures were characterized using ordinary least squares regression. Principal Components Analysis yielded a three factor solution, corresponding to self-injurious self-harm (e.g. cutting, overdoses, burning), interpersonal related self-harm (e.g. engaging in emotionally or sexually abusive relationships), and reckless self-harm (e.g. losing one's job deliberately, driving recklessly, abusing alcohol). Regression modelling showed that all three dimensions of self-harm were associated with lower quality of life. This study suggests the existence of three distinct subtypes or 'latent factors' of self-harm: all three appear clinically important in that they are linked with worse quality of life. Clinicians should screen for impulse control disorders in people with self-harm, especially when it is self-injurious or involves interpersonal harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Self-harm, or self-mutilation, is generally viewed in academic literature as a pathological act, usually born out of trauma and/or a psychological and personality defect. Individuals who engage in self-harm are usually seen as damaged, destructive, and pathological. While self-harm is not a desirable act, this paper argues through the narratives…
Barrett, Peter; Griffin, Eve; Corcoran, Paul; O'Mahony, Mary T; Arensman, Ella
Self-harm is a strong predictor of future suicide, but little is known about self-harm among the homeless population. The study aim was to estimate the incidence of self-harm among the homeless population and to assess factors associated with self-harm. Data on self-harm presentations to 34 hospital emergency departments in Ireland were collected by the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland (NSHRI). Index presentations between 2010 and 2014 were included for the homeless and fixed residence populations. Incidence rates of self-harm were calculated using NSHRI data and census estimates. Factors associated with self-harm and repeated self-harm were analysed by multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. The age-standardised incidence rate of self-harm was 30 times higher among the homeless (5572 presentations per 100,000) compared with those with a fixed residence (187 presentations per 100,000). Homeless people had significantly higher odds of being male (OR 1.86, 95%CI 1.56-2.23), presenting with self-cutting (vs. overdose, OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.74-2.66) and having psychiatric admission (vs. general admission, OR 2.43, 95%CI 1.66-3.57). Homeless people had higher odds of self-harm repetition within 12 months (vs. fixed residence, OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.21-1.77). The odds of repetition were significantly increased among homeless who engaged in self-cutting (vs. overdose, OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.17-2.65) and did not receive psychiatric review at index presentation (vs. reviewed, OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.05-2.26). The study only reflects self-harm presenting to hospital, and assumes no change in homelessness status after index presentation. Residual confounding may affect the results. There is a disproportionate burden of self-harm among the homeless. Targeted preventive actions are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Jayne; Steeg, Sarah; Gunnell, David; Webb, Roger; Hawton, Keith; Bennewith, Olive; House, Allan; Kapur, Navneet
Studies have shown wide variations in delivery of self-harm services but it is unclear how these relate to important outcomes such as self-harm repetition. Data were collected on self-harm presentations and hospital management from 31 hospitals in England. Key staff were interviewed about service provision for self-harm patients and responses were mapped to a 21-item service quality scale. Our main outcome was repeat hospital-presenting self-harm within six months. 6347 individuals presented with 7599 episodes of self-harm during a three month period in 2010-2011. Re-attendance with self-harm within six months of index episode occurred in 21% (1308/6347) of individuals (range between hospitals 9-27%). We found little association between clinical management at hospital level (i.e. proportion of episodes receiving psychosocial assessment, medical or psychiatric admission, and referral to statutory or non-statutory services) and repetition rate. The median score on service quality scale was 14.5 (range between hospitals 10.5-19). There was no evidence of correlation between total service quality score and repetition of self-harm (Spearman׳s r=-0.06, p=0.73) or between individual service items and repetition. We did not explore certain aspects of service provision e.g. quality of psychosocial assessments and length of admission. Hospital presentation for repeat self-harm may not be the most reliable measure of service quality. At aggregate level aspects of management and service structures did not appear to be associated with self-harm repetition rates. Future research should focus on better understanding the processes underlying the delivery of services at hospital level and their relationship to outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beckman, K; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Lichtenstein, P; Larsson, H; Almqvist, C; Runeson, B; Dahlin, M
Self-harm among young adults is a common and increasing phenomenon in many parts of the world. The long-term prognosis after self-harm at young age is inadequately known. We aimed to estimate the risk of mental illness and suicide in adult life after self-harm in young adulthood and to identify prognostic factors for adverse outcome. We conducted a national population-based matched case-cohort study. Patients aged 18-24 years (n = 13 731) hospitalized after self-harm between 1990 and 2003 and unexposed individuals of the same age (n = 137 310 ) were followed until December 2009. Outcomes were suicide, psychiatric hospitalization and psychotropic medication in short-term (1-5 years) and long-term (>5 years) follow-up. Self-harm implied an increased relative risk of suicide during follow-up [hazard ratio (HR) 16.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-20.9). At long-term follow-up, 20.3% had psychiatric hospitalizations and 51.1% psychotropic medications, most commonly antidepressants and anxiolytics. There was a six-fold risk of psychiatric hospitalization (HR 6.3, 95% CI 5.8-6.8) and almost three-fold risk of psychotropic medication (HR 2.8, 95% CI 2.7-3.0) in long-term follow-up. Mental disorder at baseline, especially a psychotic disorder, and a family history of suicide were associated with adverse outcome among self-harm patients. We found highly increased risks of future mental illness and suicide among young adults after self-harm. A history of a mental disorder was an important indicator of long-term adverse outcome. Clinicians should consider the substantially increased risk of suicide among self-harm patients with psychotic disorders.
Kumar, Narendra; Rajendra, Rajagopal; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Krishna, Murali; Keenan, Paul; Jones, Steve
There is growing global interest into the attitudes and clinical management of persons who deliberately self-harm. People who self-harm experience many problems and typically have many needs related to management of their psychological wellbeing. A positive attitude amongst general hospital staff should prevail with people who self-harm. The principal purpose was to determine student staff attitudes towards patients who self-harmed from a professional and cultural perspective, which might influence patient treatment following hospital admission. The focus concentrated upon staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding self-harm. A cross sectional survey of the hospital staff using a validated questionnaire was carried out. This paper reports on interdisciplinary staff from two large general hospitals in Mysuru, South India (n=773). Findings suggest that within a general hospital setting there is wide variation in staff attitudes and knowledge levels related to self-harm. Whilst there is attitudinal evidence for staff attitudes, this study investigates interprofessional differences in an attempt to progress treatment approaches to a vulnerable societal group. Very few staff had any training in assessment of self harm survivors. There is an urgent need for training general hospital staff in self harm assessment and prevention in south India. The results allow a series of recommendations for educational and skills initiatives before progressing to patient assessment and treatment projects and opens potential for cross cultural comparison studies. In addition, interventions must focus on current resources and contexts to move the evidence base and approaches to patient care forward.
Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie
Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.
ABSTRACT. Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually under- treated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric co- morbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia.
Hochard, Kevin D; Ashcroft, Sam; Carroll, Janine; Heym, Nadja; Townsend, Ellen
Nightmares have been shown to be robust predictors of self-harm risk, beyond depressive symptoms and hopelessness at times. However, few studies have investigated associations between nightmare content and increased self-harm risk. This study explored associations of thematic nightmare content with history of self-harm, and risk of self-harm phenomena the morning following a nightmare. A mixed-method diary study was performed. Prospective nightmare reports were obtained from 72 participants. A total of 47 nightmare reports met inclusion criteria and were analyzed for themes using inductive thematic analysis. Chi-square and bootstrap Pearson's correlation tests were performed to assess the associations between nightmare themes and self-harm history, and risk of self-harm phenomena following a nightmare. "Powerlessness to Change Behavior" was associated with a history of self-harm engagement, whereas "Financial Hardship" indicated reduced risk. Themes were not significantly associated with increased risk of self-harm phenomena following a nightmare. Content may be of use in detecting lifetime history of self-harm engagement, particularly in populations where disclosure is seen as taboo. However, nightmare symptom severity remains a better indicator of risk. Evidence for the utility of nightmare content in assessing immediate self-harm risk is presently lacking. Replication with increased power is recommended. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
Lockwood, Joanna; Daley, David; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil
Research supports an association between impulsivity and self-harm, yet inconsistencies in methodology across studies have complicated understanding of this relationship. This systematic review examines the association between impulsivity and self-harm in community-based adolescents aged 11-25 years and aims to integrate findings according to differing concepts and methods. Electronic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed and The Cochrane Library, and manual searches of reference lists of relevant reviews identified 4496 articles published up to July 2015, of which 28 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four of the studies reported an association between broadly specified impulsivity and self-harm. However, findings varied according to the conception and measurement of impulsivity and the precision with which self-harm behaviours were specified. Specifically, lifetime non-suicidal self-injury was most consistently associated with mood-based impulsivity-related traits. However, cognitive facets of impulsivity (relating to difficulties maintaining focus or acting without forethought) differentiated current self-harm from past self-harm. These facets also distinguished those with thoughts of self-harm (ideation) from those who acted on thoughts (enaction). The findings suggested that mood-based impulsivity is related to the initiation of self-harm, while cognitive facets of impulsivity are associated with the maintenance of self-harm. In addition, behavioural impulsivity is most relevant to self-harm under conditions of negative affect. Collectively, the findings indicate that distinct impulsivity facets confer unique risks across the life-course of self-harm. From a clinical perspective, the review suggests that interventions focusing on reducing rash reactivity to emotions or improving self-regulation and decision making may offer most benefit in supporting those who self-harm.
Wöckel, Lars; Goth, Kirstin; Matic, Nina; Zepf, Florian Daniel; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz
The majority of adult patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are treated with psychotropic drugs. However, there are no data on psychotropic therapy in adolescents. This study examines the prevalence of BPD in an adolescent population undergoing either inpatient or outpatient psychiatric treatment and assesses psychotropic prescription patterns in adolescent in- and outpatients with BPD. Out of a population of adolescents undergoing psychiatric treatment over a seven-year observation period, 58 adolescent patients with BPD (16.7 +/- 2.5 years) were investigated retrospectively with regard to their first episode of treatment, type of medication, and different risk variables. Out of the investigated population, 37 inpatients and 21 outpatients received treatment. Inpatients were shown to have higher rates of risk variables (approx. 68% with co-morbid disorders and approx. 49% with self-harmful behaviour, significantly (p NaSSA) were most commonly prescribed, followed by neuroleptics. More than 50% of the medicated patients were treated with multiple psychotropic drugs administered simultaneously. Pharmacotherapy in BPD has a high and increasing therapeutic value, with the prescription of psychotropic drugs being primarily symptom-orientated. Pharmacotherapy of co-morbid disorders should be accorded equal treatment priority. In line with this, psychotropic treatment of BPD in adolescents is increasingly important. Inpatient adolescents are more burdened in terms of psychiatric risk variables, and also receive medication more often.
Townsend, Ellen; Ness, Jennifer; Waters, Keith; Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Cooper, Jayne; Bergen, Helen; Hawton, Keith
Self-harm is a major clinical problem and is strongly linked to suicide. It is important to understand the problems faced by those who self-harm to design effective clinical services and suicide prevention strategies. We investigated the life problems experienced by patients presenting to general hospitals for self-harm. Data for 2000-2010 from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England were used to investigate life problems associated with self-harm and their relationship to patient and clinical characteristics, including age, gender, repeat self-harm and employment status. Of 24,598 patients (36,431 assessed episodes), 57% were female and with a mean age of 33.1 years (SD 14.0 years), 92.6% were identified as having at least one contributing life problem. The most frequently reported problems at first episode of self-harm within the study period were relationship difficulties (especially with partners). Mental health issues and problems with alcohol were also very common (especially in those aged 35-54 years, and those who repeated self-harm). Those who repeated self-harm were more likely to report problems with housing, mental health and dealing with the consequences of abuse. Self-harm usually occurs in the context of multiple life problems. Clinical services for self-harm patients should have access to appropriate care for provision of help for relationship difficulties and problems concerning alcohol and mental health issues. Individualised clinical support (e.g. psychological therapy, interventions for alcohol problems and relationship counselling) for self-harm patients facing these life problems may play a crucial role in suicide prevention.
Full Text Available Self-harming behaviour most commonly begins in adolescence and is more frequent among adolescent females. We explored the hypothesis that adolescent females who deliberately selfharm were more likely to perform worse on a decision-making task. Previous research in adolescents who self-harm reported impaired decision-making. However, research put little emphasis on older adolescents and the emotional learning. In our research, we presented the Iowa Gambling Task to 35 adolescent females who self-harmed and were treated at a psychiatric clinic, and to 35 healthy female controls. Our results show that in comparison to the control group the adolescents who self-harm took more risky decisions and were less concerned about the outcome. In addition, the clinical group also focused more on immediate gains and showed a reduced ability to learn from poor decisions in the past. Further research is suggested to explore the potential neurological correlates of decision-making and selfharming behaviour.
Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Joinson, Carol; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Lewis, Glyn
Being the victim of peer bullying is associated with increased risk of psychopathology, yet it is not known whether similar experiences of bullying increase risk of psychiatric disorder when the perpetrator is a sibling. We tested whether being bullied by a sibling is prospectively associated with depression, anxiety, and self-harm in early adulthood. We conducted a longitudinal study using data from >6900 participants of a UK community-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who reported on sibling bullying at 12 years. Our main outcome measures were depression, anxiety, and self-harm, assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised during clinic assessments when participants were 18. Children who were frequently bullied were approximately twice as likely to have depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.51; P bullied by siblings. The ORs were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for a range of confounding individual, family, and peer factors. The population-attributable fractions suggested that 13.0% (95% CI, 1.0%-24.7%) of depression and 19.3% (95% CI, 7.6%-29.6%) of self-harm could be explained by being the victim of sibling bullying if these were causal relationships. Being bullied by a sibling is a potential risk factor for depression and self-harm in early adulthood. Our results suggest that interventions designed to target sibling bullying should be devised and evaluated. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The aim of this study was to explore mental health nurses' experiences of caring for inpatients who self-harm during an acute phase. The setting was four psychiatric clinics in Norway. Fifteen mental health nurses (MHNs) were recruited. Semistructured interviews comprised the method for data collection, with content analysis used for data analysis. Two main categories emerged: challenging and collaborative nurse-patient relationship and promoting well-being through nursing interventions. The underlying meaning of the main categories was interpreted and formulated as a latent theme: promoting person-centered care to patients suffering from self-harm. How MHNs promote care for self-harm patients can be described as a person-centered nursing process. MHNs, through the creation of a collaborative nurse-patient relationship, reflect upon nursing interventions and seek to understand each unique patient. The implication for clinical practice is that MHNs are in a position where they can promote patients' recovery processes, by offering patients alternative activities and by working in partnership with patients to promote their individual strengths and life knowledge. MHNs strive to help patients find new ways of living with their problems. The actual study highlighted that MHNs use different methods and strategies when promoting the well-being of self-harm patients. PMID:25512876
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore mental health nurses’ experiences of caring for inpatients who self-harm during an acute phase. The setting was four psychiatric clinics in Norway. Fifteen mental health nurses (MHNs were recruited. Semistructured interviews comprised the method for data collection, with content analysis used for data analysis. Two main categories emerged: challenging and collaborative nurse-patient relationship and promoting well-being through nursing interventions. The underlying meaning of the main categories was interpreted and formulated as a latent theme: promoting person-centered care to patients suffering from self-harm. How MHNs promote care for self-harm patients can be described as a person-centered nursing process. MHNs, through the creation of a collaborative nurse-patient relationship, reflect upon nursing interventions and seek to understand each unique patient. The implication for clinical practice is that MHNs are in a position where they can promote patients’ recovery processes, by offering patients alternative activities and by working in partnership with patients to promote their individual strengths and life knowledge. MHNs strive to help patients find new ways of living with their problems. The actual study highlighted that MHNs use different methods and strategies when promoting the well-being of self-harm patients.
Borschmann, Rohan; Oram, Sian; Kinner, Stuart A; Dutta, Rina; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M
This study estimated the prevalence and correlates of self-harm among adult victims of human trafficking who accessed secondary mental health services, and it estimated the responses of mental health services to these individuals. A clinical records database was searched for self-harm, sociodemographic, clinical, and service use characteristics among trafficked adults who accessed secondary mental health services in South London (2006-2012). Logistic regression models compared trafficked patients (N=84) and a matched cohort of nontrafficked patients (N=287). Among trafficked patients, 33% had engaged in self-harm prior to care and 25% in self-harm during care. After engaging in self-harm, trafficked patients were more likely than nontrafficked patients to be admitted as a psychiatric inpatient (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.81) but less likely to visit an emergency department (AOR=.47). Self-harm is prevalent among trafficked adults accessing secondary mental health services, and mental health professionals have a crucial role to play in supporting survivors.
Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P; Hudson, Jennifer L
Researchers have begun to consider whether there may be more than one psychological profile to describe adolescents who engage in self-harm. Limited past research suggests multiple different profiles. Australian high school students (n = 1,521, age 11-19, 56.4% female) completed an online questionnaire reporting risk and protective factors and self-harm frequency. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis allocated 256 students who reported 6-month self-harm to mutually exclusive profiles based on psychological similarity. Five distinct psychological profiles were identified: 1) Psychologically 'normal'; 2) Anxiety symptoms; 3) Impulsive; 4) Pathological; and 5) Pathological-Impulsive. The proportion of adolescents that reported 11 or more episodes of self-harm varied from 5.7% in the psychologically 'Normal' group to 27.7% in the 'Pathological- Impulsive' group. These results indicate that multiple psychological profiles exist. Adolescents with different risk factors may require disparate strategies for treatment and prevention. Given the variability in profiles, screening may assist in detecting adolescents who self-harm. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haddock, Gillian; Eisner, Emily; Davies, Gabriel; Coupe, Nia; Barrowclough, Christine
When schizophrenia is combined with substance misuse, rates are consistently higher. However research findings on the relationship between violence, self-harm and schizophrenia are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine links between specific psychotic symptoms, substance misuse and violence in people dually diagnosed with schizophrenia and substance misuse. Presence and frequency of violence to self and others were examined in relation to the type and severity of psychotic symptoms and level of substance use over a 24 month period in 327 people with schizophrenia and substance misuse problems. 32.3% had an incident of violence to others during the study period and 28.6% had a self-harm/suicide incident. 39 (11.9%) participants reported command hallucinations (CH) and 157 (48.0%) had threat control override symptoms (TCOS). Presence of TCOS and presence of CH were not associated with violence to others but were both associated with self-harm. Different command hallucination sub-types were associated with different types of violence. Delusional and hallucination severity and distress were mainly associated with self-harm. These findings suggest that specific symptoms are related to different outcomes, particularly in relation to self-harm, and these effects remain even after substance use is controlled for. This has important implications for assessment and treatment of this group. © 2013.
Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female. The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married. Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001. The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05. The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002, mental component summary (p=0.001, and general health (p=0.001 at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The
Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Stahl, Daniel; Moran, Paul; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum
Suicidal behavior and self-harm are common in adolescents and are associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm and links between self-harm and suicide and risk of suicide attempt, progress in reducing suicide death rates has been elusive, with no substantive reduction in suicide death rates over the past 60 years. Extending prior reviews of the literature on treatments for suicidal behavior and repetitive self-harm in youth, this article provides a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting efficacy of specific pharmacological, social, or psychological therapeutic interventions (TIs) in reducing both suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm in adolescents. Data sources were identified by searching the Cochrane, Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and PubMed databases as of May 2014. RCTs comparing specific therapeutic interventions versus treatment as usual (TAU) or placebo in adolescents (through age 18 years) with self-harm were included. Nineteen RCTs including 2,176 youth were analyzed. TIs included psychological and social interventions and no pharmacological interventions. The proportion of the adolescents who self-harmed over the follow-up period was lower in the intervention groups (28%) than in controls (33%) (test for overall effect z = 2.31; p = .02). TIs with the largest effect sizes were dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and mentalization-based therapy (MBT). There were no independent replications of efficacy of any TI. The pooled risk difference between TIs and TAU for suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm considered separately was not statistically significant. TIs to prevent self-harm appear to be effective. Independent replication of the results achieved by DBT, MBT, and CBT is a research priority. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by
Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Poslawsky, I.E.; van Meijel, B.
Accessible summary: People who self-harm experience many problems and needs related to management of emotional and practical stress. A positive attitude among nurses is especially important given the close contact they have with people who self-harm. This article is based on a review of the
I.E. Poslawsky; P. Karman; Nienke Kool; prof Berno van Meijel
Self-harm is a growing health problem. Nurses in a variety of healthcare settings play a central role in the care of people who self-harm. Their professional attitudes towards these people are essential for high-quality care. This review aims to develop insight into nurses’ attitudes towards
Hawton, Keith; Witt, Katrina G; Salisbury, Tatiana L Taylor; Arensman, Ella; Gunnell, David; Hazell, Philip; Townsend, Ellen; van Heeringen, Kees
Self-harm (intentional acts of non-fatal self-poisoning or self-injury) is common, particularly in young adults aged 15-35 years, often repeated, and strongly associated with suicide. Effective aftercare of individuals who self-harm is therefore important. We have undertaken a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for self-harm in adults. We searched five electronic databases (CCDANCTR-Studies and References, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) between Jan 1, 1998, and April 29, 2015, for randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions for adults after a recent (within 6 months) episode of self-harm. Most interventions were assessed in single trials. We report results for interventions for which at least three randomised controlled trials comparing interventions with treatment as usual have been published and hence might contribute to clinical guidance. The primary outcome was repetition of self-harm at the conclusion of treatment and at 6, 12, and 24 months' follow-up analysed, when available, with the intention-to-treat method; if this was not possible, we analysed with all available case data. We identified 29 non-overlapping randomised controlled trials with three independent trials of the same intervention. Cognitive-behavioural-based psychotherapy (CBT; comprising cognitive-behavioural and problem-solving therapy) was associated with fewer participants repeating self-harm at 6 months' (odds ratio 0·54, 95% CI 0·34-0·85; 12 trials; n=1317) and at 12 months' follow-up (0·80, 0·65-0·98; ten trials; n=2232). There were also significant improvements in the secondary outcomes of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and problem solving. Patients receiving dialectical behaviour therapy (in three trials) were not less likely to repeat self-harm compared with those provided with treatment as usual at 6 months (odds ratio [OR] 0·59, 95% CI 0·16-2·15; n=267, three trials) or at 12
de Kloet, Liselotte; Starling, Jean; Hainsworth, Cassandra; Berntsen, Ellen; Chapman, Lucy; Hancock, Karen
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for self-harm for children and adolescents in a mental health inpatient unit. A retrospective file audit of patient files over three years (2006-2009) was conducted to determine risk factors associated with self-harm in children and adolescents admitted to a mental health unit. A checklist of potential factors was based on risk factors found in a review of the literature including demographic information, diagnosis, home situation, environmental stressors, childhood trauma and previous mental health care. The study compared those who self-harmed with a control group who did not self-harm. There were 150 patients who self-harmed (mean age 14 years) and 56 patients who did not self-harm with a mean age of 13 years. Several factors were identified that increased the likelihood of self-harm, including a diagnosis of depression, female gender, increasing age, being Australian-born, living with a step parent, not having received previous mental health care, having a history of trauma, and having other stressors including problems within the family. While increasing age, female gender, a history of trauma and a diagnosis of depression are well known as risk factors for self-harm, this study confirms that family factors, in particular living with a step parent, significantly add to the risk. Child and adolescent services should be aware of the increased risk of self-harm in young people with mental health problems who live in blended families. Treatment approaches need to involve parents as well as the child or young person.
Taylor, P J; Hutton, P; Wood, L
Suicide and self-harm are prevalent in individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders. However, less is known about the level of self-injurious thinking and behaviour in those individuals deemed to be at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis, despite growing clinical interest in this population. This review provides a synthesis of the extant literature concerning the prevalence of self-harm and suicidality in the UHR population, and the predictors and correlates associated with these events. A search of electronic databases was undertaken by two independent reviewers. A meta-analysis of prevalence was undertaken for self-harm, suicidal ideation and behaviour. A narrative review was also undertaken of analyses examining predictors and correlates of self-harm and suicidality. Twenty-one eligible studies were identified. The meta-analyses suggested a high prevalence of recent suicidal ideation (66%), lifetime self-harm (49%) and lifetime suicide attempts (18%). Co-morbid psychiatric problems, mood variability and a family history of psychiatric problems were among the factors associated with self-harm and suicide risk. Results suggest that self-harm and suicidality are highly prevalent in the UHR population, with rates similar to those observed in samples with diagnosed psychotic disorders. Appropriate monitoring and managing of suicide risk will be important for services working with the UHR population. Further research in this area is urgently needed considering the high rates identified.
Nielsen, Emma; Townsend, Ellen
We investigated public perceptions of, and responses to, adolescent self-harm-an under-researched topic, given that the majority of self-harm in this group is not disclosed to formal support services. Participants (N = 355, aged 18-67 years) were presented with 1 of 10 vignettes and completed self-report measures assessing perceived motivations for self-harm and helping/rejecting responses. Vignettes were manipulated across conditions for stated motivation, controllability of stated cause, and presentation format. Results indicate that stated motivation for self-harm, controllability of stated cause, and presentation format affect perceived motivations. Further, participants demonstrate an understanding of the complex nature of self-harm, indicating an appreciation that an individual may hold multiple motivations simultaneously. Perceived motivations for self-harm are associated with the endorsement of helping/rejecting behaviors. These relationships are important to explore, given the critical importance of initial responses to self-harm on subsequent disclosures and help-seeking.
Background Self-harm is prevalent in adolescence. It is often a behaviour without verbal expression, seeking relief from a distressed state of mind. As most adolescents who self-harm do not seek help, the nature of adolescent self-harm and reasons for not disclosing it are a public health concern. This study aims to increase understanding about how adolescents in the community speak about self-harm; exploring their attitudes towards and experiences of disclosure and help-seeking. Methods This study involved 30 qualitative individual interviews with ethnically diverse adolescents aged 15–16 years (24 females, 6 males), investigating their views on coping with stress, self-harm and help-seeking, within their own social context in multicultural East London. Ten participants had never self-harmed, nine had self-harmed on one occasion and 11 had self-harmed repeatedly. Verbatim accounts were transcribed and subjected to content and thematic analysis using a framework approach. Results Self-harm was described as a complex and varied behaviour. Most participants who had self-harmed expressed reluctance to talk about it and many had difficulty understanding self-harm in others. Some participants normalised self-harm and did not wish to accept offers of help, particularly if their self-harm had been secretive and ‘discovered’, leading to their referral to more formal help from others. Disclosure was viewed more positively with hindsight by some participants who had received help. If help was sought, adolescents desired respect, and for their problems, feelings and opinions to be noticed and considered alongside receiving treatment for injuries. Mixed responses to disclosure from peers, family and initial sources of help may influence subsequent behaviour and deter presentation to services. Conclusions This study provides insight into the subjective experience of self-harm, disclosure and help-seeking from a young, ethnically diverse community sample. Accounts
Klineberg, Emily; Kelly, Moira J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Bhui, Kamaldeep S
Self-harm is prevalent in adolescence. It is often a behaviour without verbal expression, seeking relief from a distressed state of mind. As most adolescents who self-harm do not seek help, the nature of adolescent self-harm and reasons for not disclosing it are a public health concern. This study aims to increase understanding about how adolescents in the community speak about self-harm; exploring their attitudes towards and experiences of disclosure and help-seeking. This study involved 30 qualitative individual interviews with ethnically diverse adolescents aged 15-16 years (24 females, 6 males), investigating their views on coping with stress, self-harm and help-seeking, within their own social context in multicultural East London. Ten participants had never self-harmed, nine had self-harmed on one occasion and 11 had self-harmed repeatedly. Verbatim accounts were transcribed and subjected to content and thematic analysis using a framework approach. Self-harm was described as a complex and varied behaviour. Most participants who had self-harmed expressed reluctance to talk about it and many had difficulty understanding self-harm in others. Some participants normalised self-harm and did not wish to accept offers of help, particularly if their self-harm had been secretive and 'discovered', leading to their referral to more formal help from others. Disclosure was viewed more positively with hindsight by some participants who had received help. If help was sought, adolescents desired respect, and for their problems, feelings and opinions to be noticed and considered alongside receiving treatment for injuries. Mixed responses to disclosure from peers, family and initial sources of help may influence subsequent behaviour and deter presentation to services. This study provides insight into the subjective experience of self-harm, disclosure and help-seeking from a young, ethnically diverse community sample. Accounts highlighted the value of examining self-harm in the
David G. Shaw
Conclusion: The FASH Model may inform future curriculum innovation. Adopting a holistic approach to education of nurses about self-harm may assist in developing attitudes and skills to make care provision more effective in secure mental health settings.
David G. Shaw; Peter Thomas Sandy
.... The literature also neglects secure mental health settings. Methods: The study aimed to explore the attitudes of mental health nurses toward service users who self-harm in secure environments, and to inform mental health curriculum development...
Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte; Williams, Sheila
.... The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self-harm and sexual orientation for men and women separately, defining sexual orientation by sexual attraction rather than by behavior. METHOD...
harm individuals. Design. A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting. Three tertiary health care centres in Harare, Zimbabwe. Subjects: Three hundred and eighty seven deliberate self-harm consecutive subjects were recruited ...
Acts of deliberate self-harm (DSH) by adolescents are thought to be on the increase. Many of those who self-harm are of school age and it is to be expected that schools (and their teachers) will be aware of the problem and will respond appropriately as part of their pastoral-care provision. However, a recent survey of research in pastoral care and…
Ness, Jennifer; Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Waters, Keith; Kapur, Navneet; Cooper, Jayne; Steeg, Sarah; Clarke, Martin
Repetition of self-harm is common and is strongly associated with suicide. Despite this, there is limited research on high-volume repetition. To investigate individuals with high-volume repeat self-harm attendances to the emergency department (ED), including their patterns of attendance and mortality. Data from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England were used. High-volume repetition was defined as ⩾15 attendances within 4 years. An attendance timeline was constructed for each high-volume repeater (HVR) and the different patterns of attendance were explored using an executive sorting task and hierarchical cluster analysis. A small proportion of self-harm patients are HVRs (0.6%) but they account for a large percentage of self-harm attendances (10%). In this study, the new methodological approach resulted in three types of attendance patterns. All of the HVRs had clusters of attendance and a greater proportion died from external causes compared with non-HVRs. The approach used in this study offers a new method for investigating this problem that could have both clinical and research benefits. The need for early intervention is highlighted by the large number of self-harm episodes per patient, the clustered nature of attendances, and the higher prevalence of death from external causes.
Abbas, Mohammed J; Mohanna, Mostafa A; Diab, Tarig A; Chikoore, Millicent; Wang, Michael
There is a gap in understanding the meaning and motives behind suicidal behaviour. Using the Ideal Type methodology, Jean Baechler systematically examined the internal logic of suicidal and self-harming behaviours. He developed a typology of eleven typical meanings/motives: Flight, Grief, Self-punishment, Vengeance, Crime, Blackmail, Appeal, Sacrifice, Transfiguration, Ordeal and Game. To develop and validate a standardized instrument to measure the motives/meanings of suicidal and self-harming behaviours, using Baechler's typology. We developed a self-fill Likert questionnaire (Ideal Typical Meaning Questionnaire, ITMQ) covering ten of Baechler's eleven types. The questionnaire was completed by 147 patients within four weeks of attempting suicide or self-harm. The Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) questionnaire was used to examine the concurrent validity of the Flight and the Transfiguration types and to explore the association between suicidal/self-harming motives and views about death. The final 25-item ITMQ has an eight-factor structure (Appeal/Blackmail, Ordeal/Game, Vengeance, Self-punishment, Sacrifice, Flight, Grief and Transfiguration) supporting Baechler's theory. The types have adequate reliability. Correlations with the DAP-R gave some support for the concurrent validity of the Flight and Transfiguration types. The ITMQ is a measure of suicidal and self-harming motives/meanings based on a sound conceptual framework and could significantly contribute to the understanding of suicidal and self-harming behaviour in research and clinical settings.
Jaap van der Bijl; prof Berno van Meijel; Nienke Kool; Ad Kerkhof; Bauke Koekkoek
Background Differing perspectives of self-harm may result in a struggle between patients and treatment staff. As a consequence, both sides have difficulty communicating effectively about the underlying problems and feelings surrounding self-harm. Between 2009 and 2011, a programme was developed and
Kool, N.; van Meijel, B.; Koekkoek, B.; van der Bijl, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
Background:Differing perspectives of self-harm may result in a struggle between patients and treatment staff. As a consequence, both sides have difficulty communicating effectively about the underlying problems and feelings surrounding self-harm. Between 2009 and 2011, a programme was developed and
O'Reilly, M; Kiyimba, N; Karim, K
. Discussion The study concluded that the design of risk questions to young people had implications for how open they were to engaging with the practitioner. Implications for practice The study has implications for training and practice for psychiatric nurses and other mental health practitioners in feeling more confident in communicating with young people about self-harm and suicidal ideation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Michele P Dyson
Full Text Available To conduct a systematic review of studies of social media platforms used by young people to discuss and view deliberate self-harm.11 electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2012 for primary research; in June 2014 an updated search of Medline was conducted. Grey literature sources were also searched. Search results were screened by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. Methodological quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.Due to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes, results were not pooled; a narrative analysis is presented. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in Canada or the UK (30.8% each, used qualitative designs (42.3%, and evaluated discussion forums (73.1%. Participants were most often aged 19-21 years (69.2%, female (mean 68.6%, and 19.2% had a documented history of depression. The social media platforms evaluated were commonly supportive and provided a sense of community among users. Support included suggestions for formal treatment, advice on stopping self-harming behavior, and encouragement. Harms included normalizing and accepting self-harming behavior; discussion of motivation or triggers, concealment, suicidal ideation or plans; and live depictions of self-harm acts.Although this evidence is limited by its descriptive nature, studies identify beneficial and detrimental effects for young people using social media to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. The connections users make online may be valuable to explore for therapeutic benefit. Prospective, longitudinal investigations are needed to identify short- and long-term potential harms associated with use.
Dyson, Michele P; Hartling, Lisa; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Chisholm, Annabritt; Milne, Andrea; Sundar, Purnima; Scott, Shannon D; Newton, Amanda S
To conduct a systematic review of studies of social media platforms used by young people to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. 11 electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2012 for primary research; in June 2014 an updated search of Medline was conducted. Grey literature sources were also searched. Search results were screened by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. Methodological quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Due to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes, results were not pooled; a narrative analysis is presented. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in Canada or the UK (30.8% each), used qualitative designs (42.3%), and evaluated discussion forums (73.1%). Participants were most often aged 19-21 years (69.2%), female (mean 68.6%), and 19.2% had a documented history of depression. The social media platforms evaluated were commonly supportive and provided a sense of community among users. Support included suggestions for formal treatment, advice on stopping self-harming behavior, and encouragement. Harms included normalizing and accepting self-harming behavior; discussion of motivation or triggers, concealment, suicidal ideation or plans; and live depictions of self-harm acts. Although this evidence is limited by its descriptive nature, studies identify beneficial and detrimental effects for young people using social media to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. The connections users make online may be valuable to explore for therapeutic benefit. Prospective, longitudinal investigations are needed to identify short- and long-term potential harms associated with use.
Karman, P; Kool, N; Poslawsky, I E; van Meijel, B
People who self-harm experience many problems and needs related to management of emotional and practical stress. A positive attitude among nurses is especially important given the close contact they have with people who self-harm. This article is based on a review of the literature. It includes articles that concern both general and mental health nurses who work in various healthcare settings (e.g. acute inpatients wards, community mental health, emergency departments and medical admission units). The literature shows that negative attitudes towards self-harm are common among nurses. It remains unclear how nurses' age, work experience and gender influence their attitudes. The setting in which nurses work appears to influence their attitude, as does their level of qualification. For example, mental health nurses appear to have more positive attitudes than general nurses. Nurses' attitudes can be improved with the help of education comprising reflective and interactive elements. Supervision and support from colleagues appear to be especially important for mental health nurses. Self-harm is a growing health problem. Nurses in a variety of healthcare settings play a central role in the care of people who self-harm. Their professional attitudes towards these people are essential for high-quality care. This review aims to develop insight into nurses' attitudes towards self-harm as they exist in contemporary nursing practice. A literature search was conducted in four databases, and a total of 15 relevant articles were found. This review indicates that negative attitudes towards self-harm are common among nurses. The influence of nurses' age, gender and work experience remains unclear. Healthcare setting and qualification level appear to be influencing factors. Education can have a positive influence on nurses' attitudes towards self-harm, especially when it includes reflective and interactive components. It is demonstrated in this review that a major change is needed
Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena
We examined the psychosocial influences on female prisoner suicide by carrying out a study of near-lethal self-harm. We interviewed 60 women prisoners who had recently engaged in near-lethal self-harm (cases) and 60 others who had never carried out near-lethal acts in prison (controls) from all closed female prison establishments in England and Wales, using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. We gathered information on socio-demographic and criminological variables, life events and childhood trauma, exposure to suicidal behaviour, contributory and precipitating factors for near-lethal self-harm, social support and psychological characteristics. While socio-demographic factors were only modestly associated with near-lethal self-harm, being on remand, in single cell accommodation, and reporting negative experiences of imprisonment were strong correlates. Recent life events and past trauma, including different forms of childhood abuse, were also significantly associated with near-lethal self-harm, as were a family history of suicide and high scores on measures of depression, aggression, impulsivity and hostility, and low levels of self-esteem and social support. Our findings underline the importance of both individual and prison-related factors for suicide in custody, and hence the need for a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention in women's prisons. Given the multiple needs of female prisoners at-risk of self-harm and suicide, complex psychosocial interventions are likely to be required, including interventions for abused and bereaved women, and initiatives to improve staff-prisoner relationships and reduce bullying. The findings of this research may provide insights into factors leading to suicidal behaviour in other forensic and institutional settings, such as detention centres and psychiatric hospitals, and may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other at-risk populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Aggarwal, Shilpa; Patton, George; Reavley, Nicola; Sreenivasan, Shreenivas A; Berk, Michael
Self-harm (defined here as an act of intentionally causing harm to own self, irrespective of the type, motive or suicidal intent) is one of the strongest antecedents of suicide in youth. While there have been a number of studies of youth self-harm in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is currently no systematic review of studies of prevalence rates and risk and protective factors. To systematically review the evidence relating to the prevalence rates and forms of self-harm in youth in LMICs and its relationship to family economic status, family functioning, relationship with the peer group, social relationships and academic performance. Electronic searches of three databases, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus, were performed. In total, 27 school-, community- and hospital-based studies evaluating self-harm in LMICs with youth focus (with participants between 12 and 25 years) were included. The self-harm was divided into suicidal and non-suicidal depending on the nature of self-harm. The 12-month prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-harm varied from 15.5% to 31.3%, and the range of suicidal behaviour rates was from 3.2% to 4.7%. Banging and hitting were the most common in the community-based studies, followed by cutting, scratching and wound picking. Self-poisoning with pesticides was most commonly reported in hospital-based studies. Risk factors for self-harm were family conflict, peer groups with members indulging in self-harm, truancy and school absenteeism. Protective factors were having an understanding family, having friends and higher school competence. Risk factors for suicidal thoughts and attempts were lack of close friends and history of suicide by a friend. The 12-month prevalence rates of youth self-harm in LMICs are comparable to high-income countries (HICs). The profile of risk and protective factors suggests that family-based interventions could be useful in treatment and prevention. Future studies should aim for greater consistency in
Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna
There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…
Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Cooper, J.; Murphy, E.; Steeg, S.; Kapur, N.; Purandare, N.B.
OBJECTIVE: Self-harm is closely related to completed suicide, especially in older age. As empirical research of self-harm in older age is scarce, with no studies confined to first-ever episodes in older age, we examined the clinical characteristics and the risk of repetition in first-ever self-harm
Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Cooper, Jayne; Murphy, Elizabeth; Steeg, Sarah; Kapur, Nay; Purandare, Nitin B.
Objective: Self-harm is closely related to completed suicide, especially in older age. As empirical research of self-harm in older age is scarce, with no studies confined to first-ever episodes in older age, we examined the clinical characteristics and the risk of repetition in first-ever self-harm
Kool, Nienke; van Meijel, Berno; Koekkoek, Bauke; van der Bijl, Jaap; Kerkhof, Ad
Differing perspectives of self-harm may result in a struggle between patients and treatment staff. As a consequence, both sides have difficulty communicating effectively about the underlying problems and feelings surrounding self-harm. Between 2009 and 2011, a programme was developed and implemented to train mental health care staff (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, and occupational therapists) in how to communicate effectively with and care for patients who self-harm. An art exhibition focusing on self-harm supported the programme. Lay experts in self-harm, i.e. people who currently harm themselves, or who have harmed themselves in the past and have the skills to disseminate their knowledge and experience, played an important role throughout the programme. Paired sample t-tests were conducted to measure the effects of the training programme using the Attitude Towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire, the Self-Perceived Efficacy in Dealing with Self-Harm Questionnaire, and the Patient Contact Questionnaire. Effect sizes were calculated using r. Participants evaluated the training programme with the help of a survey. The questionnaires used in the survey were analysed descriptively. Of the 281 persons who followed the training programme, 178 completed the questionnaires. The results show a significant increase in the total scores of the three questionnaires, with large to moderate effect sizes. Respondents were positive about the training, especially about the role of the lay expert. A specialised training programme in how to care for patients who self-harm can result in a more positive attitude towards self-harm patients, an improved self-efficacy in caring for patients who self-harm, and a greater closeness with the patients. The deployment of lay experts is essential here.
This thesis describes the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) intervention for patients who engage in Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH). The CBT intervention was designed to supplement usual care following an episode of DSH. The study involved 90 people (95%
Background: Self-harm is an old problem but increasing in incidence. It has important consequences for the individual concerned, the health care system, and can impact the well-being of staff. Extensive prior research has adopted a quantitative approach, thereby failing to explore in detail the perspective of mental health ...
For this reason, uniform approaches to awareness campaigns need to be altered to address the specific needs of youth. While males have higher rates than females, the prevalence of self-harm mortality in pregnant females is of concern and needs to be addressed specifically, as it relates not only to suicidal ideation and ...
Mikolajczak, Moïra; Petrides, K V; Hurry, Jane
The present study seeks to extend the understanding of the role of dispositional factors in the aetiology of self-harm among adolescents. We hypothesized that higher trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) would be associated with a lower likelihood to harm oneself, and that this relationship would be mediated by the choice of coping strategies. Trait EI, coping styles and self-harm behaviours were assessed in 490 adolescents recruited from eight British schools. The results supported our hypothesis and showed that the relationship between trait EI and self-harm was partly mediated by the choice of coping strategies. Emotional coping was a particularly powerful mediator, suggesting that self-harm may be a way to decrease the negative emotions that are exacerbated by maladaptive emotional coping strategies, such as rumination, self-blame, and helplessness. Trait EI was correlated positively with adaptive coping styles and negatively with maladaptive coping styles, and depression. These findings emphasize the potential value of incorporating coping coaching programmes in the treatment of self-harm patients.
Townsend, E; Wadman, R; Sayal, K; Armstrong, M; Harroe, C; Majumder, P; Vostanis, P; Clarke, D
Self-harm is a significant clinical issue in adolescence. There is little research on the interplay of key factors in the months, weeks, days and hours leading to self-harm. We developed the Card Sort Task for Self-harm (CaTS) to investigate the pattern of thoughts, feelings, events and behaviours leading to self-harm. Forty-five young people (aged 13-21 years) with recent repeated self-harm completed the CaTS to describe their first ever/most recent self-harm episode. Lag sequential analysis determined significant transitions in factors leading to self-harm (presented in state transition diagrams). A significant sequential structure to the card sequences produced was observed demonstrating similarities and important differences in antecedents to first and most recent self-harm. Life-events were distal in the self-harm pathway and more heterogeneous. Of significant clinical concern was that the wish to die and hopelessness emerged as important antecedents in the most recent episode. First ever self-harm was associated with feeling better afterward, but this disappeared for the most recent episode. Larger sample sizes are necessary to examine longer chains of sequences and differences in genders, age and type of self-harm. The sample was self-selected with 53% having experience of living in care. The CaTs offers a systematic approach to understanding the dynamic interplay of factors that lead to self-harm in young people. It offers a method to target key points for intervention in the self-harm pathway. Crucially the factors most proximal to self-harm (negative emotions, impulsivity and access to means) are modifiable with existing clinical interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Okkels, Niels; Mogensen, Rasmus Beyer; Crean, Lea Catherine
BACKGROUND: Despite concerns about rising treatment of psychiatric patients with psychotropic medications and declining treatment with psychotherapy, actual treatment profiles of psychiatric patients are largely unknown. AIMS: To describe patterns in the treatment of patients in a large psychiatric...... university hospital department. METHODS: A descriptive mapping of treatment of in- and outpatients in a psychiatric department at Aarhus University Hospital Risskov, Denmark. Information was collected by healthcare staff using a 25-item survey form. The p-value was calculated with a chi-squared test and p...
Appelbaum, Paul S
The author provides an overview of the current status of privacy in psychiatric treatment, with particular attention to the effects of new federal regulations authorized by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The author reviews the ethical and legal underpinnings for medical privacy, including the empirical data supporting its importance; discusses those portions of the new federal regulations most relevant to psychiatric practice; and suggests steps that psychiatrists can take to maintain their patients' privacy in the new environment. Medical ethics and law, in keeping with patients' preferences, traditionally have provided strong protection for the information that patients communicate while receiving medical care. In general, release of information has required patients' explicit consent. However, limitations of the consent model and technological innovations that permit the aggregation of computerized medical information have led to pressure for greater access to these data. Although the new federal regulations offer patients some additional protections (including security for psychotherapy notes), they also mark a retreat from reliance on patient consent and open up records to previously unauthorized uses, among them law enforcement investigations and marketing and fundraising by health care organizations. However, states retain the power to provide higher levels of protection. The new regulatory environment is less friendly to medical privacy but still leaves a great deal of discretion in physicians' hands. A commitment to protecting privacy as an ethical norm can be advanced by psychiatrists' requesting patients' consent even when it is not required, by ensuring that patients are aware of the limits on confidentiality, and by avoiding unnecessary breaches of privacy in the course of providing psychiatric care.
Douglas, Julie; Cooper, Jayne; Amos, Tim; Webb, Roger; Guthrie, Elspeth; Appleby, Louis
There have been few studies of the most serious cases of deliberate self-harm (DSH). These cases represent an important clinical problem. They may also be suitable as a "proxy" for suicide in research studies. We developed a definition of "near-fatal" deliberate self-harm (NFDSH) and identified all cases attending accident and emergency departments in an urban area during an 18-month period. We compared them to less severe DSH on social and clinical characteristics, and examined their initial clinical management. We compared their age and gender profile with that of completed suicides. NFDSH cases who agreed to be interviewed were asked about their experiences of seeking help and their views on prevention of suicide. 158 cases were identified, 8% of all DSH. The most common method of self-harm was self-poisoning. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was depression. Compared to less severe DSH, near-fatal cases had higher rates of several social and clinical risk factors for suicide and showed evidence of greater suicidal intent. Forty-one percent were allowed home following assessment. Most admissions lasted 2 days or less. The age and gender profile was closer to that of suicide than in DSH generally. Few subjects agreed to be interviewed; those who did described poor previous experiences of services. We did not assess each case of DSH individually but applied a workable definition of NFDSH. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from the qualitative part of the study because of the low rate of agreement to interview. NFDSH is an important clinical phenomenon associated with indicators of high suicide risk. This high risk is frequently not reflected in clinical management. Further studies of NFDSH could contribute to what is known about suicide prevention but the reluctance of NFDSH subjects to be interviewed may be a difficulty for future research.
Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse. Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behavior (SB can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors.Method: This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches on PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and major repeaters. Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype, and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. Results: The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as addictions, and the putative mechanisms underlying them.Conclusion: Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual’s self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.
A standardized crisis management model for self-harming and suicidal individuals with three or more diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder: The Brief Admission Skåne randomized controlled trial protocol (BASRCT).
Liljedahl, Sophie I; Helleman, Marjolein; Daukantaité, Daiva; Westrin, Åsa; Westling, Sofie
Brief Admission is a crisis and risk management strategy in which self-harming and suicidal individuals with three or more diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder self-admit to hospital at times of increasing risk when other efforts to stay safe are failing. Standardized in the current randomized controlled trial, the intensity of Brief Admission Skåne is implemented in durations of three days, with a maximum frequency of three times a month. Brief Admission is integrated into existing treatment plans in advance of crises to prevent reliance on general psychiatric admissions for risk management, as these may be lengthy, unstructured, and of uncertain therapeutic value. The overall objective of the Brief Admission Skåne randomized controlled trial is to determine if Brief Admission can replace general psychiatric admission for self-harming and suicidal individuals with complex mental illness at times of escalating risk. Other objectives of the study are to evaluate whether Brief Admission increases daily functioning and enhances coping, reduces psychiatric symptoms including frequency and severity of self-harm and suicidal behaviours. A final objective is to determine if Brief Admission is an effective crisis management model for this population. Participants are randomized at an individual level to either Brief Admission Skåne plus Treatment as Usual or Treatment As Usual. Based on a priori power analyses, N = 124 participants will be recruited to the study. Data collection is in progress, and will continue until June 2018. All participant data are single-blinded and will be handled with intention-to-treat analysis. Based on the combined clinical experience of our international research group, the Brief Admission Skåne randomized controlled trial upon which the current protocol is based represents the first initiative to standardize, implement and evaluate Brief Admission amongst self-harming and suicidal individuals, including those with
Hargus, Emily; Hawton, Keith; Rodham, Karen
The differences in factors associated with subgroups of adolescents in the continuum of deliberate self-harm (DSH) phenomena were investigated. In an anonymous self-report survey of 6,020 adolescents aged 15 and 16 years, 3.2% of adolescents (5.3% females, 1.3% males) reported DSH with intent to die, 2.8% (4.3% females; 1.5% males) reported DSH…
Sampson, Elizabeth; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Mullan, Nuala; Bullock, Tim
It is known that mental illness is associated with increased suicide risk. It has been postulated that suicidality may be an independent clinical phenomenon and we investigate whether variability of mood may be a mediator of this. Fifty-three psychiatric inpatients were assessed on the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale, once weekly, over a 4-week period. The SCID II was administered to diagnose co-morbid personality disorder. Hostility was measured with the Hostility and Direction of Hostility questionnaire. A Fluctuation Index score was calculated to measure variability of mood. Unadjusted analyses suggested that patients with a history of deliberate self-harm showed greater variability in mood as measured by the fluctuation index (mean difference=13.4; 95% CI=4.3 to 22.6; P=0.005) though this relationship was no longer significant at the 5% level after adjustment (mean difference=13.4; 95% CI=-2.0 to 28.8; P=0.09). There was a high initial dropout rate from the study and a small sample size. A prospective study would have more power in determining the effect of mood fluctuations. Mood fluctuation may be a useful indicator of risk of deliberate self-harm and attempted suicide.
Knowles, Sarah E; Townsend, Ellen; Anderson, Martin P
Young offenders are recognised as a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour. It is essential that the screening used to identify those at risk and refer them to mental health services is effective, especially in community settings where service utilisation is low. Staff attitudes towards screening for suicide and self-harm are likely to influence how a young offender engages with the screening process. Our study is the first to explore community youth justice staff attitudes towards, and perceptions of, screening for self-harmful behaviour. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted at an English Youth Offending Team in June 2006 with staff who had used the suicide screening tool with young offenders. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Staff attitudes towards working within the screening system varied along two dimensions. The first 'active/passive' dimension related to perceived confidence in dealing with self-harm. The second 'positive/negative' dimension related to perceptions of the benefits of screening and the effectiveness of mental health provision for young offenders. Results indicate that barriers to effective screening must be tackled at both individual and organisational levels. The model of attitudes presented here could be used to increase understanding of how staff can be supported to engage effectively with the screening system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben
PURPOSE: Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite of suicide prevention. We aimed to conduct a nationwide study investigating suicide risk in relation to level of psychiatric treatment. METHODS: Nationwide nested case-control study comparing individuals who died from...... suicide between 1996 and 2009 to age-, sex-, and year-matched controls. Psychiatric treatment in the previous year was graded as "no treatment," "medicated," "outpatient contact," "psychiatric emergency room contact," or "admitted to psychiatric hospital." RESULTS: There were 2,429 cases and 50...
Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne
Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…
McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Piela, Anna
This study investigates self-harm among young lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people. Using qualitative virtual methods, we examined online forums to explore young LGBT people's cybertalk about emotional distress and self-harming. We investigated how youth explained the relationship between self-harm and sexuality and gender. We found…
Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.
Assessing self-harm through brief multiple choice items is simple and less invasive than more detailed methods of assessment. However, there is currently little validation for brief methods of self-harm assessment. This study evaluates the extent to which adolescents' perceptions of self-harm agree with definitions in the literature, and what…
Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Skegg, Keren; Langley, John; Morrison, Dianne; Sowerby, Paula
A birth cohort of 472 women and 494 men aged 26 years was interviewed about a range of self-harmful behaviors first and then asked about suicidal intent.- Lifetime prevalence of self-harm using traditional methods of suicide (ICD [International Classification of Diseases] self-harm) was 13%, with 9% of the sample describing at least one such…
Croyle, Kristin L.
Very little research exists on self-harm in Hispanic populations, although there is a strong literature that addresses suicidality in Hispanics. This study compares self-reported rates of self-harm in 255 non-Hispanic White (NHW) and 187 Hispanic (predominantly Mexican American) undergraduate students. Results indicated that self-harm is…
Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.
Background: Research to date suggests that as many as 12-15% of young people engage in self-harm behaviour; however, the current understanding of the psychological basis of adolescent self-harm is limited. The objective was to determine whether adolescents who self-harm are a psychologically homogenous group. It was hypothesised that psychological…
Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah
Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…
O'Connor, Rory C; Rasmussen, Susan; Miles, Jeremy; Hawton, Keith
The suicide rate in Scotland is twice as high as that in England. However, the prevalence of self-harm is unknown. To determine the prevalence of self-harm in adolescents in Scotland and the factors associated with it. A total of 2008 pupils aged 15-16 years completed an anonymous lifestyle and coping survey. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, life events and problems, social influences, psychological variables and self-harm. Self-harm was reported by 13.8% of the respondents. The majority (71%) of those who had self-harmed had done so in the past 12 months and girls were approximately 3.4 times more likely to report self-harm than boys. In multivariate analyses, smoking, bullying, worries about sexual orientation, self-harm by family and anxiety were associated with self-harm in both genders. In addition, drug use, physical abuse, serious boy/girlfriend problems, self-harm by friends and low levels of optimism were also associated with self-harm in girls. Despite markedly different national suicide rates, the prevalence of self-harm in Scotland is similar to that in England with girls at least three times more likely to report self-harm than boys. The findings suggest a role for emotional literacy programmes in schools and highlight the importance of promoting positive mental health among adolescents.
In France, there is no across-the-board formal connection between psychiatric and somatic treatment and the somatic care of patients undergoing psychiatric treatment remains very heterogeneous and inadequate. Despite some attempts at providing structure, it is the place of the physician which must be examined and optimised.
Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually undertreated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric comorbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology: This ...
Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Geulayov, Galit; Waters, Keith; Ness, Jennifer; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Navneet
Economic recessions are associated with increases in suicide rates but there is little information for non-fatal self-harm. To investigate the impact of the recent recession on rates of self-harm in England and problems faced by patients who self-harm. Analysis of data from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England for 2001-2010 and local employment statistics for Oxford, Manchester and Derby, including interrupted time series analyses to estimate the effect of the recession on rates of self-harm. Rates of self-harm increased in both genders in Derby and in males in Manchester in 2008-2010, but not in either gender in Oxford, results which largely followed changes in general population unemployment. More patients who self-harm were unemployed in 2008-10 compared to before the recession. The proportion in receipt of sickness or disability allowances decreased. More patients of both genders had employment and financial problems in 2008-2010 and more females also had housing problems, changes which were also largely found in employed patients. We have assumed that the recession began in 2008 and information on problems was only available for patients having a psychosocial assessment. Increased rates of self-harm were found in areas where there were greater rises in rates of unemployment. Work, financial and housing problems increased in people who self-harmed. Changes in welfare benefits may have contributed. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geulayov, Galit; Casey, Deborah; McDonald, Keltie C; Foster, Pauline; Pritchard, Kirsty; Wells, Claudia; Clements, Caroline; Kapur, Navneet; Ness, Jennifer; Waters, Keith; Hawton, Keith
Little is known about the relative incidence of fatal and non-fatal self-harm in young people. We estimated the incidence of suicide, hospital-presenting non-fatal self-harm, and community-occurring non-fatal self-harm in adolescents in England. We used national mortality statistics (Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2013), hospital monitoring data for five hospitals derived from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England (Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2013), and data from a schools survey (2015) to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal self-harm per 100 000 person-years in adolescents aged 12-17 years in England. We described these incidences in terms of an iceberg model of self-harm. During 2011-13, 171 adolescents aged 12-17 years died by suicide in England (119 [70%] male and 133 [78%] aged 15-17 years) and 1320 adolescents presented to the study hospitals following non-fatal self-harm (1028 [78%] female and 977 [74%] aged 15-17 years). In 2015, 322 (6%) of 5506 adolescents surveyed reported self-harm in the past year in the community (250 [78%] female and 164 [51%] aged 15-17 years). In 12-14 year olds, for every boy who died by suicide, 109 attended hospital following self-harm and 3067 reported self-harm in the community, whereas for every girl who died by suicide, 1255 attended hospital for self-harm and 21 995 reported self-harm in the community. In 15-17 year olds, for every male suicide, 120 males presented to hospital with self-harm and 838 self-harmed in the community; whereas for every female suicide, 919 females presented to hospital for self-harm and 6406 self-harmed in the community. Hanging or asphyxiation was the most common method of suicide (125 [73%] of 171), self-poisoning was the main reason for presenting to hospital after self-harm (849 [71%] of 1195), and self-cutting was the main method of self-harm used in the community (286 [89%] of 322). Ratios of fatal to non-fatal rates of self-harm differed between males and females and between
Hawton, Keith; Witt, Katrina G; Taylor Salisbury, Tatiana L; Arensman, Ella; Gunnell, David; Townsend, Ellen; van Heeringen, Kees; Hazell, Philip
Self-harm (SH; intentional self-poisoning or self-injury) is common in children and adolescents, often repeated, and strongly associated with suicide. This is an update of a broader Cochrane review on psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for deliberate SH first published in 1998 and previously updated in 1999. We have now divided the review into three separate reviews; this review is focused on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for SH in children and adolescents. To identify all randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions, pharmacological agents, or natural products for SH in children and adolescents, and to conduct meta-analyses (where possible) to compare the effects of specific treatments with comparison types of treatment (e.g., treatment as usual (TAU), placebo, or alternative pharmacological treatment) for children and adolescents who SH. For this update the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (CCDAN) Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the CCDAN Specialised Register (30 January 2015). We included randomised controlled trials comparing psychosocial or pharmacological treatments with treatment as usual, alternative treatments, or placebo or alternative pharmacological treatment in children and adolescents (up to 18 years of age) with a recent (within six months) episode of SH resulting in presentation to clinical services. Two reviewers independently selected trials, extracted data, and appraised study quality, with consensus. For binary outcomes, we calculated odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous outcomes measured using the same scale we calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI; for those measured using different scales we calculated the standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI. Meta-analysis was only possible for two interventions: dialectical behaviour therapy for adolescents and group-based psychotherapy. For these analyses, we pooled data using a random-effects model
Grimholt Tine K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients who self-poison have high repetition and high mortality rates. Therefore, appropriate follow-up is important. The aims of the present work were to study treatment received, satisfaction with health care services, and psychiatric symptoms after hospitalization for self-poisoning. Methods A cohort of patients who self-poisoned (n = 867 over a period of 1 year received a questionnaire 3 months after discharge. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE were used. The participation rate was 28% (n = 242; mean age, 41 years; 66% females. Results Although only 14% of patients were registered without follow-up referrals at discharge, 41% reported no such measures. Overall, satisfaction with treatment was fairly good, although 29% of patients waited more than 3 weeks for their first appointment. A total of 22% reported repeated self-poisoning and 17% cutting. The mean BDI and BHS scores were 23.3 and 10.1, respectively (both moderate to severe. The GSE score was 25.2. BDI score was 25.6 among patients with suicide attempts, 24.9 for appeals, and 20.1 for substance-use-related poisonings. Conclusions Despite plans for follow-up, many patients reported that they did not receive any. The reported frequency of psychiatric symptoms and self-harm behavior indicate that a more active follow-up is needed.
Opmeer, Brent C.; Hollingworth, William; Marques, Elsa M. R.; Margelyte, Ruta; Gunnell, David
Objectives To evaluate the impact of an expansion of liaison psychiatry services (LPS) on patient management, outcomes and treatment costs for emergency department (ED) attendances for self-harm. Design Retrospective before and after cohort study using routinely collected Self-Harm Surveillance
Paiman, Mohammad Akbar; Khan, Murad Moosa
Suicide and deliberate self-harm (DSH) are major public health problems globally. There is limited information on suicide and DSH from Afghanistan. To review available literature on suicide and DSH in Afghanistan. Using online resources and literature on suicidal behavior (suicide, DSH and suicidal ideation) was searched. There were only seven published studies identified on suicidal behavior in Afghanistan. Six of these have been published since 2003 and majority has focused on suicidal behavior in women. Both DSH and suicide are underreported and understudied subjects in Afghanistan. There is need for more research in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pratt, Laura A; Brody, Debra J
Persons with thoughts of self-harm may need evaluation for suicide risk. We examine the prevalence of thoughts of self-harm and whether persons with thoughts of self-harm are identified when two-stage depression screening is used. Data are from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Persons responding positively to question nine of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) are identified as having thoughts of self-harm. We compare two depression cutoff scores for the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) to see what percentage of persons with thoughts of self-harm would be identified as needing further screening with the PHQ-9. The prevalence of thoughts of self-harm was 3.5%. Persons 12-17 years old, poor and reporting fair or poor health were more likely to report thoughts of self-harm. A cutoff score of three on the PHQ-2 identified 49% of persons with thoughts of self-harm for further screening with the PHQ-9. A cut point of two increased the proportion of persons with thoughts of self-harm continuing for further screening to 76%. Using a lower cutoff score, two, the PHQ-2 captures more persons with thoughts of self-harm. One quarter of persons with self-harm thoughts may not be identified for further screening when two-stage screening is used. © 2014.
Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P
Assessing self-harm through brief multiple choice items is simple and less invasive than more detailed methods of assessment. However, there is currently little validation for brief methods of self-harm assessment. This study evaluates the extent to which adolescents' perceptions of self-harm agree with definitions in the literature, and what level of question detail produces optimal concordance rates. Two hundred and thirty-three (69% female) first year university students aged 17-21 completed a self-harm coding task; we created three levels of question detail and randomly allocated participants to three study groups: brief, low detail, and high detail. The present findings suggest that that adolescents' perceptions of self-harm are generally concordant with a consensus definition of self-harm. Low level of detail in the question produced greatest accuracy in responses; adolescents who demonstrated adequate task understanding were able to correctly identify 94% of examples of self-harm behaviour and 86% of examples of behaviour that were not self-harm. We identified lower concordance rates for eating disordered behaviour and recreational petrol sniffing. This indicates that adolescents perceive these behaviours to be self-harm, in contrast to the reference definition we utilised. Overall, this study provides support for using a brief assessment of self-harm where minimal detail regarding self-harm behaviour is required.
Mork, Erlend; Walby, Fredrik A; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Steen, Nils E; Lorentzen, Steinar; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Mehlum, Lars
To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18-61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay.
Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming
Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15-25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Background The aim of this research is to determine the level of emotion regulation, studied through the method of variable action orientation vs. state and its relationship with depressiveness and dimension of the reasons for living and self-harming behaviour of patients with borderline personality disorder. Participants and procedure The research studied 61 patients diagnosed with an emotionally unstable personality of borderline type. The research used the Polish adaptation of tests to measure the action vs. state orientation (SSI-K, the self-harming behaviour (SHI, depression (BDI and the reasons for living vs. suicidal tendency (RFL-I. Results In people with borderline personality disorder, the level of emotion regulation (action vs. state orientation, reasons for living and depression are predictors of self-harming behaviour. The experience of a depressive episode or lack thereof does not have a relationship with the increase of self-harming. Analysis of the interaction between variables showed that the reasons for living and the action orientation after failure are related to the reduction of self-harming behaviour in all subjects. In depressed people, state orientation is associated with an increase in the action orientation with decreased self-destructive behaviours. Conclusions High levels of reasons for living in interaction with the action orientation have a negative relationship with the self-harming behaviour of patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Among those subjects, depressive patients, a statistically lower level of self-harm is related to the action orientation. These results suggest that therapeutic treatment is important to activate both reasons for living as well as action orientation as effective dimensions in preventing self-harming.
Diggins, Emma; Kelley, Rachael; Cottrell, David; House, Allan; Owens, David
Characteristics of self-harm differ across ages, but there is little work identifying age-related differences in younger people. Young people entering adolescence face emotionally and developmentally different challenges to those entering adulthood. This study investigates how Emergency Department (ED) presentations and management of self-harm differ through adolescence and early adulthood. 3782 consecutive self-harm episodes involving 2559 people aged 12-25 years were identified from an existing database of Leeds ED attendances from 2004 to 2007. Odds ratios for each of four age bands were compared to the remaining young people. The female to male ratio was 6.3:1 at 12-14 years old, decreasing with successive age groups to 1.2:1 at 22-25 years old. Self-poisoning was commoner in those under 18 years old. 18-25 year olds were more likely to self-poison with prescribed medications, mixed overdoses, alcohol or recreational drugs. 18-25 year olds more often required medical treatment for the effects of the self-harm. 12-14 year olds were more often seen urgently by ED medical staff and offered high intensity mental health aftercare. Repetition of self-harm was commonest in 12-14 year olds, although multiple repetition of self-harm was commonest in 22-25 year olds. Data were not collected on whether the aftercare offered was received. The study sample included hospital attenders only. The large excess of females over males in young people's self-harm is only true at the younger age range. Older adolescents present with more severe acts of self-harm, yet receive the lowest intensity of assessment and after care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.
The monitoring of self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention has not occurred routinely or transparently. Thus whilst concerns regarding rates of self-harm among asylum seekers have been frequently raised, a paucity of systematic information regarding key factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers exists. The present study was designed therefore to fill a number of gaps in government monitoring by examining the government's own archived self-harm data. Via a descriptive analysis of self-harm incident reports from all operational Australian immigration detention facilities over a 20-month period to May 2011, obtained under Freedom of Information, the present study identified that 959 incidents of self-harm occurred during this period. A gender bias towards men was also found. In addition to this, 10 different methods of self-harm were identified, the four most common being: cutting (47%), attempted hanging (19%), head hitting (12%) and self-poisoning by medication (6%). Seven different precipitating factors for self-harm were also identified, the four most common were: detention conditions (39%), processing arrangements (27%), negative decisions (24%) and family separation (3%). These findings point strongly to the health benefits of considering alternatives to held immigration detention, such as community based processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Miller, Matthew; Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; Barber, Catherine; Rosenberg-Wohl, Sarah; Azrael, Deborah
We examined time-varying and time-invariant characteristics of nonfatal intentional self-harm episodes in relation to subsequent episodes of self-harm and suicide. We conducted a follow-up cohort study through 2007 of 3600 patients discharged from hospitals in New Jersey with a primary diagnosis of intentional self-harm in 2003. We determined repetition of self-harm from hospital records and suicide from state registers. Use of methods other than drug overdose and cutting in self-harm events, greater medical severity of nonfatal episodes, and a history of multiple self-harm episodes increased the risk of suicide. However, most suicides occurred without these risk factors. Most suicides took place without intervening episodes of self-harm, and most persons used a low-lethality method (drug overdose or cutting) in their index episode, but switched to a more lethal method in their fatal episode. Our findings suggest that preventing suicide among persons with a history of self-harm must account for the possibility that they will adopt methods with higher case-fatality ratios than they previously tried.
Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette
Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…
Breet, Elsie; Bantjes, Jason
Few qualitative studies have explored the relationship between substance use and self-harm. We employed a multiple-case study research design to analyze data from 80 patients who were admitted to a hospital in South Africa following self-harm. Our analysis revealed, from the perspective of patients, a number of distinct ways in which substance use is implicated in self-harm. Some patients reported that substance intoxication resulted in poor decision making and impulsivity, which led to self-harm. Others said substance use facilitated their self-harm. Some participants detailed how in the past their chronic substance use had served an adaptive function helping them to cope with distress, but more recently, this coping mechanism had failed which precipitated their self-harm. Some participants reported that substance use by someone else triggered their self-harm. Findings suggest that there are multiple pathways and a host of variables which mediate the relationship between substance use and self-harm.
Astrup, Aske; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mok, Pearl L H; Carr, Matthew J; Webb, Roger T
Experience of child-parent separation predicts adverse outcomes in later life. We conducted a detailed epidemiological examination of this complex relationship by modelling an array of separation scenarios and trajectories and subsequent risk of self-harm. This cohort study examined persons born in Denmark during 1971-1997. We measured child-parent separations each year from birth to 15th birthday via complete residential address records in the Civil Registration System. Self-harm episodes between 15th birthday and early middle age were ascertained through linkage to psychiatric and general hospital registers. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from Poisson regression models were estimated against a reference category of individuals not separated from their parents. All exposure models examined indicated an association with raised self-harm risk. For example, large elevations in risk were observed in relation to separation from both parents at 15th birthday (IRR 5.50, 95% CI 5.25-5.77), experiencing five or more changes in child-parent separation status (IRR 5.24, CI 4.88-5.63), and having a shorter duration of familial cohesion during upbringing. There was no significant evidence for varying strength of association according to child's gender. Measuring child-parent separation according to differential residential addresses took no account of the reason for or circumstances of these separations. These novel findings suggest that self-harm prevention initiatives should be tailored toward exposed persons who remain psychologically distressed into adulthood. These high-risk subgroups include individuals with little experience of familial cohesion during their upbringing, those with the most complicated trajectories who lived through multiple child-parent separation transitions, and those separated from both parents during early adolescence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McMillan, Dean; Gilbody, Simon; Beresford, Emma; Neilly, Liz
Hopelessness is considered a pre-eminent risk factor for suicide and non-fatal self-harm. We aimed to quantify the ability of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) to predict these two outcomes. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cinahl were searched to January 2006. We included cohort studies in which the BHS was applied and patients were followed-up to establish subsequent suicide or non-fatal self-harm. Four studies provided usable data on suicide, and six studies provided data on non-fatal self-harm. Summary sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated for each study. Random effects meta-analytic pooling across studies at the standard cut-off point (> or =9) was undertaken and summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves constructed. For suicide, pooled sensitivity was 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.90], pooled specificity was 0.42 (95% CI 0.41-0.44), and the pooled DOR was 3.39 (95% CI 1.29-8.88). For non-fatal self-harm, pooled sensitivity was 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.82), pooled specificity was 0.42 (95% CI 0.38-0.45), and the pooled DOR was 2.27 (95% CI 1.53-3.37). The standard cut-off point on the BHS identifies a high-risk group for potential suicide, but the magnitude of the risk is lower than previously reported estimates. The standard cut-off point is also capable of identifying those who are at risk of future self-harm, but the low specificity rate means it is unlikely to be of use in targeting treatment designed to lower the rate of repetition.
Lushan V. Hettiarachchi
Full Text Available Self-harm is prevalent in incarcerated adults, yet comparatively few studies of self-harm in detained youth (and even fewer in low- and middle-income countries have been published. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a sample of 181 young people (mean age 15.0 years, SD = 2.3 detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka. Structured face-to-face questionnaires assessed demographic characteristics, family and social background, substance use, self-harm history (including frequency, method, and intention, bullying victimization, physical and sexual abuse (victimization and perpetration, and exposure to self-harm/suicide by others. Seventy-seven participants (43% reported a lifetime history of self-harm, 19 of whom (25% who reported doing so with suicidal intent. Fifty participants (65% of those with a history of self-harm reported engaging in self-harm impulsively, with no prior planning. A history of self-harm was associated with being female, prior sexual abuse victimization, prior exposure to self-harm by friends, and a lifetime history of self-harm ideation. High rates of substance use, bullying victimization, parental incarceration, and exposure to suicide were reported across the sample. Young people detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka are a vulnerable group with high rates of self-harm, substance use, and psychosocial risk factors. Strategies for identifying and preventing self-harm, and targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, may contribute to more positive outcomes in this marginalised population.
Hettiarachchi, Lushan V; Kinner, Stuart A; Tibble, Holly; Borschmann, Rohan
Self-harm is prevalent in incarcerated adults, yet comparatively few studies of self-harm in detained youth (and even fewer in low- and middle-income countries) have been published. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a sample of 181 young people (mean age 15.0 years, SD = 2.3) detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka. Structured face-to-face questionnaires assessed demographic characteristics, family and social background, substance use, self-harm history (including frequency, method, and intention), bullying victimization, physical and sexual abuse (victimization and perpetration), and exposure to self-harm/suicide by others. Seventy-seven participants (43%) reported a lifetime history of self-harm, 19 of whom (25%) who reported doing so with suicidal intent. Fifty participants (65% of those with a history of self-harm) reported engaging in self-harm impulsively, with no prior planning. A history of self-harm was associated with being female, prior sexual abuse victimization, prior exposure to self-harm by friends, and a lifetime history of self-harm ideation. High rates of substance use, bullying victimization, parental incarceration, and exposure to suicide were reported across the sample. Young people detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka are a vulnerable group with high rates of self-harm, substance use, and psychosocial risk factors. Strategies for identifying and preventing self-harm, and targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, may contribute to more positive outcomes in this marginalised population.
McCarthy, Logan; Pullen, Lisa M; Savage, Jennifer; Cayce, Jonathan
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents in the United States, with suicidal behavior peaking in adolescence. Suicidal and self-harming behavior is often chronic, with an estimated 15-30% of adolescents who attempt suicide having a second suicide attempt within a year. The focus of acute psychiatric hospitalization is on stabilization of these psychiatric symptoms resulting at times in premature discharge. Finding from studies based on high rehospitalization rates among adolescents admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital indicates that adolescents continue to experience crisis upon discharge from an acute psychiatric hospital, leading to the question of whether or not these adolescents are being discharged prematurely. A chart review was performed on 98 adolescent clients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital to identify risk factors that may increase rehospitalization among adolescents admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Clients admitted to the hospital within a 12-month time frame were compared to clients who were not readmitted during that 12-month period. History of self-harming behavior and length of stay greater than 5 days were found to be risk factors for rehospitalization. Adolescent clients who are admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital with a history of self-harming behavior and extended length of stay need to be identified and individualized treatment plans implemented for preventing repeat hospitalizations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Turnbull, Pauline; Hawton, Keith; Geulayov, Galit; Waters, Keith; Ness, Jennifer; Townsend, Ellen; Khundakar, Kazem; Kapur, Nav
Objective Rates of hospital presentation for self-harm in England were compared using different national and local data sources. Design The study was descriptive and compared bespoke data collection methods for recording self-harm presentations to hospital with routinely collected hospital data. Setting Local area data on self-harm from the 3 centres of the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England (Oxford, Manchester and Derby) were used along with national and local routinely collected data on self-harm admissions and emergency department attendances from Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Primary outcome Rate ratios were calculated to compare rates of self-harm generated using different data sources nationally and locally (between 2010 and 2012) and rates of hospital presentations for self-harm were plotted over time (between 2003 and 2012), based on different data sources. Results The total number of self-harm episodes between 2010 and 2012 was 13 547 based on Multicentre Study data, 9600 based on HES emergency department data and 8096 based on HES admission data. Nationally, routine HES data underestimated overall rates of self-harm by approximately 60% compared with rates based on Multicentre Study data (rate ratio for HES emergency department data, 0.41 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.49); rate ratio for HES admission data, 0.42 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.49)). Direct local area comparisons confirmed an overall underascertainment in the HES data, although the difference varied between centres. There was a general increase in self-harm over time according to HES data which contrasted with a fall and then a rise in the Multicentre Study data. Conclusions There was a consistent underestimation of presentations for self-harm recorded by HES emergency department data, and fluctuations in year-on-year figures. HES admission data appeared more reliable but missed non-admitted episodes. Routinely collected data may miss important trends in self-harm and cannot be used in isolation as
... transfer to a mental hospital are threatened with immediate deprivation of liberty interests they are... use of the phrase `qualified health services staff' in Sec. 549.44 of the proposed regulation. The APA.... Bureau policy on pharmacy services is predicated on the requirement that the use of psychiatric...
Introduction: Deliberate self-harm is being increasingly recognised as a behaviour with significant clinical importance. Yet, there remains uncertainty regarding which forms of psychological therapy are most effective for its treatment. Schema Therapy is an integrative psychotherapy blending elements of cognitive behaviour therapy, object relations and gestalt therapy into a unified approach for the treatment of individuals with complex and chronic psychological conditions. The...
Nordentoft, Merete; Søgaard, Mette
rooms and six intensive care units, we investigated all referrals in the period 1 February 2001 to 1 May 2001 with Contact Code 4 (self-harm) and selected diagnostic codes likely to be used in cases of self-poisoning, strangulation, drowning and wrist-cutting. We found that only 37% of the contacts...
Edmondson, Amanda J; Brennan, Cathy A; House, Allan O
Self-harm is a major public health problem yet current healthcare provision is widely regarded as inadequate. One of the barriers to effective healthcare is the lack of a clear understanding of the functions self-harm may serve for the individual. The aim of this review is to identify first-hand accounts of the reasons for self-harm from the individual's perspective. A systematic review of the literature reporting first-hand accounts of the reasons for self-harm other than intent to die. A thematic analysis and 'best fit' framework synthesis was undertaken to classify the responses. The most widely researched non-suicidal reasons for self-harm were dealing with distress and exerting interpersonal influence. However, many first-hand accounts included reasons such as self-validation, and self-harm to achieve a personal sense of mastery, which suggests individuals thought there were positive or adaptive functions of the act not based only on its social effects. Associations with different sub-population characteristics or with the method of harm were not available from most studies included in the analysis. Our review identified a number of themes that are relatively neglected in discussions about self-harm, which we summarised as self-harm as a positiveexperience and defining the self. These self-reported "positive" reasons may be important in understanding and responding especially to repeated acts of self-harm. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thomas, J B; Haslam, C O
WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: Self-harm plays a function, commonly in the form of distress management. There has been little focussed exploration of how individuals who use self-harm to manage distress cope when prevented from self-harm in an inpatient environment and how staff respond to this issue. This paper uses the experiences of mental health staff to add to the existing knowledge that self-harm has a functional role and supports the notion that interventions for self-harm should focus on the origins of distress. It describes the potential consequences that focussing on prevention of self-harm as opposed to actually managing distress may have on service-users, how staff attempt to manage these consequences and factors that may impact on staff interventions to prevent further distress/harm. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The findings suggest that mental healthcare staff should aim to understand the function of self-harm, use this understanding to develop an individualized care plan with the aim of managing distress and identify barriers to the effectiveness of the interventions so they can be worked around. Introduction Literature describes self-harm as functional and meaningful. This creates difficulties for service-users detained in an inpatient environment where self-harm is prevented. Aim Mental healthcare staff were interviewed to build on existing evidence of issues with the prevention approach and explore, from a staff perspective, how self-harm prevention impacts on service-users, how they manage distress and how this impacts on staff and their approach to care. Methods Qualitative methods were used to allow unexpected themes to arise. Ten semi-structured interviews were carried out with mental healthcare staff and thematically analysed. Findings and discussion The findings provide new evidence on the benefits and limitations of the inpatient environment for individuals who self-harm. Findings indicate that being unable to self-harm can
Bennardi, Marco; McMahon, Elaine; Corcoran, Paul; Griffin, Eve; Arensman, Ella
Repeated self-harm represents the single strongest risk factor for suicide. To date no study with full national coverage has examined the pattern of hospital repeated presentations due to self-harm among young people. Data on consecutive self-harm presentations were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of individuals aged 10-29 years who presented with self-harm to emergency departments in Ireland (2007-2014) were analysed. Risk of long-term repetition was assessed using survival analysis and time differences between the order of presentations using generalised estimating equation analysis. The total sample comprised 28,700 individuals involving 42,642 presentations. Intentional drug overdose was the most prevalent method (57.9%). Repetition of self-harm occurred in 19.2% of individuals during the first year following a first presentation, of whom the majority (62.7%) engaged in one repeated act. Overall, the risk of repeated self-harm was similar between males and females. However, in the 20-24-year-old age group males were at higher risk than females. Those who used self-cutting were at higher risk for repetition than those who used intentional drug overdose, particularly among females. Age was associated with repetition only among females, in particular adolescents (15-19 years old) were at higher risk than young emerging adults (20-24 years old). Repeated self-harm risk increased significantly with the number of previous self-harm episodes. Time differences between first self-harm presentations were detected. Time between second and third presentation increased compared to time between first and second presentation among low frequency repeaters (patients with 3 presentations only within 1 year following a first presentation). The same time period decreased among high frequency repeaters (patients with at least 4 to more than 30 presentations). Young people with the highest risk for repeated
Koning, Kate Louise; McNaught, Angela; Tuffin, Keith
To explore the beliefs and attitudes of emergency department staff about self-harm behaviour. Existing studies looking at views regarding self-harm rely solely on the information provided by medical and nursing staff using a questionnaire format. No studies currently consider ancillary staff members' beliefs about self-harm, even though they also work with these patients. A thematic framework analysis of interview transcripts was carried out. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted from December 2015 to February 2016. Fifteen medical, nursing, and ancillary staff members from a large, tertiary emergency department participated. There were 5 major themes identified-causes of self-harm are multifactorial; beliefs about self-harm can change over time; emergency departments should only focus on the physical; self-harm occurs on a spectrum; and the system has failed. The results suggest participants felt ill-prepared and lacking in appropriate training to help patients that self-harm, and furthermore they have little faith in the mental health system. Staff beliefs and attitudes may change over time with exposure to patients who self-harm, possibly becoming more positive in response to a greater understanding of why the self-harm behaviour is occurring.
Wu, C-S; Liao, S-C; Tsai, Y-T; Chang, S-S; Tsai, H-J
The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative risk of self-harm associated with the use of different antidepressants. A cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2001 to 2012. A total of 751 606 new antidepressant users with depressive disorders were included. The study outcome was hospitalization due to self-harm (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes: E950-E958 and E980-E988). Cox proportional hazards models with stratification of the propensity score deciles were used to estimate the hazard ratios of self-harm hospitalization during the first year following the initiation of antidepressant treatment. There were 1038 hospitalization episodes due to self-harm that occurred during the follow-up of 149 796 person-years, with an overall incidence rate of 6.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.5-7.4] per 1000. Compared with fluoxetine, the risk of self-harm hospitalization was higher for maprotiline [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 3.00, 95% CI 1.40-6.45], milnacipran (aHR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.24-4.43) and mirtazapine (aHR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.86), lower for bupropion (aHR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.86), and similar level of risk was found for other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline). The risk of self-harm may vary across different antidepressant drugs. It would be of importance to conduct further research to investigate the influence of antidepressant use on self-harm behaviors.
Cooper, Jayne; Steeg, Sarah; Webb, Roger; Stewart, Suzanne L K; Applegate, Eve; Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Waters, Keith; Kapur, Navneet
Little information is available to inform clinical assessments on risk of self-harm repetition in ethnic minority groups. In a prospective cohort study, using data collected from six hospitals in England for self-harm presentations occurring between 2000 and 2007, we investigated risk factors for repeat self-harm in South Asian and Black people in comparison to Whites. During the study period, 751 South Asian, 468 Black and 15,705 White people presented with self-harm in the study centres. Repeat self-harm occurred in 4379 individuals, which included 229 suicides (with eight of these fatalities being in the ethnic minority groups). The risk ratios for repetition in the South Asian and Black groups compared to the White group were 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7 and 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.8, respectively. Risk factors for repetition were similar across all three groups, although excess risk versus Whites was seen in Black people presenting with mental health symptoms, and South Asian people reporting alcohol use and not having a partner. Additional modelling of repeat self-harm count data showed that alcohol misuse was especially strongly linked with multiple repetitions in both BME groups. Ethnicity was not recorded in a third of cases which may introduce selection bias. Differences may exist due to cultural diversity within the broad ethnic groups. Known social and psychological features that infer risk were present in South Asian and Black people who repeated self-harm. Clinical assessment in these ethnic groups should ensure recognition and treatment of mental illness and alcohol misuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mahadevan, Su; Hawton, Keith; Casey, Deborah
Deliberate self-harm (DSH; intentional self-poisoning or self-injury) is a major problem among young people and has been identified as one of the key mental health problems affecting students. Data on DSH presentations to the general hospital in Oxford by Oxford University students were analysed for the 12-year period from 1993 to 2005. The characteristics of the students with DSH were compared with those of age-matched DSH controls in the Oxford City area. Problems with academic work, relationships with family, partners and friends were most likely to contribute to DSH episodes in students. Many experienced problems with psychiatric disorders and social isolation. The frequency of eating disorders was very high in students, and contributed to DSH significantly more often than in controls. Fewer students than controls self-poisoned in the DSH episode, fewer had personality disorder and fewer had problems with physical health, finance, housing and violence. Alcohol consumption in association with DSH and alcohol-related problems were common in both students and controls. Male students had significantly higher suicide intent than controls. Many students were referred to the university counselling service for follow-up, a resource not available to non-student controls. Comparison of university students following DSH with age-matched controls has shown key differences in psychiatric characteristics, problems contributing to DSH and aftercare offered. These findings may help in the design of targeted self-harm prevention and management strategies for students.
Full Text Available Hans Idenfors, Gunnar Kullgren, Ellinor Salander Renberg Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH is increasingly common among young people. At the same time, treatment and support after DSH are often hampered by low compliance.Aim: To explore young people’s perceptions of care and support during a 6-month period following their first contact for DSH.Methods: We conducted nine semistructured interviews with young people aged 16–24 years 6 months after their first contact for DSH. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results: Three main themes were extracted from the interviews. “Am I really in good hands?” describes whether the participants felt they were being listened to and taken seriously and whether they could rely on the competence of the professionals and the appropriateness of treatment, including keeping agreements and communication with other relevant agencies. “Help should match life circumstances” comprises how basic practicalities such as travel possibilities affect treatment and concomitant assistance in everyday living. Financial matters and jobseeking were perceived as necessary for optimal treatment and well-being. “Making yourself better” includes participants’ efforts to manage on their own, through realizing their own responsibility to be engaged and actively take part in treatment planning.Conclusion: Flexibility and responsiveness to young people’s own views and specific needs in treatment arrangements are of crucial importance. The significance of basic practical help cannot be underestimated and should not be overlooked. Keywords: young adults, deliberate self-harm, qualitative, treatment experiences
Abstract. Background: The validity and reliability of suicide statistics have been questioned and few nationwide studies of deliberate self-harm have been presented. Aim: To calculate rates of deliberate self-harm in Denmark in order to investigate trends and assess the reliability of hospital records. Method: A register study based on all individuals recorded with an episode of deliberate self-harm or probable deliberate self-harm in nationwide registers during 1994–2011. Results: A substantial difference in the rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm was noted for both genders. The average incidence rate of deliberate self-harm for women and men was 130.7 (95% CI = 129.6–131.8) per 100,000 and 86.9 (95% CI = 86.0–87.8) per 100,000, respectively. The rates of deliberate self-harm for women increased from 137.6 (95% CI = 132.9–142.3) per 100,000 in 1994 to 152.7 (95% CI = 147.8–157.5) in 2011. For a subgroup of younger women aged 15–24 years, an almost threefold increase was observed, IRR = 2.5 (95% CI = 2.4–2.7). The most frequently used method was self-poisoning. Conclusion: The rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm differed significantly. An increased incidence of deliberate self-harm among young Danish women was observed, despite detection bias. An improved registration procedure of suicidal behavior is needed. PMID:27278571
Nielsen, Emma; Sayal, Kapil; Townsend, Ellen
Self-harm affords people a means of coping. However, little is known about how functional coping dynamics differ between stressful situations in which people self-harm (enactment), think about harming (ideation), or experience no self-harmful thoughts or behaviours. Participants (N = 1,157) aged 16-49 years (M = 18.21, SD = 3.24) with a recent history of self-harm (past 3 months) reported how they coped in response to their most significant recent stressor (3 months). Almost 40% of participants, all of whom had self-harmed in the last 3 months, had no self-harm experience (thoughts or behaviours) in response to their most significant stressor in that time frame. In multivariate analysis, adjusting for symptoms of depression and anxiety, reappraisal coping was predictive of self-harm thoughts. Approach, emotion regulation and reappraisal coping were predictive of self-harm behaviour. Emotion regulation coping differentiated self-harm ideation and enactment groups. The cross-sectional design of the study precludes the ability to make inferences regarding causality. Further, there is no agreed definition of 'recent' self-harm. Taken together, the findings suggest that functional coping dynamics may be differentially associated with self-harm ideation and enactment. This is important, given that understanding the transitions between ideation and enactment has been identified as a critical frontier in suicide prevention. Further, results indicate that seemingly innocuous events may have a profound impact as tipping points for enaction; this has implications for clinical practice, including the co-production of safety plans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Washburn, Stephen; And Others
Seriously ill female psychiatric patients (N=59) were randomly assigned to an inpatient or day service. Data indicate the day treatment is, on the whole, superior to inpatient treatment in subjective distress, community functioning, family burden, total hospital cost, and days of attachment to the hospital program. (Author)
Marchant, Amanda; Hawton, Keith; Stewart, Ann; Montgomery, Paul; Singaravelu, Vinod; Lloyd, Keith; Purdy, Nicola; Daine, Kate
Background Research exploring internet use and self-harm is rapidly expanding amidst concerns regarding influences of on-line activities on self-harm and suicide, especially in young people. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding the potential influence of the internet on self-harm/suicidal behaviour in young people. Methods We conducted a systematic review based on an electronic search for articles published between 01/01/2011 and 26/01/2015 across databases including Medline, Cochrane and PsychInfo. Articles were included if: the study examined internet use by individuals who engaged in self-harm/ suicidal behaviour, or internet use clearly related to self-harm content; reported primary empirical data; participants were aged under 25 years. New studies were combined with those identified in a previous review and subject to data extraction, quality rating and narrative synthesis. Results Forty-six independent studies (51 articles) of varying quality were included. Perceived influences were: positive for 11 studies (38191 participants); negative for 18 studies (119524 participants); and mixed for 17 studies (35235 participants). In contrast to previous reviews on this topic studies focused on a wide range of internet mediums: general internet use; internet addiction; online intervention/treatment; social media; dedicated self-harm websites; forums; video/image sharing and blogs. A relationship between internet use and self-harm/suicidal behaviour was particularly associated with internet addiction, high levels of internet use, and websites with self-harm or suicide content. While there are negative aspects of internet use the potential for isolation reduction, outreach and as a source of help and therapy were also identified. Conclusions There is significant potential for harm from online behaviour (normalisation, triggering, competition, contagion) but also the potential to exploit its benefits (crisis support, reduction of social isolation, delivery
Marchant, Amanda; Hawton, Keith; Stewart, Ann; Montgomery, Paul; Singaravelu, Vinod; Lloyd, Keith; Purdy, Nicola; Daine, Kate; John, Ann
Research exploring internet use and self-harm is rapidly expanding amidst concerns regarding influences of on-line activities on self-harm and suicide, especially in young people. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding the potential influence of the internet on self-harm/suicidal behaviour in young people. We conducted a systematic review based on an electronic search for articles published between 01/01/2011 and 26/01/2015 across databases including Medline, Cochrane and PsychInfo. Articles were included if: the study examined internet use by individuals who engaged in self-harm/ suicidal behaviour, or internet use clearly related to self-harm content; reported primary empirical data; participants were aged under 25 years. New studies were combined with those identified in a previous review and subject to data extraction, quality rating and narrative synthesis. Forty-six independent studies (51 articles) of varying quality were included. Perceived influences were: positive for 11 studies (38191 participants); negative for 18 studies (119524 participants); and mixed for 17 studies (35235 participants). In contrast to previous reviews on this topic studies focused on a wide range of internet mediums: general internet use; internet addiction; online intervention/treatment; social media; dedicated self-harm websites; forums; video/image sharing and blogs. A relationship between internet use and self-harm/suicidal behaviour was particularly associated with internet addiction, high levels of internet use, and websites with self-harm or suicide content. While there are negative aspects of internet use the potential for isolation reduction, outreach and as a source of help and therapy were also identified. There is significant potential for harm from online behaviour (normalisation, triggering, competition, contagion) but also the potential to exploit its benefits (crisis support, reduction of social isolation, delivery of therapy, outreach). Young people
Full Text Available Research exploring internet use and self-harm is rapidly expanding amidst concerns regarding influences of on-line activities on self-harm and suicide, especially in young people. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding the potential influence of the internet on self-harm/suicidal behaviour in young people.We conducted a systematic review based on an electronic search for articles published between 01/01/2011 and 26/01/2015 across databases including Medline, Cochrane and PsychInfo. Articles were included if: the study examined internet use by individuals who engaged in self-harm/ suicidal behaviour, or internet use clearly related to self-harm content; reported primary empirical data; participants were aged under 25 years. New studies were combined with those identified in a previous review and subject to data extraction, quality rating and narrative synthesis.Forty-six independent studies (51 articles of varying quality were included. Perceived influences were: positive for 11 studies (38191 participants; negative for 18 studies (119524 participants; and mixed for 17 studies (35235 participants. In contrast to previous reviews on this topic studies focused on a wide range of internet mediums: general internet use; internet addiction; online intervention/treatment; social media; dedicated self-harm websites; forums; video/image sharing and blogs. A relationship between internet use and self-harm/suicidal behaviour was particularly associated with internet addiction, high levels of internet use, and websites with self-harm or suicide content. While there are negative aspects of internet use the potential for isolation reduction, outreach and as a source of help and therapy were also identified.There is significant potential for harm from online behaviour (normalisation, triggering, competition, contagion but also the potential to exploit its benefits (crisis support, reduction of social isolation, delivery of therapy, outreach
Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P; Loxton, Deborah J
There is growing awareness of the range of psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors related to self-harm, however this research is often limited by using cross-sectional or convenience samples. And while we generally assume that young adults who self-harm experience poorer long-term outcomes, longitudinal research is needed. This paper builds on prior research using a large, representative, longitudinal sample. 5765 Australian women completed 5 surveys (age 18-23 to 31-36). Six-month self-harm was measured by self-report. We had two aims: firstly to predict future self-harm, separately for women with and without prior self-harm. Secondly, to identify outcomes 3 and 6 years following self-harm. Six-month self-harm prevalence was 2.5%. Predictors among women without recent self-harm included depression, dieting behaviours, number of male sexual partners, and abuse. Among women with recent or current self-harm, predictors were number of dieting behaviours, tiredness of life, and stress. Women who self-harmed reported poorer outcomes, namely greater difficulties in relationships at 3- and 6-year follow-up. Longitudinal risk factors for self-harm differed depending on prior self-harm status, and included depression, dieting behaviours, tiredness of life and stress. These factors may serve as warning signs for new or continued self-harm. This study offers new insight into long-term outcomes up to six years after self-harm, particularly with relationships.
Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil
Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress.
Crawford, Tanya; Geraghty, Wendy; Street, Karen; Simonoff, Emily
Investigated knowledge, attitudes, and training needs of professionals working with adolescents who deliberately self-harm (DSH). Over three-quarters of participants were unaware that homosexual males and those who had been sexually abused are at greater risk of DSH; one-third were unaware adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of…
Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.
Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…
This research aimed to reveal the relationship between self-harm behaviour, body image, and self-esteem, and examined whether there was a difference between the body image and self-esteem of the adolescents who exhibited self-harm behaviour and those who did not. The study was conducted with the participation of 263 high school students--143…
Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Lee, James Chun-Yin; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Tim Man-Ho; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun-Bong
Although a few studies investigated the impact of stock market fluctuations on population health, the question of whether stock market fluctuations have an impact on self-harm in children and adolescents remain unanswered. This study therefore investigated the association between stock market fluctuations and self-harm among children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Daily self-harm attendance records were retrieved from all 18 local Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) from 2001 to 2012. 4931 children and adolescents who committed self-harm were included. The results indicated positive correlation between daily change in stock market index, Hang Seng Index (∇HSI, per 300 points), and daily self-harm incident risk of children and adolescents, without time lag between the two. The incident risk ratio for ∇HSI was 1.09 ( p = 0.0339) in children and 1.06 ( p = 0.0246) in adolescents. Importantly, non-trading days were found to impose significant protective effect in both groups against self-harm risk. Our results showed that stock market fluctuations were related to self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. Parents and professionals should be educated about the potential harm of stock market fluctuations and the importance of effective parenting in reducing self-harm among children and adolescents.
Mars, Becky; Cornish, Rosie; Heron, Jon; Boyd, Andy; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Tilling, Kate; Macleod, John; Gunnell, David
The objective of this study was to examine agreement between self-reported and medically recorded self-harm, and investigate whether the prevalence of self-harm differs in questionnaire responders vs. non-responders. A total of 4,810 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed a self-harm questionnaire at age 16 years. Data from consenting participants were linked to medical records (number available for analyses ranges from 205–3,027). The prevalence of self-harm leading to hospital admission was somewhat higher in questionnaire non-responders than responders (2.0 vs. 1.2%). Hospital attendance with self-harm was under-reported on the questionnaire. One third reported self-harm inconsistently over time; inconsistent reporters were less likely to have depression and fewer had self-harmed with suicidal intent. Self-harm prevalence estimates derived from self-report may be underestimated; more accurate figures may come from combining data from multiple sources. PMID:26789257
Kimball, Joan S.; Diddams, Margaret
The authors used structural equation modeling to test the mediational role of affect regulation on attachment and deliberate self-harm in 216 undergraduates. Results suggest that affect regulation mediates the relationship between attachment and deliberate self-harm, providing support for the theoretical importance of attachment and affect…
Brown, Jessica; Beail, Nigel
Background: Research into self-harm among people with intellectual disabilities has focused predominantly on high frequency internally maladaptive behaviour among people whose disability is severe or profound. Research into different forms of self-harm, such as cutting or burning the skin, found in those with mild intellectual disabilities;…
Althoff, R.R.; Hudziak, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; Hudziak, V.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.
Thoughts of self-harm and suicidal behavior are thought to be influenced by both genetics and environment. Molecular genetic studies are beginning to address the question of which genes may be involved and whether different genes may be expressed in men and women. We examined thoughts of self-harm
Batey, Helen; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie
Relationships between self-harm and vulnerability factors were studied in a general population of 432 participants, of whom 30% reported some experience of self-harm. This group scored higher on dissociation and childhood trauma, had lower self-worth, and reported more negative intrusive thoughts. Among the non-harming group, 10% scored similarly…
Paul, Sally; Hill, Malcolm
This paper reports on the findings of a documentary analysis of policies and procedures relating to self-harm from a range of organisations working with young people in the UK. It identifies the extent to which policies and/or procedures relating to self-harm are available for service providers and offers a wider understanding of the concepts of…
Dick, Katie; Gleeson, Kate; Johnstone, Lucy; Weston, Clive
Staff beliefs about self-harm can influence staff responses to the behaviour. Existing research into staff beliefs about self-harm by people with learning disabilities is limited, with qualitative research restricted to forensic services. The aim of this study was to use Q-methodology to explore staff beliefs about why people with learning…
Jason R. Randall
Full Text Available The assessment of self-harm risk is a common, difficult, and perplexing task for many physicians, especially those working in emergency departments (ED. Attempts have been made to determine objective methods for assessing patients with suicidal ideation or self-harm though there is still a lack of knowledge about objective assessments of these patients. A study was conducted where 181 suicidal patients were enrolled in two EDs within the city of Edmonton, Canada. Initial interviews were conducted in the ED which collected basic demographics and medical history as well as psychometric measures including the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, and CAGE questionnaire. The results of these measures were compared between those who presented to the ED with self-harm and those who presented only with ideation. Those with recent self-harm scored lower on many of the scales and subscales of distress and impulsivity measured compared to those with no recent self-harm. Possible explanations for this difference include differences in psychological traits between the two groups and possible cathartic effects of self-harm. The lower scores obtained by those that present with self-harm may complicate attempts to use psychometric tools to determine future self-harm risk.
O'Connor, Rory C; Rasmussen, Susan; Hawton, Keith
The prevalence of adolescent self-harm in Northern Ireland (NI) and its associated factors are unknown. Given the established relationship between conflict and mental health, and NI׳s recent history of conflict, it is important to investigate the factors associated with self-harm in NI. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-harm in NI adolescents and the factors associated with it, including exposure to the NI conflict. Observational study of 3596 school pupils employing an anonymous self-report survey. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, life events and problems, exposure to the NI conflict, social and internet influences, and psychological variables. Self-harm was reported by 10% of respondents. In univariate analyses, exposure to the NI conflict was associated with self-harm alongside established risk factors. In multivariate analyses, bullying and exposure to self-harm were associated with lifetime self-harm in both girls and boys. Alcohol use, drug use, physical and sexual abuse, and self-esteem were also associated with self-harm in girls. In boys, absence of exercise, sexual orientation concerns, anxiety and impulsivity were additional risk factors. The internet/social media and the self-harm of others were also key influences. This is a cross-sectional study. The rate of self-harm was lower than elsewhere in the UK/Ireland. The study highlights the factors which should be considered in terms of risk assessment. In addition to established risk factors, the findings suggest that more research on the legacy of the NI conflict as well as the influence of new technologies warrant urgent attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Griffin, Eve; Dillon, Christina B; O'Regan, Grace; Corcoran, Paul; Perry, Ivan J; Arensman, Ella
Recent research on the patterns of self-harm around public holidays is lacking. This study used national data to examine the patterns of hospital-treated self-harm during public holidays, and to examine associated factors. Data on self-harm presentations to all emergency departments were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland. The association between self-harm presentations and public holidays was examined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses. A total of 104,371 presentations of self-harm were recorded between 2007 and 2015. The mean number of self-harm presentations was 32 on public holidays. St. Patrick's Day had the highest number of presentations compared to all other public holidays, with a daily mean of 44 presentations. Across all years, self-harm presentations during public holidays had a 24% increased risk of involving alcohol consumption compared to all other days and this effect was most pronounced during the Christmas period. The association with alcohol remained significant at a multivariate level. Presentations on public holidays were more likely to attend out of normal working hours. An increase in male presentations involving self-cutting was observed on public holidays and there was an over-representation of males presenting for the first time. It is likely that extent of alcohol involvement in self-harm presentations reported here is an underestimate, as it was dependent on the information being recorded by the attending clinician. Public holidays are associated with an elevated number of self-harm presentations to hospital, with presentations to hospital involving alcohol significantly increased on these days. Hospital resources should be targeted to address increases during public holidays, including during out-of-hours. Involvement of alcohol may delay delivery of care to these patients in emergency settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prasad, L R; Gantley, M M; Underwood, M R
It has been estimated that the incidence of deliberate self harm (DSH) is at least 10 times that of suicide. Accident and emergency discharge figures also point to an almost doubling of reported cases of DSH in the early 1990s. To assess general practitioners' (GPs') views on, and educational requirements for, managing patients following an episode of DSH. A qualitative study with 14 GPs (seven male and seven female) from two outer-London boroughs, selected in order to provide a maximum variety sample. Interviews took place between February and April 1997, and data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Most GPs felt that all patients presenting with DSH should be assessed by a psychiatrist. They expressed a preference for working with a community psychiatric nurse rather than a counsellor. Suggestions to improve their working relationship with community mental health teams included provision of one centralized point of referral and ease of access to the service in times of crisis. GPs were sceptical of guidelines, emphasizing that they needed joint ownership in writing them, but most importantly that they needed adequate resources to implement them. Specific changes to postgraduate education were suggested, such as individual educational portfolios. Improved working relationships between GPs and community mental health teams are needed in order to provide a more efficient and effective service for patients. Lifelong learning needs to be adapted in a style and approach to suit GPs' individual requirements.
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…
Objective: There is a paucity of literature on consultation-liaison psychiatry, in northern Nigeria. This study aimed to determine both the pattern of psychiatric referrals, and the attitudes of doctors toward the treatment of mental disorders in a teaching hospital, in northeast Nigeria. Method: In this cross-sectional survey, we ...
Ladapo, Joseph A; Elliott, Marc N; Kanouse, David E; Schwebel, David C; Toomey, Sara L; Mrug, Sylvie; Cuccaro, Paula M; Tortolero, Susan R; Schuster, Mark A
Recent policy initiatives aiming to reduce firearm morbidity focus on mental health and illness. However, few studies have simultaneously examined mental health and behavioral predictors within families, or their longitudinal association with newly acquiring a firearm. Population-based, longitudinal survey of 4251 parents of fifth-grade students in 3 US metropolitan areas; 2004 to 2011. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess associations between owning or acquiring a firearm and parent mental illness and substance use. Ninety-three percent of parents interviewed were women. Overall, 19.6% of families reported keeping a firearm in the home. After adjustment for confounders, history of depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.77), binge drinking (aOR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.68), and illicit drug use (aOR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.12-2.76) were associated with a higher likelihood of keeping a firearm in the home. After a mean of 3.1 years, 6.1% of parents who did not keep a firearm in the home at baseline acquired one by follow-up and kept it in the home (average annual likelihood = 2.1%). No risk factors for self-harm or other violence were associated with newly acquiring a gun in the home. Families with risk factors for self-harm or other violence have a modestly greater probability of having a firearm in the home compared with families without risk factors, and similar probability of newly acquiring a firearm. Treatment interventions for many of these risk factors might reduce firearm-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ash, David; Galletly, Cherrie; Haynes, John; Braben, Peter
To measure the incidence of traumatic and potentially socially disruptive events prior to admission to a psychiatric hospital. One hundred and nineteen patients were interviewed and further information was obtained from case notes. Data were collected concerning rates of violence, self-harm, threats of violence or self-harm, physical assault and homelessness. The patients' mean age was 35 years, 70% were male and 77% were currently single. More than half were legally detained. The most common diagnoses were substance abuse disorders, schizophrenia and related psychoses and mood disorders. Eighteen per cent of patients were physically violent at the time of admission. They were more likely to have a diagnosis of substance abuse. Significantly more men (30%) than women (8%) made threats of violence. Eighteen per cent of patients had physically harmed themselves. Significantly more women (70%) than men (40%) had threatened to harm themselves. Eight per cent of patients had been physically assaulted prior to admission. Twenty-seven per cent of patients were homeless. These patients were severely disabled with high rates of comorbidity. Socially disruptive behaviours were common, and almost a quarter of the patients were homeless. This study highlights the need for development of targeted services in the community.
Witt, Katrina; Spittal, Matthew J; Carter, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Hetrick, Sarah; Currier, Dianne; Robinson, Jo; Milner, Allison
Online and mobile telephone applications ('apps') have the potential to improve the scalability of effective interventions for suicidal ideation and self-harm. The aim of this review was therefore to investigate the effectiveness of digital interventions for the self-management of suicidal ideation or self-harm. Seven databases (Applied Science & Technology; CENTRAL; CRESP; Embase; Global Health; PsycARTICLES; PsycINFO; Medline) were searched to 31 March, 2017. Studies that examined the effectiveness of digital interventions for suicidal ideation and/or self-harm, or which reported outcome data for suicidal ideation and/or self-harm, within a randomised controlled trial (RCT), pseudo-RCT, or observational pre-test/post-test design were included in the review. Fourteen non-overlapping studies were included, reporting data from a total of 3,356 participants. Overall, digital interventions were associated with reductions for suicidal ideation scores at post-intervention. There was no evidence of a treatment effect for self-harm or attempted suicide. Most studies were biased in relation to at least one aspect of study design, and particularly the domains of participant, clinical personnel, and outcome assessor blinding. Performance and detection bias therefore cannot be ruled out. Digital interventions for suicidal ideation and self-harm may be more effective than waitlist control. It is unclear whether these reductions would be clinically meaningful at present. Further evidence, particularly with regards to the potential mechanisms of action of these interventions, as well as safety, is required before these interventions could recommended.
Moran, P; Coffey, C; Romaniuk, H; Degenhardt, L; Borschmann, R; Patton, G C
To determine whether adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of heavy and dependent substance use in adulthood. Fifteen-year prospective cohort study of a random sample of 1943 adolescents recruited from secondary schools across the state of Victoria, Australia. Data pertaining to self-harm and substance use was obtained at seven waves of follow-up, from mean age 15.9 years to mean age 29.1 years. Substance use and self-harm were strongly associated during the adolescent years (odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% CI 2.1-5.0). Moreover, adolescent self-harmers were at increased risk of substance use and dependence syndromes in young adulthood. Self-harm predicted a four-fold increase in the odds of multiple dependence syndromes (sex- and wave-adjusted OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.7-6.6). Adjustment for adolescent anxiety/depression attenuated but did not eliminate most associations. Adolescent substance use confounded all associations, with the exception of multiple dependence syndromes, which remained robustly associated with adolescent self-harm (fully adjusted odds ratio: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.2). Adolescent self-harm is an independent risk factor for multiple dependence syndromes in adulthood. This level of substance misuse is likely to contribute substantially to the premature mortality and disease burden experienced by individuals who self-harm. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hughes, Nicholas D; Locock, Louise; Simkin, Sue; Stewart, Anne; Ferrey, Anne E; Gunnell, David; Kapur, Navneet; Hawton, Keith
Self-harm is common in young people, and can have profound effects on parents and other family members. We conducted narrative interviews with 41 parents and other family members of 38 young people, aged up to 25, who had self-harmed. Most of the participants were parents but included one sibling and one spouse. This article reports experiences of the parent participants. A cross-case thematic analysis showed that most participants were bewildered by self-harm. The disruption to their worldview brought about by self-harm prompted many to undergo a process of "sense-making"-by ruminative introspection, looking for information, and building a new way of seeing-to understand and come to terms with self-harm. Most participants appeared to have been successful in making sense of self-harm, though not without considerable effort and emotional struggle. Our findings provide grounds for a deeper socio-cultural understanding of the impact of self-harm on parents. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rao, Sathya; Broadbear, Jillian H; Thompson, Katherine; Correia, Anna; Preston, Martin; Katz, Paul; Trett, Robert
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with frequent self-harm and suicidal behaviours. This study compared physician-assessed self-harm risk and intervention choice according to a (i) standard risk assessment and (ii) BPD-specific risk assessment methods. Forty-five junior and senior mental health physicians were assigned to standard or BPD-specific risk training groups. The assessment utilized a BPD case vignette containing four scenarios describing high/low lethality self-harm and chronic/new patterns of self-harm behaviour. Participants chose from among four interventions, each corresponding to a risk category. Standard and BPD-specific groups were alike in their assessment of self-harm risk. Divergence occurred on intervention choice for assessments of low lethality, chronic risk ( pself harm-associated risk, BPD-specific training raised awareness of BPD-appropriate interventions, particularly in the context of chronic patterns of self-harm behaviour. Wider dissemination of BPD-specific risk training may enhance the confidence of mental health clinicians in identifying the nature of self-harm risk as well as the most clinically appropriate interventions for clients with BPD.
Full Text Available Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa.Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006-2011 was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm.A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 5.72; 95% CI 1.64-19.97; that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39-33.56 and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14-16.47.This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors.
Howard, Ruth; Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Mahoney, Adam
Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between childhood trauma and self-harm, there is a dearth of research investigating this association in the female prison population. The current study explored pathways to self-harm following childhood trauma, by investigating the mediating roles of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, emotion regulation and dissociation, in this relationship, within a sample of 89 female prisoners. Cross-sectional, interview-format, questionnaire study within a female prison population. Measures of childhood trauma, self-harm, PTSD, emotion regulation and dissociation were administered. The majority of the sample (58.4%) reported history of self-harm. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated an indirect effect of emotion regulation on the relationship between childhood trauma and self-harm. An indirect effect was also found for PTSD arousal/reactivity cluster of symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that interactional effects were present for emotion regulation and arousal/reactivity, and emotion regulation and dissociation, respectively. Self-harm is highly prevalent among female prisoners. Interventions promoting emotion regulation and addressing arousal/reactivity symptoms following traumatization may provide an effective way of addressing this problem. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Self-harm is highly prevalent amongst female prisoners, occurring in 58.4% of this sample. Emotion regulation and the arousal/reactivity symptom cluster of PTSD were found to mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and self-harm, both independently and simultaneously. Emotion regulation and dissociation were found to interactionally mediate this relationship. Strategies targeting emotion dysregulation and hyperarousal symptoms, amongst female prisoners who have experienced childhood trauma, may be helpful in reducing self-harming behaviours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thomas, Kyla H; Davies, Neil; Metcalfe, Chris; Windmeijer, Frank; Martin, Richard M; Gunnell, David
Aims The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is increasingly being used to investigate suicide-related adverse drug reactions. No studies have comprehensively validated the recording of suicide and nonfatal self-harm in the CPRD. We validated general practitioners' recording of these outcomes using linked Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) admission data. Methods We identified cases of suicide and self-harm recorded using appropriate Read codes in the CPRD between 1998 and 2010 in patients aged ≥15 years. Suicides were defined as patients with Read codes for suicide recorded within 95 days of their death. International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify suicides/hospital admissions for self-harm in the linked ONS and HES data sets. We compared CPRD-derived cases/incidence of suicide and self-harm with those identified from linked ONS mortality and HES data, national suicide incidence rates and published self-harm incidence data. Results Only 26.1% (n = 590) of the ‘true’ (ONS-confirmed) suicides were identified using Read codes. Furthermore, only 55.5% of Read code-identified suicides were confirmed as suicide by the ONS data. Of the HES-identified cases of self-harm, 68.4% were identified in the CPRD using Read codes. The CPRD self-harm rates based on Read codes had similar age and sex distributions to rates observed in self-harm hospital registers, although rates were underestimated in all age groups. Conclusions The CPRD recording of suicide using Read codes is unreliable, with significant inaccuracy (over- and under-reporting). Future CPRD suicide studies should use linked ONS mortality data. The under-reporting of self-harm appears to be less marked. PMID:23216533
Mitchell, Rebecca J; Cameron, Cate M
Prior and repeated self-harm hospitalisations are common risk factors for suicide. However, few studies have accounted for pre-existing comorbidities and prior hospital use when quantifying the burden of self-harm. The aim is to quantify hospitalisation in the 12 months preceding and re-hospitalisation and mortality risk in the 12 months post a self-harm hospitalisation. A population-based matched cohort using linked hospital and mortality data for individuals ⩾18 years from four Australian jurisdictions. A non-injured comparison cohort was matched on age, gender and residential postcode. Twelve-month pre- and post-index self-harm hospitalisations and mortality were examined. The 11,597 individuals who were hospitalised following self-harm in 2009 experienced 21% higher health service use in the 12 months pre and post the index admission and a higher mortality rate (2.9% vs 0.3%) than their matched counterparts. There were 133 (39.0%) deaths within 2 weeks of hospital discharge and 342 deaths within 12 months of the index hospitalisation in the self-harm cohort. Adjusted rate ratios for hospital readmission were highest for females (2.86; 95% confidence interval: [2.33, 2.52]) and individuals aged 55-64 years (3.96; 95% confidence interval: [2.79, 5.64]). Improved quantification of the burden of self-harm-related hospital use can inform resource allocation for intervention and after-care services for individuals at risk of repeated self-harm. Better assessment of at-risk self-harm behaviour, appropriate referrals and improved post-discharge care, focusing on care continuity, are needed.
Brand, Fiona; Lascelles, Karen
Aim To reduce the incidence of self-harming behaviour and improve well-being and experience of care for individuals who present regularly to the emergency department in one hospital following self-harm, by providing outpatient care. Method This was a 12-month nurse-led practice development project to develop, implement and evaluate a brief-intervention outpatient service for individuals who presented to the emergency department following self-harm and who were identified as being at risk of further self-harm. The service improvement was informed by an action research process and the principles of appreciative inquiry. Findings The project provided a short-term outpatient follow-up service, known as Brief Interventions in Repeat Self Harm (BIRSH), to patients who presented to the emergency department following self-harm, and who were considered at risk of further self-harm. The intervention enabled the clinician to validate the patient's distress and offer them short-term outpatient follow-up care. The BIRSH sessions were offered to 38 patients. A total of 26 patients attended one or more BIRSH session, and all of these individuals showed a reduction in the number of presentations to the emergency department following self-harm in the six months following the intervention, compared to the six months before the intervention. Conclusion The BIRSH outpatient service appears to have been a contributory factor in reducing self-harm for patients who engaged with the service. The service improvement was informed by an action research process and the principles of appreciative inquiry, which provided a positive, focused approach to the practice development project.
Wadman, Ruth; Clarke, David; Sayal, Kapil; Vostanis, Panos; Armstrong, Marie; Harroe, Caroline; Majumder, Pallab; Townsend, Ellen
Six young adults (aged 19-21 years) with repeat self-harm for over 5 years were interviewed about their self-harm, why they continued and what factors might help them to stop. Interpretative phenomenological analysis identified six themes: keeping self-harm private and hidden; self-harm as self-punishment; self-harm provides relief and comfort; habituation and escalation of self-harm; emotional gains and practical costs of cutting, and not believing they will stop completely. Young adults presented self-harm as an ingrained and purposeful behaviour which they could not stop, despite the costs and risks in early adulthood. Support strategies focused on coping skills, not just eradicating self-harm, are required.
Kwon, ChaeRyung; Lee, EunNam
To investigate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS-K) to be used to measure nurses' antipathy towards patients who self-harm. The internal consistency reliability and construct validity, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was evaluated.The survey data were collected from 249 nurses who worked in emergency care facilities in South Korea. The Cronbach's α values regarding internal consistency were 0.54-0.88 for the subscales of the SHAS-K. The factor loadings of the 26 items on the four subscales ranged from 0.44 to 0.86. The four-subscale model was validated by a confirmatory factor analysis. This study shows that the SHAS-K should be used with caution when measuring nurses' antipathy towards patients in Korea who self-harm. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Scott, D J; Philip, A E
A sample of 208 psychiatric nurses and nursing assistants completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes to treatment and patients. Significant attitudinal differences between groups were found in relation to professional grade, age and sex. Staff with more professional training were less authoritarian and impersonal than staff more junior in the hierarchy. Younger males with Registered Mental Nurse training were found to be significantly less inclined towards physical methods of nursing and treatment. Male nurses tended to favour therapeutic techniques which emphasized independent nurse action and psychological proximity to patients. Female nurses were more favourably inclined to physical methods of treatment and were significantly more authoritarian and formal towards patients in line with the traditional stereotype of the general hospital nurse. Results are discussed in relation to the setting up of new treatment regimes within psychiatric hospitals and the influence that staff attitudes have on their functioning.
Harkess-Murphy, E; Macdonald, J; Ramsay, J
Children and young people who are classed as "looked after" and "looked after and accommodated", have been identified as being especially at risk of self-harm, however there is little research that has assessed self-harm among these groups. This study investigates self-harm rates, distinguishing between cognitions and behaviours with non-suicidal and suicidal intent among the looked after and looked after and accommodated population of young people educated within mainstream institutions in West Central Scotland. Looked after young people who self-harmed were compared with looked after young people who had never self-harmed on reasons for living, self-critical style, common life problems and academic self-esteem. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to survey 102 looked after (LAC) and looked after and accommodated (LAAC) children and young people across 10 schools within 6 local authority regions in West Central Scotland that compared self-harmers (n = 32) with those who never self-harmed (n = 70). Thirty-two per cent of the looked after sample reported they had either thought about harming themselves or had actually engaged in self-harm behaviour. Self-harmers (including those who either thought about harming themselves and/or engaged in self-harm) differed from those who had never thought about harming themselves or engaged in self-harm behaviour, with significantly fewer reasons for living (RFL-A) and a more maladaptive self-critical style. The self-critical form of self-hate was found to be particularly important in predicting self-harm (thoughts and behaviours) among this sample of looked after and looked after and accommodated young people. Understanding the factors associated with self-harm and suicide risk is especially important given the already existing vulnerabilities to adverse outcomes associated with being looked after and looked after and accommodated. Strategies for the early identification of maladaptive behaviours among risk
Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal
was to investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients presenting to medical wards at two hospitals in Sri Lanka were interviewed about their previous episodes...... with previous Asian research and is considerably lower than that seen in the West. Explanations for these low levels of repeat self-harm require investigation. Our data indicate that a focus on the aftercare of those who attempt suicide in Sri Lanka may have a smaller impact on suicide incidence than may...
Møhl, Bo; la Cour, Peter; Skandsen, Annika
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and indirect self-harm are prevalent among adolescents, but it is rare to see them described as related topics.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between the frequencies of NSSI and indirect self-harm (e.g., eating problems, alcohol and drug use) and how this may be influenced by gender.Questionnaires about NSSI (e.g., cutting, burning, scratching, hitting oneself) and indirect self-harm were distributed to high school s...
Glick, Ira D; Horsfall, Jessica L
The social stigma surrounding psychiatric illness may prevent athletes from seeking counseling, psychotherapy, medication, or other treatment when needed. Few controlled studies on athletes exist to guide the team physician, clinician, or psychiatrist who must deal with diagnostic issues. Management involves setting realistic goals, educating as well as inducing the patient into treatment, soliciting support from family or significant others, and delivering appropriate treatment (the most difficult task). The objective is to improve performance and quality of life. Confidentiality issues are paramount during diagnosis and treatment. Physicians who understand sports and team dynamics may have more success in helping patients follow through with treatment.
S. McCafferty; T. Doherty; R. O. Sinnott; J. Watt
...) project is investigating, as one of its four research themes, how research into depression, self-harm and suicide may be enhanced through the adoption of e-Science infrastructures and techniques...
Perbøll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.; Østergaard, Birte
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design...... was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48...... on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relation to managing the patient group. CONCLUSION: Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self-harm...
McMahon, Elaine M.; Corcoran, Paul; McAuliffe, Carmel; Keeley, Helen S.; Perry, Ivan J.; Arensman, Ella
There is evidence for an association between suicidal behaviour and coping style among adolescents. The aims of this study were to examine associations between coping style, mental health factors and self-harm thoughts and acts among Irish adolescents, and to investigate whether coping style mediates associations between mental health factors (depression, anxiety and self-esteem) and self-harm. A cross-sectional school-based survey was carried out. Information was obtained on h...
Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Heron, Jon; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David
Low IQ is associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt in adults, but less is known about the relationship between IQ and aspects of suicidal/self-harm behaviours in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based prospective UK cohort. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of IQ measured at age 8 with suicide-related outcomes amongst 4810 adolescents aged 16-17 years. There was some evidence that associations differed in boys and girls (p values for interaction ranged between 0.06 and 0.25). In boys higher IQ was associated with increased risk of suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio per 10 point increase in IQ score=1.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.28) and suicidal plans (1.15, 95% CI 0.93-1.43), although statistical evidence for the latter association was limited. There was also evidence for an association with non-suicidal self-harm (1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.45) but not suicidal self-harm (1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25). In girls higher IQ was associated with increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) but not suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicidal self-harm. Loss to follow up and questionnaire non-response may have led to selection bias. In contrast to previous studies of IQ-suicide associations in adults, we found that higher IQ was associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm in male and female adolescents and suicidal thoughts in males. Associations of IQ with self-harm differed for self-harm with and without suicidal intent, suggesting that the aetiology of these behaviours may differ. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Helen L Fisher; Terrie E Moffitt; Houts, Renate M.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom
Objectives To test whether frequent bullying victimisation in childhood increases the likelihood of self harming in early adolescence, and to identify which bullied children are at highest risk of self harm. Design The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study of a nationally representative UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs born in 1994-95 (2232 children). Setting England and Wales, United Kingdom. Participants Children assessed at 5, 7, 10, and 12 years of age. Main outcome measures Relative...
Tait, Robert J; Brinker, Jay; Moller, Carl I; French, Davina J
There are few data on self-harm in the general population, especially examining the roles of rumination and substance use. To evaluate the inter-relationships of rumination, self-harm, and potential mediating variables. A cohort with follow-up every 4 years involving a random sample of adults aged 20-24 and 40-44 years (at baseline) living in Australia. The survey included items on three common forms of self-harm. Other measures included rumination, Goldberg Anxiety and Depression scales, substance use, coping style (Brief COPE), and demographic risk factors. The sample comprised 2,184 women and 1,942 men with 287 self-harm cases (7.0%). Depression and coping style were significant mediators of rumination on self-harm for men, with depression being the only robust mediator for women. For males, age and education were also significantly associated, while for women, age, smoking, trauma, and sexual abuse were significant. Men and women differ on mediators of self-harm. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Cates, Angharad N; Rees, Karen; Jollant, Fabrice; Perry, Benjamin; Bennett, Karina; Joyce, Katie; Leyden, Eimear; Harmer, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; van Heeringen, Kees; Broome, Matthew R
Prediction of self-harm is limited clinically. Early identification of individuals likely to repeat self-harm could improve outcomes and reduce suicide risk. Various neurocognitive deficits have been found in people who self-harm, but the ability of these to predict repetition has yet to be established AIMS: Identify neurocognitive factors that may predict repetition of self-harm. Systematic narrative review of English language publications assessing neurocognitive functioning and self-harm repetition, searching multiple databases from inception to March 2015. Quality of studies was appraised. A narrative synthesis was performed. 7026 unique records were identified, and 169 full-texts assessed. 15 unique studies provided data. No imaging studies could be included. Most studies assessed cognitive control or problem solving, but neither factor was consistently associated with repetition. However, specific tasks may show promise. Two studies in adolescents suggest that value-based decision-making impairments could be predictive of repetition. There were too few results for memory to draw specific conclusions. Selected studies suggest promise for particular neurocognitive factors and specific cognitive tasks in terms of repetition of self-harm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior
Haw, Camilla; Casey, Deborah; Holmes, Jane; Hawton, Keith
Data from the Oxford Monitoring System for Attempted Suicide (2004-2011) were used to study hospital presentations for self-harm in which Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS) scores were obtained (N = 4,840). Regression of medians was used to control for the confounding effect of age and gender. Higher estimated median SIS scores were associated with increasing age, male gender, self-poisoning versus self-injury, multiple methods of self-harm versus self-injury alone, use of gas (mainly carbon monoxide), dangerous methods of self-injury (including hanging, gunshot), and use of alcohol as part of the act. For self-poisoning patients, there was a correlation between the number of tablets taken and the total SIS score. Compared with self-poisoning with paracetamol and paracetamol-containing compounds, self-poisoning with antipsychotics was associated with a lower median SIS score while antidepressants had the same estimated median as paracetamol. Use of alcohol within 6 hours of self-harm was associated with lower SIS scores. In conclusion, certain methods of self-harm, particularly dangerous methods of self-injury and self-poisoning with gas, were associated with high intent and should alert clinicians to potential higher risk of suicide. However, apart from use of gas, suicidal intent cannot be inferred from type of drugs used for self-poisoning. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.
Deering, Kris; Williams, Jo
Self-harm is an international concern. While treatment in health care focusses on methods to reduce the act, there is less exploration in how to assist adults who are unable to minimize their self-harm. In order to aid these people, in the present systematic review, we employed a qualitative meta-synthesis to explore the lived experience of what activities might facilitate personal recovery for adults who continue to self-harm. Findings were interpreted by drawing on the CHIME framework; a taxonomy of personal recovery comprising of connectedness, hope and optimism, identity, meaning and purpose, and empowerment. The located activities in the review converged on different support groups, and although face-to-face groups were discovered, the majority highlighted the benefits of Internet forums where mutuality and reciprocity were key to promoting personal recovery. Adults desired time to share accounts of themselves, to develop connection and identity. Furthermore, hope was established by group members accepting that self-harm has a role, while congregating with others who did not judge the act. Helping relationships also promoted hope by having a balance between goals and protection against disappointment. The nature of writing online seemingly had cathartic properties fostering meaning, alongside empowerment being facilitated by adults controlling the narrative of their self-harm. It is hoped that these insights might guide self-harm research to develop beyond the confines of minimizing self-injury in health care. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Harris, Isobel Marion; Roberts, Lesley Martine
In the United Kingdom, rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) are rising. Alongside this, there has been an increase in the number of websites available with DSH content, and the Internet is known as a valuable resource for those who feel isolated by their condition(s). However, there is little and contradictory evidence available on the effects of using such websites. Further research is therefore required to examine the use and effects of DSH websites. Our objectives were to explore (1) the reasons people engage in the use of self-harm forums/websites, (2) the beliefs of users of self-harm forums regarding the role of such websites, (3) how the use of self-harm forums/websites modulates self-harm behaviors, and (4) other ways that self-harm forums affect the lives of individuals who use them. Data were collected by a questionnaire hosted on 20 websites with self-harm content. Participants were self-selected from users of these sites. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and simple thematic analysis. In total, 329 responses were received with 91.8% (302/329) from female site users. The majority of participants (65.6%, 187/285) visited these sites at least twice per week, and most participants used the sites to find information (78.2%, 223/285) or participate in the forums (68.4%, 195/285). Positive effects of website use such as gaining help and support, isolation reduction, and a reduction in self-harm behaviors were reported by a large number of participants. However, smaller but important numbers reported negative effects including worsened self-harm, being triggered to self-harm, and additional negative physical and psychological effects. This is the first multisite study to explore DSH website use in depth. There are clear and important benefits to engaging in website use for many individuals; however, these are not experienced by all website users. Negative effects were experienced by moderate numbers following website use, and clinicians should
Background Self-harm is common in adolescents, but it is often unreported and undetected. Available screening tools typically ask directly about self-harm and suicidal ideation. Although in an ideal world, direct enquiry and open discussion around self-harm would be advocated, non-psychiatric professionals in community settings are often reluctant to ask about this directly and disclosure can be met with feeling of intense anxiety. Training non-specialist staff to directly ask about self-harm has limited effects suggesting that alternative approaches are required. This study investigated whether a targeted analysis of negative emotions and self-esteem could identify young adolescents at risk of self-harm in community settings. Methods Data were collected as part of a clinical trial from young people in school years 8–11 (aged 12–16) at eight UK secondary schools (N = 4503 at baseline, N = 3263 in prospective analysis). The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, personal failure (Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale), and two items on self-harm were completed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results Following a process of Principal Components Analysis, item reduction, and logistic regression analysis, three internally reliable factors were identified from the original measures that were independently associated with current and future self-harm; personal failure (3 items), physical symptoms of depression/anxiety (6 items), positive self-esteem (5 items). The summed score of these 14 items had good accuracy in identifying current self-harm (AUC 0.87 girls, 0.81 boys) and at six months for girls (0.81), and fair accuracy at six months for boys (AUC 0.74) and 12 months for girls (AUC 0.77). Conclusions A brief and targeted assessment of negative emotions and self-esteem, focusing on factors that are strongly associated with current and future self-harm, could potentially be used to
O'Donnell, Orla; House, Allan; Waterman, Mitch
Epidemiological research supports an association between aggression and self-harm through data on the frequency with which individuals exhibit both behaviours. Unbiased evidence, however, is needed to draw conclusions about the nature and extent of co-occurrence. Systematic review of published studies was undertaken to evaluate whether or not the frequency with which aggression and self-harm co-occur is beyond that which would be expected by chance. Outcome measures included: (a) between-group differences on a standardised aggression/self-harm measure - the groups defined by scores on a measure of the other behaviour; (b) correlations between the two behaviours; (c) co-occurrence rates in populations defined by the presence of either behaviour; (d) co-occurrence rates in populations not defined by either behaviour. Odds ratios were calculated for studies presenting complete frequency data. 123 studies, some yielding more than one type of result, met the inclusion criteria. Most case-control studies found elevated levels of aggression in self-harming populations (or self-harm in aggressive populations) compared to controls. The majority of correlational, co-occurrence rate, and odds ratio data found aggression and self-harm to be associated. Results were subject to descriptive synthesis only and thus, unable to report an overall effect size. Evidence suggests that aggression and self-harm frequently co-occur. Such evidence necessitates more theoretical discussion and associated research on the source and nature of co-occurrence. Nonetheless, individuals who present with one behaviour may be considered an 'at-risk' group in terms of exhibiting the other. Such evidence holds implications for practice (e.g. risk assessment). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rowe, Sarah L; French, Rebecca S; Henderson, Claire; Ougrin, Dennis; Slade, Mike; Moran, Paul
Self-harm is common in adolescence, but most young people who self-harm do not seek professional help. The aim of this literature review was to determine (a) the sources of support adolescents who self-harm access if they seek help, and (b) the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for adolescents who self-harm. Using a pre-defined search strategy we searched databases for terms related to self-harm, adolescents and help-seeking. Studies were included in the review if participants were aged 11-19 years. Twenty articles met criteria for inclusion. Between a third and one half of adolescents who self-harm do not seek help for this behaviour. Of those who seek help, results showed adolescents primarily turned to friends and family for support. The Internet may be more commonly used as a tool for self-disclosure rather than asking for help. Barriers to help-seeking included fear of negative reactions from others including stigmatisation, fear of confidentiality being breached and fear of being seen as 'attention-seeking'. Few facilitators of help-seeking were identified. Of the small proportion of adolescents who seek help for their self-harm, informal sources are the most likely support systems accessed. Interpersonal barriers and a lack of knowledge about where to go for help may impede help-seeking. Future research should address the lack of knowledge regarding the facilitators of help-seeking behaviour in order to improve the ability of services to engage with this vulnerable group of young people. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Morris, Charlotte; Simpson, Jane; Sampson, Mark; Beesley, Frank
This narrative review draws upon a broad range of literature, including theory and empirical research, to argue that positive emotions are a useful adjunct to therapy when working with individuals who self-harm. The review highlights how self-harm is often employed as a method of emotion regulation and may be both negatively and positively reinforced. It is suggested that individuals who self-harm have potential difficulty in experiencing positive and negative emotions. The compatibility of an emotion focused approach to therapy for individuals who self-harm is therefore deemed an appropriate one. However, current therapeutic models predominantly focus on unpleasant or negative emotions and largely tend to neglect positive emotions, such as happiness. Broaden and build theory indicates that positive emotions can reduce the effects of negative emotions and aid recovery from intolerable negative emotions that may underpin self-harming behaviours. Therefore, the incorporation of positive emotions into therapy is likely to be helpful. In addition, if cultivated over time, positive emotions can build resilience that may enable individuals to cope better with events that precipitate self-injurious behaviours. The review emphasizes how positive emotions represent a valuable addition to therapeutic work but also highlights that the negatively valenced and painful emotions often experienced by those who self-injure must still be addressed. When working with individuals who self-harm it may be beneficial for practitioners to consider clients' experiences of positive emotions, and how to cultivate these, in addition to targeting the negative emotions which tend to underpin self-harming behaviours. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kwok, Chi-Leung; Yip, Paul S F
The study of temporal variation in self-harm is important to understanding the underlying mechanisms of its occurrence. There are fewer studies on temporal variation in self-harm than in suicide. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonality of self-harm in Hong Kong and to test the hypothesis of diminishing seasonality. We used secondary data from medical records of self-harm obtained from all the public hospitals in Hong Kong under the management of the Hospital Authority. We identified 59,473 distinct episodes involving 36,411 patients. From these, monthly statistics of self-harm from January 2002 to December 2011 were calculated. Harmonic analysis was conducted to examine the presence and magnitude of seasonality. A bi-seasonal pattern alongside a stronger one-cycle pattern from 2002 to 2006 was identified. During the period 1997-2001, this contracted to a one-cycle pattern with a peak in summer (May to July) and a nadir in winter (December). The magnitude of seasonality diminished greatly, as shown by harmonic analysis. The extent of diminishing seasonality was larger among women and people under 55 years old. The study covered only self-harm patients who had visited a hospital. Cases which required no medical attention and those where the patient consulted private doctors could not be included, indicating bias towards more severe cases of injury and poisoning. This study provides some evidence of diminishing and even vanishing seasonality of self-harm in Hong Kong, a phenomenon mainly found in younger individuals. It could be related to the increasing use of social media to connect people, especially the younger generation. The impact of seasonal events and activities, as in the past, has become less significant in the social media era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wand, Anne Pamela Frances; Peisah, Carmelle; Draper, Brian; Brodaty, Henry
Rates of suicide in older adults are generally higher than other age groups. Although risk factors for suicide attempts, and self-harm more generally, in this population are well-characterised, many of these vulnerabilities are common to older people and individual motivations are less well understood. Qualitative research may reveal more about the underlying thought processes, meaning and experiences of older people who self-harm. A systematic review of qualitative studies examining the reasons why older people have self-harmed was undertaken by searching databases and screening the reference lists of articles. The quality of studies was critically appraised. A content analysis was performed to identify themes. The search yielded eight studies of variable quality which met the inclusion criteria; three pertained to indirect self-harm (refusal to eat or take medications and self-neglect) and five related to suicidal behaviour. Themes emerging from the analysis of studies of people who had self-neglected included control, impaired decision-making and coping skills and threats to self-identity and continuity. In those who had suicidal behaviour, themes related to loss of and regaining control; alienation, disconnectedness and invisibility; meaningless and raison d'etre; and accumulated suffering and a 'painful life'. There is scant literature evaluating self-harm in older people using qualitative methods. Nonetheless, this review suggests that active and passive self-harm should be considered as distinct entities as the underlying motivations and intents differ. Understanding individual perceptions and experiences which lead to self-harm may guide clinicians in delivering more sensitive, holistic interventions and counter ageism.
Full Text Available Suicide incidence has increased dramatically in recent years in Taiwan. In 2004, 3,468 lives were lost due to suicide and the total mortality was 15.3/100,000. It is well known that alcohol drinking raises the risk of deliberate self-harm (DSH, especially among psychologically distressed subjects. This study investigated the characteristics of DSH patients and their association with acute alcohol drinking. Since 2004, an injury surveillance system has been set up in a medical center, collecting the minimal information recommended by the World Health Organization. Attending nurses collected information and assessed each injured patient as to whether he/she smelled of alcohol. Medical records of DSH injuries were reviewed for confirmation of any prior DSH and any known mental disorder was checked. Of 11,837 injuries, 123 (1.0% were DSH. Those who were first-time DSH patients (n = 115 were studied. About half of the patients were female and 83.5% were aged between 20 and 54 years. More than half of the DSH incidents occurred at home and 80.1% cases were stabbing or cutting injuries. Injuries were defined as alcohol-related based on the report of “alcohol odor” or “intoxicated” by the nurse or a positive blood alcohol test. In total, 55 (47.8% DSH injuries were found to be alcohol-related. The proportion of alcohol-related injuries was highest (60.0% in the age range 45–64 years. Of those patients who tested positive for alcohol (n = 21, the mean blood alcohol concentration was 211.2 mg/dL (standard deviation, 79.1. Most subjects were discharged from the emergency department (75.7%. Only 20 DSH patients (17.1% went on to receive a psychiatric consultation. DSH is not uncommon in eastern Taiwan. Half of our cases were associated with alcohol use. Males had the same risk of injuring themselves and were more likely than females to adopt “severe” methods to injure themselves. Further studies into the causes of DSH or parasuicide attempts
Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L
Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric
Pinder, Richard J; Iversen, Amy C; Kapur, Nav; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T
Little has been reported on self-harm among the UK Armed Forces, partly due to the difficulties in recording self-harm, within an often-difficult-to-reach population. This study assesses the lifetime prevalence of attempted suicide and self-harm within currently serving and ex-service personnel of the UK Armed Forces. Telephone interviews were conducted with 821 personnel who had previously participated in the King's Centre for Military Health Research military health study. Within the telephone interview, participants were asked about attempted suicide and episodes of self-harm. A lifetime prevalence of 5.6% for intentional self-harm (self-harm or attempted suicide) was reported. Intentional self-harm was associated with psychological morbidity (in particular, post-traumatic stress disorder) and adverse experiences in childhood. Ex-service personnel reported lifetime prevalence more than double that of serving personnel (10.5% vs 4.2%, respectively). Participants reporting intentional self-harm were younger (34.4 years vs 39.8 years). A lifetime prevalence of 5.6% for attempted suicide and self-harm is higher than previous research has suggested. Younger service personnel, those who have experienced adversity in childhood, those with other psychological morbidity, and ex-service personnel are more likely to report self-harm behaviours.
Sayal, Kapil; Townsend, Ellen
This study investigated the relationship between experiential avoidance, coping and the recency and frequency of self-harm, in a community sample (N = 1332, aged 16–69 years). Participants completed online, self-report measures assessing self-harm, momentary affect, experiential avoidance and coping in response to a recent stressor. Participants who had self-harmed reported significantly higher levels of experiential avoidance and avoidance coping, as well as lower levels of approach, reappraisal and emotional regulation coping, than those with no self-harm history. Moreover, more recent self-harm was associated with lower endorsement of approach, reappraisal and emotion regulation coping, and also higher levels of both avoidance coping and experiential avoidance. Higher experiential avoidance and avoidance coping also predicted increased lifetime frequency of self-harm. Conversely, increased approach and reappraisal coping were associated with a decreased likelihood of high frequency self-harm. Although some of the effects were small, particularly in relation to lifetime frequency of self-harm, overall our results suggest that experiential avoidance tendency may be an important psychological factor underpinning self-harm, regardless of suicidal intent (e.g. including mixed intent, suicidal intent, ambivalence), which is not accounted for in existing models of self-harm. PMID:27442036
De Wet, N
Despite efforts to reduce self-harm mortality, death rates remain high, with almost 12% of all youth deaths in South Africa (SA) attributed to this cause. There are gendered differences in causes of death among youth, but little is known about the sex-specific risk factors. To identify the levels and sex-specific determinants of self-harm mortality among youth in SA. This was a cross-sectional study of SA death notification forms from 2006 to 2014. Descriptive and analytical statistical techniques were used, including cause-specific mortality rates, proportional mortality ratios and logistic regression models. A total of 1 122 youth (15 - 24 years of age) deaths due to self-harm causes were reported over the study period, during which rates of self-harm mortality increased. More deaths of males (n=818) than females (n=304) were reported. Almost 60% of deaths (p<0.05) were of 20 - 24-year-olds, and 46.4% (p<0.05) of those who died had a secondary education. Almost 10% of females (p<0.05) were pregnant at the time of death. Hanging was the most common type of self-harm mortality among males (79.2%) and females (49.3%). While 11.0% (n=90) of self-harm deaths of males were due to poisoning, more females used this method (39.8%, n=121). The probability of self-harm mortality for males increased according to certain provinces of residence. For females the odds were higher for those who were pregnant (odds ratio (OR) 1.3; p<0.05) and non-South African (OR 1.7; p<0.05) and had secondary education (OR 1.4; p<0.05). The study showed gender differentials in the determinants of self-harm mortality among youth in SA. For this reason, uniform approaches to awareness campaigns need to be altered to address the specific needs of youth. While males have higher rates than females, the prevalence of self-harm mortality in pregnant females is of concern and needs to be addressed specifically, as it relates not only to suicidal ideation and behaviour but also to youth sexual and
Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina
The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more
Fisher, Helen L; Moffitt, Terrie E; Houts, Renate M; Belsky, Daniel W; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom
To test whether frequent bullying victimisation in childhood increases the likelihood of self harming in early adolescence, and to identify which bullied children are at highest risk of self harm. The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study of a nationally representative UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs born in 1994-95 (2232 children). England and Wales, United Kingdom. Children assessed at 5, 7, 10, and 12 years of age. Relative risks of children's self harming behaviour in the six months before their 12th birthday. Self harm data were available for 2141 children. Among children aged 12 who had self harmed (2.9%; n=62), more than half were victims of frequent bullying (56%; n=35). Exposure to frequent bullying predicted higher rates of self harm even after children's pre-morbid emotional and behavioural problems, low IQ, and family environmental risks were taken into account (bullying victimisation reported by mother: adjusted relative risk 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 3.12; bullying victimisation reported by child: 2.44, 1.36 to 4.40). Victimised twins were more likely to self harm than were their non-victimised twin sibling (bullying victimisation reported by mother: 13/162 v 3/162, ratio=4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 14.0; bullying victimisation reported by child: 12/144 v 7/144, ratio=1.7, 0.71 to 4.1). Compared with bullied children who did not self harm, bullied children who self harmed were distinguished by a family history of attempted/completed suicide, concurrent mental health problems, and a history of physical maltreatment by an adult. Prevention of non-suicidal self injury in young adolescents should focus on helping bullied children to cope more appropriately with their distress. Programmes should target children who have additional mental health problems, have a family history of attempted/completed suicide, or have been maltreated by an adult.
Toprak, Sadik; Cetin, Ilhan; Guven, Taner; Can, Gunay; Demircan, Cetin
Self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts are well represented behaviours in the general population of both developed and developing countries. These behaviours are indicative of underlying risk factors that show a strong interdependent correlation. In this study we attempted to define correlates for and prevalence of self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among Turkish college students. This 2006 study included 636 students from two Turkish state universities. Our results showed that the lifetime prevalence of self-harm was 15.4%, the prevalence of suicidal ideation was 11.4%, and the prevalence of suicide attempts was 7.1%. We uncovered correlates for self-harm, including low income, unsatisfying familial relationships, smoking, and alcohol, inhalant, and tranquilizer abuse. Tranquilizer abuse shared a dual role as a correlate for suicide ideation and as a means to attempt suicide. Additionally, we found that drug abusers and adolescents who practise self-harm presented the highest suicide risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baker, Charlene K; Helm, Susana; Bifulco, Kristina; Chung-Do, Jane
The connection between teen dating violence (TDV) and self-harm is important to consider because of the serious consequences for teens who engage in these behaviors. Self-harm includes nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide behaviors such as suicide attempts or deaths. Although prior research shows that these two public health problems are related, the context in which they occur is missing, including what leads teens to engage in self-harm and the timing of self-harming behaviors within the relationship. To fill this gap, we conducted focus groups with 39 high-school-aged teens, all of whom had experienced prior relationship violence. Teens described incidents in which they and their partners engaged in NSSI and suicide attempts. Incidents often were associated with extreme alcohol and drug use and occurred during the break-up stage of the relationship. Prevention and intervention programs are needed that consider the intersections of TDV, substance use, and self-harm. © The Author(s) 2014.
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.
The Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Prolonged Exposure to Treat Comorbid Dissociation and Self-Harm: The Case of a Client With Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
Granato, Hollie F; Wilks, Chelsey R; Miga, Erin M; Korslund, Kathryn E; Linehan, Marsha M
There is a high rate of comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Pagura et al., 2010). Preliminary studies have evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population and found positive outcomes for the integration of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE). This case study illustrates the implementation of a PE protocol into standard DBT treatment, specifically focusing on the management of self-harm and severe dissociation for a client with co-occurring PTSD and BPD. The client entered into treatment with severe and persistent dissociation and a recent history of self-harm, and the case includes consideration of two separate pauses in PTSD treatment related to elevated dissociation and self-harm behaviors. The client successfully completed the DBT PE protocol and results indicate significant improvements in PTSD symptoms as well as outcomes related to self-harm and dissociation. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of combining DBT with PE for clients with comorbid BPD and PTSD and exemplify how complex clients with BPD who present with severe dissociation and self-harm behavior can safely and successfully receive treatment for PTSD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Webb, Roger T; Antonsen, Sussie; Carr, Matthew J; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mok, Pearl L H
Development of a better understanding of subsequent pathways for individuals who experienced trauma during childhood might usefully inform clinicians and public health professionals regarding the causes of self-harm and interpersonal violence. We aimed to examine these risks during late adolescence and early adulthood among people admitted to hospital following injuries or poisonings during their childhood. This national cohort study included Danish people born between Jan 1, 1977, and Dec 31, 1997, and was linked to the National Patient Register and Psychiatric Central Research Register to identify all people exposed to hospital admissions for injuries or poisonings due to self-harm, interpersonal violence, or accidents before their 15th birthday. Linkage to these two registers and to the National Crime Register enabled ascertainment of self-harm and violent offending, respectively, as adverse outcomes at ages 15-35 years. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs; relative risks) and cumulative incidence percentage values (absolute risks) were estimated. The confounding influence of parental socioeconomic status was also explored. 1 087 672 Danish people were included in this study. The prevalence of any trauma-related hospital admission was 10% (105 753 per 1 087 672; males: 64 454 [11%]; females: 44 299 [8%]) and for both sexes, accident was by far the most prevalent of the categories assessed (males: 59 011 [11%]; females: 40 756 [8%]). Similar patterns of increased risk for self-harm and violent criminality were observed in both sexes, although the IRRs were consistently and significantly larger in women (self-harm: IRR 1·94 [95% CI 1·85-2·02]; violent criminality: 2·16 [1·97-2·36]) than in men (self-harm: 1·61 [1·53-1·69]; violent criminality: 1·58 [1·53-1·63]). Confounding by parental socioeconomic status explained little of the increased risks observed. For young adult men, the highest absolute risk observed was for violent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. In the UK suicide is the second most common cause of death in people aged 15-24 years. Self harm is one of the commonest reasons for medical admission in the UK. In the year following a suicide attempt the risk of a repeat attempt or death by suicide may be up to 100 times greater than in people who have never attempted suicide. Research evidence shows increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide among British South Asian women. There are concerns about the current service provision and its appropriateness for this community due to the low numbers that get involved with the services. Both problem solving and interpersonal forms of psychotherapy are beneficial in the treatment of patients who self harm and could potentially be helpful in this ethnic group. The paper describes the trial protocol of adapting and evaluating a culturally appropriate psychological treatment for the adult British South Asian women who self harm. Methods We plan to test a culturally adapted Problem Solving Therapy (C- MAP in British South Asian women who self harm. Eight sessions of problem solving each lasting approximately 50 minutes will be delivered over 3 months. The intervention will be assessed using a prospective rater blind randomized controlled design comparing with treatment as usual (TAU. Outcome assessments will be carried out at 3 and 6 months. A sub group of the participants will be invited for qualitative interviews. Discussion This study will test the feasibility and acceptability of the C- MAP in British South Asian women. We will be informed on whether a culturally adapted brief psychological intervention compared with treatment as usual for self-harm results in decreased hopelessness and suicidal ideation. This will also enable us to collect necessary information on recruitment, effect size, the optimal delivery method and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a
Crawford, Tanya; Geraghty, Wendy; Street, Karen; Simonoff, Emily
This study investigates knowledge, attitudes and training needs concerning deliberate self-harm (DSH) in adolescents, amongst a variety of professionals involved in the assessment and management of adolescence who self-harm. A questionnaire survey was completed by 126 health professionals working with adolescents who harm themselves. The main outcome measures were a knowledge measure and three attitude measures (generated using factor analysis). The mean percentage of correctly answered knowledge questions, across all professional groups, was 60%. With regard to knowledge, over three-quarters of participants were unaware that homosexual young men and those who had been sexually abused are at greater risk of DSH, whilst one third of staff were unaware that adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of suicide. Staff who felt more effective felt less negative towards this group of patients (B=-0.21, p=0.03). Forty-two per cent of the participants wanted further training in DSH amongst adolescents.
Latina, Delia; Stattin, Håkan
We proposed that having mutually hostile interactions with others is a strong environmental stress factor that, together with diverse psychosocial problems, characterizes adolescents who self-harm. Using cluster analysis, this study examined the naturally occurring patterns of hostility conditions and psychosocial difficulties in a normative sample of 2,029 adolescents (50% boys; Mage = 13.89). Results showed that self-harming behavior was significantly higher among the subgroup of adolescents with mutually hostile interactions who exhibited both internalizing and externalizing problems than among adolescents with other interpersonal-psychosocial configurations. Also, this subgroup of adolescents reported high impulsivity, anger dysregulation, and low self-esteem. These findings support recent research that indicates that adolescents who self-harm also tend to expose others to hostility and display externalizing symptoms. © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
This article reads Malu De Martino's 2010 film Como Esqueçer (How to Forget) as a case study in self-harm as a mode of expression and self-inquiry. Drawing on disability and queer theory, psychoanalysis, and sociology of medicine, the author argues that How to Forget charts a "crip" epistemology of self-harm and theorizes a "social self." That is to say, the film models an orientation towards self-harm that offers a coalitional and social therapeutic understanding. Based on this reading, the author suggests the application of practices of knowing-with, or knowing-in-relation as "cripistemology" to a broader therapeutic, research, and lay context.
There are a growing number of prisoners who self-harm in prisons in England and Wales despite adopting a safer custody ethos. An in-depth study of staff views of self-harm from various agencies within the prison and the integration of their different forms of expertise and perspectives to address this problem is lacking. Negative attitudes to self-harm have been identified as an additional risk factor to this problematic behavior. This study identified and compared relevant attitudinal dimensions of custodial and healthcare staff on prisoners who self-harm in an Adult Male "Local" Category B prisons (referred to as the study prison) where self-harm was twice the national average (14%). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 37 prison staff (14 nurses and 23 prison officers) as part of a mixed methods research study where documentary evidence and a self-harm questionnaire were also used. This paper discusses and presents the findings for the thematic analysis of the semistructured interviews. The key themes identified were understanding self-harm, building relationships, organizational issues, occupational issues, and care management of self-harm. The findings suggest that most prison staff felt unsupported and inadequately equipped to manage self-harm, and reported interdisciplinary conflict on its collective management.
Erlangsen, Annette; Lind, Bertel Dam; Stuart, Elizabeth A
BACKGROUND: Although deliberate self-harm is a strong predictor of suicide, evidence for effective interventions is missing. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychosocial therapy after self-harm was linked to lower risks of repeated self-harm, suicide, and general mortality. METHODS......: In this matched cohort study all people who, after deliberate self-harm, received a psychosocial therapy intervention at suicide prevention clinics in Denmark during 1992-2010 were compared with people who did not receive the psychosocial therapy intervention after deliberate self-harm. We applied propensity...... score matching with a 1:3 ratio and 31 matching factors, and calculated odds ratios for 1, 5, 10, and 20 years of follow-up. The primary endpoints were repeated self-harm, death by suicide, and death by any cause. FINDINGS: 5678 recipients of psychosocial therapy (followed up for 42·828 person...
Williams, Matt N; Hill, Stephen R; Spicer, John
A relationship between air temperature and the incidence of suicide has been established in a number of previous studies. Interestingly, the relationship between geographical variation in temperature and suicide incidence has generally been found to be negative, while the relationship between temporal variation in temperature and suicide incidence has generally been found to be positive. It is less clear, however, how temperature relates to the incidence of self-harm. This topic is of particular importance given the presence of ongoing global warming. This study investigated the relationship between temperature and the incidence of self-harm resulting in hospitalisation in New Zealand. Self-harm hospitalisations by date and district for 1993-2009 were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Meteorological data was obtained from NIWA. Generalised linear mixed models were used to estimate the effects of three different components of variation in temperature: geographical, seasonal and irregular. Irregular (random) daily variation in temperature had a modest positive relationship with the incidence of acts of self-harm resulting in hospitalisation, with about 0.7% extra incidents for every 1 °C increase in temperature. However, there was no strong evidence for a positive effect of either seasonal or geographical variation in temperature. We conclude that temperature does appear to bear some relation to the incidence of self-harm, with irregular daily variation in temperature having a positive effect. However, inconsistencies in the effects of different components of variation in temperature make it challenging to accurately predict how global warming will influence the incidence of self-harm.
Birtwistle, Jacqueline; Kelley, Rachael; House, Allan; Owens, David
Assessment and aftercare for people who self-harm needs to be related to an understanding of risks of adverse outcomes. We aimed to determine whether self-harm by a combination of methods and its early repetition are associated with adverse outcomes - especially non-fatal repetition and suicide. 10,829 consecutive general hospital attendances due to self-harm in one large English city were monitored, through scrutiny of Emergency Department attendances, over three years and followed up to determine the incidence of non-fatal repetition. Subsequent deaths, by any cause and by suicide, were determined from national statistical records. 6155 patients accounted for the 10,829 episodes: 72% by self-poisoning, 21% self-injury, and 746 episodes (7%) due to a combination of methods. After a combined-methods index episode, non-fatal repetition (P=0.001) and suicide (P=0.002) occurred sooner and more frequently than it did among those who had self-poisoned. Further hospital attendance due to self-harm within a month was associated with a 3.7-fold (95% CI 2.1-6.4) risk of subsequent suicide. The data exclude self-harm episodes that do not result in a hospital attendance. Index episodes in the study are not generally life-time first episodes so follow-up data are based on an arbitrary start-point. Both of these limitations are common to all studies of this kind. At psychosocial assessment and the making of aftercare arrangements, combined methods of self-harm or another recent episode should be considered 'red-flag' indicators for attention to care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Coulson, Neil S; Bullock, Emma; Rodham, Karen
A growing number of online communities have been established to support those who self-harm. However, little is known about the therapeutic affordances arising from engagement with these communities and resulting outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the presence of therapeutic affordances as reported by members of self-harm online support communities. In total, 94 respondents (aged 13-63 years, mean=23.5 years; 94% female) completed an online survey exploring their experiences of engaging with a self-harm online support community. Respondents varied in terms of how long they had been accessing an online community, with 22% (21/94) accessing less than 1 year, 39% (37/94) 1 to 2 years, 14% (13/94) 2 to 3 years, and 24.5% (23/94) more than 3 years. Responses were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. The results of our analysis describe each of the five therapeutic affordances that were present in the data, namely (1) connection, the ability to make contact with others who self-harm for the purposes of mutual support and in so doing reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation; (2) adaptation, that is, how use of online support varies in relation to the personal circumstances of the individual user; (3) exploration, that is, the ability to learn about self-harm and learn about strategies to reduce or stop self-harming behavior; (4) narration, that is, the ability to share experiences, as well as read about the experiences of others; and (5) self-presentation, that is, how and what users present about themselves to others in the online community. Our findings suggest that engagement with self-harm online support communities may confer a range of therapeutic benefits for some users, which may serve to minimize the psychosocial burden of self-harm and promote positive coping strategies. In addition, the online nature of the support available may be helpful to those who are unable to access face-to-face support.
Mars, Becky; Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David
Background There is a lack of consensus about whether self-harm with suicidal intent differs in aetiology and prognosis from non-suicidal self-harm, and whether they should be considered as different diagnostic categories. Method Participants were 4799 members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK population-based birth cohort who completed a postal questionnaire on self-harm with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the risk factor profiles of individuals who self-harmed with and without suicidal intent. Results Many risk factors were common to both behaviours, but associations were generally stronger in relation to suicidal self-harm. This was particularly true for mental health problems; compared to those with non-suicidal self-harm, those who had harmed with suicidal intent had an increased risk of depression (OR 3.50[95% CI 1.64, 7.43]) and anxiety disorder (OR 3.50[95% CI 1.72, 7.13]). Higher IQ and maternal education were risk factors for non-suicidal self-harm but not suicidal self-harm. Risk factors that appeared specific to suicidal self-harm included lower IQ and socioeconomic position, physical cruelty to children in the household and parental self-harm. Limitations i) There was some loss to follow-up, ii) difficulty in measuring suicidal intent, iii) we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causation for some exposure variables, iv) we were unable to identify the subgroup that had only ever harmed with suicidal intent. Conclusion Self-harm with and without suicidal intent are overlapping behaviours but with some distinct characteristics, indicating the importance of fully exploring vulnerability factors, motivations, and intentions in adolescents who self harm. PMID:25108277
Thompson, Ronald G; Hasin, Deborah
Although foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as child abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults. A consecutive sample of 423 adults aged 18 to 21 years who sought emergency shelter for the first time between October 1, 2007, and February 29, 2008, were assessed at intake. Logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, and psychotic) and psychiatric treatment. The analyses adjusted for demographic characteristics, childhood abuse, substance use, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely than those without such histories to report any psychiatric disorder. They were more than twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder, to have been prescribed psychiatric medication, and to have been hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Histories of foster care among homeless young adults should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, and hospitalization) tailored to the psychiatric needs of this highly vulnerable population.
Su, Pu-Yu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Zhao-Hui; Tao, Fang-Biao
To investigate the episodes and influencing factors on self-harm and to explore the relationship between self-harm episodes and suicidal psychology and behaviors in college students. Four universities were selected using cluster sampling method in Anqing city and Chaohu city. Totally, 2713 college students completed this survey. Data were analyzed by Pearson Chi-square and logistic regression. In the last six months, rates of highly lethal self-harm, less lethal self-harm with visible tissue damage, self-injury without visible tissue damage, self-harmful behaviors with latency damage, other self-harmful behaviors with menticide were 1.9%, 5.5%, 15.3%, 21.2% and 17.0% respectively. The total rate of self-harm was 31.3%. 73.1% of the students with self harmful experiences had the above mentioned behaviors more than 3 times in the last six months. The top 3 reasons for taking self-harm actions were: having learning problems (43.1%), failed love affairs (25.0%) and having conflicts with others (23.9%). There were different influencing factors among different kinds of self-harm episodes. Depression was the risk factor of self-harm. The higher score of having high self-esteem was the protective factor of all kinds of self-harm actions except highly lethal ones. Higher score of difficulties in identifying feelings was one of the risk factors. The rates of suicidal psychology and behaviors in students with self-harm were significantly higher than those in students without those behaviors. Result from linear χ(2) test indicated that the graveness of tissue damage of self-harm was higher along with the rates of suicidal psychology and behaviors (P college students, about 1/3 adolescents having experienced self-harm in the last 6 months, many with repeated ones. Depression and difficulties in identifying feelings were the two risk factors while self-esteem was the protective factor related to most of the self-harm cases.
Full Text Available Suicide is the number one cause of death among incarcerated youth. We examined the demographic and forensic risk factors for self-harm in youth in juvenile detention using a Canadian provincial correctional database.We analyzed data from de-identified youth aged 12 to 18 at the time of their offense who were in custody in a Manitoba youth correctional facility between January 1, 2005 and December 30, 2010 (N = 5,102. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses determined the association between staff-identified self-harm events in custody and demographic and custodial variables. Time to the event was examined based on the admission date and date of event.Demographic variables associated with self-harm included female sex, lower educational achievement, older age, and child welfare involvement. Custodial variables associated with self-harm included higher criminal severity profiles, younger age at first incarceration, longer sentence length, disruptive institutional behavior, and a history of attempting escape. Youth identified at entry as being at risk for suicide were more likely to self-harm. Events tended to occur earlier in the custodial admission.Self-harm events tended to occur within the first 3 months of an admission stay. Youth with more serious offenses and disruptive behaviors were more likely to self-harm. Individuals with problematic custodial profiles were more likely to self-harm. Suicide screening identified youth at risk for self-harm. Strategies to identify and help youth at risk are needed.
Jochems, Eline C.; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; van Dam, Arno
Self-determination theory is potentially useful for understanding reasons why individuals with mental illness do or do not engage in psychiatric treatment. The current study examined the psychometric properties of three questionnaires based on self-determination theory—The Treatment Entry
van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Breuk, R.; Jongman, E.; Doreleijers, T.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treatment characteristics on recidivism in a forensic youth-psychiatric outpatient clinic. The treatment offered comprised functional family therapy (FFT), individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or CBT in combination with parent training.
Slee, Nadja; Garnefski, Nadia; Spinhoven, Philip; Arensman, Ella
Elaborating on previous studies on emotion regulation and deliberate self-harm (DSH), in the present study we distinguish between strategies of cognitive content (e.g., suicidal cognitions of perceived burdensomeness, helplessness, poor distress tolerance) and cognitive process (e.g., nonacceptance of emotional responses, lack of awareness of…
Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Soegaard, Bodil; Nordentoft, Merete
Background: The validity and reliability of suicide statistics have been questioned and few nationwide studies of deliberate selfharm have been presented. Aim: To calculate rates of deliberate self-harm in Denmark in order to investigate trends and assess the reliability of hospital records. Met...
Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise
Background: Relatively little information is available about the characteristics and long-term outcome of children and adolescents aged under 15 years who present to general hospitals because of deliberate self-harm (DSH). Method: Information was collected on 710 consecutive under-15-year-olds presenting to a general hospital in central England…
Hansen, J. S.; Simonsen, E.
The current study screened for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-harming behaviours, often related to borderline personality disorder (BPD), among individuals in a job centre considered unemployable primarily for psychological reasons. Participants (N = 112) filled in questionnaires...
Neeleman, J; Wilson-Jones, C; Wessely, S
Study objective-Relative risks are frequently used to convey how strongly outcomes like mental illness and suicidal behaviour are associated with personal characteristics Like ethnic background. This study examined whether RRs for deliberate self harm (DSH) in ethnic groups vary between small areas
Cleaver, Karen; Meerabeau, Liz; Maras, Pam
To determine the attitudes of emergency care staff towards young people (aged 12-18 years) who self-harm and to gain an understanding of the basis of attitudes that exist. Young people frequently attend emergency services following self-harm; it is unclear whether being a young person influences attitudes held. Mixed methods using a triangulation convergent design. Survey of 143 staff members from four accident & emergency departments and one ambulance service. Semi-structured interviews with seven children's A&E nurses and five ambulance personnel from the same locality. Data were collected during 2010. Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient confirmed a strong positive correlation between scores on the two scales used to measure attitudes; paired samples t-test revealed a statistically significant difference in scores across the scales; practitioners held more positive attitudes towards young people who self-harmed than young people per se. Both data sets confirmed the presence of ambivalence and ambiguity in attitudes held. The qualitative data revealed that because of their age and immaturity young people were not held responsible for their self-harming behaviours. Being young did though influence subsequent admission, with particular difficulty in securing admission for those aged 16-17 reported. Age is a factor in shaping practitioners' attitudes; age also directs and influences a young person's journey through emergency care, although due to ambiguity there is inconsistency in determining where those aged 16-17 years of age fit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Sutton, Lesley; Sinclair, Julia; Deeks, Jonathan
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a strong predictor of suicide in schizophrenia. The aim of this review was to identify risk factors for DSH in schizophrenia. This systematic review of the international literature examined cohort and case-control studies of patients with schizophrenia or related diagnoses that reported DSH as an outcome. Studies were…
Mansfield, Alyssa J.; Bender, Randall H.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Larson, Gerald E.
Suicides have markedly increased among military personnel in recent years. We used path analysis to examine factors associated with suicidal/self-harming ideation among male Navy and Marine Corps personnel transitioning to civilian life. Roughly 7% of men (Sailors = 5.3%, Marines = 9.0%) reported ideation during the previous 30 days. Results…
Hall, Brian; Elliott, Joe; Place, Maurice
This project explored the prevalence of self-harm by cutting in a geographically circumscribed area of the North of England, using a school-based survey. Twenty-three per cent of the young people reported they had cut themselves at least once, with no major changes evident at different age groups or with gender. There were clear differences in…
Goodwin, Renee D.; Mocarski, Michelle; Marusic, Andrej; Beautrais, Annette
The association between thoughts of self-harm and help-seeking among youth with symptoms of depression was examined. Data were drawn from the Health Behavior of School-aged Children Study ("n" = 15, 686), a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Analyses focused on comparing help-seeking behaviors among youth…
O'Connor, Rory C.; Rasmussen, Susan; Hawton, Keith
Few studies have investigated the extent to which psychosocial/psychological factors are associated with the prediction of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents. In this study, 737 pupils aged 15-16 years completed a lifestyle and coping survey at time one and 500 were followed up six months later. Six point two percent of the respondents…
Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen
In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…
This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…
Roberts, Ellen Adams
The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…
McAllister, Margaret; Hasking, Penelope; Estefan, Andrew; McClenaghan, Kerry; Lowe, John
Every day in Queensland, Australia, student services within schools are responding to children who have deliberately self-injured. Although school nurses are in a prime position to effectively intervene, mitigate risk, and promote healthy self-caring behaviors, no programs that focus specifically on self-harm currently exist. This feasibility…
Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri
This study examined whether depressed adolescent outpatients with deliberate self-harm behaviour (DSH) differed from non-suicidal depressed adolescent outpatients in depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use, perceived social support and number of negative life-events. Depressed adolescent outpatients (n = 155) aged 13-19 years were interviewed…
Sim, Leslie; Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Cassano, Michael; Friedrich, William N.
Parents' responses to their children's emotional expressivity have been shown to significantly influence children's subsequent psychosocial functioning. This study hypothesized that adolescents' deliberate self-harm (DSH) may be an outcome associated with poor emotion regulation as well as an invalidating family environment. The mediational role…
Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan
Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…
Harvey, Kevin; Brown, Brian
This study explores adolescents' accounts of self-harm with a view to elucidate the implications for health care practitioners seeking to administer care to teenagers in English. Drawing on a corpus of 1.6 million words from messages posted on a UK-hosted adolescent health Web site, analysis began by identifying a range of keywords relating to…
Cerutti, R.; Manca, M.; Presaghi, F.; Gratz, Kim L.
The aims of this study were to investigate the rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavior among an Italian adolescent sample, as well as to explore its clinical correlates. On a sample of 234 adolescents in Italian secondary schools (Mean age = 16.47; SD = 1.7) were assessed the DSH as well as externalizing symptoms (including both conduct…
Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Skegg, Keren
This longitudinal population-based study examined pathways to nonsuicidal self-harm (NSSH) in relation to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), assault victimization in early adulthood, posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology (PTSD), and other mental disorders. At age 21, 476 men and 455 women completed interviews on assault victimization, PTSD, and…
Perboell, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, Nanna Maria; Oestergaard, Birte; Konradsen, Hanne
The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. A cross-sectional design was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relation to managing the patient group. Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self-harm is a worthwhile endeavor with the potential to strengthen and improve attitudes, for the benefit of both the nurses and the patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Connolly, Sarah; Rosas, Carlos; Bharadwaj, Meghana; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura J
Social networking about depression can be indicative of self-reported depression and/or can normalize risk behaviors such as self-harm and suicidal ideation. To gain a better understanding of the depression, self-harm, and suicidal content that is being shared on Tumblr. From April 16 to May 10, 2014, 17 popular depression-related Tumblr accounts were monitored for new posts and engagement with other Tumblr users. A total of 3,360 posts were randomly selected from all historical posts from these accounts and coded based on themes ascertained by the research team. The 17 Tumblr accounts posted a median number of 185 posts (range = 0-2,954). Content was engaged with (i.e., re-blogged or liked) a median number of 1,677,362 times (range = 0-122,186,504). Of the 3,360 randomly selected posts, 2,739 (82%) were related to depression, suicide, or self-harm. Common themes were self-loathing (412, 15%), loneliness/feeling unloved (405, 15%), self-harm (407, 15%), and suicide (372, 14%). This study takes an important first step at better understanding the displayed depression-related references on Tumblr. The findings signal a need for suicide prevention efforts to intervene on Tumblr and use this platform in a strategic way, given the depression and suicidal content that was readily observed on Tumblr.
Chapman, Alexander L.; Specht, Matthew W.; Cellucci, Tony
The theory that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with experiential avoidance, and that experiential avoidance mediates the association between BPD and deliberate, nonsuicidal self-harm was examined. Female inmate participants (N = 105) were given structured diagnostic assessments of BPD, as well as several measures of…
Mitchell, Rebecca; Draper, Brian; Harvey, Lara; Brodaty, Henry; Close, Jacqueline
Characteristics of older people with and without dementia who are hospitalised following self-harm remains largely unexplored. This research compares the characteristics of older people with and without dementia who self-harm, compares associations of mental health-related diagnoses with those hospitalised for a self-harm and a non-self-harm injury and examines mortality by injury intent. A population-based study of individuals aged 50+ years with and without dementia admitted to hospital for a self-harm injury (and those with other injuries) using linked hospital admission and mortality records during 2003-2012 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Health outcomes, including hospital length of stay (LOS), 28-day readmission and 30-day and 12-month mortality were examined by dementia status. There were 427 hospitalisations of individuals with dementia and 11,684 hospitalisations of individuals without dementia following self-harm. The hospitalisation rate for self-harm for individuals with dementia aged 60+ years was double the rate for individuals without dementia (72.2 and 37.5 per 100,000). For both older people with and without dementia, those who self-harmed were more likely to have co-existent mental health and alcohol use disorders than individuals who had a non-self-harm injury. Individuals with dementia had higher 12-month mortality rates, 28-day readmission and longer LOS than individuals without dementia. Dementia is associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for self-harm in older people and worse outcomes. The high rate of coexistent mental health conditions suggests that interventions which reduce behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia might reduce self-harm in people with dementia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Law, Ben M F; Shek, Daniel T L
To examine the trajectories of self-harm and suicidal behaviors among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong and to investigate the related predictors, including gender, family nonintactness, economic disadvantage, positive youth development, and family functioning. We used quantitative data from a large sample of adolescent participants. Participants initially joined this study when they were in grade 7 (wave 1), and they were followed from grade 8 (wave 2) to grade 12 (wave 6). The participants consisted of 2023 grade 12 students from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. A multistage cluster random sampling method was adopted. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors. The trajectories of self-harm and suicidal behaviors in general declined from grade 7 to grade 12. Regarding the effect of gender, whereas adolescent girls showed a higher prevalence for self-harm and suicidal behaviors at baseline and other waves, adolescent boys showed a pronounced decline in self-harm rates. Adolescents from nonintact families were more likely to self-harm or engage in suicidal behaviors at wave 6. Economic disadvantage at wave 4 predicted higher suicidal behavior among adolescents but not self-harm at wave 6. Regarding positive youth development, several protective factors that include cognitive-behavioral competencies, prosocial attributes, general positive youth development qualities, and positive identity could help reduce self-harm and suicidal behaviors at different time points. Regarding the role of family functioning, more family conflicts predicted higher suicidality in adolescence (self-harm and suicidal behaviors), and family communication affected self-harming behaviors at wave 6. The trajectories of self-harm and suicidal behaviors decline from early to late adolescence among Chinese adolescents. Positive youth development and constructive family functioning are critical to help reduce suicidal behaviors. Regarding increased risk, more attention should be paid to adolescent girls
Liu, Richard T; Mustanski, Brian
Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among adolescents and nonsuicidal self-harm occurs in 13%-45% of individuals within this age group, making these phenomena major public health concerns. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth particularly are at risk for engaging in these behaviors. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the specific risk factors associated with suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviors in the population. This study provides a longitudinal evaluation of the relative contributions of general and LGBT-specific risk factors as well as protective factors to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and self-harm in an ethnically diverse sample of LGBT youth. A community sample of 246 LGBT youth (aged 16-20 years) was followed prospectively over five time points at regular 6-month intervals. Participants completed a baseline structured interview assessing suicide attempt history and questionnaires measuring gender nonconformity, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. At follow-up assessments, participants completed a structured interview assessing self-harm and questionnaires for suicidal ideation, hopelessness, social support, and LGBT victimization. Data were collected from 2007 to 2011, and HLM analyses were conducted in 2011. A history of attempted suicide (p=0.05); impulsivity (p=0.01); and prospective LGBT victimization (p=0.03) and low social support (p=0.02) were associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation. Suicide attempt history (pLGBT-specific risk factors both uniquely contribute to likelihood of suicidal ideation and self-harm in LGBT youth, which may, in part, account for the higher risk of these phenomena observed in this population. Copyright Â© 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a less positive emotional tone in adolescents’ relationships to parents, but not in their relationships to peers, predicts more of behaviour problems and substance use. The purpose of the present study was to replicate these findings, and to extend this research to deliberate self-harm. In a first study with a variable-oriented approach, correlations were analysed between emotional tone in close relationships and a number of behaviour problems. The main results showed that deliberate self-harm among girls, as well as conduct problems, hyperactivity, aggressive behaviour, and the use of alcohol, were more strongly associated with poor emotional relations to their parents than with poor emotional relations to friends. In a second study, a person-oriented approach was used to investigate girls’ profiles of emotional tone in close relationships by means of cluster analysis, and to compare the clusters on measures of deliberate self-harm. The analysis led to the identification of five clusters; of these, deliberate self-harm was most frequent in a cluster of girls who reported poor emotional relations to parents in combination with good emotional relations to friends. Self-harm was also frequent in a cluster of girls characterized by poor emotional relations to both parents and friends. The results are discussed in terms of good emotional relations to friends not necessarily serving as a protective factor against emotional and behavioural problems, and the methodological value of a person-oriented approach as a complement to a traditional variable-oriented approach.
Sansone, Randy A; Wiederman, Michael W
The relationships between religiosity/spirituality (RS) and self-harm behavior, including non-suicidal self-harm behavior (NS-SHB) and suicide attempts/completions, remain of keen interest. Whereas the majority of studies strongly suggest that RS protects against suicide attempts/completions, relationships between RS and NS-SHB have been rarely studied. In this study, we examined RS in relationship to both NS-SHB (six explicit behaviors) and past history of suicide attempts. In a cross-sectional sample of 306 consecutive primary care outpatients, we administered four self-report assessments for RS (extent participant considered self a religious person, extent participant considered self a spiritual person, extent religion is involved in understanding/dealing with stressful situations, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12)) as well as examined seven items on the Self-Harm Inventory: six items reflecting NS-SHB and one item reflecting a past suicide attempt. While two RS items yielded no significant findings (extent participant considered self a spiritual person, extent religion is involved in understanding/dealing with stressful situations), the remaining two items were associated with a lowered risk of self-harm behavior, particularly the FACIT-Sp-12. Some but not all aspects of RS are associated with lowered risk for self-harm. In this study, considering oneself a religious person and reporting a general sense of RS well-being offered the most protective effect to participants, particularly the latter. © The Author(s) 2015.
O'Connor, Sophie; Glover, Lesley
This review aimed to synthesize qualitative literature exploring inpatient hospital staff experiences of their relationships with people who self-harm. Nine studies were identified from a systematic search of five research databases. Papers included the experiences of physical health and mental health staff working in inpatient settings. The studies employed various qualitative research methods and were appraised using an adapted quality assessment tool (Tong, Sainsbury, & Craig, 2007). A meta-synthesis was conducted using traditional qualitative analysis methods including coding and categorizing data into themes. Three main themes derived from the data. 'The impact of the system' influenced the extent to which staff were 'Fearing the harm from self-harm', or were 'Working alongside the whole person'. A fear-based relationship occurred across mental health and physical health settings despite differences in training; however, 'Working alongside the whole person' primarily emerged from mental health staff experiences. Systemic factors provided either an inhibitory or facilitative influence on the relational process. Staff experiences of their relationship with people who self-harm were highlighted to have an important impact on the delivery and outcome of care. Increasing support for staff with a focus on distress tolerance, managing relational issues, and developing self-awareness within the relationship may lead to a more mutually beneficial experience of care. Equally, structure, clarity, and support within inpatient systems may empower staff to feel more confident in utilizing their existing skills. Working with people who self-harm can be emotionally challenging and how staff cope with this can significantly impact on the engagement of staff and patients. Increasing the skills of staff in managing relational issues and tolerating distress, as well as providing support and reflective practice groups may be useful in managing emotional responses to working with
Latife UTAŞ AKHAN
Full Text Available The human being has to socialize once he is born as an individual and is under the influence of the environment, and the ethical, esthetic and moral values since his childhood. The thoughts, wants and wishes of the individual that conflict with the environmental order and values are repressed outside the consciousness. The repressed feelings and thoughts are converted into symbols in the form of visual images outside the consciousness. Unformed symbols provide the purest hint regarding the internal conflicts causing mental disorders. There is regression in verbal expression in some psychiatric disorders and especially in psychosis. Symptoms specific for the abstract thoughts and verbal language pathology appear. Visual language as graphic language may become the single way of communication in such instances. This constitutes the rationale and main principle of “Diagnosis and Treatment by Art'' in the psychiatric field. The three-function method of spontaneous psychopathological art enables the use of art in individuals with a psychiatric disorder. This is the projection of the complexes and conflicts that are subconscious or outside consciousness with spontaneous images as graphic and plastic expressions and enables making a diagnosis. The second function of psychopathological art is to monitor the disease progress. A series of artistic work enable the step by step monitoring of the disorder's progress. Pathological changes can be reflected in the works of art even before the clinical symptoms of the disorder appear. The third function is enabling treatment. The individual who has severed connections with the environment is in a chaotic word. During the time the psychopathological art method is used, the patients start to see the artistic work as a mirror where they find and watch themselves and their behaviors. When the artistic endeavor of patients with a mental disorder does not take place under suitable control, it becomes a tool that
In principle, there seem to be three main ways in which society can react when people commit crimes under influence of mental illness. (1) The standard model. We excuse them. If they are dangerous they are detained in the interest of safety of the rest of the citizens. (2) The Swedish model. We hold them responsible for their criminal offence, we convict them, but we do not sentence them to jail. Instead, we sentence them to psychiatric treatment. (3) My model. We sentence them to jail, but offer them (voluntary) psychiatric treatment. The advantages of my model are obvious. We get a clear delineation of roles. We allow the psychiatrist to be just a doctor, not a warden. We liberate psychiatry of the objective of deciding whether people who were mentally ill when they committed criminal offences 'could have acted otherwise' -- a hopeless task. We allow that psychiatrists live up to their professional ethical code (The Hawaii Declaration). We treat psychically ill persons as 'normal', we allow them to repent their crimes, which renders easier their recovery. However, two objections to my model come to mind. First of all, is it not unfair to sentence people to jail who could not help doing what they did? And, secondly, the question of fairness set to one side, is it not inhumane to sentence mentally ill persons to jail? Is it not inhumane to the mentally ill persons themselves, and does it not mean that they will be a burden to other prisoners? In my paper I show that, if our system of criminal punishment takes a civilised form, neither of these objections carries any weight.
Hetrick, Sarah E; Robinson, Jo; Spittal, Matthew J; Carter, Greg
To examine the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions for reductions in repeated self-harm. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression to examine the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions to reduce repeat self-harm in adults. We included a sensitivity analysis of studies with a low risk of bias for the meta-analysis. For the meta-regression, we examined whether the type, intensity (primary analyses) and other components of intervention or methodology (secondary analyses) modified the overall intervention effect. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycInfo and EMBASE (from 1999 to June 2016) was performed. Randomised controlled trials of psychological and psychosocial interventions for adult self-harm patients. Forty-five trials were included with data available from 36 (7354 participants) for the primary analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant benefit of all psychological and psychosocial interventions combined (risk ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96; number needed to treat=33); however, sensitivity analyses showed that this benefit was non-significant when restricted to a limited number of high-quality studies. Meta-regression showed that the type of intervention did not modify the treatment effects. Consideration of a psychological or psychosocial intervention over and above treatment as usual is worthwhile; with the public health benefits of ensuring that this practice is widely adopted potentially worth the investment. However, the specific type and nature of the intervention that should be delivered is not yet clear. Cognitive-behavioural therapy or interventions with an interpersonal focus and targeted on the precipitants to self-harm may be the best candidates on the current evidence. Further research is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
The purpose of this study was to examine emergency department (ED) nurses\\' attitudes towards individuals presenting with deliberate self-harm (DSH), including the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, academic achievements, length of experience, and self-harm education.
Nagra, Gurmokh S; Lin, Ashleigh; Upthegrove, Rachel
Self-harm is the most robust risk for completed suicide. There is a lack of understanding of why some people who self-harm escalate to suicidal behaviour when others do not. Psychological factors such as attachment, self-forgiveness and self-appraisal may be important. To determine whether factors from the Interpersonal Theory and Schematic Appraisals models are useful to identify suicidal behaviour in populations that self-harm. Specifically we investigate whether resilience factors of secure attachment, self-forgiveness and positive self-appraisals significantly influence suicidality in people who self-harm. A cross-sectional online study of 323 participants recruited from self-harm support forum. Validated self-report measures were used to assess appraisals, relationships, self-forgiveness, attachment style, suicidality and self-harm. Emotion coping and support seeking self-appraisals and self-forgiveness were negatively associated with suicidality in participants with a history of self-harm. Dismissing attachment was positively associated with suicidality. The perceived ability to cope with emotions, the perceived ability to gain support and self-forgiveness may protect against suicide in people who self-harm. Conversely the presence of dismissing attachment may increase the risk of suicidality. Findings provide therapeutic targets to reduce risk of suicidality in this high risk group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Griffin, Eve; Arensman, Ella; Perry, Ivan J; Bonner, Brendan; O'Hagan, Denise; Daly, Caroline; Corcoran, Paul
Alcohol is often involved in hospital-treated self-harm. Therefore it is important to establish the role of alcohol in self-harm as well as to identify associated factors, in order to best inform service provision. Data on self-harm presentations to hospital emergency departments in Ireland and Northern Ireland from April 2012 to December 2013 were analysed. We calculated the prevalence of alcohol consumption in self-harm. Using Poisson regression models, we identified the factors associated with having consumed alcohol at the time of a self-harm act. Alcohol was present in 43% of all self-harm acts, and more common in Northern Ireland (50 versus 37%). The factors associated with alcohol being involved were being male, aged between 25 and 64 years, and having engaged in a drug overdose or attempted drowning. Presentations made out-of-hours were more likely to have alcohol present and this was more pronounced for females. Patients with alcohol on board were also more likely to leave without having been seen by a clinician. This study has highlighted the prevalence of alcohol in self-harm presentations, and has identified factors associated with presentations involving alcohol. Appropriate out-of-hours services in emergency departments for self-harm presentations could reduce the proportion of presentations leaving without being seen by a clinician and facilitate improved outcomes for patients.
Leung Kwok, Chi; Yip, Paul S F
A surveillance system for self-harm has not been established in Hong Kong. The existing data source has an unknown degree of underreporting, and therefore a capture-recapture method has been proposed to correct for the incompleteness. To assess the underestimation of the incidence of self-harm cases presenting to hospital in Hong Kong using a capture and recapture method. Two different yet overlapping hospital administrative datasets of self-harm were obtained from all public hospitals in Hong Kong. From 2002 to 2011, 59,473 distinct episodes involving 36,411 patients were identified. A capture-recapture model considering heterogeneous capture probabilities was applied to estimate the number of self-harm episodes. The estimated number of self-harm incidence was 79,923, equally shared by females and males. Cases of self-harm by females were more likely to be ascertained than those by males. The estimated annual incidence rate of self-harm in Hong Kong from 2002 to 2011 ranged from 96.4 in 2010 to 132.7 in 2002. The proposed method does not include patients who required no medical attention and those where the patient consulted private doctors. The capture-recapture model is a useful method for adjusting the underestimation of self-harm cases from existing databases when surveillance system is not available and to reveal some hidden patterns.
Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn
Background: Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods: We prospectively linked survey data
Dowling, Susan; Doyle, Louise
School-based studies identify that while 1 in 10 young people engages in self-harm, only a small minority seek professional help. School counsellors and teachers are potentially the only professionals who may be aware of a young person's self-harm; however, little is known about how this impacts on them and how they might be best supported to…
C.L. Taylor (Clare L.); L.M. van Ravesteyn (Leontien); M.P. Lambregtse-van den Berg (Mijke); R.J. Stewart (Robert J.); L.M. Howard (Louise M.)
textabstractWomen with severe mental illness are at increased risk of suicide in the perinatal period, and these suicides are often preceded by self-harm, but little is known about self-harm and its correlates in this population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation
Taylor, Clare L; van Ravesteyn, Leontien M; van denBerg, Mijke P Lambregtse; Stewart, Robert J; Howard, Louise M
Women with severe mental illness are at increased risk of suicide in the perinatal period, and these suicides are often preceded by self-harm, but little is known about self-harm and its correlates in this population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and self-harm, and its correlates, in women with psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder during pregnancy. Historical cohort study using de-identified secondary mental healthcare records linked with national maternity data. Women pregnant from 2007 to 2011, with ICD-10 diagnoses of schizophrenia and related disorders, bipolar disorder or other affective psychoses were identified. Data were extracted from structured fields, natural language processing applications and free text. Logistic regression was used to examine the correlates of self-harm in pregnancy. Of 420 women, 103 (24.5 %) had a record of suicidal ideation during the first index pregnancy, with self-harm recorded in 33 (7.9 %). Self-harm was independently associated with younger age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.91, 95 % CI 0.85-0.98), self-harm in the previous 2 years (aOR 2.55; 1.05-6.50) and smoking (aOR 3.64; 1.30-10.19). A higher prevalence of self-harm was observed in women with non-affective psychosis, those who discontinued or switched medication and in women on no medication at the start of pregnancy, but these findings were not statistically significant in multivariable analyses. Suicidal thoughts and self-harm occur in a significant proportion of pregnant women with severe mental illness, particularly younger women and those with a history of self-harm; these women need particularly close monitoring for suicidality.
Carter, Gregory; Page, Andrew; Large, Matthew; Hetrick, Sarah; Milner, Allison Joy; Bendit, Nick; Walton, Carla; Draper, Brian; Hazell, Philip; Fortune, Sarah; Burns, Jane; Patton, George; Lawrence, Mark; Dadd, Lawrence; Robinson, Jo; Christensen, Helen
To provide guidance for the organisation and delivery of clinical services and the clinical management of patients who deliberately self-harm, based on scientific evidence supplemented by expert clinical consensus and expressed as recommendations. Articles and information were sourced from search engines including PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO for several systematic reviews, which were supplemented by literature known to the deliberate self-harm working group, and from published systematic reviews and guidelines for deliberate self-harm. Information was reviewed by members of the deliberate self-harm working group, and findings were then formulated into consensus-based recommendations and clinical guidance. The guidelines were subjected to successive consultation and external review involving expert and clinical advisors, the public, key stakeholders, professional bodies and specialist groups with interest and expertise in deliberate self-harm. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for deliberate self-harm provide up-to-date guidance and advice regarding the management of deliberate self-harm patients, which is informed by evidence and clinical experience. The clinical practice guidelines for deliberate self-harm is intended for clinical use and service development by psychiatrists, psychologists, physicians and others with an interest in mental health care. The clinical practice guidelines for deliberate self-harm address self-harm within specific population sub-groups and provide up-to-date recommendations and guidance within an evidence-based framework, supplemented by expert clinical consensus. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Intoxication with alcohol at the time of self-harm and pre-existing involvement with mental health services are associated with a pre-disposition to repetition of self-harming behavior in a large cohort of older New Zealanders presenting with an index episode of self-harm.
The paper on predictors of repeat self-harm and suicide by Cheung et al. (2017), which has been chosen by the editorial team as paper of the month for this issue of International Psychogeriatrics, makes a very useful contribution to the study of self-harm and suicide in late life. Of 339 individuals presenting with an index episode of self-harm to one of seven Emergency Departments (EDs) in New Zealand, close to 15% harmed themselves again within one year and for nearly one in six of these 50 people, the repeat episode was fatal. Having alcohol in the blood and already being engaged with mental health services at the time of the index episode both had some utility in predicting the occurrence of a further self-harm episode. While it is encouraging that mental health services look to have been focusing on those who turned out to be at highest risk, clinicians may need to be particularly vigilant when following up individuals who had been drinking alcohol at the time of an initial self-harm presentation. This study also emphasizes the high risk of recurrent self-harm and completed suicide in those older adults who harm themselves and survive the initial episode. It deserves to be widely cited and gives some direction for future research on interventions designed to diminish the recurrence of self-harm in those of our patients who have presented to an ED with an initial self-harm episode.
patients, stigma, concerns about the effect of psychiatric referral on self-esteem of patients, not being sure of how beneficial such referral could be, and difficulty in securing psychiatric services as all affecting the referral decisions of most physicians.5 Some studies explored family physicians' attitudes toward psychiatry and ...
Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A
Psychiatric illnesses are a leading cause of disability and morbidity globally. However, the preferred orally dosed pharmacological treatment options available for depression, anxiety and schizophrenia are often limited by factors such as low drug aqueous solubility, food effects, high hepatic first-pass metabolism effects and short half-lives. Furthermore, the discovery and development of more effective psychotropic agents has stalled in recent times, with the majority of new drugs reaching the market offering similar efficacy, but suffering from the same oral delivery concerns. As such, the application of nanomedicine formulation approaches to currently available drugs is a viable option for optimizing oral drug delivery and maximizing treatment efficacy. This review focuses on the various delivery challenges encountered by psychotropic drugs, and the ability of nanomedicine formulation strategies to overcome these. Specifically, we critically review proof of concept in vitro and in vivo studies of nanoemulsions/microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, dendrimers, polymeric micelles, nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers and nanosuspensions, and provide new insight into the various mechanisms for improved drug performance. The advantages and limitations of current oral nanomedicine approaches for psychotropic drugs are discussed, which will provide guidance for future research directions and assist in fostering the translation of such delivery systems to the clinical setting. Accordingly, emphasis has been placed on correlating the in vitro/in vivo performance of these nanomedicine approaches with their potential clinical outcomes and benefits for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kahila, K; Kilkku, N; Kaltiala-Heino, R
Finland does not have a history of providing forensic adolescent psychiatric units although the need for this kind of service has been established. According to legislation patients who are minors have to be treated separately from adults, however, this has not been possible in practice. Also, adolescent psychiatric wards have not always been able to admit the most severely ill patients, those with impulsive and aggressive behaviours, because of lack of staff resources, problems associated with protecting other vulnerable patients and a shortage of secure environments. A previous report demonstrated the significant increase in adolescent's involuntary treatment within adult psychiatric wards. Data from this report were acknowledged as an important starting point in the planning process for the psychiatric treatment and research unit for adolescent intensive care. This paper describes the background, development process, plan of action, tailor-made education programme and supporting evidence for the first Finnish adolescent forensic service opened in April 2003 in the Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital. The tool used for planning the unit's activities and staff education programme was the Balanced Score Card approach, the structure and development of which is also outlined within the paper.
Egeberg, A; Hansen, P R; Gislason, G H
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. METHODS: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...
This study aimed to look at rates of repetition in children presenting with Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) to a paediatric A&E department. Children presenting with DSH to a paediatric A&E between 2000 and 2005 were invited to participate in the study. Telephone interviews collected information on demographic details and mental health functioning, including repetition of DSH. Data was obtained from 39 parents and 10 children (31 girls and 8 boys, mean age 15) 1 in 5 females (20%) had made a repeat attempt of DSH and 1 in 10 (10%) had repeated more than once. No males repeated self-harm. On going parental concern rather than clinician risk assessment at index episode predicted subsequent DSH. Given the poor predictive value of clinician risk assessment, all attempts of DSH must be taken seriously, especially those associated with ongoing parental concern.
This study aimed to look at rates of repetition in children presenting with Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) to a paediatric A&E department. Children presenting with DSH to a paediatric A&E between 2000 and 2005 were invited to participate in the study. Telephone interviews collected information on demographic details and mental health functioning, including repetition of DSH. Data was obtained from 39 parents and 10 children (31 girls and 8 boys, mean age 15) 1 in 5 females (20%) had made a repeat attempt of DSH and 1 in 10 (10%) had repeated more than once. No males repeated self-harm. On going parental concern rather than clinician risk assessment at index episode predicted subsequent DSH. Given the poor predictive value of clinician risk assessment, all attempts of DSH must be taken seriously, especially those associated with ongoing parental concern.
Møhl, Bo; la Cour, Peter; Skandsen, Annika
-harm (e.g., eating problems, alcohol and drug use) and how this may be influenced by gender. Method: Questionnaires about NSSI (e.g., cutting, burning, scratching, hitting oneself) and indirect self-harm were distributed to high school students in theCopenhagen area (N = 5650; response rate 53%; females...... of NSSI as compared with females, and clinicians must look for gender-specific signs of NSSI. It is argued that NSSI can be perceived as a “social pathology,” but it is also indicated that NSSI and indirect self-harm can be evaluated as an expression of ordinary behavior among modern high school students...
Greydanus, Donald; Apple,Roger W.
Donald E Greydanus1,2, Roger W Apple31Pediatrics and Human Development; College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 2Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Michigan State University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 3Psychological Evaluation and Consultation Services, Kalamazoo Regional Educational Service Agency, Portage, MI, USAAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a common though often hidden condition in children and adolescents that may result in suicide. This discus...
Vrouva, Ioanna; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, Pasco R. M.; Roussow, Trudie
In this study, we report on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Risk-Taking (RT) and Self-Harm (SH) Inventory for Adolescents (RTSHIA), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescent RT and SH in community and clinical settings. 651 young people from secondary schools in England ranging in age from 11.6 years to 18.7 years and…
Althoff, Robert R.; Hudziak, James J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hudziak, Vicenta; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Thoughts of self-harm and suicidal behavior are thought to be influenced by both genetics and environment. Molecular genetic studies are beginning to address the question of which genes may be involved and whether different genes may be expressed in men and women. We examined thoughts of self-harm and suicidal behavior in a large general population twin sample including male and female same- and opposite-sex twins. In this study, data on self-reported thoughts of self-harm and suicide were obtained from self-report questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory and Youth or Adult Self Report forms) in 6265 twin pairs (11,008 individuals) aged 11–90 (62% female) from the Netherlands Twin Registry. Liability threshold models were compared including sex and age (linear and quadratic) effects. Models were compared using measures of parsimony to calculate the simplest model to the data. A model with additive genetic and unique environmental contributions fitted the data for both males and females. There were no qualitative sex differences, but the relative contributions differed between men and women. Heritability was higher in women (0.74, 95% CI 0.65 – 0.81) than men (0.45, 95% CI 0.28 – 0.61). The remaining variance was accounted for by environmental influence unique to an individual. These results suggest contributions from additive genetic factors to self-reported thoughts of self-harm and suicide and support the continued study of both molecular genetic and individual-specific environmental risk factors. PMID:22162437
McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David
.... This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes...
Dunster-Page, Charlotte; Haddock, Gillian; Wainwright, Laura; Berry, Katherine
Suicidality is a common concern for people with mental health problems. The interpersonal nature of suicidality suggests that therapeutic alliance may be important when working clinically with suicidal patients. This paper is a systematic review of studies investigating the association between alliance and treatment outcome relating to suicidal ideation and behaviours. Systematic searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL were completed using words that captured the concepts of alliance and suicidality. Eligible studies: involved participants aged 18-years-old or over; used a validated measure of therapeutic alliance; and reported associations between alliance and suicidality. Abstracts, qualitative studies and articles not written in English were excluded. Twelve studies were included. Findings indicated that alliance is associated with suicidality. Alliance was related to suicidality in eleven of the papers. Self-harming behaviours had the strongest association with patient-rated alliance. Suicide attempts had the weakest association, possibly due to the infrequency of suicide attempts in the studies reviewed. The twelve studies were heterogeneous in terms of the measure of alliance used, method of assessing suicidality, clinical setting and professional-type. This variability limited the degree to which findings could be synthesised. Therapists, care-coordinators and mental health teams should recognise the importance of building a strong therapeutic alliance with suicidal patients. Researchers should use consistent methods of measuring alliance and assessing suicidality in future studies. Clinicians and researchers should note that suicidal thoughts, self-harm and suicide attempts may be related to alliance in different ways and therefore should be assessed as separate constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jansson, Susanne; Fridlund, Bengt
A therapeutic alliance with a continuing collaboration between a patient and psychiatric staff is a resource for helping patients cope with the demands of coercive legislation. Knowledge exists describing coercion in inpatient care while the knowledge regarding the perceptions of creating a therapeutic alliance with patients on Community Treatment Orders (CTO) among psychiatric staff is scarce. To describe perceptions among psychiatric staff of creating a therapeutic alliance with patients on CTOs, an exploratory design using a phenomenographic method was employed. Thirteen semi-structured audio-taped interviews were conducted with psychiatric staff responsible for patients on CTOs. The staff worked in five different outpatient clinics and the interviews were conducted at their workplaces. The analysis resulted in in four metaphors: the persevering psychiatric staff, the learning psychiatric staff, the participating psychiatric staff, and the motivating psychiatric staff. Patients on CTOs were more time-consuming for psychiatric staff in care and treatment. Long-term planning is required in which the creation of a therapeutic alliance entails the patient gradually gaining greater self-awareness and wanting to visit the outpatient clinic. The professional-patient relationship is essential and if a therapeutic alliance is not created, the patient's continued care and treatment in the community is vulnerable.
Brausch, Amy M; Holaday, Tara C
Multiple studies have found correlations between history of abuse and self-harm behaviors, but few have examined potential mediators. Studying suicide-related concerns as a mediator in this relationship could inform the interpersonal theory of suicide by identifying acquired capability as a necessary component in self-harm behavior. This study examined the link between childhood physical abuse, self-injurious behaviors, and suicide-related concerns in young adults. It was hypothesized that more physical abuse and fewer suicide-related concerns would predict self-harm behaviors, and that suicide-related concerns would mediate this relationship. A sample of 212 university students completed self-report measures that assessed self-harm behavior history, reasons for living, and childhood physical abuse. Results supported the hypothesis that more instances of abuse and less concern about pain and death were significantly associated with greater self-harm history. Suicide-related concerns also mediated the relationship between physical abuse and self-harm behaviors. These results support recent theories that habituation to painful and provocative events is an important mechanism in explaining why people engage in self-injurious acts, and provides initial evidence for cognitive mediators between physical abuse and self-harm.
Nobakht, Habib Niyaraq; Dale, Karl Yngvar
This study aims to investigate the prevalence of deliberate self-harm and its relationships to childhood and recent trauma and different patterns of dissociative features. A total of 100 male and 100 female college students were administered a 58-item questionnaire designed to detect the extent of dissociation, deliberate self-harm, and trauma history. Participants with deliberate self-harm behaviors reported more traumatic experiences and dissociative features than participants without such behaviors. Furthermore, the prevalence of deliberate self-harm (i.e., 40.5%) was similar to previous studies on college student populations. However, and contrary to earlier research, deliberate self-harm was significantly more prevalent among men (48%) than women (33%). The findings support the notion that trauma, pathological dissociation, and depersonalization/derealization play important functional roles in self-harm behaviors. From this perspective, it is feasible to understand individuals who engage in self-harm as either escaping from uncomfortable dissociative states or experiencing an infra-psychological conflict in which one dissociative part of the self is being abusive toward another.
Birkbak, J; Stuart, A E; Lind, B D
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial therapy after deliberate self-harm might be associated with reduced risk of specific causes of death. METHOD: In this matched cohort study, we included patients, who after an episode of deliberate self-harm received psychosocial therapy at a Suicide Prevention Clinic.......9%) of 5678 patients in the psychosocial therapy group had died, compared with 1736 (10.2%) of 17 034 patients in the matched comparison group. Lower odds ratios of dying by mental or behavioural disorders [0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.79], alcohol-related causes (0.63, 95% CI 0.......5-448.4) for mental or behavioural disorders as a cause of death, 111.1 (95% CI 79.2-210.5) for alcohol-related causes and 96.8 (95% CI 69.1-161.8) for other diseases and medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that psychosocial therapy after deliberate self-harm might reduce long-term risk of death...
Full Text Available Self-harm is a major health care problem and changes in its prevalence and characteristics can have important implications for suicide prevention. The objective was to describe trends in the epidemiology of self-harm based on emergency department (A&E departments visits over a 26-year period in Ghent, Belgium.We analyzed data on all self-harm presentations from the three large general hospitals in Ghent between 1987 and 2013. We investigated trends in prevalence (events by year per 100.000, methods and alcohol use.Rates of self-harm steadily decreased during the 26-year study period. In general female rates of self-harm were higher than male rates. The mean patient age was 35 years. The most commonly used method of self-harm was self-poisoning by means of an overdose of medication (80.8%, followed by cutting (10.2% and hanging (4.2%. Psychotropics (including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, barbiturates and other tranquilizers were the most frequently used drugs (74.5%. A proportional increase in the use of self-injurious methods in self-harm was highly significant, more specifically in the use of hanging, jumping from heights and the use of other violent methods such as the use of firearms, jumping before a moving object or other traffic related injury.This epidemiological study showed an increase in the use of high-lethality methods in self-harm which has important implications for suicide prevention. As restrictions in the availability of these methods are difficult or impossible to achieve, prevention programmes will have to emphasize the role of thorough psychosocial assessment and adequate follow-up care of self-harm patients.
Giallo, Rebecca; Pilkington, Pamela; Borschmann, Rohan; Seymour, Monique; Dunning, Melissa; Brown, Stephanie
Women in the perinatal period are at increased risk of experiencing self-harm ideation. The current study longitudinally examines the prevalence, trajectories, and correlates of self-harm ideation in a population-based sample of Australian women from pregnancy through to the early years of parenting. Drawing on data from 1507 women participating in a prospective pregnancy cohort study, data were collected during pregnancy, at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-months postpartum, and 4-years postpartum. Longitudinal Latent Class Analysis was conducted to identify groups of women based on their responses to thoughts of self-harm at each time-point. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with group membership. Approximately 4-5% of women reported experiencing self-harm ideation at each time-point from pregnancy to 4-years postpartum. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that self-harm ideation was most frequently endorsed in the first 12-months postpartum (4.6%), and approximately 15% of women reported self-harm ideation at least once during the study period. Longitudinally, approximately 7% of women had an enduring pattern of self-harm ideation from pregnancy to 4-years postpartum. Women who had experienced a range of preconception and current social health issues and disadvantage were at increased risk of self-harm ideation over time. Limitations included use of brief measures, along with an underrepresentation of participants with particular socio-demographic characteristics. A proportion of women are at increased risk of experiencing self-harm ideation during the perinatal period and in the early years of parenting, underscoring the need for early identification during pregnancy and early postpartum to facilitate timely early intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vancayseele, Nikita; Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees
Background Self-harm is a major health care problem and changes in its prevalence and characteristics can have important implications for suicide prevention. The objective was to describe trends in the epidemiology of self-harm based on emergency department (A&E departments) visits over a 26-year period in Ghent, Belgium. Methods We analyzed data on all self-harm presentations from the three large general hospitals in Ghent between 1987 and 2013. We investigated trends in prevalence (events by year per 100.000), methods and alcohol use. Results Rates of self-harm steadily decreased during the 26-year study period. In general female rates of self-harm were higher than male rates. The mean patient age was 35 years. The most commonly used method of self-harm was self-poisoning by means of an overdose of medication (80.8%), followed by cutting (10.2%) and hanging (4.2%). Psychotropics (including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, barbiturates and other tranquilizers) were the most frequently used drugs (74.5%). A proportional increase in the use of self-injurious methods in self-harm was highly significant, more specifically in the use of hanging, jumping from heights and the use of other violent methods such as the use of firearms, jumping before a moving object or other traffic related injury. Conclusion This epidemiological study showed an increase in the use of high-lethality methods in self-harm which has important implications for suicide prevention. As restrictions in the availability of these methods are difficult or impossible to achieve, prevention programmes will have to emphasize the role of thorough psychosocial assessment and adequate follow-up care of self-harm patients. PMID:27249421
Uhlmann, C; Flammer, E; Pfiffner, C; Grempler, J; Längle, G; Eschweiler, G-W; Spießl, H; Steinert, T
In the S3 treatment guidelines psychotherapy is recommended in all psychological disorders. Therefore, outpatient or inpatient psychotherapy should be recommended by therapists in most cases. On the other hand, it is well known that waiting periods for psychotherapeutic treatment are considerable, which raises the question how the recommendation for psychotherapy is presented in psychiatric hospitals in Germany. The article deals with the question of how frequent the recommendation of psychotherapeutic treatment is made after psychiatric inpatient stay or day care, and if there are differences between hospitals and patient groups. In four psychiatric hospitals in southern Germany the frequency of recommendation for psychotherapy in psychiatric patients was registered and compared to the number of all patients treated in the equivalent time. For this purpose, we analyzed data of the basic documentation in the four participating hospitals. Overall, 9.6 % of the patients received a recommendation of psychotherapeutic treatment. In the psychiatric university hospital a subsequent psychotherapeutic treatment was recommended somewhat more often. Differences between hospitals were present but marginal. Over all participating hospitals, psychotherapy was recommended markedly less frequently in patients with an F2 diagnosis in comparison with patients with F3 or F4 diagnoses. Psychotherapeutic treatment after psychiatric inpatient stay is recommended cautiously. Probably therapists anticipate the fact that the growing demand for psychotherapeutic treatment in general reduces the chances for persons after psychiatric inpatient treatment.
Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E
Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel
Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…
Tolou-Shams, Marina; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W. Tarantino, Nicholas; Brown, Larry K.
Crack and cocaine use among adults has been associated with co-occurring psychiatric disorders as well as other drug use and unprotected sex. However, this issue is relatively unstudied in adolescents. This study collected data from 282 adolescents (mean age = 14.9 years) treated in intensive psychiatric treatment settings to understand the…
Opmeer, Brent C; Hollingworth, William; Marques, Elsa M R; Margelyte, Ruta; Gunnell, David
To evaluate the impact of an expansion of liaison psychiatry services (LPS) on patient management, outcomes and treatment costs for emergency department (ED) attendances for self-harm. Retrospective before and after cohort study using routinely collected Self-Harm Surveillance Register data. A large hospital in South West England. Patients attending the ED for self-harm. Extension of the LPS' working hours from 9:00 to 17:00, Monday to Friday to 8:00 to 22:00, 7 days a week, following a £250 000 annual investment MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and characteristics of ED attendances for self-harm. The before and after cohorts were compared in terms of key process measures, including proportion of patients receiving a psychosocial assessment, average length of hospital stay, waiting times for assessment, proportion of patients who self-discharged without an assessment, levels of repeat self-harm attendances and mean cost per patient attendance. 298 patients attended ED for self-harm on 373 occasions between January and March 2014, and 318 patients attended on 381 occasions between January and March 2015. The proportion of ED attendances where patients received a psychosocial assessment increased from 57% to 68% (p=0.003), median waiting time decreased by 3 hours and 14 min (p=0.017), and the proportion of episodes where patients self-discharged without a psychosocial assessment decreased from 20% to 13% (p=0.022). The mean cost per patient attendance was marginally lower after the intervention (-£84; 95% CI -£254 to £77). The extended LPS seems to have had a favourable effect on the management and outcomes of self-harm patients. The cost of extending the LPS' working hours might be partially offset by more efficient assessment and discharge. The impact of the extended LPS on the care of hospitalised patients with mental health problems other than self-harm requires further evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the
O'Connor, Rory C; Ferguson, Eamonn; Scott, Fiona; Smyth, Roger; McDaid, David; Park, A-La; Beautrais, Annette; Armitage, Christopher J
We investigated whether a volitional helpsheet (VHS), a brief psychological intervention, could reduce repeat self-harm in the 6 months following a suicide attempt. We did a prospective, single-site, randomised controlled trial. Patients admitted to a hospital in Edinburgh, UK, after a suicide attempt were deemed eligible for the study if they were over the age of 16 years, had a self-reported history of self-harm, were fluent in English, were medically fit to interview, and were not participating in other research studies within the hospital. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1), via web-based randomisation, to receive either VHS plus usual treatment (intervention group) or only treatment as usual (control group). Randomisation was stratified by sex and self-reported past self-harm history. The Information Services Division of the National Health Service (NHS-ISD) staff and those extracting data from medical notes were masked to the study group the participant was allocated to. Clinical staff working within the hospital were also masked to participants' randomisation status. There were three primary outcomes: the proportion of paticipants who re-presented to hospital with self-harm during the 6-month follow-up period; the number of times a participant re-presented to hospital with self-harm during the 6-month follow-up period; and cost-effectiveness of the VHS as measured by estimated incremental cost per self-harm event averted. Primary outcomes were analysed in all randomised patients. Follow-up data collection was extracted from the Information Services Division of the NHS and from patient medical records. The trial is registered with International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry, number ISRCTN99488269. Between May 9, 2012, and Feb 24, 2014, we assessed 1308 people for eligibility. Of these, 259 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 259 to the control group. We obtained complete follow-up data on 512 (99
Siegel, Matthew; Gabriels, Robin L
Children with autism spectrum disorder are psychiatrically hospitalized much more frequently than children in the general population. Hospitalization occurs primarily because of externalizing behaviors and is associated with behavioral disturbance, impaired emotion regulation, and psychiatric comorbidity. Additionally, a lack of practitioner and/or administrator training and experience with this population poses risks for denial of care by third-party payers or treatment facilities, inadequate treatment, extended lengths of stay, and poor outcomes. Evidence and best practices for the inpatient psychiatric care of this population are presented. Specialized treatment programs universally rely on multidisciplinary approaches, including behaviorally informed interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moor, Stephanie; Crowe, Marie; Luty, Sue; Carter, Janet; Joyce, Peter R
The age of the first episode of illness in Bipolar Disorder has been shown to be an important predictor of outcome with early onset, particularly onset before puberty, associated with greater comorbidity, a poorer quality of life and greatest impairment in functioning. Baseline data from a psychotherapy study was used to examine the prevalence of other comorbid psychiatric conditions and the impact of onset at an early age on both self harming behaviour and suicide attempts in young people with Bipolar Disorder. This study of 100 adolescents and young adults (aged 15-36 years) with Bipolar Disorder showed that comorbid conditions were very common, even at the start of their bipolar illness. Comorbidity increased as the age of onset decreased with very early onset (early age of onset of Bipolar Disorder. In contrast, previous suicide attempts were predicted by greater comorbidity and not by very early (age of onset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hazell, Philip L.; Martin, Graham; McGill, Katherine; Kay, Tracey; Wood, Alison; Trainor, Gemma; Harrington, Richard
A study revealing the superiority of group therapy to routine care in preventing the recurrence of self-harming behavior among adolescents is unsuccessfully replicated. The study's findings contradicted those of the original study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that the rates of self harm vary by ethnic group, but the evidence for variation in risk factors has not been synthesised to inform preventive initiatives. Methods We undertook a systematic literature review of research about self harm that compared at least two ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Results 25 publications from 1765 titles and abstracts met our inclusion criteria. There was higher rate of self harm among South Asian women, compared with South Asian men and White women. In a pooled estimate from two studies, compared to their white counterparts, Asian women were more likely to self harm (Relative Risk 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1 to 1.8, p = 0.005, and Asian men were less likely to self harm (RR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7, p Conclusion This review finds some ethnic differences in the nature and presentation of self harm. This argues for ethnic specific preventive actions. However, the literature does not comprehensively cover the UK's diverse ethnic groups.
Jacob, Nina; Evans, Rhiannon; Scourfield, Jonathan
To date, research on the role of the Internet in self-harm has focused on young people's interaction via the medium of text, with limited consideration of the effect of images. This qualitative study explores how young people understand and use online images of self-harm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a community sample of 21 individuals aged 16-24 living in Wales, UK, with a previous history of self-harm. Interviewees reported the role of the Internet in normalising young people's self-harm. Images rather than textual interactions are the primary reason cited for using the Internet for self-harm purposes. Images invoke a physical reaction and inspire behavioural enactment, with Tumblr, which permits the sharing of images by anonymous individuals, being the preferred platform. Viewing online images serves a vital role in many young people's self-harm, as part of ritualistic practice. Online prevention and intervention need to attend to the importance of images. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hercilio P. Oliveira
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabis dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA. Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038, which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.
Oliveira, Hercilio P; Malbergier, Andre
To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabis dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038), which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.
Geulayov, Galit; Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Waters, Keith; Ness, Jennifer; Townsend, Ellen; Hawton, Keith
Objectives Self-harm is a major health problem in many countries, with potential adverse outcomes including suicide and other causes of premature death. It is important to monitor national trends in this behaviour. We examined trends in non-fatal self-harm and its management in England during the 13-year period, 2000–2012. Design and setting This observational study was undertaken in the three centres of the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England. Information on all episodes of self-harm by individuals aged 15 years and over presenting to five general hospitals in three cities (Oxford, Manchester and Derby) was collected through face-to-face assessment or scrutiny of emergency department electronic databases. We used negative binomial regression models to assess trends in rates of self-harm and logistic regression models for binary outcomes (eg, assessed vs non-assessed patients). Participants During 2000–2012, there were 84 378 self-harm episodes (58.6% by females), involving 47 048 persons. Results Rates of self-harm declined in females (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.98; 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99, pself-harm declined until 2008 (IRR 0.96; 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98, pself-harm were strongly correlated with suicide rates in England in males (r=0.82, p=0.0006) and females (r=0.74, p=0.004). Over 75% of self-harm episodes were due to self-poisoning, mainly with analgesics (45.7%), antidepressants (24.7%) and benzodiazepines (13.8%). A substantial increase in self-injury occurred in the latter part of the study period. This was especially marked for self-cutting/stabbing and hanging/asphyxiation. Psychosocial assessment by specialist mental health staff occurred in 53.2% of episodes. Conclusions Trends in rates of self-harm and suicide may be closely related; therefore, self-harm can be a useful mental health indicator. Despite national guidance, many patients still do not receive psychosocial assessment, especially those who self-injure. PMID:27130163
Jochems, Eline C; Mulder, Cornelis L; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Dam, Arno
Self-determination theory is potentially useful for understanding reasons why individuals with mental illness do or do not engage in psychiatric treatment. The current study examined the psychometric properties of three questionnaires based on self-determination theory-The Treatment Entry Questionnaire (TEQ), Health Care Climate Questionnaire (HCCQ), and the Short Motivation Feedback List (SMFL)-in a sample of 348 Dutch adult outpatients with primary diagnoses of mood, anxiety, psychotic, and personality disorders. Structural equation modeling showed that the empirical factor structures of the TEQ and SMFL were adequately represented by a model with three intercorrelated factors. These were interpreted as identified, introjected, and external motivation. The reliabilities of the Dutch TEQ, HCCQ, and SMFL were found to be acceptable but can be improved on; congeneric estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 depending on the measure and patient subsample. Preliminary support for the construct validities of the questionnaires was found in the form of theoretically expected associations with other scales, including therapist-rated motivation and treatment engagement and with legally mandated treatment. Additionally, the study provides insights into the relations between measures of motivation based on self-determination theory, the transtheoretical model and the integral model of treatment motivation in psychiatric outpatients with severe mental illness. © The Author(s) 2013.
Diogo F Guerreiro
Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control
Berman, Mitchell E; Fanning, Jennifer R; Guillot, Casey R; Marsic, Angelika; Bullock, Joshua; Nadorff, Michael R; McCloskey, Michael S
Nonexperimental survey and field research support the notion that alcohol use may be associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) across the spectrum of lethality, from nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) through suicide. Nonexperimental studies, however, provide limited information about potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and DSH. Two previous experiments showed that a relatively high-dose of alcohol increases the likelihood of engaging in DSH in men, with DSH defined by the self-administration of a "painful" shock (the self-aggression paradigm [SAP]; Berman & Walley, 2003; McCloskey & Berman, 2003). In this study, we examined whether (a) lower doses of alcohol also elicit DSH, (b) this effect occurs for women as well as men, and (c) individual differences in past nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) moderate alcohol's effects on DSH. Nonalcohol dependent men and women (N = 210) were assigned either to .00%, .05%, .075%, or .100% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) drink conditions and completed a self-rating scale of NSSI (the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory [DSHI]; Gratz, 2001). As in previous SAP studies, DSH was operationalized by shock setting behavior during a competitive reaction time (RT) game. Overall, a greater proportion of participants in the .075% and .100% (but not .050%) alcohol conditions self-selected a "painful" shock to administer compared to participants in the placebo condition. NSSI predicted self-administration of painful shocks, but did not moderate the alcohol effect. Results provide experimental evidence to support the notion that interventions for self-harm should include processes to monitor and limit alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Mahadevan, Su; Casey, Deborah; Simkin, Sue
To determine whether rates of suicide and self-harm in university students differ from those in other young people. We obtained information on Oxford University students who died by suicide or presented to hospital following deliberate self-harm (DSH) between 1976 and 2006 from official records and a General Hospital monitoring system in Oxford. Rates of suicide and self-harm in the students and in other young people in the general population were calculated from university, local and national population figures. Forty-eight Oxford University students (32 males and 16 females) died by suicide. Most (N = 42) were aged 18-25 years. The suicide rate did not differ from that of other people in this age group in England and Wales (SMR 105.4; 95% CI 75.2, 143.4). There was evidence of clustering of methods of suicide over time. During the same period, 602 students (383 females and 219 males) presented to the General Hospital following DSH. Most (90.7%) were aged 15-24 years, in which age group rates of DSH (per 100,000) during term-time were lower than in other young people in Oxford City (females: 206.5 vs. 285.6, z = -5.03, p Oxford University students do not differ from those in other young people. Rates of DSH are significantly lower than in other young people. Risk of DSH may increase around the time of examinations.
disruptive and aggressive behavior during their previous hospital stays; residential and vocational instability, family disruption, and higher premorbid dysfunction.9 Over two thirds of patients have a violent episode within the first 72 hours of admission to an acute psychiatric unit, suggesting that there is a relatively high ...
Ellilä, Heikki; Välimäki, Maritta; Warne, Tony; Sourander, Andre
Research on nursing ideology and the ethics of child and adolescent psychiatric nursing care is limited. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the ideological approaches guiding psychiatric nursing in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient wards in Finland, and discuss the ethical, theoretical and practical concerns related to nursing ideologies. Data were collected by means of a national questionnaire survey, which included one open-ended question seeking managers' opinions on the nursing ideology used in their area of practice. Questionnaires were sent to all child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient wards (n = 69) in Finland; 61 ward managers responded. Data were analysed by qualitative and quantitative content analysis. Six categories -- family centred care, individual care, milieu centred care, integrated care, educational care and psychodynamic care -- were formed to specify ideological approaches used in inpatient nursing. The majority of the wards were guided by two or more approaches. Nursing models, theories and codes of ethics were almost totally ignored in the ward managers' ideological descriptions.
Kong, Camillia; Dunn, Michael; Parker, Michael
Realizing the benefits of translating psychiatric genomics research into mental health care is not straightforward. The translation process gives rise to ethical challenges that are distinctive from challenges posed within psychiatric genomics research itself, or that form part of the delivery of clinical psychiatric genetics services. This article outlines and considers three distinct ethical concerns posed by the process of translating genomic research into frontline psychiatric practice and policy making. First, the genetic essentialism that is commonly associated with the genomics revolution in health care might inadvertently exacerbate stigma towards people with mental disorders. Secondly, the promises of genomic medicine advance a narrative of individual empowerment. This narrative could promote a fatalism towards patients' biology in ways that function in practice to undermine patients' agency and autonomy, or, alternatively, a heightened sense of subjective genetic responsibility could become embedded within mental health services that leads to psychosocial therapeutic approaches and the clinician-patient therapeutic alliance being undermined. Finally, adopting a genomics-focused approach to public mental health risks shifting attention away from the complex causal relationships between inequitable socio-economic, political, and cultural structures and negative mental health outcomes. The article concludes by outlining a number of potential pathways for future ethics research that emphasizes the importance of examining appropriate translation mechanisms, the complementarity between genetic and psychosocial models of mental disorder, the implications of genomic information for the clinician-patient relationship, and funding priorities and resource allocation decision making in mental health.
Full Text Available A fragile state is not an ideal environment for any professional to work within` – psychiatric, medical or otherwise. Psychiatrists working to assess psychological distress and mental health in fragile states, or with refugees from fragile states, need to adopt flexible approaches.
Suicide and self-harm is an increasing global concern. Every year almost one million people die from suicide globally. It is among the three leading causes of death among those aged 15-44 years in some countries, and the second leading cause of death in the 10-24 years age group; these figures do not include suicide attempts which are up to 20 times more frequent than completed suicide. Suicide rates have been highest among in the male elderly, however rate among young people have been increa...
Daniel T.L. Shek; Lu Yu
The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal ...
Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; FERNANDEZ-MENDOZA, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Bixler, Edward O.
Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5–12 yr. old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7,312...
Drabble, Jennifer; Bowles, David P.; Barker, Lynne Ann
Self-injurious behavior (or self-harm) is a frequently reported maladaptive behavior in the general population and a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Poor affect regulation is strongly linked to a propensity to self-harm, is a core component of BPD, and is linked with reduced attentional control abilities. The idea that attentional control difficulties may provide a link between BPD, negative affect and self-harm has yet to be established, however. The present study explored the putative relationship between levels of BPD features, three aspects of attentional/executive control, affect, and self-harm history in a sample of 340 non-clinical participants recruited online from self-harm forums and social networking sites. Analyses showed that self-reported levels of BPD features and attentional focusing predicted self-harm incidence, and high attentional focusing increased the likelihood of a prior self-harm history in those with high BPD features. Ability to shift attention was associated with a reduced likelihood of self-harm, suggesting that good attentional switching ability may provide a protective buffer against self-harm behavior for some individuals. These attentional control differences mediated the association between negative affect and self-harm, but the relationship between BPD and self-harm appears independent. PMID:25191235
Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (or self-harm is a frequently reported maladaptive behavior in the general population and a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Poor affect regulation is strongly linked to a propensity to self-harm, is a core component of BPD, and is linked with reduced attentional control abilities. The idea that attentional control difficulties may provide a link between BPD, negative affect and self-harm has yet to be established, however. The present study explored the putative relationship between levels of BPD features, three aspects of attentional/executive control, affect, and self-harm history in a sample of 340 non-clinical participants recruited online from self-harm forums and social networking sites. Analyses showed that self-reported levels of BPD features and attentional focusing predicted self-harm incidence, and high attentional focusing increased the likelihood of a prior self-harm history in those with high BPD features. Ability to shift attention was associated with a reduced likelihood of self-harm, suggesting that good attentional switching ability may provide a protective buffer against self-harm behavior for some individuals. These attentional control differences mediated the association between negative affect and self-harm, but the relationship between BPD and self-harm appears independent.
Krooks, J A; Weatherall, A G; Holland, P J
Approximately half of all patients presenting to dermatologists exhibit signs and symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are either primary or secondary to cutaneous disease. Because patients typically resist psychiatric consult, dermatologists often are on the front line in evaluating and treating these patients. Accordingly, distinguishing the specific underlying or resulting psychiatric condition is essential for effective treatment. The etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and first-line treatment of specific primary psychiatric causes of dermatologic conditions, including delusional infestation, Morgellons syndrome, olfactory reference syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, excoriation disorder, trichotillomania, and dermatitis artefacta are discussed here, followed by a discussion of the recommended treatment approach with an overview of the different first-line therapies discussed in this review, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants. Included is a guide for dermatologists to use while prescribing these medications.
Anton, Sanda; Gugić, Damir; Katinić, Križo; Topić, Jelena
Being diagnosed with breast cancer is a traumatic event that can lead to development of different mental disorders and influences all aspects of affected woman's life. Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in physically ill people still don't have clear diagnostic criteria which make diagnosis and treatment very difficult since different psychiatric therapeutic approaches have different effects. The aim was to evaluate influence of separate and combined psychotherapeutic approach (psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral) and psychopharmacotherapy on decrease of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. The sample consisted of 120 subjects divided into four groups. The first group of patients was treated with psychopharmacotherapy, the second group received psychotherapy, the third group was treated with the combination of psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, and the fourth group of patients didn't receive any kind of psychiatric treatment. We used psychotherapeutic interview with detailed clinical assessment using DSM-IV criteria for mental disorders, specially structured non-standardized questionnaire for assessment of etiological factors in development of mental disorders, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). The subjects filled the questionnaires on entry, one moth and two months after the beginning of research. Psychotherapeutic treatment was conducted once a week. All of the therapeutic approaches of liaison psychiatrist applied in the treatment of women with breast cancer are successful in reduction of anxiety and depression. Liaison psychiatrist's combined approach of psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer patients with depression obtained better results than separate approach.
Mitchell, Rebecca; Draper, Brian; Harvey, Lara; Brodaty, Henry; Close, Jacqueline
With population ageing, self-harm injuries among older people are increasing. Further examination of the association of physical illness and self-harm among older people is warranted. This research aims to identify the association of physical illness with hospitalisations following self-harm compared to non-self-harm injury among older people. A population-based cohort study of individuals aged 50+ years admitted to hospital either for a self-harm or a non-self-harm injury using linked hospital admission and mortality records during 2003-2012 in New South Wales, Australia was conducted. Logistic regression and survival plots were used to examine the association of 21 physical illnesses and mortality at 12 months by injury intent, respectively. Age-adjusted health outcomes, including length of stay, readmission and mortality were examined by injury intent. There were 12,111 hospitalisations as a result of self-harm and 474,158 hospitalisations as a result of non-self-harm injury. Self-harm compared to non-self-harm hospitalised injury was associated with higher odds of mental health conditions (i.e. depression, schizophrenia, bipolar and anxiety disorders), neurological disorders (excluding dementia), other disorders of the nervous system, diabetes, chronic lower respiratory disease, liver disease, tinnitus and pain. Tinnitus, pain, malignancies and diabetes all had a higher likelihood of occurrence for self-harm compared to non-self-harm hospitalisations even after adjusting for mental health conditions, number of comorbidities and alcohol and drug dependency. Older people who are experiencing chronic health conditions, particularly tinnitus, malignancies, diabetes and chronic pain may be at risk of self-harm. Targeted screening may assist in identifying older people at risk of self-harm.
Wadman, Ruth; Clarke, David; Sayal, Kapil; Armstrong, Marie; Harroe, Caroline; Majumder, Pallab; Vostanis, Panos; Townsend, Ellen
Young people in the public care system ('looked-after' young people) have high levels of self-harm. This paper reports the first detailed study of factors leading to self-harm over time in looked-after young people in England, using sequence analyses of the Card Sort Task for Self-harm (CaTS). Young people in care (looked-after group: n = 24; 14-21 years) and young people who had never been in care (contrast group: n = 21; 13-21 years) completed the CaTS, describing sequences of factors leading to their first and most recent episodes of self-harm. Lag sequential analysis determined patterns of significant transitions between factors (thoughts, feelings, behaviours, events) leading to self-harm across 6 months. Young people in care reported feeling better immediately following their first episode of self-harm. However, fearlessness of death, impulsivity, and access to means were reported most proximal to recent self-harm. Although difficult negative emotions were salient to self-harm sequences in both groups, young people with no experience of being in care reported a greater range of negative emotions and transitions between them. For the contrast group, feelings of depression and sadness were a significant starting point of the self-harm sequence 6 months prior to most recent self-harm. Sequences of factors leading to self-harm can change and evolve over time, so regular monitoring and assessment of each self-harm episode are needed. Support around easing and dealing with emotional distress is required. Restricting access to means to carry out potentially fatal self-harm attempts, particularly for the young persons with experience of being in care, is recommended. Self-harm (and factors associated with self-harm) can change and evolve over time; assessments need to reflect this. Looked-after young people reported feeling better after first self-harm; fearlessness of death, access to means, and impulsivity were reported as key in recent self-harm
Background To investigate the prevalence of self-harm in young adolescents and factors associated with onset and continuity over a one year period. Method Prospective longitudinal study. Participants were young adolescents (n = 3964) aged 12–16 years attending 8 secondary schools in the Midlands and South West of England. Results Over a one year period 27% of young adolescents reported thoughts of self-harm and 15% reported at least one act of self-harm. Of those who self-harmed, less than one in five (18%) had sought help for psychological problems of anxiety or depression. Compared with boys, girls were at increased risk of developing thoughts (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.26-2.06) and acts (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.84) of self-harm, particularly amongst those girls in school year 9 (aged 13/14, thoughts adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.27-3.04; acts aOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.52-4.41). Of those reporting thoughts of self-harm at baseline, 60% also reported these thoughts at follow-up. Similarly 55% of those who reported an act of self-harm at baseline also reported that they had self-harmed at follow-up. Insecure peer relationships increased the likelihood that boys and girls would develop self-harming behaviours, as did being bullied for boys. Low mood was associated with the development of self-harming thoughts and behaviours for boys and girls, whilst a strong sense of school membership was associated with a reduced risk of developing thoughts of self-harm for boys and increased the likelihood of self-harming thoughts and behaviours ceasing for girls. Conclusion Self harm in young adolescents is common with one in four reporting self-harming thoughts and one in six engaging in self-harming behaviour over a one year period. Self-harm is already established by 12/13 years of age and for over half of our sample, self-harming thoughts and behaviour persisted over the year. Secure peer and strong school relationships were associated with less self-harm. Few seek help for
Latas, Milan; Starcević, Vladan; Trajković, Goran
Besides numerous studies that examined various aspects of comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and numerous studies that examined efficacy of different treatment modalities in these patients, there was no study that examined relationship of overall psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment efficiency of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The sample of the study consisted of 119 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia. The therapy of patients was based on the use of individual integrative model of treatment, which incorporated psycho-pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines and antidepressants) and cognitive-behavior therapy. Symptom severity was estimated by Panic and Agoraphobia Scale before and after the completion of treatment. Patients with comorbidity and patients without any comorbidity were compared by MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures. The results of the study showed that 91% of patients met diagnostic criteria of comorbid psychiatric disorder and these patients had more severe clinical picture than patients without any comorbid disorder before the treatment. The results also showed that, after the completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction of all analyzed symptoms, that the effects of treatment were significantly better in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and that comorbid psychiatric disorders had no negative effect on the main goals of the treatment. Based on these results, it may be concluded that: in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, the pharmacotherapy must be based on simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, while standard cognitive-behavior therapy of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia must be modified in case of the existing comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available Introduction. Besides numerous studies that examined various aspects of comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and numerous studies that examined efficacy of different treatment modalities in these patients, there was no study that examined relationship of overall psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Objective. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment efficiency of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Method. The sample of the study consisted of 119 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia. The therapy of patients was based on the use of individual integrative model of treatment, which incorporated psycho-pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines and antidepressants and cognitive- behavior therapy. Symptom severity was estimated by Panic and Agoraphobia Scale before and after the completion of treatment. Patients with comorbidity and patients without any comorbidity were compared by MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures. Results. The results of the study showed that 91% of patients met diagnostic criteria of comorbid psychiatric disorder and these patients had more severe clinical picture than patients without any comorbid disorder before the treatment. The results also showed that, after the completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction of all analyzed symptoms, that the effects of treatment were significantly better in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and that comorbid psychiatric disorders had no negative effect on the main goals of the treatment. Conclusion. Based on these results, it may be concluded that: in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, the pharmacotherapy must be based on simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, while standard cognitive-behavior therapy of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia must
Health sciences suffer from insomnia: experts too often concentrate their efforts on the wake state. Fortunately enough, some of them have taken the road towards the "Dark Third of Life": sleep. This article gives an historical account of the development of the first Canadian sleep disorders laboratory and clinic specifically and selectively designed for children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. It then stresses the importance of sleep in children bearing a psychiatric diagnosis and summarizes therapeutic strategies. Data-on-file and selective review of literature. An innovative scheme matching sleep psychologists and psychiatrists with expertise in neurodevelopmental disorders led to the creation of a sleep research laboratory on mental health disorders. The initial research projects on the sleep and dreams of patients with schizophrenia and persons with autism are summarized. The Sleep Disorders Clinic for Children and Adolescents was then created at the Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, leading to much needed activities focused on youth. Indeed, sleep disorders show a high prevalence in children with a psychiatric diagnosis and the literature shows that these children have an increased sensitivity for diurnal effects of poor sleep. The main sleep-relevant issues at stake are reviewed, including the high frequency of sleep disorders in pedopsychiatric patients. Clinical challenges are described and the operating mode of the Sleep Disorders Clinic is illustrated. Sleep disorders and their effects on daytime functioning need to be assessed in children with a psychiatric diagnosis in order to generate a full clinical picture. Appropriate tools and know-how are readily available in order to achieve this goal.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.
Full Text Available Donald E Greydanus1,2, Roger W Apple31Pediatrics and Human Development; College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 2Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Michigan State University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 3Psychological Evaluation and Consultation Services, Kalamazoo Regional Educational Service Agency, Portage, MI, USAAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH is a common though often hidden condition in children and adolescents that may result in suicide. This discussion covers several aspects of DSH including its prevalence, etiology, and management. The relationships of DSH to body dissatisfaction and suicide are specifically considered. Even though most cases of DSH do not end in overt suicide, DSH reflects that potential underlying psychological pathophysiology, and likelihood of eventual death from self-murder, cannot always be predicted or prevented. It is important to take all acts of DSH as serious, and to offer comprehensive management to prevent future acts of DSH and potential suicide.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, body dissatisfaction, suicide risk, children, adolescents, etiology, management
Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O
Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: This review will indicate the quality of the evidence supporting the clinical effects of a number of commonly used types of herbal medicines for psychiatric and neurological disorders. Method: We conducted a review of literature to understand the biochemical and evidential bases for the use of herbs in psychiatric and neurological disorders as follow: 1 Alzheimer’s disease, 2 Depression, 3 Anxiety, 4 Insomnia, 5 Substance use disorders, 6 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, 7 Migraine. Results: Evidences support use of Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A, Galantamine, Melissa officinalis,and Salvia officinalis for Alzheimer’s disease; St. John’s wort, Lavender, and Saffron for depression; Passionflower, and Kava, for anxiety disorders; Valerian, and English Lavender for sleep disorders; Hypericum for substance related disorders; Ginkgo biloba, and Passionflower for ADHD; and feverfew, and Butterbur root for migraine. The highest level of confidence derives from well-designed, randomized, double blind controlled studies. Conclusion: Herbs may have beneficial effects in variety of psychiatric and neurological disorder; however we must consider their potential side effects and drug-drug interactions.
Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hayashida, Sumito; Nitta, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku; Ohta, Bon
To evaluate the incidence and outcomes of self-harm from ambulance records. A retrospective, observational study. Osaka City, Japan. A total of 365 adolescents aged 10-19 years with emergency self-harm such as poisoning by drugs or gas, cutting skin, jumping from heights, hanging and drowning and treated by emergency medical service personnel from January 2010 through December 2012. Incidence per 100 000 persons and outcome at the scene or hospital arrival by age and gender. Poisson regression models for incidence evaluation were used; reporting relative risks (RRs) and their 95% CIs. During the study period, a total of 425 self-harm events were documented in 365 adolescents. The incidence of self-harm increased significantly between the ages of 11 and 19 years, from 6.3 to 81.0 among boys and the ages of 12 and 19 years from 6.3 to 228.3 among girls, respectively (both pself-harm was 4.9%. The proportion of hospital admission and death by self-harm was higher among boys than among girls (38.6% vs 25.2%, p=0.016 and 14.8% vs 2.4%, pself-harm by adolescents increased with age and our findings also demonstrated the gender paradox. It would be necessary to establish active, gender-specific and comprehensive prevention strategies for adolescent self-harm, based on our findings showing the age and gender differences of self-harm among adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Tidemalm, D; Beckman, K; Dahlin, M; Vaez, M; Lichtenstein, P; Långström, N; Runeson, B
Possible age-related differences in risk of completed suicide following non-fatal self-harm remain unexplored. We examined associations between self-harm and completed suicide across age groups of self-harming patients, and whether these associations varied by violent index method, presence of mental disorder, and repeated self-harm. The design was a cohort study with linked national registers in Sweden. The study population comprised individuals aged ⩾10 years hospitalized during 1990-1999 due to non-fatal self-harm (n = 53 843; 58% females) who were followed for 9-19 years. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) across age groups (age at index self-harm episode), with time to completed suicide as outcome. The 1-year HR for suicide among younger males (10-19 years) was 14.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-51.9] for violent method and 8.4 (95% CI 1.8-40.0) for mental disorder. By contrast, none of the three potential risk factors increased the 1-year risks in the youngest females. Among patients aged ⩾20 years, the 1-year HR for violent method was 4.6 (95% CI 3.8-5.4) for males and 10.4 (95% CI 8.3-13.0) for females. HRs for repeated self-harm during years 2-9 of follow-up were higher in 10- to 19-year-olds (males: HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-7.8; females: HR 3.7, 95% CI 2.1-6.5). The ⩾20 years age groups had higher HRs than the youngest, particularly for females and especially within 1 year. Violent method and mental disorder increase the 1-year suicide risk in young male self-harm patients. Further, violent method increases suicide risk within 1 year in all age and gender groups except the youngest females. Repeated self-harm may increase the long-term risk more in young patients. These aspects should be accounted for in clinical suicide risk assessment.
Fischer, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Klug, Katja; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimi; Wasserman, Danuta; Vonderlin, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
To investigate associations between risky and pathologic internet use with depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour among a representative sample of German adolescents. A total of 1,435 students (48% boys, 52% girls) from the area of Heidelberg/Germany were recruited during the SEYLE study, a European school-based intervention study and completed an assessment of different questionnaires, including the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for the assessment of risky and pathological internet use, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Deliberate Self Harm Inventory, and the Paykel Suicide Scale. 80.7% of the students reported regular, 14.5% risky, and 4.8% pathological internet use. The risky and the pathological internet users showed significant higher rates of depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour compared to students with regular internet use. Remarkably, there were no significant differences of levels of depression and suicidal behaviour between risky and pathological users. These results suggest that not only pathologic internet use but also risky internet use is associated with symptoms of depression, self-harm and suicidal behaviour. Therefore, more attention should be paid to adolescents with risky internet use for the early recognition of depression, self-harm and suicidality in adolescence.
Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Walsh, Zach; Edelen, Maria O.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markowitz, John C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Morey, Leslie C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.
Objective We examined the predictive power of the self-harm subscale of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) to identify suicide attempters in the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (CLPS). Method The SNAP, a self-report personality inventory, was administered to 733 CLPS participants at baseline, of whom 701 (96%) had at least 6 months of follow-up data. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to examine the SNAP–self-harm subscale (SNAP-SH) in predicting the 129 suicide attempters over 8 years of follow-up. Possible moderators of prediction were examined, including borderline personality disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and substance use disorder. We also compared baseline administration of the SNAP-SH to subsequent administrations more proximal to the suicide attempt, and to a higher-order SNAP-negative temperament (SNAP-NT) subscale. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted using suicide attempts (n = 58) over the first year of follow-up to provide reference points for sensitivity and specificity. Results The SNAP-SH demonstrated good predictive power for suicide attempts (hazard ratio = 1.28, P < .001) and appeared relatively consistent across borderline personality disorder, MDD, and substance use disorder diagnoses. Using more proximal scores did not increase predictive power. The SNAP-SH compared favorably to the predictive power of the higher-order SNAP-NT. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicate several cutoff scores on the SNAP-SH that yield moderate to high sensitivity and specificity for predicting suicide attempts over the first year of follow-up. Conclusions The SNAP-SH may be a useful screening instrument for risk of suicide attempts in nonpsychotic psychiatric patients. PMID:21294991
Bowes, Lucy; Carnegie, Rebecca; Pearson, Rebecca; Mars, Becky; Biddle, Lucy; Maughan, Barbara; Lewis, Glyn; Fernyhough, Charles; Heron, Jon
Previous research has suggested that deliberate self-harm is associated with contemporary goth subculture in young people; however, whether this association is confounded by characteristics of young people, their families, and their circumstances is unclear. We aimed to test whether self-identification as a goth is prospectively associated with emergence of clinical depression and self-harm in early adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK community-based birth cohort of 14 541 pregnant women with expected delivery between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992. All children in the study were invited to attend yearly follow-up visits at the research clinic from age 7 years. At 15 years of age, participants reported the extent to which they self-identified as a goth. We assessed depressive mood and self-harm at 15 years with the Development and Wellbeing Assessment (DAWBA) questionnaire, and depression and self-harm at 18 years using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. We calculated the prospective association between goth identification at 15 years and depression and self-harm at 18 years using logistic regression analyses. Of 5357 participants who had data available for goth self-identification, 3694 individuals also had data for depression and self-harm outcomes at 18 years. 105 (6%) of 1841 adolescents who did not self-identify as goths met criteria for depression compared with 28 (18%) of 154 who identified as goths very much; for self-harm, the figures were 189 (10%) of 1841 versus 57 (37%) of 154. We noted a dose-response association with goth self-identification both for depression and for self-harm. Compared with young people who did not identify as a goth, those who somewhat identified as being a goth were 1·6 times more likely (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·63, 95% CI 1·14-2·34, pdepression at 18 years; findings were similar for self-harm. Associations were not attenuated after adjustment for a range of
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Zullig, Keith J
The association between deliberate self-harm (DSH) and domain-based life satisfaction reports and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored simultaneously among college students. Randomly selected participants (N = 723) completed an online survey. Relationships among DSH, 7 life satisfaction domains, and HRQOL (as assessed by mean good physical and mental health days, GHDs) were examined through correlational and general linear modeling procedures with post hoc analyses. DSH was a significant predictor for all life satisfaction domains, overall life satisfaction, and mean GHDs, even after controlling for covariates (p romantic relationships. Lastly, those engaging in DSH experience on average 60 fewer GHDs each year than those not engaging in DSH.
Madsen, Lizell B; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Eddleston, Michael Philip
of interventions aimed at preventing suicidal behavior. Method: A systematic literature search was performed in several literature databases to identify relevant articles published from 2003 to 2016. Drummond’s 10-item appraisal tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results......Background: Death following self-harm constitutes a major global public health challenge and there is an urgent need for governments to implement cost-effective, national suicide prevention strategies. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and quality appraisal of the economic evaluations......: In total, 25 documents encompassing 30 economic evaluations were included in the review. Of the identified evaluations, 10 studies were found to be of poor quality, 14 were of average quality, and six studies were considered of good quality. The majority of evaluations found the interventions to be cost...
Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu
The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Cumming Steven R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH is the intentional destruction of healthy body tissue without suicidal intent. DSH behaviours in non-clinical populations vary, and instruments containing a range of behaviours may be more informative than ones with restricted content. The Self-Harm Inventory (SHI is a widely used measure of DSH in clinical populations (mental and physical health and covers a broad range of behaviours (self-injury, risk taking and self-defeating acts. The test authors recommend the SHI to screen for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD using a cut-off score of five or more. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the SHI in non-clinical samples. Methods The SHI was administered to a sample of 423 non-clinical participants (university students, age range 17 to 30. External validation was informed by the administration of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21 to a sub-sample (n = 221. Rasch analysis of the SHI was conducted to provide a stringent test of unidimensionality and to identify the DSH behaviours most likely to be endorsed at each total score. Results The SHI showed adequate fit to the Rasch model and no modifications were required following checks of local response dependency, differential item functioning and unidimensionality. The scale identified gender and age differences in scores, with females and older participants reporting higher levels of DSH. SHI scores and DASS-21 scores were related. Conclusion The recommended cut-off point of five is likely to comprise mild forms of DSH and may not be indicative of psychopathology in a non-clinical population. Rather it may be more indicative of developmentally related risk taking behaviours while a higher cut-off point may be more suggestive of psychopathology as indicated by higher levels of depression, stress and anxiety.
Huang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Hui-Ching; Sun, Fang-Ju; Tsai, Fang-Ju; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Chen, Ting-Chun; Huang, Yo-Ping; Liu, Shen-Ing
Data on the incidence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicide attempts (SAs) are lacking in non-Western adolescents, and no studies have investigated differences in incident DSH and SA worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the incidence rates and relationships between predictors in DSH and SA. The Taiwanese Adolescent Self-Harm Project was a longitudinal study of DSH among adolescents. We recruited 5,879 students from 14 senior high schools in northern Taiwan. Online questionnaires on sociodemographic data, suicidality, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, social support, family discord, impulsivity, and alcohol and tobacco use were assessed at baseline (T1) and at 1 year of follow-up (T2). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictors of incident DSH and SA. The mean age was 16.02 years, and 56.73% of the cohort was female. At T1, the lifetime prevalence rates of DSH and SA were 25.04% and 3.50%, respectively. At T2, 4,331 (73.67%) students had completed follow-up assessments. The 1-year incidence rates of DSH and SA were 4.04% and 1.53%, respectively. The predictors of incident DSH included perceived family discord and more depressive symptoms at T1. The predictors of incident SA were lifetime suicide ideation, more depressive symptoms, and tobacco use at T1. The incidence rates of DSH and SA were similar to those reported in Western countries. The predictors of incident DSH and SA were similar but not identical. Our results highlight the risk factors which should be considered in terms of early identification and intervention among adolescents to prevent suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rees, Nigel; Rapport, Frances; Thomas, Gareth; John, Ann; Snooks, Helen
The U.K. has one of the highest rates of self harm in Europe at 400 per 100,000 of population. Paramedics and emergency staff may be the first professionals encountered, therefore understanding their views and approaches to care is crucial. The aim of this study was to systematically review published quantitative literature relating to paramedic and emergency workers' perceptions and experiences of caring for people who self harm. CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, OVID ® and Psych INFO® databases were searched, PRISMA guidelines were followed, two researchers independently screened titles, abstracts and full papers against a priori eligibility criteria. Data synthesis was achieved by extracting and descriptively analysing study characteristics and findings. 16 studies met inclusion criteria; one included ambulance staff, all used questionnaires. Training, policies and guidelines improved staff knowledge and confidence in caring for people who self harm. Limited access to training was reported, ranging from 75% to 90% of staff lacking any. Limited departmental guidelines were also reported. Staff in acute settings exhibited increased feelings of negativity, becoming less positive closer to front line care. Recent studies report positive attitudes amongst emergency staff. Despite guidelines indicating need for education and policies to guide staff in self harm care, there is limited evidence of this happening in practice. The lack of literature including paramedics suggests a gap in our understanding about care for self harm patients. This gap warrants greater attention in order to improve care for patients who self harm in their first point of contact. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Polling, C; Tulloch, A; Banerjee, S; Cross, S; Dutta, R; Wood, D M; Dargan, P I; Hotopf, M
Self-harm is a significant public health concern in the UK. This is reflected in the recent addition to the English Public Health Outcomes Framework of rates of attendance at Emergency Departments (EDs) following self-harm. However there is currently no source of data to measure this outcome. Routinely available data for inpatient admissions following self-harm miss the majority of cases presenting to services. We aimed to investigate (i) if a dataset of ED presentations could be produced using a combination of routinely collected clinical and administrative data and (ii) to validate this dataset against another one produced using methods similar to those used in previous studies. Using the Clinical Record Interactive Search system, the electronic health records (EHRs) used in four EDs were linked to Hospital Episode Statistics to create a dataset of attendances following self-harm. This dataset was compared with an audit dataset of ED attendances created by manual searching of ED records. The proportion of total cases detected by each dataset was compared. There were 1932 attendances detected by the EHR dataset and 1906 by the audit. The EHR and audit datasets detected 77% and 76 of all attendances respectively and both detected 82% of individual patients. There were no differences in terms of age, sex, ethnicity or marital status between those detected and those missed using the EHR method. Both datasets revealed more than double the number of self-harm incidents than could be identified from inpatient admission records. It was possible to use routinely collected EHR data to create a dataset of attendances at EDs following self-harm. The dataset detected the same proportion of attendances and individuals as the audit dataset, proved more comprehensive than the use of inpatient admission records, and did not show a systematic bias in those cases it missed.
Nguyen, Tu Q; Simpson, Pamela M; Braaf, Sandra C; Gabbe, Belinda J
Self-harm and intentional injuries represent a significant public health concern. People who survive serious injury from self-harm can experience poor outcomes that negatively impact on their daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate a cohort of major trauma patients hospitalised for self-harm in Victoria, and to identify risk factors for longer term mortality, functional recovery and return to work. 482 adult major trauma patients who were injured due to self-harm and survived to hospital discharge, and were captured by the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR), were included. For those with a date of injury from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013, demographics and injury event data, Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) and return to work (RTW) outcomes at 6, 12 and 24 months post-injury were extracted from the registry. Post-discharge mortality was identified through the Victorian Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages (BDM). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of the GOS-E and RTW and survival analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. A total of 37 (7.7%) deaths occurred post-discharge. There were no clear predictors of all-cause mortality. Overall, 36% of patients reported making a good recovery at 24 months. Older age (p=0.01), transport-related methods of self-harm (p=0.02), higher Injury Severity Score (preported returning to work by 24 months post-injury. Higher Injury Severity Score was an important predictor of not returning to work (p=0.002). The vast majority of major trauma patients who self-harmed and survived to hospital discharge were alive at two years post-injury, yet only half of this cohort returned to work and just over a third of patients experienced a good recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tofthagen, Randi; Talseth, Anne Grethe; Fagerstrøm, Lisbeth Maria
To explore, describe and understand former patients' experiences of recovery from self-harm. Previous research shows that a person's development towards a more secure self-image, mastery of their emotions, an understanding of what triggers self-harm and mastery of new ways to cope with problems are central to recovery. Recovery from self-harm is still a relatively new field of research. A phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Eight participants were interviewed in 2013. Inclusion criteria were as follows: to have committed no self-harm during the past 2 years, to have experienced recovery and to be 18 or older. We analysed data using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The findings resulted in three themes with subthemes. The first theme, the turning point, occurred at the start of the recovery process. Participants learned to choose life, verbally express their inner pain and reconcile with their life histories. In the second theme, coping with everyday life, participants learned how to choose alternative actions instead of self-harm and attend to their basic, physical needs. In the third theme, valuing close relationships and relationships with mental health nurses, participants learned to receive support from close relationships with others and mental health nurses. A tentative model illustrates the comprehensive understanding of the recovery process, described as an individual, prolonged learning process. To achieve recovery, persons who self-harm need guidance and knowledge of how to realize a personal learning process. More research is needed on how mental health nurses can support individual transition processes and thereby facilitate recovery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…
Buhmann, Cæcilie; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Nordentoft, Merete
PURPOSE: To describe change in mental health after treatment with antidepressants and trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. METHODS: Patients receiving treatment at the Psychiatric Trauma Clinic for Refugees in Copenhagen completed self-ratings of level of functioning, quality of life...
Graat, Ilse; Figee, Martijn; Denys, Damiaan
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a last-resort treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. Over the last decades, the progress of DBS in psychiatry has been slower than in neurology, in part owing to the heterogenic symptomatology and complex
Viana, Andres G; Woodward, Emma C; Raines, Elizabeth M; Hanna, Abigail E; Zvolensky, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to examine distress tolerance as a moderator of the relationship between emotional clarity and deliberate self-harm (DSH) in a diverse sample of trauma-exposed adolescents in acute psychiatric care at high risk of suicidal behavior. It was hypothesized that distress tolerance would emerge as a significant moderator, such that the association between emotional clarity and DSH would be significant among youth with high, but not low, distress tolerance. Participants (N=50; 52.0% female; M=15.1years, SD=0.51; 44% White) completed measures of emotion dysregulation, DSH, history of suicide attempts, as well as a behavioral measure of distress tolerance. Controlling for history of suicide attempts, results revealed a significant interaction between distress tolerance and emotional clarity in relation to DSH. Specifically, emotional clarity difficulties were related to DSH at high, but not low, levels of distress tolerance. Findings suggest that DSH among trauma-exposed youth with high rates of past suicide attempts is most likely when low emotion clarity is coupled with a high tolerance for emotional distress. Given that DSH significantly increases risk for suicide among youth with psychiatric needs, assessment of emotional clarity and distress tolerance deficits is apt to be warranted to facilitate identification of these youth for targeted intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Burger, Henry; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Davis, Susan R; Kotz, Krista; Van Winkle, Julie; Richardson, Gregg; Ratka, Anna; Kessel, Bruce
This article aims to educate the nonpsychiatric as well as the psychiatric clinician on the impact of vasomotor symptoms in women with comorbid psychiatric problems and the challenges of treating vasomotor symptoms in these women. The pathophysiology, prevalence and common risk factors associated with disturbing hot flashes in the menopausal transition are reviewed. Hormonal, nonhormonal and behavioral treatment options of vasomotor symptoms for these women are discussed. Special pharmacokinetic implications for hormonal treatment of those women on anticonvulsant medications for the treatment of their mood disorders, on tamoxifen and/or with high or low sex hormone-binding globulin are examined. An in-depth discussion of mood and the menopausal transition, theoretical mechanisms for mood problems with the symptomatic menopause and the impact of stress on the symptomatic menopause are found elsewhere in this clinical review series on psychiatric illness, stress and the symptomatic menopause.
Graat, Ilse; Figee, Martijn; Denys, Damiaan
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a last-resort treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. Over the last decades, the progress of DBS in psychiatry has been slower than in neurology, in part owing to the heterogenic symptomatology and complex neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. However, for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) DBS is now an accepted treatment. This study first reviews clinical outcomes and mechanisms of DBS for OCD, and then discusses these results in an overview of current and future psychiatric applications, including DBS for mood disorders, Tourette's syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, autism, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders. In addition, it will focus on novel techniques that may enhance the application of DBS in psychiatry.
Gholamzadeh, Saeid; Zahmatkeshan, Mozhghan; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Elaheh; Hoseni, Sanaz
Non-suicidal self-harm includes cutting, scratching, burning and minor overdosing. There have been few studies that have examined the rate and pattern of self-harm among different individuals of the society. We performed a population-based study to determine different aspects of non-suicidal self-harm in cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars Province and south Iran. In a population-based longitudinal survey, we applied data from cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars province. The survey included questions about the history, method, frequency, age of onset and help-seeking for non-suicidal self-harm. The data about non-suicidal self-harm were collected since 2007 to 2011 and analyzed using students' T-test for continuous data and χ2 for binary or categorical data using SPSS ver. 21.0. Totally 2166 individuals were diagnosed who had ever harmed themselves. Self-injuries such as cutting, scratching and self-hitting were the most common forms of non-suicidal self-harm (83.2%). The mean age of onset was 25.7 ± 2.6 years. Self-injury was more frequent in males and individuals with lower education levels mostly unemployed. The most frequent injury site was posterior side of the body for example shoulders (157; 9.8%) and the most type of the injury was bruise in 398(55.26%) cases. Hard objects (1197; 55.26%) were the most used devices for self-injury followed by cutting and sharp devices. Among those who reported non-suicidal self-harm, 56% had sought help while self-injury. We found a high prevalence of non-suicidal self-harm in different individuals of the society in Fars province since 2007 to 2011. Many mental-health symptoms as well as legal and financial gains should be evaluated for any association with this behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Amanda Marchant; Keith Hawton; Ann Stewart; Paul Montgomery; Vinod Singaravelu; Keith Lloyd; Nicola Purdy; Kate Daine; Ann John
Background Research exploring internet use and self-harm is rapidly expanding amidst concerns regarding influences of on-line activities on self-harm and suicide, especially in young people. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding the potential influence of the internet on self-harm/suicidal behaviour in young people. Methods We conducted a systematic review based on an electronic search for articles published between 01/01/2011 and 26/01/2015 across databases including Medline, ...
Nagtegaal, M H; Goethals, K; Meynen, G
So far, it is not known what costs and benefits are connected with the tbs-measure, a measure that involves a mandatory treatment programme for forensic psychiatric patients. AIM: To explore the costs and benefits that the tbs-measure has on society, on other important stakeholders such as victims and/or next-of-kin and the forensic psychiatric patients themselves. METHOD: We studied the relevant literature. RESULTS: The average costs of the tbs-treatment programme are 1.5 million euros. Additional costs result from recidivism among patients after tbs-treatment. Of these, 21.2% commit another serious offence after 9 years; this recidivism rate is much lower than rates for former offenders who have not received tbs-treatment (63.8%). Other costs arise through the impact that crimes have on stake-holders. Among the benefits of the tbs-programme are a reduction in psychopathological symptoms and in risk factors and lower recommitment rates (including judicial, non-judicial, voluntary and mandatory recommitment rates). Yet another benefit is the resultant increase of protective factors. CONCLUSION: Forensic psychiatric patients form a unique group within the mental health system in the Netherlands; these patients have multiple complex psychiatric problems and display serious criminal behavior. This group cannot easily be treated elsewhere in the existing judicial or mental health care system because these systems differ in (judicial) frameworks and have different treatment goals, and the forensic psychiatric patients have different psychiatric disorders and display more serious criminal behaviour than patients in the alternative systems. The daily costs of treatment in the tbs-system are higher that in other systems - but they are not exorbitant, given the complexity of the group. The tbs-measure therefore contributes to the safety of society.
Borschmann, Rohan; Young, Jesse T; Moran, Paul; Spittal, Matthew J; Snow, Kathryn; Mok, Katherine; Kinner, Stuart A
Self-harm is prevalent in prison populations and is a well-established risk factor for suicide. Researchers typically rely on self-report to measure self-harm, yet the accuracy and predictive value of self-report in prison populations is unclear. Using a large, representative sample of incarcerated men and women, we aimed to examine the level of agreement between self-reported self-harm history and historical medical records, and investigate the association between self-harm history and medically verified self-harm after release from prison. During confidential interviews with 1315 adults conducted within 6 weeks of expected release from 1 of 7 prisons in Queensland, Australia, participants were asked about the occurrence of lifetime self-harm. Responses were compared with prison medical records and linked both retrospectively and prospectively with ambulance, emergency department and hospital records to identify instances of medically verified self-harm. Follow-up interviews roughly 1, 3 and 6 months after release covered the same domains assessed in the baseline interview as well as self-reported criminal activity and contact with health care, social and criminal justice services since release. Agreement between self-reported and medically verified history of self-harm was poor, with 64 (37.6%) of 170 participants with a history of medically verified self-harm disclosing a history of self-harm at baseline. Participants with a medically verified history of self-harm were more likely than other participants to self-harm during the follow-up period. Compared to the unconfirmed-negative group, the true-positive (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 6.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.3-10.4]), false-negative (adjusted HR 4.0 [95% CI 2.2-6.7]) and unconfirmed-positive (adjusted HR 2.2 [95% CI 1.2-3.9]) groups were at increased risk for self-harm after release from prison. Self-reported history of self-harm should not be considered a sensitive indicator of prior self-harm or of
Thomas, Kelan; Malcolm, Benjamin; Lastra, Dan
Recent research suggests that functional connectivity changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Hyperconnectivity in the default mode network has been associated with psychopathology, but psychedelic serotonin agonists like psilocybin may profoundly disrupt these dysfunctional neural network circuits and provide a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. We have reviewed the current literature to investigate the efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. There were seven clinical trials that investigated psilocybin-assisted therapy as a treatment for psychiatric disorders related to anxiety, depression, and substance use. All trials demonstrated reductions in psychiatric rating scale scores or increased response and remission rates. There were large effect sizes related to improved depression and anxiety symptoms. Psilocybin may also potentially reduce alcohol or tobacco use and increase abstinence rates in addiction, but the benefits of these two trials were less clear due to open-label study designs without statistical analysis. Psilocybin-assisted therapy efficacy and safety appear promising, but more robust clinical trials will be required to support FDA approval and identify the potential role in clinical psychiatry.
The DiaS trial: dialectical behavior therapy versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality on self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and borderline personality disorder traits - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background In Denmark 8,000 to 10,000 people will attempt suicide each year. The Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention in the Capital Region of Denmark is treating patients with suicidal behavior, and a recent survey has shown that 30% of the patients are suffering from borderline personality disorder. The majority of patients (70% to 75%) with borderline personality disorder have a history of deliberate self-harm and 10% have a lifetime risk to die by suicide. The DiaS trial is comparing dialectical behavior therapy with collaborative assessment and management of suicidality-informed supportive psychotherapy, for the risk of repetition of deliberate self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and personality traits within the spectrum of borderline personality disorder. Both treatments have previously shown effects in this group of patients on suicide ideation and self-harm compared with treatment as usual. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a single-center, two-armed, parallel-group observer-blinded randomized clinical superiority trial. We will recruit 160 participants with a recent suicide attempt and at least two traits of the borderline personality disorder from the Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention, Capital Region of Denmark. Randomization will be performed though a centralized and computer-generated approach that conceals the randomization sequence. The interventions that are offered are a modified version of a dialectical behavior therapy program lasting 16 weeks versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality-informed supportive psychotherapy, where the duration treatment will vary in accordance with established methods up to 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the ratio of deliberate self-harming acts including suicide attempts measured at week 28. Other exploratory outcomes are included such as severity of symptoms, suicide intention and ideation, depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, anger
The DiaS trial: dialectical behavior therapy versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality on self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and borderline personality disorder traits - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Rosenbaum, Bent; Gluud, Christian; Jobes, David A; Nordentoft, Merete
In Denmark 8,000 to 10,000 people will attempt suicide each year. The Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention in the Capital Region of Denmark is treating patients with suicidal behavior, and a recent survey has shown that 30% of the patients are suffering from borderline personality disorder. The majority of patients (70% to 75%) with borderline personality disorder have a history of deliberate self-harm and 10% have a lifetime risk to die by suicide. The DiaS trial is comparing dialectical behavior therapy with collaborative assessment and management of suicidality-informed supportive psychotherapy, for the risk of repetition of deliberate self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and personality traits within the spectrum of borderline personality disorder. Both treatments have previously shown effects in this group of patients on suicide ideation and self-harm compared with treatment as usual. The trial is designed as a single-center, two-armed, parallel-group observer-blinded randomized clinical superiority trial. We will recruit 160 participants with a recent suicide attempt and at least two traits of the borderline personality disorder from the Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention, Capital Region of Denmark. Randomization will be performed though a centralized and computer-generated approach that conceals the randomization sequence. The interventions that are offered are a modified version of a dialectical behavior therapy program lasting 16 weeks versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality-informed supportive psychotherapy, where the duration treatment will vary in accordance with established methods up to 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the ratio of deliberate self-harming acts including suicide attempts measured at week 28. Other exploratory outcomes are included such as severity of symptoms, suicide intention and ideation, depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, anger, and duration of respective
Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul
psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency level of second-year psychiatric residents in evidence-based treatment of severe mental illness. the study is a prospective, case-control comparison using the validated Competency Assessment Instrument (CAI), which measures 15 provider competencies critical to recovery, rehabilitation, and empowerment for people with severe mental illness, providing a score for each competency. Participants were second-year psychiatric residents attending a 3-month rotation at the Community Reintegration Program, a psychiatric rehabilitation day program. The authors administered the CAI at the beginning and the end of the residents' 3-month rotation in order to assess change in their competency in psychiatric rehabilitation. The authors also administered the CAI to a comparison group of second-year psychiatric residents who did not rotate through the Community Reintegration Program, and therefore had no formal training in psychiatric rehabilitation. a 3-month rotation in psychiatric rehabilitation significantly improved residents' competency in the domains of goal functioning, client preferences, holistic approach, skills, and team value relative to nonrotating residents. a brief community psychiatry rotation in the second year of residency likely improves some skills in the treatment of people with severe mental illness. Future research should evaluate year-long electives and public psychiatry fellowships.
McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David
Older youth in out-of-home care often live in restrictive settings and face psychiatric issues without sufficient family support. This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes. A team of researchers and agency partners set out to develop a treatment foster care model for older youth based on Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC). After matching youth by mental health condition and determining for whom randomization would be allowed, 14 youth were randomized to treatment as usual or a treatment foster home intervention. Stakeholders were interviewed qualitatively at multiple time points. Quantitative measures assessed mental health symptoms, days in locked facilities, employment and educational outcomes. Development efforts led to substantial variations from the MTFC model and a new model, Treatment Foster Care for Older Youth was piloted. Feasibility monitoring suggested that it was difficult, but possible to recruit and randomize youth from and out of residential homes and that foster parents could be recruited to serve them. Qualitative data pointed to some qualified clinical successes. Stakeholders viewed two team roles - that of psychiatric nurse and skills coaches - very highly. However, results also suggested that foster parents and some staff did not tolerate the intervention well and struggled to address the emotion dysregulation issues of the young people they served. Quantitative data demonstrated that the intervention was not keeping youth out of locked facilities. The intervention needed further refinement prior to a broader trial. Intervention development work continued until components were developed to help address emotion regulation problems among fostered youth. Psychiatric nurses and skills coaches who work with youth in community settings hold promise as important
Swartz, Holly A; Frank, Ellen; Zuckoff, Allan; Cyranowski, Jill M; Houck, Patricia R; Cheng, Yu; Fleming, M A Dana; Grote, Nancy K; Brent, David A; Shear, M Katherine
Depressed mothers of children with psychiatric illness struggle with both their own psychiatric disorder and the demands of caring for ill children. When maternal depression remains untreated, mothers suffer, and psychiatric illness in their offspring is less likely to improve. This randomized, controlled trial compared the interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed mothers (IPT-MOMS), a nine-session intervention based on standard interpersonal psychotherapy, to treatment as usual for depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill offspring. Forty-seven mothers meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from a pediatric mental health clinic where their school-age children were receiving psychiatric treatment and randomly assigned to IPT-MOMS (N=26) or treatment as usual (N=21). Mother-child pairs were assessed at three time points: baseline, 3-month follow-up, and 9-month follow-up. Child treatment was not determined by the study. Compared to subjects assigned to treatment as usual, subjects assigned to IPT-MOMS showed significantly lower levels of depression symptoms, as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and higher levels of functioning, as measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning, at 3-month and 9-month follow-ups. Compared to the offspring of mothers receiving treatment as usual, the offspring of mothers assigned to IPT-MOMS showed significantly lower levels of depression as measured by the Children's Depressive Inventory at the 9-month follow-up. Assignment to IPT-MOMS was associated with reduced levels of maternal symptoms and improved functioning at the 3- and 9-month follow-ups compared to treatment as usual. Maternal improvement preceded improvement in offspring, suggesting that maternal changes may mediate child outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS, the level of sexual behavior in cocaine abuses was at the most and in crack abusers was at the least. Also, the level of high risk sexual behavior in ice and cocaine was more than opium, heroin and crack. The level of self harm behavior in crack abuses was more than ice and opium abuses.
De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J
Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following
This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…
Rossow, Ingeborg; Mehlum, Lars; Gjertsen, Finn; Moller, Bjorn
Chain of care for patients with intentional self-harm was important in the Norwegian national action plan to prevent suicide. In this study there were two aims: (1) to calculate the potential effects of chain of care on reducing suicide rates, and (2) to assess whether suicide rates decreased more in areas where chain of care had been implemented…
Kokkevi, A.; Rotsika, V.; Arapaki, A.; Richardson, C.
Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in Europe. Self-harm thoughts and behaviours are documented precursors of completed suicide. It is therefore of great importance to investigate the prevalence of suicide thoughts and attempts and their correlates, with the aim of preventing this major life-threatening public health…
Watanabe, Norio; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Inoue, Ken; Oshima, Norihito; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Okazaki, Yuji
Little is known about accurate prevalence and associated factors of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Asian countries. In this study, the prevalence and associated factors of DSH among adolescents in Japan were examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire and enrolling 8,620…
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a perplexing and distressing phenomenon that has received considerable publicity in recent years. It takes many forms, some of which are culturally acceptable while others are considered to be anti-social and/or mental health problems. It affects a significant proportion of the population, with previous studies in the…
Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita
Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…
Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Gamel, C.; van Meijel, B.
Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with
Remaschi, Laura; Cecchini, Cristina; Meringolo, Patrizia
Self-harm behaviors consist of parasuicidal behaviors, which represent "a deliberate destruction of body tissue, with or without suicidal intent". A theoretical model is the Experiential Avoidance Model. The most frequent risk factors are school distress, poor social integration, poor social and family support, drugs use, sexual abuse, altered sense of life and death, bad relationship with the body and unsolved body mentalization process. The objective of the present study was to perform an analysis of risk factors for self-harm behaviors, to help plan preventive actions. One questionnaire with specific scales was employed for students, whereas three semi-structured interviews were employed for teachers, all on distress perception and self-harm in school. Data analysis confirms an association between self- cutting and alcohol use, sexual harassments, school dropout, threatening people, incommunicability with family members and negative relationship with the body and suicide attempts, with a clear tendency for males. In the interviews, teachers highlight self-injury as a dysfunctional relationship with the body and observe several risk markers of psychological distress. The results confirm the available literature data, while noting that self-harming is a preponderantly male behavior. The results also signal the need to create opportunities to instruct teachers to combat the resistances and stereotypes of psychological distress.
O'Farrell, I B; Corcoran, P; Perry, I J
Previous research has shown an inconsistent relationship between the spatial distribution of hospital treated self-harm and area-level factors such as deprivation and social fragmentation. However, many of these studies have been confined to urban centres, with few focusing on rural settings and even fewer studies carried out at a national level. Furthermore, no previous research has investigated if travel time to hospital services can explain the area-level variation in the incidence of hospital treated self-harm. From 2009 to 2011, the Irish National Registry of Deliberate Self Harm collected data on self-harm presentations to all hospital emergency departments in the country. The Registry uses standard methods of case ascertainment and also geocodes patient addresses to small area geographical level. Negative binomial regression was used to explore the ecological relationship between area-level self-harm rates and various area-level factors. Deprivation, social fragmentation and population density had a positive linear association with self-harm, with deprivation having the strongest independent effect. Furthermore, self-harm incidence was found to be elevated in areas that had shorter journey times to hospital. However, while this association became attenuated after controlling for other area-level factors it still remained statistically significant. A subgroup analysis examining the effect of travel time on specific methods of self-harm, found that this effect was most marked for self-harm acts involving minor self-cutting. Self-harm incidence was influenced by proximity to hospital services, population density and social fragmentation; however, the strongest area-level predictor of self-harm was deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.; Douaihy, Antoine B.
Objective To update clinicians on the latest in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders (SUD) and non-substance use disorders among adults and suggest how these treatments can be combined into an evidence based process that enhances treatment effectiveness in comorbid patients. Method Articles were extracted from Pubmed using the search terms “dual diagnosis,” “comorbidity” and “co-occurring” and were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness for pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments of comorbidity. Results Twenty-four research reviews and 43 research trials were reviewed. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that antidepressants prescribed to improve substance-related symptoms among patients with mood and anxiety disorders are either not highly effective or involve risk due to high side-effect profiles or toxicity. Second-generation antipsychotics are more effective for treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid substance abuse and current evidence suggests clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone are among the best. Clozapine appears to be the most effective of the antipsychotics for reducing alcohol, cocaine and cannabis abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Motivational interviewing has robust support as a highly effective psychotherapy for establishing a therapeutic alliance. This finding is critical since retention in treatment is essential for maintaining effectiveness. Highly structured therapy programs that integrate intensive outpatient treatments, case management services and behavioral therapies such as Contingency Management (CM) are most effective for treatment of severe comorbid conditions. Conclusions Creative combinations of psychotherapies, behavioral and pharmacological interventions offer the most effective treatment for comorbidity. Intensity of treatment must be increased for severe comorbid conditions such as the schizophrenia/cannabis dependence comorbidity due to the limitations of pharmacological
Zubrick, Stephen R; Hafekost, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Saw, Suzy; Sawyer, Michael; Ainley, John; Buckingham, William J
To (1) estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of self-harm without suicide intent in young people aged 12-17 years, (2) describe the co-morbidity of these behaviours with mental illness and (3) describe their co-variation with key social and demographic variables. A nationally representative random sample of households with children aged 4-17 years recruited in 2013-2014. The survey response rate was 55% with 6310 parents and carers of eligible households participating. In addition, 2967 (89%) of young people aged 11-17 completed a self-report questionnaire with 2653 of the 12- to 17-year-olds completing questions about self-harm behaviour. In any 12-month period, about 8% of all 12- to 17-year-olds (an estimated 137,000 12- to 17-year-olds) report engaging in self-harming behaviour without suicide intent. This prevalence increases with age to 11.6% in 16- to 17-year-olds. Eighteen percent (18.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [14.5, 23.0]) of all 12- to 17-year-old young people with any mental health disorder measured by parent or carer report said that they had engaged in self-harm in the past 12 months. Among young people who were measured by self-report and met criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' major depressive disorder almost half (46.6%; 95% CI = [40.0, 53.1]) also reported that they had engaged in self-harm in the past 12 months. Suicide risk among those who self-harm is significantly elevated relative to the general population. The demonstrated higher risks in these young people for continued harm or possible death support the need for ongoing initiatives to reduce self-harm through mental health promotion, improved mental health literacy and continuing mental health reform to ensure services are accessible to, and meet the needs of families and young persons. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
... needing it, refuse such treatment. If it is done sensitively, respectfully and conservatively, we can both protect the users' and societies' interests whilst at the same time are compliant with the principles of the MHCA. Keywords: Commitment of Mentally Ill; Treatment; South Africa African Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 11 (2) 2008 ...
Kamphuis, F N; Brand-De Wilde, O M; van der Rijken, R E A
Many untreated psychiatric problems occur in families where there is child abuse. It is very important to find ways of ensuring that the hard-to-reach families receive adequate psychiatric assessment and appropriate treatment. To describe the treatment method and first results of multisystemic therapy for child abuse and neglect (mst-can). We report the psychiatric problems of the first 18 families that were treated and we report the follow-up during the first 18 months. In addition, the mst-can treatment and the psychiatrist's role are illustrated by taking two cases as an example. Most of the families agreed to a psychiatric assessment and subsequent treatment. In most families safety improved considerably and out-of-house placements were avoided. The first results suggest that mst-can is a promising treatment for families where there is child abuse. Essential elements of mst-can are targeted psychiatric diagnostic assessment and subsequent treatment.
Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.
This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…
de Heer-Wunderink, C.; Visser, E.S.; Caro-Nienhuis, A.; Sytema, S.; van Weeghel, J.; Wiersma, D.
Objective: This study examined the extent to which treatment plans of service users of community housing programs measure up to rehabilitation principles according to the Choose-Get-Keep model of psychiatric rehabilitation. The study evaluates whether these plans correspond with service-user and
de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Visser, Ellen; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; van Weeghel, Jaap; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk
Objective: This study examined the extent to which treatment plans of service users of community housing programs measure up to rehabilitation principles according to the Choose-Get-Keep model of psychiatric rehabilitation. The study evaluates whether these plans correspond with service-user and
E.C. Jochems (Eline)
textabstractThe main aim of the current thesis was to empirically test and compare three current theoretical models of motivation for treatment in the context of outpatient psychiatric care for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). In a literature review (Chapter 2), we argued that
Khazaie, Habibolah; Rezaie, Leeba; de Jong, Desiree M
Outpatient psychiatric treatment provides both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for a large portion of psychiatric patients. Dropping out, or early termination of treatment, may be considered a common barrier to outpatient's psychiatric treatment. There are limited studies on this issue in Iran. The current study aimed to examine rates, predictors and reasons of dropping out of an outpatient psychiatric treatment. In this 6-month cohort study, 1500 outpatients who visited 10 psychiatrist's offices in the Iranian city of Kermanshah were recruited and followed for 2 years (2009-2011) for recommended treatments including admission to hospital, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and a combination of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Characteristics of patients who dropped out of the current study were collected, and reasons for dropping out were collected via phone or in person interview. Dropouts were prevalent in prescribed treatments. Pretreatment (primary) dropout rates in psychotherapy treatment were 4 times greater than dropout rates in pharmacotherapy treatment (80% and 20%, respectively). There were significance differences between dropouts and non-dropouts of pharmacotherapy with respect to patient characteristics; younger age, male gender, low level of education, unemployment, lack of insurance, new cases and divorce were more prevalent among dropouts (P<.001). With regard to diagnosis, dropping out was more prevalent among patients with substance-related disorders, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders when compared to other diagnoses (P<.001). Commonly reported reasons for dropping out included overslept and too ill to attend treatment and fear of becoming addicted to prescribed psychotropic medication (30% and 18%, respectively). Lack of confidence in therapist ability and lack of confidence in the efficacy of the treatment were more prevalent in patients who dropped out of psychotherapy (P<.001). Patient dropout is a common problem in outpatient
McCarthy, Linda; Gijbels, Harry
The purpose of this study was to examine emergency department (ED) nurses' attitudes towards individuals presenting with deliberate self-harm (DSH), including the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, academic achievements, length of experience, and self-harm education. The study adopted a quantitative descriptive and correlational design. ED nurses' attitudes, working in a level 1 trauma ED in the Republic of Ireland, were surveyed, using an amended version of McAllister's et al. [McAllister, M., Creedy, D., Moyle, W., Farrugia, C., 2002. Nurses' attitudes towards clients who self-harm. Journal of Advanced Nursing 40(5), 578-586.] Attitude Towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). The survey yielded an 85% (n=68) response rate. The study found that ED nurses held positive attitudes towards individuals presenting with DSH. No correlation was found between total scores and gender, ED experience, or a history of self-harm education, although older nurses and hospital trained nurses had less positive attitudes. Age and length of clinical experience produced a trend in which attitudes increased, reached a peak and then declined. Although ED nurses in this study hold positive attitudes, ongoing continuing education, which was identified as a key theme in the study, remains an important strategy to maintain and further improve attitudes. The need for research into aspects of care such as knowledge, awareness and empathy is recommended, as is the need to evaluate the extent to which the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention 2005-2014 recommendations [Department of Health and Children, Health Service Executive, National Suicide Review Group 2005. Reach Out - Irish National Strategy for Action on Suicide Prevention 2005-2014. (accessed 22.02.08)] have been implemented. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kitagawa, Yuko; Ando, Shuntaro; Yamasaki, Syudo; Foo, Jerome Clifford; Okazaki, Yuji; Shimodera, Shinji; Nishida, Atsushi; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Suicide is a leading cause of death in adolescents, but detection of its risk is often challenging. Many mental illnesses share the common symptom of appetite loss and it is also known that people who suffer from these illnesses are at greater risk of suicide. However, the relationship between appetite loss and suicide risk has yet to be examined. For adolescents in particular, questions about appetite loss may be easier to answer than sensitive questions regarding mental health. The present study aims to investigate the association of appetite loss with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents. Rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm associated with appetite-loss were examined in 18,250 Japanese junior and senior high school students (aged 12-18) using a self-report questionnaire. Insomnia, a physical symptom which has previously been associated with suicide risk, was also controlled for in the analysis. Results showed that rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm significantly increased according to the degree of self-reported appetite loss. Similar results were observed for insomnia. Odds ratios (ORs) for suicidal ideation and self-harm were 5.5 and 4.1 for adolescents with appetite loss compared to those without it, and the ORs were 5.5 and 3.5 for those with insomnia compared to those without it, respectively, adjusting for sex and age (p Health Questionnaire-12 score). In conclusion, self-reported appetite loss was highly associated with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents; adolescents reporting physical symptoms such as loss of appetite or insomnia should be given careful attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David H; Lescano, Celia M; Stewart, Angela J; Affleck, Katelyn; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K
To assess the associations of sexual risk behavior with psychiatric impairment and individual, peer, and partner attitudes among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents (N=893, 56% female, 67% African American) completed assessments of psychiatric impairment, rejection sensitivity, peer norms, HIV knowledge, perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy and condom use intentions. Two structural equation models were used to test the study hypotheses; one for sexually active youth and one for non-active youth. For non-active youth, psychiatric impairment influenced self-efficacy and condom use intentions via peer norms, rejection sensitivity, and perceived vulnerability. Among the sexually active youth, sexual risk was related to impairment and previous condom use. These results suggest that individual, peer, and partner factors are related to impairment and to sexual risk attitudes, but depend on previous sexual experience.
Townsend, Ellen; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Sargeant, Sally; Vostanis, Panos; Hawton, Keith; Stocker, Olivia; Sithole, Jabulani
Background: Mood and anxiety disorders, and problems with self-harm are significant and serious issues that are common in young people in the Criminal Justice System. Aims: To examine whether interventions relevant to young offenders with mood or anxiety disorders, or problems with self-harm are effective. Method: Systematic review and…
Thomas E. Schlaepfer
Full Text Available Most patients suffering from psychiatric disorders respond to combina-tions of psycho- and psychopharmacotherapy, however there are patients who profit little if anything even after many years of treatment. Since about a decade different modalities of targeted neuromodulation – among them most prominently – Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS - are being actively researched as putative approaches to very treatment resistant forms of those disorders. Recently, promising pilot data have been re-ported both for Major Depression (MD and Obsessive-Compulsive Disor-der (OCD. Given the fact that patients studied had been treated unsuc-cessfully for many years renders these findings remarkable. Remarkable is the fact, that in case of the long-term studies underway for MD, patients show a stable response. This gives hope to a substantial percentage of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients requiring new therapy approaches. There are no fundamental ethic objections to its use in psychiatric disor-ders, but until substantial clinical data is available, mandatory standards are needed. DBS is a unique and very promising method for the treat-ment of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients. The method allows ma-nipulating pathological neuronal networks in a very precise way.
Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in the United States, and if untreated, result in a number of negative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate psychiatrists' current treatment practices for patients with anxiety disorders in the United States. Methods: Psychiatrist-reported data from the 1997 and 1999 American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education Practice Research Network (PRN Study of Psychiatric Patients and Treatments (SPPT were examined, focusing on patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Information related to diagnostic and clinical features and treatments provided were obtained. Results: Anxiety disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated, since only 11.4% of the sample received a principal diagnosis of an anxiety disorder in a real world setting. Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with particularly high comorbidity and disability, and social anxiety disorder was relatively rarely diagnosed and treated. Although combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy was commonly used to treat anxiety disorders, anxiolytics were more commonly prescribed than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. Conclusions: These data provide a picture of diagnosis and practice patterns across a range of psychiatric settings and suggest that anxiety disorders, despite being among the most prevalent of psychiatric disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated particularly in respect of the use of psychotherapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available Background: Oral health has an impact on general health, self-esteem and quality of life, but it often has a low priority in the context of mental health and in some phases of illness, the priority may be nonexistent Patients with psychiatric illness have poor oral hygiene than general population. Very few studies have been reported regarding the oral health among Indian psychiatric inpatients. Aim: To assess the oral health status of long-term psychiatric inpatients in a psychiatric institute and to evaluate the treatment requirements of psychiatric inpatients for maintaining the oral hygiene. Materials and methods: Psychiatric inpatients were examined and data was collected using the WHO standardized dental evaluation form in the psychiatric institute. Results: One hundred and forty-one patents (53% female: mean age: 36.56 ± 13.28 years: 47% male: mean age: 37.36 ± 12.49 years: length of illness: More than 5 years, 35.5%: less than 5 years, 84.5% were included in the study. 73% being schizophrenics. Dental canes was found in 55.3% patients. Calculus was present in 94.3% patients. Missing teeth was found in 22.7% patients. Mucosal lesions and oral ulcers were seen in 5.7 and 1 4% of total examined patients respectively. Percentages of patient requiring extractions were 34.8%. oral prophylaxis 98.6%. conservative treatment 31.9% and prosthesis 20.6%. Age was significantly correlated with number of decayed (r = 0.294, p < 0.01 and missing teeth (r = 0.436, p < 0.01. Length of illness was significantly correlated with number of decayed (r = 0.258. p < 0.01 and missing teeth (r = 0.229. p < 0.0 1 Conclusion: Oral health is an important and integral part of health care. Members of multidisciplinary team should be encouraged to assist psychiatric patients in maintaining their oral health with good oral hygiene and access to dental treatment taking into account their special needs.
Spaulding, William; Deogun, Jitender
Personalization of treatment is a current strategic goal for improving health care. Integrated treatment approaches such as psychiatric rehabilitation benefit from personalization because they involve matching diverse arrays of treatment options to individually unique profiles of need. The need for personalization is evident in the heterogeneity of people with severe mental illness and in the findings of experimental psychopathology. One pathway to personalization lies in analysis of the judgments and decision making of human experts and other participants as they respond to complex circumstances in pursuit of treatment and rehabilitation goals. Such analysis is aided by computer simulation of human decision making, which in turn informs development of computerized clinical decision support systems. This inspires a research program involving concurrent development of databases, domain ontology, and problem-solving algorithms, toward the goal of personalizing psychiatric rehabilitation through human collaboration with intelligent cyber systems. The immediate hurdle is to demonstrate that clinical decisions beyond diagnosis really do affect outcome. This can be done by supporting the hypothesis that a human treatment team with access to a reasonably comprehensive clinical database that tracks patient status and treatment response over time achieves better outcome than a treatment team without such access, in a controlled experimental trial. Provided the hypothesis can be supported, the near future will see prototype systems that can construct an integrated assessment, formulation, and rehabilitation plan from clinical assessment data and contextual information. This will lead to advanced systems that collaborate with human decision makers to personalize psychiatric rehabilitation and optimize outcome.
Zimmermann, Peter; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Kowalski, Jens T; Plate, Stefan; Wallner, Franziska; Wolff, Elisabeth; Ströhle, Andreas
Military duty places high demands on the soldiers' social adaptability and competences. Avoidant personality traits can lead to interpersonal conflicts and at least to mental disorders. 192 German Armed Forces soldiers were treated in a multimodal inpatient psychiatric treatment setting at a Bundeswehr hospital between 2007 and 2010. 129 of these patients received a social skills group training (group training of social competence [GSC]) as part of this setting. A comparison group (n=63) did not participate but got unspecific treatment elements instead. The Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Inventory on Competence and Control Beliefs (Fragebogen zu Kompetenz- und Kontrollüberzeugungen [FKK]) were applied. Symptom severity in the SCL-Global Severity Index, sum scale of the SCL-90-R and the four primary scales of the FKK showed significant improvements both immediately after treatment and at follow-up. No significant influence of the form of treatment (with/without GSC), age, gender, diagnosis, and deployments on the treatment result was established in the analysis of covariance. The data suggest that an inpatient psychiatric treatment setting focused on avoidant personality traits has a favorable effect on psychiatric symptom severity in military personnel. Social skills group training as a treatment component does not seem to be significantly superior to the standard setting.
Pfennig, A; Conell, J; Ritter, P; Ritter, D; Severus, E; Meyer, T D; Hautzinger, M; Wolff, J; Godemann, F; Reif, A; Bauer, M
In this article the guideline-adherent psychiatric psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with bipolar disorders is outlined and the required resources are estimated. Based on the core recommendations of the S3 guidelines for diagnostics and treatment of bipolar disorders published in 2012, inpatient treatment needs in hours per week and per patient are determined for both manic and bipolar depressive episodes. The resulting staffing requirements are estimated on this basis. In summary, for guideline-adherent inpatient psychiatric psychotherapeutic treatment the additional needs regarding the physician/psychotherapeutic domain add up to 44 min per patient and week during a manic episode and 88 min for patients with bipolar depression when compared to current psychiatry staffing regulations.
Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund
Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating...... alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems...... and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis: To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative...
Anderson, George; Maes, Michael
In this article the emerging biological overlaps of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed. Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites, with consequences for serotonin availability, including as a precursor for the melatonergic pathways. Subsequent alterations in the regulation of local melatonin synthesis are likely to have direct impacts on the reactivity of immune cells, both centrally and systemically. These inflammatory processes also lead to the activation of wider immune processes. Such wider processes can include the production of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgM antibody responses, including to tryptophan catabolites, emphasizing the importance of immune responses, and their interactions with inflammatory processes, in the etiology and course of an array of medical conditions, including CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions. Such work poses questions as to the validity and utility of current, non-biologically based classification systems for psychiatric and CNS disorders. In this article, the biological underpinnings of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed in the context of how recent data, in reconceptualizing key processes in these classically-conceived brain-associated disorders, provides scope for novel, and hopefully more clinically useful, treatments. These processes are looked at in detail in Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder. One important treatment target is the gut. Alterations in the gut, including gut permeability and the composition of the microbiome, have now become an important target for treatment across an array of medical conditions, emphasizing the importance of targeting regulators of the immune system in developing novel treatments that are based on a more comprehensive and 'wholistic' understanding of currently poorly managed medical conditions
markdownabstractThe first goal of the current research project was to get more insight in the determinants of reactive aggression, namely psychopathy, as measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and implicit attitudes toward violence. The second goal was was to investigate the possible treatment effects of a multi-modal treatment program for violent forensic psychiatric inpatients, consisting of the extended Aggression Replacement Training (ART) and psychomotor therapy (PMT). ...
Barry, Declan T; Cutter, Christopher J; Beitel, Mark; Kerns, Robert D; Liong, Christopher; Schottenfeld, Richard S
Psychiatric comorbidities complicate treatment of patients with chronic pain and opioid use disorder, but the prevalence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders in this population has not been systematically investigated. 170 consecutive participants entering a treatment research program for co-occurring chronic pain and opioid use disorder between March 2009 and July 2013 were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P) and the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV). The prevalence of any lifetime (and current) comorbid Axis I disorder was 91% (75%); 52% met criteria for lifetime anxiety disorder (48% current), 57% for lifetime mood disorder (48% current), and 78% for lifetime nonopioid substance use disorder (34% current). Common current anxiety diagnoses were posttraumatic stress disorder (21%), generalized anxiety disorder (16%), and panic disorder without agoraphobia (16%). Common current mood diagnoses were major depressive disorder (40%) and dysthymia (11%). A majority of patients had a personality disorder (52%). High rates and persistence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, including anxiety or mood disorders, may explain in part the difficulty providers have treating patients with co-occurring opioid use disorder and chronic pain and suggest possible targets for improving treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: buprenorphine/naloxone treatment (NCT00634803), opioid treatment program-based methadone maintenance treatment (NCT00727675).
Maffezzoni, Marco; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
A slightly modified version of the Dialectical-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) for impulsive and self-injurious adolescents has been implemented in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service in Zurich, Switzerland, since 2005. This DBT-A comprises individual therapy, skills training, and a single parent meeting over a 6-month period. This article reports on the translation of this approach into clinical practice and presents an evaluation based on the clinical quality of control assessments. Participants of the treatment program were 43 female adolescents aged 14 to 19 living in the Zurich area and showing impulsive and self-injurious behavior and problems regulating their emotions and relationships. Each skill group contained 4-6 adolescents. Our mostly positive experiences with this approach were supplemented by evaluation data from a quality control group based on self- and parent-report of a total of 19 participants. There is convincing evidence that DBT-A leads to reductions in both general and specific psychopathology.
Vries Robbé, M. de; Vogel, V. de; Douglas, K.S.; Nijman, H.L.I.
Empirical studies have rarely investigated the association between improvements on dynamic risk and protective factors for violence during forensic psychiatric treatment and reduced recidivism after discharge. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment progress in risk and
Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Joinson, Carol; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Lewis, Glyn
Being the victim of peer bullying is associated with increased risk of psychopathology, yet it is not known whether similar experiences of bullying increase risk of psychiatric disorder when the perpetrator is a sibling...
Kolly, Stéphane; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; de Roten, Yves; Marquet, Pierre; Kramer, Ueli
Therapist adherence describes the quality of interventions according to the imperatives of a treatment model. We examined the relationship between therapist adherence and symptom change in the context of a short-term treatment with respect good psychiatric management (GPM) principles. Based on a parent trial, borderline personality disorder patients (N = 40) benefited from a 10-session intervention. Adherence to GPM was assessed using a GPM Adherence Scale (GPMAS). The psychometric properties of the GPMAS were excellent, and the adherence to GPM explained 16% of the general symptom improvement (t(1) = 2.38, β = 0.40, p = 0.02) and 23% of the borderline symptom improvement (t(1) = 2.46, β = 0.48, p = 0.02). Because GPM adherence predicts the outcome after only 10 sessions, GPMAS is a valuable measure early on in psychiatric practice as part of an initial step to longer-term treatment, to quickly detect problems and correct them.
Buhmann, Christine Cæcilie Böck; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Nordentoft, Merete
PURPOSE: To describe change in mental health after treatment with antidepressants and trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. METHODS: Patients receiving treatment at the Psychiatric Trauma Clinic for Refugees in Copenhagen completed self-ratings of level of functioning, quality of life......, and symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety before and after treatment. Changes in mental state and predictors of change were evaluated in a sample that all received well-described and comparable treatment. RESULTS: 85 patients with PTSD or depression were included in the analysis. Significant improvement...
Mirza Maria Pedrosa Porto de Mendonça
Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the opinion of professionals in law and health areas on the profile of the sexual abuser of children within the family and the effectiveness of the type of penalty he suffers. The offender is someone who probably does not enjoy enough sanity to control its inclination to unlawful and may or may not be classified as mentally ill. The research covers the incidence and effects of this event on intra-family life. Deals with this issue in order to establish a new legal paradigm in the context of the penalties in the most private sphere of criminal law. The work aims to demonstrate the social relevance of the topic and the need for an effective regulatory sweater for sexual abusers, especially the intra-family and makes a clear proposal for legislative changes with regard to this type of crime, arguing the need to adapt the law the objective reality. It argues that psychoanalytic treatment of offenders as a means of punishment is more important than the simple deprivation of liberty. It argues that the current legislation is incipient and inadequate for such cases and this opinion supported by a significant number of experts. This is not to defend this criminal who practice sexual abuse, but to seek solutions to impunity and respect for the principle of individualization of punishment.
Wu, Dan; Rockett, Ian R H; Yang, Tingzhong; Feng, Xueying; Jiang, Shuhan; Yu, Lingwei
The phenomenon of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among college students has received increased attention in recent decades. Adopting a psychosocial perspective, this study aims to describe self-reported DSH among Chinese medical college students, assess respective associations between uncertainty stress and social capital with DSH, and explore the mechanism linking these three phenomena. A cross-sectional survey employing multi-stage, sampling was conducted. 4446 undergraduate students were recruited from 22 participating Chinese medical universities. Perceived stress from uncertainty and social capital were assessed among the students. The Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models assessed correlates of DSH. Relationship among social capital, uncertainty stress, and DSH were examined by means of Structural Equation Modeling. The prevalence of DSH in the past 12 months among Chinese students was 9.6%. The most common types of physical DSH reported were scratching, cutting, and pinching. Age (χ(2)=26.63, pstress is a unique correlate of DSH, and shows a stronger association than do three certainty stressors. Social capital is also a strong correlate of DSH, especially cognitive social capital. Moreover, social capital may be indirectly associated with DSH through impacting uncertainty stress. This study was a cross-sectional and thus could not evaluate causal relationships. We recommend that a DSH intervention study should target uncertainty stress management and social capital accumulation. This study provides scientific evidence and theoretical foundation for future DSH interventions, with a view to enhancing the mental health of medical college students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marcks, Brook A; Weisberg, Risa B; Keller, Martin B
Although the majority of individuals with panic disorder first present to the primary care setting, little is known about the psychiatric treatment that primary care patients with the disorder typically receive. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of treatment received by patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and by those with panic disorder without agoraphobia, examine demographic and clinical predictors of receiving treatment, and explore treatment barriers. This study used data from the Primary Care Anxiety Project (PCAP), which is a naturalistic, longitudinal study of anxiety disorders among primary care patients. This study presents data for 235 PCAP participants diagnosed at the study intake assessment as having panic disorder with agoraphobia (N=150) or without agoraphobia (N=85). Many patients with panic disorder were not receiving psychiatric treatment at study intake (38%), with those without agoraphobia being less likely to receive treatment. Psychotropic medications were the treatment of choice, with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors being the most commonly received class of medications (34%). Only 38% of those with panic disorder with agoraphobia and 24% of those with panic disorder without agoraphobia were receiving psychotherapy, and the use of empirically supported interventions was rare. The most common treatment barriers were not believing in using medication or therapy for emotional problems and not receiving a treatment recommendation from one's provider. The findings suggest a need for better treatment dissemination, in addition to making interventions more accessible or adapting them to the particular needs of primary care patients.
Nwachukwu, Izu; Nkire, Nnamdi; Russell, Vincent
This study described the profile, activities and patient-related outcomes of a long-established home-based treatment (HBT) service in Ireland. A retrospective descriptive study design was adopted to review and describe the activities of the Cavan HBT team over a 5-year period. Data including demographics, referral details, duration of admissions and outcome/disposal were retrospectively collected from the home treatment team mental health register of admissions between 2006 and 2010. Data were analysed using SPSS version 15 for windows. A total of 783 patients were referred to the team over the study period, of which 722 were admitted for home treatment. Most referrals (51%) were from General Practitioners and the commonest reason for referral/admission for home treatment was low mood (26%). While 10% required stepped-up care to the psychiatric inpatient unit, 77% were successfully discharged to the out-patient clinic for routine follow-up care. Common psychiatric illnesses can be safely and effectively managed with HBT within the context of a spectrum of therapeutic options in a community psychiatric service.
Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) is a common problem among children and adolescents in clinical and community populations, and there is a considerable amount of literature investigating factors associated with DSH risk and the effects of DSH on the child. However, there is a dearth of research examining the impact of DSH on parents, and there are few support programmes targeted at this population. This cross-sectional study examines the profile of a sample of parents of young people with DSH who participated in a support programme (Supporting Parents and Carers of young people with self-harm: the SPACE programme), with the goal of investigating pre-test parental well-being, family communication, parental satisfaction, perceived parental social support, and child strengths and difficulties.
Kivisto, Aaron J
This study presents data on the relative contribution to gun violence by people with a history of inpatient psychiatric treatment and on federal efforts to deter presumptively dangerous persons from obtaining firearms, information useful for analyzing the potential public health benefits of gun policies targeting people with serious mental illness. The study also estimates the reduction in gun violence victims that would be expected if individuals with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were prohibited from purchasing firearms. Data from 838 violent gun offenders from a nationally representative sample of state prison inmates were analyzed. Those with and without a history of psychiatric hospitalization were compared on a range of offense characteristics, including relationship to the victim, number of victims, location of the offense, and source of firearms. Inmates with a history of hospitalization constituted 12% of all violent gun offenders and accounted for 13% of the sample's victims. They were less likely than those without a previous hospitalization to victimize strangers (odds ratio=.52) and were no more likely to commit gun violence in public or to have multiple victims. Among those with previous hospitalizations, 78% obtained guns from sources not subject to federal background checks. Of the total 1,041 victims of gun violence, only 3% were victimized by participants with a history of hospitalization who obtained guns from currently regulated sources. Prohibiting all individuals with a history of psychiatric hospitalization from purchasing firearms, absent expanded background checks, was estimated to reduce the number of gun violence victims by only 3%.
Kelly, Lourah M; Becker, Sara J; Wolff, Jennifer C; Graves, Hannah; Spirito, Anthony
Both adolescent and parent psychiatric symptoms are well-established risk factors for adolescent substance use (SU), but the ways that these symptoms interact are not well understood. This study examined the interactive effects of parent and adolescent psychiatric symptoms on adolescent frequency of alcohol and marijuana use, over and above the effects of parental SU. Seventy adolescents presenting to a community mental health center (CMHC) participated. Parent and adolescent psychiatric symptoms were measured with the brief symptom inventory (BSI) and child behavior checklist (CBCL), respectively. Hierarchical regressions revealed different patterns for adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. For alcohol, the BSI parent phobic anxiety subscale predicted increased adolescent use while the parent interpersonal sensitivity subscale predicted decreased use: the effects of these parental symptoms were strongest among adolescents with higher levels of externalizing problems on the CBCL. For marijuana, the BSI parent psychoticism subscale predicted increased adolescent use, whereas paranoid ideation predicted decreased use. Results suggest that adolescent SU treatment and assessment should attend to both adolescent and parent psychiatric symptoms.
Ásgeirsdóttir, Hildur G; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna L; Nyberg, Ullakarin; Thorsteinsdottir, Thordis K; Mogensen, Brynjólfur; Matthíasson, Páll; Lund, Sigrún H; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A; Hauksdóttir, Arna
Macroeconomic downturns have been associated with increased suicide rates. This study examined potential changes in suicide attempts and self-harm in Iceland during a period of major economic transition (2003-12). Data were retrieved from the National University Hospital in Reykjavik (population size: 204.725), containing all ICD-10 diagnoses connected to potential suicidal behaviour. Poisson regression models were used to compare attendance rates before and after the 2008 economic collapse. During the study period, a total of 4537 attendances of 2816 individuals were recorded due to suicide attempts or self-harm. We noted a significant change in total attendance rates among men, characterized by an annual increase in attendance rate pre-collapse of 1.83 per 100.000 inhabitants and a decrease of 3.06 per 100.000 inhabitants post-collapse ( P = 0.0067). Such pattern was not observed among women. When restricting to first attendances only, we found a reduced incidence post-crisis among both men (RR: 0.85; 0.76-0.96) and women (RR: 0.86; 0.79-0.92). We further found 1% increase in unemployment rate and balance of trade to be associated with reduced attendance rates among men (RR: 0.84; 0.76-0.93 and RR: 0.81; 0.75-0.88, respectively) but not among women. These data suggest no overall increase in attendance rates due to suicide attempts or self-harm following the 2008 Icelandic economic collapse. In fact, a high-point in self-harm and suicide attempts was observed among men at the height of the economic boom and a decrease in new attendances among both men and women after the economic collapse.
Rimes, Katharine A.; Goodship, Nicola; Ussher, Greg; Baker, Dan; West, Elizabeth
Background: \\ud Little research has compared the mental health and victimisation experiences of nonbinary youth depending on their sex assigned at birth (SAAB), or compared these two groups with binary transgender youth.\\ud \\ud Aims:\\ud To compare mental health, self-harm and suicidality, substance use and victimisation experiences between nonbinary and binary transgender young adults, both male assigned at birth (MAAB) and female assigned at birth (FAAB).\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud Online survey dat...
Rogers, Alice; Schmidt, Petra
This article describes the use of emotion talk in the context of using a manualised approach to family therapy where the presenting problem is self?harm. Whilst we understand that there is an internal aspect to emotion, we also consider emotions to be socially purposeful, culturally constructed and interactional. We found that within the presenting families, negative emotions were often talked about as located within the young person. Through using ?emotion talk? (Fredman, 2004) in deconstruc...
Rees, Joanna; Langdon, Peter E.
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depression, hopelessness, problem-solving ability and self-harming behaviours amongst people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods Thirty-six people with mild IDs (77.9% women, M[subscript age] = 31.77, SD = 10.73, M[subscript IQ] = 62.65, SD = 5.74) who…
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G.; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of “disempowering parenting styles” that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescr...
Zell, Mark; Grundmann, Oliver
Orthomolecular medicine is based on the use of endogenous and naturally occurring substances to supplement deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, and other essential substances in the human body. Although the medical community has long regarded it as a nonscientific approach to healing, scientific and clinical evidence is emerging for the supplemental use of orthomolecular medicine in the treatment of schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatrists currently treat these common psychiatric disorders using a wide range of pharmacological approaches that often have significant side effects, resulting in patients' noncompliance. With newly gained knowledge about the neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, researchers now can link potential mechanisms for both pharmacological and orthomolecular treatments to physiological processes. In many cases, the use of orthomolecular supplements may provide a feasible addition to conventional drug therapy.
Guimarães, Mark D C; Elkington, Katherine S; Gomes, Ana Luiza F M; Veloso, Carolina; McKinnon, Karen
HIV infection among young populations is increasing worldwide. Adolescents in mental health treatment have demonstrated higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers. This first risk behavior study of youth in psychiatric treatment in Brazil reports findings from a cross-sectional national sample of emerging adult psychiatric patients (18-25 years old). The prevalence of lifetime unprotected sex was 65.9%. Multiple logistic regression indicated that being married/in union; sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs; physical violence; earlier sexual debut; and depressive/substance use disorders were associated with unsafe sex. Interventions and services that address these risks during this critical developmental window are urgently needed.
Junker, Asbjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar
Self-harm is associated with increased suicide risk, and constitutes a major challenge in adolescent mental healthcare. In the current study, we examined the association between different aspects of adolescent health and risk of later self-harm requiring hospital admission. We linked baseline information from 13 to 19 year old participants (n = 8965) in the Norwegian Young-HUNT 1 study to patient records of self-harm hospitalisation during 15 years of follow-up. We used Cox regression to estimate risk factor hazard ratios (HR). Eighty-nine persons (71% female) were admitted to hospital because of self-harm. Intoxication/self-poisoning was the most frequent method (81%). Both mental (anxiety/depression, loneliness, being bullied) and somatic (epilepsy, migraine) health issues were associated with up to fourfold increased risk of self-harm-related hospital admission. Several health issues during adolescence markedly increased the risk of later self-harm hospitalisation. Current findings should be incorporated in the strive to reduce self-harming and attempted suicides among young people.
Santens, Tara; Claes, Laurence; Diamond, Guy S; Bosmans, Guy
Depressive symptoms and self-harm, i.e. non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors, are highly prevalent in youngsters involved in Child Welfare System (CWS) services. Little research investigates, however, why these CWS youngsters are at risk. We explored whether trust in caregiver support and communication about experiences with primary caregivers, are associated with CWS youngsters' depressive symptoms and/or self-harm. An anonymous online survey of 271 CWS youngsters (10-21 years of age, 57.2% female) was used to assess trust and communication, and depressive symptoms/self-harm. Results showed significant negative associations between self-reported trust in maternal and paternal support, and depressive symptoms/self-harm. Communication about experiences with one's biological mother mediated the relationship between trust in maternal support and depressive symptoms/self-harm. Furthermore, the presence of an additional trustworthy caregiver buffered the impact of low trust in maternal or paternal support on depressive symptoms/self-harm. Implications for interventions targeting CWS youngsters' depressive symptoms and self-harm are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Artis, Laura; Smith, Joanne R
Patients who self-harm report negative staff attitudes toward them on presentation to an emergency department. Applying a thematic framework analysis to interviews with 10 staff members from one emergency department, the present research explored staff attitudes and behaviors (their own and the perception of others') and the impact of these attitudes on behavior, and the role of team identification and norms. Located within an overarching theme of balancing difference and diversity in relation to patients who self-harm, analysis identified themes related to beliefs about self-harm, the perceived barriers and facilitators to working effectively with patients, and the importance of identity, culture, and roles. Analysis also revealed the presence of pluralistic ignorance, whereby individuals perceive that others' (negative) actions reflect stable (negative) attitudes but do not perceive this for themselves. Thus, increasing knowledge and awareness of pluralistic ignorance may be a useful addition to training to minimize feelings of failure and frustration and increase understanding and improve patient care.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to discover and describe lived experiences of professional care and caregivers among parents of adults who self-harm. Narrative interviews were conducted with six parents of daughters with self-harming behaviours and analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. The meanings of the parents’ narratives of their lived experiences of professional care and caregivers were interpreted as their being involved in ‘limit situations’ comparable to hostage dramas. Several meaningful themes contributed to this interpretation: being trapped in a situation with no escape; being in the prisoner's dock; groping in the dark; and finding glimmers of hope. Parents of daughters who were in care because of self-harming often felt obliged to pay an emotional ransom, which included feelings of being accused, being ‘broken’, being confused, and feeling lost. Moments of peace occurred as welcome breaks offering a short time of rest for the parents. Situations that were understood by the parents and solved in a peaceful way were experienced as a respite and inspired parents with hope for their daughters’ recovery.
International evidence suggests that young people are less likely to seek help for mental health problems in comparison with adults. This study focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans young people who are a population group with an elevated risk of suicide and self-harm, and little is known about their help-seeking behaviour. Utilising qualitative virtual methods, lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth web-based discussions about seeking help for suicidal feelings and self-harming were investigated. Findings from a thematic analysis indicate that these young people wanted assistance but found it difficult to (1) ask for help, (2) articulate emotional distress and (3) 'tell' their selves as 'failed'. This analysis suggests that key to understanding these problems are emotions such as shame which arise from negotiating norms connected to heterosexuality, adolescence and rationality. I argue that these norms act to regulate what emotions it is possible to feel, what emotions it is possible to articulate and what type of young lives that can be told. The future development of health and social care interventions which aim to reduce lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth suicide and self-harm need to work with a nuanced understanding of the emotional life of young people if they are to be effective. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Epidermolysis Bullosa is a group of inherited dermatological disorder with severe clinical symptoms. Children and adolescents with epidermolysis bullosa have been reported to experience psychosocial problems in addition to the symptoms associated with epidermolysis bullosa. Although children and adolescents with epidermolysis bullosa commonly have psychiatric symptoms, limited research has been conducted on the psychiatric treatment options. In this case report, psychiatric treatment and the safe and effective use of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an adolescent with epidermolysis bullosa will be discussed. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 487-491
Lo, Graciete; Tu, Ming; Wu, Olivia; Anglin, Deidre; Saw, Anne; Chen, Fang-pei
Encounters with Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation may influence causal beliefs of psychiatric illness endorsed by Chinese immigrant relatives, thus affecting help-seeking. We examined causal beliefs held by forty-six Chinese immigrant relatives and found that greater acculturation was associated with an increased number of causal beliefs. Further, as Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation increased, causal models expanded to incorporate biological/physical causes. However, frequency of Chinese immigrant relatives' endorsing spiritual beliefs did not appear to change with acculturation. Clinicians might thus account for spiritual beliefs in treatment even after acculturation increases and biological causal models proliferate. PMID:27127454
This article explores an alternative understanding of how psychiatric drugs work that is referred to as the drug-centred model of drug action. Unlike the current disease-centred model, which suggests that psychiatric drugs work by correcting an underlying brain abnormality, the drug-centred model emphasises how psychiatric drugs affect mental states and behaviour by modifying normal brain processes. The alterations produced may impact on the emotional and behavioural problems that constitute the symptoms of mental disorders. Arguments are put forward that justify the consideration of the drug-centred model. The research necessary to support the prescription of drugs according to such a model is explored. Evidence from neurochemistry and comparative drug trials do not confirm the disease-centred model of drug action. Since psychiatric drugs are recognised to have mind- and behaviour-altering properties, the drug-centred model constitutes a plausible alternative. The drug-centred model suggests that research is needed to identify all the alterations produced by various sorts of drugs, both acute and long term, and how these might interact with the symptoms and problems associated with different mental disorders. This requires detailed animal and volunteer studies and data from patients prescribed drug treatment long term, along with placebo-controlled and comparative trials that look at the overall impact of drug-induced alterations on well-being and functioning as well as symptoms. Research is also needed on alternative ways of fulfilling the function of drug treatment. The moral aspect of using drugs to modify behaviour rather than treat disease needs honest and transparent consideration. It is hoped this discussion will encourage the psychiatric and pharmaceutical research community to provide more of the information that is required to use psychiatric drugs safely and effectively.
Vyssoki, B; Willeit, M; Blüml, V; Höfer, P; Erfurth, A; Psota, G; Lesch, O M; Kapusta, N D
During the last 20 years Austrian psychiatric services underwent fundamental changes, as a focus was set on downsizing psychiatric hospitals. Little is known about how restructuring of mental health services affected patients with major depression and suicide rates. Monthly hospital discharges from all hospitals in Austria with the diagnosis of unipolar major depression as primary reason for inpatient treatment were obtained for the time period between 1989 and 2008. These data were correlated with relevant parameters from the general health system, such as number of hospital beds, suicide rate, density of psychotherapists and sales of antidepressants. While the number of psychiatric beds was reduced by almost 30%, the total annual numbers of inpatient treatment episodes for depression increased by 360%. This increase was stronger for men than for women. Further on this development was accompanied by a decrease in the suicide rate and an improvement in the availability of professional outpatient mental health service providers. Only aggregated patient data and no single case histories were available for this study. The validity of the correct diagnosis of unipolar major depression must be doubted, as most likely not all patients were seen by a clinical expert. Our data show that although inpatient treatment for unipolar major depression dramatically increased, reduction of psychiatric beds did not lead to an increase of suicide rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Waters, Amanda; Sands, Natisha; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Henderson, Kathryn
Handover, or the communication of patient information between clinicians, is a fundamental component of health care. Psychiatric settings are dynamic environments relying on timely and accurate communication to plan care and manage risk. Crisis assessment and treatment teams are the primary interface between community and mental health services in many Australian and international health services, facilitating access to assessment, treatment, and admission to hospital. No previous research has investigated the handover between crisis assessment and treatment teams and inpatient psychiatric units, despite the importance of handover to care planning. The aim of the present study was to identify the nature and types of information transferred during these handovers, and to explore how these guides initial care planning. An observational, exploratory study design was used. A 20-item handover observation tool was used to observe 19 occasions of handover. A prospective audit was undertaken on clinical documentation arising from the admission. Clinical information, including psychiatric history and mental state, were handed over consistently; however, information about consumer preferences was reported less consistently. The present study identified a lack of attention to consumer preferences at handover, despite the current focus on recovery-oriented models for mental health care, and the centrality of respecting consumer preferences within the recovery paradigm. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.